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1

Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.  

PubMed

The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

2013-06-01

2

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) as measured by the CEDIA digoxin assay and a fluorescence polarization immunoassay.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of a new homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of digoxin (CEDIA Digoxin assay) and a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) to interference by digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) was studied in sera from pregnant women, newborns, patients undergoing hemodialysis and patients with renal insufficiency, but without hemodialysis. None of the patients had been treated with digoxin or digitoxin. Cross-reactivity of DLIF in the CEDIA assay was generally lower than in the FPIA. Data on the distribution DLIF of values and method comparisons showed that sera of the four patient groups reacted in a completely different way in both assays, suggesting that the nature of DLIF in the four groups is not identical. Addition of digoxin to sera of patients not treated with this drug resulted in a reduction of the apparent DLIF concentration in the CEDIA assay and the FPIA. This shows that DLIF interference may be less pronounced in sera of patients undergoing digoxin therapy compared to untreated persons. Although the CEDIA assay is less sensitive to DLIF interference than the FPIA, further efforts are needed to reduce the extent of this interference. PMID:1509757

Schlebusch, H; Jarausch, J; Domke, I

1992-01-01

3

Buprenorphine detection in urine using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison with cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (ThermoFisher) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (immunalysis).  

PubMed

A sensitive liquid chromatographic-high-resolution mass spectrometric (LC-HR-MS) assay for buprenorphine and its urinary metabolites has been developed that requires minimal sample preparation. The results obtained have been compared with those given by (i) cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) and (ii) homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (HEIA) in the analysis of patient urines submitted for buprenorphine analysis. Centrifuged urine (100 µL) was diluted with internal standard solution (25 µL) + LC eluent (875 µL), and 50 µL of the prepared sample were analyzed (Accucore Phenyl-Hexyl column). MS detection was in alternating positive and negative mode using heated electrospray ionization (ThermoFisher Q Exactive). Intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision were 104-128 and <11%, respectively, at 5 µg/L. Limits of detection were 1.3 µg/L (buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and buprenorphine glucuronide) and 2.5 µg/L (norbuprenorphine glucuronide). Immunoassay sensitivity and selectivity were 97 and 100% (HEIA) and 99 and 84% (CEDIA), respectively, compared with LC-HR-MS. In 120 patient urines, norbuprenorphine glucuronide was easily the most abundant analyte except when adulteration with buprenorphine had occurred. The median immunoreactive buprenorphine species present (unhydrolysed urine) were 7.5 and 13% for HEIA and CEDIA, respectively. However, codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide did not interfere in the HEIA assay. PMID:24925983

Belsey, Sarah L; Couchman, Lewis; Flanagan, Robert J

2014-09-01

4

Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. PMID:24665024

Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

2014-05-01

5

Immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

6

Direct Detection of Drugs of Abuse in Whole Hemolysed Postmortem Blood and Qualitative Measurement in EDTA - Plasma using the CEDIA DAU Urine Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct and simple detection of a broad spectrum of drugs in whole hemolysed postmortem blood (Part A) and the possibility of qualitative measurement in serum and whole blood using the cloned enzyme donor immu- noassay technique (CEDIA) (Part B) is described. We measured the samples for the presence of amphetamines (AMP), barbiturates (BARB), benzodiazepines (BENZ), cannabinoids, cocaine, LSD, methadone

B. Kottenhahn; G. Drasch; G. Roider; B. Hofbauer

7

Performance of parallel screening of Brazilian blood donors with two HIV immunoassays: Implications for sequential immunoassay testing algorithms in other countries  

PubMed Central

Background In Brazil it is mandatory to screen donors for HIV antibodies using two immunoassays (IAs) in parallel. Confirmatory testing is performed only on reactive donors who return for counseling. The goal of this analysis was to determine if concordant IA reactivity accurately predicts infection and can be used for HIV incidence/prevalence analyses. Methods We reviewed HIV screening and confirmatory results obtained for 307,407 donations in the first year of the REDS-II study in Brazil (2007), and for 2,304,755 donations collected from 1996 to 2006 in one of the REDS-II sites (Sao Paulo). Results In the Sao Paulo site, 11,410 (0.50%) HIV-IA-reactive donations were discarded, but only 2,095 (0.09%) were reactive to both IAs. Western blot was positive on 1,002 (48%) dual-IA-reactive donors who returned for counseling. Only 4 HIV-infected donors were detected who had been missed at screening by one of the IAs; all occurred prior to 2002. The positive predictive value (PPVs) of dual-IA-reactivity varied from 45.8 to 100%, with 80–90% PPVs when using IAs from different manufacturers. If both assays yielded signal-to-cutoff (S/C) values ?3.0, PPVs ranged from 91–99%, with ~99% sensitivity for true HIV seropositivity. Conclusion Parallel testing of all donations has limited efficacy when highly sensitive IAs are used. Reactivity by two sequential IAs is useful for prevalence studies if the assays are from different manufacturers and especially if high S/C values are considered. PMID:20633245

Sabino, Ester C.; Salles, Nanci A; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Barreto, Angela M.; Basques, Fernando; Barros, Emanuelle A.; Mendrone, Alfredo; Busch, Michael P

2010-01-01

8

Performance characteristics of selected immunoassays for preliminary test of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, and related drugs in urine specimens.  

PubMed

Eight commercially available immunoassays for amphetamines (DRI Amphetamines, CEDIA DAU Amphetamines-Semiquantitative, EMIT d.a.u. Monoclonal Amphetamine/Methamphetamine, Synchron CX Systems AMPH, TDx/TDxFLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II, CEDIA Amphetamines/Ecstasy, COBAS INTEGRA Amphetamines, and Abuscreen((R)) OnLine HS Amphetamine/MDMA) are evaluated for their effectiveness in serving as the preliminary test methodology for the analysis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA/MDA) and methamphetamine/amphetamine (MA/AM). Standard solutions (in urine matrix) of MDMA, MDA, MA, and AM are used to determine these immunoassays' reactivities (or cross-reactivities) toward these compounds of interest. Case specimens containing MDMA/MDA and MA/AM are also used to study the correlations of the apparent immunoassay MDMA (or MA) concentrations and the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric concentrations of these compounds. Data resulting from this study suggest that CEDIA Amphetamines/Ecstasy can best predict the concentrations of MDMA and MA in case specimens and can also detect the presence of MDMA at low levels, whereas Abuscreen OnLine HS Amphetamine/MDMA can detect both MDMA and MA at low concentrations. PMID:14607002

Hsu, Jui; Liu, Chiareiy; Liu, C P; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Li, Jih-Heng; Lin, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ray H

2003-10-01

9

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Boneíspecific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

Chung, Kyn W.

2011-05-24

10

Immunoassay screening of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its confirmation by HPLC and fluorescence detection following LSD ImmunElute extraction.  

PubMed

In all, 3872 urine specimens were screened for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) using the CEDIA DAU LSD assay. Forty-eight samples, mainly from psychiatric patients or drug abusers, were found to be LSD positive, but only 13 (27%) of these could be confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) following immunoaffinity extraction (IAE). Additional analysis for LSD using the DPC Coat-a-Count RIA was performed to compare the two immunoassay screening methods. Complete agreement between the DPC RIA assay and HPLC-FLD results was observed at concentrations below a cutoff concentration of 500 pg/mL. Samples that were LSD positive in the CEDIA DAU assay but not confirmed by HPLC-FLD were also investigated for interfering compounds using REMEDI HS drug-profiling system. REMEDI HS analysis identified 15 compounds (parent drugs and metabolites) that are believed to cross-react in the CEDIA DAU LSD assay: ambroxol, prilocaine, pipamperone, diphenhydramine, metoclopramide, amitriptyline, doxepine, atracurium, bupivacaine, doxylamine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, promethazine, ranitidine, and tramadole. The IAE/HPLC-FLD combination is rapid, easy to perform and reliable. It can reduce costs when standard, rather than more advanced, HPLC equipment is used, especially for labs that perform analyses for LSD infrequently. The chromatographic analysis of LSD, nor-LSD, and iso-LSD is not influenced by any of the tested cross-reacting compounds even at a concentration of 100 ng/mL. PMID:11991536

Grobosch, T; Lemm-Ahlers, U

2002-04-01

11

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

12

Microfluidic chips for immunoassays.  

PubMed

The use of microfluidic chips for immunoassays has been extensively explored in recent years. The combination of immunoassays and microfluidics affords a promising platform for multiple, sensitive, and automatic point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. In this review, we focus on the description of recent achievements in microfluidic chips for immunoassays categorized by their detection method. Following a brief introduction to the basic principles of each detection method, we examine current microfluidic immunosensor detection systems in detail. We also highlight interesting strategies for sensitive immunosensing configurations, multiplexed analysis, and POC diagnostics in microfluidic immunosensors. PMID:23495732

Han, Kwi Nam; Li, Cheng Ai; Seong, Gi Hun

2013-01-01

13

Interferences in Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference. PMID:18458713

Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

2004-01-01

14

New trends in immunoassays.  

PubMed

This article takes a special focus on signal amplification technologies in immunoassays and new generations of lateral-flow assays. Novel signal amplification technologies based either on new classes of biofunctional nanocrystals consisting of releasable fluorophores or on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) can improve the sensitivity and the limits of detection in immunoassays. A bio-barcode assay also allows signal amplification by utilizing antibody-coated magnetic beads to concentrate the analytes and antibody-coated gold nanoparticle probes to carry with a large number of oligonucleotides. These innovative technologies boost the development of immunoassays. Growth in rapid immunoassay is fueled by the increasing number of diabetics, the globalization of infectious diseases and the surge in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases as well as other chronic conditions. Rapid, near patient, decentralized, point-of-care (POC) tests are emerging as a tool for more efficient diagnosis and patient evaluation. Technological innovations in lateral-flow assays have enabled a move to bring testing closer to the patient. A novel "digital-style" lateral-flow assay provides semi-quantitative results by simply counting the number of red lines in the test without any expensive reading instrument. An immuno-threshold-based assay can give a signal directly proportional to the concentration of a hapten to prevent confusion on interpretation of the test results. In addition, POC tests become more meaningful to healthcare professionals by combining the benefits of new technologies to provide quantitative results. A molecular compact disc provides a high-resolution imaging capability that can identify and quantify many different antigens simultaneously in highly complex immunoassays. Further advances in immunoassays will bring diagnostic testing even closer to the patient, and can help physicians to monitor diseases that require immediate test results, thereby enhancing the quality of patient care. PMID:17874052

Chan, Cangel Pui-yee; Cheung, Yiu-chi; Renneberg, Reinhard; Seydack, Matthias

2008-01-01

15

Immunoassays in Environmental Analytical Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented which summarizes the recent developments of immunoassays in environmental analytical chemistry.The basic principle of the method and the following steps in the development of an immunoassay procedure are discussed in detail: Synthesis of the immunogen, immunization procedure, synthesis of the labelled antigen (tracer), advantages and drawbacks of radioimmunoassay, fluoroimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay. A special emphasis is

Margit Schwalbe-fehl

1986-01-01

16

Metal-enhanced immunoassays.  

PubMed

The surface-confined assay format is one of the most convenient detection formats used in many immunoassays. Fluorescence emission from monolayers of dyes requires a strong excitation and good detection system. Such samples are susceptible to artifacts due to background fluorescence from substrates. We demonstrate that using silver nanostructures deposited on the slide substrate can significantly enhance measured fluorescence, reduce unwanted background and increase photostability of the used probes. Using thin layers of polymer doped with fluorescein, we tested two nanostructures--silver island films (SIFs) deposited on glass slides and self-assembled colloidal structures (SACS) deposited on thin silver film. The SACS surfaces show extraordinary fluorescence enhancements: over 100-folds in hot spots. We applied these surfaces for enhanced Alexa488 model immunoassay. PMID:22573442

Gryczynski, Ignacy; Luchowski, Rafal; Matveeva, Evgenia G; Shtoyko, Tanya; Sarkar, Pabak; Borejdo, Julian; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

2012-01-01

17

Ultrasensitive immunoassay techniques.  

PubMed

Ultrasensitive detection of clinically important substances using assays based on ligand:binder interactions has revolutionized laboratory medicine. Various strategies have been perfected to push the analytical sensitivity of ligand:binder assays (e.g., immunoassay, blotting, nucleic acid hybridization assay) into the attomole and zeptomole region (10(-18)-10(-21) mol). These include the use of labels with amplifying properties (e.g., enzymes), multiple labeling, and cascade reactions. In addition a wide range of ultrasensitive luminescent detection reactions have been developed for conventional enzyme labels based on chemiluminescent, bioluminescent, and time-resolved fluorescent reactions. PMID:8299202

Kricka, L J

1993-10-01

18

Multiplexed single molecule immunoassays.  

PubMed

We have developed a method that enables the multiplexed detection of proteins based on counting single molecules. Paramagnetic beads were labeled with fluorescent dyes to create optically distinct subpopulations of beads, and antibodies to specific proteins were then immobilized to individual subpopulations. Mixtures of subpopulations of beads were then incubated with a sample, and specific proteins were captured on their specific beads; these proteins were then labeled with enzymes via immunocomplex formation. The beads were suspended in enzyme substrate, loaded into arrays of femtoliter wells--or Single Molecule Arrays (Simoa)--that were integrated into a microfluidic device (the Simoa disc). The wells were then sealed with oil, and imaged fluorescently to determine: a) the location and subpopulation identity of individual beads in the femtoliter wells, and b) the presence or absence of a single enzyme associated with each bead. The images were analyzed to determine the average enzyme per bead (AEB) for each bead subpopulation that provide a quantitative parameter for determining the concentration of each protein. We used this approach to simultaneously detect TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, and IL-1? in human plasma with single molecule resolution at subfemtomolar concentrations, i.e., 200- to 1000-fold more sensitive than current multiplexed immunoassays. The simultaneous, specific, and sensitive measurement of several proteins using multiplexed digital ELISA could enable more reliable diagnoses of disease. PMID:23719780

Rissin, David M; Kan, Cheuk W; Song, Linan; Rivnak, Andrew J; Fishburn, Matthew W; Shao, Qichao; Piech, Tomasz; Ferrell, Evan P; Meyer, Raymond E; Campbell, Todd G; Fournier, David R; Duffy, David C

2013-08-01

19

Field Analytic Technologies: Immunoassay and Enzymatic Assays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a discussion of immunoassays in the context of testing for environmental contaminants, including a fairly detailed explanation of how immunoassays are conducted and advantages and limitations in the analysis of environmental problems. There is also a discussion of analytical concerns - interferences, limits of detection, accuracy and precision, calibrating immunoassays, etc.

2011-06-01

20

Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl  

SciTech Connect

A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

2008-04-01

21

Environmental Chemistry: The Immunoassay Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific awareness and public concern about the state of our environment have led to unprecedented demands on analytical laboratories. There is now much interest in strategies that will help to lower costs and improve efficiency. Immunoassay (IA) techniques, which are widely used in clinical chemistry, could play a key role in the laboratory of the future. IA screening techniques for

J. P. Sherry; Raymond E. Clement

1992-01-01

22

Donor Tag Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... Needles Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient Stories Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...

23

A homogeneous chemiluminescent immunoassay method.  

PubMed

A new homogeneous chemiluminescent immunoassay method featuring the use of specific binding members separately labeled with an acridan-based chemiluminescent compound and a peroxidase is reported. Formation of an immunocomplex brings the chemiluminescent compound and the peroxidase into close proximity. Without any separation steps, a chemiluminescent signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of the analyte. PMID:23477541

Akhavan-Tafti, Hashem; Binger, Dean G; Blackwood, John J; Chen, Ying; Creager, Richard S; de Silva, Renuka; Eickholt, Robert A; Gaibor, Jose E; Handley, Richard S; Kapsner, Kenneth P; Lopac, Senja K; Mazelis, Michael E; McLernon, Terri L; Mendoza, James D; Odegaard, Bruce H; Reddy, Sarada G; Salvati, Michael; Schoenfelner, Barry A; Shapir, Nir; Shelly, Katherine R; Todtleben, Jeff C; Wang, Guoping; Xie, Wenhua

2013-03-20

24

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste  

E-print Network

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste Guomin Shan*, Wei Huang*, Shirley J. Gee with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled re- agents. The advantage of isotopic with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay

Hammock, Bruce D.

25

Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Burtis, C.A.

1986-10-01

26

Electrokinetic Microstrirring to Enhance Immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrokinetic microstirring is used to improve the sensitivity of microfluidic heterogeneous immuno-sensors by enhancing the transport in diffusion-limited reactions. The AC electrokinetic force, Electrothermal Flow, is exploited to create a circular stirring fluid motion, thereby providing more binding opportunities between suspended and wall-immobilized molecules. This process can significantly reduce test times, important for both field-portable biosensors and for lab-based assays. A 2-D numerical simulation model is used to predict the effect of electrothermal flow on a heterogeneous immunoassay resulting from an AC potential applied to two parallel electrodes. The binding is increased by a factor of 7 for an applied voltage of 10 Vrms. The effect was investigated experimentally using a high affinity biotin-streptavidin reaction. Microstirred reaction rates were compared with passive reactions. The measurements show on average an order of magnitude increase in binding between immobilized biotin and fluorescently-labeled streptavidin after 5 minutes. Therefore, this technique shows significant promise for reducing incubation time and enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassays.

Feldman, Hope; Sigurdson, Marin; Meinhart, Carl

2006-11-01

27

Environmental mercury measurement by immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Immunochemical-based analytical methods are commonly used in the medical diagnostic field, but only recently have they been adapted for field-portable environmental applications. BioNebraska has developed an immunoassay, based upon a novel monoclonal antibody to mercuric ions, for the detection of mercury in environmental samples. The user-friendly BiMelyze Mercury Tube Immunoassay generates semi-quantitative results rapidly and economically relative to traditional analytical methods. In this presentation the authors will demonstrate the use of this method with environmental matrices and discuss ongoing in-house and independent field results. Sample preparation and analysis can be completed in the field for numerous samples in less than 40 minutes. Mercury is first extracted from the sample by digestion using a separate kit available from Bio-Nebraska. The inherent limit of detection for mercuric ions in aqueous samples is 0.25 ppb and 0.5 ppm for soils. The method is highly selective for mercury with essentially no interference by other metals or matrices. Thus, the assay is well-suited for low-cost, real-time, user friendly field screening of mercury in soils, sediment and water producing results that correlate well with traditional analytical methods.

Schweitzer, C.; Carlson, L.; Holmquist, B.; Riddell, M.; Wylie, D. [BioNebraska, Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)

1995-12-31

28

Immunoassay, biosensors and other nonchromatographic methods  

E-print Network

for the detection of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The advantages of immunoassay preparation r versatility for target analytes r cost effectiveness for large numbers of samples r adaptability

Hammock, Bruce D.

29

An enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone was developed using betamethasone-3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate as a labelled antigen and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside as a fluorescence substrate. The performances of the enzyme immunoassay were compared with that of a radioimmunoassay using /sup 3/H-betamethasone and the same antiserum. The minimal detectable level for the enzyme immunoassay was 0.15 pg/tube or 0.15 ng/ml of plasma, which was remarkably more sensitive than the radioimmunoassay level of 10 pg/tube or 2 ng/ml of plasma. The specificity was sufficient, in particular, the cross reactivity of cortisol as 0.008%. However, the precision of the enzyme immunoassay was inferior to that of the radioimmunoassay.

Kominami, G.; Yamauchi, A.; Ishihara, S.; Kono, M.

1981-03-01

30

Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay of Mycotoxins: A Review  

PubMed Central

Immunoassays are routinely used in the screening of commodities and foods for fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Demands to increase speed and lower costs have lead to continued improvements in such assays. Because many reported mycotoxins are low molecular weight (below 1 kDa), immunoassays for their detection have generally been constructed in competitive heterogeneous formats. An exception is fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), a homogeneous format that does not require the separation of bound and free labels (tracer). The potential for rapid, solution phase, immunoassays has been realized in the development of FPIA for many of the major groups of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, group B trichothecenes (primarily deoxynivalenol), ochratoxin A, and zearalenone. This review describes the basic principles of FPIA and summarizes recent research in this area with regard to mycotoxins. PMID:22069541

Maragos, Chris

2009-01-01

31

Donor Cell Myeloid Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Donor cell derived malignancies are a rare and interesting complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with donor cell myeloid sarcoma of the stomach and myocardium. PMID:24822132

Walshauser, Mark A.; Sojitra, Payal

2014-01-01

32

Food allergen detection with biosensor immunoassays.  

PubMed

An optical biosensor was used to develop both direct and sandwich immunoassays for the detection of proteins from milk, egg, hazelnut, peanut, shellfish, and sesame in food samples. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies raised against the proteins were immobilized on the biosensor chip. Food samples were injected and the proteins that bound to the antibodies on the surface were detected by a shift in the resonance angle. By adding a second antibody in a sandwich assay, matrix effects could be overcome and the sensitivity and selectivity enhanced. Detection of allergen levels down to 1-12.5 microg/g in food samples was demonstrated for the various assays. Good agreement of results was also obtained from parallel analysis with alternative immunoassays, including rocket immunoelectrophoresis, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoblotting. The present study demonstrates that the sensitivity of the described biosensor technique is comparable to the most sensitive enzymed-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:16792086

Yman, Ingrid Malmheden; Eriksson, Anders; Johansson, M Annette; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

2006-01-01

33

Lung donor selection criteria  

PubMed Central

The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward

2014-01-01

34

Lung donor selection criteria.  

PubMed

The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

2014-08-01

35

Miniaturized immunoassays: moving beyond the microplate.  

PubMed

After more than 40 years, immunoassays are still the backbone of protein biomarker analysis in clinical diagnostics and drug development. They have come a long way since their inception, incorporating technical developments including monoclonal antibodies, novel labels and lately microfluidics. A number of microfluidic platforms have been tested, such as centrifugational compact disc assays, lab-on-a-chip, arrays and digital electrochemical assays. This review focuses on commercial applications of microfluidic immunoassays with reference to some applied academic examples of interest. Advantages and disadvantages of the platform technologies are discussed in general. PMID:22250800

Verch, Thorsten; Bakhtiar, Ray

2012-01-01

36

IMMUNOASSAY FOR P-NITROPHENOL IN URINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary excretion of nitrophenol metabolites is an important index of human exposure to organophosphate pesticides. In particular, p-nitrophenol, a major urinary metabolite of parathion, can be used as a biomarker of human exposure. Immunoassay methods have been recently describe...

37

Immunoassay for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure  

E-print Network

such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFsImmunoassay for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether) to monitor environmental and human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 that is used as a flame

Hammock, Bruce D.

38

Immunoassay procedures for fiber optic sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need for the development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for use with fiber optic sensors. These detection systems can be used for such applications as disease diagnosis, detection of chemical and biological warfare agents or drugs of abuse, pollution control, therapeutic monitoring, and explosive detection. This specific program is designed to produce generic chemistries for use with

Frances S. Ligler

1988-01-01

39

SITE EVALUATION OF FIELD PORTABLE PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Four pentachlorophenol (PCP) enzyme immunoassays for environmental analysis have been evaluated through the U.S. EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Three assays were formatted for on-site field use and one assay could be used in a field laboratory sett...

40

Professional donors protest.  

PubMed

In New Delhi, India, professional blood donors, a group of impoverished men who sell blood for a living, reject the accusation that they have spread HIV infection through India's blood supply. Lax sterilization practices by blood banks are blamed. Secrecy surrounds those professional donors, HIV positive, due to social ostracism, and a HIV-positive report among 6 children donating blood is reported to have led to suicide attempts. Estimates of the donor population range from 20,000 to 30,000. 15-16 units at 350 ml/unit are sold a month for sometimes as little as Rs25/unit or US$.85. It is a painful profession due to the thick needles used to make blood draws and the inability to find veins particularly in winter. The Indian Medical Research Council (ICMR) in December 1991 stated that all types of blood donors were found to be HIV positive. The highest seropositivity was found among those who regularly sold blood for blood product manufacture and lowest among voluntary donors. Estimates of HIV-positive incidence in Madras was .38% for voluntary donors and 4.1% for paid donors. An explanation for the paid donor incidence according to the ICMR is that donors are reinfected with the blood portion of donated products after the separation of the plasma. If the plasma-separating machine has not been properly sterilized after each use, 1 unit of HIV-positive blood can infect several donors. For a short period beginning in 1989, blood manufacture was prohibited due to this concern, but the ban has been lifted and a technical committee has been set up to check safety. The ICMR position is compatible with the explanation offered by the leader of the Professional Blood Donors Welfare Association (PBDWA) that donors' physical and economic condition prevents the men from sexual promiscuity with prostitutes or expensive drug use. Reuse of needles and lack of proper sterilization techniques is attributed by the PBDWA as the reason for seropositivity among blood donors. No blood donors tested positive until 1987 even though testing was extensive since 1985. Official case reports of positive HIV infection as of March 1992 are 7183 people and 130 AIDS cases. Blood donors feel victimized. PMID:12318131

Girimaji, P

1992-07-01

41

Rich Donors, Poor Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

Thomas, M. A.

2012-01-01

42

Distinctive Characteristics of Educational Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the charitable behavior of 56,663 US households, this paper evaluates the distinctive characteristics of educational donors as compared with donors to noneducational charitable organizations and with nondonors. In general, educational donors had significantly greater income, wealth, and education than other donors. Educational donors

James, Russell N., III.

2008-01-01

43

Determination of naphthalene by competitive fluorescence immunoassay.  

PubMed

A reliable and sensitive competitive fluorescence immunoassay for the quantitative determination of naphthalene (NA) was developed. 2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NAA) was selected as the hapten of naphthalene. Active ester method (AEM) was used to couple the NAA to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin) to form artificial immune antigen. Male New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with this antigen to obtain polyclonal antibodies, with which, a novel fluorescence immunoassay for detection of NA was described. Under best conditions, NA can be determined in the concentration range of 0.1-100 microg/L with a detection limit of 0.05 microg/L. The cross-reactivities of the anti-NA antibody to seven structurally related compounds were below 15%. Some environmental samples were analyzed with satisfactory results. It shows a good accuracy and suitability to analyze NA in environmental water. PMID:18553145

Zhou, Chun; Wang, Qiong-E; Gao, Shan-Shan; Zhuang, Hui-Sheng

2009-07-01

44

Carbon nanotube-based transducers for immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attachment of mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-mouse IgG antibodies onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs), using either non-covalent or covalent means was investigated. The resultant CNTs were characterised using a variety of techniques including enzyme-linked and fluorescence-linked immunoassays, UV–visible-NIR and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. TEM images of the adsorbed antibody on the CNTs show that the

Carol Lynam; Niamh Gilmartin; Andrew I. Minetta; Richard O’Kennedy; Gordon Wallace

2009-01-01

45

Sequential injection immunoassay for environmental measurements.  

PubMed

Sequential injection immunoassay systems for environmental measurements based on the selective immunoreaction between antigen and antibody were described. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique is suitable to be applied for the procedure of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because the washing and the addition of reagent solutions can be automated by using a computer-controlled syringe pump and switching valve. We selected vitellogenin (Vg), which is a biomarker for evaluating environmental risk caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the hydrosphere, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), which are versatile surfactants, as target analytes in the flow immunoassay systems. For Vg monitoring, SIA systems based on spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical determinations were constructed. On the other hand, chemiluminescence determination was applied to the detection of LAS and APEO. For APEO, an SIA system combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was also developed. These new sequential injection immunoassay systems are expected to be useful systems for environmental analysis. PMID:22076332

Soh, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Hirakawa, Koji; Zhang, RuiQi; Nakajima, Hizuru; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

2011-01-01

46

Antinuclear antibody detection by automated multiplex immunoassay in untreated patients at the time of diagnosis.  

PubMed

Fully automated multiplex immunoassays are increasingly used as first line screening for antinuclear antibodies. The diagnostic performance of such multiplex assays in untreated patients at the time of diagnosis has not been reported. Antinuclear antibodies were measured by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) (dilution 1:160) and by BioPlex 2200 ANA screen (antibodies to dsDNA, chromatin, ribosomal protein, SSA-52, SSA-60, SSB, Sm, SmRNP, RNP-A, RNP-68, Scl-70, Jo-1, and centromere B) in 236 patients with a systemic rheumatic disease at the time of diagnosis, 149 blood donors, 139 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and 134 diseased controls. BioPlex ANA screen and IIF were positive in, respectively, 79% and 90% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 60% and 60% with cutaneous lupus, 72% and 93% with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 100% and 100% with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), 89% and 56% with primary Sjögren's (SS) syndrome, 36% and 36% with polymyositis/dermatomyositis, 5.4% and 6% of blood donors, 7.2% and 3.6% of patients with CFS, and 11% and 18% of diseased controls. BioPlex test result interval specific likelihood ratios increased with increasing antibody concentration. The simultaneous presence of at least three antibodies by BioPlex was found in 35% of patients with SLE, 4% with SSc, 100% with MCTD, 64% with SS, 7% with inflammatory myopathy, 0.7% of CFS and diseased controls, and none of the blood donors. In conclusion, test result specific likelihood ratios and the presence of multiple autoantibodies help with the interpretation of data generated by multiplex immunoassays. PMID:22387973

Op De Beéck, Katrijn; Vermeersch, Pieter; Verschueren, Patrick; Westhovens, René; Mariën, Godelieve; Blockmans, Daniel; Bossuyt, Xavier

2012-12-01

47

Immunoassay as a screening tool for industrial toxicants  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassay techniques may represent useful screening tools to assist analysts interested in the presence and amounts of organic toxicants in biological fluids. The widespread application of immunoassay methods in medicinal and forensic (drugs of abuse) chemistry has resulted in such screening methodologies. Four methodologies of potential benefit are considered: the free radical assay technique, the enzyme-mediated immunoassay technique, radioimmunoassay, and hemagglutination. Each of these immunoassays is based on the competitive displacement of the labeled drug (or toxicant) from the antibody complex by the unlabeled drug-toxicant in the sample.

Pierce, T.

1986-08-01

48

Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin incision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively). The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated. PMID:21044377

van der Merwe, A; Bachmann, A; Heyns, C F

2010-01-01

49

Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

50

Fluorescent immunoassay visualization of sorbed pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Current methods of detecting sorbed soil pollutants require that the contaminant be extracted from the soil. In an effort to make detection simpler and safer, standard fluorescent immunoassay techniques are being modified to allow fluorescent tags on the pollutant to be viewed and photographed with epifluorescent microscopy. Initial research focuses on detecting chlorinated benzenes on various soil types and developing a technique for tagging these pollutants with appropriate antibodies. This should lead to detection in actual soil cores and a better understanding of how contaminants progress through different soils.

Moore, W.K.; Mossman, D.J. [Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, Kansas City, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwab, A.P. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Feldbush, T.L. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

51

Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial–antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

2007-12-15

52

Contacting My Donor Family  

MedlinePLUS

... must meet specific requirements. There are many financial resources for transplants. Living donation increases the existing organ supply. It's important to get to know your transplant team. I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA ...

53

Fluorimetric Immunoassay for Multianalysis of Aflatoxins  

PubMed Central

A sensitive fluorimetric ELISA was developed for the analysis of aflatoxins. The assay was performed in a 384 microwell plate, wherein high specificity monoclonal antibody against AFM1 (mAb-AFM1) was used as capture antibody and FITC conjugated secondary antibody was used for detection and quantification of the analyte. The linear range of the immunoassay was found to be 6.25–50?pg/mL. AFM1 as low as 1?pg/mL was detected by this method with assay volume 40??L. The multi-analysis of different aflatoxins was also investigated in the microwell plate, based on the cross-reactivity (CR) approach. Real milk samples were tested along with certified reference material by standard addition method and recovery analysis was done. The mAb-AFM1 showed 23.2% CR with AFB1, 50% CR with respect to AFM2, and least CR towards AFG1 (<1%). Furthermore, mixture analysis of AFM2 and AFB1 was carried out at specific concentrations of AFM1. The advantages of this developed immunoassay are high sensitivity, high throughput, multianalyte detection, versatility, and ease of handling. PMID:24000318

2013-01-01

54

Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

1996-01-01

55

The utility of immunoassays for urine drug testing.  

PubMed

Substance abuse is a significant problem in the United States, with cocaine, marijuana, alcohol and heroin as the most commonly abused drugs. This article focuses on urine drug testing to evaluate potential drug abuse or overdose in the emergent care setting using qualitative immunoassays. Discussion is included regarding the principles of how to validate qualitative immunoassays; how to decide on appropriate specimen type, test menu and cutoff; the limitations of immunoassays; how to communicate test results to clinicians; and use of urine drug testing at point of care. PMID:22939301

Melanson, Stacy E F

2012-09-01

56

Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays. PMID:23424703

Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N.; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

57

Immunoassay procedures for fiber optic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing need for the development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for use with fiber optic sensors. These detection systems can be used for such applications as disease diagnosis, detection of chemical and biological warfare agents or drugs of abuse, pollution control, therapeutic monitoring, and explosive detection. This specific program is designed to produce generic chemistries for use with existing fiber optic-based sensors to detect pathogens of particular threat to Army personnel as determined by USAMRIID. The detection system under development involves the attachment of antibodies to an optical fiber at high density. In addition, the immobilization must be achieved in a way which retains the antibody's ability to bind antigen. The functionality of the antibody will be tested through the binding of a labelled antigen. In the future, this assay could incorporate the antibodies developed by the Army for pathogens of particularly military concern.

Ligler, Frances S.

1988-04-01

58

Highly sensitive microfluidic competitive enzyme immunoassay based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for the detection of neuron-specific enolase.  

PubMed

A microfluidic competitive enzyme immunoassay based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) was developed for highly sensitive detection of neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The CRET system consisted of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/luminol as a light donor and fluorescein isothiocyanate as an acceptor. When fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody binds with HRP-labeled antigen to form immunocomplex, the donor and acceptor are brought close each other and CRET occurs in the immunocomplex. In the MCE, the immunocomplex and excess HRP-NSE were separated, and the chemiluminescense intensity of immunocomplex was used to estimate NSE concentration. The calibration curve showed a linearity in the range of NSE concentrations from 9.0 to 950 pM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9964. Based on a S/N of 3, the detection limit for NSE determination was estimated to be 4.5 pM, which is two-order magnitude lower than that of without CRET detection. This assay was applied for NSE quantification in human serum. The obtained results demonstrated that the proposed immunoassay may serve as an alternative tool for clinical analysis of NSE. PMID:24723253

Yang, Tingzhen; Vdovenko, Marina; Jin, Xue; Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Zhao, Shulin

2014-07-01

59

Blood Donor Management in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China.

Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

2014-01-01

60

DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

61

The design and applications of nanoparticle coated microspheres in immunoassays.  

PubMed

Nanoparticle coated microspheres are composed of two or more materials with a core/shell structure and exhibit unique abilities that allow amplification of trace targets in immunoassays. The preparation of nanoparticle coated microspheres can be accomplished using three main strategies: (1) in-situ, (2) ex-situ, and (3) hollow sphere methods. Antibodies or biomolecules can be immobilized on the surface of nanoparticle coated microspheres or hollow spheres to carry out detection of targets using surface-enhanced resonance spectroscopy (SERS), fluorescence, electrochemistry, and many others. Using these particles as antibody carriers in SERS-based immunoassays, broad dynamic range and low detection limits, and improved selectivity can be realized. By assistance of nanoparticle coated microspheres in immunoassays, improved sensitivity and selectivity has been realized. In this review, nanoparticle coated microsphere generation, recent applications, and future potential with respect to immunoassays are discussed. PMID:24730268

Lin, Huei-Shian; Carey, James R

2014-01-01

62

Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge  

SciTech Connect

Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use.

Lukens, H.R. [Diametrix Detectors, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

63

Application of enzyme immunoassays for testing haemocompatibility of biomedical polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study enzyme immunoassays are presented for the assessment of platelet adhesion\\/activation and fibrinogen adsorption\\/conformation. The estimation of platelet adhesion and activation was performed with two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD42b (GP Ib) and CD 62 (GMP 140 or P-Selectin). The applicability of EIA was first demonstrated in microtitre plates coated with fibrinogen. The thrombogenic

Th. Groth; E. J. Campbell; K. Herrmann; B. Seifert

1995-01-01

64

Multiplexed magnetic microsphere immunoassays for detection of pathogens in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foodstuffs have traditionally been challenging matrices for conducting immunoassays. Proteins, carbohydrates, and other macromolecules\\u000a present in food matrices may interfere with both immunoassays and PCR-based tests, and removal of particulate matter may also\\u000a prove challenging prior to analyses. This has been found true when testing for bacterial contamination of foods using the\\u000a standard polystyrene microspheres utilized with Luminex flow cytometers.

Jason S. Kim; Chris R. Taitt; Frances S. Ligler; George P. Anderson

2010-01-01

65

Automated HomogeneousLiposome ImmunoassaySystems for Anticonvulsant Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

0.995, 0.986, and 0.988, respectively) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott TDx#{174}) kits (r = 0.990, 0.991, and 0.975, respectively). The proposed method should be useful for monitoring anticonvulsantdrug con- centrations in blood. AdditionalKeyphrases:enzyme immunoassay fluorescence polarizationimmunoassay Phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PB), and carba- mazepine (CBZ) are widely used in the treatment of epileptic disorders.4 These drugs have narrow therapeu- tic ranges,

Kazuhisa Kubotsu; Sachiko Goto; Mmoru Fujita; Hideaki Tuchiya; Masaaki Kida; Susumu Takano; Shuji Matsuura; Ikunosuke Sakurabayashi

66

Lanthanide-based time-resolved luminescence immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitive and specific detection of analytes such as proteins in biological samples is critical for a variety of applications,\\u000a for example disease diagnosis. In immunoassays a signal in response to the concentration of analyte present is generated by\\u000a use of antibodies labeled with radioisotopes, luminophores, or enzymes. All immunoassays suffer to some extent from the problem\\u000a of the background

A. K. Hagan; T. Zuchner

2011-01-01

67

[Surgery without donor's blood].  

PubMed

Complex program "Surgery without blood" was developed and introduced into a broad clinical practice. The main elements of this program are stimulation of erythropoesis, preparing in autoserum and autoblood before surgery with acute normovolemic hemodilution method, precise surgical technique, reinfusion of blood from wound and drainages, adequate anesthesia and correction of hemostasis system. This program permits one to minimize infusion of donor's blood components (DBC) in elective surgery (cardiosurgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, oncology, general surgery) and reduce significantly transfusion of DBC in urgent surgery. Rejection of DBC transfusion decreases number of postoperative complications and hospital stay, improves results of treatment and is cost-effective. PMID:15477831

Tarichko, Iu V; Ermolov, A S; Nemytin, Iu V; Domrachev, S A; Kurbanov, F S; Khvatov, B V; Ragimov, A A

2004-01-01

68

Seroprevalence of human T lymphotropic virus antibodies among healthy blood donors at a tertiary centre in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Transmission of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) occurs from mother to child, by sexual contact and blood transfusion. Presently, in most centres in Nigeria, there is no routine pre-transfusion screening for HTLV. The study aims to determine the prevalence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 among healthy blood donors at a tertiary centre in Lagos. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at the blood donor clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja. About 5mls of venous blood was collected from each subject into a sterile plain bottle after obtaining subject's consent. The serum separated and stored at -200C. Sera were assayed for HTLV by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to HTLV 1 and HTLV -2. Western blot confirmatory testing was done on reactive samples. All donors were also screened for HIV, HBsAg and HCV by rapid kits. Results The seroprevalence of HTLV -1 by ELISA was 1.0% and 0.5% by Western Blot among blood donors. A total of 210 healthy blood donors were enrolled. Only 2 (1.0%) blood donors were repeatedly reactive with ELISA test. On confirmatory testing with Western Blot, 1 (0.5%) blood donor was positive for HTLV. All the healthy blood donors were negative for HIV, HbsAg and HCV. None of the 210 blood donors had been previously transfused; as such no association could be established between transfusion history and HTLV positivity among the blood donors. Conclusion The seroprevalence of HTLV in this environment is low among healthy blood donors. PMID:25328597

Durojaiye, Idris; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Ajibola, Sarah; Adediran, Adewumi; Uche, Ebele; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Odesanya, Majeed; Dada, Akinola; Okunoye, Olaitan

2014-01-01

69

Motivation of voluntary plasmapheresis donors.  

PubMed

A totally voluntary plasmapheresis program recruits 900 individual donors per year at a cancer institute, where 500 to 900 units of platelets are transfused each month. Staff and donors use a film and brochures to recruit donors from the local community. Television and radio spots, with donor recognition pins, certificates, receptions, and picnics are utilized. Donor motivation was studied by use of: 1) California Psychological Inventory--measures a variety of "normal" personality traits; 2) Study of values--measures theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, religious values; 3) Internal-External Control Scale--measures degree to which a person blames self vs. external events for what happens to him; 4) Faith in People Scale--measures individual's confidence in his fellow man; 5) Anomia Scale--measure of feelings of self-to-others alienation; 6) Mach IV Scale--measure of persons tendency to manipulate others; and 7) Biographical Data Form. Results are presented for 25 male donor subjects studied, as they compare with normative data for the scales used. Donors appeared to have the same traits as do the general population, but appeared lower in Machiavellianism than non-plasmapheresis donors. Prospective study plans include additional subjects to provide appropriate control groups. PMID:951736

Cataldo, J F; Cohen, E; Morganti, J B

1976-01-01

70

DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)  

EPA Science Inventory

Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic ...

71

Donor evaluation and hepatectomy for living-donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

In the past decade, considerable technical advances have been accomplished in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The procedure has become accepted globally as a standard modality for the treatment of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in both pediatric and adult populations. During the period of this procedure's development, however, tragedy has occurred. Serious morbidity and even mortality have been experienced and reported in live donors. The transplant community has been very much aware of its responsibilities toward live donor care, and much effort has been made to improve and secure the overall outcomes of donors. Unlike in deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT), opportunity or chance plays a lesser role in the availability of an organ for LDLT. Judgment calls are often made by individuals; therefore, the evaluation process includes social and ethical aspects not encountered among the usual indications for hepatobiliary surgical disease. Thus, the selection of live donors should be made from a wider perspective compared with that for conventional patient care. The approach to selecting live donors may vary slightly between the West, where a large number of DDLTs are performed daily, and the Far East, where they are much less frequent. However, the recognition that the transplant community has a responsibility to provide care to living donors is common. This review provides an overview of the current donor evaluation and surgical procedures involved in LDLT, with the recognition that an open and educated debate is key to ensuring public confidence and maintaining ethical standards in the field. PMID:18392700

Tamura, Sumihito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

2008-01-01

72

Immunoassay panel profile for detecting total PCB content  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassay test kits are being widely used to provide rapid, inexpensive screening of soil samples for the presence of PCBs at or above a given threshold value. Currently available immunoassay methods are sensitive to aroclor preparations that contain the more highly chlorinated PCB congeners. The interpretation of these tests is accomplished by comparison to an appropriate aroclor standard. If PCB contamination at a site has undergone significant changes through weathering or biological degradation, or if contamination has occurred from lower chlorinated species, the relative sensitivity of available test methods is reduced. This paper describes the results of a program to develop and demonstrate an Immunoassay Panel Method that normalizes the recovery of PCBs detected and thereby provides an accurate representation of the total PCB content of a sample. The development and validation of this method, and the associative correlation testing data using laboratory and environmental samples, will be discussed.

Friedman, S.; Allen, R. [EnSys, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gui, J.; Barren, E.; Berdahl, D. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

73

Potential applications of immunoassays in studies of flatfish recruitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fisheries recruitment-stock problem, a lack of correlation between measures of reproductive output of the parent stock and recruitment to the fishery, has several potential biotic and abiotic causes. Immunoassays may be useful in examining several aspects of this and several other problems in flatfish ecology: stock identification, parasitism and disease, and trophic interactions. Given stage-specific antisera capable of recognozing antigenic moieties of, for instance, eggs, larvae, or newly-settled juveniles, it is possible to screen stomach contents of many putative predators ( e.g., shrimp or crabs) rapidly for the presence and amounts of platfish prey. This trophic application of immunological methods has great promise for measuring loss of potential recruits to predation. All immunoassays are limited by the quality of antisera used and the researcher's ability to interpret quantitative data in an ecologically meaningful way. Key references for applications of immunoassays in fish-related questions are provided with recommendations for their utilization.

Feller, Robert J.

74

The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme  

PubMed Central

Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K? or k? donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region, which were transfused to 2,365 patients with no untoward effects. Discussion Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, which recently joined the ISBT Working Party on Rare Donors, contributed to increase blood transfusion safety and efficacy inside and outside Lombardy. PMID:23522888

Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

2014-01-01

75

Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4%) of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9%) of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01). The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02). Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8%) than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5%) (p = 0.04). Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased with educational level. PMID:17629901

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Mercado-Suarez, Miguel Francisco; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Fallad-Torres, Laura; Ayala-Ayala, Julio Octavio; Nevarez-Piedra, Luis Jorge; Duran-Morales, Ehecatl; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo

2007-01-01

76

Gender Differences in the Validity of Testosterone Measured in Saliva by Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We rigorously evaluated gender differences in the measurement validity of salivary testosterone. Matched serum, saliva, and finger stick blood spot specimens were collected from 40 (20 males) young adults (aged 18–27 years). Saliva was assayed for testosterone by two independent (isotopic and non-isotopic) immunoassay methods. Serum was assayed by commercially available immunoassay kits for free and total testosterone. An immunoassay

Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff; Douglas A. Granger; Andrea Likos

2002-01-01

77

Variability in Telavancin Cross-Reactivity among Vancomycin Immunoassays.  

PubMed

Telavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action against Gram-positive pathogens. Two brief reports have suggested potential cross-reactivity of telavancin with the vancomycin particle-enhanced turbidometric immunoassay (PETIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate several commercially available vancomycin immunoassays (fluorescence polarization [FPIA], enzyme-multiplied immunoassays [EMIT], PETIA, and chemiluminescent immunoassay [CMIA]) for cross-reactivity with telavancin. Seven sites were selected to analyze serum samples for vancomycin. Each site received a set of samples (n = 18) which combined drug-free serum with telavancin, 7-OH telavancin metabolite, or vancomycin. Immunoassays demonstrating potential cross-reactivity were further evaluated by sending a duplicate sample set to multiple laboratories. Cross-reactivity was defined as the percent theoretical concentration (reported concentration/theoretical concentration × 100). No cross-reactivity was seen with FPIA or EMIT. Within the theoretical concentration range of 5 to 120 ?g/ml of telavancin, the Synchron PETIA system reported vancomycin concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 54.2 ?g/ml compared to vancomycin concentrations from 1.1 to 5.6 ?g/ml for the Vista PETIA system. The Architect CMIA system reported vancomycin concentrations in the range of 0.27 to 0.97 ?g/ml, whereas Advia Centaur XP CMIA reported vancomycin concentrations between 1.6 and 31.6 ?g/ml. The Architect CMIA immunoassay had the lowest percent cross-reactivity (0.8 to 5.4%), while the Synchron PETIA immunoassay demonstrated the highest percent cross-reactivity (45.2 to 53.8%). Telavancin samples measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 93.9 to 122% of theoretical concentrations. Vancomycin concentrations were not measured in any 7-OH telavancin-spiked sample. Vancomycin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 57.2 to 113% of theoretical concentrations. PETIA and CMIA measured vancomycin concentrations in telavancin-spiked samples. Significant variability in percent cross-reactivity was observed for each platform regardless of immunoassay method. PMID:25223996

McConeghy, Kevin W; Liao, Siyun; Clark, Douglas; Worboys, Philip; Barriere, Steven L; Rodvold, Keith A

2014-12-01

78

Wavelength-Ratiometric Plasmon Light Scattering-Based Immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a wavelength-ratiometric plasmon light scattering technique to immunoassays is demonstrated. A model immunoassay\\u000a for anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG), constructed in gold colloid-modified high-throughput screening wells, was monitored by the\\u000a changes in the intensity of scattered light (with transmitted light) from gold colloids as a result of antibody–antibody interactions.\\u000a The quantitative determination of anti-IgG was undertaken by measuring the

Kadir Aslan; Chris D. Geddes

2009-01-01

79

Immunoassay: recent developments and future directions.  

PubMed

All analytical techniques employed in the biological sciences rely on recognition of the shape and structure of molecules of the substance of interest (the analyte). Such molecular recognition and sensing usually relies on the use other molecules possessing a complementary structure, implying a specific lock and key relationship between the two. Antibodies comprise a class of recognition molecules evolved by nature for the purpose of bodily defence, and are clearly of particular utility in this context. However techniques of increasing sophistication (including the techniques of molecular biology) are currently being developed which enable the artificial construction of antibody-like molecules possessing improved molecular recognition properties which can be harnessed for microanalytical purposes. Oligonucleotide probes likewise exhibit the property of binding to complementary nucleotide sequences, and the techniques of, for example, in situ hybridisation therefore share many features with immunoassay techniques. Microanalytical techniques relying on binding reactions between substances possessing complementary lock and key molecular structures are unlikely to be superseded within the foreseeable future, only the labels used to monitor such reactions, and the means of production of "recognition molecules", being subject to further development. Such techniques already enter into all areas of life, including medicine, agriculture, etc, and are likely to increase further in importance with increasing concern regarding chemically complex contaminants in food, the environment, etc. Developments in this field are clearly directed to slightly differing objectives as indicated in this presentation. These include methodological simplification (making the techniques cheaper and more widely available), improvements in sensitivity (to enable the detection and measurement of substances beyond the reach of current methods) and the construction of transducer-based sensor methods (permitting, inter alia, the monitoring of changing analyte concentrations). However the combination of the "ultrasensitivity" of current single analyte assay methods with the ability simultaneously to determine multiple analytes in the same sample represents, in my view, the next major methodological challenge in this field, and--if successfully addressed--will constitute a quantum advance on present analytical methods. Indeed the development of miniaturised multianalyte binding assay techniques may ultimately comes to be seen as analagous to, for example, the introduction of the word processor, and other similar major technological advances of the past decade. PMID:9234310

Ekins, R

1994-04-01

80

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... take place before dialysis, and that is an ideal situation. Unfortunately it’s often difficult to do, to ... than an older donor, say, choosing between a parent over a sibling, or how would you choose ...

81

Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

2011-01-01

82

Magnetic Beads-based Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A simple, rapid, and sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) has been developed to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PAH-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PAH (HRP-PAH). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreaction among PAH-antibody-coated MBs, PAH analyte, and HRP-PAH. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing 3, 3´, 5, 5´- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for electrochemical detection. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate were investigated, and the reduction peak current of TMB was used to quantify the concentration of PAH. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PAH conjugates, the enzyme catalytic reaction time, and the pH of the supporting electrolyte that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 50 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical magnetic immunoassay was successfully evaluated with tap water spiked with PAHs, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

2007-07-01

83

Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates  

DOEpatents

An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

1997-11-25

84

Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates  

DOEpatents

An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

Callstrom, Matthew R. (Columbus, OH); Bednarski, Mark D. (Berkeley, CA); Gruber, Patrick R. (St. Paul, MN)

1997-01-01

85

AN EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis revealed numerous deficiencies. Often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. Several data sets were run through each system using a four-parameter calibration f...

86

Determination of thevetin B in serum by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.  

PubMed

Thevetin B, a cardiac glycoside of Thevetia neriifolia Juss. seeds, was determined in serum by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Anti-digitoxin antibody was used, thevetin B genin being structurally identical to digitoxigenin. Cross-reactivity of 94% was found by this method, for concentrations from 5 to 80 ng ml-1. PMID:1420463

Uber-Bucek, E; Hamon, M; Pham Huy, C; Dadoun, H

1992-06-01

87

Highly sensitive homogenous chemiluminescence immunoassay using gold nanoparticles as label.  

PubMed

Homogeneous immunoassay is becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because it is superior to heterogeneous immunoassay in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on luminol-AgNO3 chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol-AgNO3 CL reaction is greatly enhanced. Without any separation steps, a CL signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the CL intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of IgG. The detection limit of IgG was estimated to be as low as 3pg/mL, and the sensitivity was better than that of the reported AuNPs-based CL immunoassay for IgG. PMID:24835732

Luo, Jing; Cui, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Li, Baoxin

2014-10-15

88

Development of enzyme immunoassay for detection of DDT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) widely found in the environment and in the general population. In this study, a direct competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been developed for the quantitative analysis of DDT. To generate a specific polyclonal antibody for EIA, p, p?-DDT was conjugated to porcine thyroglobulin for rabbit immunization. At optimized EIA conditions,

Masashi Hirano; Kazuyuki Kitamura; Ikuo Kato; Chizuko Yanaihara; Ken-Ichi Iwamoto; Makiko Sekiyama; Chiho Watanabe; Takashi Nakamoto; Nobukazu Miyamoto; Yuta Onishi; Koji Arizono

2008-01-01

89

A compact immunoassay platform based on a multicapillary glass plate.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays. PMID:24859022

Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

2014-01-01

90

An improved competitive inhibition enzymatic immunoassay method for tetrodotoxin quantification  

PubMed Central

Quantifying tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been a challenge in both ecological and medical research due to the cost, time and training required of most quantification techniques. Here we present a modified Competitive Inhibition Enzymatic Immunoassay for the quantification of TTX, and to aid researchers in the optimization of this technique for widespread use with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. PMID:22410273

2012-01-01

91

Highly sensitive homogenous chemiluminescence immunoassay using gold nanoparticles as label  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous immunoassay is becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because it is superior to heterogeneous immunoassay in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on luminol-AgNO3 chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol-AgNO3 CL reaction is greatly enhanced. Without any separation steps, a CL signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the CL intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of IgG. The detection limit of IgG was estimated to be as low as 3 pg/mL, and the sensitivity was better than that of the reported AuNPs-based CL immunoassay for IgG.

Luo, Jing; Cui, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Li, Baoxin

2014-10-01

92

A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate  

PubMed Central

A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays. PMID:24859022

Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

2014-01-01

93

DETECTION OF NORWALK VIRUS IN STOOLS BY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of a solid-phase microtiter enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stool samples is described. The EIA was compared with a previously developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stools obtained from 30 vol...

94

A Microparticle Enhanced Nephelometric Immunoassay (Nephelia*) Applied to Thymulin Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a microparticle enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (Nephelia) applied to the quantification of the thymic peptide hormone thymulin. Nephelia uses antibody recognition by the antithymulin antiserum in a competitive reaction between free thymulin and thymulin bound to the microspheres. The binding between microsphere and thymulin is achieved with the aid of a protein carrier. The sensitivity of the competitive

A. Gartner; C. Carles; P. Montagne; M. L. Cuillière; J. Duheille

1991-01-01

95

A comparison of traditional open, minimal-incision donor nephrectomy and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) and minimal-incision donor nephrectomy (MILD) are less invasive procedures than the traditional open donor nephrectomy approach (ODN). This study compares donor and recipient outcome following those three different procedures. Sixty consecutive donor nephrectomies were studied ( n=20 in each group). Intra-operative variables, analgesic requirements, donor recovery, donor\\/recipient complications and allograft function were recorded prospectively. Operating and

G. R. R. Lewis; N. R. Brook; J. R. Waller; J. C. Bains; P. S. Veitch; M. L. Nicholson

2004-01-01

96

Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.

2011-01-01

97

Donor Return Following Temporary Deferral  

PubMed Central

Background The consequences of temporary pre-donation donor deferrals are unsatisfactorily understood. Previous studies have found that deferral negatively impacts future return for donation in both first time and repeat donors. However, the applicability of these findings across centers has not been established. Methods Using a cohort design, presenting donors with a temporary deferral in the years 2006 – 2008 in 1 of 6 categories (low hematocrit, blood pressure or pulse, feeling unwell, malaria travel, tattoos/piercing and related exposures, or couldn’t wait/second thoughts) were passively followed for up to a 3-year period for the time to first return after the expiration of the deferral at 6 US blood centers. Time-to-event methods were used to assess return following the receipt of each deferral. We also analyzed which donor characteristics are associated with return following temporary deferral using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 3.9 million donor presentations, 505,623 resulted in deferral in 1 of the 6 categories. Low hematocrit was the most common deferral, had the shortest median time to return, and largest cumulative number of donors returning. Deferrals of shorter duration had better return. Longer term deferrals (up to 1-year in length) had the lowest cumulative return which did not exceed 50% during the study period for malaria travel or tattoo/piercing and related exposures. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, return following deferral was associated with previously identified factors such as repeat donor status, older age, and higher educational attainment regardless of the type of deferral. In addition, return was associated with having been born in the USA, Asian race/ethnicity, and donation at fixed sites regardless of the type of deferral. Conclusion The category of temporary deferral influences the likelihood of future return, but the demographic and donation factors associated with return are consistent regardless of the deferral. PMID:21155833

Custer, Brian; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David; Simon, Toby; Wilkinson, Susan; Ness, Paul

2012-01-01

98

His-tag protein monitoring by a fast mix-and-measure immunoassay.  

PubMed

Here, we present a fast mix-and-measure immunoassay for the specific semiquantitative detection of His-tagged proteins, for example in E. coli cell lysate. The assay is based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a lanthanide dye-labeled low-affinity His-peptide and an acceptor-labeled anti-His-tag antibody. The targeted His-tag protein in the sample displaces the donor-labeled peptide and leads to a concentration-dependent time-resolved fluorescence signal. The assay has a total assay time of less than two minutes including sample preparation. The assay recognizes both, N- and C-terminally tagged proteins. The detection limit is comparable to those obtained in SDS-PAGE or Western Blot, which are used as standard methods for the characterization of His-tag protein expression. Additionally, we demonstrate a full compatibility of the developed assay to cell lysate, and a correlation to detectable bands in a western blot application. In conclusion, this fast, sensitive, specific and affordable mix-and-measure assay provides a timesaving and user-friendly way to quantify recombinant protein expression. It substantially reduces the workload for recombinant protein detection, especially when His-tag-protein-containing fractions in manual chromatographic purifications have to be identified. PMID:25000910

Kreisig, Thomas; Prasse, Agneta A; Zscharnack, Kristin; Volke, Daniela; Zuchner, Thole

2014-01-01

99

Introducing novel amorphous carbon nanoparticles as energy acceptors into a chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer immunoassay system.  

PubMed

A novel chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) system for competitive immunoassay of biomolecules was developed by using novel amorphous carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) prepared from candle soot as energy acceptors. The CNPs were firstly prepared to bind with the antigen (Ag) for obtaining the nanocomposite CNP-Ag, and this obtained CNP-Ag was then reacted with the horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (HRP-Ab) to assemble the CRET system. The luminol catalyzed by HRP serving as the energy donor for CNPs triggered the CRET phenomenon between luminol and CNPs, which led to the chemiluminescence signal decrease. Due to the competitive immunoreaction of the target antigen and the CNP-Ag, a part of the CNP-Ag was replaced from the HRP-Ab, and then resulted in a weaker interaction between luminol and CNPs. Thus the competitive immunoreaction led to a higher chemiluminescence emission. This CNP-based CRET system was successfully applied to detect the human IgG as a model analyte, and a linear range of 10-200 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 1.9 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3) were obtained. The results for real sample analysis demonstrated its application potential in some important areas such as clinical diagnosis. PMID:23979821

Wang, Zhenxing; Gao, Hongfei; Fu, Zhifeng

2013-11-21

100

Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2010-07-01

101

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).  

PubMed

This brief note addresses the historical background of the invention of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These assays were developed independently and simultaneously by the research group of Peter Perlmann and Eva Engvall at Stockholm University in Sweden and by the research group of Anton Schuurs and Bauke van Weemen in The Netherlands. Today, fully automated instruments in medical laboratories around the world use the immunoassay principle with an enzyme as the reporter label for routine measurements of innumerable analytes in patient samples. The impact of EIA/ELISA is reflected in the overwhelmingly large number of times it has appeared as a keyword in the literature since the 1970s. Clinicians and their patients, medical laboratories, in vitro diagnostics manufacturers, and worldwide healthcare systems owe much to these four inventors. PMID:16179424

Lequin, Rudolf M

2005-12-01

102

Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for the quantification of caffeine in beverages.  

PubMed

Homogeneous fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIAs) were developed and compared for the determination of caffeine in beverages and cosmetics. FPIAs were performed in cuvettes in a spectrometer for kinetic FP measurements as well as in microtiter plates (MTPs) on a multimode reader. Both FPIAs showed measurement ranges in the ?g/L range and were performed within 2 and 20 min, respectively. For the application on real samples, high coefficients of variations (CVs) were observed for the performance in MTPs; the CVs for FPIAs in cuvettes were below 4%. The correlations between this method and reference methods were satisfying. The sensitivity was sufficient for all tested samples including decaffeinated coffee without preconcentration steps. The FPIA in cuvettes allows a fast, precise, and automated quantitative analysis of caffeine in consumer products, whereas FPIAs in MTPs are suitable for semiquantitative high-throughput screenings. Moreover, specific quality criteria for heterogeneous assays were applied to homogeneous immunoassays. PMID:24597592

Oberleitner, Lidia; Grandke, Julia; Mallwitz, Frank; Resch-Genger, Ute; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

2014-03-19

103

A device architecture for three-dimensional, patterned paper immunoassays.  

PubMed

Diagnostic assays can provide valuable information about the health status of a patient, which include detection of biomarkers that indicate the presence of an infection, the progression or regression of a disease, and the efficacy of a course of treatment. Critical healthcare decisions must often be made at the point-of-care, far from the infrastructure and diagnostic capabilities of centralized laboratories. There exists an obvious need for diagnostic tools that are designed to address the unique challenges encountered by healthcare workers in limited-resource settings. Paper, a readily-available and inexpensive commodity, is an attractive medium with which to develop diagnostic assays for use in limited-resource settings. In this article, we describe a device architecture to perform immunoassays in patterned paper. These paper-based devices use a combination of lateral and vertical flow to control the wicking of fluid in three-dimensions. We provide guidelines to aid in the design of these devices and we illustrate how patterning can be used to tune the duration and performance of the assay. We demonstrate the use of these paper-based devices by developing a sandwich immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in urine, a biomarker of pregnancy. We then directly compare the qualitative and quantitative results of these paper-based immunoassays to commercially available lateral flow tests (i.e., the home pregnancy test). Our results suggest paper-based devices may find broad utility in the development of immunoassays for use at the point-of-care. PMID:25300302

Schonhorn, Jeremy E; Fernandes, Syrena C; Rajaratnam, Anjali; Deraney, Rachel N; Rolland, Jason P; Mace, Charles R

2014-12-21

104

Optical Scanner for Immunoassays With Up-Converting Phosphorescent Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-D optical scanner was developed for the imaging and quantification of up-converting phosphor (UCP) labels in immunoassays. With resolution better than 500 mum, a scan rate of 0.4 mm\\/s, and a 1-2% coefficient of variation for repeatability, this scanner achieved a detection limit of fewer than 100 UCP particles in an 8.8 times 104 mum2 area and a dynamic

Janice J. Li; Amy L. Ouellette; Laurent Giovangrandi; David E. Cooper; Antonio J. Ricco; Gregory T. A. Kovacs

2008-01-01

105

Comparison of a noninstrumented immunoassay for carbamazepine to high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence polarization immunoassay.  

PubMed

The accuracy, precision, and potential clinical utility of a new whole blood, noninstrumented immunochromatographic assay (AccuLevel) for carbamazepine (CBZ) was evaluated in a multicenter trial including 100 pediatric and 205 adult patients. The AccuLevel assay, a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine CBZ concentration in samples from 111 female and 194 male patients aged 2-72 years (median 25 years). Mean +/- SD plasma CBZ concentrations in all patients were 7.4 +/- 3.0 micrograms/ml with the AccuLevel assay and 7.5 +/- 2.9 micrograms/ml with FPIA. In 204 patients, the mean concentration determined by the HPLC assay was 7.7 +/- 3.0 micrograms/ml, whereas concentrations determined by the AccuLevel and FPIA assays were 8.0 +/- 3.1 and 8.1 +/- 3.1 micrograms/ml, respectively. Concentrations determined by the AccuLevel and FPIA assays were significantly higher than those quantified by HPLC (p less than 0.05), but not different from each other. In addition, the AccuLevel assay was highly correlated with FPIA (r = 0.97) and HPLC (r = 0.98). Coefficients of variation for the AccuLevel assay at 8 micrograms/ml ranged from 6.8 to 7.5% for the three institutions. We conclude that the AccuLevel assay is a simple, reliable method for determining CBZ concentration in a small volume of whole blood and is an acceptable alternative for assessment of CBZ therapy and individualization of CBZ dosage in the physician's office or emergency room. PMID:2369881

Cochran, E B; Massey, K L; Phelps, S J; Cramer, J A; Toftness, B R; Denio, L S; Drake, M E

1990-01-01

106

Simple patterned nanofiber scaffolds and its enhanced performance in immunoassay.  

PubMed

Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide; early diagnosis and treatment of cancers is critical for the survival of the patients. The concentration of cancer markers in easy-to-access biological fluids can provide great assistance in screening for occult primary cancers, distinguishing malignant from benign findings, determining prognosis and prediction for cancer patients. The multiplex detection technology of a panel of cancer markers can greatly increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Herein, we briefly fabricate a high-throughput micro-immunoassay based on the electrospun polystyrene (PS) substrates to improve detection sensitivity. The immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing three different cancer biomarkers (AFP, CEA, VEGF). For AFP, CEA, VEGF immunofluorescence assay, the LOD of assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates before or after plasma and the conventional PS substrates were 0.42, 0.10, 1.12 ng/mL, 0.57, 0.09, 1.24 ng/mL, and 159.75, 26.19, 385.59 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05). Due to the high porosity and large surface area-to-volume ratio which is the foremost merit of nanostructures, and the plasma treatment which make the hydrophobic PS nanofibers hydropholic, the nanofibers substrates showed sufficient retention of immunoassay functionality and high potential for capture molecules immobilization. Consequently, the immunofluorescence assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates could significantly enhance the sensitivity and limits of detection. PMID:24340065

Wang, Jing; Kang, Qin-shu; Lv, Xiao-guang; Song, Jia; Zhan, Na; Dong, Wei-guo; Huang, Wei-hua

2013-01-01

107

Ultrasensitive immunoassay based on electrochemical measurement of enzymatically produced polyaniline.  

PubMed

A novel ultrasensitive immunoassay method was developed based on the electrochemical measurement of polyaniline, which was catalytically produced by horseradish peroxidase-functionalized gold nanoparticle (HRP-Au NP) probe at an immunosensor. The immunosensor was prepared step-wise by first modifying the electrode with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Au NPs nanocomposite followed by the immobilization of capture antibodies on its surface. After performing a sandwich immunoreaction, the quantitatively captured HRP-Au NP nanoprobes could catalyze oxidation of aniline to produce electroactive polyaniline on the immunosensor surface. The electrochemical measurement of polyaniline enabled a novel detection strategy for HRP-based immunoassay. Both the signal amplification of the HRP-Au NP nanoprobe and the electron transfer acceleration of rGO/Au NPs on the immunosensor surface greatly improved the detection sensitivity of the immunoassay method. With the use of human IgG as a model analyte, this method showed a wide linear range over 4 orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 9.7 pg/mL. In addition, the immunosensor had low cost, satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and acceptable reliability. The relatively positive potential range for the polyaniline measurement completely excluded the conventional interference from dissolved oxygen. Thus, this method provides a promising potential for practical applications. PMID:24392763

Lai, Guosong; Zhang, Haili; Tamanna, Tasnuva; Yu, Aimin

2014-02-01

108

Superporous agarose beads as a solid support for microfluidic immunoassay.  

PubMed

We demonstrate here with the feasibility of superporous agarose (SA) beads as a solid support in microfluidic immunoassay by detecting goat IgG. In our procedure, SA beads containing superpores were covalently conjugated to protein A. The conjugated beads were introduced into a polydimethyl siloxane microfluidic device. The sandwich immunoassay was performed in the microfluidic device by subsequently introducing anti-goat IgG as the primary antibodies, goat IgG as analytes, alkaline phosphatase-conjugated F(ab')2 anti-goat IgG as detection antibodies, and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate/nitroblue tetrazolium as substrate in a flow. Depending on the goat IgG concentration, dark and pinky precipitates appeared inside the microchannel immediately after the introduction of all the reagents. The minimum detection limit, 100 pg goat IgG/mL in PBS, was achieved with the naked eye. This enhanced sensitivity is mainly because analytical reagents were allowed to access the outer surface as well as the inner matrices of the beads. This is supported by the facts that the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate IgG happened throughout the inside matrices of protein A-conjugated SA beads but was limited to the outer surface of protein A-conjugated homogeneous agarose beads. These results suggest that SA beads are highly suitable as a solid support for microfluidic immunoassays. PMID:18550282

Yang, Yoonsun; Nam, Seong-Won; Lee, Nae Yoon; Kim, Youn Sang; Park, Sungsu

2008-09-01

109

Simple Patterned Nanofiber Scaffolds and Its Enhanced Performance in Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide; early diagnosis and treatment of cancers is critical for the survival of the patients. The concentration of cancer markers in easy-to-access biological fluids can provide great assistance in screening for occult primary cancers, distinguishing malignant from benign findings, determining prognosis and prediction for cancer patients. The multiplex detection technology of a panel of cancer markers can greatly increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Herein, we briefly fabricate a high-throughput micro-immunoassay based on the electrospun polystyrene (PS) substrates to improve detection sensitivity. The immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing three different cancer biomarkers (AFP, CEA, VEGF). For AFP, CEA, VEGF immunofluorescence assay, the LOD of assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates before or after plasma and the conventional PS substrates were 0.42, 0.10, 1.12 ng/mL, 0.57, 0.09, 1.24 ng/mL, and 159.75, 26.19, 385.59 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05). Due to the high porosity and large surface area-to-volume ratio which is the foremost merit of nanostructures, and the plasma treatment which make the hydrophobic PS nanofibers hydropholic, the nanofibers substrates showed sufficient retention of immunoassay functionality and high potential for capture molecules immobilization. Consequently, the immunofluorescence assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates could significantly enhance the sensitivity and limits of detection. PMID:24340065

Lv, Xiao-guang; Song, Jia; Zhan, Na; Dong, Wei-guo; Huang, Wei-hua

2013-01-01

110

Development of immunoassays for detecting clothianidin residue in agricultural products.  

PubMed

Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) for clothianidin are described: colorimetric detection format (ELISA) and pattern of chemiluminescent assay (CLEIA). Clothianidin hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to produce immunogen and coating antigen. Anticlothianidin PcAbs were obtained from immunized New Zealand white rabbits. Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC??) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC??) of clothianidin were 0.046 and 0.0028 mg/L for the ELISA and 0.015 and 0.0014 mg/L for the CLEIA, respectively. There were no obvious cross-reactivities of the antibodies with its analogues except for dinotefuran. Recoveries of 76.4-116.4% for the immunoassays were achieved from spiked samples. The results of immunoassays for the spiked and authentic samples were largely consistent with gas chromatography. Therefore, the proposed immunoassays would be convenient and satisfactory analytical methods for the monitoring of clothianidin in agricultural products. PMID:23527939

Li, Ming; Sheng, Enze; Cong, Lujing; Wang, Minghua

2013-04-17

111

Donor Advised Funds at Stanford  

E-print Network

advised fund at Stanford may be the most advantageous way for you to realize your philanthropic goals. You their funds be invested in a money market pooled fund. 2 Although not legally obligated to do so, Stanford not charge a fee for managing and investing donor advised funds, but it reserves the right to charge up to 0

Prinz, Friedrich B.

112

Physician Migration: Donor Country Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physician migration from the developing to developed region of a country or the world occurs for reasons of financial, social, and job satisfaction. It is an old phenomenon that produces many disadvantages for the donor region or nation. The difficulties include inequities with the provision of health services, financial loss, loss of educated…

Aluwihare, A. P. R.

2005-01-01

113

[Psychosomatic aspects of living donor liver transplantation].  

PubMed

Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) offers the option to reduce organ scarcity and thereby waiting list mortality. The crucial ethical problem of LDLT is the fact that the well being of a donor is being jeopardized for the improvement of quality of life of the recipient. To preserve mental health of the donors, psychosomatic evaluation should be conducted including examination of the coping capacity, the mental stability of the donor and the voluntary nature of the donation. Thus a comprehensive disclosure of information to donors is necessary. Realistic outcome expectations, family relationships without extreme conflicts, sufficient autonomy of the donor-recipient relationship and social and familiar support are predictors facilitating a favorable psychosocial outcome for the donor. Before and after LDLT the health-related quality of life of the donors is similar or increased in comparison to the general population. Psychiatric complications following LDLT can occur in 13% of the donors. Female donors, donors who have surgical complications themselves and donors with unrealistic outcome expectations should be given psychotherapeutic support before they are admitted to living liver donation. Urgent indications in the case of acute liver failure and the donation by adult children for their parents are particular stress factors. For the safety of the donor, these combinations should be avoided whenever possible. PMID:20730409

Erim, Y; Beckmann, M; Gerken, G; Paul, A; Senf, W; Beckebaum, S

2010-09-01

114

Multicenter Analytical Evaluation of the Automated Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Cyclosporine  

PubMed Central

Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used as a posttransplantation immunosuppressant drug, and careful monitoring of CsA concentration in whole blood is essential. A new automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for CsA measurement has been assessed in a multicenter evaluation. Methods: Residual EDTA whole blood samples from patients undergoing CsA therapy after organ transplant were used in assay evaluation at 5 clinical laboratories in Europe. Experiments included imprecision according to CLSI EP5-A2 (within-run and intermediate), lower limit of quantification, linearity according to CLSI EP6-A, and recovery of commercial external quality control samples. In addition, comparisons to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in routine use at each investigational site and to commercial chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay methods were performed. Results: Imprecision testing gave coefficients of variation of less than 9% in the 30–2000 mcg/L range for both within-run and intermediate imprecision. Lower limit of quantification of 6.8 mcg/L at one investigational site and 1.8 mcg/L at a second site at 20% coefficient of variation were observed. Linearity was measured over the concentration range 0–2000 mcg/L, yielding a deviation of less than ±12%. External quality control sample recovery by ECLIA was 93%–114% of LC-MS/MS sample recovery. Deming regression analysis of ECLIA method comparison to combined LC-MS/MS results yielded a slope of 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.06] and intercept of 2.8 mcg/L (95% CI, 1.5–4.1 mcg/L). Comparison to chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.85–0.89) and intercept of 1.4 mcg/L (95% CI, ?0.89 to 3.7 mcg/L); comparison to antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93–0.98) and intercept of ?4.2 mcg/L (95% CI, ?7.1 to ?1.2 mcg/L). Conclusions: The data from this multicenter evaluation indicate that the new ECLIA-based cyclosporine assay is fit for its purpose, the therapeutic monitoring of CsA. PMID:24646730

Vogeser, Michael; Shipkova, Maria; Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Wallemacq, Pierre; Orth, Matthias; Widmann, Monika

2014-01-01

115

Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Safe blood and blood products should be offered to all patients in need for blood transfusion. The objectives of the present study were to establish prevalence estimates for hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in rural Vietnam, and to check the accuracy of the laboratory analysis used for hepatitis testing of blood donors in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural communities in Quang Tri, Vietnam. A total of 1,200 blood samples collected from potential blood donors were tested by an enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA) for detection of hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV). The EIA test outcome was validated by a chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay technique (CMIA). Results: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc in the study population was 11.4 per cent (95% CI 9.6 - 13.2) and 51.7 per cent (95% CI 48.8 - 54.5), respectively, the prevalences being higher in males than females. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.17 per cent. The test agreement between the EIA and CMIA techniques was high both for HBsAg detection (? = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83 - 0.99) and for anti-HBc detection (? = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81 - 0.97). Compared to CMIA results, the positive and negative predictive values of the EIA tests were found to be 94.9 per cent (95% CI 87.5 - 98.6) and 97.5 per cent (95% CI 86.8 - 99.9) for HBsAg, and 92.4 per cent (95% CI 84.2 - 97.2) and 100 per cent (95% CI 91.2 - 100) for anti-HBc. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in rural areas of Vietnam and that almost half of the population is or has been infected. Hepatitis C infection is rare, but false negative test results cannot be ruled out. Also, the results indicate that the EIA performance in blood donor screening in Vietnam may be sub-optimal, missing 2.5 per cent of hepatitis B virus carriers and falsely excluding more than 7 per cent of blood donors. As the prevalence of hepatitis B infection is high, occult hepatitis B infection may represent a threat to safe blood transfusion. Therefore, nucleic acid amplification testing for HBV should be considered for blood donor screening in Vietnam. PMID:22885267

Viet, Le; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Ty, Phung Xuan; Björkvoll, Björn; Hoel, Hedda; Gutteberg, Tore; Husebekk, Anne; Larsen, Stig; Skjerve, Eystein; Husum, Hans

2012-01-01

116

Living Kidney Donation: The Outcomes for Donors  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, the number of transplantation from living kidney donors has substantially increased worldwide. The rate of increase varies from one country to another. The risk of unilateral nephrectomy to the donor includes perioperative mortality and morbidity plus the long-term risk of living with a single kidney. The rate of perioperative mortality and morbidity is about 0.03% and 10%, respectively. More attention is required to prevent serious complications of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A grading system in recording perioperative complications is necessary for making it available to each potential donor. The number of studies on long-term outcome of living donors is very limited. The overall evidence suggests that the risk of end-stage kidney disease is not increased in donors, however, mild renal failure, hypertension and proteinuria are not uncommon in living donors. There is also concern that the incidence of cardiovascular disease may be higher in kidney donors. Establishing living donor registry and follow-up is extremely important. Only through these registries the long-term risk of kidney donation will become more apparent. Because of severe shortage of transplantable kidneys, some transplant centers are now using donors with comorbidities and few centers are involved in transplant tourism with inadequate donor screening and follow-up. Prevention of these unacceptable practices in living kidney donors was emphasized in Amsterdam Forum in 2004 and Istanbul Summit in 2008. PMID:25013567

Ghods, A. J.

2010-01-01

117

Prevalence of p24 antigen among a cohort of HIV antibody negative blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria - the question of safety of blood transfusion in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Blood transfusions remain a substantial source of HIV in SSA particularly among children and pregnant women. Aims and objectives: This aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of p24 antigen among HIV antibody seronegative blood donors in Sokoto, North West Nigeria. Methods A total of 15,061 HIV antibody negative blood donors with mean age and age range (29.2 ± 8.18 and 18-50 years) were screened for p24 antigen between January 2010 to July 2013 using the Diapro Diagnostic immunoassay kit for P24 antigen (King Hawk Pharmaceuticals Beijing China). Results The overall prevalence of p24 antigen among the HIV antibody negative donors sample was 5.84%. The yearly prevalence was 9.79, 8.12, 2.7 and 2.84% respectively in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Of the total number of blood donor tested, 14,968 (99.38%) were males while 93 (0.62%) were females. The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among male blood donors 873 (5.8%) compared to females 7(0.05%), (p= 0.001). P24 positivity was significantly higher among blood group O blood donors compared to A, B and AB donors (494 (3.29%) compared to 184 (1.89%), 196 (1.30%) and 6 (0.04%)) respectively, p = 0.001). The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among Rhesus positive blood donors compared to Rhesus negative (807 (5.36%) versus 73 (0.48%), p =0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusion in Nigeria is associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. There is the urgent need to optimize the screening of blood donors in Nigeria by the inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening menu. The Nigerian government urgently need to adopt the WHO blood safety strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV through blood transfusion.

Osaro, Erhabor; Mohammed, Ndakotsu; Zama, Isaac; Yakubu, Abdulrahaman; Dorcas, Ikhuenbor; Festus, Aghedo; Kwaifa, Ibrahim; Sani, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

118

Live-Donor Nerve Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported the first case of live-donor nerve transplantation, performed in November 2000 in an 8-month-old infant\\u000a with global obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) and four root avulsion who had undergone prior sural nerve autografting\\u000a at 3 months. Cross-chest C7 nerve transfer and temporary tacrolimus (TCL)\\/prednisone immunosuppression were utilized. The\\u000a purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, we provide

Scott A. Gruber; Pedro Mancias

119

REGULATING REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: TIMING, UNCERTAINTY, AND DONOR ANONYMITY  

E-print Network

1189 ESSAY REGULATING REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: TIMING, UNCERTAINTY, AND DONOR ANONYMITY GAIA................................................................................ 1202 III. DONOR ANONYMITY AND THE DIFFUSION OF ART........................... 1205 A. Prohibitions on Donor Anonymity and the Supply of Donor Gametes

Finzi, Adrien

120

Micromotor-based lab-on-chip immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields.Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32400h

García, Miguel; Orozco, Jahir; Guix, Maria; Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Escarpa, Alberto; Merkoçi, Arben; Wang, Joseph

2013-01-01

121

Immunoassay cross-reactivity of phenylephrine and methamphetamine.  

PubMed

Phenylephrine, an ?(1) -adrenergic agonist, and methamphetamine, a prescription drug and substance of abuse, have similar chemical structures and thus have the potential to cross-react in qualitative screening tools such as a urine drug screening (UDS) performed by immunoassay. This cross-reactivity may yield a false-positive result that may affect the provision of care in certain patient populations and clinical situations. We describe a 36-year-old woman with confirmed brain death after a short hospital stay who had an initial UDS that was negative for methamphetamine. The patient was assessed for potential organ donation, which included obtaining a follow-up UDS. A urine sample was obtained after being hospitalized for 36 hours, which tested positive for methamphetamine, with no suspected ingestion of the target substance. Confirmatory laboratory testing indicated that intravenous phenylephrine and its metabolites were the likely cause of the false-positive UDS. However, the patient was not deemed to be a suitable candidate for organ donation, but clear documentation of the reason for denial of organ donation was not available in the patient's medical record. To our knowledge, this is the first case published in the English-language literature that describes the clinical occurrence of apparent immunoassay cross-reactivity of methamphetamine and phenylephrine that resulted in a false-positive UDS for methamphetamine. In addition, this report describes the potential implications of this situation on clinical care, including organ donation acceptance. Toxicology screening in the emergency department and intensive care unit is a tool to assist in the diagnosis of medical conditions, but it may not always be reliable. Therefore, positive immunoassay results that may change the management of a patient's condition should be quickly verified with confirmatory testing to minimize unfavorable consequences. PMID:22499397

Curtin, Lindsay B; Cawley, Michael J

2012-05-01

122

Minors as living solid-organ donors.  

PubMed

In the past half-century, solid-organ transplantation has become standard treatment for a variety of diseases in children and adults. The major limitation for all transplantation is the availability of donors, and the gap between demand and supply continues to grow despite the increase in living donors. Although rare, children do serve as living donors, and these donations raise serious ethical issues. This clinical report includes a discussion of the ethical considerations regarding minors serving as living donors, using the traditional benefit/burden calculus from the perspectives of both the donor and the recipient. The report also includes an examination of the circumstances under which a minor may morally participate as a living donor, how to minimize risks, and what the informed-consent process should entail. The American Academy of Pediatrics holds that minors can morally serve as living organ donors but only in exceptional circumstances when specific criteria are fulfilled. PMID:18676567

Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

2008-08-01

123

An immunoassay for atrazine using tunable immunosorbent Jae-Young Kim,a,b  

E-print Network

synthesized biologically and purified by temperature-triggered phase transition. A competitive immunoassay in immunoassay [12,13]. Enzyme-linked immuno- sorbent assay (ELISA)1 has been widely used in envi- ronmental Abbreviations used: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELP, elastin-like polypeptide; 2,4-D, 2

Chen, Wilfred

124

Field evaluation of an immunoassay for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of an immunoassay for benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) compounds was conducted at four field sites within Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. The BTX immunoassay was developed by Antox, Inc. (South Portland, ME) as a semiquantitative test designed as a screening technology for classifying samples as above or below 25

Robert W. Gerlach; Richard J. White; N. F. Deirdre O'Leary; Jeanette M. Van Emon

1997-01-01

125

On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin  

E-print Network

On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin Amy E. Herr was developed for detection of tetanus antibodies in buffer as well as diluted serum samples. After an off was 0.68 nM. A competitive immunoassay was also developed for tetanus toxin C-fragment by allowing un

Herr, Amy E.

126

Matrix effects on an antigen immobilized format for competitive enzyme immunoassay of salivary testosterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix interferences in salivary testosterone enzyme immunoassays are important in the development of direct ELISA. An alternative format for sensitive enzyme immunoassay of testosterone was developed using immobilization of the antigen as part of a protein conjugate using oligoethylene glycol linker to project the antigen, with color development via enzyme labeled secondary antibody. This technique gave the required sensitivity for

John S. Mitchell; Tim E. Lowe

2009-01-01

127

AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF THREE IMMUNOASSAY TEST KITS FOR ANTHRAX, BOTULINUM TOXIN AND RICIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Immunoassay test kits are based on immunoassay methods, where specific antibodies are used to detect and measure the contaminants of interest. Immunoassay test kits rely on the reaction of a contaminant or antigen with a selective antibody to give a product that can be measures....

128

Immunoassay Methods and their Applications in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Basic Methodology and Recent Advances  

PubMed Central

Immunoassays are bioanalytical methods in which the quantitation of the analyte depends on the reaction of an antigen (analyte) and an antibody. Immunoassays have been widely used in many important areas of pharmaceutical analysis such as diagnosis of diseases, therapeutic drug monitoring, clinical pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in drug discovery and pharmaceutical industries. The importance and widespread of immunoassay methods in pharmaceutical analysis are attributed to their inherent specificity, high-throughput, and high sensitivity for the analysis of wide range of analytes in biological samples. Recently, marked improvements were achieved in the field of immunoassay development for the purposes of pharmaceutical analysis. These improvements involved the preparation of the unique immunoanalytical reagents, analysis of new categories of compounds, methodology, and instrumentation. The basic methodologies and recent advances in immunoassay methods applied in different fields of pharmaceutical analysis have been reviewed. PMID:23674985

Darwish, Ibrahim A.

2006-01-01

129

Species Specific Bacterial Spore Detection Using Lateral-Flow Immunoassay with DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of detecting bacterial spores incorporates (1) A method of lateral-flow immunoassay in combination with (2) A method based on the luminescence of Tb3+ ions to which molecules of dipicolinic acid (DPA) released from the spores have become bound. The present combination of lateral-flow immunoassay and DPA-triggered Tb luminescence was developed as a superior alternative to a prior lateral-flow immunoassay method in which detection involves the visual observation and/or measurement of red light scattered from colloidal gold nanoparticles. The advantage of the present combination method is that it affords both (1) High selectivity for spores of the species of bacteria that one seeks to detect (a characteristic of lateral-flow immunoassay in general) and (2) Detection sensitivity much greater (by virtue of the use of DPA-triggered Tb luminescence instead of gold nanoparticles) than that of the prior lateral-flow immunoassay method

Ponce, Adrian

2003-01-01

130

Analysis of Chinese Donors' Return Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background It is important to understand donor return behavior. Converting first time donors to become repeat donors is essential for maintaining an adequate blood supply. Methods Characteristics of 241,552 whole blood (WB) donations from first time (FT) and repeat (RPT) donors who donated in 2008 at the 5 blood centers in China were compared. A subset of 54,394 WB donors who donated between January 1 and March 31, 2008 were analyzed for their return behavior in 2008 following the index donation using logistic regression. Results Of all donations, 64% was from FT donors. Donors with self-reported previous donations tended to be male, older, married, donated larger volume (?300mL), and were heavier in weight. Among donors who donated from January to March, 2008, 14% returned for subsequent WB donations by the end of 2008. The number of previous donations and blood collection location were the two strongest predictors for making subsequent donations. Donors with 1, 2–3 and more than 3 previous donations were 3.7, 5.7, and 11.0 times more likely to return than FT donors. Those who donated in a blood collection vehicle were 4 times more likely to return than those who donated at a blood center. Being female, younger and of a lower education level (? middle school) were positively associated with subsequent return blood donation during the follow-up period observed in this study. Conclusion Most of the Chinese blood supply is from first time donors. Strategies aimed at encouraging current donors to become repeat donors are needed. PMID:20849408

Guo, Nan; Wang, Jingxing; Ness, Paul; Yao, Fuzhu; Dong, Xiangdong; Bi, Xinhong; Mei, Heili; Li, Julin; He, Weilan; Lu, Yunlai; Ma, Hongli; Wen, Xiuqiong; Huang, Mei; Wright, David J.; King, Melissa; High, Patrick; Nelson, Kenrad; Shan, Hua

2010-01-01

131

The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

Lenz, D.E. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

132

Prerequisites for cytokine measurements in clinical trials with multiplex immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Background Growing knowledge about cellular interactions in the immune system, including the central role of cytokine networks, has lead to new treatments using monoclonal antibodies that block specific components of the immune system. Systemic cytokine concentrations can serve as surrogate outcome parameters of these interventions to study inflammatory pathways operative in patients in vivo. This is now possible due to novel technologies such as multiplex immunoassays (MIA) that allows detection of multiple cytokines in a single sample. However, apparently trivial underappreciated processes, (sample handling and storage, interference of endogenous plasma proteins) can greatly impact the reliability and reproducibility of cytokine detection. Therefore we set out to investigate several processes that might impact cytokine profiles such as blood collecting tubes, duration of storage, and number of freeze thawing cycles. Results Since under physiological conditions cytokine concentrations normally are low or undetectable we spiked cytokines in the various plasma and serum samples. Overall recoveries ranged between 80-120%. Long time storage showed cytokines are stable for a period up to 2 years of storage at -80°C. After 4 years several cytokines (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-10, IL-15 and CXCL8) degraded up to 75% or less of baseline values. Furthermore we show that only 2 out of 15 cytokines remained stable after several freeze-thawing cycles. We also demonstrate implementation of an internal control for multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Conclusion All together we show parameters which are essential for measurement of cytokines in the context of clinical trials. PMID:19785746

de Jager, Wilco; Bourcier, Katarzyna; Rijkers, Ger T; Prakken, Berent J; Seyfert-Margolis, Vicki

2009-01-01

133

Fast and Sensitive Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons, and it is essential to develop a rapid and simple method to detect B. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The immunoassay is a rapid and easy-to-use method for the detection of B. anthracis by means of antibodies directed against surface spore antigens. With this objective in view, we have produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies against B. anthracis and developed colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays. Using Meso Scale Discovery ECL technology, which is based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection utilizing a sulfo-Tag label that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation (using a dedicated ECL plate reader, an electrical current is placed across the microplate with electrodes integrated into the bottom of the plate, resulting in a series of electrically induced reactions leading to a luminescent signal), a detection limit ranging between 0.3 × 103 and 103 CFU/ml (i.e., 30 to 100 spores per test), depending on the B. anthracis strain assayed, was achieved. In complex matrices (5 mg/ml of soil or simulated powder), the detection level (without any sample purification or concentration) was never altered more than 3-fold compared with the results obtained in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:22773632

Volland, Herve; Dano, Julie; Lamourette, Patricia; Sylvestre, Patricia; Mock, Michele; Creminon, Christophe

2012-01-01

134

Aequorin fusion proteins as bioluminescent tracers for competitive immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of bio- and chemiluminescence for the development of quantitative binding assays offers undoubted advantages over other detection systems, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, or radioactivity. Indeed, bio- and chemiluminescence detection provides similar, or even better, sensitivity and detectability than radioisotopes, while avoiding the problems of health hazards, waste disposal, and instability associated with the use of radioisotopes. Among bioluminescent labels, the calcium-activated photoprotein aequorin, originally isolated from Aequorea victoria and today available as a recombinant product, is characterized by very high detectability, down to attomole levels. It has been used as a bioluminescent label for developing a variety of highly sensitive immunoassays, using various analyte-aequorin conjugation strategies. When the analyte is a protein or a peptide, genetic engineering techniques can be used to produce protein fusions where the analyte is in-frame fused with aequorin, thus producing homogeneous one-to-one conjugation products, available in virtually unlimited amount. Various assays were developed using this strategy: a short review of the most interesting applications is presented, as well as the cloning, purification and initial characterization of an endothelin-1-aequorin conjugate suitable for developing a competitive immunoassay for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, involved in hypertension.

Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Deo, Sapna K.; Dikici, Emre; Roda, Aldo; Daunert, Sylvia

2004-06-01

135

Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous donors' needs and desires are not homogeneous; policy and practice should be sensitive and responsive to a wide range of circumstances and preferences. Decisions made to restrict or facilitate contact or the exchange of information have ramifications for donors as well as for donor-conceived people. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The study was funded by the Victorian Department of Health. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. PMID:24549216

Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

2014-01-01

136

Reactive donor notification: First error reported.  

PubMed

Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS) records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard. PMID:25161357

Kotwal, Urvershi; Doda, Veena; Arora, Satyam; Joshi, Meena

2014-07-01

137

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Healthy Blood Donors in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3%) tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28%) tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–6.5), raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR?=?5.3; 95% CI: 1.5–19.1), having a cat in the household (adjusted OR?=?2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.2), a lower education level (adjusted OR?=?1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.3), and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR?=?2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–3.9) were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. PMID:23133557

Chiang, Ting-Yi; Hsieh, Hwei-Ho; Kuo, Ming-Chu; Chiu, Kai-Tse; Lin, Wei-Chen; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Fang, Chi-Tai; Ji, Dar-Der

2012-01-01

138

Shallow donors in GaN.  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution, variable temperature PL experiments were performed in the spectral region associated with recombination processes involving the ground and excited states of the neutral donor bound excitons. High-resolution infrared measurements in combination with high-sensitive SIMS unambiguously identified Si and O shallow donors and yield their ground state binding energies. These binding energies are in excellent agreement with values obtained by the analysis of the two-electron-satellite PL spectra considering the participation of ground and excited state donor bound excitons. This work clarifies conflicting aspects existing in donor identification and the binding energies of the impurities and excitons.

Lee, S. K. (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Korea); Koleske, Daniel David; Moore, W. J. (SFA, Inc., Largo, MD); Freitas, J. A., Jr. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Shanabrook, B. V. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Braga, G. C. B. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Han, J. Y. (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Korea); Park, S. S. (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Korea)

2004-06-01

139

Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV?

Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Descroix, Stéphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

2011-07-01

140

Formation of oxygen-related donors during transition from thermal donors to new donors in CZ-silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

CZ-Si has been subjected to different heating schedules in an effort to have a deeper insight about the appearance and disappearance of thermal donors, generation of new donors and thermal acceptors along with the amount of oxygen and carbon precipitated. Annealing of the oxygen rich silicon samples in the temperature range 465 - 540 degrees Celsius for 26 hours demonstrated

Shyam Singh; Om Prakash

1996-01-01

141

Development of a disperse dye immunoassay technique for detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in cattle.  

PubMed

In this study a disperse dye immunoassay method was standardized and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in cattle. Sera from 150 cattle with a recent history of abortion were collected and tested by commercial ELISA kit and a standardized in-house dye immunoassay system. The positivity rate for the sera used in this study was 34.6% for the disperse dye immunoassay (DDIA) compared to 32% obtained by ELISA kit. This study showed no significant difference between DDIA and ELISA. The results indicated that the DDIA provide an economic, simple, rapid and robust test for detection of N. caninum infection in cattle. PMID:23467930

Selahi, Fatemeh; Namavari, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein; Mansourian, Maryam; Tahamtan, Yahya

2013-02-01

142

Development of a Disperse Dye Immunoassay Technique for Detection of Antibodies against Neospora caninum in Cattle  

PubMed Central

In this study a disperse dye immunoassay method was standardized and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in cattle. Sera from 150 cattle with a recent history of abortion were collected and tested by commercial ELISA kit and a standardized in-house dye immunoassay system. The positivity rate for the sera used in this study was 34.6% for the disperse dye immunoassay (DDIA) compared to 32% obtained by ELISA kit. This study showed no significant difference between DDIA and ELISA. The results indicated that the DDIA provide an economic, simple, rapid and robust test for detection of N. caninum infection in cattle. PMID:23467930

Selahi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein; Mansourian, Maryam; Tahamtan, Yahya

2013-01-01

143

IQPA: Isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based immunoassay using DNAzyme as the reporter system.  

PubMed

Immunoassays are often coupled to peroxidase activity for antigen detection. Sensitivity and speed of detection has been increased by the advent of hybrid methods such as immuno-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). However, a more simplified immunoassay that retains both colorimetric peroxidase detection and effective DNA amplification in a setting closer to field application conditions has been nonexistent. Here we describe a method that successfully combines a competitive immunoassay with the new isothermal quadruplex-primed amplification (QPA) to generate excess quadruplex reporter molecules with intrinsic peroxidase DNAzyme activity. PMID:24972268

Loh, Qiuting; Omar, Noorsharmimi; Glökler, Jörn; Lim, Theam Soon

2014-10-15

144

“Egg Donor Wanted”: Social Work with Women Looking for an Egg Donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women seeking fertility treatment using donor eggs can face challenges associated with recruiting suitable egg donors and negotiating the role that the donor may play in the life of the child. Social work in infertility clinics is an emerging area of practice and social work counsellors have an important role to play with parties involved in the egg donation process.

Vivien Hart; Debbie Plath

2011-01-01

145

Bacterial Magnetic Nanoparticles as Peroxidase Mimetics and Application in Immunoassay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although progress in nanosynthesis has succeeded in making nanoscale particles from iron oxide, the research about natural magnetic nanoparticles, magnetosomes, is still a current interest because of their intrinsic magnetic features, nano-features, membrane-enclosed features and genetic control of size and morphology properties. In this study, we investigated magnetosomes' intrinsic peroxidase-like activity similar to that found in artificial magnetic nanoparticles. We characterized the catalytic activity by varying the method of extraction and storage, the pH value, the temperature and the H2O2 concentration. Based on these finding, we developed a simplified immunoassay approach to use magnetosomes as a peroxidase mimic catalyst and a magnetic separator as well.

Hu, Lili; Song, Tao; Ma, Qiufeng; Chen, Chuanfang; Pan, Weidong; Xie, Chunlan; Nie, Leng; Yang, Wenhui

2010-12-01

146

Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine  

PubMed Central

We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

2013-01-01

147

Array-based immunoassays with rolling-circle amplification detection.  

PubMed

This chapter describes methods for the use of antibody microarrays with rolling-circle amplification (RCA). The methods are divided into three sections. The first section covers antibody preparation and microarray production, the second describes the method for using biological samples on antibody microarrays, and the third describes the method for RCA use on antibody microarrays. RCA can be used on antibody microarrays to increase the signal from each antibody spot and lower the detection limits of the assays. We also describe a practical method for running multiple, low-volume microarrays on a single microscope slide. These methods should be useful for researchers interested in rapidly developing and optimizing custom immunoassays for the analysis of low-abundance analytes using low sample volumes. PMID:24623215

Partyka, Katie; Wang, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Ping; Cao, Brian; Haab, Brian

2014-01-01

148

Protein chips and nanomaterials for application in tumor marker immunoassays.  

PubMed

Recent advances in molecular biology elucidate that tumor markers play an important role in diagnosis, prognosis and providing insights into the etiology of cancer. Widespread use of tumor markers in healthcare will ultimately depend upon the detection of many tumor markers with high selectivity and sensitivity. This goal has not been obtained with conventional methods which are time-consuming, have poor precision, or experience difficulty in realizing automation. Recently, much attention has been paid to the use of electrochemical immunosensors for the detection of tumor markers due to their high sensitivity, easy miniaturization and automation. This brief review focuses on the current developments, challenges, and trends of electrochemical immunosensors for tumor markers based on protein chips. Whereafter, the recent applications of nanomaterials in tumor marker immunoassays are reviewed. We also introduce some of our group's research works of novel electrochemical immunosensors for the determination of tumor markers. PMID:19398322

Chen, Hui; Jiang, Chunming; Yu, Cheng; Zhang, Song; Liu, Baohong; Kong, Jilie

2009-08-15

149

Gold bands as a suitable surface for enzyme immunoassays.  

PubMed

Gold bands sputtered over a polymeric material, Kapton, are employed for the development of enzyme immunoassays. The immunological interaction takes place between human IgM and alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated anti-IgM. The model analyte (IgM) could be determined following a non-competitive design in the range of 0.05-5 ppm, with a limit of detection of 50 ppb. After the interaction, gold bands are sequentially inserted in a flow system and the extension of the reaction is followed through the enzymatic hydrolysis of naphthylphosphate, AP substrate. The product, naphthol, is oxidised to naphtoquinone in the gold band of the flow cell that constitutes the detector. Parameters affecting the interaction are studied and calibration curves are performed. The reproducibility between different bands (RSD=4%, n=5) and possibilities of regeneration are also detailed. PMID:12191928

Abad-Villar, Eva M; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Costa-García, Agustín

2002-09-01

150

Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil  

PubMed Central

The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 ?g/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2720-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19263041

Smits, Nathalie G. E.; Haasnoot, Willem

2009-01-01

151

On-Chip Immunoassay for Determination of Urinary Albumin  

PubMed Central

An immunoassay performed on a portable microfluidic device was evaluated for the determination of urinary albumin. An increase in absorbance at 500 nm resulting from immunoagglutination was monitored directly on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip using a portable miniature fibre-optic spectrometer. A calibration curve was linear up to 10 mg L–1 (r2 = 0.993), with a detection limit of 0.81 mg L–1 (S/N = 3). The proposed system showed good precision, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.1%, when evaluated with 10 mg L–1 albumin (n = 10). Determination of urinary albumin with the proposed system gave results highly similar to those determined by the conventional spectrophotometric method using immunoturbidimetric detection (r2 = 0.995; n = 15). PMID:22303162

Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Maturos, Thitima; Lomas, Tanom; Sappat, Assawapong; Tuantranont, Adisorn

2009-01-01

152

Detection of novel murine mammary tumor viruses by interspecies immunoassays.  

PubMed

Radioimmunoassays were developed that can detect antigenic determinants common to mammary tumor viruses (MTV's) of four distinct Mus species: M. musculus, M. cervicolor, M. cookll, and M. caroll. The radioimmunoassays were based on the immunologic cross-reactivity observed between the murine mammary tumor viruses (MuMTV) of M. musculus and type B retrovirus isolated from M. cervicolor. Both of the glycoproteins of MuMTV (gp52, gp36) shared antigenic determinants with virions of M. cervicolor mammary tumor virus. Interspecies radioimmunoassays for gp52 and gp36 were developed and used to detect viruses in the milk of noninbred feral Mus species and MuMTV-related translational products in mammary tumors in these species. Type C and type D retroviruses, as well as the M432 retrovirus of M. cervicolor, did not react in either assay. Both interspecies immunoassays were therefore specific for the detection of distinct MuMTV-related antigenic determinants. PMID:6154165

Teramoto, Y A; Hand, P H; Callahan, R; Schlom, J

1980-04-01

153

Comparison of four enzyme immunoassays for detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 antibodies.  

PubMed

Four licensed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for the measurement of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1, one from Organon Teknika Corp. (OTC), one from Cambridge Biotech Corp. (CBC), and two from Abbott Laboratories (the 1993 modification [Abb 93] and the 2.0 version licensed in 1995 [Abb 95]), were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in the detection of HTLV type 2 antibody, and the results were compared with those previously obtained with earlier kit versions. The CBC, Abb 95, Abb 93, and OTC kits had sensitivities of 99.7, 97.6, 96.8, and 96.2%, respectively, compared with sensitivities of 89.1 and 60% for the Abbott and CBC (previously DuPont) kits, respectively, licensed in 1988. Thus, the abilities of commercial kits to detect HTLV antibody have improved. The relative specificities of the CBC, Abb 95, Abb 93, and OTC kits with negative blood donor specimens that had been reactive with the 1988 CBC EIA kit were 92.9, 64.5, 78.8, and 62.6%, respectively. Compared with those of the 1988 versions, the specificity of the Abbott EIA has decreased and the specificity of the CBC kit has been significantly improved. PMID:8748309

Gallo, D; Yeh, E T; Moore, E S; Hanson, C V

1996-01-01

154

The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

155

Multiplexed magnetic microsphere immunoassays for detection of pathogens in foods.  

PubMed

Foodstuffs have traditionally been challenging matrices for conducting immunoassays. Proteins, carbohydrates, and other macromolecules present in food matrices may interfere with both immunoassays and PCR-based tests, and removal of particulate matter may also prove challenging prior to analyses. This has been found true when testing for bacterial contamination of foods using the standard polystyrene microspheres utilized with Luminex flow cytometers. Luminex MagPlex microspheres are encoded with the same dyes as standard xMAP microspheres, but have superparamagnetic properties to aid in preparation of samples in complex matrices. In this work, we present results demonstrating use of MagPlex for sample preparation and identification of bacteria and a toxin spiked into a variety of food samples. Fluorescence-coded MagPlex microsphere sets coated with antibodies for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were used to capture these bacteria and toxin from spiked foodstuffs and then evaluated by the Luminex system in a multiplex format; spiked foods included apple juice, green pepper, tomato, ground beef, alfalfa sprouts, milk, lettuce, spinach, and chicken washes. Although MagPlex microspheres facilitated recovery of the microspheres and targets from the complex matrices, assay sensitivity was sometimes inhibited by up to one to three orders of magnitude; for example the detection limits E. coli spiked into apple juice or milk increased 100-fold, from 1000 to 100,000 cfu/mL. Thus, while the magnetic and fluorescent properties of the Luminex MagPlex microspheres allow for rapid, multiplexed testing for bacterial contamination in typically problematic food matrices, our data demonstrate that achieving desired limits of detection is still a challenge. PMID:20953301

Kim, Jason S; Taitt, Chris R; Ligler, Frances S; Anderson, George P

2010-05-01

156

Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?  

PubMed

Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed. PMID:17494300

Rozental, R

2006-01-01

157

Children as hematopoietic stem cell donors.  

PubMed

In the past half-century, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become standard treatment for a variety of diseases in children and adults, including selected hematologic malignancies, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and congenital metabolic disorders. There are 3 sources of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow, peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood; each has its own benefits and risks. Children often serve as hematopoietic stem cell donors, most commonly for their siblings. HLA-matched biological siblings are generally preferred as donors because of reduced risks of transplant-related complications as compared with unrelated donors. This statement includes a discussion of the ethical considerations regarding minors serving as stem cell donors, using the traditional benefit/burden calculation from the perspectives of both the donor and the recipient. The statement also includes an examination of the circumstances under which a minor may ethically participate as a hematopoietic stem cell donor, how the risks can be minimized, what the informed-consent process should entail, the role for a donor advocate (or some similar mechanism), and other ethical concerns. The American Academy of Pediatrics holds that minors can ethically serve as stem cell donors when specific criteria are fulfilled. PMID:20100753

2010-02-01

158

Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India  

PubMed Central

Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were ­conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be ­maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, ­professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using ­relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, ­unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing ­information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring ­monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

2011-01-01

159

Payment for donor kidneys: Pros and cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: ‘17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can’t take place because of the shortage of donated organs.’ Strategies to expand

E A Friedman; A L Friedman

2006-01-01

160

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40(a), (b), and (e) subsequently may donate Source Plasma for use in the preparation of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin...due to HTLV, types I and II, may serve as a donor of Source Plasma; (5) A deferred donor who tests reactive for a...

2010-04-01

161

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

...40(a), (b), and (e) subsequently may donate Source Plasma for use in the preparation of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin...due to HTLV, types I and II, may serve as a donor of Source Plasma; (5) A deferred donor who tests reactive for a...

2014-04-01

162

Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices  

PubMed Central

Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores < 15 is associated with lower allograft survival; use of the Liver Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

2012-01-01

163

Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

1984-01-01

164

Non Heart-Beating Donors in England  

PubMed Central

When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non-heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation. PMID:18297216

Chaib, Eleazar

2008-01-01

165

Replacements for Hydrogen Peroxide for Use With Horseradish Peroxidase in Immunoassay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention pertains to improving stability of immunoassays by using a more stable component. More specifically, this invention pertains to the use of a stable source of hydrogen peroxide in a peroxidase enzyme assay wherein the source releases hydroge...

D. Kidwell

1991-01-01

166

Development of an integrated capillary valve-based preconcentrator and surface-based immunoassay  

E-print Network

A new generation of integrated preconcentrator and immunoassay was developed. A novel, self-aligned method for patterning Nafion resin was developed and applied to create a preconcentrator. In a parallel effort, a surface-based ...

Liu, Vincent Hok

2009-01-01

167

Detection of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Viral Antigen in Avian Blood by Enzyme Immunoassay: A Laboratory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was evaluated for its efficacy at detecting eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in avian blood and brain specimens. Preliminary analysis of blood from experimentally infected house sparrows and naturally infected whoop...

T. W. Scott, J. G. Olson

1986-01-01

168

Normalization and Statistical Analysis of Multiplexed Bead-Based Immunoassay Data Using Mixed-Effects Modeling  

E-print Network

Multiplexed bead-based flow cytometric immunoassays are a powerful experimental tool for investigating cellular communication networks, yet their widespread adoption is limited in part by challenges in robust quantitative ...

Clarke, David C.

169

HIV-Selectest enzyme immunoassay and rapid test: ability to detect seroconversion following HIV-1 infection.  

E-print Network

??HIV-Selectest is a serodiagnostic enzyme immunoassay (EIA), containing p6 and gp41 peptides, designed to differentiate between vaccine-induced antibodies and true infections. A rapid test version… (more)

Golding, Hana.

2010-01-01

170

Application of Antibody and Fluorophore-Derivatized Liposomes to Heterogeneous Immunoassays for D-dimer  

E-print Network

Application of Antibody and Fluorophore-Derivatized Liposomes to Heterogeneous Immunoassays for D Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 Small unilamellar liposomes comprised functionalized with antibodies. The liposomes were conjugated with thousands of fluorescein molecules and 10

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

171

A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination  

SciTech Connect

This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.

1996-05-02

172

The influence of the donor-recipient relationship on related donor reactions to stem cell donation.  

PubMed

Previous research has begun to delineate the complicated reactions experienced by bone marrow and stem cell donors. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the donor-recipient relationship on the related donor's emotional reactions. Twenty-eight adult stem cell donors completed questionnaires before donation, 30 days post stem cell infusion, and 1 year after infusion. Questionnaires addressed the donor-recipient relationship, depression, mood, guilt and responsibility, self-esteem, ambivalence about donation and reactions to the donation itself. Results indicated that most donors reported little ambivalence about donation, and their reactions to the donation itself were generally positive. Closer and more positive donor-recipient relationships were associated with less anticipated guilt and responsibility if the transplant did not work. The relationships between the donor and the recipient did not change over time. Mood disturbance and depression were low overall, not related to the donor-recipient relationship, and did not significantly change over time. These results indicate that related stem cell donors are generally without significant emotional distress, and are comfortable with the donation process. Further, a more positive relationship with the recipient may help donors to avoid feeling guilty and responsible if the transplant does not work. PMID:24637897

Labott, S; Pfammatter, A

2014-06-01

173

Carbon nanotube electric immunoassay for the detection of swine influenza virus H1N1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost, label-free, ultra-sensitive electric immunoassay is developed for the detection of swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1. The assay is based on the excellent electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Antibody–virus complexes influence the conductance of underlying SWCNT thin film, which has been constructed by facile layer-by-layer self-assembly. The basic steps of conventional immunoassay are performed followed by the

Dongjin Lee; Yogesh Chander; Sagar M. Goyal; Tianhong Cui

2011-01-01

174

A novel competitive fluorescence immunoassay for the determination of dibutyl phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, sensitive, and specific competitive fluorescence immunoassay has been developed for the quantitative determination\\u000a of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) using an antibody-coated plate format. Hapten was synthesized in order to produce polyclonal antibodies\\u000a against dibutyl phthalate. Polyclonal antisera to dibutyl phthalate were generated in rabbits and used to construct the fluorescence\\u000a immunoassay for measurement of dibutylphthalate. The assay had a

Ming-Cui Zhang; Qiong-E Wang; Hui-Sheng Zhuang

2006-01-01

175

Homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for pyrethroid pesticides and their derivatives using bacillary alpha-amylase as label  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new enzyme immunoassay for detection of some pyrethroid pesticides (permethrin, phenothrin) and their derivatives containing 3-phenoxybenzoic group has been developed. It is based on enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), modulation of catalytic activity of hapten-enzyme conjugate by anti-hapten antibodies and restoring the initial activity level by free hapten in the sample tested. Alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis is proposed as

Anatoliy V. Zherdev; Boris B. Dzantiev; Janna N. Trubaceva

1997-01-01

176

Influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacer-containing enzyme conjugates on functional parameters of steroid immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of spacers in coating steroid antigen or enzyme conjugates or immunogen is known to exert an influence on the sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacers between enzyme and steroid moieties and studied their effects on functional parameters of enzyme immunoassays, using cortisol as a model steroid. Cortisol-3-O-carboxymethyloxime–bovine serum albumin (F-3-O-CMO-BSA) was used as

Seema Nara; Vinay Tripathi; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran Rangari; Harpal Singh; Kiran P. Kariya; Tulsidas G. Shrivastav

2008-01-01

177

Computational modeling Flow-injection chemiluminescent immunoassay for ?-fetoprotein based on epoxysilane modified glass microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow-injection chemiluminescent immunoassay system based on a novel transparent immunoaffinity reactor is proposed for the quantitation of ?-fetoprotein. The reactor prepared with ?-fetoprotein immobilized epoxysilane modified glass microbeads was used as an immunosensor for chemiluminescent detection. With a non-competitive immunoassay format, the proposed immunosensor system is a low cost, flexible and rapid assay for ?-fetoprotein. After an off-line incubation

Zhifeng Fu; Chen Hao; Xiaoqing Fei; Huangxian Ju

178

21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for donor suitability...

2010-04-01

179

21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.  

...STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability under § 640.3 of this...

2014-04-01

180

21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.  

... BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for donor suitability...

2014-04-01

181

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2010-04-01

182

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2012-04-01

183

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2011-04-01

184

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2013-04-01

185

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2014-04-01

186

A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of fungal alpha-amylase at the workplace.  

PubMed

Fungal alpha-amylase is a flour supplement which is added to improve the quality of bakery products. Various studies have shown that exposure to this enzyme is an important risk factor for the development of bakers' allergy and this allergy is reported to be one of the most frequent causes of occupational asthma. A rapid assay was developed to monitor exposure to occupational allergens directly at the workplace. The sensitivity of the developed assay is 0.32 ng amylase mL(-1) in a buffer system with the commercially available alpha-amylase preparation Fungamyl 1600S as the standard. Initial validation tests (n = 33) were performed with airborne and settled dust from an industrial bakery. The new lateral flow immunoassay detected amylase in 22 of the 26 samples regarded as positive in an enzyme immunoassay, and was negative for all seven enzyme immunoassay-negative samples, while the four lateral flow immunoassay-negative/enzyme immunoassay-positive samples all had levels below 2 ng mL(-1). The sensitivity of 2 ng mL(-1) of the amylase lateral flow immunoassay is sufficient for first screening purposes and, therefore, this simple and rapid assay may allow direct on-site demonstration of work-related hazards of bio-allergen exposure. This would be particularly useful in occupational hygiene practice, especially in traditional or small-scale bakeries which lack the technological skills for testing the exposure to respiratory allergens. PMID:16951754

Koets, Marjo; Sander, Ingrid; Bogdanovic, Jelena; Doekes, Gert; van Amerongen, Aart

2006-09-01

187

Detection of Borna Disease Virus-Reactive Antibodies from Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and from Horses by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Borna disease virus (BDV)-specific antibodies among patients with psychiatric disorders and healthy individuals has varied in several reports using several different serological assay methods. A reliable and specific method for anti-BDV antibodies needs to be developed to clarify the pathological significance of BDV infections in humans. We developed a new electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for the antibody to BDV that uses two recombinant proteins of BDV, p40 and p24 (full length). Using this ECLIA, we examined 3,476 serum samples from humans with various diseases and 917 sera from blood donors in Japan for the presence of anti-BDV antibodies. By ECLIA, 26 (3.08%) of 845 schizophrenia patients and 9 (3.59%) of 251 patients with mood disorders were seropositive for BDV. Among 323 patients with other psychiatric diseases, 114 with neurological diseases, 75 with chronic fatigue syndrome, 85 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, 50 with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosis and 17 with leprosy, there was no positive case except one case each with alcohol addiction, AIDS, and dementia. Although 19 (1.36%) of 1,393 patients with various ocular diseases, 10 (1.09%) of 917 blood donors, and 3 (4.55%) of 66 multitransfused patients were seropositive for BDV-specific antigen, high levels of seroprevalence in schizophrenia patients and young patients (16 to 59 years old) with mood disorders were statistically significant. The immunoreactivity of seropositive sera could be verified for specificity by blocking with soluble p40 and/or p24 recombinant protein. Anti-p24 antibody was more frequent than p40 antibody in most cases, and in some psychotic patients antibody profiles showed only p40 antibody. Although serum positive for both p40 and p24 antibodies was not found in this study, the p40 ECLIA count in schizophrenia patients was higher than that of blood donors. Furthermore, we examined 90 sera from Japanese feral horses. Antibody profiles of control human samples are similar to that of naturally BDV-infected feral horses. We concluded that BDV infection was associated in some way with psychiatric disorders. PMID:10473520

Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Sawada, Takashi; Naraki, Tohru; Igata-Yi, Ruriko; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Horii, Yoichiro; Ishii, Toshinori; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Asou, Norio; Okabe, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Manabu; Takahashi, Kazuo; Yamada, Shogo; Kubo, Kaori; Yashiki, Shinji; Waltrip, Royce W.; Carbone, Kathryn M.

1999-01-01

188

Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.  

PubMed

Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

2014-07-01

189

Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise  

PubMed Central

Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science.

Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

190

Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy minimizes warm ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Traditional open donor nephrectomy is associated with good donor outcomes and excellent allograft function. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy may accomplish these same goals with less morbidity. We report our initial experience with hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy using a commercially available hand-assist device.Methods. Donor and allograft outcomes for the first 30 patients undergoing hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in our

Kent Kercher; Douglas Dahl; Robert Harland; Robert Blute; Karen Gallagher; Demetrius Litwin

2001-01-01

191

Endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue  

PubMed Central

Here we report a case of endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue obtained after brain death. A 52-year-old man with endothelial dysfunction of unknown cause in the right eye underwent non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK) with tissue from an infant donor (2 years). Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Best corrected visual acuity and donor central endothelial cell density were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Infant donor tissue preparation with a microkeratome set at 300 ?m was successful; the donor tissue was extremely elastic and soft compared with adult tissue. The central endothelial cell density of the infant donor tissue was as high as 4,291 cells/mm2. No complications were observed during donor tissue (8.0 mm in diameter) insertion with the double-glide technique (Busin glide with intraocular lens sheet glide) or any of the other procedures. Best corrected visual acuity improved from 1.7 logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; 0.02 decimal visual acuity) preoperatively to 0.2 logMAR (0.6) after 6 months and 0.1 logMAR (0.8) after 1 year. The central endothelial cell density after 6 months was 4,098 cells/mm2 (representing a 4.5% cell loss from preoperative donor cell measurements), and the central endothelial cell density after 1 year was 4,032 cells/mm2 (6.0% decrease). Infant donor tissue may be preferably used for DSAEK/nDASEK, since it may not be suitable for penetrating keratoplasty or Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Masaki, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

192

Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant.  

PubMed

The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

2014-05-28

193

Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant  

PubMed Central

The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

2014-01-01

194

Immunoassays Based on Penicillium marneffei Mp1p Derived from Pichia pastoris Expression System for Diagnosis of Penicilliosis  

PubMed Central

Background Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus endemic in Southeast Asia. It can cause fatal penicilliosis in humans, particularly in HIV-infected people. Diagnosis of this infection is difficult because its clinical manifestations are not distinctive. Specialized laboratory tests are necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis for successful management. We have demonstrated previously that a cell wall mannoprotein Mp1p, abundant in P. marneffei, is a potential biomarker for diagnosis of P. marneffei infections. In the present study, we describe immunoassays based on Mp1p derived from the yeast Pichia pastoris expression system. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and rabbit polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) against Mp1p expressed in P. pastoris. Subsequently, we developed two Mp1p antigen capture ELISAs which employed MAbs for both the capture and detecting antibodies (MAb-MAb pair) or PAbs and MAbs as the capture and detecting antibodies (PAbs-MAb pair) respectively. The two Mp1p antigen ELISAs detected Mp1p specifically in cultures of P. marneffei yeast phase at 37–40°C and had no cross-reaction with other tested pathogenic fungi. The sensitivities and specificities of the two antigen assays were found to be 55% (11/20) and 99.6% (538/540) for MAb-MAb Mp1p ELISA, and 75% (15/20) and 99.4% (537/540) for PAbs-MAb Mp1p ELISA performed using 20 sera with culture-confirmed penicilliosis, and 540 control sera from 15 other mycosis patients and 525 healthy donors. Meanwhile, we also developed an anti-Mp1p IgG antibody ELISA with an evaluated sensitivity of 30% (6/20) and a specificity of 98.5% (532/540) using the same sera. Furthermore, combining the results of Mp1p antigen and antibody detection improved the sensitivity of diagnosis to 100% (20/20). Conclusions/Significance Simultaneous detection of antigen and antibody using the immunoassays based on Mp1p derived from P. pastoris greatly improves detection sensitivity. The procedures should be useful for the routine diagnosis of penicilliosis. PMID:22205971

Wang, Yan-Fang; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wang, Ya-Di; Dong, Hui; Hao, Wei; Jiang, Ling-Xiao; Long, Jun; Chan, Cheman; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Che, Xiao-Yan

2011-01-01

195

Quantitative, False Positive, and False Negative Issues for Lateral Flow Immunoassays as Exemplified by Onsite Drug Screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral flow immunoassay devices offer many advantages including convenience, economical, simplicity, and rapid result. Many lateral flow immunoassays are non-instrumental and rely on visual detection of colored lines for results, enabling easy portability and allowing testing at any time and at any place by non-technical personnel. Hence, many lateral flow immunoassay tests have been developed for use ‘‘onsite’’, ‘‘point-of-care’’, or

Raphael C. Wong; Harley Y. Tse

196

Improving Donor Intervention in Rural Financial Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Credit project design largely determines credit project performance. Criticisms of the performance of donor-supported credit projects often cite problems which can be traced to project design flaws. The principal modifications required for a reorientation...

J. D. Von Pischke

1981-01-01

197

Enzymatic Production of Universal Donor Erythrocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aims of this research contract were: 1) to isolate in pure culture strains of human enteric bacteria with the specialized ability to produce strong activities of extracellular glycosidases that convert blood type A or B erythrocytes to universal donor...

L. C. Hoskins

1981-01-01

198

A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

Fischer, Gerald B.

2003-01-01

199

Hydrogen enhancement of silicon thermal donor formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen-related thermal donor formation in Czochralski silicon is characterized by the capacitance-voltage and deep level transient spectroscopy techniques as a function of 450 °C anneal time following hydrogenation. Increases in the formation rate and number of thermal donor (TD) defects found after hydrogenation are reported. This study finds an increase in TD+/++ concentration in the near-surface region at short anneal times, but at longer times an elevated concentration was not observed. No acceleration through the sequence of thermal donor defects was detected. This fails to support the model of hydrogen lowering the barrier to oxygen diffusion and accelerating the TDn?TDn+1 transitions. This study does, however, support a model in which the hydrogen increases the available thermal donor core sites.

Lamp, C. D.; James, D. J., II

1993-04-01

200

Echocardiographic detection of dysfunctions in donor hearts.  

PubMed

Heart transplantation activity is steadily declining worldwide, despite initiatives to increase the donor pool. The yield of transplantable hearts remains low, leading to wastage of over two-thirds of donor organs. Accurate assessment and intervention is required to increase the number of transplantable hearts. The retrieval rate could be increased if techniques become available to differentiate between transplantable and nontransplantable hearts. Echocardiography is an ideally suited noninvasive investigation that may guide donor optimization. However, there are technical difficulties in acquiring high-quality views, and changes in ventricular function following catecholamine storm in brainstem death often lead to misinterpretation of standard 2D images. Current advances in technology, including the routine use of left ventricular contrast, 3D imaging and tissue doppler studies, may improve the accuracy, and thereby the utilization, of echocardiography in donor heart assessment. PMID:19804211

Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer; Bonser, Robert; Steeds, Richard

2007-01-01

201

Donor Immune Cells Attack Metastatic Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In patients with metastatic breast cancer, immune cells from a genetically matched donor can attack and shrink tumors, researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago.

202

Day-of-surgery rejection of donors in living donor liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study diagnostic laparoscopy as a tool for excluding donors on the day of surgery in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: This study analyzed prospectively collected data from all potential donors for LDLT. All of the donors were subjected to a three-step donor evaluation protocol at our institution. Step one consisted of a clinical and social evaluation, including a liver profile, hepatitis markers, a renal profile, a complete blood count, and an abdominal ultrasound with Doppler. Step two involved tests to exclude liver diseases and to evaluate the donor’s serological status. This step also included a radiological evaluation of the biliary anatomy and liver vascular anatomy using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and a computed tomography (CT) angiogram, respectively. A CT volumetric study was used to calculate the volume of the liver parenchyma. Step three included an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Between November 2002 and May 2009, sixty-nine potential living donors were assessed by open exploration prior to harvesting the planned part of the liver. Between the end of May 2009 and October 2010, 30 potential living donors were assessed laparoscopically to determine whether to proceed with the abdominal incision to harvest part of the liver for donation. RESULTS: Ninety-nine living donor liver transplants were attempted at our center between November 2002 and October 2010. Twelve of these procedures were aborted on the day of surgery (12.1%) due to donor findings, and eighty-seven were completed (87.9%). These 87 liver transplants were divided into the following groups: Group A, which included 65 transplants that were performed between November 2002 and May 2009, and Group B, which included 22 transplants that were performed between the end of May 2009 and October 2010. The demographic data for the two groups of donors were found to match; moreover, no significant difference was observed between the two groups of donors with respect to hospital stay, narcotic and non-narcotic analgesia requirements or the incidence of complications. Regarding the recipients, our study clearly revealed that there was no significant difference in either the incidence of different complications or the incidence of retransplantation between the two groups. Day-of-surgery donor assessment for LDLT procedures at our center has passed through two eras, open and laparoscopic. In the first era, sixty-nine LDLT procedures were attempted between November 2002 and May 2009. Upon open exploration of the donors on the day of surgery, sixty-five donors were found to have livers with a grossly normal appearance. Four donors out of 69 (5.7%) were rejected on the day of surgery because their livers were grossly fatty and pale. In the laparoscopic era, thirty LDLT procedures were attempted between the end of May 2009 and October 2010. After the laparoscopic assessment on the day of surgery, twenty-two transplantation procedures were completed (73.4%), and eight were aborted (26.6%). Our data showed that the levels of steatosis in the rejected donors were in the acceptable range. Moreover, the results of the liver biopsies of rejected donors were comparable between the group A and group B donors. The laparoscopic assessment of donors presents many advantages relative to the assessment of donors through open exploration; in particular, the laparoscopic assessment causes less pain, requires a shorter hospital stay and leads to far superior cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic assessment of donors in LDLT is a safe and acceptable procedure that avoids unnecessary large abdominal incisions and increases the chance of achieving donor safety. PMID:23293715

Hegab, Bassem; Abdelfattah, Mohamed Rabei; Azzam, Ayman; Mohamed, Hazem; Hamoudi, Waleed Al; Alkhail, Faisal Aba; Bahili, Hamad Al; Khalaf, Hatem; Sofayan, Mohammed Al; Sebayel, Mohammed Al

2012-01-01

203

Direct hapten-linked multiplexed immunoassays on polycarbonate surface.  

PubMed

Direct hapten-linked multiplexed immunoassay is developed on the polycarbonate surface of standard Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs) for six compounds of environmental concern, as proof of concept. Carboxylated haptens are directly linked to the aminated polycarbonate surface through carbodiimide/succinimide coupling. The modified DVD surface maintained its physical and optical properties. Multiplexed assay reached detection limits down to 0.1 ?g/L for chlorpyrifos, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid, sulfathiazole and sulfasalazine and down to 1.0 ?g/L for fenthion and malathion. This approach presents advantages such as the improvement in sensitivity in comparison to protein-hapten conjugate format for all the studied analytes and the absence of cross-interference effects, allowing high throughput multianalysis on the same surface. Also, a comparison of the performance of two sensing strategies indicated that DVD disc and drive approach turned out in a simpler mode, the assays being more reproducible and with higher signal to noise ratios. PMID:20880693

Tamarit-López, Jesús; Morais, Sergi; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

2011-01-15

204

Haptens and monoclonal antibodies for immunoassay of imidazolinone herbicides.  

PubMed

A set of haptens structurally resembling the herbicide imazethapyr (PURSUIT) was synthesized and used to derive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and direct and indirect competition enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) which could detect imazethapyr, imazaquin (SCEPTER), imazapic (CADRE), and imazamox (RAPTOR) in the 3-30 ng/mL (parts per billion) range, and imazapyr (ARSENAL) and imazamethabenz-methyl (ASSERT) in the 300-500 ppb range. Two MAbs, 3A2 and 3A5, had affinities of 10-75 nM for imazethapyr. MAbs 1A5, 1D2, and 3A5 were specific for the S isomers of the herbicides. Some MAbs were stable in solutions containing up to 15% methanol and 5% acetonitrile in indirect EIAs. Plates coated with hapten conjugates for indirect EIA could be stored frozen. Selectivity for the imidazolinones by some MAbs varied with different coating conjugates. These MAbs and haptens should prove useful in immunochemical analysis and residue recovery methods for imazethapyr and other imidazolinone herbicides. PMID:12033799

Chin, Tina E; Wong, Rosie B; Pont, Joseph L; Karu, Alexander E

2002-06-01

205

Graphene oxide-based SPR biosensor chip for immunoassay applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work develops a highly sensitive immunoassay sensor for use in graphene oxide sheet (GOS)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips. This sensing film, which is formed by chemically modifying a GOS surface, has covalent bonds that strongly interact with the bovine serum albumin (BSA), explaining why it has a higher sensitivity. This GOS film-based SPR chip has a BSA concentration detection limit that is 100 times higher than that of the conventional Au-film-based sensor. The affinity constants ( K A) on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip for 100 ?g/ml BSA are 80.82 × 106 M-1 and 15.67 × 106 M-1, respectively. Therefore, the affinity constant of the GOS film-based SPR chip is 5.2 times higher than that of the conventional chip. With respect to the protein-protein interaction, the SPR sensor capability to detect angle changes at a low concentration anti-BSA of 75.75 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip is 36.1867 and 26.1759 mdeg, respectively. At a high concentration, anti-BSA of 378.78 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip reveals two times increases in the SPR angle shift. Above results demonstrate that the GOS film is promising for highly sensitive clinical diagnostic applications.

Chiu, Nan-Fu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Liu, Kou-Chen

2014-08-01

206

The microassay on a card: A rugged, portable immunoassay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microassay on a Card (MAC) is a portable, hand-held, non-instrumental immunoassay that can test for the presence of a wide variety of substances in the environment. The MAC is a simple device to use. A drop of test solution is placed on one side of the card and within five minutes a color is developed on the other side in proportion to the amount of substance in the test solution, with sensitivity approaching 10 ng/ml. The MAC is self-contained and self-timed; no reagents or timing is necessary. The MAC may be configured with multiple wells to provide simultaneous testing for multiple species. As envisioned, the MAC will be employed first as an on-site screen for drugs of abuse in urine or saliva. If the MAC can be used as a screen of saliva for drugs of abuse, it could be applied to driving while intoxicated, use of drugs on the job, or testing of the identity of seized materials. With appropriate modifications, the MAC also could be used to test for environmental toxins or pollutants.

Kidwell, David

1991-01-01

207

Evaluation of a novel fluorescence polarization immunoassay for teicoplanin.  

PubMed Central

A fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPI) for teicoplanin that uses the TDx Instrument System (Abbott, Irving, Tex.) as an automated analyzer has been developed by Innotron of Oregon Inc. and was evaluated in patients with staphylococcal infections enrolled in a clinical trial of the antibiotic. The assay proved accurate in estimating concentrations of between 5 and 100 mg/liter. The intraassay coefficient of variation was < 7.3%, while the interassay variance was < 11.6% against three commercially prepared standards at known concentrations of approximately 5, 35, and 75 mg/liter. Against routinely prepared standards at 10 concentrations between 5 and 100 mg/liter analyzed in a single run, the coefficient of variance did not exceed 4.3%. Compared with bioassay, the FPI demonstrated good correlation in terms of reliability (r = 0.909) in samples containing teicoplanin only and specificity (r = 0.916) in samples containing both teicoplanin and gentamicin. With a turnaround time of 20 min and with only 50 microliters of serum needed for estimation of the amount of drug in a sample, the FPI described here should provide a useful method of teicoplanin measurement in routine diagnostic laboratories. PMID:8239606

Cox, H; Whitby, M; Nimmo, G; Williams, G

1993-01-01

208

Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics  

PubMed Central

At present, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics typically provide a binary indication of health status (e.g., home pregnancy test strip). Before anticipatory use of diagnostics for assessment of complex diseases becomes widespread, development of sophisticated bioassays capable of quantitatively measuring disease biomarkers is necessary. Successful translation of new bioassays into clinical settings demands the ability to monitor both the onset and progression of disease. Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument. Our microfluidic method facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing) with electrophoretic immunoassays to quickly measure analyte concentrations in minimally pretreated saliva samples. Using 20 ?l of saliva, we demonstrate rapid (<10 min) measurement of the collagen-cleaving enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in saliva from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. In addition to physiologically measurable indicators of periodontal disease, conventional measurements of salivary MMP-8 were used to validate the microfluidic assays described in this proof-of-principle study. The microchip-based POC diagnostic demonstrated is applicable to rapid, reliable measurement of proteinaceous disease biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:17374724

Herr, Amy E.; Hatch, Anson V.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Tran, Huu M.; Brennan, James S.; Giannobile, William V.; Singh, Anup K.

2007-01-01

209

System and method for a parallel immunoassay system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for detecting a target antigen using massively parallel immunoassay technology. In this system, high affinity antibodies of the antigen are covalently linked to small beads or particles. The beads are exposed to a solution containing DNA-oligomer-mimics of the antigen. The mimics which are reactive with the covalently attached antibody or antibodies will bind to the appropriate antibody molecule on the bead. The particles or beads are then washed to remove any unbound DNA-oligomer-mimics and are then immobilized or trapped. The bead-antibody complexes are then exposed to a test solution which may contain the targeted antigens. If the antigen is present it will replace the mimic since it has a greater affinity for the respective antibody. The particles are then removed from the solution leaving a residual solution. This residual solution is applied a DNA chip containing many samples of complimentary DNA. If the DNA tag from a mimic binds with its complimentary DNA, it indicates the presence of the target antigen. A flourescent tag can be used to more easily identify the bound DNA tag.

Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01

210

Rapid dioxin screening of milk and water by enzyme immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

A simple and easy to use enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system has been developed for rapid screening of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378D). This EIA has been adapted to analysis of water and milk using an automated system for extraction of liquid samples. Water analysis can be performed directly following extraction and solvent exchange with no extract clean-up. The same automated system is used for milk extraction and the extract is then cleaned chromatographically using the automated FMS Dioxin-Prep{trademark} System. Sensitivity for 2378D in the EIA is approximately 100 pg per analysis. Thus sensitivity to 10 ppt 2378D (whole weight basis) in milk is possible using only 50 ml or less of sample and sensitivity to 0.1 ppt 2378D in water is possible using 1-2 liters of sample. Total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 3 hours for water and 4.5 hours for milk.

Harrison, R.O. [ImmunoSystems Inc., Scarborough, ME (United States); Carlson, R.E. [Ecochem Research, Inc., Chaska, MN (United States); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-01

211

Enzyme immunoassay for mycophenolic acid in milk and cheese.  

PubMed

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) was reacted with N-hydroxysuccinimide and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. The MPA-KLH was used to produce anti-MPA antiserum in rabbits. A competitive direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for MPA was established with anti-MPA antiserum and MPA-HRP conjugate. The mean 50% inhibition and detection limit of MPA standard curves (n = 103) were 197 +/- 67 and 81 +/- 48 pg/mL, respectively. The EIA was specific for MPA and its synthetic 2-morpholinoethyl ester, mycophenolate mofetil (91% relative cross-reactivity). Raw bulk milk and pasteurized milk, with and without beta-glucuronidase pretreatment, were analyzed by EIA. No MPA was found in milk, at a detection limit of 100 pg/mL (recovery 58-66% at 0.125-2 ng/mL). Blue-veined cheese from the German market (n = 53) was analyzed by EIA, and the detection limit was at 0.5 ng/g (recovery 68-79% at 5-100 ng/g). All but two cheeses contained MPA, although mostly (66%) at levels of <10 ng/g. MPA at 400-1200 ng/g was found in Roquefort cheeses. Highest levels (4-11 microg/g) were found in a German soft cheese preparation. MPA levels in mycelium-rich parts of cheese were 3 times higher than in mycelium-free parts. PMID:18611027

Usleber, Ewald; Dade, Melanie; Schneider, Elisabeth; Dietrich, Richard; Bauer, Johann; Märtlbauer, Erwin

2008-08-27

212

A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes  

PubMed Central

A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

2011-01-01

213

Aqueous two-phase systems enable multiplexing of homogeneous immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Quantitative measurement of protein biomarkers is critical for biomarker validation and early disease detection. Current multiplex immunoassays are time consuming costly and can suffer from low accuracy. For example, multiplex ELISAs require multiple, tedious, washing and blocking steps. Moreover, they suffer from nonspecific antibody cross-reactions, leading to high background and false-positive signals. Here, we show that co-localizing antibody-bead pairs in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) enables multiplexing of sensitive, no-wash, homogeneous assays, while preventing nonspecific antibody cross-reactions. Our cross-reaction-free, multiplex assay can simultaneously detect picomolar concentrations of four protein biomarkers ((C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6) in cell supernatants using a single assay well. The potential clinical utility of the assay is demonstrated by detecting diagnostic biomarkers (CXCL10 and CXCL9) in plasma from 88 patients at the onset of the clinical symptoms of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PMID:25083509

Simon, Arlyne B.; Frampton, John P.; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

2014-01-01

214

Enzyme immunoassay of thyroxin with a centrifugal analyzer  

SciTech Connect

We have applied a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for determination of thyroxinin serum to the ''Cobas Bio'' centrifugal analyzer. To unbind thyroxin from its protein complex, serum is treated for 20 min with a solution of NaOH containing ''Lipex,'' an agent for sequestering free fatty acids. The immunoenzymic reaction is then automatically performed by the analyzer at 37/sup 0/C. To 20 ..mu..L of sample mixture is added 125 ..mu..L of reagent (thyroxin antibodies and NAD/sup +/) and this mixture is incubated for 10 s. Then 25 ..mu..L of start reagent (enzyme-thyroxin conjugate and malate substrate) is added and the change in absorbance is monitored at 340 nm. The standard curve is linear up to at least 200 ..mu..g of thyroxin per liter. Within-assay precision (CV) varied from 1.1 to 2.9%, between-assay precision from 3.1 to 7.8%. Analytical recovery of thyroxin was complete. The deviation of control samples from target values ranged from -2.1% to 7.0%. Interference by hemoglobin or bilirubin is negligible. Results compare favorably with those by radioimmunoassay.

Izquierdo, J.M.; Sotorrio, P.; Quiros, A.

1982-01-01

215

Bioluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of Norovirus Capsid Antigen  

PubMed Central

An ultrasensitive and fully automated bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) was developed for the detection of norovirus (NV) capsid antigen. In the evaluation tests with recombinant virus-like particles, the BLEIA demonstrated broad reactivity against several NV genotypes (genotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 12 in genogroup I [GI] and genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, and 13 in GII), a wide dose-response range from 0.25 pg/ml to 10,000 pg/ml, and good reproducibility with low coefficients of variation (CVs) (within-run CVs of <2.8%, between-day CVs of <3.7%). In the evaluation tests with NV-positive fecal samples, a good correlation (y = 0.66x ? 3.21, r = 0.84) between the BLEIA and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was obtained. Furthermore, in the dilution test with NV specimens, the analytical sensitivity of NV was estimated to be 105 to 106 copies/g of fecal sample, indicating that the analytical sensitivity of the BLEIA is comparable to that of commercially available molecular methods. All assay steps are fully automated, the turnaround time is 46 min, and the throughput of the assay is 120 tests/h. These results indicate that the BLEIA is potentially useful for the rapid diagnosis of NV in epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis. PMID:23081816

Ohiro, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Mitsuki; Makinodan, Mitsuru; Ohta, Tsubasa; Suzuki, Wataru; Takayasu, Susumu; Tsuge, Harufumi

2012-01-01

216

Thiophene donor-acceptor [2]rotaxanes.  

PubMed

A series of the thiophene donor-acceptor [2]rotaxanes have been synthesized based on the inclusion complexes of cyclobis(paraquat- p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) with thiophene, bithiophene, and terthiophene. The maximum wavelength of the charge-transfer band strongly depends on the number of thiophene units, while the association constant does not. These donor-acceptor pairs will be fascinating constituents for optoelectronic and electromechanical materials. PMID:18454536

Ikeda, Taichi; Higuchi, Masayoshi; Sato, Akira; Kurth, Dirk G

2008-06-01

217

Organ Transplants from Living Donors - Halachic Aspects*  

PubMed Central

This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

Halperin, Mordechai

2011-01-01

218

CT-Operated Bifunctional Fluorescent Probe Based on a Pretwisted Donor–Donor–Biphenyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the structural requirements for TICT-type sensor molecules, a general synthetic route to derive pH and cation-responsive pretwisted donor (D)–donor (D) biphenyls (b) equipped with donor receptors is developed and a first model compound containing a mono aza-15-crown-5 and a DMA receptor is synthesized, see Scheme 1. The spectroscopic properties of this new bifunctional D–D biphenyl are studied

Y. Q. Li; J. L. Bricks; U. Resch-Genger; M. Spieles; W. Rettig

2006-01-01

219

Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.  

PubMed

The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. PMID:25052215

Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

2014-11-01

220

Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

2014-01-01

221

Living donor kidney transplantation in a global environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live donor kidney transplantation has become a widely sought treatment by patients with end-stage renal failure. As the outcome for the genetically and emotionally related live donor transplants is the same, this review considers live kidney transplantation from the broad scope of current international practice. Unrelated live donor transplantation can now be performed for incompatible donor recipient pairs via a

F L Delmonico; M A Dew

2007-01-01

222

Label-free impedimetric immunoassay for trace levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in insulating oil.  

PubMed

A rapid, ultrasensitive, and practical label-free impedimetric immunoassay for measuring trace levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil was developed. First, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (RU6F9) for PCBs by using a designed immunogen and characterized its binding affinity for a commercial mixtures of PCBs and its main congeners. A micro comblike gold electrode was fabricated, and the antibody was covalently immobilized on the electrode through a self-assembled monolayer formed by dithiobis-N-succinimidyl propionate. The antigen-binding event on the surface of the functionalized electrode was determined as the change in charge transfer resistance by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resulting impedimetric immunoassay in aqueous solution achieved a wide determination range (0.01-10 ?g/L) and a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.001 ?g/L, which was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional flow-based immunoassay for PCBs. By combining the impedimetric immunoassay with a cleanup procedure for insulating oil utilizing a multilayer cleanup column followed by DMSO partitioning, an LOD of 0.052 mg/kg-oil was achieved, which satisfied the Japanese regulation criterion of 0.5 mg/kg-oil. Finally, the immunoassay was employed to determine total PCB levels in actual used insulating oils (n = 33) sampled from a used transformer containing trace levels of PCBs, and the results agreed well with the Japanese official method (HRGC/HRMS). PMID:24528234

Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Yukie; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Ohmura, Naoya; Matsue, Tomokazu

2014-03-18

223

Application of antibody and fluorophore-derivatized liposomes to heterogeneous immunoassays for d-dimer.  

PubMed

Small unilamellar liposomes comprised of cholesterol and phospholipids, in which one of the lipids is labeled with a fluorophore, have been covalently functionalized with antibodies. The liposomes were conjugated with thousands of fluorescein molecules and 10-20 monoclonal antibodies per liposome. These bifunctional liposomes were used in a direct (sandwich-type) immunoassay for the detection of thromboembolic disorders by assaying for d-dimer. D-dimer is the final and the smallest proteolytic product in the degradation of cross-linked fibrin by the plasma protein plasmin. The immunoassay using liposomes was compared to a conventional immunoassay that uses a fluor-antibody conjugate. The liposomes, by virtue of having thousands of fluorophores coupled to one liposome in contrast to one or a few reporter molecules in the conventional fluor-antibody conjugate, performed better on two counts: (1) they lowered the detection limit by a factor of 120 and (2) they provided a 1 order of magnitude amplification in signal. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of d-dimer was 5.6 ng/mL with the liposomal assay as compared to an MDC of 674 ng/mL with conventional fluor-antibody conjugate. The results of fluorescence assays were also compared with the results obtained by Singh et al. (Biotechnol. Prog. 1995, 11, 333-341) in an enzyme immunoassay developed using liposomes. These results demonstrate the potential of liposomes in lowering detection limits and increasing the sensitivity of immunoassays. PMID:8857195

Singh, A K; Kilpatrick, P K; Carbonell, R G

1996-01-01

224

High-performance UV-curable epoxy resin-based microarray and microfluidic immunoassay devices.  

PubMed

Immunoassay devices including microarray and microfluidic systems were fabricated with an UV-curable resin by a new economic approach, which can not only simply produce a 3-dimensional (3D) patterned structure, but also simultaneously introduce functional epoxide groups for efficient protein immobilization. The performance of the epoxy resin-based microarray was improved by optimization of printing buffer, probe concentration, and immobilization time, showing a detection dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude and a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 pg mL(-1) for immunoglobulin G (IgG). The developed microfluidic immunoassay device demonstrates a LOD of 100 pg mL(-1) for IL-5 detection. The device can also be used to colorimetrically detect proteins via naked human eyes for immunoassays. This work provides a simple and inexpensive method to fabricate a sensitive immunoassay device, especially a 3D microfluidic system, which has great potential to develop a portable immunoassay device via human eye detection for point-of-care service and/or high throughput screening of infectious diseases. PMID:19346122

Yu, Ling; Liu, Yingshuai; Gan, Ye; Li, Chang Ming

2009-06-15

225

Molecular Similarity Methods for Predicting Cross-Reactivity With Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Immunoassays are used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) yet may suffer from cross-reacting compounds able to bind the assay antibodies in a manner similar to the target molecule. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation using computational tools to predict cross-reactivity with TDM immunoassays. The authors used molecular similarity methods to enable calculation of structural similarity for a wide range of compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target molecules of TDM immunoassays. Utilizing different molecular descriptors (MDL public keys, functional class fingerprints, and pharmacophore fingerprints) and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient, the authors compared cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for in vitro diagnostic use. Using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient showed a strong and statistically significant separation between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds. Thus, two-dimensional shape similarity of cross-reacting molecules and the target molecules of TDM immunoassays provides a fast chemoinformatics methods for a priori prediction of potential of cross-reactivity that might be otherwise undetected. These methods could be used to reliably focus cross-reactivity testing on compounds with high similarity to the target molecule and limit testing of compounds with low similarity and ultimately with a very low probability of cross-reacting with the assay in vitro. PMID:19333148

Krasowski, Matthew D.; Siam, Mohamed G.; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

2010-01-01

226

Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for monitoring nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity.  

PubMed

The following members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family, NTPDase1 (CD39), NTPDase-2, -3, and -8, play an important role in purinergic signal transduction by regulating extracellular nucleotide levels. Potent and selective NTPDase inhibitors are required as pharmacological tools and have potential as novel drugs, e.g. for anti-cancer and anti-bacterial therapy. We have developed fast and sensitive NTPDase fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassays using the natural substrates (ATP or ADP). During the NTPDase1-catalyzed reaction, the substrate is dephosphorylated to ADP which is further dephosphorylated yielding AMP as the final product (by NTPDase1). NTPDase3 and -8 yield AMP and ADP, while NTPDase2 results mainly in the formation of ADP. Direct quantification of the respective product, AMP or ADP, is achieved by displacement of an appropriate fluorescent tracer nucleotide from a specific antibody leading to a change in fluorescence polarization. The assays are highly sensitive and can be performed with low substrate concentrations (20 ?M ATP or 10 ?M ADP) below the KM values of NTPDases, which simplifies the identification of novel competitive inhibitors. Optimized antibody and enzyme concentrations allow the reproducible detection of 2 ?M ADP and 1 ?M AMP (at 10% substrate conversion). Validation of the assays yielded excellent Z'-factors greater than 0.70 for all investigated NTPDase subtypes indicating high robustness of the analytical method. Furthermore, we tested a standard inhibitor and performed a first exemplary screening campaign with a library consisting of >400 compounds (Z'-factor: 0.87, hit rate 0.5%). Thereby we demonstrated the suitability of the FP assay for IC50 value determination and high-throughput screening in a 384-well format. The new FP assays were shown to be superior to current standard assays. PMID:25372046

Fiene, Amelie; Baqi, Younis; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Müller, Christa E

2014-12-01

227

Live Donor Champion: Finding Live Kidney Donors by Separating the Advocate from the Patient1  

PubMed Central

Background Lack of education and reluctance to initiate a conversation about live donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is a common barrier to finding a donor. While transplant candidates are often hesitant to discuss their illness, friends or family members are often eager to spread awareness, and are empowered by advocating for the candidates. We hypothesized that separating the advocate from the patient is important in identifying live donors. Methods We developed an intervention to train a Live Donor Champion (LDC) (a friend, family member, or community member willing to advocate for the candidate) for this advocacy role. We compared outcomes of 15 adult KT candidates who had no prospective donors and underwent the LDC intervention with 15 matched controls from our waiting list. Results Comfort in initiating a conversation about transplantation increased over time for LDCs. Twenty-five potential donors contacted our center on behalf of LDC participants; four participants achieved LDKT and three additional participants have donors in evaluation, compared to zero among matched controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Transplant candidates are ill-equipped to seek live donors; by separating the advocate from the patient, understandable concerns about initiating conversations are reduced. PMID:22461037

Garonzik-Wang, Jacqueline M.; Berger, Jonathan C.; Ros, R. Lorie; Kucirka, Lauren M.; Deshpande, Neha A.; Boyarsky, Brian J.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Hall, Erin C.; James, Nathan T.; Segev, Dorry L.

2012-01-01

228

Adult right-lobe living liver donors: quality of life, attitudes and predictors of donor outcomes.  

PubMed

To refine selection criteria for adult living liver donors and improve donor quality of care, risk factors for poor postdonation health-related quality of life (HRQOL) must be identified. This cross-sectional study examined donors who underwent a right hepatectomy at the University of Toronto between 2000 and 2007 (n = 143), and investigated predictors of (1) physical and mental health postdonation, as well as (2) willingness to participate in the donor process again. Participants completed a standardized HRQOL measure (SF-36) and measures of the pre- and postdonation process. Donor scores on the SF-36 physical and mental health indices were equivalent to, or greater than, population norms. Greater predonation concerns, a psychiatric diagnosis and a graduate degree were associated with lower mental health postdonation whereas older donors reported better mental health. The majority of donors (80%) stated they would donate again but those who perceived that their recipient engaged in risky health behaviors were more hesitant. Prospective donors with risk factors for lower postdonation satisfaction and mental health may require more extensive predonation counseling and postdonation psychosocial follow-up. Risk factors identified in this study should be prospectively evaluated in future research. PMID:19422341

DuBay, D A; Holtzman, S; Adcock, L; Abbey, S; Greenwood, S; Macleod, C; Kashfi, A; Jacob, M; Renner, E L; Grant, D R; Levy, G A; Therapondos, G

2009-05-01

229

Unrelated-donor marrow transplants: the experience of the National Marrow Donor Program.  

PubMed

As of December 1994, more than 3,000 marrow transplants had been accomplished using unrelated donors provided by the National Marrow Donor Program. With more than 1.5 million donors listed in the registry, over 60% of patients now find an HLA-A,B,DR phenotypic match at the initial search. The HLA types of these patients are biased toward the common Caucasian haplotypes, but the likelihood of identifying donors for non-Caucasian patients has improved with time. Analysis of the first 462 transplants showed disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years to be approximately 40% in good-risk patients and 20% in poor-risk patients. Chronic myelogenous leukemia transplanted within the first year after diagnosis had 45% DFS. Some recent reports from individual transplant centers demonstrate results closer to those obtained with sibling donors, while a limited retrospective comparison suggests that unrelated-donor transplants are at least equivalent to and probably better than autologous transplants. A single HLA mismatch at A, B, or DR can be tolerated, but results are better with phenotypic identity. The most recent NMDP analysis has also identified younger donors and male donors as favorable variables in evaluating one-year survival of unrelated-marrow recipients. PMID:7547550

Perkins, H A; Kollman, C; Howe, C W

1994-01-01

230

Access to information about donors by donor-conceived individuals: a human rights analysis.  

PubMed

While assisted reproductive treatment using donated gametes is widespread, and in many places, widely accepted, it has historically been shrouded in secrecy. Over time, however, there has been an increasing call from donor-conceived people, recipient parents and some donors to end the secrecy, and to release identifying information about donors to donor-conceived people. "Rights-based" arguments have at times been used to justify this call. This article examines whether a human rights framework supports the release of information and how such a framework might be applied when there are competing rights. It argues that the current balancing approach used to resolve such issues weighs in favour of release. Legal action has the potential to be legitimate and justifiable. A measure such as a contact veto system, which would serve to prevent unwanted contact with the person lodging the veto (either the donor or the donor-conceived person), would ensure proportionality. In this way, both donor-conceived people's rights to private life, identity and family, and donors' rights to privacy may be recognised and balanced. PMID:23600196

Allan, Sonia

2013-03-01

231

The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ?66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ? 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and patients now have evidence that corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study from donors through age 75 years are suitable for transplantation. PMID:18387407

2009-01-01

232

Increasing the donor pool in Chile.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ donation in Chile following the creation of the "Corporación Nacional de Fomento de Trasplantes." The corporation was created in 1991 as a private, nonprofit organization whose main purpose was to increase the number of actual donors and multiorgan procurement. The organization is independent of the national government and acts as a link between the needs of patients and society and those of the National Ministry of Health. Following the creation of the corporation, the number of actual donors increased from 32 to 98. The number of potential donors increased 3-fold. Family refusal for organ donation was between 28% and 53.4%. Pediatric and marginal donors increased from 2% to 15%. Ninety-five percent of the donors came from Santiago, where 33% of the population lives and most of the efforts were concentrated. The corporation is working to increase organ donation throughout the rest of the country by organizing public campaigns; promoting knowledge about transplantation among medical and nursing personnel at hospitals, schools, universities, and social gatherings; evaluating technical and financial results; and helping with the processes of organ procurement. PMID:10205466

Palacios, J M

1998-12-01

233

Simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies associated with viral hemorrhagic fever by a multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay.  

PubMed

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are worldwide diseases caused by several kinds of viruses. With the emergence of new viruses, advanced diagnostic methods are urgently needed for identification of VHFs. Based on Luminex xMAP technology, a rapid, sensitive, multi-pathogen and high-throughput method which could simultaneously detect hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) specific IgG antibodies was developed. Recombinant antigens of nine HFVs including Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Puumala virus (PUUV), Andes virus (ANDV), Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) and dengue virus (DENV) were produced and purified from a prokaryotic expression system and the influence of the coupling amount was investigated. Cross-reactions among antigens and their rabbit immune sera were evaluated. Serum samples collected from 51 laboratory confirmed hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients, 43 confirmed SFTS patients and 88 healthy donors were analyzed. Results showed that recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the five viruses belonging to the genus Hantavirus, had serological cross-reactivity with their corresponding rabbit immune sera, but not apparent with immune sera of other four viruses. Evaluation of this new method with clinical serum samples showed 98.04% diagnostic sensitivity for HFRS, 90.70% for SFTS detection and the specificity was ranging from 66.67% to 100.00%. The multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay has firstly been established in our study, which provides a potentially reliable diagnostic tool for IgG antibody detection of VHFs. PMID:24631566

Wu, Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Qu, Jing; Zhang, Quanfu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jiandong; Jin, Cong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Dexin

2014-07-17

234

The influence of spacer-containing enzyme conjugate on the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme immunoassays for hapten  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn hapten enzyme immunoassays (EIA), there is an increase or decrease of labeled hapten recognition by antibody that affects sensitivity of the assay. We incorporated a spacer between a hapten derivative and enzyme to test its influence on the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme immunoassays.

Anupam Basu; Seema Nara; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran Rangari; Kiran P. Kariya; Tulsidas G. Shrivastav

2006-01-01

235

Utilization of Extended Donor Criteria Liver Allografts Maximizes Donor Use and Patient Access to Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of systematic utilization of extended donor criteria liver allografts (EDC), including living donor allografts (LDLT), on patient access to liver transplantation (LTX). Summary Background Data: Utilization of liver allografts that do not meet traditional donor criteria (EDC) offer immediate expansion of the donor pool. EDC are typically allocated by transplant center rather than regional wait-list priority (RA). This single-institution series compares outcomes of EDC and RA allocation to determine the impact of EDC utilization on donor use and patient access to LTX. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 EDC recipients (49 deceased donor, 50 LDLT) and 116 RA recipients from April 2001 through April 2004. Deceased-donor EDC included: age >65 years, donation after cardiac death, positive viral serology (hepatitis C, hepatitis B core antibody, human T-cell lymphotrophic), split-liver, hypernatremia, prior carcinoma, steatosis, and behavioral high-risk donors. Outcome variables included patient and graft survival, hospitalization, initial graft function, and complication categorized as: biliary, vascular, wound, and other. Results: EDC recipients were more frequently diagnosed with hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma and had a lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at LTX (P < 0.01). Wait-time, technical complications, and hospitalization were comparable. Log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates demonstrated no difference in patient or graft survival; however, deaths among deceased-donor EDC recipients were frequently the result of patient comorbidities, whereas LDLT and RA deaths resulted from graft failure (P < 0.01). EDC increased patient access to LTX by 77% and reduced pre-LTX mortality by over 50% compared with regional data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Systematic EDC utilization maximizes donor use, increases access to LTX, and significantly reduces wait-list mortality by providing satisfactory outcomes to select recipients. PMID:16192816

Renz, John F.; Kin, Cindy; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Jan, Dominique; Varadarajan, Rhaghu; Goldstein, Michael; Brown, Robert; Emond, Jean C.

2005-01-01

236

Using cheminformatics to predict cross reactivity of "designer drugs" to their currently available immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Background A challenge for drug of abuse testing is presented by ‘designer drugs’, compounds typically discovered by modifications of existing clinical drug classes such as amphetamines and cannabinoids. Drug of abuse screening immunoassays directed at amphetamine or methamphetamine only detect a small subset of designer amphetamine-like drugs, and those immunoassays designed for tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites generally do not cross-react with synthetic cannabinoids lacking the classic cannabinoid chemical backbone. This suggests complexity in understanding how to detect and identify whether a patient has taken a molecule of one class or another, impacting clinical care. Methods Cross-reactivity data from immunoassays specifically targeting designer amphetamine-like and synthetic cannabinoid drugs was collected from multiple published sources, and virtual chemical libraries for molecular similarity analysis were built. The virtual library for synthetic cannabinoid analysis contained a total of 169 structures, while the virtual library for amphetamine-type stimulants contained 288 compounds. Two-dimensional (2D) similarity for each test compound was compared to the target molecule of the immunoassay undergoing analysis. Results 2D similarity differentiated between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds for immunoassays targeting mephedrone/methcathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, benzylpiperazine, mephentermine, and synthetic cannabinoids. Conclusions In this study, we applied 2D molecular similarity analysis to the designer amphetamine-type stimulants and synthetic cannabinoids. Similarity calculations can be used to more efficiently decide which drugs and metabolites should be tested in cross-reactivity studies, as well as to design experiments and potentially predict antigens that would lead to immunoassays with cross reactivity for a broader array of designer drugs. PMID:24851137

2014-01-01

237

Blood Donor Deferrals by Expert System  

PubMed Central

Blood collection facilities have recently witnessed a substantial increase in the number of different tests used to detect infectious disease in donor populations. These facilities are also experiencing an increasingly stringent regulatory effort on the part of the Food and Drug Administration to determine the validity of the software used to handle this information. This report describes a precedence-based inference program (PRELOG) and a modular expert system used to determine a donor's suitability for continued donations (donor deferrals), and whether the donated unit can be released for transfusion. PRELOG accepts ternary logic input, in which test results are allowed to be positive, negative, or undetermined; and allows one to assign precedence values to the logic rules. These features enable programs to be written in a shorter, more error-resistant manner. A comparison between PRELOG and PROLOG is included, and the utility of this approach in producing and validating blood bank software is discussed.

Sorace, James M.; Berman, Jules J.; Brown, Lawrence A.; Moore, G. William

1990-01-01

238

Donor-related issues in hand transplantation.  

PubMed

The policies and procedures for solid-organ donation, under the auspices of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, currently cannot be applied to hand donation, because a hand allograft is considered a tissue in the United States and is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. Hand transplant centers have developed their own protocols. This article discusses the unique elements of such protocols, including training and education, the consent process, the necessary recipient and donor data, donor management, and operating room procedures. Candidate listing, allocation, and oversight of hand donation in the future are also discussed. PMID:22051395

McDiarmid, Sue V; Azari, Kodi K

2011-11-01

239

Decision Making in Kidney Paired Donation Programs with Altruistic Donors*  

PubMed Central

In recent years, kidney paired donation (KPD) has been extended to include living non-directed or altruistic donors, in which an altruistic donor donates to the candidate of an incompatible donor-candidate pair with the understanding that the donor in that pair will further donate to the candidate of a second pair, and so on; such a process continues and thus forms an altruistic donor-initiated chain. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy to sequentially allocate the altruistic donor (or bridge donor) so as to maximize the expected utility; analogous to the way a computer plays chess, the idea is to evaluate different allocations for each altruistic donor (or bridge donor) by looking several moves ahead in a derived look-ahead search tree. Simulation studies are provided to illustrate and evaluate our proposed method. PMID:25309603

Li, Yijiang; Song, Peter X.-K.; Leichtman, Alan B.; Rees, Michael A.; Kalbfleisch, John D.

2014-01-01

240

Assessment of commercial enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis C virus serotyping.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To assess a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the serotyping of hepatitis C virus (HCV) for routine use in a diagnostic laboratory setting, as well as for noting the serotype prevalence of selected specimens. METHODS: Seventy six serum specimens, submitted to the laboratory for routine hepatitis studies between May 1992 and February 1996 and stored at -20 degrees C, were evaluated. These specimens were categorised into specific hepatic, renal, and paediatric clinical conditions. The specimens all tested positive for HCV antibodies on a screening EIA, with confirmation on a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Certain specimens were also HCV RNA positive by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All the specimens were serotyped using the newly developed serotyping EIA. RESULTS: Twenty seven (35.5%) specimens were typable. Type 5 predominated (56%), followed by type 1 (33%), types 1 and 6 (7%) and type 3 (4%). The serotype 5 specimens showed 85% and 90% reactivity with recombinant antigens c100-3 and c22-3c, respectively; serotype 1 specimens showed 75% and 100% reactivity with these antigens. All serotype 5 specimens reacted with the c33-c antigen, but only 60% of serotype 1 specimens reacted with this antigen. The differences in the reactivity of the serotype 5 and serotype 1 specimens for c33-c antigen in the RIBA were significant, but no significant differences in reactivity for antigens c-1-1, c100-3, and c22-3 were noted. Serotype 3 specimens showed equal reactivity with all four antigens used in the RIBA. CONCLUSION: The serotyping EIA was easy to use, rapid, and cost effective compared with molecular assays. This assay seems to be ideal for the routine diagnostic laboratory setting, but could not be used for certain clinical specimens. The demonstration of serotypes 5, 1, and 3 was not unexpected in this cohort. The occurrence of serotype 6, although concurrent and more likely to be a false cross reaction with serotype 1 peptides, requires confirmation by molecular genotyping before it can be claimed that this type is present in South Africa. PMID:9038737

Webber, L M; Els, S; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O

1996-01-01

241

Immunological and PCR Analyses for Borna Disease Virus in Psychiatric Patients and Blood Donors in Japan  

PubMed Central

The involvement of Borna disease virus (BDV) in psychiatric diseases in humans remains controversial. T-cell memory response and seroprevalence of BDV in patients with psychiatric disorders and blood donors in Japan were evaluated collectively by Western blot (WB) analysis with inhibition test, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, immunofluorescence assay, and T-cell proliferative response as well as detection of BDV p24 RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Positive proliferative responses to both BDV p40 and p24 proteins were detected in 9% of patients with mood disorders (4 of 45), 4% of schizophrenic patients (2 of 45), and 2% of blood donors (1 of 45). By WB analysis, the antibody to BDV p40 was detected only in 2% of patients with mood disorders (1 of 45). The BDV p24 antibody was detected in 2% of patients with mood disorders (1 of 45) and 9% of schizophrenic patients. (4 of 45) No plasma reacted with both BDV proteins. The finding of a lower seroprevalence than previously reported suggests the presence of false-positive cases in the previous report. BDV RNA was detected only in 2% of patients with mood disorders (1 of 45). In these three serological assays, T-cell responses, and PCR analysis, there was no significant difference in the prevalence among the three groups. However, we found three psychiatric patients who were positive for both BDV antibodies and T-cell proliferative responses and one patient who was positive for BDV RNA in PBMCs. These findings suggest the usefulness of the proliferative T-cell response and that certain individuals are infected with BDV or a BDV-related virus. PMID:11158085

Fukuda, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuo; Iwata, Yasuhide; Mori, Norio; Gonda, Kenji; Ogawa, Tsuguhiro; Osonoe, Kouichi; Sato, Minako; Ogata, Shin-ichi; Horimoto, Taisuke; Sawada, Takashi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Shigeta, Shiro

2001-01-01

242

Seven Deadly Sins: Reflections on Donor Failings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face of continuing development challenges in the world's poorest countries, there have been new calls throughout the donor community to increase the volume of development aid. Equal attention should be given to the reform of the aid business itself, that is, the practices and processes and procedures and politics of aid. This paper sets out the shortcomings of

Nancy Birdsall

2004-01-01

243

Expanding the Donor Base in Higher Education  

E-print Network

� Ryan E. Merkel Chapter 12: Fostering Student Affairs and Institutional Advancement Partnerships of essays that insightfully synthesize and analyze current research, theory, and practice concerning a broad fundraising strategies. Based on theory, research, and past practice, Expanding the Donor Base in Higher

Setiawan, Hendra

244

$500-$999.99 Anonymous Donor *  

E-print Network

. Shirley A. Key Mr. Peter W. Kimes Mr. Larry S. King * Dr. Ordie H. King Jr. * Ms. Carole C. Klimesch * Ms$500-$999.99 Anonymous Donor * Dr. Bette J. Ackerman Mr. Larry L. Adams * Prof. Lee Harris and Prof. Alena Allen Dr. John M. Amis Mr. Roger Arango Dr. Dot Arata Dr. Charles R. Arkin * Mr. and Mrs. J. Olin

Dasgupta, Dipankar

245

Getting an Expanded-Donor Kidney  

MedlinePLUS

... the ages of 50 and 59 with two of the following conditions: - Death due to a stroke - History of high blood pressure - Signs of less-than-normal kidney function before death One example of this kind of donor ... he was in perfect health, his kidneys on the whole will not last as long as a ...

246

FY 2011-2012 Annual Level Donors  

E-print Network

's Level Donors Charles Jay Abronson Terry Scot Adams Craig & Rosemary Anderson Gordon & Liz Anderson Rudy Julie R. Hill Ernest Hix Robert J. Hoffman Ming Hsieh Jen-Hsun Huang Richard Hunsaker Paul Edward Iacono Klein Marie Knowles Gerald Kohlenberger Les Kranhold Dyung Kwak Wood-Hung Kwan Walter G. Lake Kwan Lam

Wang, Hai

247

Annual Level Donors Charles and Donna Altmann  

E-print Network

Dean's Level Donors Charles Jay Abronson Gordon Anderson Rosemary L. Anderson Hassan Sonny Astani Doris R. Hill Ernest Hix Robert J. Hoffman Richard Hunsaker Paul Edward Iacono Henry T. Iida Daphne H Kwak Walter G. Lake Grayson Lane Ronald Leon Lash Anthony Derek Lazzaro Jun Lee Robert Lee Edith Leonis

Wang, Hai

248

Coal processing: the Exxon donor solvent process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Exxon coal liquefaction process over 10 years is described. Exxon is using lower temperatures and lower pressures (approximately 100 bar) than were used in the Bergius process. The donor solvent is produced in a separate, fixed bed, catalytic hydrogenation step. Early research was broad in scope including, both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated recycle solvent studies. Alternate solids\\/liquids

L. E. Furlong; E. Effron; L. W. Vernon; E. L. Wilson

1976-01-01

249

Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

Wilson, Jr., Edward L. (Baytown, TX); Mitchell, Willard N. (Baytown, TX)

1980-01-01

250

Occult donor malignancy in pancreas transplantation.  

PubMed

Tumor of the pancreas allograft is extremely rare. We report a case of an occult donor malignant undifferentiated tumor arising in a pancreas allograft. A 42-year-old female with Type 1 diabetes received a macroscopically normal pancreas allograft. The donor was a 22-year-old male who died of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. She underwent transplant pancreatectomy, the histology of the pancreas allograft demonstrated a tumor measuring 5 mm in diameter, and a diagnosis of malignant undifferentiated tumor was made. In a different transplant center, the recipient of the left kidney transplant from the same donor had a nephrectomy, and the recipient of the liver transplant died of metastatic disease. Microscopic examination of the liver and kidney allografts subsequently revealed histological features identical to the pancreas tumor. Tumor transmission in transplantation may occur from an organ that contains metastatic cells or, less commonly, from the transmission of an unrecognized or occult primary tumor. A report from the United Network for Organs Sharing transplant data 1997-2002 is illustrated and discussed. This case illustrates the difficulties associated with identifying donors with occult primary tumor or metastases. PMID:17365945

Wong, Christopher; Hold, Phoebe; Mohteshamzadeh, Mobin; Dhanda, Raman; Sells, Robert

2007-01-01

251

FY 2013-2014 Cardinal Level Donors  

E-print Network

James Heller Amir Shaikh FY 2012-2013 Gold Level Donors *Charles Jay Abronson *Terry Scot Adams *Craig-Shui Chan *Sampson M.Y. Chan *Kyung Hwan Chang *George & Yelba Chilingar *Yang Ho Cho *David W. Chonette *J and Gloria Kaprielian *David V. Karney *Michael E. Kassner *Jerome Kay *Jay Kear *William Myron Keck, II

Southern California, University of

252

Cloning pigs as organ donors for humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcome this shortage of organs, scientists have considered the possibility of using animals as a source of organs. Xenotransplantation, or xenografting, is the process of transplanting live organs between different species. ne choice of source animals will be of prime importance for xenotransplantation. Ideally, the donor animal would show immunological, anatomical, and physiological similarities to humans, possess

Liangxue Lai; RANDALL S. PRATHER

2004-01-01

253

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you...other reliable test results or information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66 FR 31164, June 11, 2001, as...

2012-04-01

254

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you...other reliable test results or information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66 FR 31164, June 11, 2001, as...

2013-04-01

255

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you...other reliable test results or information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66 FR 31164, June 11, 2001, as...

2011-04-01

256

Development and application of recombinant antibody-based immunoassays to tetraconazole residue analysis in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Tetraconazole is currently used as a fungicide in fruit and vegetables. The aim of this work was the development of immunochemical techniques based on recombinant antibodies for the screening of tetraconazole residues in fruit juices. Recombinant antibodies were produced from a hybridoma cell line secreting a monoclonal antibody specific for tetraconazole and from lymphocytes of mice hyperimmunised with tetraconazole haptens conjugated to bovine serum albumin. From these antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the conjugate-coated format were developed, which were able to detect tetraconazole standards down to 1ng/mL. From recovery studies with spiked samples, these immunoassays determined tetraconazole in orange and apple juices with acceptable reproducibility (coefficients of variation below 25%) and recoveries (ranging from 78% to 145%) for a screening technique. The analytical performance of RAb-based immunoassays was fairly similar to that of the MAb-based immunoassays. Due to their simplicity and high sample throughput, the developed recombinant-based immunoassays can be valuable analytical tools for the screening of tetraconazole residues in fruit juices at regulatory levels. PMID:24054232

Plana, Emma; Moreno, Maria-José; Montoya, Ángel; Manclús, Juan J

2014-01-15

257

A New Simple Immunoassay for Detecting Helicobacter pylori Infection: Antigen in Stool Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Several diagnostic tests are available for evaluating Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection: histological examination, culture of gastric biopsy specimens, rapid urease test, urea breath test and serology. A recently marketed direct enzyme immunoassay (HpSA) detects Hp antigen in stool samples. The aim of our study was to evaluate overall diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of this

Lorella Fanti; Gianni Mezzi; Annalisa Cavallero; Giampietro Gesu; Claudio Bonato; Enzo Masci

1999-01-01

258

Enzyme-Labeling of Antibodies and Their Fragments for Enzyme Immunoassay and Immunohistochemical Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an enzyme as a label has a number of advantages over the use of other labels in both immunohistochemistry and immunoassay. Immunofluorescence techniques are not suitable for ultrastructural research on cells, and ferritin-labeled antibodies allow only electronmicroscopic studies. By contrast, enzyme-labeled antibodies permit localization of cellular antigens in relation to tissue structures under light microscope and also

Eiji Ishikawa; Masayoshi Imagawa; Seiichi Hashida; Shinji Yoshitake; Yoshitaka Hamaguchi; Tetsuo Ueno

1983-01-01

259

The use of coated paramagnetic particles as a physical label in a magneto-immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal label for use in an immunoassay would require no further chemical or electromagnetic stimulation prior to its detection and would be free from interference from the sample matrix. Micron sized paramagnetic particles are able to perturb magnetic fields. This perturbation can be directly detected using a suitable electronic device and is independent of the sample matrix. In this

J. Richardson; P. Hawkins; R. Luxton

2001-01-01

260

Flow cytometric immunoassay using E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domains.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported a highly sensitive immunoassay using Escherichia coli cells with autodisplayed Z-domains. In this work, E. coli cells with autodisplayed Z-domains were applied to the flow-cytometry-based simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The E. coli cells were doubly transfected to express a fluorescent protein (tdTomato) in the cytosol and the autodisplayed Z-domains on the outer membrane. By using E. coli cells with only the autodisplayed Z-domains, immunoassay of multiple analytes could be performed simultaneously on the same sample. Flow cytometry can be used to identify the immunoassay type by simultaneously detecting the fluorescence signal from the cytosol (tdTomato) and the fluorescence from the outer membrane, enabling the quantification of bound analytes after treatment with additional fluorescently labeled antibodies. To demonstrate the immunoassay of multiple analytes by using flow cytometry, human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and C-reactive protein (CRP), a broad spectrum inflammation marker, were used as model analytes. PMID:23830460

Park, Min; Bong, Ji-Hong; Yoo, Gu; Jose, Joachim; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

2013-08-15

261

Detection of drug usage via breath analysis with an immunoassay film badge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monolayer of antibody on a semimirror comprised of small islands of indium acts as a sensor capable of detecting vapors at extremely low concentrations without the use of wet chemistry. Already shown capable of detecting cocaine vapors at 4 femtograms per cc of air, the use of the device, called an immunoassay film badge, for detecting drugs on the

Herbert R. Lukens

1997-01-01

262

Simultaneous immunoassay for the detection of two lung cancer markers using functionalized SERS nanoprobes.  

PubMed

A quick and reproducible SERS-based immunoassay, using functionalized hollow gold nanospheres and magnetic beads, has been developed. Here, a simultaneous detection of dual cancer markers in blood serum has been achieved under a single excitation wavelength. The accuracy and sensitivity for clinical sera from five patients confirms their diagnostic feasibility. PMID:22027811

Chon, Hyangah; Lee, Sangyeop; Yoon, Soo-Young; Chang, Soo-Ik; Lim, Dong Woo; Choo, Jaebum

2011-12-14

263

Quantum dot-based immunoassay enhanced by high-density vertical ZnO nanowire array.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report an efficient and high-performance immunoassay platform by combining high-density vertical ZnO nanowire array with photostable quantum dot (QD) labeling. The ZnO nanowire array provides a large surface area for the immobilization of biomolecules, which makes it an efficient substrate for the immunoreaction of biomolecules. When a sandwich immunoassay with QD label was conducted on various substrates, the ZnO nanowire substrate showed stronger fluorescence signal than ZnO thin film and bare glass substrates by 3.8 and 8.5 times, respectively. We found that the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from QD to ZnO nanowire could be suppressed by extending their distance with multilayer biotin-streptavidin complex. In addition, we demonstrated the QD-based immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on a ZnO nanowire substrate, showing an excellent immunoassay performance with a very low detection limit (0.001 ng/mL) and a large detection range up to 100 ng/mL. PMID:24384261

Kim, Jung; Kwon, Seyong; Park, Je-Kyun; Park, Inkyu

2014-05-15

264

Comparison of salivary cortisol as measured by different immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Assessing the amount of bioavailable cortisol in saliva with immunoassays and thus sampling an endocrine marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is of major interest in both research and clinical practice. However, absolute cortisol concentrations obtained with different immunoassays (IAs) are barely comparable precluding direct comparison between studies or individuals whenever cortisol analyses were not based on the same IA. The present technical report aims to solve this problem by evaluating the validity of, as well as agreement between the most commonly used immunoassays in psychoneuroendocrinological research (i.e., IBL, DRG, Salimetrics, DSL, and DELFIA) and a reference method (LC-MS/MS) in a sample of 195 saliva specimen covering the whole range of cortisol concentrations in adults. A structural equation modelling framework is applied to decompose systematic assay variance and estimate cortisol reference values, which are adjusted for measurement error and interference of salivary cortisone. Our findings reveal nonlinear relations between IAs and LC-MS/MS, which are discussed in terms of IA cross-reactivity with saliva matrix components. Finally guidelines for converting cortisol concentrations being obtained by these immunoassays into comparable reference values are proposed by providing conversion functions, a conversion table, and an online conversion tool. PMID:22641005

Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska; Rauh, Manfred; Gröschl, Michael; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2013-01-01

265

Immunoassay Techniques for Detection of the Herbicide Simazine Based on Use of Oppositely  

E-print Network

in water, milk, and juices. Currently, immunoassay techniques are widely applied for detection of compounds. Homogeneous immu- noassays such as EMIT can be very rapid; however, complex procedures may be needed to ensure, the sensitivities of these homogeneous formats is not as high as those reported from ELISAs. Therefore, techniques

Hammock, Bruce D.

266

Analytica Chimica Acta 399 (1999) 151160 Microplate immunoassay technique using polyelectrolyte carriers  

E-print Network

for the acceleration of microplate enzyme immunoassays (ELISAs). The proposed assay technique includes (1) carrying out in solution [3]. Therefore, techniques that carry out the immune interaction in solution with the subsequent­6]. However, such assays are practical only in combi- nation with additional devices for separation

Hammock, Bruce D.

267

HIV-Selectest Enzyme Immunoassay and Rapid Test: Ability To Detect Seroconversion following HIV-1 Infection?  

PubMed Central

HIV-Selectest is a serodiagnostic enzyme immunoassay (EIA), containing p6 and gp41 peptides, designed to differentiate between vaccine-induced antibodies and true infections. A rapid test version of the HIV-Selectest was developed. Both assays detected HIV antibodies in men and women within 2 to 4 weeks of infection, with sensitivity similar to third-generation EIAs. PMID:19906903

Khurana, Surender; Norris, Philip J.; Busch, Michael P.; Haynes, Barton F.; Park, Susan; Sasono, Pretty; Mlisana, Koleka; Salim, Abdool Karim; Hecht, Frederick M.; Mulenga, Joseph; Chomba, Elwyn; Hunter, Eric; Allen, Susan; Nemo, George; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Golding, Hana

2010-01-01

268

Visible paper chip immunoassay for rapid determination of bacteria in water distribution system.  

PubMed

Paper chips for immunoassay were patterned by screen printing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or wax pencil drawing. The methods for paper chip patterning are cheap, convenient, rapid and suitable for most laboratories. The whole time for patterning a paper chip is no more than 10 min. Visible immunoassay for the detection of bacteria (Escherichia coli ) has been realized using the paper chip, on which the antibody for capturing E. Coli was immobilized on the detection zones of the paper chip, while the detection antibody was labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a signal reporter. After an immunological reaction, the AuNPs bound on the paper chip can effectively catalyse the reduction of silver ions during the silver enhancing step, generating a visible result that can be read by naked eyes. The quantitative results can be acquired by scanning the silver stained paper chip with a commercial scanner/or digital camera. The density of E. coli in water samples can be measured after calibrating the gray value of silver stained spots with the logarithmic number of bacteria. The time and reagents consumed on the paper chip immunoassay is much smaller than those of conventional ELISA, while the sensitivity of the paper chip immunoassay is comparable to conventional ELISA. The technology proposed in this work displays a great potential in the in-situ analysis when daily monitoring of water quality are required. PMID:24468352

Ma, Sai; Tang, Yanyan; Liu, Jingqing; Wu, Jianmin

2014-03-01

269

ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROBIAL ANTIGENS AND THEIR ANTIBODIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages of enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) over radioactive assay techniques are mainly convenience in use, in that the labelled immunoreagents are stable for long periods, and the precautions and disposal procedures required for radioisotopes are unnecessary. In addition, the us...

270

Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for detection of gatifloxacin in swine urine*  

PubMed Central

To detect gatifloxacin (GAT) residue in swine urine, an electrochemical immunoassay was established. An indirect competitive immunoassay was developed, in which the coating antigen is immobilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate and GAT residue from the sample competes with the limited binding sites in added anti-GAT antibody. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated to goat anti-rabbit IgG was used as the enzymatic label. A carbon fiber working electrode was constructed and current signals were detected by using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate and hydroquinone as an electrochemical mediator. The electrochemical immunoassay was evaluated by analysis of GAT in buffer or swine urine and an average value of half inhibition concentration (IC50) of 8.9 ng/ml was obtained. Excellent specificity of the antibody was achieved with little cross-reaction with lomefloxacin (3.0%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and ofloxacin (1.9%) among commonly used (fluoro)quinolones. In conclusion, the immunoassay system developed in this research can be used as a rapid, powerful and on-site analytical tool to detect GAT residue in foods and food products. PMID:22302425

Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Liu, Zhong-qiu; Zhi, Jin-fang; Zhang, Yuan-yang; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ya-bin; Liu, Jin-ting; Xi, Ri-mo

2012-01-01

271

Phage-Displayed Peptide That Mimics Aflatoxins and Its Application in Immunoassay  

E-print Network

Phage-Displayed Peptide That Mimics Aflatoxins and Its Application in Immunoassay Yanru Wang Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, P. R. China Key. China § Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062, P. R. China

Hammock, Bruce D.

272

Multiplexed immunoassays for proteins using magnetic luminescent nanoparticles for internal calibration  

E-print Network

Multiplexed immunoassays for proteins using magnetic luminescent nanoparticles for internal with the capture anti- bodies. Secondary antibodies labeled with conventional organic dyes (Alexa Fluor) are used for three model pro- teins (human, rabbit, and mouse IgGs). The method uses a standard bench plate reader

Hammock, Bruce D.

273

Rapid Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis by Using an Immunoglobulin M Dot Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurs in rural settings in southern and eastern Asia, where diagnostic facilities are limited. For the diagnosis of JE virus (JEV) infection, we developed a nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture dot enzyme immunoassay (MAC DOT) that is rapid, simple to use, requires no specialized equipment, and can distinguish JEV from dengue infection. In a prospective field

TOM SOLOMON; THI THU THAO; NGUYEN MINH DUNG; RACHEL KNEEN; ANANDA NISALAK; DAVID W. VAUGHN; JEREMY FARRAR; TRAN TINH HIEN; NICHOLAS J. WHITE; MARY JANE CARDOSA

1998-01-01

274

Comparison of immunoassay field tests and laboratory results for PCB, PAH, BTEX, and mercury contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassay tests were used as in situ field screening tools for simultaneous assessment and remediation of soil contaminated with mercury and organics (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and BTEX). Soil samples from approximately 200 sites including metering and compressor stations were investigated along gas pipelines. The suspected contamination originated from formerly used mercury manometers and pipeline liquids. An enzyme-linked

Hammes

1995-01-01

275

Pr eparation of horseradish peroxidase-carbamide and its use in hapten immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Preparation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) carbamide that is HRP linked to urea (HRP-carbamide\\/HRP-U) is demonstrated and its potential application in the development of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for haptens is described. In this new strategy, the lysine residues of HRP were acylated and then acylated HRP was activated to create highly reactive functional groups by periodate oxidation of its carbohydrate

T. G. Shrivastav; S. Nara; V. Tripathi; Z. Sayeed; K. Rangari; S. K. Chaube; H. Singh

276

Microarray Immunoassay for Phenoxybenzoic Acid Using Polymer Encapsulated Eu:Gd2O3  

E-print Network

Microarray Immunoassay for Phenoxybenzoic Acid Using Polymer Encapsulated Eu:Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), a generic biomarker of human exposure to pyre- throid insecticides. Microarrays were in the miniaturization of biosensors, high-throughput drug screening, clinical immunological assays, and protein

Hammock, Bruce D.

277

Heparin interferes with the radioenzymatic and homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for aminoglycosides  

SciTech Connect

Heparin interferes with measurement of aminoglycosides in serum by biological, radioenzymatic, and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay techniques, but not with radioimmunoassay. At concentrations greater than or equal to 10/sup 5/ and greater than or equal to 3 X 10/sup 6/ USP units/L, respectively, it interferes with the radioenzymatic assay by inhibiting the gentamicin 3-acetyltransferase and kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase enzymes used in the assay. It interferes with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for gentamicin and tobramycin (at concentrations greater than or equal to 10/sup 5/ and greater than or equal to10/sup 4/ USP units/L, respectively), but not with the commercially available homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for other drugs. Heparin interference with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for aminoglycosides requires both the heparin polyanion and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase bound to a cationic aminoglycoside. This interference can be reproduced with dextran sulfate (but not dextran), and does not occur with free enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) alone. Heparin interference with these two assays and at concentrations that may be present in intravenous infusions or in seriously underfilled blood-collection tubes is described. (JMT)

Krogstad, D.J. (Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, MO); Granich, G.G.; Murray, P.R.; Pfaller, M.A.; Valdes, R.

1981-07-01

278

Disease Diagnosis from Immunoassays with Plate to Plate Variability: A Hierarchical Bayesian  

E-print Network

Disease Diagnosis from Immunoassays with Plate to Plate Variability: A Hierarchical Bayesian The diagnosis of a large number of infectious diseases relies on the detection of antibod- ies in the sera for diagnosis is by directly modeling the antibody levels of a population through a two-component mixture model

Small, Dylan

279

High-Throughput Automated Luminescent Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay to Monitor  

E-print Network

for research and development in the clinical diagnostic industry. In this case, automation can reduce labor, University of California, Davis, California 95616 We have developed a sensitive, automated, competitiveHigh-Throughput Automated Luminescent Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay to Monitor Human Exposure

Hammock, Bruce D.

280

Multiplex Immunoassay for Serological Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to develop a better diagnostic assay for bovine tuberculosis have shown that the sensitivity and specificity of an assay can be improved by the use of two or more antigens. As reported here, we developed a multiplex chemiluminescent immunoassay that can simultaneously detect antibody activity to 25 antigens in a single well in a 96-well plate array format. The

Clare Whelan; Eduard Shuralev; Grainne O'Keeffe; Paula Hyland; Hang Fai Kwok; Philip Snoddy; Amanda O'Brien; Marie Connolly; Padraig Quinn; Matt Groll; Todd Watterson; Sara Call; Kevin Kenny; Anthony Duignan; Mary Jo Hamilton; Bryce M. Buddle; James A. Johnston; William C. Davis; Shane A. Olwill; John Clarke

2008-01-01

281

Immunoassay on Free-Standing Electrospun Dapeng Wu, Daewoo Han, and Andrew J. Steckl*  

E-print Network

(Western blotting) (2), lateral flow immunochromatographic assays, and common immunoassays (3). After 30 5.3 to 280 µm. The resulting fluorescence signal from adsorbed protein increased >120�. With anti, such as immune-PCR (7), biobarcode assay (BCA) (6), or surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) (8). However

Steckl, Andrew J.

282

Moving on from voluntary non-remunerated donors: who is the best blood donor?  

PubMed

Blood transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is marred by the high prevalence of infectious agents, chronic blood shortage and lack of resources. However, considerable pressure is applied by richer countries and international transfusion bodies to establish voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors (VNRD) as the only source of blood, excluding the traditional family/replacement donors on the grounds of a higher level of safety. Such a policy increases the cost of a unit of blood by two to fivefold and exacerbates the pre-existing blood shortage. This review provides compelling evidence that first-time VNRD are no safer than family/replacement donors and that only repeat donation provides improved blood safety. In order to limit blood shortage and maintain affordability of the blood supply in SSA, both types of donors should be accepted and both should be encouraged to donate regularly. PMID:21539535

Allain, Jean-Pierre

2011-09-01

283

Computer Algorithms in the Search for Unrelated Stem Cell Donors  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a “donor search process” by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU). Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure. PMID:23227341

Steiner, David

2012-01-01

284

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2010-04-01

285

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2010-04-01

286

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2012-04-01

287

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2012-04-01

288

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2011-04-01

289

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2011-04-01

290

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2013-04-01

291

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2013-04-01

292

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2014-04-01

293

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2014-04-01

294

Hydrogen-assisted thermal donor formation in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energetic hydrogen or deuterium ions from a plasma can increase the thermal donor, TD, formation rate in Czochralski Si at 400 C by more than an order of magnitude above that for exposure in H2 or in a He plasma. Infrared absorption techniques were used to identify the donors, and donors concentrations and penetration depths were determined from spreading resistance

H. J. Stein; S. Hahn

1989-01-01

295

A legal defense for compensating research egg donors.  

PubMed

Given the continued need for human eggs for hESCs, this article analyzes and refutes the legal theories against compensating research egg donors, contrasts the legal histories of compensating reproductive donors and human subjects with noncompensation for ESC donors, and suggests that limited compensation is legally defensible. PMID:20144783

Crockin, Susan L

2010-02-01

296

New Technologies for Infectious Screening of Organ Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral, bacterial, parasitic, prion, and fungal infections, although uncommon, have been transmitted via organ and tissue allografts. Improved screening techniques for infectious diseases in organ donors have helped to reduce disease transmission. Reports of clusters of donor-derived infections illustrate the need to improve the screening of tissue and organ donors. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for

J. A. Fishman

2011-01-01

297

Synthesis of a photocontrollable hydrogen sulfide donor using ketoprofenate photocages.  

PubMed

We report the design, synthesis and application of a directly photocontrollable hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, which releases H2S proportionally to the intensity and duration of photoirradiation. Photocontrolled H2S release from this donor was also demonstrated in bovine serum. This H2S donor should be suitable for use in various biological systems. PMID:24280741

Fukushima, Naoki; Ieda, Naoya; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

2014-01-18

298

The evaluation of blood donor deferral causes.  

PubMed

Safety of blood and blood products is a major problem all over the world. Screening for the markers of infectious diseases is an incomplete solution. One of the most important steps in improving the safety of blood and blood products is donor selection. In this study, causes of donor deferral were evaluated retrospectively in the blood center of a children's hospital. Analysis of the deferrals showed that the most commonly defined causes were recent sexual exposure in high-risk activity, recent ingestion of medication, low hemoglobin level, abnormal blood pressure, being underweight, tattoos, piercing or acupuncture in the preceding 6 months, recent history of infection and presenting for a subsequent donation too soon, elevation of transaminases, presence of the markers of the infectious diseases. PMID:16651236

Gülen, Hüseyin; Tüzün, Funda; Ayhan, Yüce; Erbay, Ayse; Oztürk, Ercan; Inan, Seyhan; Vergin, Canan

2006-03-01

299

Robot-assisted laparoscopic and open live-donor nephrectomy: a comparison of donor morbidity and early renal allograft outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Robot-assisted laparoscopic donor (RALD) nephrectomy, a new procedure for the removal of a kidney from a living donor, was performed on 13 subjects at our centre. Methods. The immediate post-operative courses for these donors, and their respective recipients, were compared with those of 13 previous open live-donor nephrectomies (OPEN), performed in our facility. Results. We found no significant differences

Edith Renoult; Jacques Hubert; Marc Ladriere; Nicolas Billaut; Eric Mourey; Benoit Feuillu; Michele Kessler

2005-01-01

300

Use of infant donor tissue for endokeratoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endokeratoplasty using an infant donor cornea was performed in an 81-year-old man with Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy, corneal decompensation, and a history of cystoid macular edema in the left eye. The patient reported minimal discomfort after surgery, and the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from 20\\/400 to 20\\/100 by the second postoperative month with resolution of the corneal edema. Endokeratoplasty using

Yichieh Shiuey; Majid Moshirfar

2001-01-01

301

Squaraine donor based organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three main ongoing avenues to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics (OPV): the development of new organic materials, improved process control and novel device architecture design. In this thesis, through molecular design with chemical modification of functional organic molecules, a family of new highly absorptive solution processable squaraine (SQ) materials have been systematically synthesized and explored to improve the sunlight harvesting and charge transport. The spin-cast SQ donors are then coated with fullerene acceptors to form a unique nanocrystalline heterojunction (NcHJ) OPV device. This combination of a novel and efficient family of SQ donors, a unique NcHJ device architecture and optimized fabrication processes leads to high efficiency solar cells. For example, solar cells with efficiencies of ˜5.7 % and a fill factor ˜0.74 are achieved. We find a correlation between solar cell fill factor with the SQ thin film density, providing support for the molecular design concept that planar end groups result in close intermolecular stacking, and hence improved charge transport and exciton diffusion. Finally, thermal annealing of the films results in the formation of nanocrystalline morphologies that lead to further improvements in device performance. The microcrystal growth of SQ donors have been characterized by XRD, AFM and TEM.

Wei, Guodan

302

78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based...Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based...Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...

2013-11-05

303

Sperm donor limits that control for the 'relative' risk associated with the use of open-identity donors.  

PubMed

The majority of countries that support the use of donor insemination (DI) in artificial reproductive technology (ART) limit the number of children born from one donor. The setting of these donor limits, though intended to control for the risk of inadvertent half-sibling unions between the offspring of anonymous donors, actually have no evidence base. Controlling for the risk of inadvertent half-sibling unions may soon become unnecessary due to the increasing world-wide use of open-identity sperm donors and the revocation of donor anonymity in many countries. With the shift from anonymous to open-identity donation, the central issue is not the risk of genetic abnormality from inadvertent half-sibling consanguinity; it is the psycho-social impact of the multiple use of open-identity sperm donors. Despite this, the jurisdictions that allow or mandate the use of open-identity donors continue to observe existing limits that do not consider nor specifically control for the psycho-social impact of the multiple use of open-identity sperm donors. It is proposed that: (i) conservative interim donor limits be placed on the multiple use of open-identity donors, while research into the psycho-social impact of disclosure is undertaken to inform the establishment of evidence-based limits; and (ii) the existing limits in jurisdictions where anonymity is still commonly practiced or protected could be raised, if an updated mathematical model was used for calculating evidence-based anonymous donor limits. PMID:20172868

Sawyer, Neroli

2010-05-01

304

Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.  

PubMed

This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs. PMID:23740267

Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

2014-10-01

305

21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?  

...ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor...3(t), must determine and document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is...

2014-04-01

306

In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms  

SciTech Connect

The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion.

Lorenson, M.Y.

1985-04-01

307

Hydrophilic, bright CuInS2 quantum dots as Cd-free fluorescent labels in quantitative immunoassay.  

PubMed

We report on the synthesis of core-shell CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in organic solution, their encapsulation with a PEG-containing amphiphilic polymer, and the application of the resulting water-soluble QDs as fluorescent label in quantitative immunoassay. By optimizing the methods for core synthesis and shell growth, CuInS2/ZnS QDs were obtained with a quantum yield of 50% on average after hydrophilization. After conjugation with an aflatoxin B1-protein derivative, the obtained QDs were used as fluorescent labels in microplate immunoassay for the quantitative determination of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1. QDs-based immunoassay showed higher sensitivity compared to enzyme-based immunoassay. PMID:24892375

Speranskaya, Elena S; Beloglazova, Natalia V; Abé, Sofie; Aubert, Tangi; Smet, Philippe F; Poelman, Dirk; Goryacheva, Irina Y; De Saeger, Sarah; Hens, Zeger

2014-07-01

308

Assignment of the gene for uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase to human chromosome 1 by somatic cell hybridization and specific enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific enzyme immunoassay of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase was developed and applied to the detection of the human enzyme in man-rodent somatic cell hybrids. This method allowed to assign the gene for uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase to human chromosome 1.

H. de Verneuil; B. Grandchamp; Chantal Foubert; Dominique Weil; Cong N'Guyen; Marie-Sylvie Gross; Shigeru Sassa; Y. Nordmann

1984-01-01

309

Substantial increase in cadaveric organ donors in hospitals implementing the donor action program in Finland.  

PubMed

The results of solid organ transplantation have improved during the last decade. Five-year patient survivals over 80% and graft survivals over 70% are common in many transplant centers. Also, quality-of-life assessments show that not only adults but even small children have a good quality of life after successful organ transplantation. Furthermore, transplantation programs have proved to be cost-effective. However, the organ shortage is a worldwide problem, which has in many countries led to prolonged waiting times, deaths on the waiting list, increased living related donations, acceptance of lower-quality organs, and in some instances even commercialization of the organ supply. Thus, it is extremely important to find strategies that increase the number of cadaveric organs for donation. In Finland organ transplantation is concentrated in one center with about 250 transplantations of different organs performed annually. The number of patients needing a new cadaveric organ is steadily increasing, but the number of donors has remained the same during the last decade. To improve cadaveric organ procurement the Donor Action (DA) program, which consists of a Hospital Attitude Survey and a medical records review performed by the donor hospital, has proved to increase the number of cadaveric donors. We introduced the DA program in Finland in 2000. Here in we report the results of this program in terms of its impact on the availability of cadaveric donors. PMID:16298562

Höckerstedt, K; Heikkiläl, M-L; Holmberg, C

2005-10-01

310

Anonymous living liver donation: donor profiles and outcomes.  

PubMed

There are no published series of the assessment process, profiles and outcomes of anonymous, directed or nondirected live liver donation. The outcomes of 29 consecutive potential anonymous liver donors at our center were assessed. We used our standard live liver assessment process, augmented with the following additional acceptance criteria: a logical rationale for donation, a history of social altruism, strong social supports and a willingness to maintain confidentiality of patient information. Seventeen potential donors were rejected and 12 donors were ultimately accepted (six male, six female). All donors were strongly motivated by a desire and sense of responsibility to help others. Four donations were directed toward recipients who undertook media appeals. The donor operations included five left lateral segmentectomies and seven right hepatectomies. The overall donor morbidity was 40% with one patient having a transient Clavien level 3 complication (a pneumothorax). All donors are currently well. None expressed regret about their decision to donate, and all volunteered the opinion that donation had improved their lives. The standard live liver donor assessment process plus our additional requirements appears to provide a robust assessment process for the selection of anonymous live liver donors. Acceptance of anonymous donors enlarges the donor liver pool. PMID:20883544

Reichman, T W; Fox, A; Adcock, L; Wright, L; Abbey, S E; Levy, G; Grant, D R

2010-09-01

311

The management of the sibling hematopoietic stem cell donor.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cell transplants are procedures with curative potential for patients with diseased, damaged, or absent stem cells. Because a sibling has the best chance of immunocompatibility with one in need of a transplant, siblings are the most suitable donors of stem cells. However, when siblings are stem cell donors, various ethical issues arise concerning the risks and benefits to the pediatric donor. Because of the critical and potential rapid deterioration of the recipient's condition, the needs of the sibling donor may be overlooked. This potential lack of advocacy for the pediatric sibling donor creates a role for the primary care provider to assess the child's physical and psychological ability to undergo the donation procedure, examine the ethical issues in choosing to use the pediatric sibling as the stem cell donor, prepare the child for the procedure, and follow-up with the sibling donor once the procedure is completed. PMID:22194146

Vogel, Rebecca Jill

2011-01-01

312

Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs  

SciTech Connect

The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

Shimada, Arata [Laboratory of Developmental Engineering, Department of Life Science, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Tomii, Ryo [Laboratory of Developmental Engineering, Department of Life Science, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Kano, Koichiro [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Animal Science, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan); Nagashima, Hiroshi [Laboratory of Developmental Engineering, Department of Life Science, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan)]. E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

2006-06-02

313

Regulation of donor conception and the "time to tell" campaign.  

PubMed

The first jurisdictions in the world to introduce legislation regulating donor conception were Victoria (Australia) and Sweden in the 1980s. Under the Infertility (Medical Procedures) Act 1984 (Vic), donor-conceived people (aged 18 years and over), their parents (if children were under 18 years) and donors gained the right to apply for identifying information about each other. Information can only be given with the consent of each party. To date, over 3,500 donor-conceived children have been born in Victoria since the 1984 Victorian legislation was introduced (and enacted in 1988). The first 106 donor-conceived children under this legislation turned 18 in 2006 and many of them may not know that they are donor-conceived. The Infertility Treatment Authority, Victoria, conducted a public education campaign to provide information and support to people affected by the legislation. The campaign and services associated with donor registers have had a significant initial impact. PMID:17902494

Johnson, Louise; Kane, Helen

2007-08-01

314

RHD PCR of D-Negative Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

Summary RHD PCR of blood donors may be used to reveal weak D, partial D, DEL and chimeric D+/D? donors among presumed D-negative blood donors. Units donated by such donors pose a definite yet low risk for anti-D immunization of transfusion recipients. The frequency of DEL donors among D-negative donors is 1:350 to 1:2,000 in Europe and up to 1:5 in Asian countries. Different strategies for RHD PCR of blood donors have been used. Probably, the most cost-efficient implementation is replacement of sensitive D antigen testing with the indirect antiglobulin test by RHD PCR in pools which might even reduce total testing cost. PMID:23922542

Wagner, Franz F.

2013-01-01

315

The comparability of different neuron-specific enolase immunoassays and its impact on external quality assessment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective: Long-term external quality assessments suggest that the individual results of different immunoassays are often not comparable. Our goal was to assess the possible sources of these differences. Methods: The paper is based on the results of analyses using seven different immunoassays: DELFIA (PerkinElmer), Elecsys 2010 (Roche), Kryptor (B.R.A.H.M.S.), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay DRG and three methods based on

316

Technical and clinical comparison of two fully automated methods for the immunoassay of CA 125 in serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity and precision of two fully automated enzyme immunoassays, a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for the determination of the ovarian carcinoma antigen CA 125 were evaluated by comparison with an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Sera were obtained from patients with ovarian carcinoma (N=28 before treatment and N=24 after treatment), digestive system cancer (N=21 before

Guifeng Yan; Huangxian Ju; Zhichao Liang; Tingqing Zhang

1999-01-01

317

Attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring among a national cohort of identity-release oocyte and sperm donors  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION What are oocyte donors and sperm donors' attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocyte and sperm donors in an identity-release donor programme support disclosure to donor offspring and have overall positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a global trend towards open-identity gamete donation with an increasing number of countries introducing legislation allowing only identifiable donors. While women and men who enrol in identity-release donor programmes accept that they may be contacted by donor offspring, there is limited knowledge of their attitudes towards disclosure to donor offspring and how they perceive their relationship to potential donor offspring. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The present study is part of the ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’, a prospective cohort study including donors at all fertility clinics performing donation treatment in Sweden. During a 3-year period (2005–2008), donors were recruited consecutively and a total of 157 oocyte donors and 113 sperm donors (who did not donate to a specific ‘known’ couple) were included prior to donation. Participants in the present study include 125 female (80%) and 80 male donors (71%) that completed two follow-up assessments. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS AND METHODS Participants completed two postal questionnaires 2 months after donation and 14 months after donation. Attitudes towards disclosure to donor offspring were assessed with an established instrument. Perceptions of involvement with donor offspring and need for counselling was assessed with study-specific instruments. Statistical analyses were performed with non-parametric tests. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE A majority of oocyte and sperm donors supported disclosure to donor offspring (71–91%) and had positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring (80–87%). Sperm donors reported a higher level of involvement with potential donor offspring compared with oocyte donors (P = 0.005). Few donors reported a need for more counselling regarding the consequences of their donation. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION While the multicentre study design strengthens external validity, attrition induced a risk of selection bias. In addition, the use of study-specific instruments that have not been psychometrically tested is a limitation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The positive attitudes towards disclosure to offspring of female and male identity-release donors are in line with previous reports of anonymous and known donors. While our results on donors' general positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with potential donor offspring are reassuring, a subset of donors with negative attitudes towards such contact warrants concern and suggests a need for counselling on long-term consequences of donating gametes. STUDY FUNDING The ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’ was funded by the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and the Regional Research Council in Uppsala-Örebro. There are no conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:25030191

Lampic, C.; Skoog Svanberg, A.; Sydsjö, G.

2014-01-01

318

A 3D porous polymer monolith-based platform integrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips for immunoassay.  

PubMed

In this work, we demonstrate the immunocapture and on-line fluorescence immunoassay of protein and virus based on porous polymer monoliths (PPM) in microfluidic devices. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)] monoliths were successfully synthesized in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels by in situ UV-initiated free radical polymerization. After surface modification, PPM provides a high-surface area and specific affinity 3D substrate for immunoassays. Combining with well controlled microfluidic devices, the direct immunoassay of IgG and sandwich immunoassay of inactivated H1N1 influenza virus using 5 ?L sample has been accomplished, with detection limits of 4 ng mL(-1) and less than 10 pg mL(-1), respectively. The enhanced detection sensitivity is due to both high surface area of PPM and flow-through design. The detection time was obviously decreased mainly due to the shortened diffusion distance and improved convective mass transfer inside the monolith, which accelerates the reaction kinetics between antigen and antibody. This work provides a novel microfluidic immunoassay platform with high efficiency thereby enabling fast and sensitive immunoassay. PMID:23478568

Kang, Qin-Shu; Shen, Xiao-Fan; Hu, Na-Na; Hu, Meng-Jia; Liao, Hui; Wang, Han-Zhong; He, Zhi-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

2013-05-01

319

ENDOWMENT HONOR ROLL 2013 The List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed Department  

E-print Network

ENDOWMENT HONOR ROLL 2013 The List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed Department Funds

320

Graphene oxide as nanocarrier for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of clenbuterol based on labeling amplification strategy.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of clenbuterol (CLB) is fabricated using glucose oxidase (GOD)-functionalized grahene oxide (GO) nanocomposites to label CLB. The immunosensor was constructed by layer-by-layer assembly colloidal prussian blue (PB), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and CLB antibodies (Abs) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In this competitive immunoassay system, PB acts as the redox mediator to reduce H2O2 originated from the catalyst cycle of GOD. The high ratio of GOD to GO effectively amplified the signal for this competitive-type immunoassay. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor shows a wide linear range from 0.5 to 1,000 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL. The dual signal amplification of GOD-functionalized GO nanocomposites as a label is promising to be applied to design other sensitive immunosenseors. PMID:23598209

Lai, Yanjun; Bai, Jing; Shi, Xinhao; Zeng, Yanbo; Xian, Yuezhong; Hou, Jie; Jin, Litong

2013-03-30

321

Replacing immunoassays with tryptic digestion-peptide immunoaffinity enrichment and LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

For decades, immunoassays have provided the framework for protein biomarker studies in clinical medicine and in therapeutic monitoring for drug development. At the same time, investigators have uncovered many issues that make immunoassays unreliable in many human serum and plasma samples. LC-MS/MS after tryptic digestion of proteins is potentially an attractive solution, but the sensitivity of the method is not sufficient to measure many important low-abundance proteins directly. The use of antipeptide antibodies to immunoenrich peptides of interest can improve the sensitivity of the approach, greatly simplify the matrix enabling shortened chromatographic runs, and facilitate the multiplexed quantification of analytes, which could reduce the costs of quantitative protein measurements in complex specimens. We provide an overview of the method and the steps needed to develop an assay. In addition, we review the efforts to make this method generally more applicable. PMID:22303832

Becker, Jessica O; Hoofnagle, Andrew N

2012-02-01

322

Replacing immunoassays with tryptic digestion-peptide immunoaffinity enrichment and LC-MS/MS  

PubMed Central

For decades, immunoassays have provided the framework for protein biomarker studies in clinical medicine and in therapeutic monitoring for drug development. At the same time, investigators have uncovered many issues that make immunoassays unreliable in many human serum and plasma samples. LC-MS/MS after tryptic digestion of proteins is potentially an attractive solution, but the sensitivity of the method is not sufficient to measure many important low-abundance proteins directly. The use of antipeptide antibodies to immunoenrich peptides of interest can improve the sensitivity of the approach, greatly simplify the matrix enabling shortened chromatographic runs, and facilitate the multiplexed quantification of analytes, which could reduce the costs of quantitative protein measurements in complex specimens. We provide an overview of the method and the steps needed to develop an assay. In addition, we review the efforts to make this method generally more applicable. PMID:22303832

Becker, Jessica O; Hoofnagle, Andrew N

2013-01-01

323

IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

2013-03-01

324

Liver cancer immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles and MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) labeled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors. AFP is an important hepatic tumor biomarker and the detection of AFP has significant applications for clinical diagnostics and immunoassay for early-stage liver cancer indications. In this work, MgO-based MTJ sensors and 20-nm iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for detecting AFP antigens by a sandwich-assay configuration. The MTJ sensors with a sensing area of 4 × 2 ?m2 possess tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of 122% and sensitivity of 0.95%/Oe at room temperature. The target AFP antigens of three concentrations were successfully detected, and the experimental data indicate that the resistance variations of the MTJ sensor increased with the AFP concentration ratios proportionally. These results demonstrate that MgO-based MTJ sensors together with MNPs are a promising biosensing platform for liver cancer immunoassay.

Lei, Z. Q.; Li, L.; Li, G. J.; Leung, C. W.; Shi, J.; Wong, C. M.; Lo, K. C.; Chan, W. K.; Mak, C. S. K.; Chan, S. B.; Chan, N. M. M.; Leung, C. H.; Lai, P. T.; Pong, P. W. T.

2012-04-01

325

Use of immunoassay testing and landfarming to remediate pesticide - contaminated soil at agrichemical businesses  

SciTech Connect

The recent combination of two new technologies - immunoassay and landfarming - now offers an efficient, effective and economical option in the remediation of pesticide-contaminated soil. Participation in 28 landfarming projects in Illinois - 20 with pesticide-contaminated soil and eight with fuel-contaminated soil - has convinced the author that the combination offers the best method of remediation for most agrichemical sites. The procedures are currently used in Illinois as well as several other states and are being considered in even more. This paper describes the legislative and regulatory background for landfarming; defines immunoassay testing; defines landfarming: (1) contaminated site sampling and analysis; (2) education of participants; (3) selection of cooperator and host farm; (4) soil spreading considerations; a. rates, b. techniques; host site sampling and analysis; and factors affecting cost.

Frank, J.F. [Frank & Cowles, Inc., Springfield, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

326

A rate turbidimetric immunoassay for theophylline using biotin-avidin system.  

PubMed

We describe a biotin-avidin based rate turbidimetric homogeneous immunoassay for the determination of serum theophylline with a measuring range of 0-40 micrograms/ml. The assay features an avidin-biotin-labeled theophylline conjugate and a monoclonal antibody. The rate of change of turbidity caused by the antibody-conjugate complexing was monitored on the Beckman Synchron CX 4 System at 340 nm and 37 degrees C. Theophylline in a sample inhibited the complexation, and the extent of inhibition allowed the quantitation of theophylline in the sample. The within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was < 3.7% and the between-run CV was 5.2-9.2% depending on the theophylline concentration. Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation with an established fluorescence polarization immunoassay (r = 0.9866, n = 94). PMID:8299221

Oh, C; Kim, J; Kearns, B; Cheng, A; Dobashi, T

1993-09-17

327

A microsphere-based immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibodies.  

PubMed

This study describes a novel blocking microsphere-based immunoassay for highly sensitive and specific detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The intra- and inter-assay variability are 4.9% and less than 7%, respectively, and variability of bead conjugations is less than 6.6%. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated by testing a total of 509 serum samples. Based on a negative/positive cut-off value of 30.3%, the assay has a sensitivity of 99.4% and a specificity of 98.3% relative to ELISA. The new microsphere immunoassay provides an alternative to conventional ELISA systems and can be used for high-throughput screening in the BVD control programmes. PMID:20403384

Xia, Hongyan; Liu, Lihong; Nordengrahn, Ann; Kiss, István; Merza, Malik; Eriksson, Ronnie; Blomberg, Jonas; Belák, Sándor

2010-09-01

328

Two dimensional barcode-inspired automatic analysis for arrayed microfluidic immunoassays  

PubMed Central

The usability of many high-throughput lab-on-a-chip devices in point-of-care applications is currently limited by the manual data acquisition and analysis process, which are labor intensive and time consuming. Based on our original design in the biochemical reactions, we proposed here a universal approach to perform automatic, fast, and robust analysis for high-throughput array-based microfluidic immunoassays. Inspired by two-dimensional (2D) barcodes, we incorporated asymmetric function patterns into a microfluidic array. These function patterns provide quantitative information on the characteristic dimensions of the microfluidic array, as well as mark its orientation and origin of coordinates. We used a computer program to perform automatic analysis for a high-throughput antigen/antibody interaction experiment in 10 s, which was more than 500 times faster than conventional manual processing. Our method is broadly applicable to many other microchannel-based immunoassays. PMID:24404030

Zhang, Yi; Qiao, Lingbo; Ren, Yunke; Wang, Xuwei; Gao, Ming; Tang, Yunfang; Jeff Xi, Jianzhong; Fu, Tzung-May; Jiang, Xingyu

2013-01-01

329

Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for serodiagnosis of acute Q fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme immunoassay was validated for the serodiagnosis of acute Q fever. Minimum positive tests were determined for both serial dilutions and a single dilution of patient sera. To establish the specificity of the test, 152 serum samples were tested from individuals with no evidence of pastCoxiella burnetii infection. Diagnostic titers were set at ?128 for the IgM and IgG

D. Waag; J. Chulay; T. Marrie; M. England; J. Williams

1995-01-01

330

Quantitative Fluorescent Immunoassay forMeasurement of Antibody toDirofilaria immitis inDogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anautomated fluorescent immunoassay technique (FIAX; International Di- agnostic Technology, SantaClara, Calif.) hasbeendeveloped forthequantitation ofcirculating antibodies indogsinfected withDirofilaria immitis. Twogroups of sera, group Iconsisting of77samples andgroup Ilconsisting of126samples, were obtained fromexperimentally infected microfilaremic dogs, knownnegative con- trols, andclinically diagnosed casesofoccult dirofilariasis. Antibody against a partially purified trichloroacetic acid-soluble extract ofasoluble somatic extract ofD.immitis wasmeasured byFIAXandbyanenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Astandard curve wasdrawnfromfoursamples

HOWARD J. GITTELMAN; MARYL M. HITCHINGS

2010-01-01

331

Double-antibody solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A.  

PubMed Central

A simple double-antibody enzyme immunoassay that uses a microtechnique was developed for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin A in food products. Sample preparation can be completed in less than 15 min. Assay sensitivity ranges from 0.4 ng (20-h test time) to 3.2 ng (1- to 3-h test time) of toxin per ml of prepared sample. Separation and detection of enterotoxin from spiked food products ranged between 72 and 98% of the amount added. PMID:337898

Saunders, G C; Bartlett, M L

1977-01-01

332

Development of a Prototype Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) for the Rapid Diagnosis of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3–7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD) to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI); the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (?0.2 ng/ml). The analytical reactivity (inclusivity) of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77) when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity) testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36) were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation. PMID:24651568

Houghton, Raymond L.; Reed, Dana E.; Hubbard, Mark A.; Dillon, Michael J.; Chen, Hongjing; Currie, Bart J.; Mayo, Mark; Sarovich, Derek S.; Theobald, Vanessa; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Duval, Brea; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; AuCoin, David P.

2014-01-01

333

Enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone: applications to the study of growth hormone variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for rat growth hormone was developed. In this assay soluble growth hormone and growth hormone adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-growth hormone antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-growth hormone complex is detected and quantified using goat anti-monkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horse radish peroxidase. Therefore, a high concentration

M. A. Farrington; W. C. Hymer

1987-01-01

334

Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation  

SciTech Connect

An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W

2003-12-15

335

Detection of drug usage via breath analysis with an immunoassay film badge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monolayer of antibody on a semimirror comprised of small islands of indium acts as a sensor capable of detecting vapors at extremely low concentrations without the use of wet chemistry. Already shown capable of detecting cocaine vapors at 4 femtograms per cc of air, the use of the device, called an immunoassay film badge, for detecting drugs on the breath is a natural extension of the sensor's use. This paper describes this application and initial experiments that demonstrate its feasibility.

Lukens, Herbert R.

1997-01-01

336

An update on laboratory productivity with infectious disease assays on the Bayer ADVIA Centaur Immunoassay System.  

PubMed

New biological materials and advances in robotic and computer technologies have enabled the development of automated systems designed for high-performance infectious disease immunoassays and nucleic acid amplification. The fully automated, random access Bayer ADVIA Centaur immunoassay system, offering testing for fertility, therapeutic drug monitoring, infectious disease, allergy, cardiovascular, anemia, oncology, TDMs and thyroid, has been specifically designed for use in large-volume laboratories. New immunoassay tests have been developed for the ADVIA Centaur for the hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and HIV. These assays have undergone extensive performance evaluation using samples designated in the CTS in support of obtaining the Communautés Européennes (CE) mark for European market distribution. The ADVIA Centaur Immunoassay System represents an optimal platform for infectious disease testing because of its flexibility in allowing many different assay formats and protocols with multiple incubation steps and washes coupled with its combination of magnetic particle separation and chemiluminescent detection. Additional quality features of the system design are the sample integrity verification/check, the use of disposable sample pipette tips, clot detection, the ability for sensing liquid levels, the reagent aspiration verification/check, the automatic cascade reflex testing, repeat testing, and automated reagent inventory. The ADVIA Centaur has a maximum test throughput of 240 tests per hour. Minimal hands-on time is required as a result of the large onboard capacity for reagents and supplies combined with automated maintenance and monitoring features, which streamline operations and result in a walk-away through-put of up to 840 tests. PMID:15000221

Dati, Francesco

2004-01-01

337

Gel-based immunoassay for non-instrumental detection of pyrene in water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new qualitative immunologically based tube test for non-instrumental detection of pyrene (PYR) in water samples was developed. The method combines the pre-concentration of analyte by immunoextraction and its detection by immunoassay using Sepharose 4B-immobilized IgG-fraction of a polyclonal anti-PYR antiserum (immunoaffinity gel) and 1-pyrenebutyric acid-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (PYR-BA-HRP). The immunoaffinity gel was placed in a standard 1-ml SPE column

Irina Yu. Goryacheva; Natalia V. Beloglazova; Sergei A. Eremin; Dmitry A. Mikhirev; Reinhard Niessner; Dietmar Knopp

2008-01-01

338

Automation of the enzyme immunoassay for the serodiagnosis of infectious diseases in cattle  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is a versatile and highly sensitive new tool that can be used to detect a wide variety of infectious diseases or toxic agents and other low molecular weight compound. The paper describes the present state of development of the EIA-modified Technicon Autoanalyzer II instrumentation, standardization of quality control criteria for the automated EIA and standardization of the diagnostic decision process. (ACR)

Seawright, G.L.; Sanders, W.M.; Bryson, M.

1980-01-01

339

Detection of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica in Stool Samples by Two Enzyme Immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercially produced enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to detect antigens of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens were evaluated. A total of 276 stool specimens were collected from patients who presented with various\\u000a medical complaints in the outpatient clinic of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University of\\u000a Munich. Every specimen was examined by conventional microscopy and

M. Schunk; T. Jelinek; K. Wetzel; H. D. Nothdurft

2001-01-01

340

USING A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY TO QUANTIFY TESTOSTERONE IN AVIAN PLASMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a commercially available testos- terone enzyme immunoassay (EIA), we developed and validated an assay procedure for determining testosterone levels in small-volume (20 mL) avian plasma samples. We evaluated this EIA's utility by measuring plasma testosterone levels in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). Standard bio- chemical validations (e.g.,

BRIAN E. WASHBURN; JOSHUA J. MILLSPAUGH; DANA L. MORRIS; JOHN H. SCHULZ; JOHN FAABORG

2007-01-01

341

Multilayers enzyme-coated carbon nanotubes as biolabel for ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of cancer biomarker  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method based on multiple enzyme layers assembled multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as signal amplification labels was developed by employing luminol–H2O2-HRP-bromophenol blue (BPB) enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) system for the detection of a cancer biomarker in human serum samples, as exemplified by the measurement of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a model protein. In this study, horseradish

Sai Bi; Hong Zhou; Shusheng Zhang

2009-01-01

342

Accelerated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based immunoassay on a gold-plated membrane.  

PubMed

A rapid and simple SERS-based immunoassay has been developed to overcome diffusion-limited binding kinetics that often impedes rapid analysis in conventional heterogeneous immunoassays. This paper describes the development of an antibody-modified membrane as a flow-through capture substrate for a nanoparticle-enabled SERS immunoassay to enhance antibody-antigen binding kinetics. A thin layer of gold is plated onto polycarbonate track-etched nanoporous membranes via electroless deposition. Capture antibody is immobilized onto the surface of a gold-plated membrane via thiolate coupling chemistry to serve as a capture substrate. A syringe is then used to actively transport the analyte and extrinsic Raman labels to the capture substrate. The fabrication of the gold-plated membrane is thoroughly investigated and established as a viable capture substrate for a SERS-based immunoassay in the absence of sample/SERS label flow. A syringe pump is used to systematically investigate the effect of flow rate on antibody-antigen binding kinetics and demonstrate that active transport to the capture membrane surface expedites antibody-antigen binding. Mouse IgG and goat anti-mouse IgG are selected as a model antigen-antibody system to establish proof of principle. It is demonstrated that the assay for mouse IgG is reduced from 24 h to 10 min and a 10-fold improvement in detection limit is achieved with the flow assay developed herein relative to the passive, i.e., no flow, assay. Moreover, mouse serum is directly analyzed and IgG level is determined using the flow assay. PMID:23972208

Penn, Michelle A; Drake, David M; Driskell, Jeremy D

2013-09-17

343

A gold nanoparticles\\/sol–gel composite architecture for encapsulation of immunoconjugate for reagentless electrochemical immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly hydrophilic, non-toxic and conductive colloidal gold nanoparticle\\/titania sol–gel composite membrane with a low contact angle was prepared on a glassy carbon electrode via a vapor deposition method. With human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as a model antigen and encapsulation of horseradish peroxidase-labeled hCG antibody (HRP-anti-hCG) in the composite architecture, this membrane could be used for reagentless electrochemical immunoassay. It

Jin Chen; Jinhai Tang; Feng Yan; Huangxian Ju

2006-01-01

344

Laboratory Diagnosis of Toscana Virus Infection by Enzyme Immunoassay with Recombinant Viral Nucleoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant enzyme immunoassay (rEIA) to detect serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG to Toscana virus (TOSV) was developed with the aim of establishing a simple and easily available assay for diagnosing acute and\\/or previous infections. The rEIA, based on the recombinant nucleoprotein of TOSV expressed in Escherichia coli, was evaluated with 97 serum samples collected in an area where

DARIO SOLDATESCHI; GRAZIA MARIA DAL MASO; MARCELLO VALASSINA; LAURA SANTINI; SILVIA BIANCHI; MARIA GRAZIA CUSI

1999-01-01

345

Detection of Anthrax Toxin by an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay Using Europium Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA) for the sensitive detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA). The ENIA exhibited a linear dose-dependent pattern within the detection range of 0.01 to 100 ng\\/ml and was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). False-positive results were not observed with serum samples from healthy adults, mouse plasma without PA, or plasma

Shixing Tang; Mahtab Moayeri; Zhaochun Chen; Harri Harma; Jiangqin Zhao; Haijing Hu; Robert H. Purcell; Stephen H. Leppla; Indira K. Hewlett

2009-01-01

346

Detection of saxitoxin in counterterrorism using a commercial lateral flow immunoassay kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) is registered in the list of the Chemical Weapons Convention. In preparation against potential\\u000a terrorism by STX use, we investigated the performance of a commercially available rapid test kit for paralytic shellfish poisoning\\u000a (PSP), which is essentially a lateral flow immunoassay kit. Pink lines in the test and control zones appeared after 35 min\\u000a and were observed

Asuka Komano; Hisashi Maruko; Hiroshi Sekiguchi; Yasuo Seto

2011-01-01

347

Sensitive detection of a plant virus by electrochemical enzyme-linked immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical enzyme-linked immunoassay increases the sensitivity of the detection of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by\\u000a 5-fold compared with the spectrophotometric o-phenylenediamine (OPD) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The detection\\u000a limit for the purified CMV is 1.0 ng\\/mL and the highest dilution ratio of the infected leaf sap is 1?:?5.0 × 104. The method is based on coupling the oxidation reaction

K. Jiao; Wei Sun; Shu-Sheng Zhang

2000-01-01

348

Progress in enzyme immunoassays: production of reagents, experimental design, and interpretation*  

PubMed Central

Enzyme immunoassays represent in many cases the preferred procedure for the detection of antigens or corresponding antibodies. However, many of the current procedures are performed suboptimally. This article reviews the available designs, auxiliary recognition systems, production and purification of antibodies, conjugation procedures, solid-phase materials, recording and interpretation of results, and quality control and standardization of procedures to improve the reproducibility of tests. PMID:3910300

Kurstak, Edouard

1985-01-01

349

Rapid microchip-based electrophoretic immunoassays for the detection of swine influenza virus.  

PubMed

Towards developing rapid and portable diagnostics for detecting zoonotic diseases, we have developed microchip-based electrophoretic immunoassays for sensitive and rapid detection of viruses. Two types of microchip-based electrophoretic immunoassays were developed. The initial assay used open channel electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection with a labeled antibody to detect influenza virus. However, this assay did not have adequate sensitivity to detect viruses at relevant concentrations for diagnostic applications. Hence, a novel assay was developed that allows simultaneous concentration and detection of viruses using a microfluidic chip with an integrated nanoporous membrane. The size-exclusion properties of the in situ polymerized polyacrylamide membrane are exploited to simultaneously concentrate viral particles and separate the virus/fluorescent antibody complex from the unbound antibody. The assay is performed in two simple steps--addition of fluorescently labeled antibodies to the sample, followed by concentration of antibody-virus complexes on a porous membrane. Excess antibodies are removed by electrophoresis through the membrane and the complex is then detected downstream of the membrane. This new assay detected inactivated swine influenza virus at a concentration four times lower than that of the open-channel electrophoresis assay. The total assay time, including device regeneration, is six minutes and requires <50 microl of sample. The filtration effect of the polymer membrane eliminates the need for washing, commonly required with surface-based immunoassays, increasing the speed of the assay. This assay is intended to form the core of a portable device for the diagnosis of high-consequence animal pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease. The electrophoretic immunoassay format is rapid and simple while providing the necessary sensitivity for diagnosis of the illness state. This would allow the development of a portable, cost-effective, on-site diagnostic system for rapid screening of large populations of livestock, including sheep, pigs, cattle, and potentially birds. PMID:18651074

Reichmuth, David S; Wang, Serena K; Barrett, Louise M; Throckmorton, Daniel J; Einfeld, Wayne; Singh, Anup K

2008-08-01

350

Evaluation of three commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for detecting faecal Clostridium difficile toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of faecal cytotoxicity using tissue culture was compared with three commercial Clostridium difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits; Premier C difficile toxin A (Meridian Diagnostic, Inc.); CD-TOX C difficile toxin A (Porton Cambridge); and Cytoclone A+B EIA (Cambridge Biotech Corporation). Of 160 faecal samples examined by all four methods, 52 (32.5%) were cytotoxic, 44 (27.5%) were positive by Premier,

S A Arrow; L Croese; R A Bowman; T V Riley

1994-01-01

351

Performance of two rapid, single-use immunoassays for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rapid, single-use immunoassays for C. difficile toxin A, the Clearview C. DIFF A (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and the ImmunoCard Toxin A assays (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) were compared to the cytotoxin assay for their ability to detect C. difficile toxin in fecal specimens. A total of 537 specimens were tested and 47 (8.8%) were positive by the

Jean Baldus Patel; Angela M. Donahue; Irving Nachamkin

2001-01-01

352

Multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers using metal sulfide quantum dot nanolabels and trifunctionalized magnetic beads.  

PubMed

A novel multiplexed stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers (CA 125, CA 15-3, and CA 19-9 used as models) using PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide quantum dot (QD) nanolabels as distinguishable signal tags and trifunctionalized magnetic beads as an immunosensing probe. The probe was prepared by means of co-immobilization of primary monoclonal anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 antibodies on a single magnetic bead. The PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide QD nanolabels containing CdS, ZnS and PbS were synthesized by using in situ synthesis method, which were utilized for the labeling of polyclonal rabbit anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 detection antibodies, respectively. A sandwich-type immunoassay format was adopted for the simultaneous determination of target biomarkers in a low-binding microtiter plate. The subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric analysis of cadmium, zinc, and lead components released by acid from the corresponding QD nanolabels was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode based on the difference of peak potentials. Experimental results indicated that the multiplexed immunoassay enabled the simultaneous detection of three cancer biomarkers in a single run with wide dynamic ranges of 0.01-50 U mL(-1) and detection limits (LODs) of 0.005 U mL(-1). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 7.2% and 10.4%, respectively. No significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 10 clinical serum specimens between the multiplexed immunoassay and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:23500474

Tang, Dianping; Hou, Li; Niessner, Reinhard; Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Knopp, Dietmar

2013-08-15

353

Laboratory Analysis of Remotely Collected Oral Fluid Specimens for Benzodiazepines by Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The performance characteristics of an immunoassay method for detecting benzodiazepines in oral fluid specimens were examined and compared with urine specimens. Oral fluid was obtained using a simple device that collects approximately 0.4 mL of oral fluid and dilutes it with 0.8 mL of diluent. When specimen or standard is added to an EIA well containing an oral

Dean F. Fritch; Greg Newland; Stephanie Kardos; Keith Kardos; Tiffany Miller; R. Sam Niedbala

354

Sensitive Immunoassays for MethylParathion and Parathion and Their Application to Residues in Foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassays, capable of detecting 0.05 ?g l and 0.5 ?g l, respectively, have been developed to detect the organophosphate pesticides, methyl-parathion and parathion. Using haptens based on derivatization of the phosphate ester of the methyl and ethyl forms in the target compounds, there was selectivity in detection of methyl-parathion and parathion, respectively, using the two assays. Antisera to methyl-parathion detected

J. H. Skerritt; S. L. Guihot; M. B. Asha; B. E. A. Rani; N. G. K. Karanth

2003-01-01

355

Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

2014-01-01

356

Wick Chromatography for Rapid and Reliable Immunoassay of Insulin, Glucagon and Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE essential principle of competition for a given amount of anti-hormone between standard or unknown quantities of hormone and a fixed amount of labelled hormone in Yalow and Berson's1 radio-immunoassay has been maintained in all modifications. The modifications have simplified the apparatus and have achieved a more rapid and complete separation of free and antibody-bound radioactive hormone after the immunological

Hans Ørskov; Hans Grønlund Thomsen; Hans Yde

1968-01-01

357

Development of a Simple and Highly Sensitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (HCVcAg) was developed, and its performance was compared with that of the AMPLICOR HCV test (Roche Molecular Systems). The developed one-step pretreatment method, 30-min incubation of the specimen with a solution containing three different types of detergents (Triton X-100, 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio)-1- propanesulfonate (CHAPS), and sodium dodecyl sulfate),

KATSUMI AOYAGI; CHIHARU OHUE; KUMIKO IIDA; TATSUJI KIMURA; EIJI TANAKA; KENDO KIYOSAWA; SHINTARO YAGI

1999-01-01

358

Donor Rejection Before Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Causes and Cost Effective Analysis in an Egyptian Transplant Center.  

PubMed Central

Background: In the living donor liver transplant setting, the preoperative assessment of potential donors is important to ensure the donor safety. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify causes and costs of living liver-donors rejection in the donation process. Materials and Methods: From June 2010 to June 2012, all potential living liver donors for 66 liver transplant candidates were screened at the Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation. Potential donors were evaluated in 3 phases, and their data were reviewed to determine the causes and at which phase the donors were rejected. Results: One hundred and ninety two potential living liver donors, including 157 (81.7%) males, were screened for 66 potential recipients. Of these, 126 (65.6%) were disqualified for the donation. The causes of rejection were classified as surgical (9.5 %) or medical (90.5 %). Five donors (3.9 %) were rejected due to multiple causes. Factor V Leiden mutation was detected in 29 (23 %) rejected donors (P = 0.001), 25 (19.8 %) donors had positive results for hepatitis serology (P = 0.005), and 16 (12.7 %) tested positive for drug abuse. Portal vein trifurcation (n = 9, 7.1%) and small size liver graft estimated by CT volumetric analysis (n = 6, 4.8 %) were the main surgical causes which precluded the donation. Conclusions: Among potential Egyptian living liver donors, Factor V Leiden mutation was a significant cause for live donor rejection. A stepwise approach to donor assessment was found to be cost-effective. PMID:24497879

El-Meteini, Mahmoud; Dabbous, Hany; Sakr, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Amany; Fawzy, Iman; Bahaa, Mohamed; Abdelaal, Amr; Fathy, Mohamed; Said, Hany; Rady, Mohamed; El-Dorry, Ahmed

2014-01-01

359

Donor-acceptor complexes of borazines.  

PubMed

Donor-acceptor complexes of borazine (BZ) and its substituted derivatives with Lewis acids (A = MCl(3), MBr(3); M = B, Al, Ga) and Lewis bases (D = NH(3), Py) have been theoretically studied at the B3LYP/TZVP level of theory. The calculations showed that complexes with Lewis bases only are unstable with respect to dissociation into their components, while complexes with Lewis acids only (such as aluminum and gallium trihalides) are stable. It was shown that formation of ternary D?BZ?A complexes may be achieved by subsequent introduction of the Lewis acid (acceptor A) and the Lewis base (donor D) to borazine. The nature of substituents in the borazine ring, their number, and position were shown to have only minor influence on the stability of ternary D?BZ?A complexes due to the compensation effect. Much weaker acceptor properties of borazine are explained in terms of large endothermic pyramidalization energy of the boron center in the borazine ring. In contrast to borazine, binary complexes of the isoelectronic benzene were predicted to be weakly bound even in the case of very strong Lewis acids; ternary DA complexes of benzene were predicted to be unbound. The donor-acceptor complex formation was predicted to significantly reduce both the endothermicity (by 70-95 kJ mol(-1)) and the activation energy (by 40-70 kJ mol(-1)) for the borazine hydrogenation. Thus, activation of the borazine ring by Lewis acids may be a facile way for the hydrogenation of borazines and polyborazines. PMID:20964381

Lisovenko, Anna S; Timoshkin, Alexey Y

2010-11-15

360

Trace analysis of pollutants by use of honeybees, immunoassays, and chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

Specific and sensitive analysis to reveal and monitor the wide variety of chemical contaminants polluting all environment compartments, feed, and food is urgently required because of the increasing attention devoted to the environment and health protection. Our research group has been involved in monitoring the presence and distribution of agrochemicals by monitoring beehives distributed throughout the area studied. Honeybees have been used both as biosensors, because the pesticides affect their viability, and as "contaminant collectors" for all environmental pollutants. We focused our research on the development of analytical procedures able to reveal and quantify pesticides in different samples but with a special attention to the complex honeybee matrix. Specific extraction and purification procedures have been developed and some are still under optimization. The analytes of interest were determined by gas or liquid chromatographic methods and by compound-specific or group-specific immunoassays in the ELISA format, the analytical performance of which was improved by introducing luminescence detection. The range of chemiluminescent immunoassays developed was extended to include the determination of completely different pollutants, for example explosives, volatile organic compounds (including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), and components of plastics, for example bisphenol A. An easier and portable format, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was added to the ELISA format to increase application flexibility in these assays. Aspects of the novelty, the specific characteristics, the analytical performance, and possible future development of the different chromatographic and immunological methods are described and discussed. PMID:23064670

Girotti, S; Ghini, S; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; Ferri, E N

2013-01-01

361

Electrophoretic build-up of multi nanoparticle array for a highly sensitive immunoassay  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges in shrinking immunoassays to smaller sizes is to immobilize the biological molecules to nanometer-scaled spots. To overcome this complication, we have employed a particle-based immunoassay to create a nanostructured platform with a regular array of sensing elements. The technique makes use of an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES) to immobilize nanoparticles that are coated with biological reagents into wells using a very small trapping potential. To provide useful information for controlling the trapping force and optimal design of the nanoarray, electrophoretic trapping of a nanoparticle was modeled numerically. The trapping efficiency, defined as the fraction of wells occupied by a single particle, was 91%. The performance of the array was demonstrated with a competitive immunoassay for a small molecule analyte, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (214.2 g mole?1). The limit of detection determined with a basic fluorescence microscope was 0.006 ?g l?1 (30 pM); this represented a sixteen-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to a standard 96-well plate-based ELISA; the improvement was attributed to the small size of the sample volume and the presence of light diffraction among factors unique to this structure. The EPES/nanoarray system promises to offer a new standard in applications that require portable, point-of-care and real-time monitoring with high sensitivity. PMID:23021853

Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Sudheendra, L.; Hass, Elizabeth A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

2012-01-01

362

An ultrasensitive streptavidin-functionalized carbon nanotubes platform for chemiluminescent immunoassay.  

PubMed

An ultrasensitive chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay system was developed for the detection of tumor marker. This sandwich CL assay method was for the first time designed based on a highly efficient streptavidin-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) platform. The glass slide was firstly silylanized with 3-gycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) to generate surface epoxy group functionality. Subsequently, the MWCNTs/chitosan solution was mixed with streptavidin solution, and a certain amount of the resulting suspension was dropped on the surface of the epoxy-activated glass substrate to form a firm streptavidin-functionalized MWCNTs platform. The biofunctionalized-MWCNTs platform shows large reactive surface area and excellent biocompatibility. The capture antibody can be efficiently immobilized on the biosensing platform surface based on the highly selective recognition of streptavidin to biotinylated antibody. Using ?-fetoprotein (AFP) as model analyte, the proposed method exhibits wide linear range of 0.001-0.1 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit down to 0.52 pg mL(-1). The CL immunoassay system displays 7.9-fold increase in the detection sensitivity compared to the immunosensor without using MWCNTs. Moreover, the resulting immunosensor demonstrates excellent specificity, good reproducibility, and acceptable stability. This streptavidin-functionalized MWCNTs platform opens a novel and promising avenue for fabricating ultrasensitive CL immunoassay system. PMID:23567121

Yang, Zhanjun; Shen, Juan; Li, Juan; Zhu, Jing; Hu, Xiaoya

2013-04-24

363

The effects of laser welding on heterogeneous immunoassay performance in a microfluidic cartridge  

PubMed Central

Sealing of a microfluidic cartridge is a challenge, because the cartridge commonly contains heat-sensitive biomolecules that must also be protected from contamination. In addition, the objective is usually to obtain a sealing method suitable for mass production. Laser welding is a rapid technique that can be accomplished with low unit costs. Even though the technique has been widely adopted in industry, the literature on its use in microfluidic applications is not large. This paper is the first to report the effects of laser welding on the performance of the heterogeneous immunoassay in a polystyrene microfluidic cartridge in which biomolecules are immobilized into the reaction surface of the cartridge before sealing. The paper compares the immunoassay performance of microfluidic cartridges that are sealed either with an adhesive tape or by use of laser transmission welding. The model analyte used is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results show that the concentration curves in the laser-welded cartridges are very close to the curves in the taped cartridges. This indicates, first, that laser welding does not cause any significant reduction in immunoassay performance, and second, that the polystyrene cover does not have significant effect on the signal levels. Interestingly, the coefficients of variance between parallel samples were lower in the laser-welded cartridges than in the taped cartridges. PMID:22685505

Mantymaa, Anne; Halme, Jussi; Valimaa, Lasse; Kallio, Pasi

2011-01-01

364

Polymer-coated fluorescent CdSe-based quantum dots for application in immunoassay.  

PubMed

The paper describes all stages of synthesis and characterization of biocompatible CdSe-based core/shell quantum dots (QDs) and their application as fluorescent label for immunoassay. Special attention was focused on development of maleic anhydride-based amphiphilic polymers for QDs solubilization in aqueous media. In this work two PEG-amines were tried for polymer modification: monoamine Jeffamine M 1000 used previously in some researches and diamine Jeffamine ED-2003 applied for the first time for QDs solubilization. The use of different Jeffamines allows us to obtain QDs with carboxyl or amine functional groups available for conjugation. The influence of polymer composition on optical properties of the nanocrystals and their stability in aqueous solutions as well as on their conjugation with biomolecules was studied. QDs with different coatings were used as biolabels in quantitative fluorescence microtiter plate immunoassay and qualitative on-site column test. It was found that quantum dots covered with amphiphilic polymer prepared from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) and Jeffamine ED-2003 retained up to 90% of their initial brightness, easily conjugated with protein and showed low non-specific adsorption. In optimized conditions the obtained QDs were successfully used for determination of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat and maize samples by fluorescence microtiter plate immunoassay with an IC50 of 220 ?g kg(-1) and by on-site column test with cut-off of 500 ?g kg(-1). PMID:24140873

Speranskaya, Elena S; Beloglazova, Natalia V; Lenain, Pieterjan; De Saeger, Sarah; Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Suxia; Hens, Zeger; Knopp, Dietmar; Niessner, Reinhard; Potapkin, Dmitry V; Goryacheva, Irina Yu

2014-03-15

365

Time-resolved chemiluminescence strategy for multiplexed immunoassay of clenbuterol and ractopamine.  

PubMed

A novel time-resolved chemiluminescence (CL) strategy was proposed for immunoassay of multiple analytes in a single run. The strategy was performed based on the distinction of the kinetic characteristics of different CL reaction systems, which allowed detection of multiple analytes in different time windows. The strategy was evaluated by using clenbuterol and ractopamine as the model analytes. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were adopted as the signal probes to tag the two antigens due to their very different CL kinetic characteristics. After the competitive immunoreactions, the two CL signals were simultaneously triggered by adding the CL coreactants. Then the signals for clenbuterol and ractopamine were in turn detected after 0.6 s and 25 min of the reaction triggering. Due to the distinguishable detection time windows for HRP and ALP, the cross-talk resulting from the mixed CL reaction systems was effectively avoided, which was frequently encountered in some other multiplexed immunoassays based on multi-label modes. The linear ranges for clenbuterol and ractopamine were both 1.0-500 ng/mL, with detection limits of 0.50 ng/mL (S/N=2). The results for real sample analysis demonstrated that this study could provide a simple, low-cost and fast approach toward multiplexed immunoassay. PMID:23644144

Han, Jing; Gao, Hongfei; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Zhenxing; Fu, Zhifeng

2013-10-15

366

Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting  

PubMed Central

We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (f?-hCG) in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and f?-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of f?-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health. PMID:25132703

Imholz, Sandra; Kuc, Sylwia; de Vries, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Wendy

2014-01-01

367

Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Hapten Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies for Development of Sensitive Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Some unique subclasses of Camelidae antibodies are devoid of light chain and the antigen binding site is comprised exclusively of the variable domain of the heavy chain (VHH). Although conventional antibodies dominate current assay development, recombinant VHHs have a high potential as alternative reagents for the next generation of immunoassay. We expressed VHHs from an immunized alpaca and developed a VHH-based immunoassay using 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a major metabolite of pyrethroid insecticides as a model system. A phage VHH library was constructed and seven VHH clones were selected by competitive binding with 3-PBA. The best immunoassay developed with one of these VHHs showed an IC50 of 1.4 ng/mL (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.1 ng/mL). These parameters were further improved by using the phage borne VHH, IC50 = 0.1 ng/mL and LOD = 0.01 ng/mL. Both assays showed a similar tolerance to methanol and dimethylsulfoxide up to 50% in assay buffer. The assay was highly specific to 3-PBA and its 4-hydroxylated derivative, 4-hydroxy 3-PBA (150% cross reactivity) with negligible cross reactivity with other tested structural analogs and the recovery from spiked urine sample ranged from 80 to 112%. In conclusion, a highly specific and sensitive VHH for 3-PBA was developed using sequences from immunized alpaca and phage display technology for antibody selection. PMID:22148739

Kim, Hee-Joo; McCoy, Mark R.; Majkova, Zuzana; Dechant, Julie E.; Gee, Shirley J.; Rosa, Sofia Tabares-da; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

368

Apoferritin Templated Synthesis of Metal Phosphate Nanoparticle Labels for Electrochemical Immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

W have introduced template-synthesized metal phosphate nanoparticle labels for electrochemical immunoassay. Such use of an apoferritin template offers a simple and convenient route to prepare metallic nanoparticle labels for electrochemical immunoassays and avoid the complicated and time-consuming nanoparticle synthesis process (QD synthesis). Releasing metal ions from metal phosphate in an acetate buffer (pH 4.6) eliminates the harsh condition in the traditional metallic nanoparticle dissolution (e.g., strong acid dissolution of QDs and gold nanoparticles). This method is ultrasensitive and its DL is low to 77fM. The simultaneous detection of multiple protein targets is easily performed by using different metal phosphate nanoparticle labels (cadmium phosphate and lead phosphate). This approach can be extended to prepare multiple metal (such as zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, indium, gold, silver) phosphate nanoparticle labels or hybrid metal (bimetallic or trimetallic with predetermined ratios) phosphate nanoparticle labels for a multiplex electrochemical immunoassay. The new nanoparticle labels could be applicable to other electrochemical bioassays, such as DNA, and is thus expected to lead to wide applications for protein diagnostics and for bioanalysis in general.

Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2006-08-29

369

Positive predictive values of abused drug immunoassays on the Beckman Synchron in a veteran population.  

PubMed

The pressure to reduce the cost of analytic testing makes it tempting to discontinue routine confirmation of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse by immunoassay. Beyond the economic motivation, the requirement for confirmation should be driven by the positive predictive value of the screening tests. We have quantitated positive predictive values of our screening immunoassays in a large metropolitan Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We reviewed the confirmatory rate of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse with Beckman Synchron reagents from June 1998 to June 1999 and tabulated the false-positive screening rate. There were 175 instances of false-positive screens during the 13 months we analyzed. Positive predictive values ranged from 0% (amphetamine) to 100% (THC). We determined that the low positive predictive value of the amphetamine assay in our laboratory was primarily due to the use of ranitidine (Zantac). Urine specimens containing greater than 43 microg/mL ranitidine were positive in our amphetamine assay. This concentration is routinely exceeded in our patients taking ranitidine. In our clinical and analytic setting, the Beckman THC assay did not require confirmation. The positive predictive values of the Beckman opiate, cocaine, barbiturate, propoxyphene, and methadone immunoassays dictate routine confirmatory testing in specimens that screen positive for these substances. Finally, because of its extreme sensitivity to ranitidine, the Beckman amphetamine assay has little utility in our laboratory setting. PMID:11327349

Dietzen, D J; Ecos, K; Friedman, D; Beason, S

2001-04-01

370

False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.  

PubMed

Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

2014-09-01

371

Matrix Effects on the Microcystin-LR Fluorescent Immunoassay Based on Optical Biosensor  

PubMed Central

Matrix effects on the microcystin-LR fluorescent immunoassay based on the evanescent wave all-fiber immunosensor (EWAI) and their elimination methods were studied. The results indicated that PBS and humic acid did not affect the monitoring of samples under the investigated conditions. When the pH was less than 6 or higher than 8, the fluorescence signals detected by immunosensor systems were obviously reduced with the decrease or increase of pH. When the pH ranged from 6 to 8, IC50 and the linear working range of MC-LR calculated from the detection curves were 1.01?1.04 ?g/L and 0.12?10.5 ?g/L, respectively, which was favourable for an MC-LR immunoassay. Low concentrations of Cu2+ rarely affected the detection performance of MC-LR. When the concentration of CuSO4 was higher than 5 mg/L, the fluorescence signal detected by EWAI clearly decreased, and when the concentration of CuSO4 was 10 mg/L, the fluorescence signal detected was reduced by 70%. The influence of Cu2+ on the immunoassay could effectively be compromised when chelating reagent EDTA was added to the pre-reaction mixture. PMID:22574059

Long, Feng; Zhu, An-na; Sheng, Jian-Wu; He, Miao; Shi, Han-Chang

2009-01-01

372

A Novel Colorimetric Immunoassay Utilizing the Peroxidase Mimicking Activity of Magnetic Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

A simple colorimetric immunoassay system, based on the peroxidase mimicking activity of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), has been developed to detect clinically important antigenic molecules. MNPs with ca. 10 nm in diameter were synthesized and conjugated with specific antibodies against target molecules, such as rotaviruses and breast cancer cells. Conjugation of the MNPs with antibodies (MNP-Abs) enabled specific recognition of the corresponding target antigenic molecules through the generation of color signals arising from the colorimetric reaction between the selected peroxidase substrate, 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2O2. Based on the MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction, the target molecules were detected and quantified by measuring absorbance intensities corresponding to the oxidized form of TMB. Owing to the higher stabilities and economic feasibilities of MNPs as compared to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the new colorimetric system employing MNP-Abs has the potential of serving as a potent immunoassay that should substitute for conventional HRP-based immunoassays. The strategy employed to develop the new methodology has the potential of being extended to the construction of simple diagnostic systems for a variety of biomolecules related to human cancers and infectious diseases, particularly in the realm of point-of-care applications. PMID:23665902

Woo, Min-Ah; Kim, Moon Il; Jung, Jae Hwan; Park, Ki Soo; Seo, Tae Seok; Park, Hyun Gyu

2013-01-01

373

Highly n -doped silicon: Deactivating defects of donors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report insight into the deactivation mechanisms of group V donors in heavily doped silicon. Based on our ab initio calculations, we suggest a three step model for the donor deactivation. In highly n -type Si grown at low temperatures, in the absence of excess native point defects, the intrinsic limit to ne seems to rise in part by means of donor deactivating distortions of the silicon lattice in the proximity of two or more donor atoms that share close sites. Also, donor dimers play an important part in the deactivation at high doping concentrations. While the dimers constitute a stable or metastable inactive donor configuration, the lattice distortions lower the donor levels gradually below the impurity band in degenerate silicon. On the other hand, we find that, in general, none of the earlier proposed deactivating donor pair defects is stable at any position of the Fermi level. The lattice distortions may be viewed as a precursor to Frenkel pair generation and donor-vacancy clustering process (step 2) that account for deactivation at elevated temperature and longer annealing times. Ultimately, and most prominently in the case of the large Sb atoms, precipitation of the donor atoms may set in as the last step of the deactivation process chain.

Mueller, D. Christoph; Fichtner, Wolfgang

2004-12-01

374

Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.  

PubMed

The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety. PMID:20505995

Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

2011-08-01

375

Is sulfur a donor in diamond?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homoepitaxial diamond layers grown by chemical-vapor deposition in the presence of H2S, which were published to exhibit n-type conductivity, are carefully analyzed both electrically and structurally. Hall-effect measurements as a function of temperature clearly show the samples to exhibit p-type conduction, with an activation energy, carrier concentrations, and mobilities which very much resemble those of B-doped p-type diamond. Secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy confirms that indeed the samples, previously claimed to be n type due to a donor state attributed to sulfur, contain enough unintentional boron to explain the observed p-type features.

Kalish, R.; Reznik, A.; Uzan-Saguy, C.; Cytermann, C.

2000-02-01

376

Q-FISH Measurement of Hepatocyte Telomere Lengths in Donor Liver and Graft after Pediatric Living-Donor Liver Transplantation: Donor Age Affects Telomere Length Sustainability  

PubMed Central

Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts) of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r?=?0.765, p?=?0.0038), demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p?=?0.001). Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled. PMID:24727734

Kawano, Youichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Aida, Junko; Sanada, Yukihiro; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Poon, Steven S. S.; Matsumoto, Koshi; Mizuta, Koichi; Uchida, Eiji; Tajiri, Takashi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Takubo, Kaiyo

2014-01-01

377

Evaluation of potential liver donors: Limits imposed by donor variables in liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of different donor and recipient parameters that have been recognised previously as proven and to suggest prognostic factors for immediate liver function and final outcome after liver transplantation. We evaluated a total of 228 liver grafts transplanted in the last 3 years in our institution. Parameters were recorded for

Ramón Rull; Oscar Vidal; Dulce Momblan; Francisco Xavier González; Miguel Angel López-Boado; Jose Fuster; Luis Grande; Miguel Bruguera; Katiana Cabrer; Juan Carlos Garc??a-Valdecasas

2003-01-01

378

Income of living kidney donors and the income difference between living kidney donors and their recipients in the United States.  

PubMed

Disincentives for living kidney donation are common but are poorly understood. We studied 54 483 living donor kidney transplants in the United States between 2000 and 2009, limiting to those with valid zip code data to allow determination of median household income by linkage to the 2000 U.S. Census. We then determined the income and income difference of donors and recipients. The median household income in donors and recipients was $46 334 ±$17 350 and $46 439 ±$17 743, respectively. Donation-related expenses consume ? 1 month's income in 76% of donors. The mean ± standard deviation income difference between recipients and donors in transplants involving a wealthier recipient was $22 760 ± 14 792 and in 90% of transplants the difference was <$40 000 dollars. The findings suggest that the capacity for donors to absorb the financial consequences of donation, or of recipients to reimburse allowable expenses, is limited. There were few transplants with a large difference in recipient and donor income, suggesting that the scope and value of any payment between donors and recipients is likely to be small. We conclude that most donors and recipients have similar modest incomes, suggesting that the costs of donation are a significant burden in the majority of living donor transplants. PMID:22882723

Gill, J S; Gill, J; Barnieh, L; Dong, J; Rose, C; Johnston, O; Tonelli, M; Klarenbach, S

2012-11-01

379

Donor conception legislation in Victoria, Australia: the "Time to Tell" campaign, donor-linking and implications for clinical practice.  

PubMed

The State of Victoria in Australia was one of the first jurisdictions in the world to introduce legislation regulating donor conception. Under the Infertility (Medical Procedures) Act 1984 (Vic), donor-conceived people, aged 18 years and over, parents of children under 18 years, and donors gained the right to apply for the release of identifying information about each other recorded in a Central Register. As a result, of this and subsequent legislation, services providing donor treatment were obliged to change clinical practice relating to recruitment of donors, counselling of donors and recipients and recordkeeping. Since this legislation was introduced in 1988, over 5,000 donor-conceived children have been born and in 2006 the first 100 of these children reached the age of 18. The Victorian Infertility Treatment Authority (ITA) conducted a public education campaign to provide information and support to people affected by the legislation. This article describes clinical practice changes prompted by legislation, the 'Time to Tell" campaign and the service model developed for linking parties on the donor registers. The Victorian experience demonstrates that laws allowing the parties involved in donor conception access to information about each other must be accompanied by changes to clinical practice, public education about the implications of the laws, and services to meet the needs of those seeking information relating to donor conception and those contacted as a result. PMID:22908621

Johnson, Louise; Bourne, Kate; Hammarberg, Karin

2012-06-01

380

Donor CD4 T cells trigger costimulation blockade-resistant donor bone marrow rejection through bystander activation requiring IL-6.  

PubMed

Bone marrow (BM) transplantation under costimulation blockade induces chimerism and tolerance. Cotransplantation of donor T cells (contained in substantial numbers in mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and donor lymphocyte infusions) together with donor BM paradoxically triggers rejection of donor BM through undefined mechanisms. Here, nonmyeloablatively irradiated C57BL/6 recipients simultaneously received donor BM (BALB/c) and donor T cells under costimulation blockade (anti-CD154 and CTLA4Ig). Donor CD4, but not CD8 cells, triggered natural killer-independent donor BM rejection which was associated with increased production of IL-6, interferon gamma (IFN-?) and IL-17A. BM rejection was prevented through neutralization of IL-6, but not of IFN-? or IL-17A. IL-6 counteracted the antiproliferative effect of anti-CD154 in vitro. Rapamycin and anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 negated this effect of IL-6 in vitro and prevented BM rejection in vivo. Simultaneous cotransplantation of (BALB/cxB6)F1, recipient or irradiated donor CD4 cells, or late transfer of donor CD4 cells did not lead to BM rejection, whereas cotransplantation of third party CD4 cells did. Transferred donor CD4 cells became activated, rapidly underwent apoptosis and triggered activation and proliferation of recipient T cells. Collectively, these results provide evidence that donor T cells recognizing the recipient as allogeneic lead to the release of IL-6, which abolishes the effect of anti-CD154, triggering donor BM rejection through bystander activation. PMID:25100658

Hock, K; Pilat, N; Baranyi, U; Mahr, B; Gattringer, M; Klaus, C; Wekerle, T

2014-09-01

381

Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams.\\u000a However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane\\u000a from natural gas or biogas would be a more attractive electron donor. Sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor prevails\\u000a in marine sediments. Recently,

Roel J. W. MeulepasAlfons; Alfons J. M. Stams; Piet N. L. Lens

2010-01-01

382

Cyclic olefins as new hydrogen donor compounds for coal liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of hydrogen donor compounds, cyclic olefins (CLO), has been evaluated to determine their effectiveness as hydrogen donors to coal. These cyclic olefins are hydroaromatic species which do not contain aromatic rings. The efficacy of these donors has been compared to conventional hydroaromatics. The CLO's under study are 1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene, also known as isotetralin, and 1,4,5,8,9,10-hexahydroanthracene. In this paper,

M. W. Bedell; C. W. Curtis

1990-01-01

383

Living Liver Donor Mortality: Where Do We Stand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To explore the use of medical journals, lay media, registries, and transplant center websites to discuss living liver donor mortality.METHODS:To study the incidence of and circumstances relating to living liver donor death, medical journals and lay print media were searched to create a case summary of worldwide living liver donor deaths. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and European

Katrina A. Bramstedt

2006-01-01

384

Synthesis and Evaluation of Phosphorodithioate-Based Hydrogen Sulfide Donors  

PubMed Central

A series of O-aryl- and alkyl-substituted phosphorodithioates were designed and synthesized as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors. H2S released capability of these compounds was evaluated by fluorescence methods. O-aryl substituted donors showed slow and sustained H2S release while O-alkylated compounds showed very weak H2S release capability. We also evaluated donors’ protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in myocytes and donors’ toxicity toward B16BL6 mouse melanoma cells. PMID:23917226

Park, Chung-Min; Zhao, Yu; Zhu, Zhaohui; Pacheco, Armando; Peng, Bo; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O.; Bagdon, Powell; Zhang, Hui

2013-01-01

385

On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

Davis, Daly; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Speiser, Shammai; Peskin, Uri

2009-03-01

386

The donor-conceived child's "Right to Personal Identity": the public debate on donor anonymity in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

On 1 April 2005, with the implementation of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Information) Regulations 2004, United Kingdom law was changed to allow children born through gamete donation to access details identifying the donor. Drawing on trends in adoption law, the decision to abolish donor anonymity was strongly influenced by a discourse that asserted the ‘child's right to personal identity’. Through examination of the donor anonymity debate in the public realm, while adopting a social constructionist approach, this article discusses how donor anonymity has been defined as a social problem that requires a regulative response. It focuses on the child's ‘right to personal identity’ claims, and discusses the genetic essentialism behind these claims. By basing its assumptions on an adoption analogy, United Kingdom law ascribes a social meaning to the genetic relatedness between gamete donors and the offspring. PMID:22530247

Turkmendag, Ilke

2012-01-01

387

Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy from third-party donors: characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry  

PubMed Central

Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus (ADV) are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs) derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood (CB) transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells. Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore, frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T-cell immunotherapy. PMID:23372567

Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Blasczyk, Rainer

2013-01-01

388

Living donor liver transplantation from an asymptomatic donor with mild coagulation factor IX deficiency: Report of a case.  

PubMed

The use of donors with coagulation FIX deficiency is controversial, and there are no current protocols for peri-transplant management. We herein describe the first reported case of a pediatric LDLT from an asymptomatic donor with mild coagulation FIX deficiency. A 32-yr-old female was evaluated as a donor for her 12-month-old daughter with biliary atresia. The donor's pretransplant coagulation tests revealed asymptomatic mild coagulation FIX deficiency (FIX activity 60.8%). Freeze-dried human blood coagulation FIX concentrate was administered before the dissection of the liver and 12 h afterwards by bolus infusion (40 U/kg) and was continued on POD 1. The bleeding volume at LDLT was 590 mL. On POD 1, 3, 5, and 13, the coagulation FIX activity of the donor was 121.3%, 130.6%, 114.6%, and 50.2%, respectively. The donor's post-transplant course was uneventful, and the recipient is currently doing well at 18 months after LDLT. The FIX activity of the donor and recipient at nine months after LDLT was 39.2% and 58.0%, respectively. LDLT from donors with mild coagulation FIX deficiency could be performed effectively and safely using peri-transplant short-term coagulation FIX replacement and long-term monitoring of the plasma FIX level in the donor. PMID:25213132

Sanada, Yukihiro; Sasanuma, Hideki; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Morishima, Kazue; Kasahara, Naoya; Kaneda, Yuji; Miki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Takehito; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hyodo, Masanobu; Hirata, Yuta; Yamada, Naoya; Okada, Noriki; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Urahashi, Taizen; Madoiwa, Seiji; Mimuro, Jun; Mizuta, Koichi; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

2014-12-01

389

Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs  

PubMed Central

During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17401442

Miller, M R; Megson, I L

2007-01-01

390

[Improving donor heart preservation ex vivo].  

PubMed

There is a shortage of heart donors. Some available organs are lost through deterioration prior to transplantation. Indeed, from the moment of brain death until reperfusion in the recipient, cardiac grafts (and also kidney, lung and liver grafts) can undergo irreversible damage due to cardioplegia, the harvesting procedure, and hypothermic transport. The noxious phenomena occurring during cold ischaemia and myocardial reperfusion have been studied for more than 40 years. It was long believed that only the ischaemic phase was harmful, through depletion of energy stores, ionic imbalance, and metabolic disruption. We now know that the heart graft can also be damaged during the reperfusion phase, through calcium overload, free radical production, and mitochondrial changes. Preconditioning and post-conditioning procedures are being developed to protect the ischemic organ. PMID:22375357

Ferrera, René; Benhabbouche, Souhila

2011-01-01

391

Platelet donation drives: a novel initiative to recruit platelet donors.  

PubMed

The most important strategy to ensure a safe and an adequate supply of blood and blood products is motivation, recruitment, selection and retention of voluntary non remunerated blood donors. With a view of the increased platelet necessity in our oncology setup, the first platelet donation drive in the city and to the best of our knowledge, in India was conducted by our hospital in November 2009. The aim was to identify target groups and expand our donor database. It was also essential that the donor's contribution is acknowledged and appropriately felicitated. A campaign called "Save a Life" was initiated and publicized locally. A core team consisting of Transfusion Medicine specialists, clinicians and an NGO (nongovernment organization) was formed. The best suitable date and venue were finalized for the platelet camp. The audience was addressed and willing donors were registered as volunteer platelet donors with our institute. In a span of 40 months, 15 platelet camps were organized in colleges, social organizations, and corporate offices. A total of 1035 donors were registered out of which, 382 (37%) donated platelets in our hospital. 125/382 (33.2%) donated Single Donor Platelets (SDP) more than once. The largest number of platelet donations by a single camp donor was 24 times. Due to multiple donations from donors, the SDP number was enhanced considerably and lead to addition of 699 SDP units to our inventory. The annual indoor and camp voluntary platelet donor numbers increased from 142 in 2006 to 631 in 2012 due to platelet drives. All platelet donations were altruistic as no incentives were offered to the donors. Ready availability of platelets and planning SDP inventory as per patient blood group requirements had a positive impact on clinical services. PMID:24793425

Tendulkar, Anita; Shah, Sneha; Patil, Dipali; Tambe, Manisha

2014-06-01

392

Feasibility and Limits of Split Liver Transplantation From Pediatric Donors  

PubMed Central

Objective: To report the results of a multicenter experience of split liver transplantation (SLT) with pediatric donors. Summary Background Data: There are no reports in the literature regarding pediatric liver splitting; further; the use of donors weighing <40 kg for SLT is currently not recommended. Methods: From 1997 to 2004, 43 conventional split liver procedures from donors aged <15 years were performed. Nineteen donors weighing ?40 kg and 24 weighing >40 kg were used. Dimensional matching was based on donor-to-recipient weight ratio (DRWR) for left lateral segment (LLS) and on estimated graft-to-recipient weight ratio (eGRWR) for extended right grafts (ERG). In 3 cases, no recipient was found for an ERG. The celiac trunk was retained with the LLS in all but 1 case. Forty LLSs were transplanted into 39 children, while 39 ERGs were transplanted into 11 children and 28 adults. Results: Two-year patient and graft survival rates were not significantly different between recipients of donors ?40 kg and >40 kg, between pediatric and adult recipients, and between recipients of LLSs and ERGs. Vascular complication rates were 12% in the ?40 kg donor group and 6% in the >40 kg donor group (P = not significant). There were no differences in the incidence of other complications. Donor ICU stay >3 days and the use of an interposition arterial graft were associated with an increased risk of graft loss and arterial complications, respectively. Conclusions: Splitting of pediatric liver grafts is an effective strategy to increase organ availability, but a cautious evaluation of the use of donors ?40 kg is necessary. Prolonged donor ICU stay is associated with poorer outcomes. The maintenance of the celiac trunk with LLS does not seem detrimental for right-sided grafts, whereas the use of interposition grafts for arterial reconstruction should be avoided. PMID:17060775

Cescon, Matteo; Spada, Marco; Colledan, Michele; Torre, Giuliano; Andorno, Enzo; Valente, Umberto; Rossi, Giorgio; Reggiani, Paolo; Cillo, Umberto; Baccarani, Umberto; Grazi, Gian Luca; Tisone, Giuseppe; Filipponi, Franco; Rossi, Massimo; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Salizzoni, Mauro; Cuomo, Oreste; De Feo, Tullia; Gridelli, Bruno

2006-01-01

393

Anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of low-abundance proteins using quantum dot aggregated hollow microspheres.  

PubMed

A new anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol for detection of IgG1, as a model protein, was designed by using CdS quantum dot (QD) layer-by-layer assembled hollow microspheres (QDHMS) as molecular tags. Initially, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 specific antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic beads preferably selective to capture F(ab) of IgG1 analyte from the sample. For detection, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 (F(c)-specific) antibodies were covalently coupled to the synthesized QDHMS. In a sandwich-type immunoassay format, subsequent anodic-stripping voltammetric detection of cadmium released under acidic conditions from the coupled QDs was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode. The immunoassay combines highly efficient magnetic separation with signal amplification by the multilayered QD labels. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 1.0?fg?mL(-1) to 1.0??g?mL(-1) of IgG1 with a detection limit of 0.1?fg?mL(-1). The electrochemical immunoassay showed good reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. The analysis of clinical serum specimens revealed good accordance with the results obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The new immunoassay is promising for enzyme-free, and cost-effective analysis of low-abundance biomarkers. PMID:23292875

Zhang, Bing; Tang, Dianping; Goryacheva, Irina Yu; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

2013-02-11

394

False tacrolimus concentrations measured by antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay in liver transplant patient: 2 case reports and literature review.  

PubMed

Safe use of tacrolimus relies on regular whole-blood drug monitoring. Of the methods used to assess whole-blood tacrolimus concentration, antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay is mostly used for therapeutic drug monitoring because it requires only a minimal sample preparation and no pretreatment procedure. However, several cases recently have been reported in which abnormally false elevated tacrolimus concentrations were measured by antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay (>15 ng/mL), despite the absence of clinical symptoms. We present 2 cases of falsely detected tacrolimus concentrations that did not show abnormally high values within the therapeutic range. Whole-blood tacrolimus concentrations obtained by antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay showed well-controlled concentrations (approximately 2-8 ng/mL), whereas those obtained by another immunoassay and in washed erythrocytes were below the assay range (< 1.2 ng/mL). Thus, antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay can elicit falsely positive results of tacrolimus concentrations, even though they are within the therapeutic range. PMID:24206050

Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ohmura, Takafumi; Ohya, Yuki; Horio, Momoko; Furukawa, Kumiko; Jono, Hirofumi; Inomata, Yukihiro; Saito, Hideyuki

2014-10-01

395

Rare blood donors: a personal approach.  

PubMed

The National Blood Group Reference Laboratory (NBGRL) in Israel was established in Jerusalem in 1971 and transferred to Magen David Adom (MDA), National Blood Services in 1995. This laboratory was the inspiration of the first author of this article for over 30 years. The realization of this vision was made possible by the cooperation of colleagues and laboratory workers in blood transfusion services throughout the country. The aim of the service was to provide diagnostic help in resolving immunohematologic problems found in the blood banks and clinics in Israel. In the beginning, only a part-time technician performed the work and testing was done using very limited reagents. The service was expanded by personal visits to all of the 22 blood banks in Israel to explain the aim of this new service and to educate them about the importance of resolving each and every case. One major issue was the cost involved in referring problems but it was decided at the outset that these would be covered by the government to ensure that a workup would be performed for all referred cases. The expansion of the service could not have been achieved without the help of the SCARF program. This voluntary service enabled us to identify the first rare donors in Israel, resolve complex cases, and find compatible blood for our patients. To illustrate the importance of the NBGRL in Israel and the rapid resolution of cases referred, several individual stories are described. The purpose of this review is to show the importance of the NBGRL in identifying rare blood groups and in providing and coordinating services and the importance of keeping in close contact with the rare donors to encourage and promote their donations, which may save lives. PMID:16813467

Levene, C; Asher, O; Shinar, E; Yahalom, V

2006-01-01

396

Survivability of immunoassay reagents exposed to the space radiation environment on board the ESA BIOPAN-6 platform as a prelude to performing immunoassays on Mars.  

PubMed

The Life Marker Chip (LMC) instrument is an immunoassay-based sensor that will attempt to detect signatures of life in the subsurface of Mars. The molecular reagents at the core of the LMC have no heritage of interplanetary mission use; therefore, the design of such an instrument must take into account a number of risk factors, including the radiation environment that will be encountered during a mission to Mars. To study the effects of space radiation on immunoassay reagents, primarily antibodies, a space study was performed on the European Space Agency's 2007 BIOPAN-6 low-Earth orbit (LEO) space exposure platform to complement a set of ground-based radiation studies. Two antibodies were used in the study, which were lyophilized and packaged in the intended LMC format and loaded into a custom-made sample holder unit that was mounted on the BIOPAN-6 platform. The BIOPAN mission went into LEO for 12 days, after which all samples were recovered and the antibody binding performance was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The factors expected to affect antibody performance were the physical conditions of a space mission and the exposure to space conditions, primarily the radiation environment in LEO. Both antibodies survived inactivation by these factors, as concluded from the comparison between the flight samples and a number of shipping and storage controls. This work, in combination with the ground-based radiation tests on representative LMC antibodies, has helped to reduce the risk of using antibodies in a planetary exploration mission context. PMID:23286207

Derveni, Mariliza; Allen, Marjorie; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Richter, Lutz; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C

2013-01-01

397

The degree of safety of family replacement donors versus voluntary non-remunerated donors in an Egyptian population: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Screening donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections is considered an important strategy for maximising the safety of blood transfusions. Materials and methods A total of 17,118 donors, classified into two groups - family replacement donors and voluntary non-remunerated donors - were investigated for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum. In addition cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies were searched for in 160 donors (80 from each group). All the laboratory tests were done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the total cohort of donors, 87.7% were family donors and 12.3% were voluntary non-remunerated donors. There was a highly significant difference in age and gender between the two types of donors with voluntary donors being much younger and including a much higher proportion of male donors than female donors. The prevalences of HBV, HCV and CMV IgG were much higher in family donors than in voluntary donors, with the differences being highly statistically significant. There was also a significantly higher prevalence of syphilis among family replacement donors. As regards HIV and CMV IgM, significant differences were not detected between the two groups. Discussion The results of our study clearly showed that the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections is much higher among family replacement donors than among voluntary donors, and that voluntary donors are the best way of achieving safer blood. PMID:23245714

Abdel Messih, Ibrahim Y.; Ismail, Mona A.; Saad, Abeer A.; Azer, Mary R.

2014-01-01

398

Liver Graft Revascularization by Donor Portal Vein Arterialization Following "No Touch" Donor Hepatectomy  

PubMed Central

Unsatisfactory immediate function of the transplanted liver together with technical complications contribute to a persisting early mortality for hepatic transplantation in the 20% range. We report our initial clinical experience with methods, one not previously used clinically, that resulted in uniformly well-functioning liver grafts in 11 patients and contributed to a satisfactory success rate for the procedure. Donors were heart-beating. During the donor operation all manipulations of the liver were avoided until after cold preservation, achieved by external cooling at the same time as circulatory interruption, donor exsanguination and perfusion of the liver with cold oxygenated fluid of “extracellular? type. The organs were then gently dissected. At transplantation the livers were revascularized with arterial blood shunted from the recipient iliac artery to the graft portal vein after completion of the suprahepatic IVC anastomosis. The infrahepatic IVCs and hepatic arteries were then joined, the iliac artery shunts discontinued and the portal veins joined. Total ischaemic intervals for the allografts were 3½–8 (average 5). Anhepatic intervals were 1–2¼ (average 2). The arterio-portal shunts were operating for 18–85 (mean 46) min. Blood loss and haemodynamic, acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities at revascularization were minimal. All grafts secreted bile immediately and all parameters reflected continuing improvement of liver function thereafter. Nine patients (82%) are alive between 4 and 18 (mean 11) months after transplantation. We conclude that these methods offer effective avoidance of serious organ damage during donor hepatectomy and preservation, reduced allograft ischaemic interval and reduced recipient anhepatic time. They result in avoidance of blood loss at the time of revascularization, together with minimal haemodynamic, acid-base or biochemical changes. In addition, they allow the surgeon to perform and test all anastomoses without time constraints, provide the capability to deal with unexpected complications, and assure good early graft function. PMID:3153776

Thompson, J. F.; Stephen, M. S.; Graham, J. C.; Eyers, A. A.; Bookallil, M.; Kalpokas, M.; McCaughan, G. W.; Dorney, S. F. A.; Ekberg, H. B. N.; Mears, D.; Kelly, G. E.; Woodman, K.

1988-01-01

399

Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus in Voluntary Blood Donors: Are Women Better Donors?  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood and blood products and it causes a major proportion of transfusion transmitted hepatitis. It can lead to chronic liver disease which has great morbidity and mortality. HCV is responsible for more deaths than Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As no vaccine is available and as the treatment is costly and lengthy, with a poor success rate, donor screening remains a very important means of primary prevention of HCV transmission. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to know the prevalence of anti-HCV in healthy voluntary blood donors (VBD) in a semi-urban region of western Maharashtra, India with a special focus on female donors. Settings and Design: This was an unlinked, anonymous, retrospective study. Materials and Methods: During January 2006 to December 2012, sera of 17976 VBD, which comprised of 16972 (94.41%) males and 1004 (5.59%) females, were tested for presence of anti-HCV antibody (anti-HCV) by using a 3rd generation ELISA test. Data was statistically analyzed by using Chi-Square for linear trends (Extended Mantel-Haenszel test). - 0.72732. Results and Conclusion: Thirty six donors (0.2%) were positive for anti-HCV. Seroprevalence in males was 0.21%, while that in females was 0%. The positivity of anti-HCV remained stable over the tenure of this study (Chi-Square for linear trends - 0.72732). This region has a lower prevalence of anti-HCV as compared those seen in other states of India. Zero prevalence in women indicated that encouraging women to undergo blood donations would still reduce the transmission of HCV. Detection can be improved by doing better tests like HCV RNA detection and further prevention of HCV transmission can be enhanced. PMID:24959444

Pagaro M., Pradhan; Nabamita, Chaudhury

2014-01-01

400

Hyperfine Stark effect of shallow donors in silicon  

E-print Network

We present a complete theoretical treatment of Stark effects in doped silicon, whose predictions are supported by experimental measurements. A multi-valley effective mass theory, dealing non-perturbatively with valley-orbit interactions induced by a donor-dependent central cell potential, allows us to obtain a very reliable picture of the donor wave function within a relatively simple framework. Variational optimization of the 1s donor binding energies calculated with a new trial wave function, in a pseudopotential with two fitting parameters, allows an accurate match of the experimentally determined donor energy levels, while the correct limiting behavior for the electronic density, both close to and far from each impurity nucleus, is captured by fitting the measured contact hyperfine coupling between the donor nuclear and electron spin. We go on to include an external uniform electric field in order to model Stark physics: With no extra ad hoc parameters, variational minimization of the complete donor ground energy allows a quantitative description of the field-induced reduction of electronic density at each impurity nucleus. Detailed comparisons with experimental values for the shifts of the contact hyperfine coupling reveal very close agreement for all the donors measured (P, As, Sb and Bi). Finally, we estimate field ionization thresholds for the donor ground states, thus setting upper limits to the gate manipulation times for single qubit operations in Kane-like architectures: the Si:Bi system is shown to allow for A gates as fast as around 10 MHz.

G. Pica; G. Wolfowicz; M. Urdampilleta; M. L. W. Thewalt; H. Riemann; N. V. Abrosimov; P. Becker; H. -J. Pohl; J. J. L. Morton; R. N. Bhatt; S. A. Lyon; B. W. Lovett

2014-08-19

401

Lung procurement for transplantation: new criteria for lung donor selection.  

PubMed

In Italy, like everywhere in the world, the organ shortage for transplantation is a real problem. It is well known that lung donors (LD) are particularly difficult to procure and that management of the organ do not care during the diagnosis of cerebral death represents a difficult challenge. In this context, the salvage of the so-called "marginal donors" may increase the pool of donors, favoring organ retrieval. To increase lung procurement, the intensivist must recognize "marginal donors," optimizing organ selection and function. The aim of our study was to review LD procured in 2008, as identified by the unrestricted criteria, of the Nord Italian Transplant program Center (NITp). Particularly, the age and habits of donors and the presence of a parenchyma contusion were not sufficient per se to exclude donation. We revisited lung ventilation and monitoring modalities during cerebral death before retrieval. In 2008, the application of enlarged criteria for LD enabled us to collect 21 LD, namely 33% of all cerebral deaths, versus 13% in 2007. Seeking to maintain good gas exchange and lung function, we implemented a safe ventilation program avoided high peak pressures, and fluid therapy properly guided by the cardiac index and extravascular lung water index monitoring. Specific actions to improve LD procurement may help cope with the organ-donor shortage. Although our series was small, our results were encouraging; they underline the necessity to continuously review donor criteria and care, allowing good donor/recipient matching. PMID:20534222

Moretti, M P; Betto, C; Gambacorta, M; Vesconi, S; Scalamogna, M; Benazzi, E; Ravini, M

2010-05-01

402

Planned Gift Summary Benefits to Donors and the University  

E-print Network

Planned Gift Summary Benefits to Donors and the University Type of Gift Benefits to Donor Benefits to U of S Gift Examples Suitable For Bequest Satisfaction of providing for future gift while retaining full control of assets Gift receipt for use with final income tax return Expectancy of future gift

Saskatchewan, University of

403

The most altruistic living organ donor: a best friend.  

PubMed

Living organ donors are growing in number and account for a substantial proportion of organs transplanted. Types of living organ donors include family members, anonymous donors, and friends. Although familial donation is the most common form of living organ donation, anonymous donation and donation among friends are gaining popularity. Society has placed living organ donors at the top of the altruistic ladder. However, one's altruistic motives for living organ donation may be affected by the type of relationship he or she has with the organ recipient. Although family relationships are close, pressure and coercion from family members may make informed consent difficult. Anonymous donors do not have the pressure associated with a familial donation, but psychological and self-worth issues may influence their choice to donate. Friendship incorporates the close relationships associated with familial donation and the freedom associated with anonymous donation. Using Aristotle's definition of true friendship, the author argues that best friends are the only true altruistic living organ donors and therefore may be preferable to family donors or anonymous donors. PMID:21803882

Hoffmann, Paul J

2011-07-01

404

University of Washington Medical Center Living Donor Program  

E-print Network

with important information to help evaluate your potential as living kidney donor also to help and support you of your kidneys? 2. How long have you been contemplating this decision? 3. What do you know at this time about being a living kidney donor? Where did you obtain this information? #12;University of Washington

Borenstein, Elhanan

405

Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What responsibilities do universities have to donors, many of whom are alumni? Presumably, one responsibility is to respect their wishes when they provide gifts with specific purposes. Yet Martin Morse Wooster shows in this report that universities often neglect the wishes of contributors. "Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them"…

Wooster, Martin Morse

2011-01-01

406

A Comparative Analysis of Educational Donors in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from 1,373 households participating in the 2005 Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey, this paper examines the characteristics of educational donors in comparison with other types of charitable donors and with nondonors. Charitable giving is quite common in the Netherlands, but there is no established higher education advancement…

James, Russell N., III; Wiepking, Pamala

2008-01-01

407

Meta-Analysis: Risk for Hypertension in Living Kidney Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently,abstracted data on study and donor characteristics, blood pressure measurements, out- comes, and prognostic features. Comparison data were abstracted from donor studies with control participants. Thirty primary authors provided additional data. Data Synthesis: Forty-eight studies from 28 countries followed a

Neil Boudville; G. V. Ramesh Prasad; Greg Knoll; Norman Muirhead; Heather Thiessen-Philbrook; Robert C. Yang; M. Patricia Rosas-Arellano; Abdulrahman Housawi; Amit X. Garg

2006-01-01

408

Evolution of Minimally Invasive Surgery for Donor Nephrectomy and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy was introduced into Australia in 1997 by this unit. However, some donors may be considered unsuitable, and few modifications to the existing technique can tailor this procedure for an individual donor. Recently, further changes including clustering of ports and single-port methods have been investigated. Methods: The laparoscopic method was offered to all but 3 donors from May 1997 to October 2009. Data were collected on all 289 donors who underwent laparoscopic procedures. Results: All but 5 donor procedures were completed laparoscopically, and in 4 of them conversion to open was necessary due to hemorrhage. The fifth was a planned conversion in our first right LDN. Delayed graft function was seen in 7 recipients and 5 required dialysis postoperatively. Two kidneys were lost due to arterial thrombosis, and 5 patients underwent segmental infarction with decreased renal function. Mean hospital stay was 2.35±1.67 days. There were no donor deaths or serious morbidity. Conclusions: Although the benefits to the donor of the laparoscopic method are well recognized, our modifications will benefit those who may be precluded from this method. PMID:21902977

Olakkengil, Santosh A.; MinInvSu, M.

2011-01-01

409

Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

Curriculum Review, 2006

2006-01-01

410

Right retroperitoneal versus left transperitoneal laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe our preferred method of right laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) using a retroperitoneoscopic approach to determine the indications for, and overall rate of, right LDN and to compare the donor and recipient early outcomes of right retroperitoneal LDN to those of left transperitoneal LDN in a consecutive single-institution series.

Christopher S Ng; Sidney C Abreu; Hazem I Abou El-fettouh; Jihad H Kaouk; Mihir M Desai; David A Goldfarb; Inderbir S Gill

2004-01-01

411

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2010-04-01

412

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2012-04-01

413

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2011-04-01

414

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2013-04-01

415

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2014-04-01

416

Access to genetic information by donor offspring and donors: medicine, policy and law in New Zealand.  

PubMed

The issues of persons conceived as a result of donated gametes having access to genetic information concerning "their" donor remains controversial. New Zealand enacted legislation in 2004 giving offspring the right to learn the identity of the donor when they had reached the age of 18. This legislation followed changes in professional practice, consumer decision making and community attitudes that had accepted the right of offspring to having access to the genetic information concerning the donor. The law, therefore, confirmed current practice, rather than facing change. The way in which medicine and policy have contributed to the widespread acceptance of this new legislation is explored, as is the legislation itself. Four issues--the involvement of counsellors in ART teams, the impact of the consumer organization, the recognition of the cultural needs of the indigenous people and the impact of family law in New Zealand--that have contributed to this are explored, as are some of the issues that are now emerging as a result of this new legislation. PMID:18592887

Daniels, Ken; Douglass, Alison

2008-03-01

417

Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. Design Single blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. Participants 100 living kidney donors. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either laparoscopic donor nephrectomy or to mini incision muscle splitting open donor nephrectomy. Main

Desiree Pilzecker; Ben C Knipscheer; Eric J Hazebroek; Ine M Dooper; Willem Weimar; Wim C J Hop; Gert Jan van der Wilt; Hendrik J Bonjer; Jordanus A van der Vliet; Jan N M IJzermans; May Y Lind

418

Sequential Injection/Electrochemical Immunoassay for Quantifying the Pesticide Metabolite 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol  

SciTech Connect

An automated and sensitive sequential injection electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor a potential insecticide biomarker, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The current method involved a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell and permanent magnet, which was used to fix 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) antibody coated magnetic beads (TCP-Ab-MBs) in the reaction zone. After competitive immunoreactions among TCP-Ab-MBs, TCP analyte, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled TCP, a 3, 3?, 5, 5?-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) substrate solution was injected to produce an electroactive enzymatic product. The activity of HRP tracers was monitored by a square wave voltammetric scanning electroactive enzymatic product in the thin-layer flow cell. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate and the enzymatic product were investigated under batch conditions, and the parameters of the immunoassay were optimized in the SIA system. Under the optimal conditions, the system was used to measure as low as 6 ng L-1 (ppt) TCP, which is around 50-fold lower than the value indicated by the manufacturer of the TCP RaPID Assay? kit (0.25 ug/L, colorimetric detection). The performance of the developed immunoassay system was successfully evaluated on tap water and river water samples spiked with TCP. This technique could be readily used for detecting other environmental contaminants by developing specific antibodies against contaminants and is expected to open new opportunities for environmental and biological monitoring.

Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

2005-12-04

419

Simultaneous multianalyte immunoassay measurement of five serum tumor markers in the detection of colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Several serum tumor markers (STMs) have been proposed for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), but their detection should be combined to increase accuracy. The measurement of a serum biomarker panel may improve the diagnostic value of single STM and a multianalyte immunoassay approach can shorten assay time and lower sample consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether the simultaneous multianalyte immunoassay is useful for early detection of CRC. We measured a panel of five STMs namely, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 and 72-4, cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1, and osteopontin, in a selected homogeneous population of 102 consecutive patients (median age 66 years, range 42-75 years) with Dukes B, G1-2, colorectal adenocarcinoma (cases) and in a group of 99 age- and sex-matched patients suffering from confirmed benign colorectal diseases (controls). Overall, 141 (70.1%) men and 60 (29.9%) women were studied. The highest sensitivity was 45.1% (osteopontin), while the highest specificity was 90.9% (CEA). The accuracy was lower, ranging from 24.9% (CA 19-9) to 67.2% (CEA). CYFRA 21-1 and CA 72-4 had similar sensitivity (35.3% and 31.4%, respectively), but a significantly different specificity (37.4% vs. 89.9%). A combination of the five markers achieved 74.1% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity. In conclusion, in patients with CRC all single STMs show low sensitivity and specificity, while the simultaneous measurement of a panel of STMs may increase the diagnostic accuracy. When the sample volume is limited, the multianalyte immunoassay can be a reliable tool for studying patients undergoing laboratory screening for CRC. PMID:22399621

Lumachi, Franco; Marino, Filippo; Orlando, Rocco; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

2012-03-01

420

Sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for IgG using gold nanoparticle as label  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL-FIA) immunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) was developed using gold nanoparticle as CL label. In the configuration, anti-IgG antibody was immobilized on a glass capillary column surface by 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde to form immunoaffinity column. Analyte IgG and gold nanoparticle labeled IgG were passed through the immunoaffinity column mounted in a flow system and competed for the surface-confined anti-IgG antibody. CL emission was generated from the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Au (III), generated from chemically oxidative dissolution of gold nanoparticle by an injection of 0.10 mol L -1 HCl-0.10 mol L -1 NaCl solution containing 0.10 mmol L -1 Br 2. The concentration of analyte IgG was inversely related to the amount of bound gold nanoparticle labeled IgG and the CL intensity was linear with the concentration of analyte IgG from 1.0 ng mL -1 to 40 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10 -10 g mL -1. The whole assay time including the injections and washing steps was only 30 min for one sample, which was competitive with CL immunoassays based on a gold nanoparticle label and magnetic separation. This work demonstrates that the CL immunoassay incorporation of nanoparticle label and flow injection is promising for clinical assay with sensitivity and high-speed.

Qi, Honglan; Shangguan, Li; Liang, Lin; Ling, Chen; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

2011-11-01

421

Microchip-based immunoassays with application of silicon dioxide nanoparticle film.  

PubMed

Highly sensitive detection of proteins offers the possibility of early and rapid diagnosis of various diseases. Microchip-based immunoassay integrates the benefits from both immunoassays (high specificity of target sample) and microfluidics (fast analysis and low sample consumption). However, direct capture of proteins on bare microchannel surface suffers from low sensitivity due to the low capacity of microsystem. In this study, we demonstrated a microchip-based heterogeneous immunoassay using functionalized SiO(2) nanoparticles which were covalently assembled on the surface of microchannels via a liquid-phase deposition technique. The formation of covalent bonds between SiO(2) nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane substrate offered sufficient stability of the microfluidic surface, and furthermore, substantially enhanced the protein capturing capability, mainly due to the increased surface-area-to-volume ratio. IgG antigen and FITC-labeled anti-IgG antibody conjugates were adopted to compare protein-enrichment effect, and the fluorescence signals were increased by ~75-fold after introduction of functionalized SiO(2) nanoparticles film. Finally, a proof-of-concept experiment was performed by highly efficient capture and detection of inactivated H1N1 influenza virus using a microfluidic chip comprising highly ordered SiO(2) nanoparticles coated micropillars array. The detection limit of H1N1 virus antigen was 0.5 ng mL(-1), with a linear range from 20 to 1,000 ng mL(-1) and mean coefficient of variance of 4.71%. PMID:22526636

Li, Yun; Kang, Qin-Shu; Sun, Guo-Ping; Su, Li-Jin; Zheng, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Han-Zhong; He, Zhi-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

2012-06-01

422

Development of nanobody-based flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin.  

PubMed

Nanobodies, derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies, have novel and impactful applications in clinical diagnostics. Our objective is to develop a nanobody-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin (PA). In this context, a phage display nanobody library is constructed via immunizing dromedary camel with human prealbumin. Three nanobodies have been identified by five successive bio-panning steps. Based on their high expression level and good affinity, two out of three are chosen for further study. Magnetic beads (MBs) were functionalized with PEI by acylamide bond formed between the carboxyl group on the surface of the MB. Then, an anti-PA nanobody (Nb1) can be effectively immobilized onto the surface of the functionalized MB using glutaradehyde as the link. The modified MBs with Nb1 can specifically capture the target PA and reacted with silica nanoparticles with co-immobilized HRP and anti-PA nanobody (Nb2). The concentration of PA was detected by flow injection chemiluminescence. When using MB/PEI as the carrier of anti-PA Nb1, the CL signal significantly increased to 4-fold compared with the signal using MB without PEI modification. The CL signal was further amplified to 5-fold when Si/Nb2 was used as the signal probe. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a wide quantitative range from 0.05 to 1000 ?g L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.01 ?g L(-1). The sensitivity of the proposed immunoassay offers great promises in providing a sensitive, specific, time saving, and potential method for detecting PA in clinical settings. PMID:24874660

Ma, Lei; Sun, Yanyan; Kang, Xuejun; Wan, Yakun

2014-11-15

423

Homogeneous immunoassays based on fluorescence emission intensity variations of zinc selenide quantum dot sensors.  

PubMed

The fluorescence emission intensity of ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to proteins to form QD-based biomolecular sensors increases significantly upon binding of the sensors to target proteins in solution. This phenomenon enables the development of homogeneous, separation-free immunoassays for rapid quantitative detection of proteins in solution. Proof-of-principle assays were developed by dosing a solution containing a biomolecular target with a solution containing the corresponding QD-based sensor and monitoring the changes in the peak fluorescence emission intensity of the QDs. Direct immunoassays for detecting basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in solution were demonstrated using QD-anti-bFGF and QD-anti-PSA sensors. A competitive immunoassay for detecting human serum albumin (HSA) was also demonstrated by dosing samples containing HSA with QD-HSA sensors and free anti-HSA antibodies. The QD-HSA sensors were tested in 1000× diluted human serum and found to be unaffected by interference from other proteins. The lower limit of detection of the assays was equal to the lowest sensor concentration in the solution that can be unambiguously detected, typically less than 1 nM. The dynamic range of the assays was determined by identifying the sensor concentration above which optical interference between QDs affected adversely the observed fluorescence emission intensity. The upper limit of this concentration was 2.5 ?M for 4 nm QDs. The ZnSe QD-based sensors were stable and preserved ~80% of their initial peak emission intensity after two months in refrigerated storage. These biosensors have potential applications in rapid sensing of target proteins for emergency and point-of-care diagnostic applications. PMID:22960008

Wang, Jun; Mountziaris, T J

2013-03-15

424

A competitive immunoassay for sensitive detection of small molecules chloramphenicol based on luminol functionalized silver nanoprobe.  

PubMed

Chloramphenicol (CHL) as a broad-spectrum antibiotic has a broad action spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as anaerobes. The use of CHL is strictly restricted in poultry because of its toxic effect. However, CHL is still illegally used in animal farming because of its accessibility and low cost. Therefore, sensitive methods are highly desired for the determination of CHL in foodstuffs. The immunoassays based on labeling as an important tool have been reported for the detection of CHL residues in food-producing animals. However, most of the labeling procedures require multi-step reactions and purifications and thus they are complicated and time-consuming. Recently, in our previous work, luminol functionalized silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized, which exhibits higher CL efficiency than luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles. In this work, the new luminol functionalized silver nanoparticles have been used for the labeling of small molecules CHL for the first time and a competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay has been developed for the detection of CHL. Owing to the amplification of silver nanoparticles, high sensitivity for CHL could be achieved with a low detection limit of 7.6×10(-9) g mL(-1) and a wide linear dynamic range of 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-6) g mL(-1). This method has also been successfully applied to determine CHL in milk and honey samples with a good recoveries (92% and 102%, 99% and 107% respectively), indicating that the method is feasible for the determination of CHL in real milk and honey samples. The labeling procedure is simple, convenient and fast, superior to previously reported labeling procedures. The immunoassay is also simple, fast, sensitive and selective. It is of application potential for the determination of CHL in foodstuffs. PMID:24491787

Yu, Xiuxia; He, Yi; Jiang, Jie; Cui, Hua

2014-02-17

425

Hapten synthesis and antibody production for the development of a melamine immunoassay.  

PubMed

The incorporation of melamine into food products is banned but its misuse has been widely reported in both animal feeds and food. The development of a rapid screening immunoassay for monitoring of the substance is an urgent requirement. Two haptens of melamine were synthesized by introducing spacer arms of different lengths and structures on the triazine ring of the analyte molecular structure. 6-Aminocaproic acid and 3-mercaptopropionic acid were reacted with 2-chloro-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine (CAAT) to produce hapten 1 [3-(4,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino) hexanoic acid] and hapten 2 [3-(4,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylthio) propanoic acid], respectively. The molecular structures of the two haptens were identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, mass spectrometry and infrared spectrometry. An immunogen was prepared by coupling hapten 1 to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Two plate coating antigens were prepared by coupling both haptens to egg ovalbumin (OVA). A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) was developed to evaluate homogeneous and heterogeneous assay formats. The results showed that polyclonal antibodies with high titers were obtained, and the heterogeneous immunoassay format demonstrated a better performance with an IC(50) of 70.6 ng mL(-1), a LOD of 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a LOQ of 7.6 ng mL(-1). Except for cyromazine, no obvious cross-reactivity to common compounds was found. The data showed that the hapten synthesis was successful and the resultant antisera could be used in an immunoassay for the rapid and sensitive detection of this banned chemical. PMID:20381695

Lei, Hongtao; Shen, Yudong; Song, Lijun; Yang, Jinyi; Chevallier, Olivier P; Haughey, Simon A; Wang, Hong; Sun, Yuanming; Elliott, Christopher T

2010-04-14

426

Blood Donor Locator Service--Social Security Administration. Final rules.  

PubMed

We are issuing these final regulations to govern the Blood Donor Locator Service, which we will establish and conduct, as required by section 8008 of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-647). Under these regulations, we will furnish to participating States at their request the last known personal mailing address (residence or post office box) of blood donors whose blood donation shows that they are or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome, if the State or an authorized blood donation facility has been unable to locate the donors. If our records or those of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) contain an adequate personal mailing address for the donor, we will provide it to the State so that the State or the blood donation facility can inform the donor that he or she may need medical care and treatment. PMID:10116070

1991-12-24

427

Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors. PMID:24799876

Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

2014-03-01

428

Adiabatic Charge Control in a Single Donor Atom Transistor  

E-print Network

We charge an individual donor with electrons stored in a quantum dot in its proximity. A Silicon quantum device containing a single Arsenic donor and an electrostatic quantum dot in parallel is realized in a nanometric field effect transistor. The different coupling capacitances of the donor and the quantum dot with the control and the back gates are exploited to generate a relative rigid shift of their energy spectrum as a function of the back gate voltage, causing the crossing of the energy levels. We observe the sequential tunneling through the $D^{2-}$ and the $D^{3-}$ energy levels of the donor hybridized at the oxide interface at 4.2 K. Their respective states form an honeycomb pattern with the quantum dot states. It is therefore possible to control the exchange coupling of an electron of the quantum dot with the electrons bound to the donor, thus realizing a physical qubit for quantum information processing applications.

Enrico Prati; Matteo Belli; Simone Cocco; Guido Petretto; Marco Fanciulli

2010-05-18

429

Detection of the organophosphorus nerve agent sarin by a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two artificial antigens, N\\u000a ?N?-di(O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl l-lysine (DIP)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate (DIP-BSA) and DIP-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), were synthesized. Antibodies\\u000a against sarin (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) were obtained after immunization of rabbits with DIP-KLH conjugate. A competitive inhibition\\u000a enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA) was developed to detect the organophosphorus nerve agent sarin. The antibody solutions could be\\u000a inhibited by sarin as low

Yong-xin Zhou; Qing-jin Yan; Yun-xiang Ci; Zhen-quan Guo; Kang-Tai Rong; Wen-bao Chang; Yu-fen Zhao

1995-01-01

430

Optimization of Dengue Immunoassay by Label-Free Interferometric Optical Detection Method  

PubMed Central

In this communication we report a direct immunoassay for detecting dengue virus by means of a label-free interferometric optical detection method. We also demonstrate how we can optimize this sensing response by adding a blocking step able to significantly enhance the optical sensing response. The blocking reagent used for this optimization is a dry milk diluted in phosphate buffered saline. The recognition curve of dengue virus over the proposed surface sensor demonstrates the capacity of this method to be applied in Point of Care technology. PMID:24727502

Laguna, Maria F.; Holgado, Miguel; Sanza, Francisco J.; Lavin, Alvaro; Lopez, Ana; Casquel, Rafael

2014-01-01

431

An enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone - Applications to the study of growth hormone variants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone (GH) is described and its use in the detection of GH variants is demonstrated. In the present assay, soluble GH and GH adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-GH antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-GH complex is detected and quantified using goat antimonkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. It is noted that the assay can be performed in 27 hours and that sensitivities in the range of 0.19 to 25 ng can be obtained in the region of 10 to 90 percent binding.

Farrington, Marianne A.; Hymer, W. C.

1987-01-01

432

Laser Surface Treatment of Plastics for a Single-Channel Multiple Immunoassays Chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel micro immunoassay chip for detecting biomarkers in blood plasma has been developed by using an injector-based antibody immobilization. Since multiple detectors were made in a single channel, the chip was able to detect various biomarkers simultaneously. UV Laser processing of the substrate was performed to enhance immobilization of the antibody. In P1CP, which is a biomarker for osteoporosis, this simple plastic chip requires only 1 micro liter per lane of blood plasma and 30 min of reaction time, one twentieth the sample volume required for the ELISA-kit and six times the through put.

Ooie, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masato; Yamachoshi, Yuji; Nakahara, Tomonori; Abe, Kaori; Kataoka, Masatoshi

433

Enzyme Immunoassay versus Latex Agglutination Cryptococcal Antigen Assays in Adults with Non-HIV-Related Cryptococcosis.  

PubMed

We compared paired enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and latex agglutination (LA) assay results with 185 blood and 164 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 44 and 33 non-HIV cryptococcosis patients, respectively. The LA assay cutoff of 1:256 in the blood and 1:32 in the CSF was most highly predictive of a positive EIA result. The EIA missed 18.4% detected by the LA assay in the blood samples and 7.8% detected by the LA assay in the CSF samples. We note here the improved sensitivity of the LA assay over the EIA in non-HIV patients. PMID:25253799

Panackal, Anil A; Dekker, John P; Proschan, Michael; Beri, Andrea; Williamson, Peter R

2014-12-01

434

Rapid Flow Through Immunoassay for CRP Determination Based on Polyethylene Filters Modified with ?-Aminocellulose Carbamate.  

PubMed

A novel method for antibody immobilization is discussed and applied in a column based flow through immunoassay system (ABICAP). It is shown that porous polyethylene material can be modified with different ?-aminocellulose carbamates yielding an amino group containing biocompatible support for antibody immobilization. Anti-h CRP antibodies can be bound covalently to the surface via various homobifunctional cross-linkers. The antibody modified filters are validated for the CRP determination in a sandwich ABICAP system. In a 10?min test procedure based on colloidal dye particles, a limit of detection of 5?ng CRP mL(-1) and coefficients of variation of <9.1% are obtained. PMID:25088755

Elschner, Thomas; Scholz, Friedrich; Miethe, Peter; Heinze, Thomas

2014-11-01

435

Detection of HbA 1c by boronate affinity immunoassay using bacterial magnetic particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a boronate affinity immunoassay system using m-aminophenylboronic acid (mAPB) coupling to bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). Homobifunctional crosslinker, Bis-(succcimidyl)suberate (BS3), was employed for preparation of mAPB-BMPs conjugates (mAPB-BMPs). Quantities of HbA1c on mAPB-BMPs were evaluated based on luminescence from alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-Hb antibody (ALP–antibody) binding to HbA1c on the BMP surface. The binding of HbA1c to mAPB-BMPs occurred

Tsuyoshi Tanaka; Tadashi Matsunaga

2001-01-01

436

Development of a Dual Monoclonal Antibody Immunoassay for Total Human Kallikrein 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) shares 80% sequence identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Because both hK2 and hK2-a1-antichymotrypsin (hK2- ACT) complexes have been identified in patient sera, we devised an immunoassay for total hK2 ((thK2); hK2 and hK2-ACT) and evaluated it in healthy subjects and patients with prostate disease. Methods: We developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high specificity for hK2

Judith A. Finlay; John R. Day; Cindy L. Evans; Robert Carlson; Kristine Kuus-Reichel; Lisa S. Millar; Stephen D. Mikolajczyk; Marcia Goodmanson; George G. Klee; Harry G. Rittenhouse

2001-01-01

437

High-speed interferometric detection of label-free immunoassays on the biological compact disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe a direct-detection immunoassay that uses high-speed optical interferometry on a biological compact disc (BioCD). Methods: We fabricated phase-contrast BioCDs from 100-mm diameter 1.1-mm thick borosilicate glass disks coated with a 10-layer dielectric stack of Ta2O5\\/SiO2 that serves as a mirror with a center wavelength at 635 nm. The final layer is a lambda\\/4 layer of SiO2 onto

Ming Zhao; David Nolte; Wonryeon Cho; Fred Regnier; Manoj Varma; Greg Lawrence; John Pasqua