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Sample records for donor immunoassay cedia

  1. Drug screening in urine by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) and kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lutz; Külpmann, Wolf-Rüdiger; Vidal, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Two commercially available drug-screening assays were evaluated: the Roche kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS) assay and the Microgenics cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA). Urine samples from known drug-abuse patients were analyzed for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, cannabinoids, LSD, methadone and opiates. Samples with discordant findings for the two assays were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Amphetamines showed 96.0% concordant results, with two false positive findings by CEDIA, three by KIMS and a further two false negatives by KIMS. Barbiturates showed 99.4% concordant results, with one false negative by KIMS. Benzodiazepines showed 97.4% concordant results, with two false negatives by KIMS (cutoff 100 microg/L, CEDIA cutoff 300 microg/L). Benzoylecgonine showed 17.8% concordant positive and 82.2% concordant negative results and no false finding by either assay. Cannabinoids showed 99.3% concordant results, with one sample negative by KIMS at a cutoff of 50 microg/L and positive by CEDIA (cutoff 25 microg/L). For LSD, 6.7% of findings were not in agreement. Methadone showed 97.5% concordant results, with two false positives by CEDIA, and one false positive and one false negative by KIMS. Opiates showed 96.9% concordant results, with no false KIMS results, but four false positives by CEDIA. The results indicate that the agreement of the CEDIA and KIMS results for the eight drugs is rather good (93.3-100%). PMID:16599844

  2. Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2013-06-01

    The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

  3. Optimization and validation of CEDIA drugs of abuse immunoassay tests in serum on Hitachi 912.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Musshoff, Frank; Schmithausen, Ricarda; Stockhausen, Sarah; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-10-10

    Due to sensitive limits of detection of chromatographic methods and low limit values regarding the screening of drugs under the terms of impairment in safe driving (§ 24a StVG, Street Traffic Law in Germany), preliminary immunoassay (IA) tests should be able to detect also low concentrations of legal and illegal drugs in serum in forensic cases. False-negatives should be avoided, the rate of false-positive samples should be low due to cost and time. An optimization of IA cutoff values and a validation of the assay is required for each laboratory. In a retrospective study results for serum samples containing amphetamine, methylenedioxy derivatives, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, cocaine (metabolites), methadone and opiates obtained with CEDIA drugs of abuse reagents on a Hitachi 912 autoanalyzer were compared with quantitative results of chromatographic methods (gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS or LC/MS)). Firstly sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall misclassification rates were evaluated by contingency tables and compared to ROC-analyses and Youden-Indices. Secondly ideal cutoffs were statistically calculated on the basis of sensitivity and specificity as decisive statistical criteria with focus on a high sensitivity (low rates of false-negatives), i.e. using the Youden-Index. Immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory results were available for 3014 blood samples. Sensitivity was 90% or more for nearly all analytes: amphetamines (IA cutoff 9.5 ng/ml), methylenedioxy derivatives (IA cutoff 5.5 ng/ml), cannabinoids (IA cutoff 14.5 ng/ml), benzodiazepines (IA cutoff >0 ng/ml). Test of opiates showed a sensitivity of 86% for a IA cutoff value of >0 ng/ml. Values for specificity ranged between 33% (methadone, IA cutoff 10 ng/ml) and 90% (cocaine, IA cutoff 20 ng/ml). Lower cutoff values as recommended by ROC analyses were chosen for most tests to decrease the rate of false-negatives. Analyses enabled the definition of cutoff values with good values for sensitivity. Small rates of false-positives can be accepted in forensic cases. PMID:21775079

  4. Buprenorphine detection in urine using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison with cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (ThermoFisher) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (immunalysis).

    PubMed

    Belsey, Sarah L; Couchman, Lewis; Flanagan, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatographic-high-resolution mass spectrometric (LC-HR-MS) assay for buprenorphine and its urinary metabolites has been developed that requires minimal sample preparation. The results obtained have been compared with those given by (i) cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) and (ii) homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (HEIA) in the analysis of patient urines submitted for buprenorphine analysis. Centrifuged urine (100 µL) was diluted with internal standard solution (25 µL) + LC eluent (875 µL), and 50 µL of the prepared sample were analyzed (Accucore Phenyl-Hexyl column). MS detection was in alternating positive and negative mode using heated electrospray ionization (ThermoFisher Q Exactive). Intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision were 104-128 and <11%, respectively, at 5 µg/L. Limits of detection were 1.3 µg/L (buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and buprenorphine glucuronide) and 2.5 µg/L (norbuprenorphine glucuronide). Immunoassay sensitivity and selectivity were 97 and 100% (HEIA) and 99 and 84% (CEDIA), respectively, compared with LC-HR-MS. In 120 patient urines, norbuprenorphine glucuronide was easily the most abundant analyte except when adulteration with buprenorphine had occurred. The median immunoreactive buprenorphine species present (unhydrolysed urine) were 7.5 and 13% for HEIA and CEDIA, respectively. However, codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide did not interfere in the HEIA assay. PMID:24925983

  5. False-positive buprenorphine by CEDIA in patients prescribed amisulpride or sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Birch, M A; Couchman, L; Pietromartire, S; Karna, T; Paton, C; McAllister, R; Marsh, A; Flanagan, R J

    2013-05-01

    Buprenorphine is a potent partial opioid agonist that is analyzed in urine to (i) monitor adherence to maintenance or detoxification therapy and (ii) detect illicit use. Buprenorphine analysis is commonly conducted on urine by immunoassay, but is subject to cross-reactivity from other drugs/drug metabolites, including morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine. This study reports false-positive buprenorphine analysis [Thermo Fisher Scientific cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA)] in patients who denied unauthorized buprenorphine use prior to sampling, but who had been prescribed amisulpride. In two cases, confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was negative (<0.5 µg/L) for buprenorphine and metabolites and positive for amisulpride. Although the cross-reactivity of amisulpride and sulpiride in the CEDIA buprenorphine assay is low (estimated at 0.003 and 0.002%, respectively), it remains a significant consideration given the likely high concentrations of these compounds in urine relative to the low cutoff of the buprenorphine assay. Neither amisulpride nor sulpiride was listed as potential sources of interference on the CEDIA data sheet when this work was performed. These findings highlight the importance of confirming immunoassay-positive buprenorphine results using a more selective analytical technique. PMID:23471956

  6. Cross-reactivity of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay in drugs-of-abuse screening: influence of dose and metabolites of opioids

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jon Andsnes; Schjøtt, Jan; Fossan, Kjell O; Riedel, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) for buprenorphine is applied for both urine drugs-of-abuse screening and compliance monitoring. Sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff of this assay have differed between studies. This may indicate that cross-reactivity has to be taken into account during assay evaluation. We therefore investigated the performance of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay for use in our patient population and explored the impact of cross-reactivity on assay accuracy. Methods The CEDIA buprenorphine assay and high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry were employed to analyze drugs-of-abuse in urine samples from a healthy drug-naïve male volunteer after intake of two tablets of a prescription drug containing 400 mg paracetamol +30 mg codeine phosphate, and in urine samples (n=2,272) from drug-addicted patients. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to express the diagnostic accuracy of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay. Results CEDIA buprenorphine was positive in one urine sample from the drug-naïve person after intake of the prescription drug. Twenty-five (1.1%) of the patient urine samples were positive for buprenorphine by CEDIA, but negative by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Codeine, morphine, and their respective metabolites were prevalent in samples that were false positive for buprenorphine. The specificity of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay increased to 99.7% when the cutoff was increased from 5 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. Conclusion Intake of a therapeutic dose of codeine can yield a false-positive CEDIA buprenorphine result. Additive effects from metabolites of codeine contribute to cross-reactivity in concentrations much lower than listed in the manufacturer’s cross-reactivity guide. Raising the cutoff from 5 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL increased the diagnostic accuracy. Clinicians should be informed about the risk of false-positive results with the CEDIA buprenorphine assay. PMID:26604854

  7. Bupropion interference with immunoassays for amphetamines and LSD.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Christian; Skripuletz, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A 50-year-old male patient suddenly had lost consciousness, although he had previously been healthy. On arrival at hospital seizures arose. The authors investigated a urine sample of the patient, and performed toxicological drug screening with immunochemical Cloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay (CEDIA) assays. Positive findings for amphetamines and LSD could not be confirmed. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), the authors identified bupropion, a drug used to aid in smoking cessation, as the interfering compound, which may cause false-positive results for amphetamines and LSD using the CEDIA assays. PMID:17529897

  8. A new highly specific buprenorphine immunoassay for monitoring buprenorphine compliance and abuse.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Snyder, Marion L; Jarolim, Petr; Flood, James G

    2012-04-01

    Urine buprenorphine screening is utilized to assess buprenorphine compliance and to detect illicit use. Robust screening assays should be specific for buprenorphine without cross-reactivity with other opioids, which are frequently present in patients treated for opioid addiction and chronic pain. We evaluated the new Lin-Zhi urine buprenorphine enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as a potentially more specific alternative to the Microgenics cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) by using 149 urines originating from patients treated for chronic pain and opioid addiction. The EIA methodology offered specific detection of buprenorphine use (100%) (106/106) and provided superior overall agreement with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 95% (142/149) and 91% (135/149) using 5 ng/mL (EIA[5]) and 10 ng/mL (EIA[10]) cutoffs, respectively, compared to CEDIA, 79% (117/149). CEDIA generated 27 false positives, most of which were observed in patients positive for other opioids, providing an overall specificity of 75% (79/106). CEDIA also demonstrated interference from structurally unrelated drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. CEDIA and EIA[5] yielded similar sensitivities, both detecting 96% (22/23) of positive samples from patients prescribed buprenorphine, and 88% (38/43) and 81% (35/43), respectively, of all positive samples (illicit and prescribed users). The EIA methodology provides highly specific and sensitive detection of buprenorphine use, without the potential for opioid cross-reactivity. PMID:22417836

  9. Comparison of EMIT II, CEDIA, and DPC RIA assays for the detection of lysergic acid diethylamide in forensic urine samples.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Russell F; Klette, Kevin L; Stout, Peter R; Gehlhausen, Jay M

    2002-10-01

    In an effort to determine a practical, efficient, and economical alternative for the use of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human urine, the performance of two photometric immunoassays (Dade Behring EMIT II and Microgenics CEDIA) and the Diagnostics Products Corp. (DPC) RIA were compared. Precision, accuracy, and linearity of the 3 assays were determined by testing 60 replicates (10 for RIA) at 5 different concentrations below and above the 500-pg/mL LSD cut-off. The CEDIA and RIA exhibited better accuracy and precision than the EMIT II immunoassay. In contrast, the EMIT II and CEDIA demonstrated superior linearity r2 = 0.9809 and 0.9540, respectively, as compared with the RIA (r2 = 0.9062). The specificity of the three assays was assessed using compounds that have structural and chemical properties similar to LSD, common over-the-counter products, prescription drugs and some of their metabolites, and other drugs of abuse. Of the 144 compounds studied, the EMIT II cross-reacted with twice as many compounds as did the CEDIA and RIA. Specificity was also assessed in 221 forensic human urine specimens that previously screened positive for LSD by the EMIT II assay. Of these, only 11 tested positive by CEDIA, and 3 were positive by RIA. This indicated a comparable specificity performance between CEDIA and RIA. This also was consistent with a previously reported high false-positive rate of EMIT II (low specificity). Each of the immunoassays correctly identified LSD in 23 out of 24 human urine specimens that had previously been found to contain LSD by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at a cut-off concentration of 200 pg/mL. The CEDIA exhibited superior precision, accuracy, and decreased cross-reactivity to compounds other than LSD as compared with the EMIT II assay and does not necessitate the handling of radioactive materials. PMID:12423010

  10. Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are analytical methods that employ antibodies or molecules derived from antibodies for the essential binding reactions. The choice of immunoassay system for food safety analysis depends on the analyte, the matrix, and the requirements of the analysis (speed, throughput, sensitivity, spe...

  11. Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

  12. Effect of tramadol use on three point-of-care and one instrument-based immunoassays for urine buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Salima; Hull, Mindy J; Bishop, Kenneth A; Griggs, David A; Long, William H; Nixon, Andrea L; Flood, James G

    2008-06-01

    We report that use of the popular analgesic tramadol can cause false-positive urine buprenorphine results. We examined the extent of tramadol cross-reactivity in three point-of-care urine buprenorphine immunoassays (ACON, QuikStrip, and ABMC) and an instrument-based one (Cedia). We tested 29 urine samples from patients known to be taking tramadol. Ten different samples tested positive for urine buprenorphine by at least one immunoassay. Samples with positive buprenorphine screens by immunoassay were tested for total buprenorphine and total norbuprenorphine content by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), which confirmed that seven of the 10 positive samples were false-positives. The remaining three positive immunoassay samples had insufficient quantity for LC-MS-MS testing. No false-positives were detected with the ACON (10 ng/mL calibration cutoff) or the Cedia assay (using a 20 ng/mL calibration cutoff). All four false-positive Cedia results (using a 5 ng/mL cutoff) in this study tested negative using the ACON device. Our data suggest that tramadol use can cause false-positive urine buprenorphine immunoassays, and this effect appears to be assay-dependent. Tramadol interference with the Cedia assay is clinically relevant, especially if the 5 ng/mL calibration cutoff is used. PMID:18544218

  13. Response of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a single dose of bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, DiemThuy T; Bui, Linda T; Ambrose, Peter J

    2006-04-01

    Bitter orange has recently been substituted as an ingredient in many "ephedra-free" dietary supplements used for weight loss. The primary active ingredient in bitter orange is synephrine. Previous reports have documented false-positive results from ephedrine with urine amphetamine assays. Because of the similarity in chemical structure of ephedrine and synephrine, it is hypothesized that ingestion of a bitter orange supplement may have the potential to cause false-positive results with urine amphetamine assays. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay after ingestion of bitter orange. Six healthy adult male volunteers were administered a single oral dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange, a 900-mg dietary supplement extract standardized to 6% synephrine. Urine specimens were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 hours post-administration. Additional urine specimens were collected from 1 subject at 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. All specimens were analyzed by the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity and pH also were measured. All urine specimens demonstrated a negative response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity ranged from 1.007 to 1.028, and pH ranged from 5.0 to 7.0; thus, reducing the possibility that the negative results were caused by diluted specimens or reduced excretion of synephrine into alkaline urine. This information will be of value when health care providers or those who interpret drug screens are asked to provide consultation regarding the interference of bitter orange supplements with the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. A single-dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange was not found to cause a false-positive response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay in 6 healthy adult male volunteers. PMID:16628139

  14. Evaluation of buprenorphine CEDIA assay versus GC-MS and ELISA using urine samples from patients in substitution treatment.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Michael; Beck, Olof

    2005-01-01

    As buprenorphine becomes more clinically used in heroin substitution treatment, there is an increasing need for methods suitable for high-volume screening. In this study, a new immunochemical test based on CEDIA technology was evaluated for the use in clinical urine drug testing. The method was compared with an existing ELISA method and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method on urine specimens from patients in heroin substitution treatment. The precision of the CEDIA assay was < 9% both within- and between-day at levels at and above the cutoff limit of 5 microg/L. The concordance in qualitative results with an existing ELISA method was 96.8%. The CEDIA measuring range was extended by diluting urine samples 100-fold with saline, and the results agreed well (slope of regression line was 1.09, r(2) = 0.968) with GC-MS. The sensitivity of CEDIA in detecting authentic specimen containing buprenorphine at levels >or= 5 microg/L was 99.5%. Cross-reactivity causing false-positive response was discovered in patients receiving prescribed dihydrocodeine. The urine concentration of total buprenorphine in urine from patients prescribed daily doses between 0.2 and 24 mg ranged from 0.5 to 2900 microg/L. The concentration of the metabolite norbuprenorphine was usually higher, and the median ratio of buprenorphine to norbuprenorphine was 0.23 (95% were below 1). We conclude that the CEDIA assay is suitable for application in high-volume screening of buprenorphine for urine drug testing. PMID:16356333

  15. In Situ Generation of Electron Donor to Assist Signal Amplification on Porphyrin-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide Nanostructures for Ultrasensitive Photoelectrochemical Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Zhuang, Junyang; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping

    2015-10-28

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay protocol for quantitative detection of low-abundant proteins at a low potential was designed by utilizing porphyrin-sensitized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures. Experimental results demonstrated that the water-soluble 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-sulfophenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (TSPP) could be bound onto titanium dioxide via the sulfonic group. TSPP-sensitized TiO2 nanostructures exhibited better photoelectrochemical responses and stability in comparison with TiO2 nanoparticles alone under continuous illumination. Using carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a model analyte, a typical PEC immunosensor by using TSPP-TiO2 as the affinity support of anti-CEA capture antibody (Ab1) to facilitate the improvement of photocurrent response was developed. Bioconjugates of secondary antibody and glucose oxidase with gold nanoparticles (Ab2/GOx-AuNPs) was introduced by an antigen-antibody immunoreaction. AuNP acted as a powerful scaffold to bind with bioactive molecules, while GOx catalyzed glucose to in situ generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The generated H2O2 as a sacrificial electron donor could be oxidized by the photogenerated holes to assist the signal amplification at a low potential under light excitation, thus eliminating interference from other species coexisting in the samples. Under optimal conditions, the PEC immunosensor showed a good linear relationship ranging from 0.02 to 40 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 6 pg mL(-1) CEA. The precision, reproducibility, and specificity were acceptable. In addition, the method accuracy was also evaluated for quantitatively monitoring human serum samples, giving results matching with the referenced CEA ELISA kit. PMID:26451956

  16. Immunoassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    No other development has had such a major impact on the measurement of hormones as immunoassay. Reagents and assay kits can now be bought commercially but not for the more esoteric or new hormones. This chapter explains the basics of the immunoassay reaction and gives simple methods for immunoassays and immunometric assays and for the production of reagents for both antigenic and hapten hormones. Alternative methods are given for the preparation of labeled hormones as well as several possible separation procedures. The methods described here have been previously used in a wide range of assays and have stood the test of time. They will allow the production of usable immunoassays in a relatively short period of time. PMID:23996355

  17. Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits.

    PubMed

    Regester, Laura E; Chmiel, Jeffrey D; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-03-01

    The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), β-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, α-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits. PMID:25492523

  18. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO) as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA) has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA). Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra) as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio). The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39%) were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1) by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ± 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives) ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection. PMID:27011676

  19. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  20. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  1. Colloidal nanomaterial-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Descroix, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely developed for their use in nanomedicine, especially for immunoassay-based diagnosis. In this review we focus on the use of nanomaterials as a nanoplatform for colloidal immunoassays. While conventional heterogeneous immunoassays suffer from mass transfer limitations and consequently long assay time, colloidal immunosupports allow target capture in the entire volume, thus speeding up reaction kinetics and shortening assay time. Owing to their wide range of chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are an interesting candidate for immunoassay development. The most popular colloidal nanomaterials for colloidal immunoassays will be discussed, as well as their influence on immune reactions. Recent advances in nanomaterial applications for different formats of immunoassays will be reported, such as nanomaterial-based indirect immunoassays, optical-based agglutination immunoassays, resonance energy transfer-based immunoassays and magnetic relaxation-based immunoassays. Finally, the future of using nanomaterials for homogeneous immunoassays dedicated to clinical diagnosis will be discussed. PMID:22734642

  2. PCB immunoassay performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.A.; Pedersen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Field analytical technologies are becoming increasing relied upon in the performance of site investigations and remediation verification activities. Immunoassay screening methods provide a means to perform rapid analyses of soil, groundwater and waste samples in the field. When used in conjunction with a dynamic adaptive sampling/analyses approach immunoassay field screening data provides valuable information for decision making. Soil samples that were collected as part of site characterization and cleanup verification studies at an industrial facility in the northeast were analyzed using immunoassay kits to allow for expedited decisions on investigation and remediation approaches. The 161 samples collected were analyzed in the field using the Millipore EnviroGard{trademark} PCB and EnSys PCB RISc{trademark} immunoassay test methods. Confirmation analyses on all the samples were conducted in a laboratory using EPA Method 8080. Correlation of the field and laboratory results indicate that false negative and false positive rates vary depending on contaminant concentration and sample the matrix properties. Non-parametric statistical methods used to compare the quantified laboratory data to the immunoassay test range results show no significant difference at the 95 percent confidence intervals for some of the data sets although false positive and negative error in excess of 10 percent were observed in some cases. The results of the evaluation suggest that control of error rates can best be achieved by ensuring rigorous control of the field methodologies.

  3. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  4. Interferences in Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference. PMID:18458713

  5. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  6. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  7. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  8. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  9. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  10. Use of aptamers in immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Nezlin, Roald

    2016-02-01

    Aptamers, short single-chain DNA or RNA oligonucleotides, react specifically with small molecules, as well as with proteins. Unlike antibodies, they may be obtained relatively easily. Aptamers are now widely employed in immunological studies and could replace antibodies in immunoassays. In this short review, methods for immobilizing aptamers on various insoluble materials (so-called apta-sorbents) are described. Recent findings on their use in the detection and isolation of immunoglobulins and their application in various immunoassays are also discussed. PMID:26774749

  11. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  12. Protein Adsorption in Microengraving Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Microengraving is a novel immunoassay forcharacterizing multiple protein secretions from single cells. During the immunoassay, characteristic diffusion and kinetic time scales ?D and ?K determine the time for molecular diffusion of proteins secreted from the activated single lymphocytes and subsequent binding onto the glass slide surface respectively. Our results demonstrate that molecular diffusion plays important roles in the early stage of protein adsorption dynamics which shifts to a kinetic controlled mechanism in the later stage. Similar dynamic pathways are observed for protein adsorption with significantly fast rates and rapid shifts in transport mechanisms when C0* is increased a hundred times from 0.313 to 31.3. Theoretical adsorption isotherms follow the trend of experimentally obtained data. Adsorption isotherms indicate that amount of proteins secreted from individual cells and subsequently captured on a clean glass slide surface increases monotonically with time. Our study directly validates that protein secretion rates can be quantified by the microengraving immunoassay. This will enable us to apply microengraving immunoassays to quantify secretion rates from 104–105 single cells in parallel, screen antigen-specific cells with the highest secretion rate for clonal expansion and quantitatively reveal cellular heterogeneity within a small cell sample. PMID:26501282

  13. Competitive Homogeneous Immunoassay for Rapid Serodiagnosis of Hantavirus Disease.

    PubMed

    Hepojoki, Satu; Rusanen, Juuso; Hepojoki, Jussi; Nurmi, Visa; Vaheri, Antti; Lundkvist, Åke; Hedman, Klaus; Vapalahti, Olli

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we describe a competitive homogeneous immunoassay that makes use of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in rapid detection of pathogen-specific antibodies. The assay principle is based on competition between a monoclonal antibody (MAb) and serum antibodies to a given antigen. In the assay, named competitive FRET immunoassay (CFRET-IA), the FRET signal is induced if MAb carrying a donor label binds to an acceptor-labeled antigen. Specific antibodies in serum compete for antigen binding, resulting in reduced FRET signal. The proof-of-principle for the assay was obtained using donor-labeled Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein (PUUV-N) and acceptor-labeled anti-PUUV-N MAb. The assay was evaluated by analyzing 329 clinical samples comprising 101 from individuals with acute PUUV infection, 42 from individuals with past infection, and 186 from individuals with PUUV-seronegative sera, and the results were compared to those of reference tests. The rapid serodiagnostic test we introduced herein performed with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity for diagnosing acute hantavirus disease. PMID:25972427

  14. Competitive Homogeneous Immunoassay for Rapid Serodiagnosis of Hantavirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rusanen, Juuso; Hepojoki, Jussi; Nurmi, Visa; Vaheri, Antti; Lundkvist, Åke; Hedman, Klaus; Vapalahti, Olli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe a competitive homogeneous immunoassay that makes use of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in rapid detection of pathogen-specific antibodies. The assay principle is based on competition between a monoclonal antibody (MAb) and serum antibodies to a given antigen. In the assay, named competitive FRET immunoassay (CFRET-IA), the FRET signal is induced if MAb carrying a donor label binds to an acceptor-labeled antigen. Specific antibodies in serum compete for antigen binding, resulting in reduced FRET signal. The proof-of-principle for the assay was obtained using donor-labeled Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein (PUUV-N) and acceptor-labeled anti-PUUV-N MAb. The assay was evaluated by analyzing 329 clinical samples comprising 101 from individuals with acute PUUV infection, 42 from individuals with past infection, and 186 from individuals with PUUV-seronegative sera, and the results were compared to those of reference tests. The rapid serodiagnostic test we introduced herein performed with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity for diagnosing acute hantavirus disease. PMID:25972427

  15. Scheme for the selection of measurement uncertainty models in blood establishments' screening immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-02-01

    Blood establishments routinely perform screening immunoassays to assess safety of the blood components. As with any other screening test, results have an inherent uncertainty. In blood establishments the major concern is the chance of false negatives, due to its possible impact on patients' health. This article briefly reviews GUM and diagnostic accuracy models for screening immunoassays, recommending a scheme to support the screening laboratories' staffs on the selection of a model considering the intended use of the screening results (i.e., post-transfusion safety). The discussion is grounded on a "risk-based thinking", risk being considered from the blood donor selection to the screening immunoassays. A combination of GUM and diagnostic accuracy models to evaluate measurement uncertainty in blood establishments is recommended. PMID:25620757

  16. [Advances in heavy metal ions immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gong-Liang; Wang, Ju-Fang; Li, Zhi-Yong; Liang, Shi-Zhong

    2006-11-01

    Heavy metal leftover on farm and stock products has become a big threat to human. It is necessary to develop some fast and efficient detection methods. Heavy metal immunoassays are new methods for detection of heavy metal ions. Compared to the traditional chemical methods, immunoassays are not only fast, cheap, simple, but also reasonably portable, highly sensitive and selective. It can be used as preliminary screening for rapid determination of heavy metal ions. Except chemical chelators, phytochelatin and metallothionein can also be used for preparing immunogen, both of them can chelate heavy metal ions to carrier protein. There are two prototype assays: polyclonal antibody immunoassay and monoclonal antibody immunoassay. The former includes fluorescence polarization immunoassay; the latter includes indirectly competitive ELISA, one-step competitive immunoassay and KinExA immunoassay. Among these assays, indirectly competitive ELISA which was used for determining heavy metal ions in the early days was easy to be interfered and showed false positive. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay which used polyclonal antibody for determining heavy metal ions was simple and cheap. KinExA instrument could be functioned as an immunosensor for environmental samples. One-step immunoassay which avoided to the addition of second antibody and chromogenic substrate was simple and sensitive. Colloidal gold enhanced immunochromatography assay is a semi-quantitation for determining heavy metal ions. As an adjunctive way for chemical methods, it has the potential application in rapid determination of heavy metal ions. PMID:17168306

  17. Donor Tag Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...

  18. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Competitive Immunoassays Using Antigen Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Weihua; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Li, Changming

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a non-fouling antigen competitive immunoassay microarray based on the polymer brush is reported to detect multiple mycotoxins. The detection is achieved by utilizing highly specific monoclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory. The polymer brush, poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate] (POEGMA-co-GMA), is synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on standard glass slides. In the polymer brush, the epoxy groups of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) residues provide covalent binding sites for spotted antigens. Moreover, the abundant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains in the brush are able to ultimately suppress the nonspecific protein adsorption in solution (non-fouling). The polymer brush shows a high and uniform protein loading, along with a high resistance to nonspecific protein absorption that are both important to achieve a highly sensitive immunoassay. As a demonstration of a multiplex assay, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) are selected as antigen targets for simultaneous detections using the microarray. PMID:26614080

  20. Electrokinetic Microstrirring to Enhance Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Hope; Sigurdson, Marin; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    Electrokinetic microstirring is used to improve the sensitivity of microfluidic heterogeneous immuno-sensors by enhancing the transport in diffusion-limited reactions. The AC electrokinetic force, Electrothermal Flow, is exploited to create a circular stirring fluid motion, thereby providing more binding opportunities between suspended and wall-immobilized molecules. This process can significantly reduce test times, important for both field-portable biosensors and for lab-based assays. A 2-D numerical simulation model is used to predict the effect of electrothermal flow on a heterogeneous immunoassay resulting from an AC potential applied to two parallel electrodes. The binding is increased by a factor of 7 for an applied voltage of 10 Vrms. The effect was investigated experimentally using a high affinity biotin-streptavidin reaction. Microstirred reaction rates were compared with passive reactions. The measurements show on average an order of magnitude increase in binding between immobilized biotin and fluorescently-labeled streptavidin after 5 minutes. Therefore, this technique shows significant promise for reducing incubation time and enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassays.

  1. Novel immunoassay formats for integrated microfluidic circuits: diffusion immunoassays (DIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hatch, Anson; Kamholz, Andrew E.; Yager, Paul

    2000-03-01

    Novel designs of integrated fluidic microchips allow separations, chemical reactions, and calibration-free analytical measurements to be performed directly in very small quantities of complex samples such as whole blood and contaminated environmental samples. This technology lends itself to applications such as clinical diagnostics, including tumor marker screening, and environmental sensing in remote locations. Lab-on-a-Chip based systems offer many *advantages over traditional analytical devices: They consume extremely low volumes of both samples and reagents. Each chip is inexpensive and small. The sampling-to-result time is extremely short. They perform all analytical functions, including sampling, sample pretreatment, separation, dilution, and mixing steps, chemical reactions, and detection in an integrated microfluidic circuit. Lab-on-a-Chip systems enable the design of small, portable, rugged, low-cost, easy to use, yet extremely versatile and capable diagnostic instruments. In addition, fluids flowing in microchannels exhibit unique characteristics ('microfluidics'), which allow the design of analytical devices and assay formats that would not function on a macroscale. Existing Lab-on-a-chip technologies work very well for highly predictable and homogeneous samples common in genetic testing and drug discovery processes. One of the biggest challenges for current Labs-on-a-chip, however, is to perform analysis in the presence of the complexity and heterogeneity of actual samples such as whole blood or contaminated environmental samples. Micronics has developed a variety of Lab-on-a-Chip assays that can overcome those shortcomings. We will now present various types of novel Lab- on-a-Chip-based immunoassays, including the so-called Diffusion Immunoassays (DIA) that are based on the competitive laminar diffusion of analyte molecules and tracer molecules into a region of the chip containing antibodies that target the analyte molecules. Advantages of this technique are a reduction in reagents, higher sensitivity, minimal preparation of complex samples such as blood, real-time calibration, and extremely rapid analysis.

  2. A rapid detection of neopterin based on a label-free and homogeneous FRET immunoassay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Taihua; Kim, Bo Bae; Shim, Won-Bo; Song, Jeong-Eon; Shin, Young-Boem; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-05-01

    Herein, we have developed a label-free and homogeneous fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) immunoassay for the detection of neopterin (NPT), which is an early and valuable biochemical marker of cellular immunity. Owing to intrinsic fluorescence properties of antibody and NPT, anti-NPT antibody (anti-NPT) and analyte played roles as the respective donor and acceptor in the FRET immunoassay. As the concentration of NPT increases, the fluorescence intensity at ~350 nm decreases owing to the formation of increasing amounts of the anti-NPT/NPT complex in which FRET takes place. The assay system was found to display a high specificity and a low detection limit (0.14 ng mL-1) for NPT. A practical application of the FRET immunoassay system was demonstrated by its use in the detection of NPT in spiked human serum samples. The observations made in these efforts show that the homogeneous FRET immunoassay strategy, which requires a simple sample preparation procedure, serves as a powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive quantitative determination of NPT.

  3. Evaluating Quantum Dot Performance in Homogeneous FRET Immunoassays for Prostate Specific Antigen.

    PubMed

    Bhuckory, Shashi; Lefebvre, Olivier; Qiu, Xue; Wegner, Karl David; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The integration of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) into homogeneous Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) immunoassay kits for clinical diagnostics can provide significant advantages concerning multiplexing and sensitivity. Here we present a facile and functional QD-antibody conjugation method using three commercially available QDs with different photoluminescence (PL) maxima (605 nm, 655 nm, and 705 nm). The QD-antibody conjugates were successfully applied for FRET immunoassays against prostate specific antigen (PSA) in 50 µL serum samples using Lumi4-Tb (Tb) antibody conjugates as FRET donors and time-gated PL detection on a KRYPTOR clinical plate reader. Förster distance and Tb donor background PL were directly related to the analytical sensitivity for PSA, which resulted in the lowest limits of detection for Tb-QD705 (2 nM), followed by Tb-QD655 (4 nM), and Tb-QD605 (23 nM). Duplexed PSA detection using the Tb-QD655 and Tb-QD705 FRET-pairs demonstrated the multiplexing ability of our immunoassays. Our results show that FRET based on QD acceptors is suitable for multiplexed and sensitive biomarker detection in clinical diagnostics. PMID:26861327

  4. Evaluating Quantum Dot Performance in Homogeneous FRET Immunoassays for Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Bhuckory, Shashi; Lefebvre, Olivier; Qiu, Xue; Wegner, Karl David; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The integration of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) into homogeneous Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) immunoassay kits for clinical diagnostics can provide significant advantages concerning multiplexing and sensitivity. Here we present a facile and functional QD-antibody conjugation method using three commercially available QDs with different photoluminescence (PL) maxima (605 nm, 655 nm, and 705 nm). The QD-antibody conjugates were successfully applied for FRET immunoassays against prostate specific antigen (PSA) in 50 µL serum samples using Lumi4-Tb (Tb) antibody conjugates as FRET donors and time-gated PL detection on a KRYPTOR clinical plate reader. Förster distance and Tb donor background PL were directly related to the analytical sensitivity for PSA, which resulted in the lowest limits of detection for Tb-QD705 (2 ng/mL), followed by Tb-QD655 (4 ng/mL), and Tb-QD605 (23 ng/mL). Duplexed PSA detection using the Tb-QD655 and Tb-QD705 FRET-pairs demonstrated the multiplexing ability of our immunoassays. Our results show that FRET based on QD acceptors is suitable for multiplexed and sensitive biomarker detection in clinical diagnostics. PMID:26861327

  5. Automated immunoassays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD): do plasticisers interfere?

    PubMed

    Carter, G D; Jones, J; Ketheeswaran, M; Shannon, J; Singh, B; Kearney, E; Berry, J L

    2015-04-01

    The international quality assessment scheme for vitamin D metabolites (DEQAS) was established in 1989. The scheme involves the quarterly distribution of 5 serum samples prepared from blood collected in plain plastic bags. Following transfer of the donors to a clinic using different bags, sera were found to contain a contaminant that interfered in both the local LC-MS/MS assay and the NIST reference measurement procedure for 25-OHD. It seemed likely that the contaminant was a substance, possibly a plasticiser, leached from the plastic bag. It was subsequently suggested that the unidentified contaminant might also cause interference in certain automated non-extraction assays for 25-OHD. This was investigated in 3 automated immunoassays by comparing serum 25-OHD results from blood collected simultaneously into plain glass tubes and plastic bags. There was no significant difference in results, indicating that the leached substance had no effect on any of the 3 immunoassays examined. PMID:25448742

  6. Our Future Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    The rhetorical advantages and dangers involved in casting the students as "future donors" are explained. The way in which the institutions have to change for casting its students as future donors is described.

  7. Donor corneal tissue evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saini, J S; Reddy, M K; Sharma, S; Wagh, S

    1996-03-01

    Proper evaluation of donor cornea is critical to the success of corneal transplantation. Attention must be paid to the cause of death and ocular condition as several general and ocular diseases constitute contraindications for donor corneal usage. Death to enucleation time should be noted. Gross examination and slit lamp biomicroscopy are mandatory for the evaluation of the donor eye while specular microscopy adds another useful dimension to information regarding donor cornea. This article provides a comprehensive review of all the aspects of donor corneal evaluation as practised today worldwide. PMID:8828299

  8. Specificity of two-site immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Boscato, L M; Egan, G M; Stuart, M C

    1989-02-24

    When cross-reaction in two-site immunoassays was investigated both theoretically and experimentally it was found that such systems do not always result in enhanced specificity. Computer simulation studies indicated that substances which display negligible cross-reaction in a radioimmunoassay could produce an assay response identical to that of the analyte in a two-site immunoassay using excess antibody. Cross-reactivity in two differing two-site immunoassays was compared to that obtained in radioimmunoassays using the same monoclonal antibodies for human chorionic gonadotrophin. In addition to the effects of excess antibody, cross-reactivity was observed in one of the two-site immunoassays which could not have been predicted from the specificity of the antibodies or cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassays. The unexpected cross-reaction of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin in the assay resulted from an apparent alteration in the specificity of one of the antibodies following binding of the beta subunit to the second antibody. These studies emphasise the complexity of binding reactions in two-site immunoassays. PMID:2466086

  9. Miniaturized immunoassays: moving beyond the microplate.

    PubMed

    Verch, Thorsten; Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    After more than 40 years, immunoassays are still the backbone of protein biomarker analysis in clinical diagnostics and drug development. They have come a long way since their inception, incorporating technical developments including monoclonal antibodies, novel labels and lately microfluidics. A number of microfluidic platforms have been tested, such as centrifugational compact disc assays, lab-on-a-chip, arrays and digital electrochemical assays. This review focuses on commercial applications of microfluidic immunoassays with reference to some applied academic examples of interest. Advantages and disadvantages of the platform technologies are discussed in general. PMID:22250800

  10. Development of microfluidic-based heterogeneous immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank Yung Harn; Gao, Yali; Li, Dongqing; Sherman, Philip Martin

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic-based heterogeneous immunoassays are reviewed in this article by first introducing the principle of immunoassay, followed by a discussion of microfluidic-based technology. Microfabrication, surface modification, solution dispensing and detection technology are discussed and their applications to biomolecular detection reviewed. In the future, improved manufacturing processes and integrated assay systems in an automatic fashion with a reduced assay time and reagent consumption will allow for the effective detection of biomolecules that are of interest in medical diagnostics, drug discovery and bioterrorism. PMID:20036929

  11. Interference between eplerenone and digoxin in fluorescence polarization immunoassay, microparticle enzyme immunoassay, and affinity column-mediated immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kaoru; Iguchi, Ken; Kanada, Yasutaka; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Nishihara, Masami; Murakami, Sumiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tamai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2010-12-01

    Digitalis-like immunoreactive substances have crossreactivity with antidigoxin antibodies and the interference between digoxin and spironolactone/canrenone has been reported. The structure of eplerenone is similar to that of spironolactone/canrenone. Therefore, we hypothesized that eplerenone might also interfere with the measurement of digoxin by immunoassay. We performed three types of assays (fluorescence polarization immunoassay [FPIA], microparticle enzyme immunoassay [MEIA], and affinity column-mediated immunoassay [ACMIA]) to determine crossreactions between eplerenone and antidigoxin antibodies. Furthermore, we used FPIA, MEIA, and ACMIA to measure the apparent digoxin concentration in mixed solutions of eplerenone (1-100 ?g/mL) and digoxin (1-3 ng/mL). In the crossreaction tests, eplerenone was detected as digoxin by FPIA and ACMIA. By FPIA, a known concentration of 1 ?g/mL of eplerenone was measured as 0.33 ± 0.11 ng/mL of digoxin (crossreaction rate, 0.03%). By ACMIA, a known concentration of 10 ?g/mL of eplerenone was measured as 0.13 ± 0.05 ng/mL of digoxin (crossreaction rate, 0.001%). No crossreaction between eplerenone and digoxin was determined by MEIA. In the interference of eplerenone coadministered with digoxin, the apparent concentration of digoxin was increased in FPIA, but decreased in MEIA and ACMIA. The results suggest that eplerenone crossreacts with antidigoxin antibodies in FPIA, MEIA, and ACMIA, but that the interference of eplerenone might be smaller than that of spironolactone/canrenone. PMID:20625353

  12. O-Glycosyl Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Cristóbal

    O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

  13. Immunoassay on Free-standing Electrospun Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckl, Andrew; Wu, Dapeng; Han, Daewoo

    2010-03-01

    For the purpose of immunoassay, electrospun membranes can be thought as the thread-like self-assembling of nano/microbeads. Non-woven membranes of electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) fibers display excellent tenacity, flexibility and suitable surface energy. These PCL membranes exhibit easy handling in air, fast spreading and wetting in aqueous solution, and rapid adsorption of protein molecules by hydrophobic interaction. After a fold-and-press process, the membrane porosity was reduced from ˜ 75% to less than 10%, while the thickness increased from ˜5 to 300 ?m. The resulting fluorescence signal from adsorbed protein increased more than 120 times. With anti-HSA and HSA-FITC as an immunoassay model, a linear detection range from 500 ng/mL down to 1 ng/mL is obtained, with a detection of limit (LOD) of ˜ 0.08 ng/mL. By comparison, conventional nitrocellulose and thicker PCL fiber electrospun membrane displayed a much higher LOD of ˜100 ng/mL. Immunoassay on free-standing electrospun membrane successfully combines the low-cost and simplicity of conventional membrane immunoassay, with the fast reaction speed and high sensitivity characteristic of magnetic nano/microbeads bioassays.

  14. IMMUNOASSAY FOR P-NITROPHENOL IN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary excretion of nitrophenol metabolites is an important index of human exposure to organophosphate pesticides. In particular, p-nitrophenol, a major urinary metabolite of parathion, can be used as a biomarker of human exposure. Immunoassay methods have been recently describe...

  15. SITE EVALUATION OF FIELD PORTABLE PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four pentachlorophenol (PCP) enzyme immunoassays for environmental analysis have been evaluated through the U.S. EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Three assays were formatted for on-site field use and one assay could be used in a field laboratory sett...

  16. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  17. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  18. Dealing with Donor Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Techniques that reduce donors' resistance to college fund-raising requests, either direct mail or telephone solicitations, are offered. These include: respecting the prospects' concerns about privacy; offering nonintrusive giving options; honesty and clarity of communication; reinforcing donor sense of control; connecting with prospects'…

  19. Distinctive Characteristics of Educational Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III.

    2008-01-01

    Examining the charitable behavior of 56,663 US households, this paper evaluates the distinctive characteristics of educational donors as compared with donors to noneducational charitable organizations and with nondonors. In general, educational donors had significantly greater income, wealth, and education than other donors. Educational donors…

  20. FRET-based homogeneous immunoassay on a nanoparticle-based photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Sudheendra, Lakshmana; Kennedy, Ian M

    2015-07-01

    The potential of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a photonic crystal (PC) nanostructured array to enhance the speed and sensitivity of a protein-based immunoassay was tested. Forty-nanometer carboxylated particles conjugated with donor-labeled capture antibodies were trapped by electrophoresis and used as a FRET energy donor. The PC array was able to enhance fluorescent excitation and emission by phase matching. To provide a proof of concept for this FRET-based homogeneous assay on a PC chip, an immunoassay was tested with a simple immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based reaction. A standard curve was generated by testing two different antibody reaction times: 20 min. and 1 min. The results were compared directly to those obtained from a FRET assay that used a modern, high-sensitivity plate reader with a 96-well plate and a reaction time of 1 h. The rabbit-IgG detection limits of the FRET-based homogeneous assay on the PC were 0.001 and 0.1 μg/mL for incubation times of 20 and 1 min, respectively; the sensitivities were 10(3) and 10 times better than the 96-well plate reader, respectively. Thus, FRET on a PC immunoplatform was shown to be a facile, effective, rapid, and sensitive detection technology. PMID:25956600

  1. FRET-based quantum dot immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of Aspergillus amstelodami.

    PubMed

    Kattke, Michele D; Gao, Elizabeth J; Sapsford, Kim E; Stephenson, Larry D; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based quantum dot (QD) immunoassay for detection and identification of Aspergillus amstelodami was developed. Biosensors were formed by conjugating QDs to IgG antibodies and incubating with quencher-labeled analytes; QD energy was transferred to the quencher species through FRET, resulting in diminished fluorescence from the QD donor. During a detection event, quencher-labeled analytes are displaced by higher affinity target analytes, creating a detectable fluorescence signal increase from the QD donor. Conjugation and the resulting antibody:QD ratios were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and QuantiT protein assay. The sensitivity of initial fluorescence experiments was compromised by inherent autofluorescence of mold spores, which produced low signal-to-noise and inconsistent readings. Therefore, excitation wavelength, QD, and quencher were adjusted to provide optimal signal-to-noise over spore background. Affinities of anti-Aspergillus antibody for different mold species were estimated with sandwich immunoassays, which identified A. fumigatus and A. amstelodami for use as quencher-labeled- and target-analytes, respectively. The optimized displacement immunoassay detected A. amstelodami concentrations as low as 10(3) spores/mL in five minutes or less. Additionally, baseline fluorescence was produced in the presence of 10(5) CFU/mL heat-killed E. coli O157:H7, demonstrating high specificity. This sensing modality may be useful for identification and detection of other biological threat agents, pending identification of suitable antibodies. Overall, these FRET-based QD-antibody biosensors represent a significant advancement in detection capabilities, offering sensitive and reliable detection of targets with applications in areas from biological terrorism defense to clinical analysis. PMID:22163961

  2. Rational design of a low-affinity peptide for the detection of cystatin C in a fast homogeneous immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dobslaff, Kristin; Zscharnack, Kristin; Kreisig, Thomas; Zuchner, Thole

    2016-02-01

    Immunoassays play an essential role in current research and diagnostics resulting in a variety of detection principles. Thereby, homogeneous assays are often used for a fast signal response as demanded for example in point-of-care diagnostics. These systems often rely on a competitive assay design where the sample analyte and the corresponding dye-labeled substance are competing for binding sites on an antibody present in limited amounts. Due to the similar affinities of the antibody towards the sample analyte and the competitor, both sensitivity and assay time are limited. As a consequence, a competitor with a slightly reduced affinity towards the antibody can potentially overcome these drawbacks. Here, we present the rational design of a low-affinity peptide (donor peptide) as a specific analyte competitor for a FRET-based homogeneous immunoassay for the analysis of the protein cystatin C. Thereby, the strategy of peptide-induced antibody generation was combined with the selective variation of the immunization sequence in order to achieve a lower affinity towards the antibody. We could show that shortened donor peptides improved the resulting quenching efficiency in the immunoassay. In addition, the substitution of small hydrophobic amino acids by those with a higher steric demand appeared to be the most promising strategy providing a fast assay response for cystatin C of only 90 s. PMID:26403846

  3. Theoretical limitations of quantification for noncompetitive sandwich immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Christine F; Hayes, Mark A; Mahanti, Prasun; Douglass Gilman, S; Taylor, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Immunoassays exploit the highly selective interaction between antibodies and antigens to provide a vital method for biomolecule detection at low concentrations. Developers and practitioners of immunoassays have long known that non-specific binding often restricts immunoassay limits of quantification (LOQs). Aside from non-specific binding, most efforts by analytical chemists to reduce the LOQ for these techniques have focused on improving the signal amplification methods and minimizing the limitations of the detection system. However, with detection technology now capable of sensing single-fluorescence molecules, this approach is unlikely to lead to dramatic improvements in the future. Here, fundamental interactions based on the law of mass action are analytically connected to signal generation, replacing the four- and five-parameter fittings commercially used to approximate sigmoidal immunoassay curves and allowing quantitative consideration of non-specific binding and statistical limitations in order to understand the ultimate detection capabilities of immunoassays. The restrictions imposed on limits of quantification by instrumental noise, non-specific binding, and counting statistics are discussed based on equilibrium relations for a sandwich immunoassay. Understanding the maximal capabilities of immunoassays for each of these regimes can greatly assist in the development and evaluation of immunoassay platforms. While many studies suggest that single molecule detection is possible through immunoassay techniques, here, it is demonstrated that the fundamental limit of quantification (precision of 10 % or better) for an immunoassay is approximately 131 molecules and this limit is based on fundamental and unavoidable statistical limitations. PMID:26342315

  4. Simultaneous Photoelectrochemical Immunoassay of Dual Cardiac Markers Using Specific Enzyme Tags: A Proof of Principle for Multiplexed Bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Ma, Zheng-Yuan; Ruan, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-02-16

    In this Letter, on the basis of the CdS quantum dots functionalized TiO2 nanotubes electrode, we proposed a simultaneous photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay of dual cardiac markers using specific enzyme tags of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE). ALP and AChE were integrated into the PEC system through the sandwich immunobinding and could specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) or the acetylthiocholine (ATC) to in situ generate ascorbic acid (AA) or thiocholine (TC) for sacrificial electron donating. These two enzymes were thus used to differentiate the signals of two cardiac targets in connection with the sandwich immunorecognition and PEC responses to the corresponding electron donors. This strategy demonstrates a proof of principle for the successful integration of dual enzyme tags with PEC immunoassay that can potentially provide a general format for multiplexed PEC bioanalysis. PMID:26841098

  5. Sequential injection immunoassay for environmental measurements.

    PubMed

    Soh, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Hirakawa, Koji; Zhang, RuiQi; Nakajima, Hizuru; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Sequential injection immunoassay systems for environmental measurements based on the selective immunoreaction between antigen and antibody were described. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique is suitable to be applied for the procedure of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because the washing and the addition of reagent solutions can be automated by using a computer-controlled syringe pump and switching valve. We selected vitellogenin (Vg), which is a biomarker for evaluating environmental risk caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the hydrosphere, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), which are versatile surfactants, as target analytes in the flow immunoassay systems. For Vg monitoring, SIA systems based on spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical determinations were constructed. On the other hand, chemiluminescence determination was applied to the detection of LAS and APEO. For APEO, an SIA system combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was also developed. These new sequential injection immunoassay systems are expected to be useful systems for environmental analysis. PMID:22076332

  6. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  7. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the scar. The bulges can usually be fixed with surgery. During your medical exam, ask the ... to find out if the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant team ...

  8. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... instructions before and after surgery. • Have a compatible blood type. • Have an emotional tie with the recipient. • Not ... test is to find out if the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant ...

  9. Immunoassay as a screening tool for industrial toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, T.

    1986-08-01

    Immunoassay techniques may represent useful screening tools to assist analysts interested in the presence and amounts of organic toxicants in biological fluids. The widespread application of immunoassay methods in medicinal and forensic (drugs of abuse) chemistry has resulted in such screening methodologies. Four methodologies of potential benefit are considered: the free radical assay technique, the enzyme-mediated immunoassay technique, radioimmunoassay, and hemagglutination. Each of these immunoassays is based on the competitive displacement of the labeled drug (or toxicant) from the antibody complex by the unlabeled drug-toxicant in the sample.

  10. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial–antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets. PMID:18371644

  11. Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

  12. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-12-15

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial–antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

  13. Enzyme immunoassays with special reference to ELISA techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Voller, A; Bartlett, A; Bidwell, D E

    1978-01-01

    In this review outlines are given on various types of enzyme immunoassay. The applications to such enzyme immunoassays, especially ELISA, are dealth with in detail. It is concluded that these techniques have high sensitivity and will be suitable in due course as routine laboratory tests. PMID:78929

  14. Effects of serum and plasma matrices on multiplex immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Hansmann, Leo; Liedtke, Michaela; Herschmann, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Multiplexed fluorescence or electrochemiluminescence immunoassays of soluble cytokines are commonly performed in the context of human serum or plasma, to look for disease biomarkers and to monitor the immune system in a simple and minimally invasive way. These assays provide challenges due to the complexities of the matrix (serum or plasma) and the presence of many cytokines near the limit of detection of the assay. Here, we compare the readout of matched serum and plasma samples, which are generally correlated. However, a subset of cytokines usually have higher levels in serum, and the non-specific background is significantly increased in serum versus plasma. Presumably as a result of this non-specific background, disease-related decreases in low-abundance cytokines can sometimes be detected in plasma but not in serum. We further show, through spike recovery experiments, that both serum and plasma inhibit the readout of many cytokines, with some variability between donors, but with serum causing greater inhibition than plasma in many cases. Standard diluents from different vendors can partially reverse this inhibition to varying degrees. Dilution of samples can also partly overcome the inhibitory effect of the matrix. We also show that dilution is nonlinear and differentially affects various cytokines. Together, these data argue that (1) plasma is a more sensitive matrix for detecting changes in certain low-abundance cytokines; (2) calculation of concentrations in serum or plasma matrices is inherently inaccurate; and (3) dilution of samples should not be assumed to be linear, i.e., all comparisons need to be made among similarly diluted samples. PMID:24522699

  15. Enzyme immunoassay to determine exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR).

    PubMed Central

    Ladany, S; Black, C M; Farshy, C E; Ossewaarde, J M; Barnes, R C

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that a group of Chlamydia strains known as TWAR, which are now proposed to be a new species called Chlamydia pneumoniae, may be a frequent cause of respiratory disease in the United States and many other countries. Current serotesting methods do not allow rapid screening of large numbers of samples to distinguish C. trachomatis exposure from C. pneumoniae exposure. We developed an enzyme immunoassay to decrease cross-reactivity between immunoglobulin G antibodies reactive with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. Elementary bodies of C. trachomatis or C. pneumoniae were treated with a detergent-chelating solution to decrease the reactivity of the common lipopolysaccharide antigens. Sera from four groups of patients, totaling 143 persons, were tested by this assay. The prevalences of titers of greater than or equal to 128 to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, respectively, were as follows: (i) for 23 women seropositive for C. trachomatis by the microimmunofluorescence test, 21 (91%) and 18 (78%); (ii) for 50 adult blood donors, 13 (26%) and 39 (78%); (iii) for 40 sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, 20 (50%) and 32 (80%); (iv) for 30 healthy children 5 to 7 years old, 0 (0%) and 8 (27%). Western blots (immunoblots) of each antigen corroborated the differential reactivity of C. trachomatis-positive, C. pneumoniae-negative and C. trachomatis-negative, C. pneumoniae-positive serum samples. Western blots of serum samples from rabbits immunized with either C. trachomatis or C. pneumoniae elementary bodies revealed at least two protein bands (30 and 80 kilodaltons) which appeared to represent unique C. pneumoniae antigens. Images PMID:2592540

  16. Novel One-step Immunoassays to Quantify ?-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Bidinosti, Michael; Shimshek, Derya R.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Marcellin, David; Schweizer, Tatjana; Lotz, Gregor P.; Schlossmacher, Michael G.; Weiss, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Familial Parkinson disease (PD) can result from ?-synuclein gene multiplication, implicating the reduction of neuronal ?-synuclein as a therapeutic target. Moreover, ?-synuclein content in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) represents a PD biomarker candidate. However, capture-based assays for ?-synuclein quantification in CSF (such as by ELISA) have shown discrepancies and have limited suitability for high-throughput screening. Here, we describe two sensitive, in-solution, time-resolved Förster's resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET)-based immunoassays for total and oligomeric ?-synuclein quantification. CSF analysis showed strong concordance for total ?-synuclein content between two TR-FRET assays and, in agreement with a previously characterized 36 h protocol-based ELISA, demonstrated lower ?-synuclein levels in PD donors. Critically, the assay suitability for high-throughput screening of siRNA constructs and small molecules aimed at reducing endogenous ?-synuclein levels was established and validated. In a small-scale proof of concept compound screen using 384 well plates, signals ranged from <30 to >120% of the mean of vehicle-treated cells for molecules known to lower and increase cellular ?-synuclein, respectively. Furthermore, a reverse genetic screen of a kinase-directed siRNA library identified seven genes that modulated ?-synuclein protein levels (five whose knockdown increased and two that decreased cellular ?-synuclein protein). This provides critical new biological insight into cellular pathways regulating ?-synuclein steady-state expression that may help guide further drug discovery efforts. Moreover, we describe an inherent limitation in current ?-synuclein oligomer detection methodology, a finding that will direct improvement of future assay design. Our one-step TR-FRET-based platform for ?-synuclein quantification provides a novel platform with superior performance parameters for the rapid screening of large biomarker cohorts and of compound and genetic libraries, both of which are essential to the development of PD therapies. PMID:22843695

  17. Laboratory and epidemiologic evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for antibodies to HTLV-III

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Grindon, A.J.; Feorino, P.M.; Schable, C.; Parvin, M.; Allen, J.R.

    1986-07-18

    The enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) were rapidly adopted for screening donated blood and plasma. To evaluate the significance of a positive EIA reaction, test performance was examined in a blood bank screening program. Specimens were tested by EIA, Western blot assay, and HTLV-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) culture. The EIA was positive in 0.25% of 67 190 blood donations. Specimens were categorized and 57.3% had low (weak) reactivity, 12.7% had moderate reactivity, and 30.0% had high reactivity. Highly reactive specimens were strongly associated with a positive Western blot or culture (86.7%) in contrast to moderately and weekly reactive specimens (1.9%). Twenty-five of 29 donors interviewed with a highly reactive EIA had risk factors for HTLV-III/LAV infection. Risk factors were not identified for 74 of 75 interviewed donors with specimens of lower reactivity. The minimum calculated specificity was 99.82%. The use of the HTLV-III EIA has virtually eliminated the use of blood and plasma for HTLV-III/LAV infected donors.

  18. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for bovine growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Roh, S G; Matsunaga, N; Miyamoto, A; Hidaka, S; Hidari, H

    1997-02-01

    We developed an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for bovine GH (bGH) which is based on indirect competitive immunoassay in culture medium from a bovine pituitary cell culture. 40 microliters cell culture samples (or bGH standard) and bGH antibody (rabbit anti-bGH) were added to the 96 well microplate coated with secondary antibody (Goat anti-rabbit IgG), and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Biotin-label bGH was added and incubated further for 24 h at 37 degrees C, and biotinylated bGH was linked with streptoavidin-peroxidase. Substrates for peroxidase were added to the plate and incubated for 1 h at 4 degrees C. The enzyme reaction was stopped with 4N H2SO4, and the absorbency at 450 nm was measured with an ELISA Reader. The coefficients of intra-assay and inter-assay variations were 4.13 approximately 7.59% and 3.71 approximately 8.27%, respectively. The regression equation and correlation coefficients with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) were y(RIA) = 1.9986 x (EIA) - 1.3921 and 0.9701 (n = 27), respectively. Collectively, the present assay provides a reliable alternative to RIA and offers the major advantage of eliminating radioactive reagents and counting equipment. PMID:9152634

  19. Dialing for Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    When times get tough, grown children often turn to their parents for help--for some extra cash, even somewhere to stay. For colleges and universities, that role is filled by alumni donors. In 2011, with education budgets slashed across the country, giving accounted for 6.5 percent of college expenditures, according to the Council for Aid to…

  20. Donor family programs.

    PubMed

    Coolican, M B; Politoski, G

    1994-09-01

    This article explores how the critical care nurse can support donor families. Some of the many programs currently available to assist families after the death of a loved one and after the donation of organs and tissues are described. PMID:7946218

  1. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N.; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays. PMID:23424703

  2. The role of uncertainty regarding the results of screening immunoassays in blood establishments.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The risk of uncertain results in infectious agents' tests is recognized in blood establishments, being particularly evident during the blood donor selection. The current risk-based approaches require risk assessment and "risk-based thinking". Accordingly, the blood establishment should consider the effect of uncertainty in all the technical decisions taken in a screening laboratory. Since the post-transfusion safety is one of the blood establishments' goals, the risk of post-transfusion infection should be evaluated and actions taken to decrease the chance of blood donations validation use false negative results. This article reviews and discusses the sources of uncertainty of infectious agents' reported results in blood establishments. It describes a set of sources of uncertainty that should be considered in screening immunoassay's decisions. The infectious agents' uncertainty concern is critical for reporting reliable results. PMID:25754470

  3. Quantum-dot-basedFörster resonance energy transfer immunoassay for sensitive clinical diagnostics of low-volume serum samples.

    PubMed

    Wegner, K David; Jin, Zongwen; Lindén, Stina; Jennings, Travis L; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2013-08-27

    A myriad of quantum dot (QD) biosensor examples have emerged from the literature over the past decade, but despite their photophysical advantages, QDs have yet to find acceptance as standard fluorescent reagents in clinical diagnostics. Lack of reproducible, stable, and robust immunoassays using easily prepared QD-antibody conjugates has historically plagued this field, preventing researchers from advancing the deeper issues concerning assay sensitivity and clinically relevant detection limits on low-volume serum samples. Here we demonstrate a ratiometric multiplexable FRET immunoassay using Tb donors and QD acceptors, which overcomes all the aforementioned limitations toward application in clinical diagnostics. We demonstrate the determination of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in 50 ?L serum samples with subnanomolar (1.6 ng/mL) detection limits using time-gated detection and two different QD colors. This concentration is well below the clinical cutoff value of PSA, which demonstrates the possibility of direct integration into real-life in vitro diagnostics. The application of IgG, F(ab')2, and F(ab) antibodies makes our homogeneous immunoassay highly flexible and ready-to-use for the sensitive and specific homogeneous detection of many different biomarkers. PMID:23909574

  4. Health risk of leukapheresis donors.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S G; Nusbacher, J

    1982-01-01

    The increasing use of normal donors for leukapheresis to provide granulocyte concentrates requires careful monitoring of recruitment and operational procedures to minimize donor health risks. Of 18,288 leuka- and leukaplateletphereses performed in American Red Cross regional blood services during a 12-month period, only 0.27% were discontinued because of acute donor reactions. None of these reactions had serious or long-term consequences for the donors. The potential toxicities of corticosteroids and hydroxyethyl starch, and the theoretical hazards of lymphocyte depletion, raise unanswerable questions concerning long-term safety, although no serious adverse reactions related to these factors have been observed. Critical factors for leukapheresis donor safety are: selective donor recruitment, adherence to operational protocols, and continuous and informed interest of physicians responsible for pheresis programs. Additional data are needed to assess the effects of repeated leukapheresis on donors and to establish rational guidelines for donor recruitment. PMID:6180961

  5. Environmental monitoring by immunoassay: Current and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Stanker, L.H.; Watkins, B.E.; Vanderlaan, M.

    1990-10-31

    Immunoassays for low molecular weight molecules have become increasingly popular in part, this is a result of the simplicity and potentially low cost of immunoassays when compared with conventional analytical methods. Environmental application of immunoassays, however, poses new challenges. First, not only must the parent compound be detected but often one would also like to detect metabolites or environmentally weathered'' products. Monoclonal antibody technology offers the possibility of selecting antibodies that have specific binding characteristics, eg. those that bind to a family of similar compounds or to broad classes of chemicals. Next, a simple rapid sample preparation method must be available. Unlike clinical assays that run in serum or other biological fluids (ideal matrixes for antibodies), environmental sample consist of soils, sediments, chemical sludges, water and air samples. Thus, in all cases, with the possible exception of water samples, the analyte of interest must be extracted and presented to the antibody in an appropriate buffer system. Once these criteria are met, immunoassays present an attractive alternative for conventional analytical methods. The most direct application of immunoassays will undoubtedly as as screening assays, with positives being confirmed by gas liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, coupling immunoassay with other analytical methods, such as with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) converts a single residue immunoassay into a multiresidue method. Finally, immunoaffinity chromatography procedures are useful as methods for sample clean-up, followed by immunochemical detection or more traditional detection methods. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Element-tagged immunoassay with ICP-MS detection: evaluation and comparison to conventional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Razumienko, Eva; Ornatsky, Olga; Kinach, Robert; Milyavsky, Michael; Lechman, Eric; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Tanner, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of using element-tagged antibodies for protein detection and quantification in microplate format using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and compared the results to conventional immunoassays, such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The technique was further employed to detect low levels and measure DNA-binding activity of transcription factor p53 in leukemia cell lysates through its interaction with immobilized oligonucleotides and recognition by element-tagged antibodies. The advantages of ICP-MS detection for routine performance of immunoassays include increased sensitivity, wide dynamic range, minimal interference from complex matrices, and high throughput. Our approach advances the ICP-MS technology and demonstrates its applicability to proteomic studies through the use of antibodies directly labeled with polymer tags bearing multiple atoms of lanthanides. Development of this novel methodology will enable fast and quantitative identification of multiple analytes in a single well. PMID:18456275

  7. Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

  8. The utility of immunoassays for urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Stacy E F

    2012-09-01

    Substance abuse is a significant problem in the United States, with cocaine, marijuana, alcohol and heroin as the most commonly abused drugs. This article focuses on urine drug testing to evaluate potential drug abuse or overdose in the emergent care setting using qualitative immunoassays. Discussion is included regarding the principles of how to validate qualitative immunoassays; how to decide on appropriate specimen type, test menu and cutoff; the limitations of immunoassays; how to communicate test results to clinicians; and use of urine drug testing at point of care. PMID:22939301

  9. Self-concentrating buoyant glass microbubbles for high sensitivity immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Juang, Duane S; Hsu, Chia-Hsien

    2016-01-26

    Here, we report the novel application of a material with self-concentrating properties for enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassays. Termed as glass microbubbles, they are antibody functionalized buoyant hollow glass microspheres that simultaneously float and concentrate into a dense monolayer when dispensed in a liquid droplet. This self-concentrating charactaristic of the microbubbles allow for autonomous signal localization, which translates to a higher sensitivity compared to other microparticle-based immunoassays. We then demonstrated a "microbubble array" platform consisting of the glass microbubbles floating in a microfluidic liquid hemisphere array for performing multiplex immunoassays. PMID:26620967

  10. Heterophilic antibodies: a problem for all immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Boscato, L M; Stuart, M C

    1988-01-01

    We verified that antibody-binding substances in serum that interfere in two-site immunoassays involving murine antibodies are heterophilic antibodies. Incubation of serum containing heterophilic antibodies and a murine monoclonal antibody to human choriogonadotropin (hCG) leads to formation of a series of soluble immune complexes. We investigated the recognition of hCG by reagent antibody in the presence of heterophilic antibodies and found this recognition to be diminished. Consequently, about 30% of serum samples containing heterophilic antibodies falsely appear to contain increased concentrations of hCG. The effect on analyte recognition probably results from steric inhibition of hCG binding to complexed antibody. Heterophilic antibodies detected with a murine antibody also bound immunoglobulin from several other species but did not bind all of those tested. PMID:3338181

  11. Immunoassay procedures for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1988-04-01

    There is an increasing need for the development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for use with fiber optic sensors. These detection systems can be used for such applications as disease diagnosis, detection of chemical and biological warfare agents or drugs of abuse, pollution control, therapeutic monitoring, and explosive detection. This specific program is designed to produce generic chemistries for use with existing fiber optic-based sensors to detect pathogens of particular threat to Army personnel as determined by USAMRIID. The detection system under development involves the attachment of antibodies to an optical fiber at high density. In addition, the immobilization must be achieved in a way which retains the antibody's ability to bind antigen. The functionality of the antibody will be tested through the binding of a labelled antigen. In the future, this assay could incorporate the antibodies developed by the Army for pathogens of particularly military concern.

  12. Nanoparticles for Enhanced Sensitivity in Electrochemical Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wu, Hong; Tang, Zhiwen

    2008-10-12

    In this manuscript, we report on electrochemical biosensors based on various nanoparticles (NPs) as labels for sensitive detection of protein biomarkers. We used silica nanoparticle as a carrier to loading a large amount of electroactive species such as poly(guanine) for sensitive immunoassay of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). We took the advantages of the unique hollow structure and reconstruction properties of apoferritin to prepare Cd3(PO4)2 nanoparticles as labels for sensitive assay of TNF-a. A novel immunochromatographic/electro-chemical biosensor based on quantum dots as labels has also been developed for rapid and sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. These biosensors are quite sensitive with the detection limit at pM level and these approaches based on nanoparticle labels offer a new avenue for sensitive detection of protein biomarkers.

  13. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    PubMed

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  14. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  15. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  16. Defining the smallest analyte concentration an immunoassay can measure.

    PubMed

    Brown, E N; McDermott, T J; Bloch, K J; McCollom, A D

    1996-06-01

    An immunoassay's minimal detectable concentration (MDC), the smallest analyte concentration the assay can reliably measure, is one of its most important properties. Bayes' theorem is used to unify the five current mathematical MDC definitions. The unified definition has significant implications for defining positive results for screening and diagnostic tests, setting criteria for immunoassay quality control and optimal design, reliably measuring biological substances at low concentrations, and, in general, measuring small analyte concentrations with calibrated analytic methods. As an illustration, we apply the unified definition to the microparticle capture enzyme immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) developed for the Abbott IMx automated immunoassay system. The MDC of this assay as estimated by our unifying approach is shown to be 4.1-7.1 times greater than currently reported. As a consequence, the ability of the assay to measure reliably small concentrations of PSA to detect early recurrences of prostate cancer is probably overstated. PMID:8665681

  17. Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, H.R.

    1993-12-31

    Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use.

  18. Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Annette C.; Willicott, Corey W.; Hage, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoassays have long been an important set of tools in clinical laboratories for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of disease. Over the last two decades there has been growing interest in utilizing capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a means for conducting immunoassays with clinical samples. The resulting method is known as a CE immunoassay. This approach makes use of the selective and strong binding of antibodies for their targets, as is employed in a traditional immunoassay, and combines this with the speed, efficiency, and small sample requirements of CE. This review discusses the variety of ways in which CE immunoassays have been employed with clinical samples. An overview of the formats and detection modes that have been employed in these applications is first presented. A more detailed discussion is then given on the type of clinical targets and samples that have been measured or studied by using CE immunoassays. Particular attention is given to the use of this method in the fields of endocrinology, pharmaceutical measurements, protein and peptide analysis, immunology, infectious disease detection, and oncology. Representative applications in each of these areas are described, with these examples involving work with both traditional and microanalytical CE systems. PMID:24132682

  19. Outcomes of living donor liver transplantation using elderly donors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae Hyun; Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo Ho; Hong, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Goo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using elderly donors is increasing in frequency in response to organ shortage. However, elderly donor graft has been reported to negatively affect graft patency and patient survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 604 patients who underwent LDLT at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea between May 1999 and September 2012. Elderly donors were defined as those ≥55 years of age. Here, we evaluate the survival differences and causes of death of recipients of elderly donor grafts. Results The overall mortality rate of the recipients was significantly higher in the elderly donor group (group A) than in the younger donor group (group B: 46.2% vs. 18.1%, P = 0.004). The survival length of group A was significantly shorter than that of group B (31.2 ± 31.3 and 51.4 ± 40.8 months, P = 0.014). The significantly common causes of death in group A were biliary (41.7%) and arterial complication (16.7%), and it was higher than those in group B (P = 0.000 and P = 0.043, respectively). Conclusion LDLT using elderly donors could induce more serious complications and higher mortality rates than those at using younger donors. As such, careful donor selection is needed, especially with regard to assessing the condition of potential elderly donor livers. Furthermore, a large-volume and multicenter study of complications and outcomes of LDLT using elderly donor liver is required. PMID:24783177

  20. [Deceased donor liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Seehofer, D; Schöning, W; Neuhaus, P

    2013-05-01

    Deceased donor liver transplantation is nowadays a routine procedure for the treatment of terminal liver failure and often represents the only chance of a cure. Under given optimal conditions excellent long-term results can be obtained with 15-year survival rates of well above 60 %.In Germany the outcome after liver transplantation has deteriorated since the introduction of an allocation policy, which is based on the medical urgency. At present 25 % of liver graft recipients die within the first year after transplantation. In contrast 1-year survival in most other countries, e.g. in the USA or the United Kingdom is around 90 % and therefore significantly better. Reasons for the inferior results in Germany are on the one hand an increasing number of critically ill recipients and on the other hand an unfavorable situation for organ donation. In comparison with other countries the organ donation rate is low and moreover the risk profile of these donors is above average. This combination of organ shortage and organ allocation represents a big challenge for the future orientation of liver transplantation and creates the potential for conflict. These cannot be solved on a medical basis but require a social consensus.Because of the present inferior results and because of the high expenses of the present system we suggest a discussion on future allocation policies as well as on future centre structures in Germany. In addition to the medical urgency the maximum benefit should also be considered for organ allocation. PMID:23576123

  1. Integrated optic immunoassay for virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiarski, Anthony A.; Busch, James R.; Miller, Larry S.; Zulich, A. W.; Burans, James

    1995-05-01

    An integrated optic refractometer device was developed to perform a rapid one-step, label-free immunoassay. The device measures refractive index changes at the surface of a planar waveguide using interferometry. Antibodies were applied to the waveguide surface to provide a bioselective coating for detecting and quantifying a specific antigen of interest. The detection limit of this biosensor was determined for adenovirus as a model for other viral analytes of military, medical, and environmental interest. As binding of the antigen occurred on the sensor surface, a time-dependent phase shift of the helium-neon laser light beam was detected and was measured over a 10-minute time period. Adenovirus was detected at levels of 250 - 2500 viral particles/ml. This detection limit was obtained for a mono-layer of antibody attached to the sensor. Use of a high-density, multi-layer antibody coating approach resulted in improved detection limits for bacteria and protein analytes of general interest.

  2. Organ Donor FAQ's: Who Can Be a Donor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... citizens have been organ donors. Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Non-resident aliens can both donate and receive organs in the ... the 12,375 organ donors were non-resident aliens. In this same year, 259 (1%) of the ...

  3. Concentration Gradient Immunoassay I. A Rapid Immunoassay Based on Interdiffusion and Surface Binding in a Microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kjell E.; Foley, Jennifer O.; Yager, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel microfluidic immunoassay method based on the diffusion of a small molecule analyte into a parallel-flowing stream containing cognate antibody. This interdiffusion results in a steady-state gradient of antibody binding site occupancy transverse to convective flow. In contrast to the diffusion immunoassay (Hatch et al. Nature Biotechnology,19:461−465 (2001)), this antibody occupancy gradient is interrogated by a sensor surface coated with a functional analog of the analyte. Antibodies with at least one unoccupied binding site may specifically bind to this functionalized surface, leading to a quantifiable change in surface coverage by the antibody. SPR imaging is used to probe the spatial distribution of antibody binding to the surface and, therefore, the outcome of the assay. We show that the pattern of antibody binding to the SPR sensing surface correlates with the concentration of a model analyte (phenytoin) in the sample stream. Using an inexpensive disposable microfluidic device, we demonstrate assays for phenytoin ranging in concentration from 75 to 1000 nM in phosphate buffer. At a total volumetric flow rate of 90 nL/sec, the assays are complete within 10 minutes. Inclusion of an additional flow stream on the side of the antibody stream opposite to that of the sample enables simultaneous calibration of the assay. This assay method is suitable for rapid quantitative detection of low-molecular weight analytes for point-of-care diagnostic instrumentation. PMID:17437332

  4. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Immunoassay for Fat Cell Differentiation Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Johlfs, Mary G.; Gorjala, Priyatham; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Le, Thuc T.; Fiscus, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    Profiling cellular proteome is critical to understanding signal integration during cell fate determination. In this study, the capability of capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) immunoassays to detect post-translational modifications (PTM) of protein isoforms is demonstrated. cIEF immunoassays exhibit protein detection sensitivity at up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than traditional methods. This detection ultra-sensitivity permits proteomic profiling of several nanograms of tissue samples. cIEF immunoassays are employed to simultaneously profile three protein kinases during fat cell differentiation: cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG-I) of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, protein kinase B (Akt) of the insulin signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Interestingly, a switch in the expression level of PKG- isoforms is observed during fat cell differentiation. While both PKG-Iα and PKG-Iβ isoforms are present in preadipocytes, only PKG-Iβ isoform is expressed in adipocytes. On the other hand, the phosphorylation level increases for Akt while decreases for ERK1 and ERK2 following the maturation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Taken together, cIEF immunoassay provides a highly sensitive means to study fat cell differentiation proteomics. cIEF immunoassay should be a powerful proteomics tool to study complex protein signal integration in biological systems. PMID:26132171

  5. Management of Young Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal reaction rates and increase donor retention. The donation process can be significantly improved. Future interventions may include more dietary salt, a shorter muscle tension program to make it more feasible, recommendations for post-donation muscle tension / squatting / laying down for lightheadedness, more donor education by the staff at the collection site, more staff attention to donors with fear or higher risk for a vasovagal reaction (e.g. estimated blood volume near 3.5 l, first-time donor), and a more focused donation process to ensure a pleasant and safer procedure. PMID:25254024

  6. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) REPORT FOR THE WESTINGHOUSE BIOANALYTICAL SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of the demonstration of two Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems (WBAS) immunoassay technologies are described in this report. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in environmental water samples. The study was conducted under the...

  7. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION PLAN FOR WESTINGHOUSE BIO-ANALYTIC SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This plan provides a detailed design and description of the demonstration and evaluation program for the Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems immunoassay technologies specific for the analysis of pentachlorophenol. he immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachl...

  8. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  9. The Effects of Sample Matrices on Immunoassays to Detect Microcystin-LR in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Immunoassays are widely used biochemical techniques to detect microcystins in environmental samples. The use of immunoassays for the detection of microcystins is vulnerable to matrix components and other interferents. This study is an evaluation of the effects of interf...

  10. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  11. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  12. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K? or k? donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region, which were transfused to 2,365 patients with no untoward effects. Discussion Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, which recently joined the ISBT Working Party on Rare Donors, contributed to increase blood transfusion safety and efficacy inside and outside Lombardy. PMID:23522888

  13. [Altruism and the donor].

    PubMed

    Langlois, A

    1991-08-01

    On December 20, 1988, the government of France passed a law to protect people who voluntarily participate in biomedical research. This article makes extensive reference to a major study, titled From Biology to Ethics, by Jean Bernard, a well-respected authority in the field of bioethics. The author looks at models proposed by Bernard, as examples for health volunteers, in particular, the blood donor and the self-experimenter. To set the tone of the article, she recalls the concept of altruism, as first proposed by Auguste Comte, then makes a linkage between his philosophy and Bernard's point of view. By trial and error, in their discussions, various ethics committees and the French State Council have agreed upon what constitutes fair compensation under the law. Unlike their Canadian counterparts, medical researchers in France have free access to volunteers who are not in perfect health--e.g., the elderly, people suffering from kidney deficiency, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.--but these "experimental subjects" receive no monetary compensation. Thus, healthy and less-than-healthy volunteers do not receive equal treatment under the law. This inequity, added to the fear of what amounts to a tax on the human body and the difficulty of ensuring just compensation, is giving rise to a great deal of uncertainty. PMID:1878857

  14. Protein microchips : use for immunoassay and enzymatic reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Arenkov, P.; Kukhtin, A.; Gemmell, A.; Voloschuk, S.; Chupeeva, V.; Mirzabekov, A.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

    2000-02-15

    Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-{mu}m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as to carry out enzymatic reactions and to measure their kinetics in the absence or presence of an inhibitor. A protein microchip can be used several times in different immunoassays and enzymatic kinetic measurements.

  15. Variability in telavancin cross-reactivity among vancomycin immunoassays.

    PubMed

    McConeghy, Kevin W; Liao, Siyun; Clark, Douglas; Worboys, Philip; Barriere, Steven L; Rodvold, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Telavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action against Gram-positive pathogens. Two brief reports have suggested potential cross-reactivity of telavancin with the vancomycin particle-enhanced turbidometric immunoassay (PETIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate several commercially available vancomycin immunoassays (fluorescence polarization [FPIA], enzyme-multiplied immunoassays [EMIT], PETIA, and chemiluminescent immunoassay [CMIA]) for cross-reactivity with telavancin. Seven sites were selected to analyze serum samples for vancomycin. Each site received a set of samples (n = 18) which combined drug-free serum with telavancin, 7-OH telavancin metabolite, or vancomycin. Immunoassays demonstrating potential cross-reactivity were further evaluated by sending a duplicate sample set to multiple laboratories. Cross-reactivity was defined as the percent theoretical concentration (reported concentration/theoretical concentration × 100). No cross-reactivity was seen with FPIA or EMIT. Within the theoretical concentration range of 5 to 120 ?g/ml of telavancin, the Synchron PETIA system reported vancomycin concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 54.2 ?g/ml compared to vancomycin concentrations from 1.1 to 5.6 ?g/ml for the Vista PETIA system. The Architect CMIA system reported vancomycin concentrations in the range of 0.27 to 0.97 ?g/ml, whereas Advia Centaur XP CMIA reported vancomycin concentrations between 1.6 and 31.6 ?g/ml. The Architect CMIA immunoassay had the lowest percent cross-reactivity (0.8 to 5.4%), while the Synchron PETIA immunoassay demonstrated the highest percent cross-reactivity (45.2 to 53.8%). Telavancin samples measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 93.9 to 122% of theoretical concentrations. Vancomycin concentrations were not measured in any 7-OH telavancin-spiked sample. Vancomycin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 57.2 to 113% of theoretical concentrations. PETIA and CMIA measured vancomycin concentrations in telavancin-spiked samples. Significant variability in percent cross-reactivity was observed for each platform regardless of immunoassay method. PMID:25223996

  16. Ability of TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS enzyme immunoassay to diagnose rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Chernesky, M; Castriciano, S; Mahony, J; Spiewak, M; Schaefer, L

    1988-01-01

    TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS, a simple 10-min enzyme immunoassay, was compared with electron microscopy and Pathfinder enzyme immunoassay on feces from 172 patients of various ages with gastroenteritis. The percent sensitivities and specificities before blocking with antiserum were as follows: TESTPACK, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity; Pathfinder, 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. After blocking, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 100% and 100% for TESTPACK and 95% and 99% for Pathfinder. TESTPACK ROTAVIRUS was more sensitive, but not significantly, than Pathfinder (P greater than 0.1) and the direct electron microscopy technique (P greater than 0.1). PMID:3069866

  17. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them. PMID:25936672

  18. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Mercado-Suarez, Miguel Francisco; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Fallad-Torres, Laura; Ayala-Ayala, Julio Octavio; Nevarez-Piedra, Luis Jorge; Duran-Morales, Ehecatl; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo

    2007-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4%) of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9%) of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01). The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02). Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8%) than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5%) (p = 0.04). Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased with educational level. PMID:17629901

  19. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors.

    PubMed

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P

    2015-11-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1·00 ± 0·18 vs. 0·92 ± 0·12, P = 0·09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups. PMID:26031345

  20. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:??d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

  1. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for blood transfusions side effects associated with allergic reactions to the anesthesia death The best source of information about risks and expected donor outcomes is your transplant team. In addition, it’s important to take an active role in ...

  2. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  3. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  4. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  5. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Bednarski, Mark D.; Gruber, Patrick R.

    1997-01-01

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

  6. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  7. Monitoring Pesticides and Personal Care Chemicals in Water by Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increasing number and quantity of organic pollutants, regulatory authorities require implementation of rapid, reliable, and cost-effective technologies for monitoring of water quality. Immunoassays provide a simple, powerful and inexpensive method for monitoring organic contaminants in bo...

  8. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-11-25

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

  9. Effect of phenolic compounds on immunoassays of peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are antioxidants. Because of their health benefit, PCs may be added to some food products. Occasionally, these products may be subjected to screening for food allergens (i.e. peanuts). In this case, the screening (an immunoassay technique) may or may not be affected by the P...

  10. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS IMMUNOASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) immunoassay format for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is demonstrated. A fluorescent labeled 2,4-D analog competes with the analyte of interest for a finite number of binding sites provided by anti-2,4-D monoclonal antibodies. CE then pr...

  11. A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays. PMID:24859022

  12. Highly sensitive homogenous chemiluminescence immunoassay using gold nanoparticles as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Cui, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Li, Baoxin

    2014-10-01

    Homogeneous immunoassay is becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because it is superior to heterogeneous immunoassay in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on luminol-AgNO3 chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol-AgNO3 CL reaction is greatly enhanced. Without any separation steps, a CL signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the CL intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of IgG. The detection limit of IgG was estimated to be as low as 3 pg/mL, and the sensitivity was better than that of the reported AuNPs-based CL immunoassay for IgG.

  13. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  14. DETECTION OF NORWALK VIRUS IN STOOLS BY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a solid-phase microtiter enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stool samples is described. The EIA was compared with a previously developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stools obtained from 30 vol...

  15. Biofunctionalized dendritic polyaniline nanofibers for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuling; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Huafeng; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Guonan

    2012-04-01

    Multi-armed dendritic polyaniline nanofibers (MPANFs) were first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, as a model analyte here) in this work. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized MPANFs. By using anti-CEA-conjugated core-shell gold-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposites (GoldMag) as immunosensing probes and biofunctionalized MPANFs as molecular tags, a new sandwich-type homogeneous immunoassay strategy was developed for the determination of CEA by coupling with a home-made flow-through magneto-controlled microfluidic device. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide dynamic range of four orders of magnitude from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) CEA at 3?. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The assayed results for clinical serum specimens with the electrochemical immunoassay were received in good accordance with the results obtained from the referenced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. PMID:22355804

  16. Galactomannan Enzymatic Immunoassay Cross-Reactivity Caused by Prototheca Species

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bossche, D.; Hendrickx, M.; De Becker, A.; Jacobs, R.; Naessens, A.; Piérard, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report a reactive Aspergillus galactomannan enzymatic immunoassay against the serum of a patient with invasive Prototheca zopfii infection. Analysis of the supernatants of suspensions of P. zopfii and other Prototheca isolates revealed positive results as well. These data suggest cross-reactivity with the serum Aspergillus galactomannan assay in invasive protothecosis. PMID:22837317

  17. Magnetic Beads-based Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) has been developed to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PAH-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PAH (HRP-PAH). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreaction among PAH-antibody-coated MBs, PAH analyte, and HRP-PAH. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing 3, 3´, 5, 5´- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for electrochemical detection. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate were investigated, and the reduction peak current of TMB was used to quantify the concentration of PAH. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PAH conjugates, the enzyme catalytic reaction time, and the pH of the supporting electrolyte that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 50 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical magnetic immunoassay was successfully evaluated with tap water spiked with PAHs, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

  18. Microneutralization test for rabies virus based on an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mannen, K; Mifune, K; Reid-Sanden, F L; Smith, J S; Yager, P A; Sumner, J W; Fishbein, D B; Tong, T C; Baer, G M

    1987-12-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay for rabies virus by using acetone-fixed infected cell cultures as the antigen. This test was used to demonstrate virus-neutralizing antibodies in human and animal sera and was as sensitive as and easier to perform than the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition technique. PMID:3323234

  19. AN EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis revealed numerous deficiencies. Often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. Several data sets were run through each system using a four-parameter calibration f...

  20. EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, conducted an evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis. he evaluation revealed numerous deficiencies. often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. everal d...

  1. A fluorescence immunoassay for soluble antigens employing flow cytometric detection.

    PubMed

    Lisi, P J; Huang, C W; Hoffman, R A; Teipel, J W

    1982-04-01

    A "sandwich" fluorescence immunoassay is described which does not require the physical separation of bound from free label. Antibody coated microspheres, sample and fluorescent antibody are reacted together as in a conventional 'sandwich' immunoassay except that separation and washing steps are omitted. After the reaction is completed, the suspension is introduced directly into a flow cytometer equipped with a laser light source and both fluorescent and scattered light detection capabilities. By gating fluorescence light accumulation on scattered light pulses, particles associated fluorescence may be selectively measured. The system was evaluated in a model immunoassay for human immunoglobulin (hIgG), employing anti-hIgG coated microspheres (1--5 micrometer and 40--50 micrometer polyacrylamide beads and 30--40 micrometer dextran beads), fluorescein-labeled rabbit anti-hIgG and a Spectrum III flow cytometer. Sensitivities of 10 ng/ml and intra-assay precisions of 2--10% were achieved in a serum matrix. The approach potentially provides a general nonseparation immunoassay format for quantitatively measuring both small and large molecular weight soluble antigens, as well as cell surface antigens. PMID:7039872

  2. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  3. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  4. Development of an immunoassay to detect benzene adducts in hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Grassman, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an immunoassay to detect the adducts formed in hemoglobin after exposure to benzene, which is known to cause bone marrow degeneration and acute myelogenous leukemia. The use of benzene-adduct detection as a biological monitoring method would permit measurement of low exposures and exposures sustained weeks earlier. The reactivity of hydroquinone, an important benzene metabolite, with blood proteins and amino acids was investigated in order to decide which antigens and analytes were likely to be suitable for immunoassay development. The second section determined the combination of benzene-metabolite and antigen need to produce an immunoassay with the requisite low detection limit and specificity. The immunoassays with the best performance were tested on hemoglobin from benzene-exposed mice. In vitro studies showed that hydroquinone efficiently formed adducts with erythrocyte membranes and hemoglobin but not with albumin. Adduction efficiency was greater in incubations using purified hemoglobin than whole blood. Cysteine accounted for 15 to 27% of the adducts formed by hydroquinone. The site of the other adducts were not identified although there was evidence that the hemoglobin heme was adducted. Adducts were found on only 1 of the 2 globin chains. Tryptic digestion of the globin failed to associate the adducts with a specific peptide. Antigens made from hydroquinone-adducted hemoglobin but not hydroquinone-adducted cysteines coupled to carrier proteins effectively elicited adduct-specific antibodies. Interference due to reactivity to hemoglobin was controlled by using uniform quantities of hemoglobin in all wells. The mid-range of the best assays were approximately 12 pmoles HQ per well. Antibodies directed toward hemoglobin adducted with the benzene metabolites phenol, catechol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were also made. The performance of the anti-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were suitable for quantitative immunoassays.

  5. Effect of Polymer Hydration State on In-Gel Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Vlassakis, Julea; Herr, Amy E

    2015-11-01

    Applications as diverse as drug delivery and immunoassays require hydrogels to house high concentration macromolecular solutions. Yet, thermodynamic partitioning acts to lower the equilibrium concentration of macromolecules in the hydrogel, as compared to the surrounding liquid phase. For immunoassays that utilize a target antigen immobilized in the hydrogel, partitioning hinders introduction of detection antibody into the gel and, consequently, reduces the in-gel concentration of detection antibody, adversely impacting assay sensitivity. Recently, we developed a single-cell targeted proteomic assay with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of single cell lysates followed by an in-gel immunoassay. In the present work, we overcome partitioning that both limits analytical sensitivity and increases consumption of costly detection antibody by performing the immunoassay step after dehydrating the antigen-containing polyacrylamide gel. Gels are rehydrated with a solution of detection antibody. We hypothesized that matching the volume of detection antibody solution with the hydrogel water volume fraction would ensure that, at equilibrium, the detection antibody mass resides in the gel and not in the liquid surrounding the gel. Using this approach, we observe (compared with antibody incubation of hydrated gels): (i) 4-11 fold higher concentration of antibody in the dehydrated gels and in the single-cell assay (ii) higher fluorescence immunoassay signal, with up to 5-fold increases in signal-to-noise-ratio and (iii) reduced detection antibody consumption. We also find that detection antibody signal may be less well-correlated with target protein levels (GFP) using this method, suggesting a trade-off between analytical sensitivity and variation in immunoprobe signal. Our volume-matching approach for introducing macromolecular solutions to hydrogels increases the local in-gel concentration of detection antibody without requiring modification of the hydrogel structure, and thus we anticipate broad applicability to hydrogel-based assays, diagnostics, and drug delivery. PMID:26457450

  6. Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

  7. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  8. The Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer from Firefly Luciferase to a Synthetic Dye and its Application for the Rapid Homogeneous Immunoassay of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Daria V; Samsonova, Jeanne V; Ugarova, Natalia N

    2016-01-01

    The sensitive BRET system for the homogeneous immunoassay of a low-molecular weight antigen was developed using progesterone as an example. Two thermostable mutants of the Luciola mingrelica firefly luciferase (Luc)-the "red" mutant with ?max.em = 590 nm (RedLuc) and the "green" mutant with ?max.em = 550 nm (GreenLuc)-were tested as the donors. The water-soluble Alexa Fluor 610× (AF) dye was selected as the acceptor because its two absorption maxima, located at 550 and 610 nm, are close to the bioluminescence maxima of the GreenLuc and RedLuc, respectively. The methods for the synthesis of the luciferase-progesterone (Luc-Pg) conjugate and the conjugate of the dye and the polyclonal antiprogesterone antibody (AF-Ab) were developed. Both conjugates retained their functional properties, had high antigen-antibody binding activity, and demonstrated a high BRET signal. The homogeneous immunoassay system based on the BRET from the firefly luciferase to the synthetic dye was established to assay progesterone as a model antigen. Optimization of the assay conditions, the composition of the reaction mixture, and the concentrations of the donor and the acceptor made it possible to reach the minimum detectable progesterone concentration of 0.5 ng mL(-1) . PMID:26650341

  9. Donor HLA-specific Abs: to BMT or not to BMT?

    PubMed Central

    Leffell, MS; Jones, RJ; Gladstone, DE

    2015-01-01

    The engraftment failure associated with Abs to donor-specific HLA (DSA) limits options for sensitized BMT candidates. Fourteen of fifteen patients with no other viable donor options were desensitized and transplanted using a regimen of plasmapheresis and low-dose i.v. Ig modified to accommodate pre-BMT conditioning. DSA levels were assessed by solid-phase immunoassays and cell-based crossmatch tests. DSA levels were monitored throughout desensitization and on day − 1 to determine if there was any DSA rebound that would require additional treatment. A mean reduction in DSA level of 64.4% was achieved at the end of desensitization, with a subsequent reduction of 85.5% after transplantation. DSA in 11 patients was reduced to levels considered negative post-BMT, whereas DSA in three patients remained at low levels. All 14 patients achieved donor engraftment by day +60; however, seven patients suffered disease relapses. Four patients experienced mild, grade 1 GVHD. Factors influencing the response to desensitization include initial DSA strength, number, specificity, DSA rebound and a mismatch repeated from a prior transplant. While desensitization should be reserved for patients with limited donor options, careful DSA assessment and monitoring can facilitate successful engraftment after BMT. PMID:25706884

  10. Donor Hemovigilance with Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Diekamp, Ulrich; Gneißl, Johannes; Rabe, Angela; Kießig, Stephan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports on unexpected events (UEs) during blood donation (BD) inadequately consider the role of technical UEs. Methods Defined local and systemic UEs were graded by severity; technical UEs were not graded. On January 1, 2008, E.B.P.S.-Logistics (EBPS) installed the UE module for plasma management software (PMS). Donor room physicians entered UEs daily into PMS. Medical directors reviewed entries quarterly. EBPS compiled data on donors, donations, and UEs from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011. Results 6,605 UEs were observed during 166,650 BDs from 57,622 donors for a corrected incidence of 4.30% (0.66% local, 1.59% systemic, 2.04% technical UEs). 2.96% of BDs were accompanied by one UE and 0.45% by >1 UE (2-4). 6.3% of donors donating blood for their first time, 3.5% of those giving blood for their second time, and 1.9% of donors giving their third or more BD experienced UEs. Most common UEs were: discontinued collections due to venous access problems, repeated venipuncture, and small hematomas. Severe circulatory UEs occurred at a rate of 16 per 100,000 BDs. Conclusions Technical UEs were common during BD. UEs accompanied first and second donations significantly more often than subsequent donations. PMID:26195932

  11. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TakYu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M.; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology (‘AlphaLISA’) in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45?min with a limit of detection down to 10?pg mL-1. The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications.

  12. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA

    PubMed Central

    Tak For Yu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M.; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology (‘AlphaLISA’) in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45 min with a limit of detection down to 10 pg mL−1. The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications. PMID:26074253

  13. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Guan, Huijiao; Cheung, Mei Ki; McHugh, Walker M; Cornell, Timothy T; Shanley, Thomas P; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology ('AlphaLISA') in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45 min with a limit of detection down to 10 pg mL(-1). The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications. PMID:26074253

  14. [The safety of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor. PMID:21440480

  15. Anencephalic infants as organ donors.

    PubMed

    Botkin, J R

    1988-08-01

    Transplantation technology has been refined in recent years and now offers hope to pediatric patients with a variety of end stage disease processes. The lack of available donors for the smallest potential organ recipients has led to the suggestion that anencephalic infants be used as organ donors. This suggested policy is contrary to current law and raises fundamental ethical issues relating to the definition of death and the treatment of the dying. The technical issues in the potential organ supply from this source are described and the opposing ethical positions developing in this debate are discussed. PMID:3041364

  16. A multiplexed immunoassay system based upon reciprocating centrifugal microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozi, Zahra; Kido, Horacio; Peytavi, Régis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Jasinskas, Algimantas; Micic, Miodrag; Felgner, Philip L.; Madou, Marc J.

    2011-06-01

    A novel, centrifugal disk-based micro-total analysis system (?TAS) for low cost and high throughput semi-automated immunoassay processing was developed. A key innovation in the disposable immunoassay disk design is in a fluidic structure that enables very efficient micro-mixing based on a reciprocating mechanism in which centrifugal acceleration acting upon a liquid element first generates and stores pneumatic energy that is then released by a reduction of the centrifugal acceleration, resulting in a reversal of direction of flow of the liquid. Through an alternating sequence of high and low centrifugal acceleration, the system reciprocates the flow of liquid within the disk to maximize incubation/hybridization efficiency between antibodies and antigen macromolecules during the incubation/hybridization stage of the assay. The described reciprocating mechanism results in a reduction in processing time and reagent consumption by one order of magnitude.

  17. Field screening for aldrin in soil by immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, R.G.; Myers, M.L.

    1994-08-01

    A number of 5-gal cans labeled {open_quotes}aldrin{close_quotes} were found dumped in an isolated area near the boundary of the Hanford Site. Initial laboratory analysis showed high concentrations of aldrin in the soil directly beneath the cans. The site was included in an expedited response action (ERA) undertaken to clean up a large area along the western margin of the Hanford Site. A commercially available immunoassay test kit was modified to screen for aldrin in soil at an action level of 2 mg/kg. Field tests carried out as the contaminated soil was removed showed that the contamination extended significantly deeper than originally anticipated. The field immunoassay provided the cleanup crew with rapid turnaround results, which were used to guide the cleanup activity.

  18. A multiplexed immunoassay system based upon reciprocating centrifugal microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Zahra; Kido, Horacio; Peytavi, Régis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Jasinskas, Algimantas; Micic, Miodrag; Felgner, Philip L.; Madou, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel, centrifugal disk-based micro-total analysis system (?TAS) for low cost and high throughput semi-automated immunoassay processing was developed. A key innovation in the disposable immunoassay disk design is in a fluidic structure that enables very efficient micro-mixing based on a reciprocating mechanism in which centrifugal acceleration acting upon a liquid element first generates and stores pneumatic energy that is then released by a reduction of the centrifugal acceleration, resulting in a reversal of direction of flow of the liquid. Through an alternating sequence of high and low centrifugal acceleration, the system reciprocates the flow of liquid within the disk to maximize incubation/hybridization efficiency between antibodies and antigen macromolecules during the incubation/hybridization stage of the assay. The described reciprocating mechanism results in a reduction in processing time and reagent consumption by one order of magnitude. PMID:21721711

  19. Silver and gold enhancement methods for lateral flow immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Myriam Oliveira; Covián, Lucía Blanco; García, Agustín Costa; Blanco-López, Maria Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Sensitivity is the main concern at the development of rapid test by lateral flow immunoassays. On the other hand, low limits of detection are often required at medical diagnostics and other field of analysis. To overcome this drawback, several enhancement protocols have been described. In this paper, we have selected different silver enhancement methods and one dual gold conjugation, and we critically compared the amplification produced when applied to a gold-nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). The highest amplification was obtained by using an immersion method based on a solution of silver nitrate and hydroquinone/citrate buffer in proportion 1:1. Under these conditions, the system is capable of detecting PSA within 20min at levels as low as 0.1ng/mL, with a 3-fold sensitivity improvement. PMID:26653449

  20. Enzyme immunoassays and related procedures in diagnostic medical virology

    PubMed Central

    Kurstak, Edouard; Tijssen, Peter; Kurstak, Christine; Morisset, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This review article describes several applications of the widely used enzyme immunoassay (EIA) procedure. EIA methods have been adapted to solve problems in diagnostic virology where sensitivity, specificity, or practicability is required. Concurrent developments in hybridoma and conjugation methods have increased significantly the use of these assays. A general overview of EIA methods is given together with typical examples of their use in diagnostic medical virology; attention is drawn to possible pitfalls. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have made it possible to produce highly specific nucleic acid probes that have a sensitivity approximately 100 times greater than that of EIA. Some applications of these probes are described. Although the non-labelled nucleic acid probes for use in the field are not as refined as non-labelled immunoassays, their range of applications is expected to expand rapidly in the near future. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:3533302

  1. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

  2. Acoustofluidics 21: ultrasound-enhanced immunoassays and particle sensors.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Martin; Radel, Stefan; Hawkes, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    In part 21 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we review applications of ultrasonic standing waves used for enhancing immunoassays and particle sensors. The paper covers ultrasonic enhancement of bead-based immuno-agglutination assays, bead-based immuno-fluorescence assays, vibrational spectroscopy sensors and cell deposition on a sensor surface. PMID:23138938

  3. PCB detection by immunoassay -- A wipe test for surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dautlick, J.X.; Teaney, G.B.; Hudak, R.T.; Melby, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassay based field screening methods are gaining acceptance by the environmental diagnostics industry for on-site characterization and remediation monitoring. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of molecules classified as potential carcinogens, can be easily detected on-site by immunoassay screening methods. This results in reduced project cost and improved onsite efficiency, since field screening immunoassays short cut the long turn around time of laboratory analysis while providing reliable results. On site wipe test technology for assessing PCB contamination on surfaces such as walls and floors of PCB storage facilities has been developed to supplement the D TECH{trademark} PCB soil assay. This sampling technique can also be used to monitor for transformer leaks, spills and to evaluate equipment decontamination processes. The D TECH PCB wipe test is quick, cost effective, highly specific and user friendly. The surface is sampled by wiping a 100 cm{sup 2} area with a 1 cm{sup 2} pad saturated with an extractant. The PCB is extracted from the sampling pad during a short extraction step. The sample is filtered, diluted, and run in the D TECH PCB field screening system. The components of the immunoassay include PCB specific antibodies (Ab) covalently linked to small latex particles, a PCB analog which is covalently linked to alkaline phosphatase, and the free PCB from the sample. The free PCB competes with the enzyme linked analog for the Ab binding sites. The latex particles are then collected on a filter device, washed, and an enzyme substrate is added. The amount of color produced is inversely proportional to the concentration of free PCB on the sample, and can be determined using a hand held reflectometer, or a color card.

  4. Surface modification by electron irradiation for improved immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrany, Agnes; Deelder, André

    1999-08-01

    Polystyrene microtitration (ELISA) plates modified by electron beam irradiation were used for a monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay for quantitation of circulating anodic antigen levels in Schistosoma-infected individuals. The plates irradiated with 15 kGy showed 2-4-fold lower detection level compared to untreated plates, and a 10-fold lower antibody coating concentration than usually used was still detectable. These results were reproducible and the modified surfaces were stable even after 2 years when kept at room temperature.

  5. Assessment of immunoglobulin M enzyme immunoassays for diagnosis of measles.

    PubMed

    Tipples, Graham A; Hamkar, Rasool; Mohktari-Azad, Talat; Gray, Michael; Parkyn, Geoff; Head, Carol; Ratnam, Samuel

    2003-10-01

    We evaluated the performance of three commercial measles immunoglobulin M enzyme immunoassays from Meddens, Denka Seiken, and Behring. The sensitivities were determined to be 96.7% for the Meddens and Denka Seiken assays and 87.9% for the Behring assay. The specificities of the assays were determined to be 94.6% for Meddens, 98.2% for Denka Seiken, and 98.7% for Behring. PMID:14532222

  6. Specific Noncompetitive Immunoassay for HT-2 Mycotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Arola, Henri O; Tullila, Antti; Kiljunen, Harri; Campbell, Katrina; Siitari, Harri; Nevanen, Tarja K

    2016-02-16

    Here we demonstrate a novel homogeneous one-step immunoassay, utilizing a pair of recombinant antibody antigen-binding fragments (Fab), that is specific for HT-2 toxin and has a positive readout. Advantages over the conventional competitive immunoassay formats such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the specificity, speed, and simplicity of the assay. Recombinant antibody HT2-10 Fab recognizing both HT-2 and T-2 toxins was developed from a phage display antibody library containing 6 × 10(7) different antibody clones. Specificity of the immunoassay was introduced by an anti-immune complex (IC) antibody binding the primary antibody-HT-2 toxin complex. When the noncompetitive immune complex assay was compared to the traditional competitive assay, an over 10-fold improvement in sensitivity was observed. Although the HT2-10 antibody has 100% cross-reactivity for HT-2 and T-2 toxins, the immune complex assay is highly specific for HT-2 alone. The assay performance with real samples was evaluated using naturally contaminated wheat reference material. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of the time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay was 9.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.38 ng/mL (19 μg/kg). The labeled antibodies can be predried to the assay vials, e.g., microtiter plate wells, and readout is ready in 10 min after the sample application. PMID:26785138

  7. Multiplex Electrochemical Immunoassay Using Gold Nanoparticle Probes and Immunochromatographic Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xun; Baloda, Meenu; Gurung, Anant; Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Guodong

    2008-10-20

    We describe a multiplex electrochemical immunoassay based on the use of gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) probes and immunochromatographic strips (ISs). The approach takes advantage of the speed and low cost of the conventional IS tests and the high sensitivities of the nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassays. Rabbit IgG(R-IgG) and human IgM (H-IgM) were used as model targets for the demonstration of the proof of concept. The Au-NPs based sandwich immunoreactions were performed on the IS, and the captured gold nanoparticle labels on the test zones were determined by highly-sensitive stripping voltammetric measurement of the dissolved gold ions (III) with a carbon paste electrode. The detection limits are 1.0 and 1.5 ng/mL with the linear ranges of 2.5-250 ng/mL for quantitative detection of R-IgG and H-IgM, respectively. The total assay time is around 25 minutes. Such multiplex electrochemical immunoassay could be readily highly multiplexed to allow simultaneous parallel detection of numerous proteins and is expected to open new opportunities for protein diagnostics and biosecurity.

  8. Comparability of AMH levels among commercially available immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Su, H. Irene; Sammel, Mary D.; Homer, Michael V.; Bui, Kim; Haunschild, Carolyn; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare AMH levels among three commercially available AMH immunoassays (AMH Gen II, Beckman Coulter; Ultrasensitive AMH, AnshLab; picoAMH, AnshLab) Design Cross-sectional Setting Academic reproductive endocrinology program Patients 90 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients prior to cancer treatment Interventions None Outcome 1) proportion of detectable AMH levels by immunoassay, 2) comparability among assays Results At a mean age of 38.1, the median (interquartile range) for AMH levels for the cohort were 0.92 [1.35] ng/mL for the Gen II assay, 1.68 [2.30] ng/mL for the Ultrasensitive and 1.5 [2.41] ng/mL for the picoAMH assays. Significantly higher proportions of detectable AMH levels were observed with the picoAMH kit (97%) compared to both Gen II (84%) and Ultrasensitive (92%) assays. Although AMH results were highly correlated among assays (r=0.92–0.99), Gen II AMH levels were consistently lower than both Ultrasensitive and picoAMH levels. Moreover, as AMH levels increased, the magnitude of difference grew larger between Gen II and each of the other two assays. Conclusions Measurement of AMH levels with the picoAMH kit maximized detection at very low levels, particularly in contrast to the Gen II kit. Conversion of AMH levels from different immunoassays using regression equations is potentially highly inaccurate. PMID:24726216

  9. History of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesen, Charlotte; Waentig, Larissa; Panne, Ulrich; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of biomolecules requires highly sensitive and selective detection methods capable of tolerating a complex, biological matrix. First applications of biomolecule detection by ICP-MS relied on the use of heteroelements as a label for quantification. However, the combination of immunoassays and ICP-MS facilitates multiparametric analyses through elemental tagging, and provides a powerful alternative to common bioanalytical methods. This approach extends the detection of biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, and has the potential to provide a deeper understanding of the investigated biological system. The results might lead to the detection of diseases at an early stage, or guide treatment plans. Immunoassays are well accepted and established for diagnostic purposes, albeit ICP-MS is scarcely applied for the detection of immune-based assays. However, the screening of biomarkers demands high throughput and multiplex/multiparametric techniques, considering the variety of analytes to be queried. Finally, quantitative information on the expression level of biomarkers is highly desirable to identify abnormalities in a given organism. Thus, it is the aim of this review to introduce the fundamentals, and to discuss the enormous strength of ICP-MS for the detection of different immunoassays on the basis of selected applications, with a special focus on LA-ICP-MS.

  10. Rapid determination of dioxin in water by enzyme immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Wang, L.; George J.E. III; Ward, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    Dioxin in water, soil, sediments and other sample matrices is usually determined by the EPA method 1613 which was developed by the EPA Office of Science and Technology. This method however requires expensive instruments (high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry) and a highly trained analyst. In order to reduce the cost and turn around time, a dioxin enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed to rapidly analyze trace levels of 2,3,7,8-tetra chlorinated dibenzodioxin (TCDD) in water samples. Water samples were extracted using a 47 mm, C18 Empore extraction disk (3M). Dioxin was eluted with dichloromethame. EnvironGard reagents and microwell strip reader (Millipore Corporation) were used to perform the dioxin enzyme immunoassay. The extraction efficiency was also tested by GC/MS with Varian`s large volume injector and Selected Ion Storage technique. The working range of the dioxin enzyme immunoassay was from 15 pg/L to 100 pg/L. The precision and accuracy of EIA was determined by performing five replicates of reagent water spiked at a concentration of 25 pg/L. The recovery of the dioxin assay ranged from 74% to 122%, and % CV for five replicates was less than 15%. In general, EIA provides a relatively easy and cost effective means for measuring trace levels of dioxin in water samples.

  11. Simple Patterned Nanofiber Scaffolds and Its Enhanced Performance in Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiao-guang; Song, Jia; Zhan, Na; Dong, Wei-guo; Huang, Wei-hua

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide; early diagnosis and treatment of cancers is critical for the survival of the patients. The concentration of cancer markers in easy-to-access biological fluids can provide great assistance in screening for occult primary cancers, distinguishing malignant from benign findings, determining prognosis and prediction for cancer patients. The multiplex detection technology of a panel of cancer markers can greatly increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Herein, we briefly fabricate a high-throughput micro-immunoassay based on the electrospun polystyrene (PS) substrates to improve detection sensitivity. The immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing three different cancer biomarkers (AFP, CEA, VEGF). For AFP, CEA, VEGF immunofluorescence assay, the LOD of assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates before or after plasma and the conventional PS substrates were 0.42, 0.10, 1.12 ng/mL, 0.57, 0.09, 1.24 ng/mL, and 159.75, 26.19, 385.59 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05). Due to the high porosity and large surface area-to-volume ratio which is the foremost merit of nanostructures, and the plasma treatment which make the hydrophobic PS nanofibers hydropholic, the nanofibers substrates showed sufficient retention of immunoassay functionality and high potential for capture molecules immobilization. Consequently, the immunofluorescence assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates could significantly enhance the sensitivity and limits of detection. PMID:24340065

  12. Benzene-RISc: The development and performance of an immunoassay to detect benzene in water

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.B.; Withers, T.; Almond, R.; Stewart, T.; Allen, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Immunoassay methods have become available for environmental applications. Their simplicity, reliability, and ability to provide information rapidly and on-site is enhancing the efficiency of many field and laboratory programs. Immunoassay methods rely upon antibody molecules to provide the sensitivity and specificity characteristics they exhibit, but many molecules are either insufficiently immunogenic or structurally unremarkable to induce an appropriate antibody response. Such compounds are usually considered to be incompatible with the development of an immunoassay method. An immunoassay method for the detection of benzene in water would have utility in detecting contamination from spills and leaking underground storage tanks. Benzene, however, is frequently considered to be in the class of compounds considered to be incompatible with antibody, and therefore immunoassay, development. The authors have developed an immunoassay for the detection of benzene in water by developing both sample processing and immunochemical procedures and reagents that overcome the technical limitations frequently encountered.

  13. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  14. Physician Migration: Donor Country Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluwihare, A. P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration from the developing to developed region of a country or the world occurs for reasons of financial, social, and job satisfaction. It is an old phenomenon that produces many disadvantages for the donor region or nation. The difficulties include inequities with the provision of health services, financial loss, loss of educated…

  15. An immunoassay utilizing the DNA-coated polydiacetylene micelles as a signal generator.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hoa Thi; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su; Han, Ki-Cheol; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2013-05-01

    Immunoassay is an important technique to detect the disease biomarkers and pathogenic biological agents which often present at low levels in clinical samples. To improve sensitivity of the immunoassay, here we described the DNA-coated, nano-sized micelles in which the DNA strands play a role as signal generators in an immunoassay. This micelle-based immunoassay was evaluated for quantitation of a liver cancer biomarker and the sensitivity of the method was compared with those of the conventional methods. PMID:23518279

  16. Activated phosphonated trifunctional chelates for highly sensitive lanthanide-based FRET immunoassays applied to total prostate specific antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Nchimi-Nono, Katia; Wegner, K David; Lindén, Stina; Lecointre, Alexandre; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence; Shakir, Shakir; Hildebrandt, Niko; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2013-10-14

    The first example of an activated phosphonated trifunctional chelate (TFC) is presented, which combines a non-macrocyclic coordination site for lanthanide coordination based on two aminobis-methylphosphonate coordinating arms, a central bispyrazolylpyridyl antenna and an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester in para position of the central pyridine as an activated function for the labeling of biomaterial. The synthesis of the TFC is presented together with photo-physical studies of the related Tb and Eu complexes. Excited state lifetime measurements in H2O and D2O confirmed an excellent shielding of the cation from water molecules with a hydration number of zero. The Tb complex provides a high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 24% in aqueous solutions (0.01 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and a very long luminescence lifetime of 2.6 ms. The activated ligand was conjugated to different biological compounds such as streptavidin, and a monoclonal antibody against total prostate specific antigen (TPSA). In combination with AlexaFluor647 (AF647) and crosslinked allophycocyanin (XL665) antibody (ABs) conjugates, homogeneous time-resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) immunoassays of TPSA were performed in serum samples. The Tb donor-dye acceptor FRET pairs provided large Förster distances of 5.3 nm (AF647) and 7.1 nm (XL665). A detailed time-resolved FRET analysis of Tb donor and dye acceptor PL decays revealed average donor-acceptor distances of 4.2 nm (AF647) and 6.3 nm (XL665) within the sandwich immunocomplex and FRET efficiencies of 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. Very low detection limits of 1.4 ng mL(-1) (43 pM) and 2.4 ng mL(-1) (74 pM) TPSA were determined using a KRYPTOR fluorescence immunoanalyzer. These results demonstrate the applicability of our novel Tb-bioconjugates for highly sensitive clinical diagnostics. PMID:23851931

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Viet, Le; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Ty, Phung Xuan; Björkvoll, Björn; Hoel, Hedda; Gutteberg, Tore; Husebekk, Anne; Larsen, Stig; Skjerve, Eystein; Husum, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Safe blood and blood products should be offered to all patients in need for blood transfusion. The objectives of the present study were to establish prevalence estimates for hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in rural Vietnam, and to check the accuracy of the laboratory analysis used for hepatitis testing of blood donors in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural communities in Quang Tri, Vietnam. A total of 1,200 blood samples collected from potential blood donors were tested by an enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA) for detection of hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV). The EIA test outcome was validated by a chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay technique (CMIA). Results: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc in the study population was 11.4 per cent (95% CI 9.6 - 13.2) and 51.7 per cent (95% CI 48.8 - 54.5), respectively, the prevalences being higher in males than females. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.17 per cent. The test agreement between the EIA and CMIA techniques was high both for HBsAg detection (? = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83 - 0.99) and for anti-HBc detection (? = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81 - 0.97). Compared to CMIA results, the positive and negative predictive values of the EIA tests were found to be 94.9 per cent (95% CI 87.5 - 98.6) and 97.5 per cent (95% CI 86.8 - 99.9) for HBsAg, and 92.4 per cent (95% CI 84.2 - 97.2) and 100 per cent (95% CI 91.2 - 100) for anti-HBc. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in rural areas of Vietnam and that almost half of the population is or has been infected. Hepatitis C infection is rare, but false negative test results cannot be ruled out. Also, the results indicate that the EIA performance in blood donor screening in Vietnam may be sub-optimal, missing 2.5 per cent of hepatitis B virus carriers and falsely excluding more than 7 per cent of blood donors. As the prevalence of hepatitis B infection is high, occult hepatitis B infection may represent a threat to safe blood transfusion. Therefore, nucleic acid amplification testing for HBV should be considered for blood donor screening in Vietnam. PMID:22885267

  18. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deferral. (a) You, an establishment that collects human blood or blood components, must defer donors... donations of human blood and blood components, except: (1) You are not required to defer a donor who tests... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  19. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deferral. (a) You, an establishment that collects human blood or blood components, must defer donors... donations of human blood and blood components, except: (1) You are not required to defer a donor who tests... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  20. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deferral. (a) You, an establishment that collects human blood or blood components, must defer donors... donations of human blood and blood components, except: (1) You are not required to defer a donor who tests... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  1. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deferral. (a) You, an establishment that collects human blood or blood components, must defer donors... donations of human blood and blood components, except: (1) You are not required to defer a donor who tests... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  2. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  3. Monetary Compensation and Blood Donor Return: Results of a Donor Survey in Southwest Germany

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Christian; Schneider, Sven; Weck, Eberhard; Menzel, Dagmar; Klüter, Harald; Müller-Steinhardt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background/Aims The aim of this study was to compare donor return patterns of non-compensated and compensated German first-time donors to assess the effect of monetary reward on donor return. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of a donor survey of 3,077 non-compensated and 738 compensated German first-time donors. Survey data were pooled and linked with blood donor return rates within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the probability of donor return between non-compensated and compensated donors. Results In the first 2 years following the initial donation, compensated donors were more likely to return with the odds of giving at least one further donation 1.86 (1st year) and 1.32 (2nd year) times higher for compensated donors than for non-compensated donors. In the 3rd year, there were no significant differences in donor return. Conclusion This report, which was based on two non-randomized donor samples, suggests that monetary compensation may increase the likelihood of donors returning in the first months after the initial donation. Monetary reward may therefore be used as a short-term strategy to recruit new donors. The long-term commitment, however, seems not to be affected by monetary reward, and complementary donor retention strategies are needed. PMID:25254021

  4. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Enzyme immunoassay using native envelope glycoprotein (gp160) for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, B C; Ford, G; Kalyanaraman, V S; Zafari, M; Fang, C; Sarngadharan, M G

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay using the purified native gp160 for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody was developed. This assay was determined to be highly specific, since (i) 157 serum samples that were confirmed negative by Western blot (immunoblot) (WB) were negative, (ii) 41 serum samples from populations with medical conditions that might cause nonspecific assay reactivity were all negative, and (iii) all 15 serum samples that showed false-positive reactions in one or more commercial HIV-1 screening tests were negative. The assay gave 100% specificity with a randomly selected and unlinked panel of 1,000 serum samples from healthy blood donors. The sensitivity of the assay was assessed by testing 238 samples confirmed as HIV-1 antibody positive by a standardized WB assay. All 238 serum samples (100%) were reactive in the native gp160 assay. In a dilution panel of 14 weakly WB-positive serum samples, 7 samples reacted two-to fivefold more strongly in the gp160 assay than in a virus lysate-based assay; the remaining 7 samples gave comparable reactivities in the two tests. The reactivities of 13 of these 14 serum samples in the gp160 assay were higher than in a commercial enzyme immunoassay that uses a recombinant envelope protein as the antigen. The native gp160 assay was more sensitive to identify seroconversion. In a well-characterized panel of sequential blood samples from a seroconverter, the new assay detected antibodies at least one sample ahead of the other commercial assays tested. PMID:8077388

  6. Micromotor-based lab-on-chip immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Miguel; Orozco, Jahir; Guix, Maria; Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Escarpa, Alberto; Merkoçi, Arben; Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields.Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32400h

  7. Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic Yersinia by immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  8. Enzyme immunoassay validation for the detection of buprenorphine in urine.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Lohner, S; Ludes, B

    2003-03-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was proposed by Microgenics to screen buprenorphine in urine. The intra-assay precision at 10 ng/mL was 7.7% (coefficient of variation). The immunoassay was determined to have no cross-reactivity with codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, methadone, pholcodine, propoxyphene, dextromoramide, and dextromethorphan at 1 and 10 mg/L. A low cross-reactivity (3% at 1 ng/mL) was observed at low concentrations of norbuprenorphine. After comparing this new immunological test (Singlestep ELISA) for 76 urine specimens with our validated high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS) procedure, an optimum cutoff concentration of 2 ng/mL was determined for the kit. At this cutoff, the screening assay was able to determine more than 90% of true results with 43.4% true positives and 48.7% true negatives. Four positive urines (5.3%) were not confirmed by HPLC-ES-MS. In only one case, the negative urine test was confirmed as positive by HPLC-ES-MS (buprenorphine: 62.5 ng/mL). Buprenorphine concentrations determined by HPLC-ES-MS ranged from 1.2 to 1052 ng/mL. Of the four potential adulterants (hypochloride 50 mL/L, sodium nitrite 50 g/L, liquid soap 50 mL/L, and sodium chloride 50 g/L) that might be added to a positive urine specimen, none were able to cause a false-negative response by the immunoassay. The results of this study support the concept that the Singlestep ELISA for buprenorphine determination in urine should be considered as a new, valided screening procedure. PMID:12670004

  9. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Enteropathogenic Yersinia by Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 103 CFU/ml to 8.8 × 104 CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 105 CFU/ml to 106 CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  10. Demonstration of four immunoassay formats using the array biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapsford, Kim E.; Charles, Paul T.; Patterson, Charles H Jr; Ligler, Frances S.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a fluorescence-based array biosensor to measure and quantify the binding of an antigen to an immobilized antibody has been demonstrated using the four different immunoassay formats: direct, competitive, displacement, and sandwich. A patterned array of antibodies specific for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) immobilized onto the surface of a planar waveguide and used to measure signals from different antigen concentrations simultaneously. For direct, competitive, and displacement assays, which are one-step assays, measurements were obtained in real time. Dose-response curves were calculated for all four assay formats, demonstrating the array biosensor's ability to quantify the amount of antigen present in solution.

  11. Monoclonal antibody based immunoassays for cooking-induced meat mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderlaan, M.; Hwang, M.; Knize, M.G.; Watkins, E.; Felton, J.S.

    1989-06-29

    We report here new monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) numbered AIA-8 through AIA-12 produced using the same methods used to produce AIA-1, and a new Mab, IQ-7, produced with the same methods used for IQ-1. Our motivation in seeking these new clones was to increase the repertoire of available Mabs to insure adequate coverage of all known AIAs. Also, the mice used to produce these new hybridoma clones had been immunized about six months longer than those used to generate the first clones. Longer immunization is often associated with higher affinity Mabs and therefore more sensitive competition immunoassays. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    PubMed

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

  13. Assay of netilmicin, using enzyme immunoassay for gentamicin.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, T; Gerding, D N; Peterson, L R; Eckfeldt, J H

    1982-01-01

    A homogenous enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of netilmicin in serum was developed. The procedure utilizes a commercially available assay for gentamicin (EMIT; Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.). The method was adapted to a microcentrifugal analyzer, and log-logit regression analysis was performed with a computer. The results of samples assayed by this method correlate well with microbioassay (r2 = 0.985) and radioimmunoassay (r2 = 0.986). This method is not only precise and accurate, but also very rapid and economical and compares favorably to other available methods of netilmicin assay. PMID:7049074

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic ULTRASENSITIVE IMMUNOASSAYS BASED ON SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SCATTERING BY IMMUNOGOLD LABELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes recent advances in the use of surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as a readout tool for chip-scale, sandwich-based immunoassays. It reviews progress made in developing SERS-based immunoassays for a wide range of biolytes, including proteins, viruses and bacteria. The st...

  15. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors. PMID:26876789

  16. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF THREE IMMUNOASSAY TEST KITS FOR ANTHRAX, BOTULINUM TOXIN AND RICIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are based on immunoassay methods, where specific antibodies are used to detect and measure the contaminants of interest. Immunoassay test kits rely on the reaction of a contaminant or antigen with a selective antibody to give a product that can be measures....

  17. Species Specific Bacterial Spore Detection Using Lateral-Flow Immunoassay with DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    A method of detecting bacterial spores incorporates (1) A method of lateral-flow immunoassay in combination with (2) A method based on the luminescence of Tb3+ ions to which molecules of dipicolinic acid (DPA) released from the spores have become bound. The present combination of lateral-flow immunoassay and DPA-triggered Tb luminescence was developed as a superior alternative to a prior lateral-flow immunoassay method in which detection involves the visual observation and/or measurement of red light scattered from colloidal gold nanoparticles. The advantage of the present combination method is that it affords both (1) High selectivity for spores of the species of bacteria that one seeks to detect (a characteristic of lateral-flow immunoassay in general) and (2) Detection sensitivity much greater (by virtue of the use of DPA-triggered Tb luminescence instead of gold nanoparticles) than that of the prior lateral-flow immunoassay method

  18. Blood donors’ positivity for transfusion-transmissible infections: the Serbian Military Medical Academy experience

    PubMed Central

    Vu?eti?, Dušan; Kecman, Gorica; Ili?, Vesna; Balint, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of armed forces worldwide are considered to be very susceptible to sexually transmitted infections, thus falling into a high-risk group of blood donors regarding transfusion-transmissible infections. In the Serbian Military Medical Academy a significant number (44% for the period 2005–2013) of blood donations were from members of the Serbian Army. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of military blood donors for the safety of blood transfusion. Material and methods Between January 2005 and December 2013, a total of 155,479 blood donations were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis using serological assays (enzyme immunoassays, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and western blot) and molecular testing (polymerase chain reaction analysis). Results The percentage of blood donations positive for transfusion-transmissible infections in the estimated period was 0.38%, and the percentage of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis positive blood donations was 0.20%, 0.12%, 0.005% and 0.06%, respectively. During that period, the percentage of all transfusion-transmissible infections, and in particular of HBV and HCV, declined significantly. In contrast, the percentage of HIV and syphilis positive blood donations remained unchanged. Higher rates of positivity for transfusion-transmissible infections in blood donations from members of the Serbian Army were not found, especially after mandatory military service was abolished in 2009. Discussion The reported rate of positivity for transfusion-transmissible infections in blood donations from the Military Medical Academy was considered low. This information is of great significance for further implementation of public health measures. PMID:26057495

  19. Donor insemination: the secret experiment.

    PubMed

    Rushbrooke, Rupert

    2004-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research that has been done into people created by donor insemination (DI) (note 1), shows how the secretive way DI is carried out makes objective knowledge of their situation impossible to obtain and describes how doctors support this secrecy. It argues that DI is a social experiment whose potential justifications are implicit theories that have either been falsified or are unfalsifiable, and that consequently DI is conducted unscientifically and unethically. In conclusion, it questions the integrity of the industry and the institutions that support it, and considers where we should go from here. PMID:15812992

  1. Molecular blood grouping of donors.

    PubMed

    St-Louis, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    For many decades, hemagglutination has been the sole means to type blood donors. Since the first blood group gene cloning in the early 1990s, knowledge on the molecular basis of most red blood cell, platelet and neutrophil antigens brought the possibility of using nucleotide-based techniques to predict phenotype. This review will summarized methodologies available to genotype blood groups from laboratory developed assays to commercially available platforms, and how proficiency assays become more present. The author will also share her vision of the transfusion medicine future. The field is presently at the crossroads, bringing new perspectives to a century old practice. PMID:24656492

  2. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  3. Exxon donor solvent liquefaction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neavel, R. C.

    1981-03-01

    The Exxon donor solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction system is a direct liquefaction procedure. Coal is chemically reacted and dissolved in a recycle solvent that is hydrogenated between passes to the liquefaction reactor. More than 2.6 barrels of a synthetic crude boiling below 1000 F are produced per ton of dry, high volatile coal feed. Other ranks of coal can be effectively liquefied. The process development has proceeded to a 250 ton/day pilot plant stage that went into operation in June 1980. The presentation addresses the chemical reactions and process conditions that result in ease of operability and flexibility of the EDS process.

  4. Aequorin fusion proteins as bioluminescent tracers for competitive immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Deo, Sapna K.; Dikici, Emre; Roda, Aldo; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-06-01

    The use of bio- and chemiluminescence for the development of quantitative binding assays offers undoubted advantages over other detection systems, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, or radioactivity. Indeed, bio- and chemiluminescence detection provides similar, or even better, sensitivity and detectability than radioisotopes, while avoiding the problems of health hazards, waste disposal, and instability associated with the use of radioisotopes. Among bioluminescent labels, the calcium-activated photoprotein aequorin, originally isolated from Aequorea victoria and today available as a recombinant product, is characterized by very high detectability, down to attomole levels. It has been used as a bioluminescent label for developing a variety of highly sensitive immunoassays, using various analyte-aequorin conjugation strategies. When the analyte is a protein or a peptide, genetic engineering techniques can be used to produce protein fusions where the analyte is in-frame fused with aequorin, thus producing homogeneous one-to-one conjugation products, available in virtually unlimited amount. Various assays were developed using this strategy: a short review of the most interesting applications is presented, as well as the cloning, purification and initial characterization of an endothelin-1-aequorin conjugate suitable for developing a competitive immunoassay for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, involved in hypertension.

  5. Multiplex Detection of Plant Pathogens Using a Microsphere Immunoassay Technology

    PubMed Central

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R.; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection. PMID:23638044

  6. Enhanced Fluorescent Immunoassays on Silver Fractal-like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Chang, I-Fen; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Goldys, Ewa; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2009-01-01

    Using the effect of the fluorescence enhancement in close proximity to metal nanostructures, we have been able to demonstrate ultrasensitive immunoassays suitable for the detection of biomarkers. Silver fractal-like structures have been grown by electrochemical reduction of silver on the surface of glass slides. A model immunoassay was performed on the slide surface with rabbit IgG (antigen) non-covalently immobilized on the slide, and Rhodamine Red-X labeled anti-rabbit IgG conjugate subsequently bound to the immobilized antigen. The fluorescence signal was measured from the glass-fractals surface using a confocal microscope, and the images were compared to the images from the same surface not coated with fractals. Our results showed significant enhancement (more than 100-fold) of the signal detected on fractals compared to bare glass. We thus demonstrate that such fractal-like structures can assist in improving the signals from assays used in medical diagnostics, especially those for analytes with molecular weight under 100 kD. PMID:18288816

  7. Enhanced fluorescent immunoassays on silver fractal-like structures.

    PubMed

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Matveeva, Evgenia G; Chang, I-Fen; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Goldys, Ewa; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2008-03-15

    Using the effect of the fluorescence enhancement in close proximity to metal nanostructures, we have been able to demonstrate ultrasensitive immunoassays suitable for the detection of biomarkers. Silver fractal-like structures have been grown by electrochemical reduction of silver on the surface of glass slides. A model immunoassay was performed on the slide surface with rabbit IgG (antigen) noncovalently immobilized on the slide, and rhodamine red-X-labeled antirabbit IgG conjugate was subsequently bound to the immobilized antigen. The fluorescence signal was measured from the glass-fractal's surface using a confocal microscope, and the images were compared to the images from the same surface not coated with fractals. Our results showed significant enhancement (more than 100-fold) of the signal detected on fractals compared to bare glass. We thus demonstrate that such fractal-like structures can assist in improving the signals from assays used in medical diagnostics, especially those for analytes with molecular weight under 100 kDa. PMID:18288816

  8. Fast and sensitive detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Morel, Nathalie; Volland, Hervé; Dano, Julie; Lamourette, Patricia; Sylvestre, Patricia; Mock, Michèle; Créminon, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons, and it is essential to develop a rapid and simple method to detect B. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The immunoassay is a rapid and easy-to-use method for the detection of B. anthracis by means of antibodies directed against surface spore antigens. With this objective in view, we have produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies against B. anthracis and developed colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays. Using Meso Scale Discovery ECL technology, which is based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection utilizing a sulfo-Tag label that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation (using a dedicated ECL plate reader, an electrical current is placed across the microplate with electrodes integrated into the bottom of the plate, resulting in a series of electrically induced reactions leading to a luminescent signal), a detection limit ranging between 0.3 × 10(3) and 10(3) CFU/ml (i.e., 30 to 100 spores per test), depending on the B. anthracis strain assayed, was achieved. In complex matrices (5 mg/ml of soil or simulated powder), the detection level (without any sample purification or concentration) was never altered more than 3-fold compared with the results obtained in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:22773632

  9. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Hervé; Dano, Julie; Lamourette, Patricia; Sylvestre, Patricia; Mock, Michèle; Créminon, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons, and it is essential to develop a rapid and simple method to detect B. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The immunoassay is a rapid and easy-to-use method for the detection of B. anthracis by means of antibodies directed against surface spore antigens. With this objective in view, we have produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies against B. anthracis and developed colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays. Using Meso Scale Discovery ECL technology, which is based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection utilizing a sulfo-Tag label that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation (using a dedicated ECL plate reader, an electrical current is placed across the microplate with electrodes integrated into the bottom of the plate, resulting in a series of electrically induced reactions leading to a luminescent signal), a detection limit ranging between 0.3 × 103 and 103 CFU/ml (i.e., 30 to 100 spores per test), depending on the B. anthracis strain assayed, was achieved. In complex matrices (5 mg/ml of soil or simulated powder), the detection level (without any sample purification or concentration) was never altered more than 3-fold compared with the results obtained in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:22773632

  10. Enzyme immunoassay validation for qualitative detection of cocaine in sweat.

    PubMed

    Spiehler, V; Fay, J; Fogerson, R; Schoendorfer, D; Niedbala, R S

    1996-01-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) involving microtiter plates was modified for analysis of cocaine in sweat. Sweat was collected with the PharmChek sweat patch and drugs were eluted from the collection pad of the patch. The sweat contained primarily parent cocaine. The assay was determined to have cross-reactivity for cocaine of 102% relative to 100% for the benzoylecgonine (BE) calibrators and for cocaethylene of 148%. The optimum cutoff concentration for this modified assay, determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, was 10 micrograms/L cocaine or BE equivalents. At this concentration the assay had 94.5% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity vs gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as an acceptable indicator of the true clinical state. The positive predictive value at a prevalence of 50% was 99%. Threshold analysis for positives suggested that the 95% confidence interval for a positive result by the EIA was between 12.5 and 15 micrograms/L and that quality-control samples at 5 and 15 micrograms/L could be run with each batch to certify the precision around the cutoff. All positive samples must be confirmed by GC-MS. The sensitivity and specificity of the overall analysis system (immunoassay screen and GC-MS confirmation) was 86% and 97%, with known cocaine dosing of volunteers as the acceptable indicator of the true clinical state. PMID:8565229

  11. Finger-actuated, self-contained immunoassay cassettes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H

    2009-12-01

    The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering chamber, and needle seats. The bottom processing component contains connection needles, a mixing chamber, and a detection chamber with immobilized proteins. Subsequent to sample introduction, the storage and processing components are mated. The needles form hydraulic connections between the two parts and, in some cases, close valves. The pouches are then actuated sequentially to induce flow of various reagents and facilitate process operations. The cassette is compatible with different detection modalities. Both a cassette with immunochromatographic-based detection and a cassette with microbead-based detection were constructed and evaluated. The immunochromatographic cassette was used to detect antibodies to HIV in saliva samples. The bead-based cassette was used to detect the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8. The experimental data demonstrates good repeatability and reasonable sensitivity. PMID:19597994

  12. Finger-Actuated, Self-Contained Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A.; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G.; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2010-01-01

    The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering chamber, and needle seats. The bottom processing component contains connection needles, a mixing chamber, and a detection chamber with immobilized proteins. Subsequent to sample introduction, the storage and processing components are mated. The needles form hydraulic connections between the two parts and, in some cases, close valves. The pouches are then actuated sequentially to induce flow of various reagents and facilitate process operations. The cassette is compatible with different detection modalities. Both a cassette with immunochromatographic-based detection and a cassette with microbead-based detection were constructed and evaluated. The immunochromatographic cassette was used to detect antibodies to HIV in saliva samples. The bead-based cassette was used to detect the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8. The experimental data demonstrates good repeatability and reasonable sensitivity. PMID:19597994

  13. A Method for Designing Instrument-Free Quantitative Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Lathwal, Shefali; Sikes, Hadley D

    2016-03-15

    Colorimetric readouts are widely used in point-of-care diagnostic immunoassays to indicate either the presence or the absence of an analyte. For a variety of reasons, it is more difficult to quantify rather than simply detect an analyte using a colorimetric test. We report a method for designing, with minimal iteration, a quantitative immunoassay that can be interpreted objectively by a simple count of number of spots visible to the unaided eye. We combined a method called polymerization-based amplification (PBA) with a series of microscale features containing a decreasing surface density of capture molecules, and the central focus of the study is understanding how the choice of surface densities impacts performance. Using a model pair of antibodies, we have shown that our design approach does not depend on measurement of equilibrium and kinetic binding parameters and can provide a dynamic working range of 3 orders of magnitude (70 pM to 70 nM) for visual quantification. PMID:26878154

  14. Sensitive Immunoassays of Nitrated Fibrinogen in Human Biofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Qian, Weijun; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Smith, Richard D.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-05

    Three new sandwich immunoassays for detection of nitrated biomarker have been established with potential applications in biomedical studies and clinical practice. In this study, nitrated human fibrinogen, a potential oxidative stress biomarker for several pathologies, was chosen as the target. To improve the sensitivity and overcome the interference caused by the complexity of human biofluids, we developed three sandwich strategies using various combinations of primary antibody and secondary antibody. All three strategies demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity towards nitrated forms of fibrinogen in buffer, but their performances were dramatically reduced when tested with human plasma and serum samples. Systematically optimizations were carried out to investigate the effects of numerous factors, including sampling, coating, blocking, and immunoreactions. Our final optimization results indicate that two of these strategies retain sufficient sensitivity and selectivity for use as assays in human physiological samples. Specifically, detection limits reached the pM level and the linear response ranges were up to nM level with a correlation coefficient > 0.99. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of using an electrochemical immunoassay for a nitrated biomarker in a physiological fluid. This novel approach provides a rapid, sensitive, selective, cost efficient and robust bioassay for detection of oxidative stress in pathology and for clinical applications. Moreover, the sandwich strategies developed in this paper can be readily used to establish effective methods targeting other nitration biomarkers.

  15. Bioluminescent detection probe for tick-borne encephalitis virus immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Burakova, Ludmila P; Kudryavtsev, Alexander N; Stepanyuk, Galina A; Baykov, Ivan K; Morozova, Vera V; Tikunova, Nina V; Dubova, Maria A; Lyapustin, Victor N; Yakimenko, Valeri V; Frank, Ludmila A

    2015-07-01

    To facilitate the detection of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the causative agent of one of the most severe human neuroinfections, we have developed an immunoassay based on bioluminescent hybrid protein 14D5a-Rm7 as a detection probe. The protein containing Renilla luciferase as a reporter and a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of murine immunoglobulin to TBEV as a recognition element was constructed, produced by bacterial expression, purified, and tested. Both domains were shown to reveal their specific biological properties-affinity to the target antigen and bioluminescent activity. Hybrid protein was applied as a label for solid-phase immunoassay of the antigens, associated with the tick-borne encephalitis virus (native glycoprotein E or extracts of the infected strain of lab ticks). The assay demonstrates high sensitivity (0.056 ng of glycoprotein E; 10(4)-10(5) virus particles or 0.1 pg virions) and simplicity and is competitive with conventional methods for detection of TBEV. PMID:25925861

  16. Control of charge transfer by conformational and electronic effects: Donor-donor and donor-acceptor phenyl pyrroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Antje; Bendig, Jürgen; Rettig, Wolfgang

    2009-04-01

    Derivatives of N-pyrrolobenzene with a para-donor and a para-acceptor substituent on the benzene ring are compared. It is shown that by a suitable increase of the donor strength of the pyrrolo group, CT fluorescence can be achieved even for donor-donor-substituted benzenes. The ICT emission for sterically hindered compounds is more forbidden than that of unhindered phenyl pyrroles. This suggests conformational effects which induce a narrower twist angle distribution around a perpendicular minimum in the excited state.

  17. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous donors' needs and desires are not homogeneous; policy and practice should be sensitive and responsive to a wide range of circumstances and preferences. Decisions made to restrict or facilitate contact or the exchange of information have ramifications for donors as well as for donor-conceived people. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was funded by the Victorian Department of Health. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. PMID:24549216

  18. Living donor liver transplantation--adult donor outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Philippa F; Duffield, Michael; Lynch, Stephen V; Padbury, Robert T A; House, Tony; Stanton, Peter; Verran, Deborah; Maddern, Guy

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation, specifically donor outcomes. A systematic review, with searches of the literature up to January 2004, was undertaken. Two hundred and fourteen studies provided information on donor outcomes. The majority of these were case series studies, although there were also studies comparing living donor liver transplantation with deceased donor liver transplantation. Both underreporting and duplicate reporting is likely to have occurred, and so caution is required in interpretation of these results. Overall reported donor mortality was 12 to 13 in about 6,000 procedures (0.2%) (117 studies). Mortality for right lobe donors to adult recipients is estimated to be 2 to 8 out of 3,800 (0.23 to 0.5%). The donor morbidity rate ranged from 0% to 100% with a median of 16% (131 studies). Biliary complications and infections were the most commonly reported donor morbidities. Nearly all donors had returned to normal function by 3 to 6 months (18 studies). In conclusion, there are small, but real, risks for living liver donors. Due to the short history of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation, the long-term risks for donors are unknown. PMID:16498709

  19. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Healthy Blood Donors in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ting-Yi; Hsieh, Hwei-Ho; Kuo, Ming-Chu; Chiu, Kai-Tse; Lin, Wei-Chen; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Fang, Chi-Tai; Ji, Dar-Der

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3%) tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28%) tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–6.5), raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR?=?5.3; 95% CI: 1.5–19.1), having a cat in the household (adjusted OR?=?2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.2), a lower education level (adjusted OR?=?1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.3), and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR?=?2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–3.9) were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. PMID:23133557

  20. Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Descroix, Stéphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV?

  1. Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Fu, Jin-Heng; Li, Yan-Ping; Tu, Zhui; Wang, Dan; Shu, Mei; Qiu, Yu-Lou; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ngmL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.68±0.56ngmL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ngmL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ngmL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers. PMID:26592642

  2. Supportive care in alternative donor transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shuang; Majhail, Navneet S

    2016-04-01

    Alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using umbilical cord blood, haploidentical or mismatched unrelated donors is a viable option for patients without human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling or matched unrelated donors. The same principles of supportive care as conventional graft sources apply to alternative donor HCT recipients. However, there are some unique supportive care issues related to post-transplant complications, engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, immune reconstitution, and infections that are unique to each of the three alternative graft sources, both in the early and late post-transplant periods. This review discusses the supportive care issues relevant to this population and their management. PMID:27000738

  3. Hybrid super electron donors – preparation and reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Jean; Thomson, Douglas W; Zhou, Shengze; Jolly, Phillip I; Berlouis, Leonard E A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor). The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed. PMID:23019427

  4. Alternative Donor Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Nelli; Haddad, Housam; Brunstein, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but its use for consolidation therapy after first remission with induction chemotherapy used to be limited to younger patients and those with suitable donors. The median age of AML diagnosis is in the late 60s. With the introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), many older adults are now eligible to receive allo-HCT, including those who are medically less fit to receive myeloablative conditioning. Furthermore, AML patients commonly have no human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical or medically suitable sibling donor available to proceed with allo-HCT. Technical advances in donor matching, suppression of alloreactivity, and supportive care have made it possible to use alternative donors, such as unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) and partially HLA-matched related (haploidentical) donors. Outcomes after alternative donor allo-HCT are now approaching the outcomes observed for conventional allo-HCT with matched related and unrelated donors. Thus, with both UCB and haploidentical donors available, lack of donor should rarely be a limiting factor in offering an allo-HCT to adults with AML. PMID:26239557

  5. Europium Nanoparticle-Based High Performing Immunoassay for the Screening of Treponemal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Talha, Sheikh M.; Hytönen, Jukka; Westhorpe, Adam; Kumar, Sushil; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Tp) is the causative agent of syphilis which mainly spreads through sexual contact, blood transfusion and perinatal route. In order to curtail the spread of the infection and to clinically manage the disease, timely, accurate and reliable diagnosis is very important. We have developed an immunoassay for the detection of treponemal antibodies in human serum or plasma samples. In vivo biotinylated and non-biotinylated versions of the recombinant antigen were designed by the fusion of three Tp-specific antigens namely Tp15, Tp17 and Tp47. These fusion antigens were expressed in E. coli and purified using single-step metal affinity chromatography. Biotinylated fusion antigen immobilized on streptavidin coated plate was used to capture the treponemal antibodies and the non-biotinylated antigen coated on europium nanoparticles was used as tracer. Assays with two different incubation times of 10 min and 1 h were developed, and following the incubation the europium fluorescence was measured using time-resolved fluorometry. The developed time-resolved fluorometric (TRF) immunoassays were evaluated with in-house and commercial serum/plasma sample panels. For well-established treponemal antibodies positive or negative samples, the sensitivity of TRF immunoassay with 10 min incubation time was 97.4%, and of TRF immunoassay with 1 h incubation time was 98.7%, and the specificities of both the TRF immunoassays were 99.2%. For the samples with discordant results with the reference assays, both the TRF immunoassays showed better specificity than the Enzygnost syphilis enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. The two different incubation times did not have any significant effect on the signal to cutoff (S/Co) ratios obtained with the two immunoassays (p?=?0.06). Our results indicate that the developed immunoassay with a short incubation time of 10 min has the potential to be used in clinical laboratories and in blood-bank settings as a screening test for treponemal antibodies. PMID:24386329

  6. Integration of nanomaterials for colorimetric immunoassays with improved performance: a functional perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenshu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-02-01

    The boom of nanotechnology has yielded exciting developments in designing new kinds of colorimetric immunoassays. These nanomaterial-associated immunoassays have shown great potential for clinical translation and a number of them have already been implemented for testing patient samples from the clinics. Different from most reviews where researchers typically focus on a specific type of nanomaterial or describe assays based on the types of materials, we classify these assays by the function of nanomaterials, focusing on reviewing the distinct phenomenon of nanomaterials and how these properties are utilized to overcome limitations faced by traditional colorimetric immunoassays. We also discuss the challenges and give our perspectives in this field. PMID:26820316

  7. Multiplexed immunoassays for biomonitoring of exposure to agrochemicals using quantum dots as fluorescent reporters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Dosev, Dosi; Davies, Alexander E.; Gee, Shirley J.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2007-02-01

    The application of quantum dots (QDs) as labels in immunoassay microarrays for the multiplex detection of 3- phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) and atrazine-mercapturate (AM) has been demonstrated. PBA and AM are biomarkers of exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides and to the herbicide atrazine, respectively. Microarrays were fabricated by microcontact printing of the coating antigens in line patterns onto glass substrates. Competitive immunoassays were successfully performed using quantum dots (QD560 and QD620) as reporters. The multiplexed immunoassays were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The application of QD fluorophores facilitates multiplex assays and therefore can contribute to enhanced throughput in biomonitoring.

  8. A highly sensitive caffeine immunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, José João; Weller, Michael G; Panne, Ulrich; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2010-04-01

    A new immunoassay has been developed based on a commercially available anti-caffeine monoclonal antibody and a de novo synthesized tracer, using horseradish peroxidase and UV-visible detection. Caffeine, which is frequently found in surface waters, can be quantified with a relative error lower than 20% for concentrations above 0.025 microg L(-1) (limit of quantitation, direct analysis). The limit of detection is 0.001 microg L(-1) and can be reduced by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Moreover, with minor adaptations, the assay can be used to quantify caffeine in several beverages, shampoo, and caffeine tablets. The results obtained by ELISA correlate well with those from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the tested matrices. Several surface waters from Berlin were analysed and all tested positive for caffeine, with concentrations higher than 0.030 microg L(-1). In one run 66 samples can be analysed within 2 h. PMID:20155491

  9. Immuno-PCR: An ultrasensitive immunoassay for biomolecular detection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Le; Li, Jinming; Wang, Lunan

    2016-03-01

    Techniques that combine nucleic acid amplification with an antibody-based assay can dramatically increase the sensitivity of conventional immunoassays. This review summarizes the methodology and applications of one such protein detection technique that has been used for the past 23 years-the immuno-polymerase chain reaction (usually referred to as immuno-PCR or IPCR). The key component of an immuno-PCR is a DNA-antibody conjugate that serves as a bridge to link the solid-phase immunoreaction with nucleic acid amplification. The efficiency of immuno-PCR enables a 10- to 10(9)-fold increase in detection sensitivity compared with that of ELISA. Advancements in immuno-PCR have included improvements of production of the DNA-antibody conjugate, assay formats, and readout methods. As an ultrasensitive protein assay, immuno-PCR has a broad range of applications in immunological research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:26873464

  10. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Tang, Dianping; Knopp, Dietmar

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. PMID:26920768

  11. Development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for detecting tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

  12. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulfamethoxydiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Yan, Nali; Qu, Lingbo; Zhang, Hongquan

    2011-10-01

    Sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), which is often used for animal disease treatment, is harmful to human health. No SMD residue should be detected in food in some countries, such as USA and Japan. Therefore, it is significant to develop a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and accurate method for the determination of the content of SMD in food. In this paper, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for quantification of SMD. For this method, the limit of detection was 3.2 pg/ml, the linear range was from 10 to 2000 pg/ml, the within-day and inter-day precision were below 13% and below 18%, respectively, and the recovery was from 85% to 105%. Milk and egg were selected as samples to be examined with this method, and the result indicated that this CLEIA method was suitable for screening and quality control of food.

  13. Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

  14. Varying results for immunoassay screening kits for cotinine level.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Arthur I; Gariti, Peter; Niedbala, R Sam

    2002-09-01

    Our earlier study found that although enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA) screening assays for urine cotinine indicated use in former smoking treatment patients who reported abstinence, this finding was sometimes incorrect when validated against gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS; P. Gariti, A. I. Alterman, R. Ehrmann, F. D. Mulvaney, & C. P. O'Brien, 2002). In the current validation study, separate urine samples of 71 of these same patients were reanalyzed by an independent laboratory in blinded fashion using a screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis and GC/MS confirmation. EIA results showed almost total agreement with confirmatory testing. The findings indicate that use of screening ELISA/EIA for urine cotinine can detect unreported cases of smoking in former patients, but that care is needed in selecting a laboratory for conducting these tests. PMID:12236461

  15. A rapid microwell fluorescence immunoassay for cellular protein detection.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Carole; Guignée, de Arméle; Thierry, Alain R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple, rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method, the FICP method (Fluorescence Immunoassay for Cellular Protein detection) which is readily applicable to the detection of proteins directly on cells cultured in 96-well plates. In order to illustrate this method, we report on the detection of two different proteins, the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1 and p21(CIP1/WAF1), in untreated and 2-cyclopenten-1-one treated breast cancer cells. When the FICP method was compared with Western blot procedure, FICP was found to be superior for many characteristics. By using this method, we were able to quantify biological effects of a specific compound on protein levels in non-lysed cells and perform statistical analysis. Therefore, we believe this screening assay could be very useful for detecting poorly expressed proteins and for drug development. PMID:19461956

  16. A rapid microwell fluorescence immunoassay for cellular protein detection

    PubMed Central

    Lavigne, Carole

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple, rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method, the FICP method (Fluorescence Immunoassay for Cellular Protein detection) which is readily applicable to the detection of proteins directly on cells cultured in 96-well plates. In order to illustrate this method, we report on the detection of two different proteins, the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1 and p21CIP1/WAF1, in untreated and 2-cyclopenten-1-one treated breast cancer cells. When the FICP method was compared with Western blot procedure, FICP was found to be superior for many characteristics. By using this method, we were able to quantify biological effects of a specific compound on protein levels in non-lysed cells and perform statistical analysis. Therefore, we believe this screening assay could be very useful for detecting poorly expressed proteins and for drug development. PMID:19461956

  17. Spin membrane immunoassay for use in meningococcal serology.

    PubMed Central

    Vistnes, A I; Rosenqvist, E; Frøholm, L O

    1983-01-01

    A modified and improved spin membrane immunoassay has been developed for detecting complement-activating antibodies to Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide antigens. The polysaccharides were incorporated in the membranes of large unilamellar vesicles prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method and filled with the water-soluble spin label tempocholine chloride. Upon addition of group-specific antisera and complement, the lipid membrane was damaged and the spin label leaked out. This process was monitored by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A satisfactory assay was developed for polysaccharides of group A and C, whereas in the case of the B system the assay was more labile. The method is rapid and has a sensitivity comparable to that of radioimmunoassay. When studying paired sera from five recruits vaccinated with an A + C polysaccharide vaccine, significant rises in titers to both A and C polysaccharides were observed in all the postvaccination sera. PMID:6313752

  18. Spectral interferometric immunoassay with synthetic lipid-anchored polypeptide antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, Andreas; Gauglitz, Guenter; Beck, Werner; Spohn, Renate; Jung, Guenter

    1993-04-01

    Spectral interferometric investigations, which were carried out at thin dielectric layers with a novel fixation procedure for synthetic antigens, are reported. This work is aimed at an optical, regenerable, label-free immunosensor for antibody determinations. Most optical biosensor approaches require fixation of some kind of receptor to the sensor surface. Simple adsorption leads to washout effects and often prohibits sensor regeneration. Covalent fixation usually decreases receptor affinity significantly. In this paper we report a noncovalent fixation procedure, based on synthetic, lipid anchored peptide antigens. Fixation is achieved by strong hydrophobic interaction between the pretreated sensor surface and a lipid anchor covalently linked to the antigen. Spectral interferometry uses short coherent (white) light interference for the determination of surface and volume effects at thin films. This method has been successfully applied to hydrocarbon sensing and solid phase adsorption immunoassay.

  19. Gold bands as a suitable surface for enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Abad-Villar, Eva M; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Costa-García, Agustín

    2002-09-01

    Gold bands sputtered over a polymeric material, Kapton, are employed for the development of enzyme immunoassays. The immunological interaction takes place between human IgM and alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated anti-IgM. The model analyte (IgM) could be determined following a non-competitive design in the range of 0.05-5 ppm, with a limit of detection of 50 ppb. After the interaction, gold bands are sequentially inserted in a flow system and the extension of the reaction is followed through the enzymatic hydrolysis of naphthylphosphate, AP substrate. The product, naphthol, is oxidised to naphtoquinone in the gold band of the flow cell that constitutes the detector. Parameters affecting the interaction are studied and calibration curves are performed. The reproducibility between different bands (RSD=4%, n=5) and possibilities of regeneration are also detailed. PMID:12191928

  20. Pretransplant Infusion of Donor B Cells Enhances Donor-Specific Skin Allograft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Julia; McIntyre, Megan S. Ford.; D'Souza, Cheryl A.; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Pretransplant donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) has been shown to enhance donor-specific allograft survival in rodents, primates and humans. However, the cell subset that is critical for the DLI effect and the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we monitored donor cell subsets after DLI in a murine MHC class I Ld-mismatched skin transplantation model. We found that donor B cells, but not DCs, are the major surviving donor APCs in recipients following DLI. Infusing donor B, but not non-B, cells resulted in significantly enhanced donor-specific skin allograft survival. Furthermore, mice that had received donor B cells showed higher expression of Ly6A and CD62L on antigen-specific TCR??+CD3+CD4?CD8?NK1.1? double negative (DN) regulatory T cells (Tregs). B cells presented alloantigen to DN Tregs and primed their proliferation in an antigen-specific fashion. Importantly, DN Tregs, activated by donor B cells, showed increased cytotoxicity toward anti-donor CD8+ T cells. These data demonstrate that donor B cells can enhance skin allograft survival, at least partially, by increasing recipient DN Treg-mediated killing of anti-donor CD8+ T cells. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying DLI-induced transplant tolerance and suggest that DN Tregs have great potential as an antigen-specific immune therapy to enhance allograft survival. PMID:24204953

  1. Fluorescence immunoassay for detecting periodontal bacterial pathogens in plaque.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, L F; Anderson, L; Sandberg, G P; Aeppli, D M; Shelburne, C E

    1991-01-01

    A particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay has been modified into a bacterial concentration fluorescence immunoassay (BCFIA) to rapidly detect periodontopathic bacteria in human plaque samples. The BCFIA utilizes fluorescently tagged monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the lipopolysaccharide of selected gram-negative plaque bacteria. Microorganisms closely associated with periodontal disease that can be identified in plaque with the BCFIA include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Eikenella corrodens. Briefly, the procedure involved mixing a patient's plaque sample or other bacterial preparation with a species-specific fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled MAb in a specialized microtiter plate. This mixture was incubated to allow binding of the MAb to its homologous bacteria. The bound and unbound fluorescent tagged MAbs were separated by filtration in the modified microtiter plate, and the total bacterial bound fluorescence was determined with a fluorimeter. The number of a specific bacterial species in a given plaque sample or other bacterial suspension was estimated by reference to a primary standard carried through the BCFIA. The lower detection limit of the BCFIA was 10(3) to 10(4) bacterial cells from single cultures of bacteria or 10(4) bacterial cells in mixed cultures. The coefficient of variation within and between plates for each of the five bacterium-specific MAbs in screening plaque for the periodontal pathogens was less than 10%. These results demonstrate that microbes in plaque can be used as the solid phase in the BCFIA to detect and quantitate MAbs associated with specific bacteria quickly and reliably. PMID:1761686

  2. Development of enantioselective immunoassays for free plasma metanephrines.

    PubMed

    Manz, Bernhard; Kuper, Matthias; Booltink, Essy; Fischer-Brügge, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    The development of an enantioselective radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for L-normetanephrine (NM) and L-metanephrine (M) were studied. Prior to the immunoassay, the protein matrix of the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma samples was removed by acid precipitation, followed by derivatization of the L-metanephrines to N-acyl-L-metanephrines. For the EIA, N-acyl-L-NM and N-acyl-L-M were bound to the surface of microtiter plates. Acylated L-metanephrines from the sample and solid-phase-bound N-acyl-L-NM or N-acyl-L-M competed for a fixed number of rabbit anti-N-acyl-NM or anti-N-acyl-M antibody binding sites. When the system was in equilibrium, free antigens and free antigen-antibody complexes were removed by washing. The antibodies bound to the respective solid-phase N-acyl-L-NM or N-acyl-L-M were detected by a goat anti-rabbit IgG-peroxidase conjugate using tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The RIAs were conventional double antibody tests using the above rabbit antisera and specific (125)I-N-acyl-L-metanephrine tracers. Chiral recognition of the L-enantiomers was observed not only for the native molecules but for all N-acyl derivatives tested. The cross-reactivity to the corresponding D-enantiomers was always <1%. The detection limits were found to be approximately 0.04 nmol/L (7.5 pg/mL) for M and 0.08 nmol/L (15 pg/mL) for NM in RIA and EIA. PMID:15240418

  3. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  4. Automated homogeneous immunoassay analysis of cotinine in urine.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, R Sam; Haley, Nancy; Kardos, Stephanie; Kardos, Keith

    2002-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance comparison of a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EIA) designed to detect cotinine in urine and carbon monoxide (CO) breath measurements to determine smoking status. The clinical comparison was done using urine and breath specimens from 218 volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Breath carbon monoxide was determined by a commercial analyzer. Using cutoffs of 10 ppm for CO and 500 ng/mL for urinary cotinine, the relative sensitivity/specificity was 93.6%/74.0%. The positive predictive value was 86.8%, and the negative predictive value was 86.5%. However, comparison of the EIA to GC-MS showed a sensitivity/specificity of 96.2%/98.4% and a positive predictive value of 99.3%. The EIA was also evaluated non-clinically for precision, stability, recovery, and interferences. In addition, the non-clinical evaluation demonstrated coefficients of variation from 0.37 to 1.09% across cotinine concentrations ranging from 0 to 5000 ng/mL. The assay was found to be highly specific for cotinine and cross-reacted to a limited degree with 3-hydroxycotinine. Finally, multiple freeze-thaw cycles of urines containing cotinine showed no degradation of the drug in the specimen when tested in the EIA. Thus, the EIA tested is a rapid, lab-based test that can reliably determine cotinine levels and their relation to smoking status. PMID:11991533

  5. Multiplexed magnetic microsphere immunoassays for detection of pathogens in foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jason S.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2010-01-01

    Foodstuffs have traditionally been challenging matrices for conducting immunoassays. Proteins, carbohydrates, and other macromolecules present in food matrices may interfere with both immunoassays and PCR-based tests, and removal of particulate matter may also prove challenging prior to analyses. This has been found true when testing for bacterial contamination of foods using the standard polystyrene microspheres utilized with Luminex flow cytometers. Luminex MagPlex microspheres are encoded with the same dyes as standard xMAP microspheres, but have superparamagnetic properties to aid in preparation of samples in complex matrices. In this work, we present results demonstrating use of MagPlex for sample preparation and identification of bacteria and a toxin spiked into a variety of food samples. Fluorescence-coded MagPlex microsphere sets coated with antibodies for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were used to capture these bacteria and toxin from spiked foodstuffs and then evaluated by the Luminex system in a multiplex format; spiked foods included apple juice, green pepper, tomato, ground beef, alfalfa sprouts, milk, lettuce, spinach, and chicken washes. Although MagPlex microspheres facilitated recovery of the microspheres and targets from the complex matrices, assay sensitivity was sometimes inhibited by up to one to three orders of magnitude; for example the detection limits E. coli spiked into apple juice or milk increased 100-fold, from 1000 to 100,000 cfu/mL. Thus, while the magnetic and fluorescent properties of the Luminex MagPlex microspheres allow for rapid, multiplexed testing for bacterial contamination in typically problematic food matrices, our data demonstrate that achieving desired limits of detection is still a challenge. PMID:20953301

  6. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  7. Application of elderly donor for liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, much more attention has been paid on application of elderly donor due to the shortage of organs. Although liver quality of elderly donors may be sub-optimal comparing with that from younger donors, primary non-function of a liver graft is a rare event. On the other hand, long-term graft and recipient survival for usage of elderly grafts has become a major concern and focus of research. Many transplant centers have changed the upper limit of donor age from previous 50 to 70 or even 75-year-old and achieved good graft function. Although some scholars believed that liver transplant using elderly grafts was associated with high probability of delayed liver function recovery, graft loss and hepatitis C recurrence, reports from several transplant centers document that long-term survival of grafts and recipients may be significantly improved through certain screening of donors and recipients before transplant. In conclusion, it is very important and relatively safe to use grafts from elderly donors to expand the donor pool. However, elderly donors and corresponding recipients must be carefully selected before transplant. The long-term effect of advanced age on grafts and recipients need to be evaluated through a comprehensive and long-term in-depth observation. PMID:26379822

  8. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  9. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  10. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor deferral. 610.41 Section 610.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor deferral. (a) You, an establishment that...

  11. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification....

  12. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification....

  13. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification....

  14. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification....

  15. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India

    PubMed Central

    Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

  16. Recipients' views on payment of sperm donors.

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, An; Provoost, Veerle; Wyverkens, Elia; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how recipients viewed payment of sperm donors. The study was conducted in Belgium, where, as in many countries, sperm donors receive recompense for their time and expenses. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 heterosexual and lesbian couples who, at the time of data collection, had at least one donor-conceived child aged 7-10 years or who were undergoing donor conception treatment. Although participants commonly described the issue of financial compensation as something that did not really concern them, all supported the idea that some level of payment was acceptable or even necessary. The participants also identified several ways in which donor payment offered advantages to their own position as (future) parents. Although the idea is commonly rehearsed that sperm donation is a gift and that monetary transaction for conception is demeaning, the participants of this study did not generally share this view. To them, a small financial return served as a symbolic acknowledgement of the donor's contribution and helped secure the type of relationship they expected from their donor. There was clearly concern, however, over high payments and the risk of attracting the wrong kind of donor. PMID:26099446

  17. Studies of donors who transmit posttransfusion hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Tabor, E; Hoofnagle, J H; Smallwood, L A; Drucker, J A; Pineda-Tamondong, G C; Ni, L Y; Greenwalt, T J; Barker, L F; Gerety, R J

    1979-01-01

    Sera and questionnaires were evaluated retrospectively from 128 volunteer blood donors whose blood had been implicated in cases of clinically recognized post-transfusion hepatitis in recipients of one- or two-unit blood transfusion between 1971 and 1977. Serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were found in 23 percent, compared to 9.7 percent of 3,230 prospective blood donors. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus was similar among implicated donors (44%), prospective donors (58%), and among those implicated donors with (41%) and without (44%) HBV markers. Among implicated donors, none had a history at the time of donation of having had clinically recognizable hepatitis, 93 percent had no history of prior blood transfusion, and 80 percent had normal hepatic enzymes. Data from this study confirm that non-A, non-B hepatitis has been a common form of posttransfusion hepatitis in recent years, since 77 percent of these implicated donors had no HBV serologic markers. In addition, these donors could not be distinguished by age, race, sex, history of clinical hepatitis or of prior blood transfusion, or in most cases by hepatic enzyme levels. PMID:230620

  18. Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

  19. Performance evaluation of the phosphorescent porphyrin label: solid-phase immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Tomás C; Soini, Aleksi E; Soini, Juhani T; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2002-11-15

    Phosphorescent conjugates of antibodies, neutravidin, and biotin (pentylamine derivative) were synthesized using previously described monofunctional labeling reagent of platinum(II) coproporphyrin-I with isothiocyanate reactive group (PtCP-NCS). These conjugates, which can be considered as standard reagents for a range of bioanalytical applications, were evaluated in solid-phase immunoassay schemes with the clinical analyte a-fetoprotein (AFP). A custom-designed time-resolved phosphorescence plate reader based on a compact and low-cost 532-nm laser and optimized for measurement of porphyrin labels was used. Using optimized tracers, instrumentation and assay protocols, subpicomolar detection limits were obtained both for PtCP label in solution and for AFP in solid-phase immunoassay. This sensitivity is comparable with standard time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays with lanthanide labels. The performance of metalloporphyrin labels, instrumentation, and solid-phase immunoassays as an alternative to the established detection platforms is discussed. PMID:12463371

  20. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  1. An inexpensive, fast and sensitive quantitative lateral flow magneto-immunoassay for total prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jacqueline M; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  2. Semen donors' curiosity about donor offspring and the barriers to their knowing.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    The article reports qualitative research findings which explored the meanings of kinship and genetic knowledge of fifteen pre-1990 semen donors in the UK. This is presented in the context of public and academic debates about the regulation of access to genetic information, genetic information as intellectual property and kinship knowledge, and the multiple ownership of genetic information. Semen donors in the UK traditionally were expected to take no interest in what became of their donations and those who did were considered to be unsuitable as donors. However, the present research reveals that men who donated in the past hold varied attitudes, including curiosity about how donor offspring have fared and what they look like. Whilst some donors would welcome direct contact with donor offspring, there are practical and emotional obstacles to satisfying their curiosity. Donors' views reflect the varied understandings in the UK about the implications of genetic relatedness and the time and energy required to maintain and sustain relationships. PMID:22329514

  3. Anti-HCV immunoassays based on a multiepitope antigen and fluorescent lanthanide chelate reporters.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Teppo; Juntunen, Etvi; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim; Talha, Sheikh M

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for simple to produce immunoassays for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody capable of detecting all genotypes worldwide. Current commonly used third generation immunoassays use three to six separate recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides. We have developed and expressed in Escherichia coli a single recombinant antigen incorporating epitopes from different HCV proteins. This multiepitope protein (MEP) was used to develop two types of HCV antibody immunoassays: a traditional antibody immunoassay using a labeled secondary antibody (indirect assay) and a double-antigen assay with the same MEP used as capture binder and labeled binder. The secondary antibody assay was evaluated with 171 serum/plasma samples and double-antigen assay with 148 samples. These samples included an in-house patient sample panel, two panels of samples with different HCV genotypes and a seroconversion panel. The secondary antibody immunoassay showed 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity while the double-antigen assay showed 91.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Both assays detected samples from all six HCV genotypes. The results showed that combining a low-cost recombinant MEP binder antigen with a high sensitivity fluorescent lanthanide reporter can provide a sensitive and specific immunoassay for HCV serology. The results also showed that the sensitivity of HCV double-antigen assays may suffer from the low avidity immune response of acute infections. PMID:26615808

  4. Catch and measure-mass spectrometry-based immunoassays in biomarker research.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Frederik; van den Berg, Bart H J; Planatscher, Hannes; Pynn, Christopher J; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometry-based (MS) methods are effective tools for discovering protein biomarker candidates that can differentiate between physiological and pathophysiological states. Promising candidates are validated in studies comprising large patient cohorts. Here, targeted protein analytics are used to increase sample throughput. Methods involving antibodies, such as sandwich immunoassays or Western blots, are commonly applied at this stage. Highly-specific and sensitive mass spectrometry-based immunoassays that have been established in recent years offer a suitable alternative to sandwich immunoassays for quantifying proteins. Mass Spectrometric ImmunoAssays (MSIA) and Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA/iMALDI) are two prominent types of MS-based immunoassays in which the capture is done either at the protein or the peptide level. We present an overview of these emerging types of immunoassays and discuss their suitability for the discovery and validation of protein biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:24060810

  5. Cross-reactivity of acetylfentanyl and risperidone with a fentanyl immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei-Tzu; Colby, Jennifer M; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl and its analogs, such as acetylfentanyl, have become a concern for potential abuse. Fentanyl compliance monitoring and urine drug testing are becoming increasingly necessary; however, a limited number of fentanyl immunoassays have been validated for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of the DRI® fentanyl immunoassay, determine the potential cross-reactivity of acetylfentanyl and other pharmaceuticals, and investigate acetylfentanyl use in San Francisco. All urine toxicology samples from patients presenting to the emergency department were analyzed using the fentanyl immunoassay for 4 months. Positive samples were analyzed qualitatively using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for fentanyl, fentanyl metabolites, fentanyl analogs and greater than 200 common drugs and metabolites. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was performed using LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Acetylfentanyl, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were found to cross-react with the fentanyl immunoassay. No acetylfentanyl was detected in our emergency department patient population. The fentanyl immunoassay demonstrated 100% diagnostic sensitivity in a subset of urines tested; however, the specificity was only 86% due to seven false-positive samples observed. Five of the seven samples were positive for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone. The DRI® fentanyl immunoassay can be used to screen for fentanyl or acetylfentanyl; however, confirmatory testing should be performed for all samples that screen positive. PMID:25248490

  6. Polymyositis after donor lymphocyte infusion.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Juan; Hernández-Boluda, Juan Carlos; Arbona, Cristina; Solano, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common long-term complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), and is responsible for morbidity, mortality and a decrease in quality of life of patients after SCT. Polymyositis, which usually co-occurs with other manifestations of GVHD, has previously been reported. However, polymyositis as the sole manifestation of chronic GVHD following donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is rare. We report a 30-year-old man with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute polymyositis following treatment by DLI 4 months post-allogeneic HSCT. The patient developed fever and generalized myalgia 22 days after a single dose of DLI. Laboratory testing showed elevated muscle enzymes and myopathic abnormalities on electromyographic examination. Muscle biopsy showed features of acute polymyositis, with widespread foci of muscle fiber necrosis associated with infiltration of small mononuclear cells. Twenty-four hours after diagnosis, the patient developed a fatal ventricular arrhythmia. Cardiac involvement may occur in association with polymyositis, but usually occurs in elderly patients after several months of illness. The present case highlights the importance of systematic cardiac evaluation when a diagnosis of polymyositis is initially made to exclude this infrequent presentation of chronic GVHD characteristically associated with some HLA-DR haplotypes. PMID:22903864

  7. Medical outcomes of adolescent live kidney donors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Kukla, Aleksandra K; Ake, Sarah; Berglund, Danielle; Jackson, Scott; Issa, Naim; Spong, Richard; Matas, Arthur J; Ibrahim, Hassan N

    2014-06-01

    Living kidney donation from donors <18 yr of age is uncommon. The majority of donations from adolescents took place several decades ago providing a unique opportunity to study true long-term consequences of donation. We compared survival, renal outcomes, and rates of hypertension and diabetes among 42 adolescent donors and matched older controls. Adolescent donors were matched with donors 18-30 yr on the following: gender, relation to the recipient, BMI at donation, eGFR at donation, and year of donation. After a mean follow-up of 31.8 ± 8.0 yr, 94.9% of adolescent donors were alive vs. 93.8% of controls. There was no significant difference in having eGFR (MDRD) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (26.1% vs. 40.9%), hypertension (35.9% vs. 39.4%), diabetes (5.1% vs. 12.5%), or proteinuria (15.4% vs. 14.1%): adolescent donors vs. controls for all comparisons. These data suggest that adolescent donors are not at a higher risk of shortened survival, hypertension, diabetes, or proteinuria. Nevertheless, they probably should donate only when other options are exhausted as they have to live with a single kidney for decades and longer follow-up is needed. PMID:24646177

  8. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  9. Analysis of Plasma Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Patients with and without Tuberculosis by Liquid Array-Based Multiplexed Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenjing; Dong, Haiping; Wang, Juanjuan; Zou, Xiaoming; Wen, Qian; Luo, Wei; Liu, Sudong; He, Jianchun; Cai, Shaoxi; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish plasma cytokine/chemokine profiles in patients with 3 different presentations of active tuberculosis (TB), compared to the profiles observed in bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy individuals and patients with other pulmonary diseases (non-TB patients). To this end, plasma samples were collected from 151 TB patients including 68 pulmonary TB (PTB), 43 endobronchial TB, and 40 tuberculosis pleurisy (TP) patients, as well as 107 no-TB cases including 26 non-TB patients and 81 BCG-vaccinated healthy controls. A liquid array-based multiplexed immunoassay was used to screen plasma samples for 20 distinct cytokines and chemokines. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations between cytokines/chemokines and TB/non-TB patients. Compared to our findings with the no-TB donors, the median plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines TNF-α, IL-6, IP-10, IFN-γ, and MIP-1β were significantly elevated in TB patients, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers for diagnosing TB patients. Further comparisons with healthy donors showed that only the median TNF-α plasma level was highly produced in the plasma of all 3 types of TB patients. Plasma IL-6 production was higher only in TP patients, while the plasma levels of IP-10, IFN-γ, and MIP-1β were markedly enhanced in both PTB and TP patients. Unexpectedly, among the above cytokines/chemokines, MIP-1β was also highly expressed in non-TB patients, compared with healthy donors. Our results suggested that TNF-α may be an ideal biomarker for diagnosing the 3 forms of TB presentation, while the other factors (IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, and IFN-γ) can potentially facilitate differential diagnosis for the 3 TB presentation types. Further characterization of immune responses associated with different types of TB diseases will provide a basis for developing novel TB diagnostics. PMID:26881918

  10. Analysis of Plasma Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Patients with and without Tuberculosis by Liquid Array-Based Multiplexed Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juanjuan; Zou, Xiaoming; Wen, Qian; Luo, Wei; Liu, Sudong; He, Jianchun; Cai, Shaoxi; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish plasma cytokine/chemokine profiles in patients with 3 different presentations of active tuberculosis (TB), compared to the profiles observed in bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy individuals and patients with other pulmonary diseases (non-TB patients). To this end, plasma samples were collected from 151 TB patients including 68 pulmonary TB (PTB), 43 endobronchial TB, and 40 tuberculosis pleurisy (TP) patients, as well as 107 no-TB cases including 26 non-TB patients and 81 BCG-vaccinated healthy controls. A liquid array-based multiplexed immunoassay was used to screen plasma samples for 20 distinct cytokines and chemokines. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations between cytokines/chemokines and TB/non-TB patients. Compared to our findings with the no-TB donors, the median plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines TNF-α, IL-6, IP-10, IFN-γ, and MIP-1β were significantly elevated in TB patients, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers for diagnosing TB patients. Further comparisons with healthy donors showed that only the median TNF-α plasma level was highly produced in the plasma of all 3 types of TB patients. Plasma IL-6 production was higher only in TP patients, while the plasma levels of IP-10, IFN-γ, and MIP-1β were markedly enhanced in both PTB and TP patients. Unexpectedly, among the above cytokines/chemokines, MIP-1β was also highly expressed in non-TB patients, compared with healthy donors. Our results suggested that TNF-α may be an ideal biomarker for diagnosing the 3 forms of TB presentation, while the other factors (IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, and IFN-γ) can potentially facilitate differential diagnosis for the 3 TB presentation types. Further characterization of immune responses associated with different types of TB diseases will provide a basis for developing novel TB diagnostics. PMID:26881918

  11. [Ethical and legal prerequisites of living donors].

    PubMed

    Lilie, H; Krüger, M

    2010-09-01

    Patients in the waiting list die because there are too few postmortem organ donors. A way out of this dilemma would be living donors. The regulations on this in the transplantation act from 1997 are, however, very rudimentary and above all very restrictive. Furthermore, they have been partially superseded by medical advances. This leads to substantial insecurity for transplantation physicians in the practice. This article examines the current law on living donors without being limited solely to it. Furthermore, attempts at reforms will be put forward. PMID:20730410

  12. Current research on organ donor management.

    PubMed

    Sally, Mitchell; Malinoski, Darren

    2013-12-01

    A shortage of organs is available for transplantation, with 116,000 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing wait list. Because the demand for organs outweighs the supply, considerable care must be taken to maximize the number of organs transplanted per donor and optimize the quality of recovered organs. Studies designed to determine optimal donor management therapies are limited, and this research has many challenges. Although evidenced-based guidelines for managing potential organ donors do not exist, research in this area is increasing. This article reviews the existing literature and highlights recent trials that can guide management. PMID:24287350

  13. Donor-acceptor heteroleptic open sandwiches.

    PubMed

    Merino, Gabriel; Beltrán, Hiram I; Vela, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    A series of donor-acceptor heteroleptic open sandwiches with formula CpM-M'Pyl (M = B, Al, Ga; M' = Li, Na; Cp = cyclopentadienyl; Pyl = pentadienyl) has been designed in silico using density functional theory. The most stable complexes are those containing boron as a donor atom. A molecular orbital analysis shows that the s character of the lone pair located at the group 13 element is mainly responsible for the complex stabilization. It is also found that the surrounding medium has a similar effect on these sandwiches such as in the "classical" donor-acceptor complexes, showing a decrement in the group 13 element-alkaline metal bond lengths. PMID:16441117

  14. The Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor: Glucose Metabolism as Principal Cause of Donor Declination.

    PubMed

    Guthoff, Martina; Nadalin, Silvio; Fritsche, Andreas; Königsrainer, Alfred; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Heyne, Nils

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transplant centers are increasingly confronted with medically complex living kidney donor candidates. Considerable differences exist among centers regarding handling of these patients and little data is available on characteristics, evaluation outcome and declination criteria. We now demonstrate impaired glucose metabolism to be the largest single cause of donor declination. MATERIAL AND METHODS Follow-up of 133 donor-recipient pairs, presenting to our transplant center between 03/2007 and 06/2012 was included in the analysis. Evaluation outcome of donor-recipient pairs was assessed and declinations stratified into donor or recipient reasons and underlying conditions. RESULTS 65 donor-recipient pairs (49%) were accepted for transplantation, 68 (51%) were declined upon first evaluation. 77% of declinations were for donor- and 23% for recipient reasons. Almost half of donor declinations resulted from increased cardiovascular risk with the presence of diabetes mellitus or prediabetes as the largest single cause of declination. CONCLUSIONS Glucose metabolism is key in donor risk assessment and precludes kidney donation if abnormal. The high prevalence emphasizes the need for prevention. Prediabetes defines a cohort at risk and response to lifestyle intervention allows for individual risk stratification, thereby potentially increasing the number of persons eligible for kidney donation. Unification of evaluation criteria, as well as prospective long-term follow-up is required to account for increasingly complex living kidney donors. PMID:26811295

  15. The effect of donor characteristics on survival after unrelated donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kollman, Craig; Spellman, Stephen R; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Hassebroek, Anna; Anasetti, Claudio; Antin, Joseph H; Champlin, Richard E; Confer, Dennis L; DiPersio, John F; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Hartzman, Robert J; Horowitz, Mary M; Hurley, Carolyn K; Karanes, Chatchada; Maiers, Martin; Mueller, Carlheinz R; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Setterholm, Michelle; Woolfrey, Ann E; Yu, Neng; Eapen, Mary

    2016-01-14

    There are >24 million registered adult donors, and the numbers of unrelated donor transplantations are increasing. The optimal strategy for prioritizing among comparably HLA-matched potential donors has not been established. Therefore, the objective of the current analyses was to study the association between donor characteristics (age, sex, parity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, HLA match, and blood group ABO match) and survival after transplantation for hematologic malignancy. The association of donor characteristics with transplantation outcomes was examined using either logistic or Cox regression models, adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics associated with outcomes in 2 independent datasets: 1988 to 2006 (N = 6349; training cohort) and 2007 to 2011 (N = 4690; validation cohort). All donor-recipient pairs had allele-level HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, which is the current standard for selecting donors. Adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics, survival was better after transplantation of grafts from young donors (aged 18-32 years) who were HLA matched to recipients (P < .001). These findings were validated for transplantations that occurred between 2007 and 2011. For every 10-year increment in donor age, there is a 5.5% increase in the hazard ratio for overall mortality. Increasing HLA disparity was also associated with worsening survival. Donor age and donor-recipient HLA match are important when selecting adult unrelated donors. Other donor characteristics such as sex, parity, and cytomegalovirus serostatus were not associated with survival. The effect of ABO matching on survival is modest and must be studied further before definitive recommendations can be offered. PMID:26527675

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  17. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed Central

    SERUR, DAVID; BRETZLAFF, GRETCHEN; CHRISTOS, PAUL; DESROSIERS, FARRAH; CHARLTON, MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  18. Alginate dressing as a donor site haemostat.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, A. R.; Lawrence, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An alginate fibre dressing has been used to reduce blood loss from skin graft donor sites. Significant haemostasis has been achieved in the immediate post surgery phase and no adverse reactions observed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3511833

  19. Designing novel nano-immunoassays: antibody orientation versus sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, S.; Moros, M.; Fernández-Pacheco, R.; Ibarra, M. R.; Grazú, V.; de la Fuente, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for their application in quantitative and highly sensitive biosensors. Their use as labels of biological recognition events and their detection by means of some magnetic method constitute a very promising strategy for quantitative high-sensitive lateral-flow assays. In this paper, we report the importance of nanoparticle functionalization for the improvement of sensitivity for a lateral-flow immunoassay. More precisely, we have found that immobilization of IgG anti-hCG through its polysaccharide moieties on MNPs allows more successful recognition of the hCG hormone. Although we have used the detection of hCG as a model in this work, the strategy of binding antibodies to MNPs through its sugar chains reported here is applicable to other antibodies. It has huge potential as it will be very useful for the development of quantitative and high-sensitive lateral-flow assays for its use on human and veterinary, medicine, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceutical, medical biologics and personal care product production, environmental remediation, etc.

  20. A Microsystem for Magnetic Immunoassay Based on Planar Microcoil Array.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yushan; Shang, Nan; Haddad, Pierre S; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the circuit and system implementation of a microsystem platform for magnetic immunoassay, which is a novel type of diagnostic method using magnetic beads as labels. Three main challenges facing this work-design of a high performance sensor, packaging technique and design of integrated circuits are discussed. Planar microcoil array are exploited as sensor of magnetic beads, whereas ultra thin bottom microplate in traditional ELISA is used for the assay. Main circuits blocks include bidirectional current supply circuit, magnetic field sensing circuit and on-chip temperature sensor. Experiments using mouse IgG with different densities were performed on the proposed platform, results show that a minimum density of 100 pg/mL can be detected, which is a comparable sensitivity to conventional optical ELISA, and a quantitative relationship can be acquired in the range from 1 ng/ml to 1 ug/ml, thus this platform is suitable for quantitative analysis in practical health and environment application and has potential for medical diagnostics, food pathogen detection or water analysis. PMID:26173219

  1. The microassay on a card: A rugged, portable immunoassay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidwell, David

    1991-01-01

    The Microassay on a Card (MAC) is a portable, hand-held, non-instrumental immunoassay that can test for the presence of a wide variety of substances in the environment. The MAC is a simple device to use. A drop of test solution is placed on one side of the card and within five minutes a color is developed on the other side in proportion to the amount of substance in the test solution, with sensitivity approaching 10 ng/ml. The MAC is self-contained and self-timed; no reagents or timing is necessary. The MAC may be configured with multiple wells to provide simultaneous testing for multiple species. As envisioned, the MAC will be employed first as an on-site screen for drugs of abuse in urine or saliva. If the MAC can be used as a screen of saliva for drugs of abuse, it could be applied to driving while intoxicated, use of drugs on the job, or testing of the identity of seized materials. With appropriate modifications, the MAC also could be used to test for environmental toxins or pollutants.

  2. Lead analysis by anti-chelate fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David K; Combs, Sherry M; Parsen, John D; Jolley, Michael E

    2002-03-01

    Lead concentrations were determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method that uses polyclonal antibodies raised against the lead(II) chelate of ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The technique is based on competition for a fixed concentration of antibody binding sites between Pb-EDTA, formed by treating the sample with excess EDTA, and a fixed concentration of a fluorescent analogue of the Pb-EDTA complex. The objective was to correlate results obtained by FPIA with those produced by conventional atomic spectroscopy analysis of soils, solid waste leachates (produced by the Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure; TCLP), airborne dust, and drinking water. Linear regression analysis of FPIA results for 138 soil samples containing 0-3094 ppm Pb(II) by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and 40 TCLP extracts containing 0-668 ppm Pb(II) by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy produced correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.96 and 0.93, respectively. Pilot studies of mineral acid extracts of airborne dust trapped on fiberglass filters and of two sources of drinking water demonstrated the feasibility of also measuring lead in these matrixes by FPIA. The limit of detection under conditions that minimized sample dilution was approximately 1 ppb, and cross reactivity with 15 nontarget metals was below 0.5% in all cases. The methods are simple to perform and are amenable to field testing and mobile laboratory use, allowing timely and cost-effective characterization of suspected sources of lead contamination. PMID:11917989

  3. High sensitivity, homogeneous particle-based immunoassay for thyrotropin (Multipact).

    PubMed

    Wilkins, T A; Brouwers, G; Mareschal, J C; Cambiaso, C L

    1988-09-01

    We describe the first homogeneous, nonradioactive, high-sensitivity assay for human thyrotropin (TSH). The assay is based on particle immunoassay techniques, wherein 800-nm particles form the basis for the immunochemistry, delivery, and the detection technologies, respectively. Our assay also is the first to involve the use of fragmented monoclonal antibodies (to eliminate serum interferences) covalently coupled to particles without loss of their binding properties. Assays are performed in a semiautomated mode with use of a new modular system (Multipact). Equilibrium is reached in less than 2 h. Precision profile, sensitivity, and clinical studies indicate that the assay is accurate, has good precision at low concentrations, and that detection-limit characteristics compare well with those of a leading commercial high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for TSH. Dilution characteristics were satisfactory down to the assay's detection limit for a range of clinical samples. Correlation studies vs a reference IRMA method yielded the regression equation, present method = 0.976 (IRMA) + 0.002 milli-int. unit/L (r = 0.98), for 223 samples with TSH concentrations in the range 0 to 30 milli-int. units/L. For 40 samples with TSH less than or equal to 1.0 milli-int. unit/L it was: present method = 0.94 (IRMA) + 0.005 milli-int. unit/L (r = 0.96). PMID:3416423

  4. Enzyme immunoassay for determination of gluten in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, J H; Hill, A S

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed in 15 laboratories to validate a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for determination of gluten in foods. The study included 13 samples: maize starch, "gluten-free" baking mixes, wheat flours, cookies, cooked meats, and a soup. Gluten was present in these samples at either zero or 0.02 to 10% by weight, i.e., over almost 3 orders of magnitude. The mean assay values for the foods varied from 88 to 105% of the actual amounts. The assay was quantitative for cereal products and the soup with repeatability (RDS-r, relative standard deviation) and reproducibility (RSD-R) of 16-22% and 24-33%, respectively. The assay was semiquantitative for the processed meat products (RSD-r 14 and 26% and RSD-R 46 and 56%), probably because gluten was unevenly distributed in the small (1 g) samples that were analyzed. The ELISA method produced no false positive results, and false negatives obtained with tannin-containing foods could be avoided by use of a modified sample extractant. None of the collaborators reported problems in following the protocol. The method has been adopted official first action by AOAC for determination of wheat gluten in foods. PMID:2050607

  5. Rapid dioxin screening of milk and water by enzyme immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.O.; Carlson, R.E.; Shirkhan, H.

    1995-12-01

    A simple and easy to use enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system has been developed for rapid screening of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378D). This EIA has been adapted to analysis of water and milk using an automated system for extraction of liquid samples. Water analysis can be performed directly following extraction and solvent exchange with no extract clean-up. The same automated system is used for milk extraction and the extract is then cleaned chromatographically using the automated FMS Dioxin-Prep{trademark} System. Sensitivity for 2378D in the EIA is approximately 100 pg per analysis. Thus sensitivity to 10 ppt 2378D (whole weight basis) in milk is possible using only 50 ml or less of sample and sensitivity to 0.1 ppt 2378D in water is possible using 1-2 liters of sample. Total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 3 hours for water and 4.5 hours for milk.

  6. Analysis of cooked-food mutagens by HPLC/immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Vanderlaan, M.; Felton, J.S.

    1988-10-10

    Recognizing that an immunoassay for these aminoimidazoazaarenes (AIAs) could be an analytical method with higher sample throughput and would be less costly, we developed a set of monoclonal antibodies that selectively bind to each of the AIAs. We selected PhIP (6-phenyl-2-amino-1-methylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) for the initial assay development because it is the AIA that is most abundant by mass in cooked meat and it is the most genotoxic AIA in mammalian-cell short-term bioassays. It is, however, the least active AIA in the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. We have recently developed a set of four monoclonals that bind to the PhIP. These antibodies were produced by standard methods and were derived from the immunogen described previously. The binding specificity of each of these antibodies has been well characterized. The most specific antibody, called PhIP-1, will bind PhIP with a 50% inhibition point (I/sub 50/) of 30 ng, and it will not bind to any of the other AIA mutagens, nor to any of a number of synthetically produced derivatives of PhIP, such as Iso-PhIP (6-phenyl-2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine). PhIP-1 does bind with 2-deamino-PhIP and 2-deamino-2-nitro-PhIP with an I/sub 50/ of 13 and 16 ng, respectively. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Radio-immunoassay of gastrin in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, P. C.; Hunter, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    1. A radio-immunoassay for gastrin has been developed using partially purified porcine gastrin to raise antibodies and highly purified natural porcine gastrin I for radio-iodination with 125I. The separation of antibody-bound from free hormone was performed by a double-antibody method. 2. In this assay highly purified natural porcine gastrin I, synthetic human gastrin I, radio-iodinated porcine gastrin I, gastrin in the plasma of a healthy volunteer, a patient with pernicious anaemia and another patient with the Zollinger—Ellison syndrome were immunologically identical. 3. The fasting plasma gastrin concentration of fourteen gastric ulcer patients was significantly higher than that of the 113 hospital controls with no history of gastro-intestinal disease, while twenty-seven duodenal ulcer patients had gastrin levels within the normal range. 4. Plasma gastrin concentration was significantly elevated in pernicious anaemia (fifty-one patients), achlorhydria (thirty-three patients), hypochlorhydria (eleven patients) and in nine patients with histologically proven Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. 5. In human volunteers a protein meal stimulated endogenous gastrin release while a carbohydrate meal did not. Atropine sulphate I.M., and hydrochloric acid orally, produced a significant fall in the level of circulating gastrin. PMID:5014108

  8. Development of a monoclonal immunoassay selective for chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides.

    PubMed

    Manclús, Juan J; Abad, Antonio; Lebedev, Mijail Y; Mojarrad, Fatemeh; Micková, Barbora; Mercader, Josep V; Primo, Jaime; Miranda, Miguel A; Montoya, Angel

    2004-05-19

    Organochlorine pesticides still generate public health concerns because of their unresolved health impact and their persistence in living beings, which is demanding appropriate analytical techniques for their monitoring. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of an important group of organochlorine pesticides, the cyclodiene group, has been developed. With this aim, several hapten-protein conjugates, characterized by exposure of the common hexachlorinated bicyclic (norbornene) moiety and differing in the linking structure to the carrier protein, were prepared. From mice immunized with these conjugates, several MAbs with the ability to sensitively bind the majority of cyclodienes were obtained. Among them CCD2.2 MAb displaying the broadest recognition to cyclodiene compounds (endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, toxaphene: I(50) values in the 6-25 nM range) was selected for the assay. Interestingly, this MAb showed certain stereospecificity toward other polychlorinated cycloalkanes because the gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) was also very well recognized (I(50) value of 22 nM). This immunoassay is potentially a very valuable analytical tool for the rapid and sensitive determination of cyclodiene insecticides and related compounds, which in turn may contribute to the understanding of the biological activities and of the overall environmental impact of these persistent organic pollutants. PMID:15137813

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity of Histoplasma Antigen Detection by Enzyme Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Lauren; Cook, Audrey; Hanzlicek, Andrew; Harkin, Kenneth; Wheat, Joseph; Goad, Carla; Kirsch, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on urine samples for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs. This retrospective medical records review included canine cases with urine samples submitted for Histoplasma EIA antigen assay between 2007 and 2011 from three veterinary institutions. Cases for which urine samples were submitted for Histoplasma antigen testing were reviewed and compared to the gold standard of finding Histoplasma organisms or an alternative diagnosis on cytology or histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and the kappa coefficient and associated confidence interval were calculated for the EIA-based Histoplasma antigen assay. Sixty cases met the inclusion criteria. Seventeen cases were considered true positives based on identification of the organism, and 41 cases were considered true negatives with an alternative definitive diagnosis. Two cases were considered false negatives, and there were no false positives. Sensitivity was 89.47% and the negative predictive value was 95.35%. Specificity and the positive predictive value were both 100%. The kappa coefficient was 0.9207 (95% confidence interval, 0.8131-1). The Histoplasma antigen EIA test demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in dogs. PMID:26355580

  10. Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Amy E.; Hatch, Anson V.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Tran, Huu M.; Brennan, James S.; Giannobile, William V.; Singh, Anup K.

    2007-01-01

    At present, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics typically provide a binary indication of health status (e.g., home pregnancy test strip). Before anticipatory use of diagnostics for assessment of complex diseases becomes widespread, development of sophisticated bioassays capable of quantitatively measuring disease biomarkers is necessary. Successful translation of new bioassays into clinical settings demands the ability to monitor both the onset and progression of disease. Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument. Our microfluidic method facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing) with electrophoretic immunoassays to quickly measure analyte concentrations in minimally pretreated saliva samples. Using 20 μl of saliva, we demonstrate rapid (<10 min) measurement of the collagen-cleaving enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in saliva from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. In addition to physiologically measurable indicators of periodontal disease, conventional measurements of salivary MMP-8 were used to validate the microfluidic assays described in this proof-of-principle study. The microchip-based POC diagnostic demonstrated is applicable to rapid, reliable measurement of proteinaceous disease biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:17374724

  11. Sensitive, Fast, and Specific Immunoassays for Methyltestosterone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Na; Song, Shanshan; Peng, Juan; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT) residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%–100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed. PMID:25938198

  12. Amplified flow-cytometric separation-free fluorescence immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G.C.; Jett, J.H.; Martin, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    An equilibrium-type competitive-binding fluorescence immunoassay with high sensitivity and excellent precision is described that obviates separation of free from bound label. In the assay relatively large (10 microns diameter) antibody-coated non-fluorescent particles and very small (0.10 micron diameter) antigen-coated fluorescent latex particles are used. Soluble nonlabeled antigen competes with antigen on the microspheres for antibody binding sites on the larger spheres. After equilibrium is attained, the fluorescence distribution of 5000 of the large spheres is measured in a flow cytometer. The mean values for the fluorescence distribution obtained from samples containing known concentrations of soluble antigen are used to construct a standard displacement curve. In a prototype assay for the antigen horseradish peroxidase, a sensitivity of 10(-12) mol/L has been achieved. Undiluted serum can be assayed without loss of sensitivity. Preliminary experiments also indicate that double-antibody sandwich-type assays of very high sensitivity (10(-14) mol/L) are also possible when this dual-sphere concept is exploited.

  13. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  14. Affinity patterns of enzyme tracers for triazine immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Michael G.; Niessner, Reinhard

    1997-05-01

    Cross-reactivities are one of the most important characteristics of immunoassays. Nevertheless most cross- reactivity studies are only performed with small molecules, which are similar to the target analyte. The complex mechanism of the binding event of an antibody makes it likely that the orientation of the hapten plays a critical role. Therefore cross-reactivities of hapten-derivatives with spacers may be quite different compared to the simple compound, especially when the spacer has been coupled to a large molecule, like a marker enzyme (e.g. peroxidase). We examined the relative affinity patterns of 17 enzyme tracers to 16 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for the analysis of triazine herbicides (atrazine, terbuthylazine, etc.). This allows interesting discussions about the structure of the antibody binding site and the comparison of antibodies generated with different immunogens. In addition, some general rules for the selection of immunogen structures could be derived from the data. The figures shown in this paper facilitate to find suitable tracer haptens for one of the tested antibodies and support for instance the optimization of immunosensor regeneration, as tracer affinity is closely correlated to the dissociation rate constant of an antibody-tracer complex.

  15. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 ?m width and 100 ?m depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  16. Graphene oxide-based SPR biosensor chip for immunoassay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Liu, Kou-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This work develops a highly sensitive immunoassay sensor for use in graphene oxide sheet (GOS)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips. This sensing film, which is formed by chemically modifying a GOS surface, has covalent bonds that strongly interact with the bovine serum albumin (BSA), explaining why it has a higher sensitivity. This GOS film-based SPR chip has a BSA concentration detection limit that is 100 times higher than that of the conventional Au-film-based sensor. The affinity constants ( K A) on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip for 100 ?g/ml BSA are 80.82 × 106 M-1 and 15.67 × 106 M-1, respectively. Therefore, the affinity constant of the GOS film-based SPR chip is 5.2 times higher than that of the conventional chip. With respect to the protein-protein interaction, the SPR sensor capability to detect angle changes at a low concentration anti-BSA of 75.75 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip is 36.1867 and 26.1759 mdeg, respectively. At a high concentration, anti-BSA of 378.78 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip reveals two times increases in the SPR angle shift. Above results demonstrate that the GOS film is promising for highly sensitive clinical diagnostic applications.

  17. System and method for a parallel immunoassay system

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    2002-01-01

    A method and system for detecting a target antigen using massively parallel immunoassay technology. In this system, high affinity antibodies of the antigen are covalently linked to small beads or particles. The beads are exposed to a solution containing DNA-oligomer-mimics of the antigen. The mimics which are reactive with the covalently attached antibody or antibodies will bind to the appropriate antibody molecule on the bead. The particles or beads are then washed to remove any unbound DNA-oligomer-mimics and are then immobilized or trapped. The bead-antibody complexes are then exposed to a test solution which may contain the targeted antigens. If the antigen is present it will replace the mimic since it has a greater affinity for the respective antibody. The particles are then removed from the solution leaving a residual solution. This residual solution is applied a DNA chip containing many samples of complimentary DNA. If the DNA tag from a mimic binds with its complimentary DNA, it indicates the presence of the target antigen. A flourescent tag can be used to more easily identify the bound DNA tag.

  18. Cell and Colloidal Substrates for Dielectrophoretic Microfluidic Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Jill; Gagnon, Zachary; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2009-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a term commonly used to describe the field induced polarization and translational motion of a polarizable particle in a non-uniform AC field. The frequency at which the induced particle dipole goes to zero, known as the crossover frequency (cof), is highly dependent on the surface conductance of the particle. We have shown previously that DNA hybridization on the surface of a 100 nm functionalized silica particle leads to detectable surface conduction changes which make it possible to detect DNA hybridization reactions by simply measuring changes in particle suspension cof. In this work we present a similar detection scheme using novel colloidal and cell substrates as dielectrophoretic immunosensors. Aminated cell or nanocolloid surfaces are subjected to a polymer coating glutaraldehyde treatment followed by antibody coupling reaction for immunoassay based detection. By varying the polymer coating thickness on the colloid or cell surface we demonstrate the ability to tune, stabilize the cell and colloid cof, and minimized non-specific adsorption of proteins. As such, a library of cof labeled colloids and cells are created and used for multiple antigen analysis. By measuring the colloid and cell specific DEP cof prior to and after antibody-antigen interaction we demonstrate the ability to perform rapid label free protein detection within a microfluidic device.

  19. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Vilsu I.; Bhatti, Apksha; Gupte, Snehalata C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb) levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ?10, 11-20, 21-50 and >50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in >50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio × 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t-test, ?2 and anova (F-test). Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating <20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for >20 times (P < 0.001), compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors (P < 0.05) compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores. PMID:20041071

  20. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and 2 Seroprevalence among first-time blood donors in Chile, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Héctor; Balanda, Monserrat; Vergara, Nicolás; Valenzuela, María Antonieta; Cartier, Luis; Ayala, Salvador; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) is a major health problem. HTLV-1/2 infection is endemic in Chile but representative donor prevalence data are lacking. Data on all blood donors in a large network of Chilean blood centers were examined during 2011-2013. Screening of HTLV-1/2 antibodies were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) at all blood banks. Blood samples with anticoagulants from initially reactive blood donors were analyzed by serological confirmation tests (immunofluorescence or recombinant immunoblot) at the HTLV National Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Chile. Additionally, detection of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed in all blood donors as confirmatory test. Prevalence rates were calculated. Among 694,016 donors, 706 were seropositive for HTLV-1 (prevalence, 1.02 cases per 1,000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.09), and 97 were seropositive for HTLV-2 (prevalence, 0.14 cases per 1,000; 95%CI, 0.11-0.17). Prevalence of HTLV-1 differed considerably by region, from 0.51 to 1.69 per 1,000. Prevalence of HTLV-2 was similar across the country (0.12-0.16). HTLV-1 prevalence was associated with female sex, older age, and residence in the north of Chile. HTVL-2 prevalence was associated with older age. The HTLV-1 prevalence among Chilean blood donors was relatively high and could be reduced by improving donor recruitment and selection in high prevalence areas. Blood center data may contribute to surveillance for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections. J. Med. Virol. 88:1067-1075, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26538335

  1. Liver-specific deceased donor risk indices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifa; Hisatake, Garrett; Yang, Libin

    2014-02-01

    In order to assess the quality of the donor liver, procuring surgeons should accurately evaluate not only general donor risk indices, such as donor age, causes of brain death and cold ischemic time, but also consider the specific donor risk indices. In this review, we focus on liver-specific deceased donor risk indices, including liver steatosis, anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) positive or hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive donors, hypernatremia and anatomical variations. Liver steatosis is strongly associated with poor graft function after liver transplantation. Liver with more than 40-50% macrosteatosis should not be used. However, at present the quantity of fatty livers lack accepted standards. The computerized image analysis programs should be used to automate the determination of fat content in liver biopsy specimens. Liver grafts from anti-HBc positive donors can be safely used, preferentially in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive or anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive recipients. HCV positive allografts free from fibrosis or severe inflammation are a safe option for HCV positive recipients. The procurement team should consider liver biopsy to evaluate these HCV positive allografts. Donor serum sodium over 150?mm may predict a higher rate of graft primary non-functions. Recently, however, some investigators reported the sodium level likely has little clinical impact on post-transplant liver function. The incidence of hepatic artery variations has been reported to be approximately 30%. To avoid injuries, it is very important to know and identify these variations with precision at the time of organ procurement. PMID:24033790

  2. Predictors of donor follow-up after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert S; Smith, Abigail R; Dew, Mary Amanda; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Ladner, Daniela P

    2014-08-01

    Donor safety in living liver donation is of paramount importance; however, information on long-term outcomes is limited by incomplete follow-up. We sought to ascertain factors that predicted postdonation follow-up in 456 living liver donors in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study. Completed donor follow-up was defined as physical, phone, or laboratory contact at a given time point. Univariate and multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models, using donor and recipient demographic and clinical data and donor quality-of-life data, were developed to predict completed follow-up. Ninety percent of the donors completed their follow-up in the first 3 months, and 83% completed their follow-up at year 1; rates of completed follow-up ranged from 57% to 72% in years 2 to 7 and from 41% to 56% in years 8 to 10. The probability of completed follow-up in the first year was higher for white donors [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-8.58] but lower for donors whose recipients had hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.17-0.69). After the first year, an older age at donation predicted more complete follow-up. There were significant center differences at all time points (OR range = 0.29-10.11), with center variability in both returns for in-center visits and the use of phone/long-distance visits. Donor follow-up in the first year after donation was excellent but decreased with time. Predictors of follow-up varied with the time since donation. In conclusion, adapting best center practices (enhanced through the use of telephones and social media) to maintain contact with donors represents a significant opportunity to gain valuable information about long-term donor outcomes. PMID:24824858

  3. Estimated GFR for Living Kidney Donor Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Foster, M C; Lentine, K L; Garg, A X; Poggio, E D; Kasiske, B L; Inker, L A; Levey, A S

    2016-01-01

    All living kidney donor candidates undergo evaluation of GFR. Guidelines recommend measured GFR (mGFR), using either an endogenous filtration marker or creatinine clearance, rather than estimated GFR (eGFR), but measurement methods are difficult, time consuming and costly. We investigated whether GFR estimated from serum creatinine (eGFRcr) with or without sequential cystatin C is sufficiently accurate to identify donor candidates with high probability that mGFR is above or below thresholds for clinical decision making. We combined the pretest probability for mGFR thresholds <60, <70, ?80, and ?90?mL/min per 1.73?m(2) based on demographic characteristics (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) with test performance of eGFR (categorical likelihood ratios from the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) to compute posttest probabilities. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, 53% of recent living donors had predonation eGFRcr high enough to ensure ?95% probability that predonation mGFR was ?90?mL/min?per 1.73?m(2) , suggesting that mGFR may not be necessary in a large proportion of donor candidates. We developed a Web-based application to compute the probability, based on eGFR, that mGFR for a donor candidate is above or below a range of thresholds useful in living donor evaluation and selection. PMID:26594819

  4. Comparison of Procleix Ultrio Elite and Procleix Ultrio NAT Assays for Screening of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors in India.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Rout, Diptiranjan; Zaman, Shamsuz; Chatterjee, Kabita; Pandey, Hem Chandra; Maurya, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) has helped in decreasing window period donations, resulting in increased safety of blood supplies. NAT combines the advantages of direct and highly sequence-specific detection of viral genomes. We analysed the performance of newer Procleix Ultrio Elite (PUE) and Procleix Ultrio assay (PUA) for the screening of the viral markers in our donor population. Material and Methods. 10,015 donor samples were screened by routine immunoassays and both versions of NAT. NAT yields detected were subjected to viral load estimation and to other serological markers. Results. A total of 21 NAT yields were detected; three were positive by both NAT systems, whereas 18 samples were reactive by PUE only. NAT yields include 18 HBV and 3 HCV yields, of which 17 HBV yields were occult infections and 1 was window period (WP) infection. All 3 HCV yields were WP infections. No HIV-1/HIV-2 yield was found. Conclusion. Efficient target capture chemistry in the new TMA assay version significantly improved sensitivity. NAT is superior to serological immunoassays for screening of the viral markers; and the efficient target capture system in the newer TMA assay, namely, the PUE system, has significantly improved sensitivity over the earlier versions. PMID:26904124

  5. Comparison of Procleix Ultrio Elite and Procleix Ultrio NAT Assays for Screening of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors in India

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Rout, Diptiranjan; Zaman, Shamsuz; Chatterjee, Kabita; Pandey, Hem Chandra; Maurya, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) has helped in decreasing window period donations, resulting in increased safety of blood supplies. NAT combines the advantages of direct and highly sequence-specific detection of viral genomes. We analysed the performance of newer Procleix Ultrio Elite (PUE) and Procleix Ultrio assay (PUA) for the screening of the viral markers in our donor population. Material and Methods. 10,015 donor samples were screened by routine immunoassays and both versions of NAT. NAT yields detected were subjected to viral load estimation and to other serological markers. Results. A total of 21 NAT yields were detected; three were positive by both NAT systems, whereas 18 samples were reactive by PUE only. NAT yields include 18 HBV and 3 HCV yields, of which 17 HBV yields were occult infections and 1 was window period (WP) infection. All 3 HCV yields were WP infections. No HIV-1/HIV-2 yield was found. Conclusion. Efficient target capture chemistry in the new TMA assay version significantly improved sensitivity. NAT is superior to serological immunoassays for screening of the viral markers; and the efficient target capture system in the newer TMA assay, namely, the PUE system, has significantly improved sensitivity over the earlier versions. PMID:26904124

  6. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  7. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field. PMID:21649566

  8. How Organ Donors are Different from Non-donors: Responsibility, Barriers, and Religious Involvement.

    PubMed

    Range, Lillian M; Brazda, Geoffrey F

    2015-12-01

    To see if religious involvement, previously linked to various health behaviors, was linked to organ donation, 143 ethnically diverse undergraduates stated whether they were registered donors (53% were), and completed measures of organ donation attitudes and religious involvement. Compared with non-donors, donors reported fewer barriers, more family responsibility, and more willingness to receive donor organs, but were not different in religious involvement. Even in 2014, when being a "good Samaritan" by agreeing to organ donation is as easy as checking one box on a driver's license application, religious involvement does not seem to be a factor in checking this box. PMID:25524413

  9. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  10. Protease Activity and Cell-Free DNA in Blood Plasma of Healthy Donors and Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Tamkovich, Svetlana; Bryzgunova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Tumor development is generally accompanied by increased protease activity and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels in the blood. An immunoassay for protease activity was developed based on the binding of anti-peptide antibodies onto polystyrene plates, followed by incubation with peptides and protein hydrolyzing enzymes. The data obtained demonstrate the peptide CD34-1 composed of uncharged amino acids was the best substrate for the estimation of plasma protease activity in breast cancer patients and healthy donors. Anti-CD34-1 peptide protease activity was shown to correlate with circulating DNA concentrations in cancer patients and healthy subjects (P = 0.001, r = 0.676), demonstrating the role of protease activity in the regulation of cfDNA levels. PMID:26264080

  11. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5?ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  12. Ultrafast immunoassays by coupling dielectrophoretic biomarker enrichment in nanoslit channel with electrochemical detection on graphene.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Bankim J; Varhue, Walter; Rohani, Ali; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Bazydlo, Lindsay A L; Chou, Chia-Fu; Swami, Nathan S

    2015-12-21

    Heterogeneous immunoassays usually require long incubation times to promote specific target binding and several wash steps to eliminate non-specific binding. Hence, signal saturation is rarely achieved at detection limit levels of analyte, leading to significant errors in analyte quantification due to extreme sensitivity of the signals to incubation time and methodology. The poor binding kinetics of immunoassays at detection limit levels can be alleviated through creating an enriched analyte plug in the vicinity of immobilized capture probes to enable signal saturation at higher levels and at earlier times, due to higher analyte association and its faster replenishment at the binding surface. Herein, we achieve this by coupling frequency-selective dielectrophoretic molecular dam enrichment of the target biomarker in physiological media to capture probes immobilized on graphene-modified surfaces in a nanoslit to enable ultrafast immunoassays with near-instantaneous (<2 minutes) signal saturation at dilute biomarker levels (picomolar) within ultra-low sample volumes (picoliters). This methodology is applied to the detection of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) diluted in serum samples, followed by validation against a standard two-step immunoassay using three de-identified patient samples. Based on the ability of dielectrophoretic molecular dam analyte enrichment methods to enable the detection of PSA at 1-5 pg mL(-1) levels within a minute, and the relative insensitivity of the signals to incubation time after the first two minutes, we envision its application for improving the sensitivity of immunoassays and their accuracy at detection limit levels. PMID:26496877

  13. Microfluidic immunoassay with plug-in liquid crystal for optical detection of antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingdi; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advance in liquid crystal (LqC) based immunoassays enables label-free detection of antibody, but manual preparation of LqC cells and injection of LqC are required. In this work, we developed a new format of LqC-based immunoassay which is hosted in a microfluidic device. In this format, the orientations of LqC are strongly influenced by four channel walls surrounding the LqC. When the aspect ratio (depth/width) of the channel is smaller than 0.38, LqC orients homeotropically inside the microchannel and appears dark. After antigens bind to immobilized antibodies on the channel walls, a shift of the LqC appearance from dark to bright (due to the disruption of LqC orientation) can be visualized directly. To streamline the immunoassay process, a tubing cartridge loaded with a sample solution, washing buffers and a plug of LqC is connected to the microfluidic device. By using pressure-driven flow, the cartridge allows antigen/antibody binding, washing and optical detection to be accomplished in a sequential order. We demonstrate that this microfluidic immunoassay is able to detect anti-rabbit IgG with a naked-eye detection limit down to 1 μg mL(-1). This new format of immunoassay provides a simple and robust approach to perform LqC-based label-free immunodetection in microfluidic devices. PMID:25467520

  14. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li'an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5?ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  15. Molecular Similarity Methods for Predicting Cross-Reactivity With Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Siam, Mohamed G.; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Immunoassays are used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) yet may suffer from cross-reacting compounds able to bind the assay antibodies in a manner similar to the target molecule. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation using computational tools to predict cross-reactivity with TDM immunoassays. The authors used molecular similarity methods to enable calculation of structural similarity for a wide range of compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target molecules of TDM immunoassays. Utilizing different molecular descriptors (MDL public keys, functional class fingerprints, and pharmacophore fingerprints) and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient, the authors compared cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for in vitro diagnostic use. Using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient showed a strong and statistically significant separation between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds. Thus, two-dimensional shape similarity of cross-reacting molecules and the target molecules of TDM immunoassays provides a fast chemoinformatics methods for a priori prediction of potential of cross-reactivity that might be otherwise undetected. These methods could be used to reliably focus cross-reactivity testing on compounds with high similarity to the target molecule and limit testing of compounds with low similarity and ultimately with a very low probability of cross-reacting with the assay in vitro. PMID:19333148

  16. Superfund innovative technology evaluation (site) program evaluation report for antox BTX water screen (BTX immunoassay)

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, R.W.; White, R.J.; O'Leary, N.F.; Van Emon, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    The results of a demonstration of a portable immunoassay for the detection of benzene, toluene, and xylene(s) (BTX) are described in the report. Seventy-nine field samples were obtained from monitoring wells at several sites with gasoline contaminated ground water. Sample splits were analyzed on-site by the BTX immunoassay and in the laboratory by gas chromatography (GC) using EPA Method 8020. The BTX immunoassay was rapid and simple to use. It performed well in identifying high level contamination and gasoline contaminated samples having BTX concentrations greater than 100 ppb. It did not fully meet the claims of the developer of identifying contamination levels down to 25 ppb BTX. Two field samples determined by GC to have between 25 and 100 ppb BTX failed to be classified correctly by the immunoassay. Results from quality assurance samples with BTX concentrations of 2.5, 25, and 100 ppb also showed that false negative results would be expected at higher than a 5 percent rate when BTX contamination levels were between 25 and 100 ppb. However, for samples with higher BTX levels, the immunoassay gave excellent results. Two field samples yielded false positive results compared to GC values, but these samples showed signs of low-level gasoline contamination.

  17. Are You Ready for Donor-Advised Funds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toward, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    A donor-advised fund, increasingly popular for college giving, can be used by donors for immediate tax benefits and flexibility in charitable giving. The donor makes an irrevocable gift to the fund, which is considered a charitable organization, and the fund administrator invests the gift. The donor specifies the amount to be given and the…

  18. Surveillance of Fungal Allergic Sensitization Using the Fluorescent Halogen Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Tovey, Euan R.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Acosta, Luis M.; Divjan, Adnan I.; Chew, Ginger L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Conidia derived from a small number of common fungal genera are widely accepted as the etiological agents responsible for fungal allergic sensitization. The contribution of fungal conidia, spores, airborne hyphae, and subcellular fragments from other uncharacterized fungal genera remains unclear. In this proof-of-concept study, we examined the composition of mycoaerosols that atopic women were exposed and sensitized to in their own indoor environment using the fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). Patients and Methods Mycoaerosols were collected onto mixed cellulose ester protein binding membranes (PBMs) for 30 minutes with volumetric air sampling pumps. The PBMs were laminated with an adhesive cover slip and indirectly immunostained with individual patient serum IgE using the fHIA. Samples were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunostained particles were expressed as a percentage of total particles. Results All air samples contained a broad spectrum of fungal spores, conidia, hyphae, and other fungal particulates. Airborne concentrations varied between individual study participant environments. Positively immunostained conidia belonging to moniliaceous amerospores, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and many unknown species were observed in the majority of air samples. Other fungal genera including Bipolaris, Curvularia, Pithomyces, and Stachybotrys, in addition to, ascospore genera and dematiaceous hyphal fragments released detectable allergen. Twelve percent of all fHIA haloes quantified in the analysis were directed towards fungal particles. No immunostaining was detected to conidia belonging to Epicoccum, Fusarium, and Spegazzinia species. Conclusion In addition to characterized fungal aeroallergens, we observed a wider composition of fungi that bound human IgE. Field surveillance studies that utilize immunodiagnostic techniques such as the fHIA will provide further insight into the diversity of fungi that function as aeroallergen sources in individual study participant environments. PMID:20495612

  19. Replacing antibodies with aptamers in lateral flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming

    2015-09-15

    Aptamers have been identified against various targets as a type of chemical or nucleic acid ligand by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamers show remarkable advantages over antibodies due to the nucleic acid nature and target-induced structure-switching properties and are widely used to design various fluorescent, electrochemical, or colorimetric biosensors. However, the practical applications of aptamer-based sensing and diagnostics are still lagging behind those of antibody-based tests. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) represents a well established and appropriate technology among rapid assays because of its low cost and user-friendliness. The antibody-based platform is utilized to detect numerous targets, but it is always hampered by the antibody preparation time, antibody stability, and effect of modification on the antibody. Seeking alternatives to antibodies is an area of active research and is of tremendous importance. Aptamers are receiving increasing attention in lateral flow applications because of a number of important potential performance advantages. We speculate that aptamer-based LFIA may be one of the first platforms for commercial use of aptamer-based diagnosis. This review first gives an introduction to aptamer including the selection process SELEX with its focus on aptamer advantages over antibodies, and then depicts LFIA with its focus on aptamer opportunities in LFIA over antibodies. Furthermore, we summarize the recent advances in the development of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays with the aim to provide a general guide for the design of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays. PMID:25912679

  20. Evaluation of the siemens HIV antigen-antibody immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Vallefuoco, Luca; Aden Abdi, Fatima; Sorrentino, Rosanna; Spalletti-Cernia, Daniela; Mazzarella, Claudia; Barbato, Sara; Perna, Enzo; Buffolano, Wilma; Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe; Portella, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Fourth-generation assays for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen and antibodies are available on the international market and are currently used for blood donor screening and for HIV diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the performance of the novel automated fourth-generation ADVIA Centaur® HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay. The assay detected seroconversion at the same bleed or at least one bleed earlier in panels with respect to other assays and showed a detection efficacy equal to those of other assays in a low-titer panel. Samples obtained from blood donors (n = 2,778) or from HIV-positive patients (HIV-1 B subtype, n = 82; non-B subtype, n = 71) were also tested, showing a good correlation with other fourth-generation assays. We assessed the performance of 3 fourth-generation assays for detecting in utero transmitted anti-HIV antibodies and found a more specific detection efficiency with the ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay compared to the other fourth-generation assays. PMID:24557036

  1. Problems in the identification of potential organ donors. Misconceptions and fallacies associated with donor cards.

    PubMed

    Overcast, T D; Evans, R W; Bowen, L E; Hoe, M M; Livak, C L

    A survey of organ procurement programs and district attorneys' offices was undertaken in all 50 states and the District of Columbia to determine to what extent organ donor cards were effective in obtaining organs for purposes of transplantation. Results of the survey revealed that all 50 states and the District of Columbia have adopted some form of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA), but in 47 states, even when a signed donor card is available, surgeons still require family approval for removal of organs despite the fact that the provisions of the UAGA do not require this. In addition, it was found that while 44 states have a provision on their permanent drivers' licenses for organ donation, no state requires drivers to indicate whether they want to donate organs. While there is little information on the number of persons who actually carry donor cards, four states indicated that between 1.7% and 8.5% of their drivers were designated as donors. In Colorado, however, it was reported that 60% of all drivers are designated as donors. Nevertheless, in all states it was determined that few actual donors were carrying donor cards at the time of their death. It must therefore be concluded that while donor cards are an excellent educational medium and certainly facilitate the activities of transplant coordination, they are not an effective means of substantially increasing the supply of organs for transplantation. PMID:6700054

  2. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  3. Donor insemination: eugenic and feminist implications.

    PubMed

    Hanson, F A

    2001-09-01

    One concern regarding developments in genetics is that, when techniques such as genetic engineering become safe and affordable, people will use them for positive eugenics: to "improve" their offspring by enpowering them with exceptional qualities. Another is whether new reproductive technologies are being used to improve the condition of women or as the tools of a patriarchal system that appropriates female functions to itself and exploits women to further its own ends. Donor insemination is relevant to both of these issues. The degree to which people have used donor insemination in the past for positive eugenic purposes may give some insight into the likelihood of developing technologies being so used in the future. Donor insemination provides women with the opportunity to reproduce with only the most remote involvement of a man. To what degree do women take advantage of this to liberate themselves from male dominance? Through questionnaires and interviews, women who have used donor insemination disclosed their criteria for selecting sperm donors. The results are analyzed for the prevalence of positive eugenic criteria in the selection process and women's attitudes toward minimizing the male role in reproduction. PMID:11693033

  4. Towards a single P donor in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Wei, Tang; Ryu, Hoon; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle

    2010-03-01

    Individual P donors in Si form the basis of several schemes for realizing solid-state qubits. Technologically, all such schemes rely on the precise positioning of P donors in the Si crystal and fabrication of local gates, only a few tens of nanometers wide. Towards this goal, we have demonstrated that the spatial resolution of STM-lithography allows precise positioning of donors on the sub-nm length scale and also fabrication of all-epitaxial, planar quantum dot (QD) architectures, with source, drain, and gate patterns of precisely defined dimensions. Here, we report the STM-lithography fabrication of an ultra-small QD consisting, in the extreme limit, of a single P donor. Transport spectroscopy of the QD-device at mK temperatures shows stable Coulomb oscillations with an addition energy (around zero gate bias) of 44±2 meV. This value corresponds to the difference in the binding energies of the 1-electron (D^0) and the 2 --electron (D^-) states of a P donor in Si. The first two D^0 excited states have also been identified.

  5. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ?66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ? 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and patients now have evidence that corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study from donors through age 75 years are suitable for transplantation. PMID:18387407

  6. Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay based on Pt nanoparticle with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Min; Jung, Ha-Wook; Chang, Young Wook; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    A lateral flow immunoassay (LF-immunoassay) with an enhanced sensitivity and thermostability was developed by using Pt nanoparticles with a peroxidase activity. The Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction method, and the peroxidase activity of Pt nanoparticles was optimized by adjusting reaction conditions. The peroxidase activity was estimated by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics model with TMB as a chromogenic substrate. The kinetics parameters of KM and Vmax were calculated and compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The thermal stability of the Pt nanoparticles was compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) according to the storage temperature and long-term storage period. The feasibility of lateral flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band was demonstrated by the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a model analyte, and the sensitivity was determined to be improved by as much as 1000-fold compared to the conventional rapid test based on colored gold-colloids. PMID:25467480

  7. Evaluation of a competitive immunoassay for the detection of bovine haptoglobin.

    PubMed

    McNair, J; Kennedy, D G; Bryson, D G; Reilly, G A; McDowell, S W; Mackie, D P

    1997-01-01

    A competitive immunoassay to quantify the serum concentration of bovine haptoglobin (hp) using time resolved fluorescence was compared with an indirect method of hp assay (haemoglobin binding assay), using sera taken from healthy animals (n = 158), animals experimentally infected with Haemophilus somnus (n = 10) and from sick animals requiring veterinary treatment (n = 440). Upper limits of normality (for normal animals) were tentatively established for the immunoassay (2.1 micrograms ml-1) and for the haemoglobin binding assay (103 micrograms ml-1). The competitive immunoassay detected elevated hp in 62.5 per cent of field sera by comparison with only 19.2 per cent using the conventional haemoglobin binding assay. Serum albumin concentration did not correlate with hp although concentrations of globulins and copper did correlate. However, these parameters (serum globulin and copper) were found to be insensitive markers of inflammatory disease. PMID:9429248

  8. A SERS-based microfluidic immunoassay using an in-situ synthesized gold substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kequan; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wu, Lei; Zong, Shenfei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering)-based immunoassay in microfluidic system has been developed with in-situ synthesis of gold substrate and immune reporter named as 4MBA (4-Mercaptobenzoic acid)-labeled immuno-Ag aggregates. The gold substrate was fabricated simply by introducing the hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) trihydrate (HAuCl4) solution to microchannels using a microfluidic pump. It was found that the obtained deposited gold nanoparticles were uniform in size and shape. Then the sandwich immunoassays were performed using the gold substrates based on SERS signals. In the immunoassay, the gold nanoparticles decorated surface was modified with certain antibodies to recognize the specific kind of antigen, which was flowed through the microfluidic channel afterwards. Then 4MBA-labeled immuno-Ag aggregates were employed as the SERS probes to quantitatively detect the antigen. The experimental results showed a good specificity and limit of detection (LOD) about 1 ng/mL.

  9. Label-free homogeneous FRET immunoassay for the detection of mycotoxins that utilizes quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Taihua; Byun, Ju-Young; Kim, Bo Bae; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-04-15

    The phenomenon of fluorescence quenching of an antibody by a specific ligand was applied in developing a technique for detection of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B? (AFB?), ochratoxin A, and zearalenone. Studies showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan (Trp) residues in antibodies, promoted by excitation at 280 nm, is quenched upon binding of specific mycotoxin ligands. Fluorescence quenching in FRET system takes place in these systems as a consequence of the overlap of the emission spectra of antibody donors with the absorption spectra of the mycotoxins. Further studies focusing on the detection of AFB? revealed that the Fab fragment, the variable region of the antibody where specific binding of AFB? occurs, can be utilized to increase the sensitivity of the detection system. The results demonstrate that fluorescence of the Fab fragment is almost completely quenched by AFB? whereas emission from intact anti-AFB? is only partially quenched by this mycotoxin. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.85 and 0.09 ng mL?¹ for assays using the intact antibody and the Fab fragment, respectively, corresponding to a 10-fold enhancement. A practical application of the Fab fragment based assay system was demonstrated by its use in the detection of AFB? in spiked barley grain samples. The observations made in this effort show that the new, label-free, non-competitive, and homogeneous FRET immunoassay strategy, which requires a simple sample preparation procedure, serves as a powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive quantitative determination of organic substances such as mycotoxin. PMID:23220067

  10. Utilization of Extended Donor Criteria Liver Allografts Maximizes Donor Use and Patient Access to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Renz, John F.; Kin, Cindy; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Jan, Dominique; Varadarajan, Rhaghu; Goldstein, Michael; Brown, Robert; Emond, Jean C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of systematic utilization of extended donor criteria liver allografts (EDC), including living donor allografts (LDLT), on patient access to liver transplantation (LTX). Summary Background Data: Utilization of liver allografts that do not meet traditional donor criteria (EDC) offer immediate expansion of the donor pool. EDC are typically allocated by transplant center rather than regional wait-list priority (RA). This single-institution series compares outcomes of EDC and RA allocation to determine the impact of EDC utilization on donor use and patient access to LTX. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 EDC recipients (49 deceased donor, 50 LDLT) and 116 RA recipients from April 2001 through April 2004. Deceased-donor EDC included: age >65 years, donation after cardiac death, positive viral serology (hepatitis C, hepatitis B core antibody, human T-cell lymphotrophic), split-liver, hypernatremia, prior carcinoma, steatosis, and behavioral high-risk donors. Outcome variables included patient and graft survival, hospitalization, initial graft function, and complication categorized as: biliary, vascular, wound, and other. Results: EDC recipients were more frequently diagnosed with hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma and had a lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at LTX (P < 0.01). Wait-time, technical complications, and hospitalization were comparable. Log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates demonstrated no difference in patient or graft survival; however, deaths among deceased-donor EDC recipients were frequently the result of patient comorbidities, whereas LDLT and RA deaths resulted from graft failure (P < 0.01). EDC increased patient access to LTX by 77% and reduced pre-LTX mortality by over 50% compared with regional data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Systematic EDC utilization maximizes donor use, increases access to LTX, and significantly reduces wait-list mortality by providing satisfactory outcomes to select recipients. PMID:16192816

  11. The Psychosocial and Independent Living Donor Advocate Evaluation and Post-surgery Care of Living Donors.

    PubMed

    Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Swartz, Kathleen; Phillips, Chelsea; Hollenberger, Jennifer; Smith, Taylor; Steel, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplantation as a treatment for end stage organ failure has been an accepted treatment option for decades. Despite advances in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. Living donation has been an option that has increased the number of transplants despite the continued shortage of deceased organs. In the early 2000s live donor transplantation reached an all-time high in the United States. As a result, a consensus meeting was convened in 2000 to increase the oversight of living donor transplantation. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the United Network for Organ Sharing developed regulations that transplant programs performing live donor transplantation. These regulations and guidelines involve the education, evaluation, informed consent process and living donor follow-up care. Two areas in which had significant changes included the psychosocial and the independent living donor advocate (ILDA) evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to outline the current regulations and guidelines associated with the psychosocial and ILDA evaluation as well as provide further recommendations for the administration of a high quality evaluation of living donors. The goals and timing of the evaluation and education of donors; qualifications of the health care providers performing the evaluation; components of the evaluation; education provided to donors; documentation of the evaluation; participation in the selection committee meeting; post-decline and post-donation care of donors is described. Caveats including the paired donor exchange programs and non-directed and directed donation are also considered. PMID:26293351

  12. Discrepancy between Vitamin D Total Immunoassays due to Various Cross-reactivities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Choi, Jee-Hye; Kweon, Oh Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to find out the cause of discrepancy between various automated immunoassays for 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-[OH]D). Methods National Institute of Standards & Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM) 972a is SRM for 25-(OH)D and consists of 4 vials of frozen serum with different concentrations of 25-(OH)D. Each concentration was measured 6 times in 3 different immunoassays: ADVIA Vitamin D Total assay (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany), ARCHITECT 25-(OH)D (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA), and COBAS Vitamin D Total assay (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). Results When using the certified reference values of SRM 972a as it is, discarding the cross-reactivity of each immunoassay, for ADVIA, the coefficient of determination (R2) as a score of regression analysis was 0.8995 and maximal difference between measured value and certified reference value was 3.6 ng/mL in level 3. The R2 and maximal differences of ARCHITECT were 0.5377 and 6.9 ng/mL, respectively, in level 4. Those of COBAS were 0.3674 and 22.3 ng/mL, respectively, in level 4. When considering cross-reactivities of each immunoassays to various 25-(OH)D metabolites, the ADVIA had R2 and maximal difference of 0.9254 and 3.3 ng/mL, respectively, in level 3. For ARCHITECT, the R2 and maximal differences were 0.7602 and 5.1 ng/mL, respectively, in level 1. Those of COBAS were 0.9284 and 4.9 ng/mL, respectively, in level 1. Conclusions The cause of discrepancies between vitamin D immunoassays was mainly on the difference in cross-reactivities to various vitamin D metabolites. The discrepancies can be considerably decreased by considering cross-reactivities of each immunoassay. PMID:26389085

  13. Diagnostic value of immunoassays for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Michael; Bachmann, Lucas M; Ten Cate, Hugo; Ten Cate-Hoek, Arina

    2016-02-01

    Immunoassays are essential in the workup of patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. However, the diagnostic accuracy is uncertain with regard to different classes of assays, antibody specificities, thresholds, test variations, and manufacturers. We aimed to assess diagnostic accuracy measures of available immunoassays and to explore sources of heterogeneity. We performed comprehensive literature searches and applied strict inclusion criteria. Finally, 49 publications comprising 128 test evaluations in 15?199 patients were included in the analysis. Methodological quality according to the revised tool for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies was moderate. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated with the unified model (comprising a bivariate random-effects model and a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics model). Important differences were observed between classes of immunoassays, type of antibody specificity, thresholds, application of confirmation step, and manufacturers. Combination of high sensitivity (>95%) and high specificity (>90%) was found in 5 tests only: polyspecific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with intermediate threshold (Genetic Testing Institute, Asserachrom), particle gel immunoassay, lateral flow immunoassay, polyspecific chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) with a high threshold, and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-specific CLIA with low threshold. Borderline results (sensitivity, 99.6%; specificity, 89.9%) were observed for IgG-specific Genetic Testing Institute-ELISA with low threshold. Diagnostic accuracy appears to be inadequate in tests with high thresholds (ELISA; IgG-specific CLIA), combination of IgG specificity and intermediate thresholds (ELISA, CLIA), high-dose heparin confirmation step (ELISA), and particle immunofiltration assay. When making treatment decisions, clinicians should be a aware of diagnostic characteristics of the tests used and it is recommended they estimate posttest probabilities according to likelihood ratios as well as pretest probabilities using clinical scoring tools. PMID:26518436

  14. Using cheminformatics to predict cross reactivity of “designer drugs” to their currently available immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A challenge for drug of abuse testing is presented by ‘designer drugs’, compounds typically discovered by modifications of existing clinical drug classes such as amphetamines and cannabinoids. Drug of abuse screening immunoassays directed at amphetamine or methamphetamine only detect a small subset of designer amphetamine-like drugs, and those immunoassays designed for tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites generally do not cross-react with synthetic cannabinoids lacking the classic cannabinoid chemical backbone. This suggests complexity in understanding how to detect and identify whether a patient has taken a molecule of one class or another, impacting clinical care. Methods Cross-reactivity data from immunoassays specifically targeting designer amphetamine-like and synthetic cannabinoid drugs was collected from multiple published sources, and virtual chemical libraries for molecular similarity analysis were built. The virtual library for synthetic cannabinoid analysis contained a total of 169 structures, while the virtual library for amphetamine-type stimulants contained 288 compounds. Two-dimensional (2D) similarity for each test compound was compared to the target molecule of the immunoassay undergoing analysis. Results 2D similarity differentiated between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds for immunoassays targeting mephedrone/methcathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, benzylpiperazine, mephentermine, and synthetic cannabinoids. Conclusions In this study, we applied 2D molecular similarity analysis to the designer amphetamine-type stimulants and synthetic cannabinoids. Similarity calculations can be used to more efficiently decide which drugs and metabolites should be tested in cross-reactivity studies, as well as to design experiments and potentially predict antigens that would lead to immunoassays with cross reactivity for a broader array of designer drugs. PMID:24851137

  15. Prevalence of p24 antigen among a cohort of HIV antibody negative blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria - the question of safety of blood transfusion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osaro, Erhabor; Mohammed, Ndakotsu; Zama, Isaac; Yakubu, Abdulrahaman; Dorcas, Ikhuenbor; Festus, Aghedo; Kwaifa, Ibrahim; Sani, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Blood transfusions remain a substantial source of HIV in SSA particularly among children and pregnant women. Aims and objectives: This aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of p24 antigen among HIV antibody seronegative blood donors in Sokoto, North West Nigeria. Methods A total of 15,061 HIV antibody negative blood donors with mean age and age range (29.2 ± 8.18 and 18-50 years) were screened for p24 antigen between January 2010 to July 2013 using the Diapro Diagnostic immunoassay kit for P24 antigen (King Hawk Pharmaceuticals Beijing China). Results The overall prevalence of p24 antigen among the HIV antibody negative donors sample was 5.84%. The yearly prevalence was 9.79, 8.12, 2.7 and 2.84% respectively in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Of the total number of blood donor tested, 14,968 (99.38%) were males while 93 (0.62%) were females. The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among male blood donors 873 (5.8%) compared to females 7(0.05%), (p= 0.001). P24 positivity was significantly higher among blood group O blood donors compared to A, B and AB donors (494 (3.29%) compared to 184 (1.89%), 196 (1.30%) and 6 (0.04%)) respectively, p = 0.001). The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among Rhesus positive blood donors compared to Rhesus negative (807 (5.36%) versus 73 (0.48%), p =0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusion in Nigeria is associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. There is the urgent need to optimize the screening of blood donors in Nigeria by the inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening menu. The Nigerian government urgently need to adopt the WHO blood safety strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV through blood transfusion. PMID:25419301

  16. Stereoselective glycosylations using oxathiane spiroketal glycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Fascione, Martin A; Webb, Nicola J; Kilner, Colin A; Warriner, Stuart L; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Novel oxathiane spiroketal donors have been synthesised and activated via an umpolung S-arylation strategy using 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3-dimethoxybenzene. The comparative reactivity of the resulting 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl (TMP)- and 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (DMP)-oxathiane spiroketal sulfonium ions is discussed, and their ?-stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions is compared to the analogous TMP- and DMP-sulfonium ions derived from an oxathiane glycosyl donor bearing a methyl ketal group. The results show that the stereoselectivity of the oxathiane glycosyl donors is dependent on the structure of the ketal group and reactivity can be tuned by varying the substituent on the sulfonium ion. PMID:22200482

  17. The theoretically ideal donor site dressing.

    PubMed

    Birdsell, D C; Hein, K S; Lindsay, R L

    1979-06-01

    Many of the choices for managing split-thickness skin graft donor sites are satisfactory, but none is ideal. Epidermal regeneration in a donor site is readily available for clinical study. We have reviewed experimental studies of epidermal regeneration and applied those results to the clinical study of a new donor site dressing. This dressing is a vapor-permeable, transparent, polyurethane film with a polyvinyl ether adhesive. Used on 100 patients, it was found to be safe and effective in allowing rapid and painless healing. Although the dressing is occlusive and theoretically could promote infection in a contaminated wound, no infections were encountered. Comparison was made with 15 patients managed by other methods. No marked difference in healing time was noted clinically. The striking advantage of the new dressing was painless healing. PMID:396845

  18. Transmission of donor melanoma by organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Dirk C; Thomas, J Meirion

    2010-08-01

    Transplant-related malignancies are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the organ-recipient population, and most often develop de novo in the immunosuppressed recipient or as recurrent malignancy after transplantation. The least common scenario, and a rare event, is a recipient malignancy derived from the donor organ. Melanoma is one of the most often reported and lethal donor-derived malignancies with a high transmission rate. Donor transmission of melanoma might be related to the biology of melanoma, with regard to tumour dormancy, late recurrence, circulating tumour cells, and the destiny of some micrometastases. Melanoma-cell dormancy explains the late recurrence that can occur after the initial treatment of melanoma, and may be relevant to our understanding and management of some melanoma micrometastasis in the sentinel node. The high incidence of circulating tumour cells in early melanoma should be considered in the context of the transmission of melanoma by apparent disease-free organ donors following removal of a primary melanoma up to 32 years before. This scenario suggests that melanoma cells can remain dormant at distant sites for decades (and possibly forever) in immunocompetent patients, only to reactivate after transplantation into an immunosuppressed recipient. Potential organ donors should be carefully screened for a history of melanoma, and excluded. The current recommendation for treatment of donor-related melanoma includes withdrawal of immunosuppression, graft rejection, and explantation of the allograft after rejection has been established. In non-renal transplant patients with life-sustaining organs, withdrawal of immunosuppression and graft rejection is not feasible, and reduction of immunosuppression or urgent retransplantation are the only possible salvage strategies. The transmission of malignancy by organ donation could be considered "nature's own experiment", but raises questions that our current understanding of the biology of melanoma cannot answer. PMID:20451456

  19. Clinical management of the organ donor.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Richard

    2005-01-01

    There is a critical mismatch between available organs for transplant and acutely or critically ill patients with end-stage organ disease. Patients who may benefit from organ transplantation far outnumber available organs. The causes for this imbalance are multiple. One cause is family refusal to donate. A second cause is nonrecognition or delay in determination of brain death. A third cause is donor loss due to profound cardiopulmonary and metabolic instability consequent to brain-stem herniation and brain death. Family refusal may be addressed by education, public awareness, as well as close attention to social, cultural and ethical issues, and optimal communication with donor families. Brain death may be consequent to traumatic brain injury, ischemic versus hemorrhagic stroke, as well as massive cerebral anoxia/ischemic following cardiac arrest. Nonrecognition or delay in brain death determination may be addressed by clinician education and frequent clinical assessment to detect early stages of brain-stem herniation refractory to aggressive measures for control of intracranial pressure. Donor loss due to profound cardiopulmonary and metabolic instability may be addressed by aggressive, mechanism-based treatment for clinical instability based on affected body system, as well as measures to support metabolic activity at the cellular and tissue level in the brain-dead organ donor. This article explores cerebral physiology related to impending brain death and catastrophic intracranial pressure elevations. In addition, physiologic consequences of brain death are correlated with affected body systems and mechanism-based therapies to support organ function pending transplantation. Ethical/legal issues are explored as related to patient autonomy and optimal family outcomes. Effective family communication, astute clinical assessment, and optimal clinical management of the organ donor are illustrated using a case study approach, highlighting the role of the advanced practice nurse in donor management. PMID:16269899

  20. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471

  1. The ethics of living donor lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wells, Winfield J; Barr, Mark L

    2005-11-01

    A constant awareness of the risk to the living donors must be maintained with any living donor organ transplantation program, and comprehensive short- and long-term follow-up should be strongly encouraged to maintain the viability of these potentially life-saving procedures. There has been no perioperative or long-term mortality following lobectomy for living lobar lung transplantation, and perioperative risks associated with donor lobectomy seem to be similar to those seen with standard lung resections. These risks might increase, however, if the procedure is offered on an occasional basis and not within a well-established program. The long-term outcomes and functional effects of lobar donation raise important questions that are unanswered. This has proved difficult to follow closely, because of the fact that many donors live far from the transplant medical center and are reluctant to return for routine follow-up evaluation. The death of a recipient can further exacerbate this situation, because there is reluctance to insist on further routine examinations for a grieving donor. Prospective donors must be informed of the morbidity associated with lobectomy and the potential for mortality, and for potential negative recipient outcomes in regard to life expectancy and quality of life after transplantation. Although cadaveric transplantation must be considered because of the risk to the donors, living lobar lung transplantation should continue to be used under properly selected circumstances. The results reported by the authors' group and others are important if this procedure is to be considered as an option at more pulmonary transplant centers in view of the institutional, regional, and international differences in the philosophic and ethical acceptance of the use of living organ donors for transplantation. The integration of ethical discussion into topics that are relevant and of interest to thoracic surgeons, such as living lung donation, is a recent and welcome event. Many of the clinical situations that thoracic surgeons deal with on a daily basis have important and complex ethical implications, and there has been little training to deal effectively with these issues. This is changing as invited discussions on ethically compelling topics are finding their way into journals and the programs of national meetings. What may be of more importance, however, is the development of an ethics curriculum for those training in the specialty. The core curriculum recommended by the Thoracic Surgical Directors Association (which represents the leadership of the 89 approved residency training programs in the United States) has one lecture pertaining to ethics out of the several hundred offerings in its requisite curriculum. It is hoped that this will change in the near future. PMID:16276816

  2. A computerized national Blood Donor Deferral Register.

    PubMed

    Ellis, F R; Friedman, L I; Wirak, B F; Hellinger, M J; Malin, W S; Greenwalt, T J

    1975-05-19

    With blood given exclusively by volunteer donors, the American National Red Cross (ANRC) Blood Program aims to supply patients needing transfusion with blood products of the highest quality. The use of blood from volunteers, with its established greater safety, combined with laboratory testing to detect carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB-SAg) and modern computer technology, creates an effective system to reduce the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis. The ANRC has devised a national Donor Deferral System, which is designed to minimize the transmission of hepatitis by blood and blood products. PMID:1173170

  3. Stool diagnosis of giardiasis using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay to detect Giardia-specific antigen 65 (GSA 65).

    PubMed Central

    Rosoff, J D; Sanders, C A; Sonnad, S S; De Lay, P R; Hadley, W K; Vincenzi, F F; Yajko, D M; O'Hanley, P D

    1989-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of giardiasis was evaluated in a clinical trial. The ProSpecT/Giardia diagnostic test (Alexon, Inc., Mountain View, Calif.) was compared with the standard ova and parasite (O&P) microscopic examination. Additionally, several widely used stool fixatives and a commonly used transport medium were assessed for compatibility with the immunoassay. A total of 325 stool specimens were collected and used to evaluate assay performance. Of those, 93 specimens were collected from symptomatic Giardia O&P-positive patients and 232 specimens were randomly collected from patients as part of a routine health screening procedure. All 93 Giardia O&P-positive stool specimens were strongly positive by visual and spectrophotometric examination using the immunoassay. Of the 232 randomly collected specimens, 16 were positive by O&P examination and immunoassay, 6 were negative by O&P examination but positive by immunoassay, and 1 was positive by O&P examination and negative by immunoassay. There was substantial supportive evidence that indicated that the six immunoassay-positive, O&P-negative specimens were true-positives. When these six specimens were accepted as true-positives, the immunoassay detected almost 30% more cases of Giardia infection than did O&P examination. Its sensitivity and specificity were 96 and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination were 74 and 100%, respectively. The immunoassay also performed well on specimens treated with 10% neutral Formalin, sodium acetate-Formalin fixative, and Cary-Blair transport medium. However, the test was not compatible with polyvinyl alcohol-treated specimens. Overall, the ProSpecT/Giardia test was a sensitive, specific immunoassay which was easy to run and interpret. It offers a simple solution to traditional difficulties encountered in diagnosing Giardia infection. PMID:2674196

  4. Bead-based microfluidic immunoassay for diagnosis of Johne's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Foote, Robert; Shaw, Robert W; Eda, Shigetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics technology offers a platform for development of point-of-care diagnostic devices for various infectious diseases. In this study, we examined whether serodiagnosis of Johne s disease (JD) can be conducted in a bead-based microfluidic assay system. Magnetic micro-beads were coated with antigens of the causative agent of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The antigen-coated beads were incubated with serum samples of JD-positive or negative serum samples and then with a fluorescently-labeled secondary antibody (SAB). To confirm binding of serum antibodies to the antigen, the beads were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. Different conditions (dilutions of serum and SAB, types of SAB, and types of magnetic beads) were optimized for a great degree of differentiation between the JD-negative and JD-positive samples. Using the optimized conditions, we tested a well-classified set of 155 serum samples from JD negative and JD-positive cattle by using the bead-based flow cytometric assay. Of 105 JD-positive samples, 63 samples (60%) showed higher antibody binding levels than a cut-off value determined by using antibody binding levels of JD-negative samples. In contrast, only 43-49 JD-positive samples showed higher antibody binding levels than the cut-off value when the samples were tested by commercially-available immunoassays. Microfluidic assays were performed by magnetically immobilizing a number of beads within a microchannel of a glass microchip and detecting antibody on the collected beads by laser-induced fluorescence. Antigen-coated magnetic beads treated with bovine serum sample and fluorescently-labeled SAB were loaded into a microchannel to measure the fluorescence (reflecting level of antibody binding) on the beads in the microfluidic system. When the results of five bovine serum samples obtained with the system were compared to those obtained with the flow cytometer, a high level of correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.994) was observed. In a further experiment, we magnetically immobilized antigen-coated beads in a microchannel, reacted the beads with serum and SAB in the channel, and detected antibody binding to the beads in the microfluidic system. A strong antibody binding in JD-positive serum was detected, whereas there was only negligible binding in negative control experiments. Our data suggest that the bead-based microfluidic system may form a basis for development of an on-site serodiagnosis of JD. Key Words: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, Johne s disease, microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip.

  5. Multiplex Serum Cytokine Immunoassay Using Nanoplasmonic Biosensor Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengyu; Chung, Meng Ting; McHugh, Walker; Nidetz, Robert; Li, Yuwei; Fu, Jianping; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Precise monitoring of the rapidly changing immune status during the course of a disease requires multiplex analysis of cytokines from frequently sampled human blood. However, the current lack of rapid, multiplex, and low volume assays makes immune monitoring for clinical decision-making (e.g., critically ill patients) impractical. Without such assays, immune monitoring is even virtually impossible for infants and neonates with infectious diseases and/or immune mediated disorders as access to their blood in large quantities is prohibited. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based microfluidic optical biosensing is a promising approach to fill this technical gap as it could potentially permit real-time refractometric detection of biomolecular binding on a metallic nanoparticle surface and sensor miniaturization, both leading to rapid and sample-sparing analyte analysis. Despite this promise, practical implementation of such a microfluidic assay for cytokine biomarker detection in serum samples has not been established primarily due to the limited sensitivity of LSPR biosensing. Here, we developed a high-throughput, label-free, multiarrayed LSPR optical biosensor device with 480 nanoplasmonic sensing spots in microfluidic channel arrays and demonstrated parallel multiplex immunoassays of six cytokines in a complex serum matrix on a single device chip while overcoming technical limitations. The device was fabricated using easy-to-implement, one-step microfluidic patterning and antibody conjugation of gold nanorods (AuNRs). When scanning the scattering light intensity across the microarrays of AuNR ensembles with dark-field imaging optics, our LSPR biosensing technique allowed for high-sensitivity quantitative cytokine measurements at concentrations down to 5–20 pg/mL from a 1 µL serum sample. Using the nanoplasmonic biosensor microarray device, we demonstrated the ability to monitor the inflammatory responses of infants following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery through tracking the time-course variations of their serum cytokines. The whole parallel on-chip assays, which involved the loading, incubation, and washing of samples and reagents, and 10-fold replicated multianalyte detection for each sample using the entire biosensor arrays, were completed within 40 min. PMID:25790830

  6. Donor-conceived children looking for their sperm donor: what do they want to know?

    PubMed Central

    Ravelingien, A.; Provoost, V.; Pennings, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to gain in-depth understanding of why some donor-conceived offspring want to know the identity of their sperm donor. Methods: Step-by-step inductive thematic analysis was performed on first-hand quotes from donor-conceived offspring selected from a wide range of sources (including empirical studies and donor conception networks, registries and support groups). Results: We found that at least 7 different objectives can underlie the wish to know one’s donor: to avoid medical risks and consanguineous relationships; to connect with one’s roots; to complete one’s life (hi-)story; to understand where one’s traits come from; to discover or assess one’s defining characteristics and capabilities; to rectify a wrong-doing, and to map out one’s ancestral history. Conclusion: The analysis shows that there is great variance among identity-seekers in the weight they attribute to wanting to know their donor. It is also clear that they have very different assumptions about the role and importance of genetics in terms of establishing ‘who they are’ or ‘can become’, including deterministic misconceptions. Rather than treat all donor-conceived offspring’s needs as of equal concern, this analysis should help distinguish between and assess the relevance of the various motivations. PMID:24753953

  7. Disclosing recipient information to potential living donors: preferences of donors and recipients, before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, J R; Ladin, K; Pavlakis, M; Mandelbrot, D A

    2011-06-01

    Consensus guidelines, while recommending that potential living donors should be given information that could impact their donation decision, are nonspecific about the types of information that should be disclosed. We surveyed potential (n = 36) and past (n = 45) living donors and transplant candidates (n = 45) and recipients (n = 45) about their preferences for sharing or knowing specific information about the recipient, how this information would impact decision-making, and who should be responsible for disclosing information. Potential donors were less likely than all others to feel that recipient information should be disclosed to potential donors. Donors and recipients felt most strongly about disclosing if the recipient lost a previously transplanted kidney due to medication nonadherence as well as the likelihood of 1- and 5-year graft survival. Most donors would be less likely to pursue donation if the recipient lost a previously transplanted kidney due to medication nonadherence or generally had problems with taking medications as prescribed. Transplant programs should consider how to best balance the potential donor's right to receive information that could reasonably be expected to affect their decision-making process with the recipient's right to privacy and confidentiality. PMID:21645257

  8. ALTERNATIVE DONORS EXTEND TRANSPLANTATION FOR PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA WHO LACK AN HLA MATCHED DONOR

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Burns, Linda J.; Wang, Tao; Carreras, Jeanette; Gale, Robert Peter; Wiernik, Peter H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Wirk, Baldeep; Munker, Reinhold; Rizzieri, David A.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Gibson, John; Akpek, Görgün; Costa, Luciano J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Hsu, Jack W.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Schouten, Harry C.; Bacher, Ulrike; Savani, Bipin N.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Laport, Ginna G.; Montoto, Silvia; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Brunstein, Claudio; Saber, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000 to 2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUD; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA-matched unrelated donors (MMUD; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared to MUD (35%; p=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; p=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared to unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, p=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; p=0.48). In multivariate analysis UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic graft versus host disease compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: HR=0.68, p=0.05; HR=0.35; p<0.001). Adjusted 3-year overall survival was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). Data highlight that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can expand the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA-matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  9. Related hematopoietic cell donor care: is there a role for unrelated donor registries?

    PubMed

    Anthias, C; van Walraven, S M; Sørensen, B S; de Faveri, G N; Fechter, M; Cornish, J; Bacigalupo, A; Müller, C; Boo, M; Shaw, B E

    2015-05-01

    In almost half of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplants, a related donor (RD) is used, yet a lack of standardized guidelines means that their care is heterogeneous. Changes to regulatory standards aim to improve uniformity, but adherence to these regulations can prove logistically difficult for the transplant centers (TCs) managing RDs. Discussion has ensued around possible alternative models of related donor care and a session at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) annual meeting in 2013 debated the question of whether a role exists for unrelated donor registries in the management of 'related' donors. In this overview, we discuss the issues raised at this debate and the pros and cons of donor registry involvement in various aspects of RD management. By examining existing models of related donor care that have been adopted by members of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), we look for ways to enhance and homogenize RD care, while also enabling transplant centers to meet standards required for mandatory accreditation. PMID:25730182

  10. Totally laparoscopic living donor right hepatectomy in a donor with trifurcation of bile duct.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Siow, Tiing-Foong; Chio, U-Chon; Chen, Shian-Dian; Chen, Ying-Da; Lin, Tzu-Chao; Huang, Shu-Yi; Wu, Jiann-Ming; Jeng, Kuo-Shyang

    2016-01-01

    Donor operation in adult living donor liver transplantation is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. To avoid laparotomy wound complications and shorten postoperative recovery, laparoscopic liver graft harvest has been developed recently. However, to determine the cut point of bile duct is challenging. Herein, we report the application of totally laparoscopic approach for right liver graft harvest in a donor with trifurcation of the bile duct. A19-year-old man volunteered for living donation to his father who suffered from hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. The graft was 880 mL with a single right hepatic artery and portal vein. The graft to recipient weight ratio was 1.06. The middle hepatic vein was preserved for the donor and the liver remnant was 42.3%. Two branches of middle hepatic veins were > 5 mm in diameter and needed reconstruction with cryopreserved allograft. Ductoplasty using laparoscopic intracorporeal suture technique was done to achieve single orifice of the graft bile duct. The postoperative course was uneventful for the donor. This report adds evidence of the feasibility of pure laparoscopic right donor hepatectomy and describes the necessary steps for bile duct division in donors with trifurcation of bile duct. PMID:26211878

  11. Donor Hemodynamics as a Predictor of Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation From Donors After Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Allen, M B; Billig, E; Reese, P P; Shults, J; Hasz, R; West, S; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death is an important source of transplantable organs, but evidence suggests donor warm ischemia contributes to inferior outcomes. Attempts to predict recipient outcome using donor hemodynamic measurements have not yielded statistically significant results. We evaluated novel measures of donor hemodynamics as predictors of delayed graft function and graft failure in a cohort of 1050 kidneys from 566 donors. Hemodynamics were described using regression line slopes, areas under the curve, and time beyond thresholds for systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure). A logistic generalized estimation equation model showed that area under the curve for systolic blood pressure was predictive of delayed graft function (above median: odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.90). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated that slope of oxygen saturation during the first 10 minutes after extubation was associated with graft failure (below median: hazard ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64), with 5-year graft survival of 70.0% (95%CI 64.5%-74.8%) for donors above the median versus 61.4% (95%CI 55.5%-66.7%) for those below the median. Among older donors, increased shock index slope was associated with increased hazard of graft failure. Validation of these findings is necessary to determine the utility of characterizing donor warm ischemia to predict recipient outcome. PMID:26361242

  12. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements published on Craigslist and in college newspapers to see whether fertility clinics and egg donor recruitment agencies follow this recommendation. We found that 61% of advertisements in the Craigslist dataset and 43% of advertisements in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20 and, thus, did not follow the recommendation that egg donors be at least 21 years of age. Advertisements placed by egg donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by fertility clinics to list minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that the American Society for Reproductive Medicine should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. PMID:23337419

  13. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.; Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Luhman, D. R.; Bielejec, E.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  14. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  15. Do clinicians benefit from gamete donor anonymity?

    PubMed

    Haimes, E V

    1993-09-01

    Two groups of participants are frequently omitted from discussions and studies of donor anonymity in assisted conception: the children conceived and the clinicians providing the service. Past secrecy explains the absence of the children's views, but the absence of a systematic consideration of the clinician's views is more puzzling. Evidence from the history of donor insemination suggests that clinicians have supported keeping such practices secret, not just for the protection of donors, recipients and resultant children but also to protect their own position from the detailed scrutiny of others who had expressed doubts about the practice. However, the various important developments in both the practice and the regulation of assisted conception in the 1980s and the early 1990s may well have alleviated such earlier anxieties. None the less, a growing willingness by clinicians to consider greater openness in gamete donation may be counter-balanced by the nature of their relationship with recipients, the majority of whom still appear to favour secrecy, and by the wider cultural uncertainty about the physiological and symbolic importance of genetic relationships in the development of the individual. It is concluded therefore that future studies of donor anonymity should include clinicians, in order to explore these questions in detail. PMID:8253945

  16. [The blood donors' haemovigilance in France].

    PubMed

    Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N

    2013-05-01

    This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. PMID:23587615

  17. AUTOMATED FLOW FLUORESCENT IMMUNOASSAY FOR PART PER TRILLION DETECTION OF THE NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDE THIAMETHOXAM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra sensitive automated flow fluorescent immunoassay was developed using the KinExATM 3000 system for quantitative analysis of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. Five monoclonal antibodies were obtained and screened with a competitive ELISA. One monoclonal antibody designated as E6VI ...

  18. Proteomic studies support the use of multi-product immunoassays to monitor host cell protein impurities.

    PubMed

    Krawitz, Denise C; Forrest, William; Moreno, G Tony; Kittleson, Joshua; Champion, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, recombinant protein drugs are commonly produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. During the development process, removal of CHO cell-derived proteins from the biopharmaceutical product is monitored using multi-product immunoassays. Such immunoassays are developed by raising antibodies to a single CHO cell protein preparation. However, these assays are utilized to monitor CHO cell protein impurities during the recovery of products from different CHO cell lines. To address whether underlying differences between CHO cell lines result in sufficient protein expression changes to exclude the suitability of multi-product immunoassays, a comparative proteomics study of three independently generated CHO cell lines was performed. Statistical analysis of over 1000 proteins resolved by 2-D PAGE demonstrated that the protein expression profiles of three different CHO cell lines exhibit very few differences in protein expression. Only 11 qualitative changes in protein expression and 26 quantitative changes greater than two-fold were observed. Identification of protein spots by mass spectrometry revealed that many of the observed changes were due to post-translational modifications rather than expression of novel proteins in each cell line. These results suggest that multi-product immunoassays are suitable for monitoring host cell proteins in biopharmaceuticals produced in different CHO cell lines. PMID:16302279

  19. IMMUNOASSAY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The journal article describes the use of a prototype immunoassay method for the determination of pentacholorphenol (PCP) in soil and sediment. PCP was used as a pesticide and wood preservative and is not currently available to the general public. The paper stresses the importan...

  20. Design and testing of a disposable microfluidic chemiluminescent immunoassay for disease biomarkers in human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, A; Klapperich, C M

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a plastic microfluidic immunosensor for rapid, reliable and on-the-spot detection of disease biomarkers in human sera. The microfluidic chips were fabricated in cyclic polyolefin by hot-embossing with a silicon master mold. The master itself was made using photolithographic techniques and Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). As a platform model, serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), a cardiac and inflammation marker, was measured on-chip using chemiluminescence based immunoassay. The assay results were read via an on-board instant photographic film, and with an imager capable of detecting chemiluminescent signals. The on-board detection module obviates the need for any dedicated bench-top analyzer for reading the immunoassay results, and therefore makes the device self-sufficient for point-of-care diagnostics when simple positive/negative results are sought. The microfluidic chemiluminescence results were compared with standard microplate ELISA analysis to assess the accuracy of the developed microfluidic immunoassay. Screening of CRP in human serum samples showed good correlation with ELISA analysis and the mean difference between the two methods using the Bland and Altman method was -0.079 +/- 0.858 mg/L for hsCRP. With approximate assay times of 25 min, the developed microfluidic immunoassay approach shows great potential for rapid plus sensitive detection of disease markers at the point-of-care. PMID:17165125

  1. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay using IgY antibodies for detection of valnemulin in swine tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is derived from egg yolk and has been identified as a cheap and high-yield immunoreagent. The application of IgY in immunoassay for the detection of chemical contaminants in food samples has rarely been reported. In this work, we describe a rapid and sensitive fluorescence p...

  2. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  3. False-Positive Results of Enzyme Immunoassays for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Patients with Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gasasira, Anne F.; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Havlir, Diane; Kiggundu, Moses; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria may impact upon human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test results. We evaluated two HIV enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) by testing 1,965 Ugandans with malaria. We found poor positive predictive values (53% and 76%), particularly with younger age. Combining EIAs eliminated false positives but missed 21% of true positives. Performance of HIV EIAs in malaria may be unsatisfactory. PMID:16891532

  4. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of proteins based on in situ duple amplification of gold nanoparticle biolabel signals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoli; Xu, Aigui; Liu, Ling; Deng, Wenfang; Chen, Chao; Tan, Yueming; Fu, Yingchun; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-05-18

    An electrochemical sandwich immunoassay method that can be sensitive to a few protein molecules (human immunoglobulin G or human prostate-specific antigen) is reported, based on HAuCl4-NH2OH redox reaction to enlarge the size of second antibody labeled gold nanoparticles and in situ microliter-droplet anodic stripping voltammetry analysis with enhanced cathodic preconcentration of gold. PMID:25894215

  5. Magnetic colorimetric immunoassay for human interleukin-6 based on the oxidase activity of ceria spheres.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Guan, Jufang; Yao, Huiqin; Jin, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    A novel magnetic colorimetric immunoassay strategy was designed for sensitive detection of human interleukin-6 (IL-6) using ceria spheres as labels. Ceria spheres showed excellent oxidase activity, which can directly catalyze the oxidation of substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) to a stable yellow product, 2,3-diaminophenazine (oxOPD). The absorbance of oxOPD was recorded to reflect the level of IL-6. The relatively mild conditions made the immunoassay strategy more robust, reliable, and easy. A linear relationship between absorbance intensity and the logarithm of IL-6 concentrations was obtained in the range of 0.0001-10 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.04 pg mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The colorimetric immunoassay exhibited high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IL-6. This immunoassay has been successfully applied in the detection of IL-6 in serum samples and can be readily extended toward the on-site monitoring of cancer biomarkers in serum samples. PMID:26416691

  6. Multiplexed immunoassays for proteins using magnetic luminescent nanoparticles for internal calibration.

    PubMed

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Dosev, Dosi; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D; Kennedy, Ian M

    2007-10-01

    Suspension arrays present a promising tool for multiplexed assays in large-scale screening applications. A simple and robust platform for quantitative multiprotein immunoanalysis has been developed with the use of magnetic Co:Nd:Fe(2)O(3)/luminescent Eu:Gd(2)O(3) core/shell nanoparticles (MLNPs) as a carrier. The magnetic properties of the MLNPs allow their manipulation by an external magnetic field in the separation and washing steps in the immunoassay. Their optical properties enable the internal calibration of the detection system. The multiplexed sandwich immunoassay involves dual binding events on the surface of the MLNPs functionalized with the capture antibodies. Secondary antibodies labeled with conventional organic dyes (Alexa Fluor) are used as reporters. The amount of the bound secondary antibody is directly proportional to the concentration of the analyte in the sample. In our approach, the fluorescence intensity of the reporter dye is related to the luminescence signal of the MLNPs. In this way, the intrinsic luminescence of the MLNPs serves as an internal standard in the quantitative immunoassay. The concept is demonstrated for a simultaneous immunoassay for three model proteins (human, rabbit, and mouse IgGs). The method uses a standard bench plate reader. It can be applied to disease diagnostics and to the detection of biological threats. PMID:17681270

  7. Rapid detection of cardioactive bufalin toxicity using fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Datta, P

    1998-02-01

    Intoxication caused by digitalis-like substances after ingestion of cooked toad soup has been reported. Bufalin, a cardioactive compound, is found in toad. Bufalin is also found in many Chinese medicines. Earlier reports demonstrated cross reactivity of bufalin with fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digoxin. In this report, the authors demonstrated a significantly higher cross reactivity of bufalin with the fluorescence polarization assay for digitoxin. They supplemented aliquots of normal plasma that had various concentrations of bufalin (1 to 50 micrograms/ml) from a local blood bank and measured apparent digitoxin concentrations using fluorescence polarization immunoassay and chemiluminescent assays (ACS digitoxin) for digitoxin. They measured apparent digoxin and digitoxin concentrations using fluorescence polarization, microparticle enzyme immunoassay, and chemiluminescent assays for digitoxin. They observed apparent digitoxin or digoxin concentrations in sera supplemented with bufalin only with the fluorescence polarization assays. For example, the apparent digitoxin concentration observed in a serum supplemented with 25 ng/ml of bufalin was 24.3 ng/ml of digitoxin equivalent. The apparent digoxin concentration observed in the same specimen was 1.33 ng/ml digoxin equivalent. Bufalin caused positive interference in serum digoxin or digitoxin measurements in specimens containing digoxin or digitoxin when concentrations were measured by fluorescence polarization assays. In contrast, bufalin lowered the measured digoxin concentrations in serum pools containing digoxin when digoxin concentrations were measured by the microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The authors conclude that bufalin toxicity can be rapidly detected by the fluorescence polarization assay for digitoxin. PMID:9485564

  8. Visible paper chip immunoassay for rapid determination of bacteria in water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Tang, Yanyan; Liu, Jingqing; Wu, Jianmin

    2014-03-01

    Paper chips for immunoassay were patterned by screen printing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or wax pencil drawing. The methods for paper chip patterning are cheap, convenient, rapid and suitable for most laboratories. The whole time for patterning a paper chip is no more than 10 min. Visible immunoassay for the detection of bacteria (Escherichia coli ) has been realized using the paper chip, on which the antibody for capturing E. Coli was immobilized on the detection zones of the paper chip, while the detection antibody was labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a signal reporter. After an immunological reaction, the AuNPs bound on the paper chip can effectively catalyse the reduction of silver ions during the silver enhancing step, generating a visible result that can be read by naked eyes. The quantitative results can be acquired by scanning the silver stained paper chip with a commercial scanner/or digital camera. The density of E. coli in water samples can be measured after calibrating the gray value of silver stained spots with the logarithmic number of bacteria. The time and reagents consumed on the paper chip immunoassay is much smaller than those of conventional ELISA, while the sensitivity of the paper chip immunoassay is comparable to conventional ELISA. The technology proposed in this work displays a great potential in the in-situ analysis when daily monitoring of water quality are required. PMID:24468352

  9. The measurement of triclosan in water using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay to determine triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in drinking water and wastewater was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocya...

  10. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  11. Application and validation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers immunoassay for environmental and food matrices.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, chicken and soil samples. The assay is rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit ...

  12. Dipstick immunoassay to detect enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in retail ground beef.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M S; Doyle, M P

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and easy-to-perform dipstick immunoassay to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in retail ground beef was developed by using a sandwich-type assay (with a polyclonal antibody to E. coli O157 as the capture antibody and a monoclonal antibody to E. coli O157:H7 as the detection antibody) on a hydrophobic polyvinylidine difluoride-based membrane. E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef could be detected within 16 h, including incubation for 12 h in enrichment broth and the immunoassay, which takes 4 h. Pure culture cell suspensions of 10(5) or 10(6) E. coli O157:H7 organisms per ml produced intense color reactions in the immunoassay, whereas faint but detectable reactions occurred with 10(3) CFU/ml. The sensitivity of the combined enrichment-immunoassay procedure as determined by using ground beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 was 0.1 to 1.3 cells per g, with a false-positive rate of 2.0%. A survey of retail ground beef using this procedure revealed that 1 of 76 samples was contaminated by E. coli O157:H7. Images PMID:1622249

  13. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter Antigen by Enzyme Immunoassay Leads to Increased Positivity Rates

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Saeki, Sandra; Bobenchik, April M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) provides rapid results compared to traditional culture. However, concern exists regarding specificity. Verification studies of an EIA compared to culture revealed a positive predictive value (PPV) of 91%, whereas PPV fell to 42% during routine diagnostic testing. We suggest all positive EIA results be confirmed via culture. PMID:23175262

  14. ON-SITE MERCURY ANALYSIS OF SOIL AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES BY IMMUNOASSAY AND ASV

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two field methods for Hg, immunoassay and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), that can provide onsite results for quick decisions at hazardous waste sites were evaluated. Each method was applied to samples from two Superfund sites that contain high levels of Hg; Sulphur Bank Me...

  15. Lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid detection of citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lateral flow methodology was developed using gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The test strip was based on a sandwich immunoassay and could be accomplished within 10 minutes. A sample was considered negative for CTV when only the control line appeared; whereas,...

  16. Comparison of salivary cortisol as measured by different immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska; Rauh, Manfred; Gröschl, Michael; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the amount of bioavailable cortisol in saliva with immunoassays and thus sampling an endocrine marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is of major interest in both research and clinical practice. However, absolute cortisol concentrations obtained with different immunoassays (IAs) are barely comparable precluding direct comparison between studies or individuals whenever cortisol analyses were not based on the same IA. The present technical report aims to solve this problem by evaluating the validity of, as well as agreement between the most commonly used immunoassays in psychoneuroendocrinological research (i.e., IBL, DRG, Salimetrics, DSL, and DELFIA) and a reference method (LC-MS/MS) in a sample of 195 saliva specimen covering the whole range of cortisol concentrations in adults. A structural equation modelling framework is applied to decompose systematic assay variance and estimate cortisol reference values, which are adjusted for measurement error and interference of salivary cortisone. Our findings reveal nonlinear relations between IAs and LC-MS/MS, which are discussed in terms of IA cross-reactivity with saliva matrix components. Finally guidelines for converting cortisol concentrations being obtained by these immunoassays into comparable reference values are proposed by providing conversion functions, a conversion table, and an online conversion tool. PMID:22641005

  17. Novel signal-enhancing immunoassay for ultrasensitive biomarker detection based on laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Kunping; Wei, Yin; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-03-01

    An innovative signal-enhancing immunoassay for ultrasensitive biomarker detection based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been developed. A novel LIF optical system with high collection efficiency was constructed by using a parabolic mirror. Carboxyl-functionalized magnetic beads were used to immobilize antibody for achieving a conventional sandwich assay. Fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G (R6G)-labeled antibody was collected by the newly designed optical system. To reduce photobleaching of R6G under laser irradiation, ethanol instead of commonly used aqueous solution was used as assay buffer in the last stage. The newly developed LIF immunoassay displayed excellent analytical performance for ?-fetoprotein (AFP) detection in the concentration range from 0.005 to 1.0 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.0016 ng/mL. The detection limit obtained in this work is about 3 orders of magnitude better than that of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the proposed method exhibited excellent precision, acceptable stability, and good reproducibility. Furthermore, the proposed immunoassay was successfully applied to AFP determination in real serum specimens. Therefore, the present immunoassay was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for ultrasensitive biomarker detection. PMID:25655002

  18. Determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat bran and whole-wheat flour by fluorescence polarization immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid and accurate fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been optimized for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in bran and whole-wheat flour. A preliminary treatment with activated charcoal was used to eliminate the strong matrix effect due to highly colored interfering compounds p...

  19. Detection of E. coli O157:H7 by immunomagnetic separation coupled with fluorescence immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional culture-based methods for detection of E. coli O157:H7 in foods and water sources are time-consuming, and results can be ambiguous, requiring further confirmation by biochemical testing and PCR. A rapid immunoassay prior to cultivation to identify presumptive positive sample would save...

  20. A commercial rapid optical immunoassay detects Streptococcus agalactiae from aquatic cultures and clinical specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioStar STREPT B Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) (BioStar® OIA® Strep B Assay Kit; Biostar Incorporation; Louisville, CO, USA) was used to identify 32 known group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates of fish, dolphin, bovine, and human origin. Thirteen non-GBS isolates from fish and other animals were test...

  1. A double-sandwich ELISA for identification of monoclonal antibodies suitable for sandwich immunoassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sandwich immunoassay (sIA) is an invaluable technique for concentrating, detecting, and quantifying target antigens. The two critical components required are a capture antibody and a detection antibody, each binding a different epitope on the target antigen. The specific antibodies incorporated...

  2. [GoldMag particle-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for human high sensitive C-reactive protein].

    PubMed

    Guo, Boyang; Ma, Le; Zhang, Mengdan; Yang, Jiangcun; DU, Haiping; Ma, Ting; Yali, Cui

    2015-11-01

    To develop a sensitive, accurate detection method for high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods With the GoldMag particle as the solid phase carrier, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-lunimo-H2O2 as the chemiluminescence reaction system, we established a chemiluminescent immunoassay for hsCRP detection. Linear range, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and other indicators were evaluated. hsCRP level of 233 clinical human serum specimens were determined and compared by two different methods: the GoldMag particle-based magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay established in this study, and the commercialized scattering immunoturbidimetric assay from Germany SIEMENS. Results The chemiluminescent immunoassay for hsCRP based on GoldMag particle had a good linear relationship between 0.15 mg/L and 25 mg/L (R(2)=0.9937), with the detection limit of 0.076 mg/L. The intra-assay precision was less than 10.00% and the inter-assay precision was less than 15.00%. The average recovery rate for accuracy was 97.80%. In the contrast experiment of 233 clinical human serum specimens, the results obtained using the approach established in this study showed a high correlation and consistency with scattering immunoturbidimetric assay from Germany SIEMENS. Conclusion GoldMag particle-based magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay for hsCRP has been successfully developed. PMID:26522353

  3. Multiplexed immunoassays for proteins using magnetic luminescent nanoparticles for internal calibration

    PubMed Central

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Dosev, Dosi; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Suspension arrays present a promising tool for multiplexed assays in large-scale screening applications. A simple and robust platform for quantitative multiprotein immunoanalysis has been developed with the use of magnetic Co:Nd:Fe2O3/luminescent Eu:Gd2O3 core/shell nanoparticles (MLNPs) as a carrier. The magnetic properties of the MLNPs allow their manipulation by an external magnetic field in the separation and washing steps in the immunoassay. Their optical properties enable the internal calibration of the detection system. The multiplexed sandwich immunoassay involves dual binding events on the surface of the MLNPs functionalized with the capture antibodies. Secondary antibodies labeled with conventional organic dyes (Alexa Fluor) are used as reporters. The amount of the bound secondary antibody is directly proportional to the concentration of the analyte in the sample. In our approach, the fluorescence intensity of the reporter dye is related to the luminescence signal of the MLNPs. In this way, the intrinsic luminescence of the MLNPs serves as an internal standard in the quantitative immunoassay. The concept is demonstrated for a simultaneous immunoassay for three model proteins (human, rabbit and mouse IgGs). The method uses a standard bench plate reader. It can be applied to disease diagnostics and for the detection of biological threats. PMID:17681270

  4. Rapid Detection of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol in Wheat Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody was developed to measure nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in wheat. A DON-immobilized sensor chip having high sensitivity and stability was prepared, and an SPR detection procedure was developed. The competitiv...

  5. The detection of cocaine in hair specimens using micro-plate enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Moore, C; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Feeley, B; Niedbala, R S

    1999-05-01

    The analysis of hair for drugs of abuse is becoming increasingly popular and is under consideration by the Division of Health and Human Services as a possible alternative or adjunct to urinalysis in workplace programs. The detection of cocaine in human hair using a commercially available micro-plate enzyme immunoassay is described for the first time. Sample size and incubation time were the major variables in the optimization of the method. In order to validate the procedure, the method was applied to 105 consecutive hair samples routinely received into our laboratory. The samples were simultaneously analyzed by the Micro-Plate immunoassay (EIA), as well as our current fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) procedure and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The sensitivity of the EIA and FPIA assays were 75% and 67.8% respectively; specificity 97.4% and 80.5% respectively; and efficiency 91.4 and 77.1% respectively. The Micro-Plate EIA was shown to be a valid alternative to other immunoassay screening methods for the detection of cocaine in hair by demonstrating increased sensitivity, specificity and efficiency over our current technique. PMID:10408118

  6. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for rapid, accurate and sensitive determination of mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a type of homogeneous assay. For low molecular weight antigens, such as mycotoxins, it is based on the competition between an unlabeled antigen and its fluorescent-labeled derivative (tracer) for an antigen-specific antibody. The antigen content is det...

  7. Monoclonal antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for monitoring organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agriculture and domestic settings can result in widespread water contamination. The development of easy-to-use and rapid-screening immunoassay methods in a class-selective manner is a topic of considerable environmental interest. In this wo...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A FLUORESCENT LATEX IMMUNOASSAY FOR DETECTION OF SPECTINOMYCIN ANTIOBIOTIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectinomycin is an antimicrobial agent used to treat infections caused by Gram negative and positive microorganisms in poultry, swine and non-lactating cattle. There is a need to develop a rapid and sensitive method to detect spectinomycin residues in animal tissues. A latex fluorescent immunoassay...

  9. A 7-plex microbead-based immunoassay for serotyping Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been contingent upon the availability of antisera. Here we describe a 7-plex microbead-based immunoassay to simultaneously serotype seven STEC (i.e., belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) by the Luminex xMA...

  10. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-01

    A competitive, direct, chemiluminescent immunoassay based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled anti-CAP monoclonal antibody conjugated with AuNPs and antigen-immobilized MBs were prepared. After optimization parameters of immunocomplex MBs, the IC50 values of chemiluminescence magnetic nanoparticles immunoassay (CL-MBs-nano-immunoassay) were 0.017 µg L(-1) for extract method I and 0.17 µg L(-1) for extract method II. The immunoassay with two extract methods was applied to detect CAP in milk. Comparison of these two extract methods showed that extract method I was advantageous in better sensitivity, in which the sensitivity was 10 times compared to that of extract method II, while extract method II was superior in simple operation, suitable for high throughout screen. The recoveries were 86.7-98.0% (extract method I) and 80.0-103.0% (extract method II), and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all <15%. The satisfactory recovery with both extract methods and high correlation with traditional ELISA kit in milk system confirmed that the immunomagnetic assay based on AuNPs exhibited promising potential in rapid field screening for trace CAP analysis. PMID:23512826

  11. A microfluidic indirect competitive immunoassay for multiple and sensitive detection of testosterone in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huashan; Li, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Binfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Cha, Ruitao; Sun, Jiashu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a microfluidic-based indirect competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MIC) for multiple, sensitive, reliable and rapid detection of testosterone in human serum and urine samples. As MIC can detect biomarkers in a cost-effective and easy-to-operate manner, it may have great potential for clinical diagnosis and point-of-care testing (POCT). PMID:26804930

  12. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the application and method performance parameters of a Luminex xMAP™ bead-based, multiplex immunoassay for measuring specific antibody responses in saliva samples (n=5438) to antigens of six common waterborne pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylo...

  13. Silver deposition directed by self-assembled gold nanorods for amplified electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongfang; Ning, Danlei; Ma, Lina; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical immunoassay was developed based on the signal amplification strategy of silver deposition directed by gold nanorods (AuNRs), which was in-situ assembled on the sandwich immunocomplex. The superstructure formed by the self-assembly of AuNRs provided abundant active sites for the nucleation of silver nanoparticles. In this pathway, the stripping current of silver was greatly enhanced. Using human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) as a model analyte, the ultrasensitive immunoassay showed a wide linear range of six orders of magnitude from 0.1 fg mL(-1) to 100 pg mL(-1), with the low detection limit down to 0.08 fg mL(-1). The practicality of this electrochemical immunoassay for detection of HIgG in serum was validated with the average recovery of 93.9%. In addition, this enzyme-free immunoassay also has the advantages of acceptable reproducibility and specificity, and thus this immunosensing protocol can be extended to the detection of other low-abundant protein biomarkers. PMID:26703256

  14. Ultra-sensitive fluorescent sensor for Hg2+ based on a donor-acceptor-donor framework.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingqiang; Shu, Xin; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Jin

    2010-12-30

    A new fluoroionophore [E-4,4'-di(N-(2-pyridyl)amino)stilbene, E1] with a donor-acceptor-donor framework, which features a central stilbene (acceptor) fluorophore and two terminal pyridylamino (donor) ionophores, is reported. The probe displays an ultrasensitive fluorescence quenching response toward Hg(2+) in H(2)O/THF. Coordination of Hg(2+) to E1 affords a 2:1 complex, enabling the detection of Hg(2+) at a concentration as low as 4.4 × 10(-14) M. The interactions between the two species have been thoroughly characterized with UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations provide further insights into the nature of the fluorescence quenching response. In contrast, a fluorescent molecule with the donor-acceptor architecture, E-4-(N-(2-pyridyl)amino)stilbene (E4), exhibits a greatly attenuated fluorescence quenching response toward Hg(2+). PMID:21141869

  15. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor. PMID:22683233

  16. Panchromatic donor-acceptor-donor conjugated oligomers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S

    2014-06-11

    We report on a sexithienyl and two donor-acceptor-donor oligothiophenes, employing benzothiadiazole and isoindigo as electron-acceptors, each functionalized with a phosphonic acid group for anchoring onto TiO2 substrates as light-harvesting molecules for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes absorb light to wavelengths as long as 700 nm, as their optical HOMO/LUMO energy gaps are reduced from 2.40 to 1.77 eV with increasing acceptor strength. The oligomers were adsorbed onto mesoporous TiO2 films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates and incorporated into DSSCs, which show AM1.5 power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ranging between 2.6% and 6.4%. This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecular structures coupled to phosphonic acid anchoring groups, which have not been used in DSSCs, can lead to high PCEs. PMID:24807377

  17. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays: applications, fundamentals, and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Daniel Driskell

    2006-08-09

    Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments of SPR and SERS. Chapter 4 introduces a novel method of reducing sample incubation time via capture substrate rotation. Moreover, this work led to a method of virus quantification without the use of standards. Chapter 5 extends the methodology developed in Chapter 4 to both the antigen and ERL labeling step to perform assays with improved analytical performance in less time than can be accomplished in diffusion controlled assays. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and speculates on the future of this exciting approach to carrying out immunoassays.

  18. Characteristics of Human Turbinate-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Affected by Allergic Condition of Donor

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Cho, Hye Kyung; Park, Sang Hi; Lee, WeonSun; Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Dong Chang; Park, Sun Hwa; Lim, Mi Hyun; Back, Sang A; Yun, Byeong Gon; Sun, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human turbinates (hTMSCs) have not been investigated in allergic rhinitis. We evaluated the influence of allergic state of the donor on the characteristics, proliferation, and differentiation potential of hTMSCs, compared with hTMSCs derived from non-allergic patients. hTMSCs were isolated from five non-allergic and five allergic patients. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in hTMSCs was measured by FACS, and cell proliferation was measured using a cell counting kit. Cytokine secretion was analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. The osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials of hTMSCs were evaluated by histology and gene expression analysis. In allergic patients, FACS analysis showed that TLR3 and TLR4 were more highly expressed on the surface of hTMSCs than TLR2 and TLR5. The proliferation of hTMSCs was not influenced by the presence of TLR priming. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IP-10, and RANTES was upregulated after the TLR4 priming. The differentiation potential of hTMSCs was not influenced by TLR priming. These characteristics of hTMSCs were similar to those of hTMSCs from non-allergic patients. We conclude that the allergic condition of the donor does not influence TLR expression, proliferation, or immunomodulatory potential of hTMSCs. PMID:26376485

  19. Donor liver dysfunction: application of a new scoring system to identify the marginal donor.

    PubMed

    Ferraz-Neto, B H; Zurstrassen, M P V C; Hidalgo, R; Fonseca, L E P; Motta, T D B; Pandullo, F L; Rezende, M B; Meira-Filho, S P; Sá, J R; Afonso, R C

    2007-10-01

    Livers from marginal donors are increasingly used for transplantation due to the shortage of donor organs. The definition of a marginal donor remains unclear; prediction of organ function is a challenge. In the literature the use of steatotic livers has been associated with poor liver function or even primary dysfunction of the allograft. Tekin et al created a scoring system that classifies a donor as marginal or nonmarginal, using a mathematical model based on donor age and steatosis degree. The aims of this study were to apply the Tekin method to identify marginal and nonmarginal donors and evaluate the influence of the cold ischemia time (CIT) on allograft evolution. We retrospectively reviewed deceased donor liver transplantations performed from October 1995 to March 2006, namely, 177 adult liver transplantations in 163 patients. Fifty-five were excluded due to retransplantation (14) or insufficient data (41). Donor age and macrovesicular steatosis were evaluated according to the mathematical formula proposed by Tekin et al, classifying the donors as marginal versus nonmarginal. The authors also analyzed the CIT, 3-month mortality, and development of primary nonfunction or primary dysfunction. The median donor age was 38.9 years (range, 6-71). The postreperfusion biopsy specimen showed moderate to intense steatosis (>30%) in 14.75% of specimens, with no steatosis or mild steatosis in 85.25%. Sixty-one grafts (50%) developed primary graft dysfunction (PGD): 10 grafts, with primary nonfunction (PNF); and 51 with initial poor function (IPF). Using the criteria provided by Tekin et al, we obtained 41 marginal and 81 nonmarginal allografts. The marginal group showed 61.9% PGD, compared with 59.2% of PGD by the nonmarginal group. The CIT was greater than 12 hours in 5 marginal group transplants and 4 PGD cases (80%). Of the nonmarginal allografts, the CIT was greater than 12 hours in 29.6%, with 75% PGD. The 3-month graft survival rate was 80% in the marginal group with ischemia time more than 12 hours: 86.1% of the same group when CIT was less than 12 hours, and 82.7% in the nonmarginal group. In contrast, when we analyzed the occurrence of allograft dysfunction, the 3-month mortality rate was 34% among, grafts with dysfunction, whereas, in those without initial dysfunction, it was 4.1%. In conclusion, the score suggested by Tekin et al that classifies the donors as ideal (nonmarginal) or marginal was not able to predict initial primary dysfunction. PMID:17954162

  20. Comparisons of Immunoassay and Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Serum Estradiol Levels and Their Influence on Clinical Association Studies in Men

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria E.; Tivesten, ?sa; Ryberg, Henrik; Mellström, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Ljunggren, Östen; Labrie, Fernand; Orwoll, Eric S.; Lee, David M.; Pye, Stephen R.; O'Neill, Terence W.; Finn, Joseph D.; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Boonen, Steven; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E. J.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Vandenput, Liesbeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: Immunoassay-based techniques, routinely used to measure serum estradiol (E2), are known to have reduced specificity, especially at lower concentrations, when compared with the gold standard technique of mass spectrometry (MS). Different measurement techniques may be responsible for the conflicting results of associations between serum E2 and clinical phenotypes in men. Objective: Our objective was to compare immunoassay and MS measurements of E2 levels in men and evaluate associations with clinical phenotypes. Design and Setting: Middle-aged and older male subjects participating in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden study (n = 2599), MrOS US (n = 688), and the European Male Aging Study (n = 2908) were included. Main Outcome Measures: Immunoassay and MS measurements of serum E2 were compared and related to bone mineral density (BMD; measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and ankle-brachial index. Results: Within each cohort, serum E2 levels obtained by immunoassay and MS correlated moderately (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rS 0.53–0.76). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels associated significantly (albeit to a low extent, rS = 0.29) with immunoassay E2 but not with MS E2 levels. Similar associations of immunoassay E2 and MS E2 were seen with lumbar spine and total hip BMD, independent of serum CRP. However, immunoassay E2, but not MS E2, associated inversely with ankle-brachial index, and this correlation was lost after adjustment for CRP. Conclusions: Our findings suggest interference in the immunoassay E2 analyses, possibly by CRP or a CRP-associated factor. Although associations with BMD remain unaffected, this might imply for a reevaluation of previous association studies between immunoassay E2 levels and inflammation-related outcomes. PMID:23633197

  1. A highly efficient bead extraction technique with low bead number for digital microfluidic immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Yeh; Tsai, Po-Yen; Lee, I-Chin; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Fan, Shih-Kang; Yao, Da-Jeng; Liu, Cheng-Hsien; Hsu, Wensyang

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a technique to manipulate a low number of beads to achieve high washing efficiency with zero bead loss in the washing process of a digital microfluidic (DMF) immunoassay. Previously, two magnetic bead extraction methods were reported in the DMF platform: (1) single-side electrowetting method and (2) double-side electrowetting method. The first approach could provide high washing efficiency, but it required a large number of beads. The second approach could reduce the required number of beads, but it was inefficient where multiple washes were required. More importantly, bead loss during the washing process was unavoidable in both methods. Here, an improved double-side electrowetting method is proposed for bead extraction by utilizing a series of unequal electrodes. It is shown that, with proper electrode size ratio, only one wash step is required to achieve 98% washing rate without any bead loss at bead number less than 100 in a droplet. It allows using only about 25 magnetic beads in DMF immunoassay to increase the number of captured analytes on each bead effectively. In our human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI) model immunoassay, the experimental results show that, comparing to our previous results without using the proposed bead extraction technique, the immunoassay with low bead number significantly enhances the fluorescence signal to provide a better limit of detection (3.14 pg/ml) with smaller reagent volumes (200 nl) and shorter analysis time (<1 h). This improved bead extraction technique not only can be used in the DMF immunoassay but also has great potential to be used in any other bead-based DMF systems for different applications. PMID:26858807

  2. Development and validation of a microfluidic immunoassay capable of multiplexing parallel samples in microliter volumes.

    PubMed

    Ghodbane, Mehdi; Stucky, Elizabeth C; Maguire, Tim J; Schloss, Rene S; Shreiber, David I; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-08-01

    Immunoassays are widely utilized due to their ability to quantify a vast assortment of biomolecules relevant to biological research and clinical diagnostics. Recently, immunoassay capabilities have been improved by the development of multiplex assays that simultaneously measure multiple analytes in a single sample. However, these assays are hindered by high costs of reagents and relatively large sample requirements. For example, in vitro screening systems currently dedicate individual wells to each time point of interest and this limitation is amplified in screening studies when the investigation of many experimental conditions is necessary; resulting in large volumes for analysis, a correspondingly high cost and a limited temporal experimental design. Microfluidics based immunoassays have been developed in order to overcome these drawbacks. Together, previous studies have demonstrated on-chip assays with either a large dynamic range, high performance sensitivity, and/or the ability to process samples in parallel on a single chip. In this report, we develop a multiplex immunoassay possessing all of these parallel characteristics using commercially available reagents, which allows the analytes of interest to be easily changed. The device presented can measure 6 proteins in 32 samples simultaneously using only 4.2 ?L of sample volume. High quality standard curves are generated for all 6 analytes included in the analysis, and spiked samples are quantified throughout the working range of the assay. In addition, we demonstrate a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.8999) between in vitro supernatant measurements using our device and those obtained from a bench-top multiplex immunoassay. Finally, we describe cytokine secretion in an in vitro inflammatory hippocampus culture system, establishing proof-of-concept of the ability to use this platform as an in vitro screening tool. The low-volume, multiplexing abilities of the microdevice described in this report could be broadly applied to numerous situations where sample volumes and costs are limiting. PMID:26130452

  3. Functionalized gold nanoclusters as fluorescent labels for immunoassays: Application to human serum immunoglobulin E determination.

    PubMed

    Alonso, María Cruz; Trapiella-Alfonso, Laura; Fernández, José M Costa; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-03-15

    A quantitative immunoassay for the determination of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum using gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as fluorescent label was developed. Water soluble AuNCs were synthesized using lipoic acid and then thoroughly characterized. The obtained AuNCs have a particle size of 2.7±0.1nm and maximum fluorescence emission at 710nm. The synthesized AuNCs showed very good stability of the fluorescent signal with light exposure and at neutral and slightly basic media. A covalent bioconjugation of these AuNCs with the desired antibody was carried out by the carbodiimide reaction. After due optimization of such bioconjugation reaction, a molar ratio 1:3 (antibody:AuNCs) was selected. The bioconjugate maintained an intense luminescence emission, slightly red-shifted as compared to the free AuNCs. Two typical immunoassay configurations, competitive and sandwich, were assayed and their performance for IgE determination critically compared. After the different immunoassay steps were accomplished, the fluorescence emission of the bioconjugate was measured. While the sandwich format provided a detection limit (DL) of 10ng/mL and a linear range between 25 and 565ng/mL of IgE, the competitive format revealed a DL of 0.2ng/mL with a linear range between 0.3 and 7.1ng/mL The applicability of the more sensitive competitive fluorescent immunoassay was assessed by successful analysis of the IgE in human serum and comparison of results with those from a commercial kit. The main advantages of the proposed AuNCs-based fluorimetric method include a low DL and a simple immunoassay protocol involving few reagents. PMID:26547433

  4. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. PMID:26399971

  5. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  6. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  7. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  8. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  9. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  10. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  11. Good Results from IVF Egg Donors Over Age 35

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_155243.html Good Results From IVF Egg Donors Over Age 35 Pregnancy, live birth rates ... Results of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles using eggs from older donors are as good as those ...

  12. Blood Donors Needed After East Coast Storm: Red Cross

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156902.html Blood Donors Needed After East Coast Storm: Red Cross Many ... by the winter storm are encouraged to make blood and platelet donations, the Red Cross said. Donors in areas affected ...

  13. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  14. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  15. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  16. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  17. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality. PMID:25634118

  18. Many Donor Livers for Sickest Patients Rejected, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157112.html Many Donor Livers for Sickest Patients Rejected, Study Finds Just over ... It's common for transplant centers to reject donor livers for the sickest patients on the transplant waiting ...

  19. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.51 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.3. (b)...

  20. Multifunctional reduced graphene oxide trigged chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer: Novel signal amplification strategy for photoelectrochemical immunoassay of squamous cell carcinoma antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-05-15

    Herein, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay is constructed for squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) detection using zinc oxide nanoflower-bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) composites as photoactive materials and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as signal labels. Horseradish peroxidase is used to block sites against nonspecific binding, and then participated in luminol-based chemiluminescence (CL) system. The induced CL emission is acted as an inner light source to excite photoactive materials, simplifying the instrument. A novel signal amplification strategy is stem from rGO because of the rGO acts as an energy acceptor, while luminol serves as a donor to rGO, triggering the CL resonance energy transfer phenomenon between luminol and rGO. Thus, the efficient CL emission to photoactive materials decreases. Furthermore, the signal amplification caused by rGO labeled signal antibodies is related to photogenerated electron-hole pairs: perfect matching of energy levels between rGO and Bi2S3 makes rGO a sink to capture photogenerated electrons from Bi2S3; the increased steric hindrance hinders the electron donor to the surface of Bi2S3 for reaction with the photogenerated holes. On the basis of the novel signal amplification strategy, the proposed immunosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance for PEC detection of SCCA, ranging from 0.8pgmL(-1) to 80ngmL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.21pgmL(-1). Meanwhile, the designed signal amplification strategy provides a general format for future development of PEC assays. PMID:26686924

  1. Multicenter Evaluation of a New, Automated Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sickinger, Eva; Stieler, Myriam; Kaufman, Boris; Kapprell, Hans-Peter; West, Daniel; Sandridge, Arnold; Devare, Sushil; Schochetman, Gerald; Hunt, J. C.; Daghfal, David

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and precision of a three-step, fully automated, qualitative microparticle-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab Combo; Abbott Laboratories), designed to simultaneously detect (i) antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and/or type 2 (HIV-2) and (ii) HIV p24 antigen. A significant reduction in the HIV seroconversion window was achieved by combining detection of HIV antibodies and antigen into a single assay format. For 22 selected, commercial HIV seroconversion panels, the mean time of detection with the combined-format HIV antigen-antibody assay was reduced by 6.15 days compared to that with a similar third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay. The quantitative sensitivity of the combination assay for the p24 antigen (17.5 pg/ml by use of the p24 quantitative panel VIH SFTS96?) was nearly equivalent to that of single-format antigen tests. The combination assay demonstrated sensitive (100%) detection of anti-HIV immunoglobulin in specimens from individuals in CDC stages A, B, and C and from individuals infected with different HIV-1 group M subtypes, group O, or HIV-2. The apparent specificity for hospitalized patients (n = 1,938) was 99.90%. In a random population of 7,900 volunteer blood donors, the specificity (99.87%) was comparable to that of a third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay (99.92%) on the same donor specimens. In addition, the combination assay was robust to potential interfering specimens. The precision of the combination was high, with intra- and interrun variances of ?9.3% for each precision panel specimen or assay control and ?5.3% for the negative assay control. PMID:14715727

  2. Imaging in Lung Transplantation: Surgical Considerations of Donor and Recipient.

    PubMed

    Backhus, Leah M; Mulligan, Michael S; Ha, Richard; Shriki, Jabi E; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2016-03-01

    Modifications in recipient and donor criteria and innovations in donor management hold promise for increasing rates of lung transplantation, yet availability of donors remains a limiting resource. Imaging is critical in the work-up of donor and recipient including identification of conditions that may portend to poor posttransplant outcomes or necessitate modifications in surgical technique. This article describes the radiologic principles that guide selection of patients and surgical procedures in lung transplantation. PMID:26896228

  3. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  4. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  5. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  6. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  7. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  8. Mating by proxy: a novel perspective to donor conception.

    PubMed

    Rodino, Iolanda S; Burton, Peter J; Sanders, Katherine A

    2011-10-01

    How single, partnered lesbian, and partnered heterosexual women undertaking donor insemination rate the importance of donor characteristics is explored in the context of Trivers's parental investment theory. Consistent with this theory, single women placed higher value on biographical traits reflective of the donor's level of potential resources (occupation, hobbies, age) and good character compared with either partnered lesbian or heterosexual women. PMID:21821248

  9. Transvaginal Route for Kidney Extraction in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Ibrahim; Cakir, Ulkem; Gurkan, Alihan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy in terms of feasibility and reproducibility. Methods: A total of 115 consecutive female patients who underwent laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (n = 70) or transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy (n = 45) were included and compared in terms of operative characteristics, as well as donor and recipient outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed between the laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy and transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy groups in terms of mean duration of warm and cold ischemia, operation time, length of hospital stay, arterial anastomoses, visual analog scale pain scores, serum creatinine levels, and receiver outcomes, whereas a significantly higher number of venous anastomoses was noted in the laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy group than in the transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy group (P = .029). Conclusions: Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy seems to be a feasible and reproducible alternative to conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy in female donors provided the viability of the vagina as an organ retrieval route. PMID:25419107

  10. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  11. Psychiatric Aspects of Artificial Insemination (Donor)

    PubMed Central

    Watters, W. W.; Sousa-Poza, J.

    1966-01-01

    Artificial insemination (donor) [A.I.D.] in humans is a medical procedure that has been carried out for roughly 50 years. Its legal status has not yet been established; its moral implications are still hotly contested, and its psychological and psychiatric implications are only now coming under scientific scrutiny. The use of this procedure in couples who are psychologically unsuited for it can have unfortunate consequences. The obstetrician should seek the assistance of a dynamically oriented psychiatrist in screening couples who ask for artificial insemination (donor). Parenthood, in line with psychoanalytic ego psychology, is seen as a phase of ego development. The potential for mothering and fathering children is a later stage in growth than the capacity to conceive and sire them. It is the psychiatrist's role to assess the couple's motivation for A.I.D. in the light of the extent to which they have achieved this degree of ego development. PMID:20328602

  12. Homograft valve durability: host or donor influence?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lavin, L; Spotnitz, A J; Mackenzie, J W; Gu, J; Gadi, I K; Gullo, J; Boyd, C; Graf, D

    1990-01-01

    Antibiotic sterilized valves have been shown to function longer than those chemically sterilized; however, the reason remains obscure. Current hypotheses cite either retention of donor fibroblasts capable of repairing the grafted valve, or host fibroblast ingrowth into and onto the leaflet ground substance. A cryopreserved aortic homograft from a male donor was explanted from a female recipient after 10 months, and subjected to immunocytochemistry, tissue culture, and karyotyping. The leaflet bases exhibited normal morphology with an intact endothelium. The distal one-third of the leaflets was devoid of fibroblasts from the leaflet bases showed them to be of host origin. This homograft seems to have been implanted with an intact ground substance which allowed for host cell repopulation of the inner one-third of the leaflets. Perhaps donor cell viability in itself is not as important to durability as is preservation of the leaflet ground substance, but rather the presence of viable cells may be an index of the structural integrity of the collagen and elastic matrix. PMID:2354984

  13. Nitric oxide donors for cardiovascular implant applications.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Noora; de Mel, Achala; Alavijeh, Omid Sadeghi; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-01-14

    In an era of increased cardiovascular disease burden in the ageing population, there is great demand for devices that come in to contact with the blood such as heart valves, stents, and bypass grafts that offer life saving treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) elution from healthy endothelial tissue that lines the vessels maintains haemostasis throughout the vasculature. Surgical devices that release NO are desirable treatment options and N-diazeniumdiolates and S-nitrosothiols are recognized as preferred donor molecules. There is a keen interest to investigate newer methods by which NO donors can be retained within biomaterials so that their release and kinetic profiles can be optimized. A range of polymeric scaffolds incorporating microparticles and nanomaterials are presenting solutions to current challenges, and have been investigated in a range of clinical applications. This review outlines the application of NO donors for cardiovascular therapy using biomaterials that release NO locally to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) and enhance endothelialization in the fabrication of next generation cardiovascular device technology. PMID:23136136

  14. Successful Treatment of Chronic Donor Site Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yanow, Jennifer H; Lorenzo, Luigi Di; Worosilo, Sharon C; Pappagallo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This is a case presentation of a 45-year-old male with chronic donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest successfully treated with superior cluneal nerve blockade. Donor site pain following autologous bone harvest is a common postoperative complication of lumbar fusion procedures that can cause significant morbidity and diminish quality of life, even in the context of an otherwise successful surgery. Dysfunction of the superior cluneal nerves is an etiology of this chronic pain. The patient’s medical history, attempted treatments, and literature were reviewed. Case Presentation: A 45-year-old male with a six year history of severe pain over the right iliac crest following an otherwise successful lumbar laminectomy and fusion underwent two sets of superior cluneal nerve blocks, with sustained relief of more than 80% at seven months follow up. Conclusions: Donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest is a common surgical complication that is often resistant to conservative treatments such as physical therapy and oral medications. Blockade of the superior cluneal nerves is a safe and technically simple procedure that may result in long-term pain relief, obviating the need to consider more invasive options. PMID:26587399

  15. Significance of the donor age effect on kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, P I; Gjertson, D W; Cecka, J M; Takemoto, S; Cho, Y W

    1997-10-01

    The shortage of cadaveric donor kidneys for transplantation has forced a re-evaluation of the limits on donor age acceptability. However, as more kidneys from older donors have been transplanted, a significantly lower graft survival has been noted among their recipients. The impact of utilizing older donor kidneys and the relative importance of donor age with respect to other factors has not been clarified. A total of 43,172 cadaver donor transplants reported to the UNOS Scientific Renal Transplant Registry between 1987 and 1995 were the subjects of this study. Cox regression analysis was utilized to assess the joint effects on graft survival of donor age and HLA mismatch, recipient sex, race, age, original disease, donor death cause, cold ischemia time, and transplant year. Increased first day anuria, dialysis requirement, and discharge serum creatinine were noted with increasing donor age. Moreover, long-term graft and patient survival diminished as donor age increased. The 5-yr graft survival of zero HLA-A,B,DR mismatched kidneys fell steadily from 81% when the donor was aged 21-30 to 39% when the donor was over age 60. The reported causes of kidney transplant failure were remarkably similar for old and young donors. The best transplant results were obtained with zero HLA-A,B,DR mismatched transplants from young donors and the worst with older donor kidneys, regardless of HLA compatibility. We calculated that up to 21% of kidney failures resulted from insufficient renal mass due to age and were incorrectly attributed to chronic rejection. PMID:9361925

  16. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs. PMID:23740267

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: PCP IMMUNOASSAY TECHNOLOGIES - PENTA RISC BY ENSYS INC., PENTA RAPID BY OHMICRON CORP., ENVIROGARD BY MILLIPORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this demonstration were to test these field screening technologies for accuracy and precision in detecting Pentachlorophenol (PCP) levels in soil and water by comparing their results with those of a confirmatory laboratory. The three immunoassay technologies ...

  18. Hydrophilic, bright CuInS2 quantum dots as Cd-free fluorescent labels in quantitative immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Speranskaya, Elena S; Beloglazova, Natalia V; Abé, Sofie; Aubert, Tangi; Smet, Philippe F; Poelman, Dirk; Goryacheva, Irina Y; De Saeger, Sarah; Hens, Zeger

    2014-07-01

    We report on the synthesis of core-shell CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in organic solution, their encapsulation with a PEG-containing amphiphilic polymer, and the application of the resulting water-soluble QDs as fluorescent label in quantitative immunoassay. By optimizing the methods for core synthesis and shell growth, CuInS2/ZnS QDs were obtained with a quantum yield of 50% on average after hydrophilization. After conjugation with an aflatoxin B1-protein derivative, the obtained QDs were used as fluorescent labels in microplate immunoassay for the quantitative determination of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1. QDs-based immunoassay showed higher sensitivity compared to enzyme-based immunoassay. PMID:24892375

  19. Managing multiple masculinities in donor insemination: doctors configuring infertile men and sperm donors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how doctors configured infertile men and sperm donors in the development of donor insemination (DI) in Taiwan. In the initial stage (1950s-1970s) doctors adjusted clinical procedures to repair the deformed gender identities of infertile men. To expand DI in the late 1970s and early 1980s, doctors stressed the positive eugenics of DI by spotlighting the high intelligence of donors, playing down biological patrilineage and re-emphasising the contribution of men of higher rank in society. In the mid-1980s, when donors came to be seen as potential carriers of fatal diseases like acquired immune deficiency syndrome, doctors managed to associate risky donors with socially stigmatised men, and therefore perpetuate the conventional hierarchy of masculinities. As the intracytoplasmic sperm injection emerged in the early 1990s doctors quickly presented infertile men as universally longing for biological fatherhood and hence devalued DI in an attempt to augment paternal masculinity. These diverse configuration activities come together to create a socio-technical network of DI that most of the time perpetuates the reigning gender order, rather than destabilising it. I argue the importance of incorporating various types of participants in analysis to understand the changing dynamics of multiple masculinities along with the development of DI. PMID:20937052

  20. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient. PMID:25674158

  1. Improved Outcome of Alternative Donor Transplantations in Patients with Myelofibrosis: From Unrelated to Haploidentical Family Donors.

    PubMed

    Bregante, Stefania; Dominietto, Alida; Ghiso, Anna; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Varaldo, Riccardo; Di Grazia, Carmen; Lamparelli, Teresa; Luchetti, Silvia; Geroldi, Simona; Casarino, Lucia; Pozzi, Sarah; Tedone, Elisabetta; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Galaverna, Federica; Barosi, Giovanni; Bacigalupo, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 95 patients with myelofibrosis who were allografted between 2001 and 2014. The aims of the study were to assess whether the outcome of alternative donor grafts has improved with time and how this compares with the outcome of identical sibling grafts. Patients were studied in 2 time intervals: 2000 to 2010 (n = 58) and 2011 to 2014 (n = 37). The Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System score was comparable in the 2 time periods, but differences in the most recent group included older age (58 versus 53 years, P = .004), more family haploidentical donors (54% versus 5%, P < .0001), and the introduction of the thiotepa-fludarabine-busulfan conditioning regimen (70% of patients versus 2%, P < .0001). Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were comparable in the 2 time periods. The 3-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in the 2011 to 2014 period versus the 2000 to 2010 period is 16% versus 32% (P = .10), the relapse rate 16% versus 40% (P = .06), and actuarial survival 70% versus 39% (P = .08). Improved survival was most pronounced in alternative donor grafts (69% versus 21%, P = .02), compared with matched sibling grafts (72% versus 45%, P = .40). In conclusion, the outcome of allografts in patients with myelofibrosis has improved in recent years because of a reduction of both TRM and relapse. Improvement is most significant in alternative donor transplantations, with modifications in donor type and conditioning regimen. PMID:26456259

  2. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  3. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  4. 76 FR 65735 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and.... The draft guidance document recognizes the abbreviated donor history questionnaire and...

  5. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  6. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web. PMID:12216954

  7. Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease among Older Live Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    Reese, PP; Bloom, RD; Feldman, HI; Rosenbaum, P; Wang, W; Saynisch, P; Tarsi, NM; Mukherjee, N; Garg, AX; Mussell, A; Shults, J; Even-Shoshan, O; Townsend, RR; Silber, JH

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, live kidney donation by older individuals (?55 years) has become more common. Given strong associations of older age with cardiovascular disease, nephrectomy could make older donors vulnerable to death and cardiovascular events. We performed a cohort study among older live kidney donors who were matched to healthy older individuals in the Health and Retirement Study. The primary outcome was mortality ascertained through national death registries. Secondary outcomes ascertained among pairs with Medicare coverage included death or cardiovascular disease ascertained through Medicare claims data. During the period from 1996 – 2006, there were 5717 older donors in the United States. We matched 3368 donors 1:1 to older healthy non-donors. Among donors and matched pairs, the mean age was 59 years; 41% were male and 7% were black race. In median follow-up of 7.8 years, mortality was not different between donors and matched pairs (p=0.21). Among donors with Medicare, the combined outcome of death/CVD (p=0.70) was also not different between donors and non-donors. In summary, carefully selected older kidney donors do not face a higher risk of death or CVD. These findings should be provided to older individuals considering live kidney donation. PMID:25039276

  8. Enhancement of fluorescence intensity from an immunoassay chip using high-aspect-ratio nanopillars fabricated by nanoimprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Kosuke; Ogino, Masahiko; Ando, Takashi; Miyauchi, Akihiro

    2008-07-01

    High-aspect-ratio structures (nanopillars) were used to enhance the fluorescence intensity of immunoassay chips. Nanoimprinting with elongation phenomenon was applied to fabricate polystyrene nanopillars. Human alpha fetoprotein was detected by a fluorescence immunoassay protocol. Fluorescence intensities were evaluated for areas with nanopillars of different surface areas. The area with nanopillars of 95nm diameter and 4.1?m height showed fluorescence intensity 34 times higher than that of flat areas.

  9. Detection of La Crosse arbovirus antigen in mosquito pools: application of chromogenic and fluorogenic enzyme immunoassay systems.

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, S W; Beaty, B J; Meegan, J M; Frazier, C L; Shope, R E

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay producing either a chromogenic or fluorogenic end product was developed and evaluated for detecting La Crosse viral antigen within mosquito pools. The enzyme immunoassay was found to be sensitive, detecting one infected mosquito within a pool of 100 mosquitoes, and specific, distinguishing between closely related California group viruses. Assays were completed within 5 h after the addition of test samples. La Crosse viral antigen could be readily detected in mosquito pools after seven freeze-thaw cycles. PMID:7047555

  10. Interference of circulating endogenous antibodies on the Dimension® DGNA digoxin immunoassay: elimination with a heterophilic blocking reagent.

    PubMed

    Hermida-Cadahía, Esperanza F; Calvo, M Mar; Tutor, J Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Only two cases have been previously described about circulating endogenous antibodies interference on the immunochemical determination of digoxin. In an elderly patient with history of social cat handling was observed a moderate positive interference (about 0.8 ng/mL) on the Dimension® DGNA digoxin immunoassay (capture rabbit antibody), which was eliminated treating the serum samples with a heterophilic blocking reagent. The Architect® immunoassay was not affected. PMID:20875811

  11. Overextended Criteria Donors: Experience of an Italian Transplantation Center.

    PubMed

    Nure, E; Lirosi, M C; Frongillo, F; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Fiorillo, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S

    2015-09-01

    The increasing gap between the number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation and the number of available donors has fueled efforts to maximize the donor pool using marginal grafts that usually were discarded for transplantation. This study included data of all patients who received decreased donor liver grafts between January 2004 and January 2013 (n = 218) with the use of a prospectively collected database. Patients with acute liver failure, retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and split liver transplantation were excluded. Donors were classified as standard donor (SD), extended criteria donor (ECD), and overextended criteria donor (OECD). The primary endpoints of the study were early allograft primary dysfunction (PDF), primary nonfunction (PNF), and patient survival (PS), whereas incidence of major postoperative complications was the secondary endpoint. In our series we demonstrated that OECD have similar outcome in terms of survival and incidence of complication after liver transplantation as ideal grafts. PMID:26361653

  12. Psychosocial assessment of living organ donors: clinical and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Olbrisch, M E; Benedict, S M; Haller, D L; Levenson, J L

    2001-03-01

    This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, "Good Samaritan" (both directed and nondirected), vendors, and organ exchangers. The primary domains to be assessed in the psychosocial evaluation are informed consent, motivation for donating and the decision-making process, adequacy of support (financial and social), behavioral and psychological health, and the donor-recipient relationship. Obstacles to the evaluation process include impression management, overt deception, minimization of behavioral risk factors, and cultural and language differences between the donor and the evaluator. Ethical concerns, such as the right to donate, donor autonomy, freedom from coercion, nonmaleficence and beneficence in donor selection, conflicts of interest, "reasonable" risks to donors, and recipient decision making are also explored. To fully evaluate living organ donation, studying psychosocial as well as medical outcomes is crucial. PMID:11357556

  13. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  14. Simulation of the kinetics of phosphorescence buildup of energy donor molecules in matrix-isolated donor-acceptor pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanova, N. V.; Deryabin, M. I.; Tishchenko, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for describing the kinetics of accumulation of donor molecules in the triplet state for matrix-isolated donor-acceptor pairs. Using this model, computer simulation of the kinetics of accumulation of triplet excitations and phosphorescence buildup of the donor is performed. It is found that for certain relations between the rate constants of transitions for the donor and acceptor of the triplet excitation energy, the kinetics of phosphorescence buildup and the quantum yield of the donor phosphorescence depend on the excitation power.

  15. Deoxynivalenol-mimic nanobody isolated from a naïve phage display nanobody library and its application in immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-Lou; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Bhunia, Arun K; Tu, Zhui; Chen, Bo; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    In this study, using mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) as a model hapten, we developed a nanobody-based environmental friendly immunoassay for sensitive detection of DON. Two nanobodies (N-28 and N-31) which bind to anti-DON monoclonal antibody (MAb) were isolated from a naive phage display library. These nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and mycotoxin-free products and can be served as coating antigen mimetics in heterologous immunoassay. The half inhibition concentration (IC50) of the immunoassay developed with N-28 and N-31 was 8.77 ± 0.41 ng mL(-1) and 19.97 ± 0.84 ng mL(-1), respectively, which were 18- and 8-fold more sensitive than the conventional coating antigen (DON-BSA) based immunoassay. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of antigen mimicry by nanobody, the 3D structure of "nanobody (N-28) - anti-DON MAb" complex was presented and verified by molecular modeling and alanine-scanning mutagenesis. The results showed that hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction formed between Thr 102 - Ser 106 of N-28 and CDR H3 residues of anti-DON antibody may contribute to their binding. This novel concept of enhancing sensitivity of immunoassay for DON based on nanobody may provide potential applications in a general method for immunoassay of various food chemical contaminants. PMID:26320803

  16. Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-accepter-donor molecule

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, M.P.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Svec, W.A.; Gosztola, D.; Gaines, G.L. III; Wasielewski, M.R. )

    1992-07-03

    An electron donor-acceptor-donor molecule consisting of two porphyrin donors rigidly attached to the two-electron acceptor N,N{prime}-diphenyl-3,4,9,10-perylenebis (dicarboximide) acts as a light intensity-dependent molecular switch on a picosecond time scale. Excitation of the porphyrins within this molecule with subpicosecond laser pulses results in single or double reduction of the acceptor depending on the light intensity. The singly and doubly reduced electron acceptors absorb light strongly at 713 and 546 nanometers, respectively. Because these absorption changes are produced solely by electron transfers, this molecular switch effectively has no moving parts and switches significantly faster than photochromic molecules that must undergo changes in molecular structure.

  17. [Psychological profile of potential organ donors and non-organ donors].

    PubMed

    Blanca, María J; Rando, Belén; Frutos, Miguel A; López-Montiel, Gema

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse the psychological profile of potential organ donors and potential non-organ donors, from a sample of people with qualifications lower than a Bachelor's degree. The variables examined were prosocial behaviour, the scales of the Constructive Thinking Inventory, and the dimensions of personality of the Big-Five Questionnaire. The results show that non-organ donors have a lower score in prosocial behaviour, are less efficient in their actions, with a tendency for less thought before acting, and they tend to be prejudiced. The results also reveal that this group has lower degrees of cooperation and empathy. They tend to be less reflective, less scrupulous, less willing to persevere in their actions, less interested in culture, and less open to new ideas and values. The above results are discussed, bearing in mind the utility of this knowledge to professionals dedicated to organ donation. PMID:17617983

  18. Two dimensional barcode-inspired automatic analysis for arrayed microfluidic immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Qiao, Lingbo; Ren, Yunke; Wang, Xuwei; Gao, Ming; Tang, Yunfang; Jeff Xi, Jianzhong; Fu, Tzung-May; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    The usability of many high-throughput lab-on-a-chip devices in point-of-care applications is currently limited by the manual data acquisition and analysis process, which are labor intensive and time consuming. Based on our original design in the biochemical reactions, we proposed here a universal approach to perform automatic, fast, and robust analysis for high-throughput array-based microfluidic immunoassays. Inspired by two-dimensional (2D) barcodes, we incorporated asymmetric function patterns into a microfluidic array. These function patterns provide quantitative information on the characteristic dimensions of the microfluidic array, as well as mark its orientation and origin of coordinates. We used a computer program to perform automatic analysis for a high-throughput antigen/antibody interaction experiment in 10 s, which was more than 500 times faster than conventional manual processing. Our method is broadly applicable to many other microchannel-based immunoassays. PMID:24404030

  19. Multifunctional Microspheres Encoded with Upconverting Nanocrystals and Magnetic Nanoparticles for Rapid Separation and Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Dong, Chunhong; Su, Lin; Wang, Hanjie; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Huiquan; Liu, Junqing; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-13

    Immunoassays based on the downconversion target materials (organic dyes or quantum dots) lead to fairly strong spectral interference between the coded signal and reporter signal, which seriously affects the detection accuracy and hampers their applications. In this work, a new kind of upconverting nanocrystals encoded magnetic microspheres (UCNMMs) were designed and prepared successfully to solve the problem mentioned above. The UCNMMs were obtained by incorporating magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and upconverting nanocrystals with polystyrene microspheres. Due to that upconverting nanocrystals (UCNs) and reporter signals are excitated by near-infrared and UV/visible light separately, immunoassays based on UCNMMs do not occur optical spectral interferences. Furthermore, these new functionalized UCNMMs have excellent properties in binding biomolecules and fast separating, which would have large potential applications in multiplexed assays. PMID:26653130

  20. Serologic test-systems development: immunoassays for antibiotics. Progress report, May 16, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Brake, R.; Hollstein, U.; Hindman, K.

    1983-04-01

    Progress on development of immunoassays for the antibiotics gentamicin, tetracycline, and tylosin is discussed. The development of the gentamicin assay was completed and the assay was transferred to the Beltsville Laboratories of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Quality Service (FSQS). The sensitivity (1 ppB) is 50-fold greater than we have previously reported, and is satisfactory for the current needs. At year's end, work was still in progress on both the tetracycline and tylosin assays. Tetracycline presents a more difficult problem of chemistry than we had anticipated. Immunoassay reagents synthesized by diazonium coupling were only weakly immunoreactive; analysis suggests that this coupling procedure damages the tetracycline structure. Several tetracycline derivatives that offer promising alternative coupling procedures were synthesized. Tylosin was successfully coupled to peroxidase. With this conjugate and antiserum, obtained from R. Mageau of the USDA, some immune-specific binding was demonstrated. Several problems with the tylosin assay remain to be resolved.

  1. Liver cancer immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles and MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z. Q.; Li, L.; Li, G. J.; Leung, C. W.; Shi, J.; Wong, C. M.; Lo, K. C.; Chan, W. K.; Mak, C. S. K.; Chan, S. B.; Chan, N. M. M.; Leung, C. H.; Lai, P. T.; Pong, P. W. T.

    2012-04-01

    We have demonstrated the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) labeled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors. AFP is an important hepatic tumor biomarker and the detection of AFP has significant applications for clinical diagnostics and immunoassay for early-stage liver cancer indications. In this work, MgO-based MTJ sensors and 20-nm iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for detecting AFP antigens by a sandwich-assay configuration. The MTJ sensors with a sensing area of 4 × 2 ?m2 possess tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of 122% and sensitivity of 0.95%/Oe at room temperature. The target AFP antigens of three concentrations were successfully detected, and the experimental data indicate that the resistance variations of the MTJ sensor increased with the AFP concentration ratios proportionally. These results demonstrate that MgO-based MTJ sensors together with MNPs are a promising biosensing platform for liver cancer immunoassay.

  2. Replacing immunoassays with tryptic digestion-peptide immunoaffinity enrichment and LC–MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jessica O; Hoofnagle, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    For decades, immunoassays have provided the framework for protein biomarker studies in clinical medicine and in therapeutic monitoring for drug development. At the same time, investigators have uncovered many issues that make immunoassays unreliable in many human serum and plasma samples. LC-MS/MS after tryptic digestion of proteins is potentially an attractive solution, but the sensitivity of the method is not sufficient to measure many important low-abundance proteins directly. The use of antipeptide antibodies to immunoenrich peptides of interest can improve the sensitivity of the approach, greatly simplify the matrix enabling shortened chromatographic runs, and facilitate the multiplexed quantification of analytes, which could reduce the costs of quantitative protein measurements in complex specimens. We provide an overview of the method and the steps needed to develop an assay. In addition, we review the efforts to make this method generally more applicable. PMID:22303832

  3. Chromatographic immunoassays: strategies and recent developments in the analysis of drugs and biological agents.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ryan; Rodriguez, Elliott; Suresh, Doddavenkatanna; Hage, David S

    2015-11-01

    A chromatographic immunoassay is a technique in which an antibody or antibody-related agent is used as part of a chromatographic system for the isolation or measurement of a specific target. Various binding agents, detection methods, supports and assay formats have been developed for this group of methods, and applications have been reported that range from drugs, hormones and herbicides to peptides, proteins and bacteria. This review discusses the general principles and applications of chromatographic immunoassays, with an emphasis being given to methods and formats that have been developed for the analysis of drugs and biological agents. The relative advantages or limitations of each format are discussed. Recent developments and research in this field, as well as possible future directions, are also considered. PMID:26571109

  4. Nano-immunoassay with improved performance for detection of cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Torres, María P; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Lipert, Robert J; Jain, Maneesh; Batra, Surinder K; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2015-01-01

    Nano-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect is a promising analytical technique for early detection of cancer. In its current standing the assay is capable of discriminating samples of healthy individuals from samples of pancreatic cancer patients. Further improvements in sensitivity and reproducibility will extend practical applications of the SERS-based detection platforms to wider range of problems. In this report, we discuss several strategies designed to improve performance of the SERS-based detection system. We demonstrate that reproducibility of the platform is enhanced by using atomically smooth mica surface as a template for preparation of capture surface in SERS sandwich immunoassay. Furthermore, assay's stability and sensitivity can be further improved by using either polymer or graphene monolayer as a thin protective layer applied on top of the assay addresses. The protective layer renders signal to be more stable against photo-induced damage and carbonaceous contamination. PMID:25200613

  5. [A new immunoassay for estradiol on the Advia-Centaur (Siemens) system: analytical and clinical performances].

    PubMed

    Lachgar, Mounia; Moulin, Guillaume; Taieb, Joëlle

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to present results for measurement of estradiol (E(2)) in serum and control materials with a new automated assay (eE(2)) that could be used in random continuous access mode on the Siemens laboratories Advia-Centaur immunoassay analyzer. We evaluated the imprecision (within and between run), the linearity, the limit of detection, and the functional sensitivity. We have tested the assay for monitoring ovulation stimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) throughout the most frequent protocol utilized in our IVF centre (n = 247). Results are compared to those obtained by the E(2)6 assay, one other assay on the Advia-Centaur immunoassay analyzer (Siemens), routinely used in our hormonology department. The obtained results show that the new assay presents better analytical performances (precision, linearity, limits of detection and sensibility) than the previous technique. PMID:23047904

  6. A sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay for the detection of methyl ether derivatives of cyclomaltoheptaose.

    PubMed

    Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Weisse, Sandrine; Grassi, Jacques; Perly, Bruno; Créminon, Christophe

    2003-09-26

    We have raised antibodies against two methylated derivatives of beta-CD, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose (Dimeb) and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose (Trimeb). These antibodies were used to develop two specific and sensitive enzyme immunoassays, presenting a detection limit close to 500 and 30 pg/mL for Trimeb and Dimeb, respectively. Cross reactivities of different linear and cyclic maltooligosaccharides were investigated, demonstrating a high specificity against the structural features of the secondary hydroxyls rim. Several commercial Dimeb samples, containing different mixtures of partially methylated beta-cyclodextrin derivatives including RAMEB, which contains only a few amount of pure Dimeb, could be easily evaluated by the Dimeb immunoassay. Both of these assays have been shown to allow accurate measurement in plasma and urine, thus appearing as useful tools for further applications in biological material. PMID:14505876

  7. Sugar additives improve signal fidelity for implementing two-phase resorufin-based enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Patrick A; Chung, Aram J; Weaver, Westbrook M; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-06-17

    Enzymatic signal amplification based on fluorogenic substrates is commonly used for immunoassays; however, when transitioning these assays to a digital format in water-in-mineral oil emulsions, such amplification methods have been limited by the leakage of small reporting fluorescent probes. In the present study, we used a microfluidic system to study leakage from aqueous droplets in a controlled manner and confirmed that the leakage of fluorescent resorufin derivatives is mostly due to the presence of the lipophilic surfactant Span80, which is commonly used to preserve emulsion stability. This leakage can be overcome by the addition of specific sugars that most strongly interfered with the surfactants ability to form micelles in water. The application of the microfluidic system to the quantitative analysis of droplets and the implementation of the described sugar additives would allow for alternatives to fluorinated surfactant-based platforms and improve the signal fidelity in enzyme immunoassays implemented through multiphase microfluidics. PMID:24870310

  8. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B.

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases.

  9. Use of immunoassay testing and landfarming to remediate pesticide - contaminated soil at agrichemical businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    The recent combination of two new technologies - immunoassay and landfarming - now offers an efficient, effective and economical option in the remediation of pesticide-contaminated soil. Participation in 28 landfarming projects in Illinois - 20 with pesticide-contaminated soil and eight with fuel-contaminated soil - has convinced the author that the combination offers the best method of remediation for most agrichemical sites. The procedures are currently used in Illinois as well as several other states and are being considered in even more. This paper describes the legislative and regulatory background for landfarming; defines immunoassay testing; defines landfarming: (1) contaminated site sampling and analysis; (2) education of participants; (3) selection of cooperator and host farm; (4) soil spreading considerations; a. rates, b. techniques; host site sampling and analysis; and factors affecting cost.

  10. Nano-Immunoassay with Improved Performance for Detection of Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V.; Torres, María P.; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Lipert, Robert J.; Jain, Maneesh; Batra, Surinder K.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    Nano-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect is an analytical technique with high sensitivity that holds a great promise for early cancer detection. In its current standing the assay is capable of discriminating samples of healthy individuals from samples of pancreatic cancer patients. Further improvements in sensitivity and reproducibility will extend practical applications of the SERS-based detection platforms to wider range of problems. In this report, we discuss several strategies designed to improve performance of the SERS-based detection system. We demonstrate that reproducibility of the platform is improved by using atomically smooth mica surface as a template for preparation of capture surface in SERS sandwich immunoassay. Furthermore, assay’s stability and sensitivity can be further improved by using either polymer or graphene monolayer as a thin protective layer applied on top of the assay addresses. The protective layer renders signal to be more stable against photo-induced damage and carbonaceous contamination. PMID:25200613

  11. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  12. Thermoelectric Performance of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Conjugated Polymers Based on Benzothiadiazole Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Shouli; Zhen, Shijie; Lin, Kaiwen; Zhao, Li; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Wang, Liangying; Xiong, Jinhua; Zhu, Zhengzhou

    2015-06-01

    Donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are superior to other thermoelectric organic materials because it is much easier to modify their structure to reduce the bandgap between the conduction and valence bands, which is desirable for thermoelectric materials with high Seebeck coefficients. Despite this, studies of the thermoelectric performance of donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are rare. In this study, four low-bandgap donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers, poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (PEBTE), poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]selenadiazole) (PEBSeE), poly (4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4- c] pyridine) (PEPTE), and poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]selenadiazolo[3,4- c]pyridine) (PEPSeE), were deposited by electrochemical polymerization of 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (EBTE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydro-thieno[3,4-b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]selenadiazole (EBSeE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c] pyridine (EPTE) and 4,7-bis (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5] selenadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (EPSeE), respectively and their thermoelectric performance was investi- gated. Compared with polyselenophenes, PEBTE and PEBSeE in pressed pellets had higher electrical conductivity (10-1-101 S cm-1) but lower Seebeck coefficient (14.0 μV K-1) at room temperature. Future work may focus on treatment of these donor-acceptor-donor polymers to improve their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, and further investigation of their thermoelectric performance.

  13. Improvement of immunoassay detection system by using alternating current magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, R.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kandori, A.

    2016-03-01

    A major goal with this research was to develop a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay detection system by using alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility. We fabricated an improved prototype of our previously developed immunoassay detection system and evaluated its performance. The prototype continuously moved sample containers by using a magnetically shielded brushless motor, which passes between two anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) sensors. These sensors detected the magnetic signal in the direction where each sample container passed them. We used the differential signal obtained from each AMR sensor's output to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the magnetic signal measurement. Biotin-conjugated polymer beads with avidin-coated magnetic particles were prepared to examine the calibration curve, which represents the relation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. For the calibration curve measurement, we, respectively, measured the magnetic signal caused by the magnetic particles by using each AMR sensor installed near the upper or lower part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers. As a result, the SNR of the prototype was 4.5 times better than that of our previous system. Moreover, the data obtained from each AMR sensor installed near the upper part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers exhibited an accurate calibration curve that represented good correlation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that our improved immunoassay detection system will enable a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay.

  14. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  15. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Raymond L; Reed, Dana E; Hubbard, Mark A; Dillon, Michael J; Chen, Hongjing; Currie, Bart J; Mayo, Mark; Sarovich, Derek S; Theobald, Vanessa; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Duval, Brea; Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; Aucoin, David P

    2014-03-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD) to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI); the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml). The analytical reactivity (inclusivity) of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77) when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity) testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36) were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation. PMID:24651568

  16. In-electrode vs. on-electrode: ultrasensitive Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyong; Sha, Yuhong; Hu, Yufang; Wang, Sui

    2016-03-17

    A new-concept of an "in-electrode" Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method for the ultrasensitive detection of neurotensin (NT) was reported with capture antibody (Ab1)-nanoFe3O4@graphene (GO) and detector antibody (Ab2)&N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI)@GO, which led to about 1000-fold improvement in sensitivity by extending the Helmholtz plane (OHP) of the proposed electrode assembly effectively. PMID:26861844

  17. A nonenzymatic optical immunoassay strategy for detection of Salmonella infection based on blue silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhao, Guangying; Dou, Wenchao

    2015-10-22

    A novel nonenzymatic optical immunoassay strategy was for the first time designed and utilized for sensitive detection of antibody to Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum (S. pullorum and S. gallinarum) in serum. The optical immunoassay strategy was based on blue silica nanoparticles (Blue-SiNps) and magnetic beads (MB). To construct such an optical immunoassay system, the Blue-SiNPs were first synthesized by inverse microemulsion method, characterized by SEM, Zeta potential and FTIR. Two nanostructures including Blue-SiNPs and MB were both functionalized with antibody against S. pullorum and S. gallinarum (anti-PG) without using enzyme labeled antibody. Anti-PG functionalized blue silica nanoparticles (IgG-Blue-SiNps) were used as signal transduction labels, while anti-PG functionalized magnetic beads (IgG-MB) were selected to separate and enrich the final sandwich immune complexes. In the process of detecting negative serum, a sandwich immunocomplex is formed between the IgG-MB and IgG-Blue-SiNPs. With the separation of the immunocomplex using an external magnetic field, the final plaque displayed bright blue color. While in the detection of infected serum, IgG-MB and anti-PG formed sandwich immunocomplexes, IgG-Blue-SiNPs were unable to bind to the limited sites of the antigen, and a light brown plaque was displayed in the bottom of microplate well. Stable results were obtained with an incubation time of 60 min at room temperature, and different colors corresponding to different results can be directly detected with naked eye. The reaction of IgG-Blue-SiNPs with S. pullorum was inhibited by 1:100 dilution of positive chicken serum. Such a simple immunoassay holds great potential as sensitive, selective and point-of-care (POC) tool for diagnosis of other biological molecules. PMID:26526916

  18. Normalization and statistical analysis of multiplexed bead-based immunoassay data using mixed-effects modeling.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David C; Morris, Melody K; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Multiplexed bead-based flow cytometric immunoassays are a powerful experimental tool for investigating cellular communication networks, yet their widespread adoption is limited in part by challenges in robust quantitative analysis of the measurements. Here we report our application of mixed-effects modeling for the normalization and statistical analysis of bead-based immunoassay data. Our data set consisted of bead-based immunoassay measurements of 16 phospho-proteins in lysates of HepG2 cells treated with ligands that regulate acute-phase protein secretion. Mixed-effects modeling provided estimates for the effects of both the technical and biological sources of variance, and normalization was achieved by subtracting the technical effects from the measured values. This approach allowed us to detect ligand effects on signaling with greater precision and sensitivity and to more accurately characterize the HepG2 cell signaling network using constrained fuzzy logic. Mixed-effects modeling analysis of our data was vital for ascertaining that IL-1α and TGF-α treatment increased the activities of more pathways than IL-6 and TNF-α and that TGF-α and TNF-α increased p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phospho-protein levels in a synergistic manner. Moreover, we used mixed-effects modeling-based technical effect estimates to reveal the substantial variance contributed by batch effects along with the absence of loading order and assay plate position effects. We conclude that mixed-effects modeling enabled additional insights to be gained from our data than would otherwise be possible and we discuss how this methodology can play an important role in enhancing the value of experiments employing multiplexed bead-based immunoassays. PMID:23071098

  19. A competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative detection of cocaine from banknotes and latent fingermarks.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Susan; Garcia Calavia, Paula; Hardwick, Sheila; Hudson, Simon; Wolff, Kim; Russell, David A

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive and versatile competitive enzyme immunoassay (cEIA) has been developed for the quantitative detection of cocaine in complex forensic samples. Polyclonal anti-cocaine antibody was purified from serum and deposited onto microtiter plates. The concentration of the cocaine antibody adsorbed onto the plates, and the dilution of the cocaine-HRP hapten were both studied to achieve an optimised immunoassay. The method was successfully used to quantify cocaine in extracts taken from both paper currency and latent fingermarks. The limit of detection (LOD) of 0.162ngmL(-1) achieved with the assay compares favourably to that of conventional chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques, with an appropriate sensitivity for the quantification of cocaine at the low concentrations present in some forensic samples. The cEIA was directly compared to LC-MS for the analysis of ten UK banknote samples. The results obtained from both techniques were statistically similar, suggesting that the immunoassay was unaffected by cross-reactivity with potentially interfering compounds. The cEIA was used also for the detection of cocaine in extracts from latent fingermarks. The results obtained were compared to the cocaine concentrations detected in oral fluid sampled from the same individual. Using the cEIA, we have shown, for the first time, that endogeneously excreted cocaine can be detected and quantified from a single latent fingermark. Additionally, it has been shown that the presence of cocaine, at similar concentrations, in more than one latent fingermark from the same individual can be linked with those concentrations found in oral fluid. These results show that detection of drugs in latent fingermarks could directly indicate whether an individual has consumed the drug. The specificity and feasibility of measuring low concentrations of cocaine in complex forensic samples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the assay. The immunoassay presents a simple and cost-effective alternative to the current mass spectrometry based techniques for the quantitation of cocaine at forensically significant concentrations. PMID:25766738

  20. Oral fluid for the detection of drugs of abuse using immunoassay and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Crouch, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    The utility of oral fluid as a sample matrix for the analysis of drugs has been increasing in popularity over the last few years. This is largely because of collection advantages over other matrices, but also due to the rapid improvements in analytical assays including highly sensitive liquid reagent format enzyme immunoassays and LC-MS/MS. This review will highlight improvements in assay formats, sensitivity, laboratory equipment and sample processing using low sample volumes to expand drug test profiles. PMID:23795933

  1. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for ?-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of ?-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-?-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-?-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of ?-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-?-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between ?-casein and the anti-?-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of ?-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of ?-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of ?-casein in bovine milk samples. PMID:25522084

  2. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Eason, Tarsha N; Griffin, Shannon M; Curioso, Clarissa L; Wymer, Larry J; Fout, G Shay; Grimm, Ann C; Oshima, Kevin H; Dufour, Al

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous pathogens that can be transmitted through water. Identifying and understanding the routes and magnitude of exposure or infection to these microbial contaminants are critical to assessing and mitigating risk. Conventional approaches of studying immunological responses to exposure or infection such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and other monoplex antibody-based immunoassays can be very costly, laborious, and consume large quantities of patient sample. A major limitation of these approaches is that they can only be used to measure one analyte at a time. Multiplex immunoassays provide the ability to study multiple pathogens simultaneously in microliter volumes of samples. However, there are several challenges that must be addressed when developing these multiplex immunoassays such as selection of specific antigens and antibodies, cross-reactivity, calibration, protein-reagent interferences, and the need for rigorous optimization of protein concentrations. In this study, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was used to optimize reagent concentrations for coupling selected antigens to Luminex™ xMAP microspheres for use in an indirect capture, multiplex immunoassay to detect human exposure or infection from pathogens that are potentially transmitted through water. Results from Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium singleplexes were used to determine the mean concentrations that would be applied to the multiplex assay. Cut-offs to differentiate between exposed and non-exposed individuals were determined using finite mixed modeling (FMM). The statistical approaches developed facilitated the detection of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori, C. jejuni, Toxoplasma gondii, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and noroviruses (VA387 and Norwalk strains) in fifty-four diagnostically characterized plasma samples. Of the characterized samples, the detection rate was 87.5% for H. pylori, and 100% for T. gondii assays and 89% for HAV. Further, the optimized multiplex assay revealed exposure/infection to several other environmental pathogens previously uncharacterized in the samples. PMID:26070441

  3. Magnetic Electrochemical Immunoassays with Quantum Dot Labels for Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A new magnetic electrochemical immunoassay has been developed as a tool for biomonitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds, e.g., insecticides and chemical nerve agents, by directly detecting organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE). This immunoassay uniquely incorporates highly efficient magnetic separation with ultrasensitive square wave voltammetry (SWV) analysis with quantum dots (QDs) as labels. A pair of antibodies was used to achieve the specific recognition of OP-AChE that was prepared with paraoxon as an OP model agent. Antiphosphoserine polyclonal antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic particles preferably chosen to capture OP-AChE from the sample matrixes by binding their phosphoserine moieties that were exposed through unfolding the protein adducts. This was validated by electrochemical examinations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, antihuman AChE monoclonal antibodies were labeled with cadmium-source QDs to selectively recognize the captured OP-AChE, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent electrochemical SWV analysis of the cadmium component released by acid from the coupled QDs was conducted on disposable screen-printed electrodes. Experimental results indicated that the SWV-based immunoassays could yield a linear response over a broad concentration range of 0.3-300 ng/mL OP-AChE in human plasma with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Such a novel electrochemical immunoassay holds great promise as a simple, selective, sensitive, and field-deployable tool for the effective biomonitoring and diagnosis of potential exposures to nerve agents and pesticides.

  4. Sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on functionalized silica nanoparticle labels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-03-03

    We present a poly(guanine)-functionalized silica nanoparticle (NP) label-based electrochemical immunoassay for sensitively detecting 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). This immunoassay takes advantage of magnetic bead–based platform for competitive displacement immunoreactions and separation, and use electroactive nanoparticles as labels for signal amplification. For this assay, anti-TNT-coated magnetic beads interacted with TNT analog-conjugated poly(guanine)-silica NPs and formed analog-anti-TNT immunocomplexes on magnetic beads. The immunocomplexes coated magnetic beads were exposed to TNT samples, which resulted in displacing the analog conjugated poly(guanine) silica NPs into solution by TNT. In contrast, there are no guanine residues releasing into the solution in the absence of TNT. The reaction solution was then separated from the magnetic beads and transferred to the electrode surface for electrochemical measurements of guanine oxidation with Ru(bpy)32+ as mediator. The sensitivity of this TNT assay was greatly enhanced through dual signal amplifications: 1) a large amount of guanine residues on silica nanoparticles is introduced into the test solution by displacement immunoreactions and 2) a Ru(bpy)32+-induced guanine catalytic oxidation further enhances the electrochemical signal. Some experimental parameters for the nanoparticle label-based electrochemical immunoassay were studied and the performance of this assay was evaluated. The method is found to be very sensitive and the detection limit of this assay is ~ 0.1 ng mL-1 TNT. The electrochemical immunoassay based on the poly[guanine]-functionalized silica NP label offers a new approach for sensitive detection of explosives.

  5. Field-Portable Immunoassay Instruments and Reagents to Measure Chelators and Mobile Forms of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Diane A.

    2001-06-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated the feasibility of immunoassays for identification and quantification of specific metal ions. Our ultimate goal for this project is to (1) isolate and characterize antibodies that recognize the most mobile form of uranium, UO22+; (2) assemble, test, and validate a new field-portable immunosensor based on these antibodies; (3) prepare new monoclonal antibodies to the primary chelators (EDTA and DTPA) found in DOE wastes.

  6. Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W

    2003-12-15

    An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

  7. In situ deposition of Prussian blue on mesoporous carbon nanosphere for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lai, Guosong; Zhang, Haili; Yu, Aimin; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-12-15

    A Prussian blue (PB) functionalized mesoporous carbon nanosphere (MCN) composite was prepared for loading signal antibody and high-content glucose oxidase (GOD) to obtain a new nanoprobe for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay. The MCN nanocarrier with an average diameter of 180 nm was synthesized by using mesoporous silica nanosphere as a hard template in combination with a hydrothermal carbonization method. This hydrophilic carbon nanomaterial provided an ideal platform for in situ deposition of high-content PB to form the MCN-PB nanocomposite. Based on the step-wise assembly of polyelectrolyte and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the negative-charged nanocomposite, signal antibody and high-content GOD were loaded on this nanocarrier to obtain the nanoprobe. After a sandwich immunoreaction at an Au NPs-modified screen-printed carbon electrode based immunosensor, the nanoprobes were quantitatively captured on the electrode surface to produce sensitive electrochemical response with a PB-mediated GOD catalytic reaction for immunoassay. The high loading of PB and GOD on the nanoprobe greatly amplified the electrochemical signal, leading to the development of a new immunoassay method with high sensitivity. Using human immunoglobulin G as a model analyte, excellent analytical performance including a wide linear range from 0.01 to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit down to 7.8 pg/mL was obtained. Additionally, the immunosensor showed high specificity, satisfactory stability and repeatability as well as acceptable reliability. The PB-mediated GOD electrochemical system well excluded the conventional interference from the dissolved oxygen. Thus this immunoassay method provides great potentials for practical applications. PMID:26201983

  8. Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

    2014-02-01

    Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 ?g/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

  9. Detection of drug usage via breath analysis with an immunoassay film badge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukens, Herbert R.

    1997-01-01

    A monolayer of antibody on a semimirror comprised of small islands of indium acts as a sensor capable of detecting vapors at extremely low concentrations without the use of wet chemistry. Already shown capable of detecting cocaine vapors at 4 femtograms per cc of air, the use of the device, called an immunoassay film badge, for detecting drugs on the breath is a natural extension of the sensor's use. This paper describes this application and initial experiments that demonstrate its feasibility.

  10. Magnetic luminescent nanoparticles as internal calibration for an immunoassay for ricin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Ma, Zhi-Ya; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2008-02-01

    Fluorescence techniques rely on measurement of relative fluorescence units and require calibration to obtain reliable and comparable quantitative data. Fluorescent immunoassays are a very sensitive and convenient method of choice for rapid detection of biotoxins, such as ricin. Here we present the application of magnetic luminescent nanoparticles (MLNPs) with a magnetic core of Fe 3O 4 and a fluorescent shell of Eu:Gd IIO 3 as carriers for a nanobead-immunoassay for the detection of ricin with internal calibration. A sandwich immunoassay for ricin was performed on the surface of the MLNPs. The particles were functionalized with capture polyclonal antibodies. Anti-ricin antibodies labeled with Alexa Fluor dye were used as the detecting antibodies. After magnetic extraction, the amount of ricin bound to the particle surface was quantified and related to the fluorescence signal of the nanoparticles. In this new platform, the MLNPs have three main functions: (1) a probe for the specific extraction of the target analyte from the sample; (2) a carrier in the quantitative immunoassay with magnetic separation; and (3) an internal standard in the fluorescence measurement of the dye reporter. The MLNPs serve as an internal control for the total analysis including extraction and assay performance. This approach eliminates the experimental error inherent in particle extraction and measurement of absolute organic dye fluorescence intensities. All fluorescent measurements were performed in a microplate reader. The standard curve for ricin had a dynamic range from 20 ng/ml to 100 μg/ml with a detection limit of 5 ng/ml. The configuration that has been developed can be easily adapted to a high throughput miniaturized system.

  11. Donor Rejection Before Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Causes and Cost Effective Analysis in an Egyptian Transplant Center.

    PubMed Central

    El-Meteini, Mahmoud; Dabbous, Hany; Sakr, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Amany; Fawzy, Iman; Bahaa, Mohamed; Abdelaal, Amr; Fathy, Mohamed; Said, Hany; Rady, Mohamed; El-Dorry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the living donor liver transplant setting, the preoperative assessment of potential donors is important to ensure the donor safety. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify causes and costs of living liver-donors rejection in the donation process. Materials and Methods: From June 2010 to June 2012, all potential living liver donors for 66 liver transplant candidates were screened at the Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation. Potential donors were evaluated in 3 phases, and their data were reviewed to determine the causes and at which phase the donors were rejected. Results: One hundred and ninety two potential living liver donors, including 157 (81.7%) males, were screened for 66 potential recipients. Of these, 126 (65.6%) were disqualified for the donation. The causes of rejection were classified as surgical (9.5 %) or medical (90.5 %). Five donors (3.9 %) were rejected due to multiple causes. Factor V Leiden mutation was detected in 29 (23 %) rejected donors (P = 0.001), 25 (19.8 %) donors had positive results for hepatitis serology (P = 0.005), and 16 (12.7 %) tested positive for drug abuse. Portal vein trifurcation (n = 9, 7.1%) and small size liver graft estimated by CT volumetric analysis (n = 6, 4.8 %) were the main surgical causes which precluded the donation. Conclusions: Among potential Egyptian living liver donors, Factor V Leiden mutation was a significant cause for live donor rejection. A stepwise approach to donor assessment was found to be cost-effective. PMID:24497879

  12. [Non-heart-beating donors are ineligible].

    PubMed

    Heide, W

    2016-02-01

    The death of the donor is a mandatory prerequisite for organ transplantation (dead donor rule) worldwide. It is a medical, legal and ethical consensus to accept the concept of brain death, as first proposed in 1968 by the ad hoc committee of the Harvard Medical School, as a certain criterion of death. In isolated cases where the diagnosis of brain death was claimed to be wrong, it could be demonstrated that the diagnostic procedure for brain death had not been correctly performed. In March 2014 a joint statement by the German neuromedical societies emphasized that 1) the diagnosis of brain death is one of the safest diagnoses in medicine if performed according to accepted medical standards and criteria and 2) the concept of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD, i. e. organ donation after an arbitrarily defined duration of circulatory and cardiac arrest) practiced in some European countries must be absolutely rejected because it implicates a high risk of diagnostic error. According to the current literature it is unclear at what time cardiac and circulatory arrest is irreversible and leads to irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brainstem, even though clinical signs of cessation of brain functions are always found after 10 min. Furthermore, is it often an arbitrary decision to exactly define the duration of cardiac arrest if continuous echocardiographic monitoring has not been carried out from the very beginning. Last but not least there are ethical concerns against the concept of NHBD because it might influence therapeutic efforts to resuscitate a patient with cardiac arrest. Therefore, the German Medical Council (BÄK) has repeatedly rejected the concept of NHBD for organ transplantation since 1995. PMID:26830897

  13. Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Kami?ska, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Evelin; Winkler, Katarzyna; Dzi?cielewski, Igor; Weyher, Jan L; Waluk, Jacek

    2015-04-15

    A highly sensitive immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed with a new Raman reporter and a unique SERS-active substrate incorporated into a microfluidic device. An appropriately designed Raman reporter, basic fuchsin (FC), gives strong SERS enhancement and has the ability to bind both the antibody and gold nanostructures. The fuchsin-labeled immuno-Au nanoflowers can form a sandwich structure with the antigen and the antibody immobilized on the SERS-active substrate based on Au-Ag coated GaN. Our experimental results indicate that this SERS-active substrate with its strong surface-enhancement factor, high stability and reproducibility plays a crucial role in improving the efficiency of SERS immunoassay. This SERS assay was applied to the detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) in human blood plasma. A calibration curve was obtained by plotting the intensity of SERS signal of FC band at 1178cm(-1) versus the concentration of antigen. The low detection limit for Hepatitis B virus antigen was estimated to be 0.01IU/mL. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) of this method is less than 10%. This SERS immunoassay gives exact results over a broad linear range, reflecting clinically relevant HBsAg concentrations. It also exhibits high biological specificity for the detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen. PMID:25497986

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman Immunoassay (SERIA): detection of Bacillus globigii in ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-12-01

    This work presents the development of new methodologies centering on surfaces with immunologically induced affinities for biomaterials in aqueous systems. The immunologically active surfaces concentrate the biomaterials at the interface and therefore eliminate the need for preconcentration steps. This results in a highly sensitive and rapid immunoassay technique. The very strong localized of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) that occurs at noble metal surfaces is combined with the unparalleled selectivity of immunoassays. Localization of the SERS signal eliminates the problem of washing and allows assays to be performed without treatment steps associated with removing excess agents. Previous work with small illicit drug molecules and large microorganisms clearly demonstrates trace detection of species in aqueous environments is possible. This paper discusses further work to detect Bacillus globigii by couping surface enhanced Raman scattering with immunoassays (SERIA) using citrate reduced silver nanoparticles. The spores of B. globigii are used to simulate the behavior of another bacterium that forms spores-the potential biological warfare agent, Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax.

  15. Trace analysis of pollutants by use of honeybees, immunoassays, and chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Girotti, S; Ghini, S; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; Ferri, E N

    2013-01-01

    Specific and sensitive analysis to reveal and monitor the wide variety of chemical contaminants polluting all environment compartments, feed, and food is urgently required because of the increasing attention devoted to the environment and health protection. Our research group has been involved in monitoring the presence and distribution of agrochemicals by monitoring beehives distributed throughout the area studied. Honeybees have been used both as biosensors, because the pesticides affect their viability, and as "contaminant collectors" for all environmental pollutants. We focused our research on the development of analytical procedures able to reveal and quantify pesticides in different samples but with a special attention to the complex honeybee matrix. Specific extraction and purification procedures have been developed and some are still under optimization. The analytes of interest were determined by gas or liquid chromatographic methods and by compound-specific or group-specific immunoassays in the ELISA format, the analytical performance of which was improved by introducing luminescence detection. The range of chemiluminescent immunoassays developed was extended to include the determination of completely different pollutants, for example explosives, volatile organic compounds (including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), and components of plastics, for example bisphenol A. An easier and portable format, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was added to the ELISA format to increase application flexibility in these assays. Aspects of the novelty, the specific characteristics, the analytical performance, and possible future development of the different chromatographic and immunological methods are described and discussed. PMID:23064670

  16. Development of Immunoassays Using Interferometric Real-Time Registration of Their Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, A. V.; Burenin, A. G.; Shipunova, V. O.; Lizunova, A. A.; Gorshkov, B. G.; Nikitin, P. I.

    2014-01-01

    A method for effective development of solid-phase immunoassays on a glass surface and for optimization of related protocols by highly sensitive quantitative monitoring of each assay step has been proposed and experimentally implemented. The method is based on the spectral correlation interferometry (SCI) that allows real-time measuring of the thickness of a biomolecular layer bound to the recognition molecular receptors on the sensor chip surface. The method is realized with compact 3-channel SCI-biosensors that employ as the sensor chips standard cover glass slips without deposition of any additional films. Different schemes for antibody immobilization on a glass surface have been experimentally compared and optimized toward a higher sorption capacity of the sensor chips. Comparative characterization of the kinetics of each immunoassay stage has been implemented with the optimized protocols: i) covalent immobilization of antibody on an epoxylated surface and ii) biotinylated antibody sorption on a biotinylated surface via a high-affinity biotin-streptavidin bond. We have shown that magnetic nanoparticles employed as labels with model detection of cardiac troponin I further amplify the SCI signal, resulting in 100-fold improvement of the detection limit. The developed protocols can also be used with the alternative immunoassay platforms, including the label methods based on registration of only the final assay result, which is the quantity of bound labels. PMID:24772331

  17. Comparison of nine commercial immunoassays for the detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Dennehy, P H; Gauntlett, D R; Tente, W E

    1988-01-01

    One hundred fecal specimens obtained from patients with acute gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus with nine commercial immunoassays to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of these assays. Kits evaluated included two monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (Rotaclone and Pathfinder Rotavirus), three polyclonal antibody-based EIAs (Rotavirus Immunoassay, Rotazyme II, and Wellcozyme Rotavirus), and four latex agglutination assays (Rotastat, Virogen Rotatest, Meritec-Rotavirus, and The Wellcome Latex Test). Thirty-eight of the 100 specimens were found to contain rotavirus by a reference microplate EIA. The accuracy of the reference assay was determined by RNA electrophoresis and a blocking assay on discordant specimens. The two monoclonal antibody EIAs had superior sensitivities (100%) and identified two positive specimens which were negative by the reference method but positive by the blocking assay. Among the polyclonal EIAs, all had sensitivities of greater than 90%, but specificities were variable; Rotazyme II, with a specificity of 50%, showed considerable discrepancy from other polyclonal EIAs. The latex tests had sensitivities ranging from 70 to 90% and specificities of 80 to 100%. Latex agglutination tests were more rapid than EIAs and did not require expensive equipment. The final choice of assay system will depend on the cost, speed, and accuracy requirements of the clinical laboratory. PMID:2846645

  18. A sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering enzyme-catalyzed immunoassay of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lei; Zhen, Shu Jun; Wan, Xiao Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory viruses have become a major global health challenge which would benefit from advances in screening methods for early diagnosis. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract infections. Here we present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enzyme-catalyzed immunoassay of RSV by employing peroxidase substrate 3, 3'-5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as Raman molecule. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) attached to the detection antibody in a novel sandwich immunoassay catalyzes the oxidation of TMB by H2O2 to give a radical cation (TMB(+)), which could be easily adsorbed on the negatively charged surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through electrostatic interaction, inducing the aggregation of AgNPs and thus giving a strong SERS signal. A linear relationship was obtained between the Raman intensity and the amount of RSV in the range from 0.5 to 20pg/mL, and the minimum detectable concentration of this SERS-based enzyme immunoassay was 0.05pg/mL, which was 20 times lower than that found in the colorimetric method. PMID:26653454

  19. Targeted selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometric immunoassay for insulin-like growth factor 1.

    PubMed

    Niederkofler, Eric E; Phillips, David A; Krastins, Bryan; Kulasingam, Vathany; Kiernan, Urban A; Tubbs, Kemmons A; Peterman, Scott M; Prakash, Amol; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Lopez, Mary F; Nedelkov, Dobrin

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is an important biomarker of human growth disorders that is routinely analyzed in clinical laboratories. Mass spectrometry-based workflows offer a viable alternative to standard IGF1 immunoassays, which utilize various pre-analytical preparation strategies. In this work we developed an assay that incorporates a novel sample preparation method for dissociating IGF1 from its binding proteins. The workflow also includes an immunoaffinity step using antibody-derivatized pipette tips, followed by elution, trypsin digestion, and LC-MS/MS separation and detection of the signature peptides in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The resulting quantitative mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) exhibited good linearity in the range of 1 to 1,500 ng/mL IGF1, intra- and inter-assay precision with CVs of less than 10%, and lowest limits of detection of 1 ng/mL. The linearity and recovery characteristics of the assay were also established, and the new method compared to a commercially available immunoassay using a large cohort of human serum samples. The IGF1 SRM MSIA is well suited for use in clinical laboratories. PMID:24278387

  20. Sandwich Immunoassays of Multicomponent Subtrace Pathogenic DNA Based on Magnetic Fluorescent Encoded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaxu; Zhang, Xuanjun; E, Yifeng; Fang, Fang; Kuang, Guangkai; Wang, Guannan

    2016-01-01

    A novel magnetic fluorescent encoded nanoimmunoassay system for multicomponent detection and separation of the subtrace pathogenic DNA (hepatitis B virus surface gene, HBV; hepatitis A virus poly the protein gene, HAV) was established based on new type of magnetic fluorescent encoded nanoparticles and sandwich immunoassay principle. This method combines multifunctional nanoparticles, immunoassay technique, fluorescence labeling, and magnetic separation of multicomponent technology. It has many advantages such as high sensitivity, low detection limit, easy operation, and great potential for development. The results of this work show that, based on nanoimmunoassay system, it could quantitatively detect the multicomponent trace pathogenic HAV and HBV DNA, as well as detection limit up to 0.1 pM and 0.12 pM. Furthermore, with the improvement of the performances of magnetic fluorescent encoded nanoparticles, the sensitivity will be further improved. In this experiment, a new nanoimmunoassay system based on magnetic fluorescent encoded nanoparticles was established, which will provide a new way for the immunoassay and separation of multicomponent biomolecules. PMID:26881227