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1

Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.  

PubMed

The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

2013-06-01

2

Immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

3

Determination of Babesia microti seroprevalence in blood donor populations using an investigational enzyme immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Background Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis caused by Babesia microti has emerged as a significant risk to the US blood supply. This study estimated the prevalence of B. microti antibodies in blood donors using an investigational enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Study Design and Methods A peptide-based EIA that detects both immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM antibodies to B. microti was developed and validated. Donor samples randomly selected from areas defined as high-risk endemic, lower-risk endemic, and nonendemic for B. microti were deidentified and tested using the investigational EIA. Samples that were EIA repeat reactive were further tested by B. microti immunofluorescent assay (IFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on red blood cell lysates, and peripheral blood smear examination. A random subset of 1272 samples from high-risk endemic areas was tested by IFA, PCR, and peripheral blood smear in parallel with EIA. Results Among 15,000 donations tested with the investigational B. microti?EIA, EIA repeat-reactive rates were 1.08% (54/5000) in a high-risk endemic area, 0.74% (37/5000) in a lower-risk area, and 0.40% (20/5000) in a nonendemic area. After application of a revised cutoff, these values were reduced to 0.92%, (46/5000), 0.54% (27/5000), and 0.16% (8/5000). Overall concordance between EIA and IFA among donor samples was 99.34%. One seropositive sample was positive by PCR. Conclusion The seroprevalence of B. microti in blood donors in a high-risk area measured by an investigational EIA was approximately 1%. The EIA shows promise as an efficient high-throughput blood donor screening assay for B. microti. PMID:24995863

Levin, Andrew E; Williamson, Phillip C; Erwin, James L; Cyrus, Sherri; Bloch, Evan M; Shaz, Beth H; Kessler, Debra; Telford, Sam R; Krause, Peter J; Wormser, Gary P; Ni, Xiaoyan; Wang, Haihong; Krueger, Neil X; Caglioti, Sally; Busch, Michael P

2014-01-01

4

Comparison of immunoassay screening tests and LC-MS-MS for urine detection of benzodiazepines and their metabolites: results of a national proficiency test.  

PubMed

For most diverse purposes, different immunoassay (IA) screening methods are usually used to detect benzodiazepines and their metabolites in urine. In this study, we compared the main IAs used in forensic toxicology (Cloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay, CEDIA®; Enzyme-Multiplied Immunoassay Technique, EMIT®; Fluorescent Polarization ImmunoAssay, FPIA®; Kinetic Interaction of Microparticles in Solution, KIMS® and Immunochromatographic Techniques, IMC) with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Twelve urine specimens were analyzed by 178 laboratories in Italy that participated in a National Proficiency Test, providing both qualitative and semi-quantitative results. Each IA was evaluated by the parameters: true positive, true negative, false positive (FP), false negative (FN), sensitivity (SENS), specificity (SPEC), positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy. SPEC was affected by a high FP rate for all IAs. The lowest SENS and NPV were provided by FPIA due to a high number of FN cases. Comparing IA semi-quantitative data with LC-MS-MS results, an overestimation of benzodiazepine amount is noted. This paper draws attention to the problem of the careless use of IA tests for forensic purposes as they may provide FP and/or FN results that can lead to errors of great severity. PMID:23943436

Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Borsotti, Maurizio; Quercioli, Massimo; Mari, Francesco

2013-01-01

5

Time-Resolved Analysis of a Highly Sensitive Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Immunoassay Using Terbium Complexes as Donors and Quantum Dots as Acceptors  

PubMed Central

CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are used as efficient Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) acceptors in a time-resolved immunoassays with Tb complexes as donors providing a long-lived luminescence decay. A detailed decay time analysis of the FRET process is presented. QD FRET sensitization is evidenced by a more than 1000-fold increase of the QD luminescence decay time reaching ca. 0.5 milliseconds, the same value to which the Tb donor decay time is quenched due to FRET to the QD acceptors. The FRET system has an extremely large Förster radius of approx. 100 Å and more than 70% FRET efficiency with a mean donor-acceptor distance of ca. 84 Å, confirming the applied biotin-streptavidin binding system. Time-resolved measurement allows for suppression of short-lived emission due to background fluorescence and directly excited QDs. By this means a detection limit of 18 attomol QDs within the immunoassay is accomplished, an improvement of more than two orders of magnitude compared to commercial systems. PMID:18273412

Hildebrandt, Niko; Charbonnière, Loïc J.; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

2007-01-01

6

Determination of Designer Drug Cross-Reactivity on Five Commercial Immunoassay Screening Kits.  

PubMed

The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), ?-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, ?-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits. PMID:25492523

Regester, Laura E; Chmiel, Jeffrey D; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Bosy, Thomas Z

2014-12-01

7

Clinical immunoassay instrument markets  

SciTech Connect

The present status and future prospects of the market for clinical immunoassay instruments is discussed. The market shares for the five basic instrument types - nephelometric immunoassay, fluorescence immmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, luminescence immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay are presented. It is noted that radioimmunoassay hold a major, but decreasing, share of the market.

Not Available

1984-11-01

8

Determination of Ritalinic Acid in Autopsy Material Using SPE and  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toddler who had lived with drug addict parents, was found dead. The autopsy could not confirm any unequivocal cause of death. Therefore, a toxicological screening was ordered by the prosecutor. The goal of our examination was to identify or exclude drugs potentially contribu- ting to the death of the child. This screening involved Cloned-Enzyme-Donor-Immunoassay (CEDIA) and Fluorescence-Polarization-Immunoassay (FPIA), a

Waler Martz; Niels Tobias; Bernd Mühlbauer

9

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

DOEpatents

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

2007-12-04

10

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

DOEpatents

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

2013-07-16

11

Metal-enhanced immunoassays.  

PubMed

The surface-confined assay format is one of the most convenient detection formats used in many immunoassays. Fluorescence emission from monolayers of dyes requires a strong excitation and good detection system. Such samples are susceptible to artifacts due to background fluorescence from substrates. We demonstrate that using silver nanostructures deposited on the slide substrate can significantly enhance measured fluorescence, reduce unwanted background and increase photostability of the used probes. Using thin layers of polymer doped with fluorescein, we tested two nanostructures--silver island films (SIFs) deposited on glass slides and self-assembled colloidal structures (SACS) deposited on thin silver film. The SACS surfaces show extraordinary fluorescence enhancements: over 100-folds in hot spots. We applied these surfaces for enhanced Alexa488 model immunoassay. PMID:22573442

Gryczynski, Ignacy; Luchowski, Rafal; Matveeva, Evgenia G; Shtoyko, Tanya; Sarkar, Pabak; Borejdo, Julian; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

2012-01-01

12

Immunoassays of soy proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins of soybeans (Glycine max) are widely used in animal and human nutrition. In addition to the bulk of the seed storage proteins, which are classified as albumins and globulins, approximately 6% of soybean proteins are classified as inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin and approximately 0.5% are sugar-binding lectins. The two major classes of inhibitors are the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, which inhibits trypsin, and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which inhibits both trypsin and chymotrypsin. Unless removed or inactivated, these inhibitors and lectins can impair the nutritional quality and safety of soy-based diets. On the other hand, several studies suggest that BBI can also function as an anticarcinogen, possibly through interaction with a cellular serine protease. Good-quality soybean proteins contribute to the nutritional value of many specialty foods including infant soy formulas and milk replacers for calves, and provide texture to many processed foods. However, they may also induce occasional allergic responses in humans. This paper outlines immunoassays developed to analyze for soy proteins in different soybean lines, in processed foods, and in nonsoy foods fortified with soy proteins. An assessment of the current status of immunoassays, especially of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for soybean inhibitors of digestive enzymes, soy globulins, and soy lectins, demonstrates the usefulness of these methods in plant and food sciences and in medicine. PMID:12381163

Brandon, David L; Friedman, Mendel

2002-10-23

13

Donor Tag Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...

14

Mass spectrometric immunoassay.  

PubMed

A new, general method of immunoassay is demonstrated. The approach is based on the microscale immunoaffinity capture of target antigens followed by mass-specific identification and quantitation using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Immunoaffinity capture of antigens effectively overcomes signal suppression effects typically encountered during traditional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis of complex biological mixtures while simultaneously concentrating the analyte into a small volume. Mass spectrometric detection of antigens is unambiguous, as antigen signals are observed at characteristic mass-to-charge values in the mass spectrum, offering a high level of immunity to artifacts due to nonbiospecific retention of mixture components. However, the most important aspect of such mass-specific detection is the ability to use a single assay to screen biological systems for the presence of multiple, mass-resolved antigens. Analyte quantitation is possible by using a single antibody to capture both the antigen and an antigen variant which has been chemically modified to have a different mass. With proper calibration, the relative signal intensities of the two species in the mass spectrum can be used to determine the antigen concentration. Sample incubation and processing methods were such that a typical analysis could be performed in less than 1 h while subnanomolar sensitivities were maintained. The technique has been used for the rapid, selective, and quantitative screening of human blood for the presence of myotoxin a, and Mojave toxin form the venoms of the prairie rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis viridis, and and the Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus. PMID:15134097

Nelson, R W; Krone, J R; Bieber, A L; Williams, P

1995-04-01

15

Enzyme Inhibitor Screening Using a Homogeneous Proximity-Based Immunoassay for Estradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have previously reported a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence proximity immunoassay for estradiol. The assay was based on luminescence resonance energy transfer between a long lifetime fluorescent europium(III) chelate-dyed nanoparticle donor and a short lifetime, near-infrared fluorescent acceptor. The energy transfer prolonged the lifetime of the sensitized acceptor emission, and the fluorescence of the acceptor was measured using a time-resolved

Leena Kokko; Nina Johansson; Timo Lövgren; Tero Soukka

2005-01-01

16

A homogeneous chemiluminescent immunoassay method.  

PubMed

A new homogeneous chemiluminescent immunoassay method featuring the use of specific binding members separately labeled with an acridan-based chemiluminescent compound and a peroxidase is reported. Formation of an immunocomplex brings the chemiluminescent compound and the peroxidase into close proximity. Without any separation steps, a chemiluminescent signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of the analyte. PMID:23477541

Akhavan-Tafti, Hashem; Binger, Dean G; Blackwood, John J; Chen, Ying; Creager, Richard S; de Silva, Renuka; Eickholt, Robert A; Gaibor, Jose E; Handley, Richard S; Kapsner, Kenneth P; Lopac, Senja K; Mazelis, Michael E; McLernon, Terri L; Mendoza, James D; Odegaard, Bruce H; Reddy, Sarada G; Salvati, Michael; Schoenfelner, Barry A; Shapir, Nir; Shelly, Katherine R; Todtleben, Jeff C; Wang, Guoping; Xie, Wenhua

2013-03-20

17

Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay of Mycotoxins: A Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immunoassays are routinely used in the screening of commodities and foods for fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Demands to increase speed and lower costs have lead to continued improvements in such assays. Because many reported mycotoxins are low molecular weight (below 1 Kdal), immunoassays for their d...

18

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste  

E-print Network

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste Guomin Shan*, Wei Huang*, Shirley J. Gee with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled re- agents. The advantage of isotopic with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay

Hammock, Bruce D.

19

Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Living donor nephrectomy has been developed and promoted as a method to address the shortfall in kidneys available for transplantation. The classical method to procure a kidney from a living donor is the open donor nephrectomy performed through a flank lumbotomy incision. However, this classical method has negative short- and long-term side effects for the donor. These disincentives are a drawback for possible donors to donate a kidney. Therefore, transplant surgeons were stimulated to develop new and less invasive techniques. In this review several new open and laparoscopic techniques are described. Compared with open donor nephrectomy, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has shown superior results in terms of postoperative pain, cosmetics, convalescence, and return to normal daily activities. No significant differences exist between the two approaches in terms of complication rates, cost-effectiveness and graft function. Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has become the preferred method for procuring kidney grafts of living donors in many centres. PMID:20508268

Minnee, R C; Idu, M M

2010-05-01

20

Novel immunoassay formats for integrated microfluidic circuits: diffusion immunoassays (DIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel designs of integrated fluidic microchips allow separations, chemical reactions, and calibration-free analytical measurements to be performed directly in very small quantities of complex samples such as whole blood and contaminated environmental samples. This technology lends itself to applications such as clinical diagnostics, including tumor marker screening, and environmental sensing in remote locations. Lab-on-a-Chip based systems offer many *advantages over traditional analytical devices: They consume extremely low volumes of both samples and reagents. Each chip is inexpensive and small. The sampling-to-result time is extremely short. They perform all analytical functions, including sampling, sample pretreatment, separation, dilution, and mixing steps, chemical reactions, and detection in an integrated microfluidic circuit. Lab-on-a-Chip systems enable the design of small, portable, rugged, low-cost, easy to use, yet extremely versatile and capable diagnostic instruments. In addition, fluids flowing in microchannels exhibit unique characteristics ('microfluidics'), which allow the design of analytical devices and assay formats that would not function on a macroscale. Existing Lab-on-a-chip technologies work very well for highly predictable and homogeneous samples common in genetic testing and drug discovery processes. One of the biggest challenges for current Labs-on-a-chip, however, is to perform analysis in the presence of the complexity and heterogeneity of actual samples such as whole blood or contaminated environmental samples. Micronics has developed a variety of Lab-on-a-Chip assays that can overcome those shortcomings. We will now present various types of novel Lab- on-a-Chip-based immunoassays, including the so-called Diffusion Immunoassays (DIA) that are based on the competitive laminar diffusion of analyte molecules and tracer molecules into a region of the chip containing antibodies that target the analyte molecules. Advantages of this technique are a reduction in reagents, higher sensitivity, minimal preparation of complex samples such as blood, real-time calibration, and extremely rapid analysis.

Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hatch, Anson; Kamholz, Andrew E.; Yager, Paul

2000-03-01

21

Contacting My Donor Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at a ... can take to get started. The process of writing your letter may take some time, but at ...

22

Plasmonic Technology: Novel Approach to Ultrasensitive Immunoassays  

PubMed Central

At the Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy, we have taken advantage of the favorable properties of surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) to improve fluorescence-based immunoassays. SPCE occurs when excited fluorophores near conducting metallic structures efficiently couple to surface plasmons. These surface plasmons, appearing as free electron oscillations in the metallic layer, produce electromagnetic radiation that preserves the spectral properties of fluorophores but is highly polarized and directional. SPCE immunoassays provide several advantages over other fluorescence-based methods. This review explains new approaches to fluorescence immunoassays, including our own use of SPCE for simultaneous detection of more than one fluorescent marker and performance of immunoassays in the presence of an optically dense medium, such as whole blood. PMID:16055432

Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Malicka, Joanna; Matveeva, Evgenia; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

2009-01-01

23

Colorimetric Immunoassay for Detection of Tumor Markers  

PubMed Central

Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins, produced by the body in response to cancer growth, or by the cancer tissue itself. They can be detected in blood, urine, or tissue samples, and the discovery and detection of tumor markers may provide earlier diagnosis of cancer and improved therapeutic intervention. Colorimetric immunoassays for tumor marker detection have attracted considerable attention, due to their simplicity and high efficiency. The traditionally used colorimetric immunoassays for the detection of tumor markers are based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the great achievement of nanotechnology has further opened opportunities for the development of such kind of immunoassays. This paper will summarize recent advances in the field of colorimetric immunoassays for detecting tumor markers, which is aimed to provide an overview in this field, as well as experimental guidance for the learner. PMID:21614193

Yin, Yongmei; Cao, Ya; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Genxi

2010-01-01

24

Heterogeneous and homogeneous immunoassays for drug analysis.  

PubMed

Immunoassays are very useful techniques to perform screening and semi-quantitative analysis of hundreds of different xenobiotics. Small sample volumes are required and pretreatment is usually unnecessary (e.g., homogeneous immunoassays). Fully automated and high-throughput systems are available, which help physicians to take timely decisions. However, immunoassays do suffer from interference from both endogenous and exogenous factors that limit their application in quantitative analysis. These assays use different labels (e.g., colorimetric, fluorescent, chemiluminescent or electrochemiluminescent) and different methods for generating and measuring signals, but the basic principles are usually similar. This review outlines the practical aspects of immunoassays in bioanalysis and describes their application in clinical chemistry for xenobiotic analysis, namely medicines and drugs of abuse. PMID:25486233

Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

2014-11-01

25

GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S))  

E-print Network

1 GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S)) ("the Donor(s)") AND MCMASTER UNIVERSITY ("the University") I. THE GIFT (NAME OF DONOR(S)) have generously made a Gift of (X) to McMaster University. This generous Gift will be provided in the form (METHOD OF PAYMENT) according to the following schedule: II

Haykin, Simon

26

GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN NAME OF DONOR(S)  

E-print Network

1 GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN NAME OF DONOR(S) ("the Donor(s)") AND McMASTER UNIVERSITY ("the University") I. THE GIFT (NAME OF DONOR(S)) has generously made a Gift of (GIFT/PLEDGE $) to McMaster University (hereinafter the "Gift"). This Gift/Pledge will be provided in the form of (METHOD OF PAYMENT) according

Haykin, Simon

27

GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S))  

E-print Network

1 GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S)) ("the Donor(s)") AND MCMASTER UNIVERSITY ("the University") I. THE GIFT (DONORS NAME(S) have generously made a gift of (GIFT/PLEDGE AMOUNT) to McMaster University (hereinafter the "Gift"). This Gift/Pledge will be provided in the form of (METHOD OF PAYMENT

Haykin, Simon

28

Rich Donors, Poor Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

Thomas, M. A.

2012-01-01

29

Nanobodies and nanocrystals: highly sensitive quantum dot-based homogeneous FRET immunoassay for serum-based EGFR detection.  

PubMed

Semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals (QDs) for optical biosensing applications often contain thick polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based coatings in order to retain the advantageous QD properties in biological media such as blood, serum or plasma. On the other hand, the application of QDs in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) immunoassays, one of the most sensitive and most common fluorescence-based techniques for non-competitive homogeneous biomarker diagnostics, is limited by such thick coatings due to the increased donor-acceptor distance. In particular, the combination with large IgG antibodies usually leads to distances well beyond the common FRET range of approximately 1 to 10 nm. Herein, time-gated detection of Tb-to-QD FRET for background suppression and an increased FRET range is combined with single domain antibodies (or nanobodies) for a reduced distance in order to realize highly sensitive QD-based FRET immunoassays. The "(nano)(2) " immunoassay (combination of nanocrystals and nanobodies) is performed on a commercial clinical fluorescence plate reader and provides sub-nanomolar (few ng/mL) detection limits of soluble epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in 50 ?L buffer or serum samples. Apart from the first demonstration of using nanobodies for FRET-based immunoassays, the extremely low and clinically relevant detection limits of EGFR demonstrate the direct applicability of the (nano)(2-) assay to fast and sensitive biomarker detection in clinical diagnostics. PMID:24115738

Wegner, K David; Lindén, Stina; Jin, Zongwen; Jennings, Travis L; el Khoulati, Rachid; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Hildebrandt, Niko

2014-02-26

30

Immunoassay, biosensors and other nonchromatographic methods  

E-print Network

based technology to pesticides was not reported until 1970, when Centeno and Johnson developed antibodies that selec- tively bound malathion.4 A few years later, radioimmunoassays were developed for the detection of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The advantages of immunoassay

Hammock, Bruce D.

31

Laser Light Scattering Immunoassay for Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser light scattering immunoassay (LIA) was proposed as a prospective diagnostic method for the detection of antibody (or antigen) by monitoring the agglutination of antigen (or antibody) coated carrier particles using dynamic light scattering (DLS) as probe, LIA is a very sensitive assay as it can detect microscopic immune complexes even when antibody (or antigen) level is low. A sizeable

Priyaranjan Bhakat; Arati Roy; Kunal B. Roy; Anita Saxena; Himadri B. Bohidar

1999-01-01

32

IMMUNOASSAY FOR P-NITROPHENOL IN URINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary excretion of nitrophenol metabolites is an important index of human exposure to organophosphate pesticides. In particular, p-nitrophenol, a major urinary metabolite of parathion, can be used as a biomarker of human exposure. Immunoassay methods have been recently describe...

33

Monitoring human exposure to pesticides using immunoassay  

E-print Network

at the estimation of internal dose based on the fate of the compound in human body. Biological monitoring approachesMonitoring human exposure to pesticides using immunoassay Marja E. Koivunen1,2 , Shirley J. Gee1 of automated immunoanalyzers, immunosensors or microchips with flow-through systems. Biological monitoring

Hammock, Bruce D.

34

The right environment for the immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

For the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the first in-house research effort began in 1987, when results of an early immunoassay field study verified the technology`s potential for environmental applications. Looking at the fundamental features of immunochemical reactions from the clinical laboratories, analytical chemists realized the potential value of these methods for hazardous waste site characterization and pesticide monitoring. Immunoassays rely on the interaction between an antibody and a target analyte. For environmental purposes, enzyme immunoassays are generally used. After the target analyte binds to the antibody, an enzymatic reaction yields a colorimetric change. This change, read visually or by a spectrophotometer, indicates the concentration of the target analyte. Promising results with assays for compounds (such as paraquat and pentachlorophenol) and compound groups (such as total petroleum hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls) spurred interest among various entrepreneurs. The first target market for immunoassays was environmental engineers and field crews who needed quick answers on-site to determine the direction of further remediation efforts.

Emon, J.M. Van; Gerlach, C.L.

1995-11-01

35

COUPLING OF IMMUNOASSAYS WITH ENZYMATIC RECYCLING ELECTRODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic substrate regeneration is a tool to enhance the sensitivity of enzyme electrodes both for substrate analysis and immunoassays. The combination of immunoreactions and electrode based substrate recycling connects specific recognition of an analyte with highly sensitive detection. Most important for this field of application is the sensitivity, which permits to detect a label at very low concentration. Enzymatic substrate

Frieder W. Scheller; Christian G. Bauer; Alexander Makower; Ulla Wollenberger; Axel Warsinke; Frank F. Bier

2001-01-01

36

Finding a Donor  

MedlinePLUS

... business Public engagement Registry & patient services Research & science Information technology Search Open Jobs Employee benefits Career events Job application FAQs E-Verify Financial information Annual report Funding patient assistance Funding donor recruitment ...

37

TSE Diagnostics: Recent Advances in Immunoassaying Prions  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are a group of rare fatal neurodegenerative diseases, affecting humans and animals. They are believed to be the consequence of the conversion of the cellular prion protein to its aggregation-prone, ?-sheet-rich isoform, named prion. Definite diagnosis of TSEs is determined post mortem. For this purpose, immunoassays for analyzing brain tissue have been developed. However, the ultimate goal of TSE diagnostics is an ante mortem test, which would be sensitive enough to detect prions in body fluids, that is, in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine. Such a test would be of paramount importance also for screening of asymptomatic carriers of the disease with the aim of increasing food, drugs, and blood-derived products safety. In the present paper, we have reviewed recent advances in the development of immunoassays for the detection of prions. PMID:23970925

Lukan, Anja; Vranac, Tanja; ?urin Šerbec, Vladka

2013-01-01

38

Microbead-based electrochemical immunoassay with interdigitated array electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and miniaturized immunoassay by coupling a microbead-based immunoassay with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode. An IDA electrode amplifies the signal by recycling an electrochemically redox-reversible molecule. The microfabricated platinum electrodes had 25 pairs of electrodes with 1.6-?m gaps and 2.4-?m widths. An enzyme-labeled sandwich immunoassay on paramagnetic microbeads with mouse

Jennifer H Thomas; Sang Kyung Kim; Peter J Hesketh; H. Brian Halsall; William R Heineman

2004-01-01

39

Understanding donors' motivations: a study of unrelated bone marrow donors.  

PubMed

Medical advances in bone marrow transplantation techniques and immunosuppressive medications have dramatically increased the number of such transplants performed each year, and consequently, the demand for bone marrow from unrelated donors. Although physiological aspects of bone marrow donation have been thoroughly investigated, very few studies have examined psychosocial factors that may impact individuals' donation decisions and outcomes. To examine one particular set of donor psychosocial issues, this study investigated motives for bone marrow donation among 343 unrelated bone marrow donors who donated through the National Marrow Donor Program. Six distinct types of donor motives were identified from open-ended questionnaire responses. Donors most frequently reported motives reflecting some awareness of both the costs (to themselves) and potential benefits (to themselves and the recipient) of donation. A desire to act in accordance with social or religious precepts, expected positive feelings about donating, empathy for the recipient, and the simple desire to help another person were also commonly cited reasons for donating. Among a series of donor background characteristics, donors' gender was the variable most strongly associated with motive type; women were most likely to cite expected positive feelings, empathy, and the desire to help someone. Central study findings indicated that donor motives predicted donors reactions to donation even after the effects of donor background characteristics (including gender) were controlled. Donors who reported exchange motives (weighing costs and benefits) and donors who reported simple (or idealized) helping motives experienced the donation as less positive in terms of higher predonation ambivalence and negative postdonation psychological reactions than did remaining donors. Donors who reported positive feeling and empathy motives had the most positive donation reactions in terms of lower ambivalence, and feeling like better persons postdonation. These finding add substantially to the body of work concerning medical volunteerism generally, and also have important practical implications for the recruitment and education of potential bone marrow donors. PMID:9203278

Switzer, G E; Dew, M A; Butterworth, V A; Simmons, R G; Schimmel, M

1997-07-01

40

Effects of serum and plasma matrices on multiplex immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Multiplexed fluorescence or electrochemiluminescence immunoassays of soluble cytokines are commonly performed in the context of human serum or plasma, to look for disease biomarkers and to monitor the immune system in a simple and minimally invasive way. These assays provide challenges due to the complexities of the matrix (serum or plasma) and the presence of many cytokines near the limit of detection of the assay. Here, we compare the readout of matched serum and plasma samples, which are generally correlated. However, a subset of cytokines usually have higher levels in serum, and the non-specific background is significantly increased in serum versus plasma. Presumably as a result of this non-specific background, disease-related decreases in low-abundance cytokines can sometimes be detected in plasma but not in serum. We further show, through spike recovery experiments, that both serum and plasma inhibit the readout of many cytokines, with some variability between donors, but with serum causing greater inhibition than plasma in many cases. Standard diluents from different vendors can partially reverse this inhibition to varying degrees. Dilution of samples can also partly overcome the inhibitory effect of the matrix. We also show that dilution is nonlinear and differentially affects various cytokines. Together, these data argue that (1) plasma is a more sensitive matrix for detecting changes in certain low-abundance cytokines; (2) calculation of concentrations in serum or plasma matrices is inherently inaccurate; and (3) dilution of samples should not be assumed to be linear, i.e., all comparisons need to be made among similarly diluted samples. PMID:24522699

Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Hansmann, Leo; Liedtke, Michaela; Herschmann, Iris

2015-01-01

41

Current Trends in Immunoassay-Based Kits for Pesticide Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of pesticides and their metabolites in food and environmental samples in real time is the goal of many industries. Immunoassay technology has several attributes that make it a useful tool for screening purposes (e.g., selectivity, sensitivity, portability, and rapid turnaround time). Approximately 90% of the developed immunoassays for the pesticide residue analysis use the ELISA technique. Commercial kits are

José Antonio Gabaldón; Angel Maquieira; Rosa Puchades

1999-01-01

42

Paramagnetic bead based enzyme electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for TNT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay system for TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in which enzyme labelled antibodies bound to paramagnetic beads are concentrated on an electrode magnetically, and light emission is triggered electrochemically. Full details of the instrumentation used to carry out these immunoassays are described. The paramagnetic beads are coated with haptenylated dextrans prepared by substituting biotin and analogues of TNT

Robert Wilson; Charles Clavering; Alistair Hutchinson

2003-01-01

43

Advent of innovative chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Using 1,1'-oxalyldiimidazole (ODI) chemiluminescence detection, a new chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed to quantify prostate specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. The results observed in ODI CLEIA were compared with those obtained in commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA), and luminol CLEIA. PSA complex-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was formed from one-step sandwich immunoreaction of PSA, PSA primary antibody and PSA secondary antibody-conjugated HRP for 15 min in a strip-well at 36.5°C. CL substrate solution (Amplex Red and H2O2 in PBS buffer, pH 7.4) was added in the washed strip-well and incubated for 10 min at room temperature. When resorufin formed in this process was mixed with 1,1'-oxalyldi-4-methylimidazole and H2O2 in a testing tube, rapid and bright CL was observed. Detection limit (0.035 ng/ml) of PSA in ODI CLEIA was much lower than those (0.50 and 0.25 ng/ml) in commercially available ELISA and luminol CLEIA even though total incubation time of the former (25 min) was shorter than those of the latter (45 and 35 min). Also, the dynamic range (0-100 ng/ml, R2=0.9996) of ODI CLEIA was wider than those of other EIAs. In conclusion, the excellent correlation (r=0.9767) between ODI CLEIA and Advia Centaur XP Immunoassay System indicates that the accurate, precise, and rapid ODI CLEIA can be applied as a novel CLEIA capable of diagnosing and monitoring various diseases. PMID:20739174

Lee, Ji Hoon; Rho, Jee-Eun R; Rho, Tae-Ho D; Newby, John G

2010-10-15

44

Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial–antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

2007-12-15

45

Fluorescent immunoassay visualization of sorbed pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Current methods of detecting sorbed soil pollutants require that the contaminant be extracted from the soil. In an effort to make detection simpler and safer, standard fluorescent immunoassay techniques are being modified to allow fluorescent tags on the pollutant to be viewed and photographed with epifluorescent microscopy. Initial research focuses on detecting chlorinated benzenes on various soil types and developing a technique for tagging these pollutants with appropriate antibodies. This should lead to detection in actual soil cores and a better understanding of how contaminants progress through different soils.

Moore, W.K.; Mossman, D.J. [Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, Kansas City, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwab, A.P. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Feldbush, T.L. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

46

Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

47

Quantum-dot-basedFörster resonance energy transfer immunoassay for sensitive clinical diagnostics of low-volume serum samples.  

PubMed

A myriad of quantum dot (QD) biosensor examples have emerged from the literature over the past decade, but despite their photophysical advantages, QDs have yet to find acceptance as standard fluorescent reagents in clinical diagnostics. Lack of reproducible, stable, and robust immunoassays using easily prepared QD-antibody conjugates has historically plagued this field, preventing researchers from advancing the deeper issues concerning assay sensitivity and clinically relevant detection limits on low-volume serum samples. Here we demonstrate a ratiometric multiplexable FRET immunoassay using Tb donors and QD acceptors, which overcomes all the aforementioned limitations toward application in clinical diagnostics. We demonstrate the determination of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in 50 ?L serum samples with subnanomolar (1.6 ng/mL) detection limits using time-gated detection and two different QD colors. This concentration is well below the clinical cutoff value of PSA, which demonstrates the possibility of direct integration into real-life in vitro diagnostics. The application of IgG, F(ab')2, and F(ab) antibodies makes our homogeneous immunoassay highly flexible and ready-to-use for the sensitive and specific homogeneous detection of many different biomarkers. PMID:23909574

Wegner, K David; Jin, Zongwen; Lindén, Stina; Jennings, Travis L; Hildebrandt, Niko

2013-08-27

48

Blood Donor Management in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

2014-01-01

49

Automated fluorescence polarization immunoassay for monitoring streptomycin.  

PubMed Central

The fluorescence polarization immunoassay technique has been used previously for the assay of vancomycin and the aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin). We extended this technique to assay streptomycin. Fluorescein-labeled streptomycin was used as the tracer, and antiserum specific for streptomycin was raised in rabbits by conventional procedures. Tracer, sample, and diluted antiserum were combined, and the polarization of tracer fluorescence was determined in a specially designed fluorometer (Abbott TDx). Because of the instrument design, the possibility of fluorescent interferences was eliminated. The coefficient of variation within run was 4% (n = 5), and between run it was 5% (n = 5). We compared the fluorescence polarization immunoassay technique (TDx streptomycin) with a conventional bioassay, using Bacillus subtilis for clinical specimens (n = 39). A least-squares linear regression analysis gave a slope of 1.16, an intercept of 2.41 mg/liter, and a correlation coefficient of 0.885. Repeat analyses by both techniques showed that the largest discrepancies could be explained by the imprecision of the bioassay. PMID:6347058

Schwenzer, K S; Anhalt, J P

1983-01-01

50

Fluorimetric Immunoassay for Multianalysis of Aflatoxins  

PubMed Central

A sensitive fluorimetric ELISA was developed for the analysis of aflatoxins. The assay was performed in a 384 microwell plate, wherein high specificity monoclonal antibody against AFM1 (mAb-AFM1) was used as capture antibody and FITC conjugated secondary antibody was used for detection and quantification of the analyte. The linear range of the immunoassay was found to be 6.25–50?pg/mL. AFM1 as low as 1?pg/mL was detected by this method with assay volume 40??L. The multi-analysis of different aflatoxins was also investigated in the microwell plate, based on the cross-reactivity (CR) approach. Real milk samples were tested along with certified reference material by standard addition method and recovery analysis was done. The mAb-AFM1 showed 23.2% CR with AFB1, 50% CR with respect to AFM2, and least CR towards AFG1 (<1%). Furthermore, mixture analysis of AFM2 and AFB1 was carried out at specific concentrations of AFM1. The advantages of this developed immunoassay are high sensitivity, high throughput, multianalyte detection, versatility, and ease of handling. PMID:24000318

2013-01-01

51

Development and validation of a NANOGold immunoassay for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human serum using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work aimed to develop and validate a NANOGold based assay, quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), for the detection of human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) in serum. The initial assay range based on calibration standards was 62.5-2000 pg/mL with a detection limit of approximately 30 pg/mL. After validation using spiked validation controls, a quantification range between 175 and 1928 pg/mL was obtained. The inter-assay precision was between 2.3 and 18.9% with accuracy between -8.8 and -3.1%. Additional performance parameters, including dilutional linearity, matrix specificity and time-factored drift, were within +/-20%, as defined by the validation acceptance criteria for the validation of macromolecule immunoassays used within our clinical environment. Serum samples from healthy donors were analysed to determine the endogenous levels of VEGF present; these ranged from 164 to 580 pg/mL with a mean of 273 pg/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precision obtained from the healthy donor samples were 1.3-10.7% and 4.2-17.5%, respectively. This demonstration of a validated immunoassay opens further possibilities, utilising the simultaneous detection capabilities of ICP-MS for the detection of multiple analytes in a single validated immunoassay, for routine use within a clinical environment. PMID:20196195

Thompson, David F; Eborall, William; Dinsmore, Andrew; Smith, Christopher J; Duckett, Catherine J

2010-04-15

52

Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

1996-01-01

53

DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

54

Donor compensation: an ethical imperative!  

PubMed

The number of living organ donors is increasing worldwide, but donor needs are widely neglected in support of anticommodification policies. This article argues that the warrant of donor autonomy during the decision process to donate is only one requirement of adequate donor care. Another is the donor's protection against the systematic and institutional exploitation of his altruistic dispositions. People with the disposition to support those, who are in desperate need, with a nonrenewable part of their own body, despite a small but unavoidable risk of death or health impairment, do not deserve to be additionally burdened with further disincentives, such as financial risks and uncompensated costs of donation. And although the borderline between a morally required disincentive removal and a more controversial net incentive to boost donation might be vague and open to discussion, to disadvantage living donors by design constitutes a serious barrier to the fairness of living organ donation-a barrier that should be removed. PMID:20172295

Reichardt, J-O

2010-01-01

55

Microretroreflector-sedimentation immunoassays for pathogen detection.  

PubMed

Point-of-care detection of pathogens is medically valuable but poses challenging trade-offs between instrument complexity and clinical and analytical sensitivity. Here we introduce a diagnostic platform utilizing lithographically fabricated micron-scale forms of cubic retroreflectors, arguably one of the most optically detectable human artifacts, as reporter labels for use in sensitive immunoassays. We demonstrate the applicability of this novel optical label in a simple assay format in which retroreflector cubes are first mixed with the sample. The cubes are then allowed to settle onto an immuno-capture surface, followed by inversion for gravity-driven removal of nonspecifically bound cubes. Cubes bridged to the capture surface by the analyte are detected using inexpensive, low-numerical aperture optics. For model bacterial and viral pathogens, sensitivity in 10% human serum was found to be 10(4) bacterial cells/mL and 10(4) virus particles/mL, consistent with clinical utility. PMID:25133758

Garvey, Gavin; Shakarisaz, David; Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Hagström, Anna E V; Raja, Balakrishnan; Pascente, Carmen; Kar, Archana; Kourentzi, Katerina; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Ruchhoeft, Paul; Willson, Richard C

2014-09-16

56

Competitive Quenching Fluorescence Immunoassay for Chlorophenols Based on  

E-print Network

and Department of Entomology and UCD Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 An improved. The detectability achieved is sufficient for occupational exposure risk assessment. Fluorescent detection methods the opportunity for miniaturization and high- throughput screening. Fluorescence immunoassays (fluoroimmu

Hammock, Bruce D.

57

A computer program for estimating imprecision characteristics of immunoassays.  

PubMed

A reliable numerical algorithm is described, together with a computer program written in FORTRAN IV and FORTRAN 77, for estimating a three-parameter variance function by approximate conditional likelihood. The function is sufficiently flexible to provide for a several thousand-fold relative change in variance and appears to be a good model for the severely heteroscedastic results obtained from immunoassays. The computer program is primarily intended for summarizing imprecision characteristics of immunoassays in the form of imprecision profiles, but the estimated variance functions have additional application whenever further parametric analysis of immunoassay results is undertaken (e.g., as a weighting function when immunoassay results are used in a least-squares regression analysis). The flexibility of the function implies useful application in any area where heteroscedasticity is particularly severe. PMID:2335070

Sadler, W A; Smith, M H

1990-04-01

58

A rapid, near infrared, whole blood immunoassay using metal nanoshells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a rapid, whole blood immunoassay with the capacity to detect various analytes would greatly benefit point-of-care or public health applications, where there is a strong demand for the rapid, high throughput screening of blood-borne species. Immunoassays, with their high affinity\\/specificity, show the most promise for implementing such a system. Nevertheless, conventional methods, such as the enzyme linked

L. R. Hirsch; N. J. Halas; J. L. West

2002-01-01

59

Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge  

SciTech Connect

Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use.

Lukens, H.R. [Diametrix Detectors, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

60

Seroprevalence of human T lymphotropic virus antibodies among healthy blood donors at a tertiary centre in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Transmission of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) occurs from mother to child, by sexual contact and blood transfusion. Presently, in most centres in Nigeria, there is no routine pre-transfusion screening for HTLV. The study aims to determine the prevalence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 among healthy blood donors at a tertiary centre in Lagos. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at the blood donor clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja. About 5mls of venous blood was collected from each subject into a sterile plain bottle after obtaining subject's consent. The serum separated and stored at -200C. Sera were assayed for HTLV by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to HTLV 1 and HTLV -2. Western blot confirmatory testing was done on reactive samples. All donors were also screened for HIV, HBsAg and HCV by rapid kits. Results The seroprevalence of HTLV -1 by ELISA was 1.0% and 0.5% by Western Blot among blood donors. A total of 210 healthy blood donors were enrolled. Only 2 (1.0%) blood donors were repeatedly reactive with ELISA test. On confirmatory testing with Western Blot, 1 (0.5%) blood donor was positive for HTLV. All the healthy blood donors were negative for HIV, HbsAg and HCV. None of the 210 blood donors had been previously transfused; as such no association could be established between transfusion history and HTLV positivity among the blood donors. Conclusion The seroprevalence of HTLV in this environment is low among healthy blood donors. PMID:25328597

Durojaiye, Idris; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Ajibola, Sarah; Adediran, Adewumi; Uche, Ebele; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Odesanya, Majeed; Dada, Akinola; Okunoye, Olaitan

2014-01-01

61

Improvement of the lectin-antibody enzyme immunoassay of the alphafetoprotein carbohydrate chain for automation with the enzyme immunoassay robot.  

PubMed

The lectin-antibody enzyme immunoassay of the alphafetoprotein-L3 carbohydrate chain, a tumor marker of liver cancer, has not been automated. We improved the technique of the assay for automation. Consequently, alphafetoprotein-L3 and total alphafetoprotein were detected with two lectins using an automatic paramagnetic bead handling robot. This indicates that the improved method is potentially applicable to the automated enzyme immunoassay robot. PMID:16116296

Tamano, Koichi; Sugiura, Mika; Natsuki, Jun; Sawakami-Kobayashi, Kazumi; Tajima, Hideji; Machida, Masayuki

2005-08-01

62

Donor registries and search strategies.  

PubMed

The optimal donor of hematopoietic progenitor cells shares alleles of the major histocompatibility genes with the recipient. This chapter describes the strategies aimed at identifying such a matched donor from registries of volunteers or from umbilical cord blood banks. PMID:22665254

Hurley, Carolyn K; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Setterholm, Michelle

2012-01-01

63

Donor Registries and Search Strategies  

PubMed Central

Summary The optimal donor of hematopoietic progenitor cells shares alleles of the major histocompatibility genes with the recipient. This chapter describes the strategies aimed at identifying such a matched donor from registries of volunteers or from umbilical cord blood banks. PMID:22665254

Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Setterholm, Michelle

2013-01-01

64

Techniques in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.  

PubMed

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Innovations in laparoscopic surgery have provided transplant surgeons with a range of techniques as well as a vast array of minimally invasive instruments. Whilst randomized control trials have compared open and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, there is a paucity of high quality data comparing different laparoscopic approaches. This article summarizes the main techniques of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy currently in use and reviews the evidence available for each. In addition, controversial aspects of donor nephrectomy are examined, including the technological advances applicable to this operation. Increasing numbers of living donor kidney transplants are being performed worldwide, and the majority of donor operations are now laparoscopic. Transperitoneal 'pure' and hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy are the two most commonly performed procedures, although retroperitoneal approaches are advocated by some centres. Controversy persists with respect to the technical aspects of donor nephrectomy, including both the approach and the method of ligation of the hilar vessels. More recently, robot-assisted, laparo-endoscopic single site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) -assisted donor nephrectomy have also been performed, further increasing the number of options available, but creating uncertainty as to the ideal approach. PMID:22489654

Banga, Neal; Nicol, David

2012-11-01

65

Hepatitis B escape mutants in Scottish blood donors.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains as the viral infection with the highest risk of transmission by transfusion. This risk is associated with window period donations, occult HBV infection (OBI) and the emergence of escape mutants, which render blood donations false negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serological testing. A retrospective study was conducted to gain insights into the molecular epidemiology of HBV escape mutants in Scottish blood donors. The criterion for selection was HBV positivity either by serology or nucleic acid testing (NAT). HBsAg detection was compared across several commercial immunoassays. The full length S gene from plasma samples was PCR amplified, cloned and expressed in HepG2 cells. Eight samples showed HBsAg discordant results, while 5 OBI samples were found. Four escape mutants, containing missense mutations in the S gene, are described here. These mutations impaired HBsAg detection both from HBV infected plasma samples and from recombinant proteins derived from its infected donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the mutants were clustered in the genotype D and were closely related to strains from Asia and the Middle East. We report here a proline substitution, outside the major hydrophilic region, that impaired HBsAg detection in vivo and in vitro, warning about the risk for the emergence of vaccine escape mutants with mutations outside the major neutralisation site. PMID:23274404

Larralde, Osmany; Dow, Brian; Jarvis, Lisa; Davidson, Fiona; Petrik, Juraj

2013-06-01

66

The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme  

PubMed Central

Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K? or k? donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region, which were transfused to 2,365 patients with no untoward effects. Discussion Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, which recently joined the ISBT Working Party on Rare Donors, contributed to increase blood transfusion safety and efficacy inside and outside Lombardy. PMID:23522888

Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

2014-01-01

67

Sequential injection immunoassay utilizing immunomagnetic beads.  

PubMed

A novel sequential injection immunoassay (SIIA) method is described which utilizes immunomagnetic beads to investigate short-time antibody binding. The method is versatile and flexible and may therefore be adapted to many different applications. Initial results for a competitive assay are also presented. The immunomagnetic bead reactor is created within the flowing stream by retaining immunomagnetic beads with an electromagnet to form an open tube reactor. Thus, the spent beads may be discharged after each analysis. This eliminates the problems of instability of reaction surfaces and eliminates the need for additional time traditionally required for regeneration of the solid-reacting phase in order to not only save time and increase sampling frequency but also to provide each individual sampling cycle with a fresh, uniform portion of beads. The spent beads are collected off line and may be regenerated later. Short-time binding kinetic studies demonstrate linear initial binding under 1 min, which then begins to reach saturation in approximately 10 min. Competitive binding assays of monoclonal mouse IgG (MRC OX-19) to polyclonal sheep anti-mouse IgG immobilized to the immunomagnetic beads show reproducible linear displacement in 30-120-s reactions. Fluorescence detection is utilized with a detection limit of 155 ng/mL, and since the reaction time is typically 2 min or shorter, the sampling frequency is 30 samples/h. PMID:1503215

Pollema, C H; Ruzicka, J; Christian, G D; Lernmark, A

1992-07-01

68

Single molecule immunoassay on plasmonic platforms.  

PubMed

We examined the photophysical properties of the new near infrared (NIR) fluorescent label SeTau-665 on a plasmonic platform of self- assembled colloidal structures (SACS) of silver prepared on a semitransparent silver film. A SeTau-665 immunoassay was performed on this platform and a control glass slide. The fluorescence properties of this label substantially change due to plasmonic interactions. While the average brightness increase of SeTau 665 in ensemble measurements was about 70-fold, fluorescence enhancements up to four-hundred times were observed on certain "hot spots" for single molecule measurements. The intensity increase is strongly correlated with a simultaneous decrease in fluorescence lifetime in these "hot spots". The large increase in brightness allows the reduction of the excitation power resulting in a reduced background and increased photostability. The remarkable fluorescence enhancements observed for SeTau 665 on our plasmonic platform should allow to substantially improve single molecule detection and to reduce the detection limits in sensing devices. PMID:19929821

Luchowski, R; Matveeva, E G; Shtoyko, T; Sarkar, P; Patsenker, L D; Klochko, O P; Terpetschnig, E A; Borejdo, J; Akopova, I; Gryczynski, Z; Gryczynski, I

2010-01-01

69

Multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for mycotoxin determination.  

PubMed

A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is proposed for qualitative and/or semiquantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and their analogues (AFs, ZEAs, DONs) in cereal samples. Each of the mycotoxin specific antibody was class specific and there was no cross reactivity to other groups of compounds. The visual limits of detection (vLOD) of the strip were 0.03, 1.6, and 10 ?g/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. The calculated limits of detection (cLOD) were 0.05, 1, and 3 ?g/kg, respectively. Meanwhile the cutoff values were achieved at 1, 50, and 60 ?g/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 80% to 122% and RSD from 5% to 20%. Both the vLOD and cLOD for the three mycotoxins were lower than the EU maximum levels. Analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between the multiplex LFA and LC-MS/MS (100% for DONs and AFs, and 81% for ZEAs). Careful analysis of the results further explained the general overestimation of LFA compared to chromatographic methods for quantification of mycotoxins. PMID:24745689

Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Zhao, Zhiyong; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Wu, Songling; Sun, Changpo; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

2014-05-20

70

[Altruism and the donor].  

PubMed

On December 20, 1988, the government of France passed a law to protect people who voluntarily participate in biomedical research. This article makes extensive reference to a major study, titled From Biology to Ethics, by Jean Bernard, a well-respected authority in the field of bioethics. The author looks at models proposed by Bernard, as examples for health volunteers, in particular, the blood donor and the self-experimenter. To set the tone of the article, she recalls the concept of altruism, as first proposed by Auguste Comte, then makes a linkage between his philosophy and Bernard's point of view. By trial and error, in their discussions, various ethics committees and the French State Council have agreed upon what constitutes fair compensation under the law. Unlike their Canadian counterparts, medical researchers in France have free access to volunteers who are not in perfect health--e.g., the elderly, people suffering from kidney deficiency, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.--but these "experimental subjects" receive no monetary compensation. Thus, healthy and less-than-healthy volunteers do not receive equal treatment under the law. This inequity, added to the fear of what amounts to a tax on the human body and the difficulty of ensuring just compensation, is giving rise to a great deal of uncertainty. PMID:1878857

Langlois, A

1991-08-01

71

Concentration Gradient Immunoassay I. A Rapid Immunoassay Based on Interdiffusion and Surface Binding in a Microchannel  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel microfluidic immunoassay method based on the diffusion of a small molecule analyte into a parallel-flowing stream containing cognate antibody. This interdiffusion results in a steady-state gradient of antibody binding site occupancy transverse to convective flow. In contrast to the diffusion immunoassay (Hatch et al. Nature Biotechnology,19:461?465 (2001)), this antibody occupancy gradient is interrogated by a sensor surface coated with a functional analog of the analyte. Antibodies with at least one unoccupied binding site may specifically bind to this functionalized surface, leading to a quantifiable change in surface coverage by the antibody. SPR imaging is used to probe the spatial distribution of antibody binding to the surface and, therefore, the outcome of the assay. We show that the pattern of antibody binding to the SPR sensing surface correlates with the concentration of a model analyte (phenytoin) in the sample stream. Using an inexpensive disposable microfluidic device, we demonstrate assays for phenytoin ranging in concentration from 75 to 1000 nM in phosphate buffer. At a total volumetric flow rate of 90 nL/sec, the assays are complete within 10 minutes. Inclusion of an additional flow stream on the side of the antibody stream opposite to that of the sample enables simultaneous calibration of the assay. This assay method is suitable for rapid quantitative detection of low-molecular weight analytes for point-of-care diagnostic instrumentation. PMID:17437332

Nelson, Kjell E.; Foley, Jennifer O.; Yager, Paul

2008-01-01

72

The Effects of Sample Matrices on Immunoassays to Detect Microcystin-LR in Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Immunoassays are widely used biochemical techniques to detect microcystins in environmental samples. The use of immunoassays for the detection of microcystins is vulnerable to matrix components and other interferents. This study is an evaluation of the effects of interf...

73

SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) REPORT FOR THE WESTINGHOUSE BIOANALYTICAL SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) IMMUNOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of the demonstration of two Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems (WBAS) immunoassay technologies are described in this report. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in environmental water samples. The study was conducted under the...

74

DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)  

EPA Science Inventory

Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic ...

75

Synthesis of Haptens and Protein Conjugates for the Development of Immunoassays for the Insect Growth Regulator  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Haptens and Protein Conjugates for the Development of Immunoassays for the Insect design; synthesis of haptens and protein conjugates; polyclonal antibodies; ELISA; immunoassay to produce protein conjugates and rabbit polyclonal antisera. Amino derivatives of fenoxycarb at the terminal

Hammock, Bruce D.

76

How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors  

PubMed Central

This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:??d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

2014-01-01

77

Lanthanide-based time-resolved luminescence immunoassays.  

PubMed

The sensitive and specific detection of analytes such as proteins in biological samples is critical for a variety of applications, for example disease diagnosis. In immunoassays a signal in response to the concentration of analyte present is generated by use of antibodies labeled with radioisotopes, luminophores, or enzymes. All immunoassays suffer to some extent from the problem of the background signal observed in the absence of analyte, which limits the sensitivity and dynamic range that can be achieved. This is especially the case for homogeneous immunoassays and surface measurements on tissue sections and membranes, which typically have a high background because of sample autofluorescence. One way of minimizing background in immunoassays involves the use of lanthanide chelate labels. Luminescent lanthanide complexes have exceedingly long-lived luminescence in comparison with conventional fluorophores, enabling the short-lived background interferences to be removed via time-gated acquisition and delivering greater assay sensitivity and a broader dynamic range. This review highlights the potential of using lanthanide luminescence to design sensitive and specific immunoassays. Techniques for labeling biomolecules with lanthanide chelate tags are discussed, with aspects of chelate design. Microtitre plate-based heterogeneous and homogeneous assays are reviewed and compared in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and convenience. The great potential of surface-based time-resolved imaging techniques for biomolecules on gels, membranes, and tissue sections using lanthanide tracers in proteomics applications is also emphasized. PMID:21556751

Hagan, A K; Zuchner, T

2011-07-01

78

Being a Living Donor: Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... long term complications: Long-Term Organ Specific Donor Complications Kidney Hypertension Kidney failure Proteinuria Lung Intra-operative ventricular fibrillation arrest Postoperative pulmonary artery thrombosis Bronchopleural fistula Pleural effusion Empyema ...

79

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... donor, particularly because they’re at long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively such as wound infections. People with a ...

80

Donor states in inverse opals  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50?nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

Mahan, G. D. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2014-09-21

81

Donor states in inverse opals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

Mahan, G. D.

2014-09-01

82

Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

2011-01-01

83

Complications of Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a unique surgical procedure due to the fact that the surgeon is operating on a healthy\\u000a individual in order to benefit another patient he or she is unlikely managing, with a potential for complications ensuing\\u000a in both the donor and the recipient patients. Overall surgical technique, anatomic considerations, and perioperative management\\u000a remain important for minimizing the

Alexei Wedmid; Michael A. Palese

84

Antigen excess in modern immunoassays: to anticipate on the unexpected.  

PubMed

Immunoassays measuring sera with high analyte concentration may be prone to an artifact that causes underestimation of the analyte concentration. This phenomenon is generally described as antigen excess or the prozone effect. Characteristically, serum with high concentrations of a certain analyte can give a false negative/low result when tested at the recommended dilution, but reacts strongly positive upon further dilution. Increased insight of the antigen excess mechanisms and tools to prevent it has reduced the analytical problems caused by prozone effects in daily laboratory practice. However, misinterpretation of laboratory results caused by antigen excess does still occur, in virtually any type of immunoassay. Awareness by the laboratory specialist of the mechanisms underlying antigen excess in the different immunoassays, strategies to detect it, and adequate communication with clinicians can help to avoid reporting false negative test-results. PMID:25461469

Jacobs, Joannes F M; van der Molen, Renate G; Bossuyt, Xavier; Damoiseaux, Jan

2015-02-01

85

Detection of bound residues in soils by sandwich-immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassays are useful analytical instruments for the detection of many environmental compounds. This method was not introduced for the detection of non-extractable compounds in soil. So-called ``bound residues`` consist of a soil component, e.g. humic acids and an irreversibly bound pollutant. Because of the complexity of those macromolecules conventional analytical methods in general do not work. Enzyme immunoassays, in contrast, seem to have a large potential for applications and further developments in this field. The use of antibodies with high affinity to the analytes makes a selective detection of environmental pollutants possible. With the development of an enzyme-labeled sandwich-immunoassay polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) irreversibly bound to humic acids were determined for the first time.

Dosch, M.; Weller, M.G.; Niessner, R. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Institute of Hydrochemistry

1995-12-31

86

Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.

2011-01-01

87

Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

2014-01-01

88

The Challenge of Improving Donor Heart Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart transplantation has in recent years become the treatment of choice for end stage heart failure. However while the waiting list for transplantation is growing steadily, the donor pool is not increasing. Therefore, in order to meet demand, transplant programs are using older, “marginal donors” and accepting longer ischaemic times for their donor hearts. As donor organs are injured as

Graham D. McCrystal; Salvatore Pepe; Donald S. Esmore; Franklin L. Rosenfeldt

2004-01-01

89

Robust detection of peak signals for lateral flow immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.

Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Jong Dae; Nahm, Kie Bong; Choi, Eui Yul; Lee, Geumyoung

2011-02-01

90

Variability in telavancin cross-reactivity among vancomycin immunoassays.  

PubMed

Telavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action against Gram-positive pathogens. Two brief reports have suggested potential cross-reactivity of telavancin with the vancomycin particle-enhanced turbidometric immunoassay (PETIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate several commercially available vancomycin immunoassays (fluorescence polarization [FPIA], enzyme-multiplied immunoassays [EMIT], PETIA, and chemiluminescent immunoassay [CMIA]) for cross-reactivity with telavancin. Seven sites were selected to analyze serum samples for vancomycin. Each site received a set of samples (n = 18) which combined drug-free serum with telavancin, 7-OH telavancin metabolite, or vancomycin. Immunoassays demonstrating potential cross-reactivity were further evaluated by sending a duplicate sample set to multiple laboratories. Cross-reactivity was defined as the percent theoretical concentration (reported concentration/theoretical concentration × 100). No cross-reactivity was seen with FPIA or EMIT. Within the theoretical concentration range of 5 to 120 ?g/ml of telavancin, the Synchron PETIA system reported vancomycin concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 54.2 ?g/ml compared to vancomycin concentrations from 1.1 to 5.6 ?g/ml for the Vista PETIA system. The Architect CMIA system reported vancomycin concentrations in the range of 0.27 to 0.97 ?g/ml, whereas Advia Centaur XP CMIA reported vancomycin concentrations between 1.6 and 31.6 ?g/ml. The Architect CMIA immunoassay had the lowest percent cross-reactivity (0.8 to 5.4%), while the Synchron PETIA immunoassay demonstrated the highest percent cross-reactivity (45.2 to 53.8%). Telavancin samples measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 93.9 to 122% of theoretical concentrations. Vancomycin concentrations were not measured in any 7-OH telavancin-spiked sample. Vancomycin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy were within 57.2 to 113% of theoretical concentrations. PETIA and CMIA measured vancomycin concentrations in telavancin-spiked samples. Significant variability in percent cross-reactivity was observed for each platform regardless of immunoassay method. PMID:25223996

McConeghy, Kevin W; Liao, Siyun; Clark, Douglas; Worboys, Philip; Barriere, Steven L; Rodvold, Keith A

2014-12-01

91

Protein microchips : use for immunoassay and enzymatic reactions.  

SciTech Connect

Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-{mu}m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as to carry out enzymatic reactions and to measure their kinetics in the absence or presence of an inhibitor. A protein microchip can be used several times in different immunoassays and enzymatic kinetic measurements.

Arenkov, P.; Kukhtin, A.; Gemmell, A.; Voloschuk, S.; Chupeeva, V.; Mirzabekov, A.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

2000-02-15

92

AN EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis revealed numerous deficiencies. Often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. Several data sets were run through each system using a four-parameter calibration f...

93

EVALUATION OF FIVE COMMERCIAL IMMUNOASSAY DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, conducted an evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis. he evaluation revealed numerous deficiencies. often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. everal d...

94

Alternating current electrokinetics enhanced in situ capacitive immunoassay.  

PubMed

A rapid in situ capacitive immunoassay is presented herein. Conventional immunoassay typically relies on diffusion for transport of analytes in many cases causing long detection time and lack of sensitivity. By integrating alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) and impedance sensing, this work provides a rapid in situ capacitive affinity biosensing. ACEK induces both fluid flow and particle motion, conveying target molecules toward electrodes immobilized with probes, resulting in rapid enrichment of target molecules and a capacitance change at the ''electrode-fluid'' interface. The benefit of ACEK enhanced immunoassay was demonstrated using the antigen and antibody from Johne's disease (JD) as an example. To clarify the importance of DEP and ACET effects for binding reaction, two different electrode pattern designs for capacitive immunoassay are studied. The asymmetric array and symmetric electrodes exhibit very similar response at lower electric field due to DEP effects, while asymmetric array has remarkable higher response at high-electric field because the convection becomes more important at high field. The disease positive and negative serum samples are distinguished in few minutes. PMID:25258204

Li, Shanshan; Ren, Yukun; Cui, Haochen; Yuan, Quan; Wu, Jie; Eda, Shigetoshi; Jiang, Hongyuan

2014-09-26

95

Monitoring Pesticides and Personal Care Chemicals in Water by Immunoassay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to the increasing number and quantity of organic pollutants, regulatory authorities require implementation of rapid, reliable, and cost-effective technologies for monitoring of water quality. Immunoassays provide a simple, powerful and inexpensive method for monitoring organic contaminants in bo...

96

Comparison of enzyme immunoassays for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect enzyme immunoassay for measurement of bovine antibody to Brucella abortus was tested on 15 716 Canadian sera to assess the specificity. These sera were also tested by the buffered plate antigen test. Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats were used for assessment of data: the targeting procedure using a positive control serum allowed to develop to an optical

K. H. Nielsen; L. Kelly; D. Gall; S. Balsevicius; J. Bosse; P. Nicoletti; W. Kelly

1996-01-01

97

Microfluidic immunoassay for rapid detection of cotinine in saliva.  

PubMed

A microfluidic immunoassay is successfully developed for rapid analysis of cotinine saliva samples, which is a metabolite of nicotine and is widely used as a biomarker to evaluate the smoking status and exposure to tobacco smoke. The core microfluidic chip is fabricated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with standard soft lithography. Each chip is capable of eight parallel analyses of cotinine samples. The analyses can be completed within 40 min with 12 ?l sample consumption. The linear detection range is 1?~?250 ng/ml and the minimum detectable concentration is 1 ng/ml respectively. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve established from standard samples is 0.9989. The immunoassay was also validated by real saliva samples, and the results showed good reproducibility and accuracy. All the results were confirmed with traditional ELISA measurements. The result from microfluidic chip device and ELISA kits showed good correspondence, and the correlation coefficients are higher than 0.99. Compared with traditional technique, this microfluidic immunoassay is more economic, rapid, simple and sensitive, perfect for on-site cotinine measurements as well as for the evaluation of the exposure to tobacco smoking. Moreover, this immunoassay has potential to be applied in the analysis of other biomarkers in human saliva samples. PMID:23832621

Cheng, Kaiping; Zhao, Wang; Liu, Sixiu; Sui, Guodong

2013-12-01

98

A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate  

PubMed Central

A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays. PMID:24859022

Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

2014-01-01

99

Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates  

DOEpatents

An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

Callstrom, Matthew R. (Columbus, OH); Bednarski, Mark D. (Berkeley, CA); Gruber, Patrick R. (St. Paul, MN)

1997-01-01

100

AUTOMATED FLOW FLUORESCENT IMMUNOASSAY FOR THE INSECTICIDE THIAMETHOXAM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sensitive automated flow fluorescent immunoassay was developed with KinExATM 3000 system for quantitative analysis of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, 3-(2-chlorothiaxol-5-ylmethyl)-5-methyl-4-nitroimino-1,3,5-oxadiazinane. A capillary flow cell contains antigen (thiamethoxam hapten-B...

101

Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

Bavec, Aljos?a

2014-01-01

102

CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS IMMUNOASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) immunoassay format for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is demonstrated. A fluorescent labeled 2,4-D analog competes with the analyte of interest for a finite number of binding sites provided by anti-2,4-D monoclonal antibodies. CE then pr...

103

DEVELOPMENT OF SENSITIVE MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sensitive magnetic particle based immunoassay for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 4-(2,4-dibromo-5-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)phenoxy)butyrate-BSA. The PBDE ligand and horse radish peroxidase were conjugated via NHS and EDA...

104

Multiplexed immunoassay based on micromotors and microscale tags.  

PubMed

This work reports on the coupling of antibody-functionalized micromotors and microwire-tagged proteins for rapid and multiplexed immunoassays. While micromotor-induced mixing accelerates the immunoreaction, tagging the proteins with microscopic particles of different sizes and shapes allows for their multiplexed discrimination, alerting of the presence of a biological threat. PMID:25017813

Vilela, D; Orozco, J; Cheng, G; Sattayasamitsathit, S; Galarnyk, M; Kan, C; Wang, J; Escarpa, A

2014-09-21

105

Biofunctionalized dendritic polyaniline nanofibers for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers.  

PubMed

Multi-armed dendritic polyaniline nanofibers (MPANFs) were first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, as a model analyte here) in this work. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized MPANFs. By using anti-CEA-conjugated core-shell gold-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposites (GoldMag) as immunosensing probes and biofunctionalized MPANFs as molecular tags, a new sandwich-type homogeneous immunoassay strategy was developed for the determination of CEA by coupling with a home-made flow-through magneto-controlled microfluidic device. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide dynamic range of four orders of magnitude from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) CEA at 3?. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The assayed results for clinical serum specimens with the electrochemical immunoassay were received in good accordance with the results obtained from the referenced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. PMID:22355804

Cui, Yuling; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Huafeng; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Guonan

2012-04-01

106

Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system  

E-print Network

proteins and can detect an antigen concentration as low as 1 pg=ml (6.7 femtoMolar). Introduction: Protein and the two detectors are used to track this wavelength shift as materials are being deposited onto the GMR. In this Letter, we report the use of this system in immunoassay with a record high sensitivity to antigen

Cunningham, Brian

107

Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates  

DOEpatents

An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

1997-11-25

108

Donor Smoking Negatively Affects Donor and Recipient Renal Function following Living Donor Nephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Background. While tobacco use by a renal transplant recipient has been shown to negatively affect graft and patient survival, the effect of smoking on the part of the kidney donor remains unknown. Methods. 29 smoking donors (SD) and their recipients (SD-R) as well as 71 non-smoking donors (ND) and their recipients (ND-R) were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative demographics and perioperative variables including serum creatinine (Cr) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated and stratified by amount of tobacco exposure in pack-years. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with a Student's t-test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression analysis (? = 0.05). Results. At most recent followup, SD-R's had a significantly smaller percent decrease in postoperative Cr than ND-R's (?57% versus ?81%; P = 0.015) and lower calculated GFR's (37.0 versus 53.0?mL/min per 1.73 m2; P < 0.001). SD's had a larger percent increase in Cr than ND's at most recent followup (57% versus 40%; P < 0.001), with active smokers having a larger increase than those who quit, although this difference was not statistically significant (68% versus 52%; P = 0.055). Conclusions. Use of tobacco by kidney donors is associated with decreased posttransplant renal function, although smoking cessation can improve outcomes. Kidneys from donors who smoke should be used with caution. PMID:21912540

Heldt, Jonathan; Torrey, Robert; Han, Daniel; Baron, Pedro; Tenggardjaja, Christopher; McLarty, Justin; Lindler, Tekisha; Baldwin, D. Duane

2011-01-01

109

His-tag protein monitoring by a fast mix-and-measure immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Here, we present a fast mix-and-measure immunoassay for the specific semiquantitative detection of His-tagged proteins, for example in E. coli cell lysate. The assay is based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a lanthanide dye-labeled low-affinity His-peptide and an acceptor-labeled anti-His-tag antibody. The targeted His-tag protein in the sample displaces the donor-labeled peptide and leads to a concentration-dependent time-resolved fluorescence signal. The assay has a total assay time of less than two minutes including sample preparation. The assay recognizes both, N- and C-terminally tagged proteins. The detection limit is comparable to those obtained in SDS-PAGE or Western Blot, which are used as standard methods for the characterization of His-tag protein expression. Additionally, we demonstrate a full compatibility of the developed assay to cell lysate, and a correlation to detectable bands in a western blot application. In conclusion, this fast, sensitive, specific and affordable mix-and-measure assay provides a timesaving and user-friendly way to quantify recombinant protein expression. It substantially reduces the workload for recombinant protein detection, especially when His-tag-protein-containing fractions in manual chromatographic purifications have to be identified. PMID:25000910

Kreisig, Thomas; Prasse, Agneta A.; Zscharnack, Kristin; Volke, Daniela; Zuchner, Thole

2014-01-01

110

Donor Matching for Allogenic Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... tissue type , which is different from a person’s blood type. Each person has a number of pairs of HLA antigens. We inherit one of each of these pairs ... getting serious infections. For bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell ... a donor with a single mismatched antigen is used — a 5 out of 6 match. ...

111

Gift Application Donor/Contact Name ___________________________________________________  

E-print Network

Gift Application Donor/Contact Name ___________________________________________________ Address _________________________________________________________________ This gift is a (circle one): Donation Memorial Dedication Honorarium Type of gift desired (choose one below library book - $100 (includes book plate with donor name or gift information) ____Class Gift (Senior

Landweber, Gregory D.

112

Care of the multiple organ donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful organ transplantation offers patients with end stage organ failure the chance of a normal life. The recognition of brain death allowed the use of beating heart donors and this has enabled multiple organ procurement from a single donor. Suitable patients with severe brain injury resulting in brain death, who may be potential organ donors, are to be found on

A. Bodenham; G. R. Park

1989-01-01

113

Charities: how important is performance to donors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to develop insights into the charity selection criteria used by individual donors, and the information that charities provide to individual donors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Charities are defined as organizations involved in health, international aid, wellbeing, and nature and environment. In this paper the main focus is on one type of charity stakeholder; the individual donor. The

Jos van Iwaarden; Ton van der Wiele; Roger Williams; Claire Moxham

2009-01-01

114

Donor Selection for Adult- to- Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Well Begun is Half Done  

PubMed Central

Background Donor selection criteria for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation vary with the medical center of evaluation. Living donor evaluation utilizes considerable resources and the non-maturation of potential into actual donors may sometimes prove fatal for patients with end stage liver disease. On the contrary, a thorough donor evaluation process is mandatory to ensure safe outcomes in otherwise healthy donors. We aimed to study the reasons for non-maturation of potential right lobe liver donors at our transplant center. Methods A retrospective data analysis of all potential living liver donors evaluated at our center from 1998 to 2010 was done. Results Overall 324 donors were evaluated for 219 potential recipients and 171 (52.7%) donors were disqualified. Common reasons for donor non-maturation included: (1) Donor reluctance, 21% (2) >10% macro-vesicular steatosis, 16% (3) assisted donor withdrawal, 14% (4) inadequate remnant liver volume, 13% (5) psychosocial issues, 7% and thrombophilia, 7%. Ten donors (6%) were turned down due to anatomical variations (8 biliary and 2 arterial anomalies). Donors older than 50 years and those with BMI over 25 were less likely to be accepted for donation. Conclusions We conclude that donor reluctance, hepatic steatosis and assisted donor withdrawal are major reasons for non-maturation of potential into actual donors. Anatomical variations and underlying medical conditions were not a major cause of donor rejection. A system in practice to recognize these factors early in the course of donor evaluation to improve the efficiency of the selection process and ensure donor safety is proposed. PMID:23128999

Sharma, Amit; Ashworth, April; Behnke, Martha; Cotterell, Adrian; Posner, Marc; Fisher, Robert A.

2012-01-01

115

Monetary Compensation and Blood Donor Return: Results of a Donor Survey in Southwest Germany  

PubMed Central

Summary Background/Aims The aim of this study was to compare donor return patterns of non-compensated and compensated German first-time donors to assess the effect of monetary reward on donor return. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of a donor survey of 3,077 non-compensated and 738 compensated German first-time donors. Survey data were pooled and linked with blood donor return rates within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the probability of donor return between non-compensated and compensated donors. Results In the first 2 years following the initial donation, compensated donors were more likely to return with the odds of giving at least one further donation 1.86 (1st year) and 1.32 (2nd year) times higher for compensated donors than for non-compensated donors. In the 3rd year, there were no significant differences in donor return. Conclusion This report, which was based on two non-randomized donor samples, suggests that monetary compensation may increase the likelihood of donors returning in the first months after the initial donation. Monetary reward may therefore be used as a short-term strategy to recruit new donors. The long-term commitment, however, seems not to be affected by monetary reward, and complementary donor retention strategies are needed. PMID:25254021

Weidmann, Christian; Schneider, Sven; Weck, Eberhard; Menzel, Dagmar; Klüter, Harald; Müller-Steinhardt, Michael

2014-01-01

116

Comparison of different immunoassays and GC-MS screening of benzodiazepines in urine.  

PubMed

A total of 53 urine samples were tested by different immunoassay methods and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine repeatability of the different methods and to assess whether the immunoassays performed on samples obtained from elderly patients of the emergency section could be considered as reliable enough for identifying a benzodiazepine consumption. Repeatability was excellent for GC/MS and good for immunoassays. The specificity was not different for the three immunoassays (96%). The sensitivity varied from 36, 64 to 75% for OnLine, RIA Immunalysis and RIA DPC, respectively. An other difference between immunoassays and GC/MS was the ability of GC/MS to detect lorazepam and low concentrations of benzodiazepines whereas immunoassays did not. PMID:9919969

Augsburger, M; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

1998-12-01

117

Evaluation of the Bartels Legionella Urinary Antigen enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

The Bartels Legionella Urinary Antigen enzyme immunoassay (Intracel, USA) is intended for the presumptive diagnosis of past or current Legionnaires' disease by qualitative detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in human urine. This test was evaluated using single urine samples collected from 349 patients with lower respiratory tract infection of known aetiology. Specificity was estimated as 100% (181 samples, 95% CI: 98%-100%); sensitivity for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was 98.8% (167 samples, 95% CI: 95.7%-99.9%). Assessing assay results using a Visual Interpretation Card provided by the manufacturer in place of a photometer gave rise to one false-positive result among the 78 control samples examined. Providing the endpoint of this assay is determined photometrically, the Bartels Legionella Urinary Antigen enzyme immunoassay appears to be a highly specific and sensitive kit for the diagnosis of infection caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. PMID:11757977

Harrison, T G; Doshi, N

2001-10-01

118

Pharmacokinetic immunoassay methods in the presence of soluble target.  

PubMed

Soluble targets represent a special challenge when employing ligand binding assays to support pharmacokinetic analysis of monoclonal therapeutics. Target-engaged antibody is not available for binding in immunoassays employing anti-idiotype-specific antibodies or target for capture. We investigated several formats of total antibody assays that show reduced interference of soluble targets: direct target capture, indirect target capture and acid dissociation. While indirect target capture worked well for a regular affinity antibody against DKK1, a high affinity antibody against PCSK9 required an additional acid dissociation step. The choice of a suitable format was antibody and target dependent. Our results offer several choices to approach immunoassay development for soluble targets. PMID:20696169

Verch, Thorsten; Chilewski, Shannon; Bouaraphan, Silikhone; Yarovoi, Helen; Yin, Kuo-Chang; Chen, Dave; Washabaugh, Michael W

2010-09-30

119

Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for the quantification of caffeine in beverages.  

PubMed

Homogeneous fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIAs) were developed and compared for the determination of caffeine in beverages and cosmetics. FPIAs were performed in cuvettes in a spectrometer for kinetic FP measurements as well as in microtiter plates (MTPs) on a multimode reader. Both FPIAs showed measurement ranges in the ?g/L range and were performed within 2 and 20 min, respectively. For the application on real samples, high coefficients of variations (CVs) were observed for the performance in MTPs; the CVs for FPIAs in cuvettes were below 4%. The correlations between this method and reference methods were satisfying. The sensitivity was sufficient for all tested samples including decaffeinated coffee without preconcentration steps. The FPIA in cuvettes allows a fast, precise, and automated quantitative analysis of caffeine in consumer products, whereas FPIAs in MTPs are suitable for semiquantitative high-throughput screenings. Moreover, specific quality criteria for heterogeneous assays were applied to homogeneous immunoassays. PMID:24597592

Oberleitner, Lidia; Grandke, Julia; Mallwitz, Frank; Resch-Genger, Ute; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

2014-03-19

120

A multiplexed immunoassay system based upon reciprocating centrifugal microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, centrifugal disk-based micro-total analysis system (?TAS) for low cost and high throughput semi-automated immunoassay processing was developed. A key innovation in the disposable immunoassay disk design is in a fluidic structure that enables very efficient micro-mixing based on a reciprocating mechanism in which centrifugal acceleration acting upon a liquid element first generates and stores pneumatic energy that is then released by a reduction of the centrifugal acceleration, resulting in a reversal of direction of flow of the liquid. Through an alternating sequence of high and low centrifugal acceleration, the system reciprocates the flow of liquid within the disk to maximize incubation/hybridization efficiency between antibodies and antigen macromolecules during the incubation/hybridization stage of the assay. The described reciprocating mechanism results in a reduction in processing time and reagent consumption by one order of magnitude.

Noroozi, Zahra; Kido, Horacio; Peytavi, Régis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Jasinskas, Algimantas; Micic, Miodrag; Felgner, Philip L.; Madou, Marc J.

2011-06-01

121

SlipChip for immunoassays in nanoliter volumes  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a SlipChip-based approach to perform bead-based heterogeneous immunoassays with multiple nanoliter-volume samples. As a potential device to analyze the output of the chemistrode, the performance of this platform was tested using low concentrations of biomolecules. Two strategies to perform the immunoassay in the SlipChip were tested: 1) a unidirectional slipping method to combine the well containing a sample with a series of wells preloaded with reagents; 2) a back-and-forth slipping method to introduce a series of reagents to a well containing the sample by reloading and slipping the well containing the reagent. The SlipChips were fabricated with hydrophilic surfaces on the interior of the wells and with hydrophobic surfaces on the face of the SlipChip to enhance filling, transferring, and maintaining aqueous solutions in shallow wells. Nanopatterning was used to increase the hydrophobic nature of the SlipChip surface. Magnetic beads containing the capture antibody were efficiently transferred between wells and washed by serial dilution. An insulin immunoenzymatic assay showed a detection of limit of ~13 pM. Forty eight droplets of nanoliter volume were analyzed in parallel, including an on-chip calibration. The design of the SlipChip is flexible to accommodate other types of immunoassays, both heterogeneous and homogeneous. This work establishes the possibility of using SlipChip-based immunoassays in small volumes for a range of possible applications, including analysis of plugs from a chemistrode, detection of molecules from single cells, and diagnostic monitoring. PMID:20334360

Liu, Weishan; Chen, Delai; Du, Wenbin; Nichols, Kevin P.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

2010-01-01

122

Pharmacokinetic immunoassay methods in the presence of soluble target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble targets represent a special challenge when employing ligand binding assays to support pharmacokinetic analysis of monoclonal therapeutics. Target-engaged antibody is not available for binding in immunoassays employing anti-idiotype-specific antibodies or target for capture. We investigated several formats of total antibody assays that show reduced interference of soluble targets: direct target capture, indirect target capture and acid dissociation. While indirect

Thorsten Verch; Shannon Chilewski; Silikhone Bouaraphan; Helen Yarovoi; Kuo-Chang Yin; Dave Chen; Michael W. Washabaugh

2010-01-01

123

Invalidation of a commercially available human 5?-dihydrotestosterone immunoassay.  

PubMed

Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are commonly utilized for the evaluation of androgens in biological fluids; however, careful consideration must be given to cross-reactivity with other endogenous sex-steroid hormones. Our purpose was to determine the validity of a commonly-utilized commercially-available dihydrotestosterone (DHT) EIA. Serum samples obtained from older hypogonadal men who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) or vehicle in combination with finasteride (5mg/day) or placebo were assayed for DHT via EIA and using a validated gold-standard LC-MS/MS approach. Additionally, commercially-available (DHT-free) buffer containing graded testosterone doses was evaluated by DHT immunoassay. DHT concentrations measured via EIA were 79% to >1000% higher than values obtained by LC-MS/MS (p<0.05), with the largest differences (415-1128%) occuring in groups receiving finasteride. Both LC-MS/MS and EIA indicated that testosterone-enanthate increased serum DHT to a similar magnitude. In contrast, finasteride-induced reductions in DHT were detected by LC-MS/MS, but not EIA (p<0.05). No significant associations were present for DHT concentrations between measurement techniques. Cross-reactivity of testosterone with the immunoassay ranged from 18% to 99% and DHT concentrations measured by EIA were highly associated with the spiked testosterone concentrations in DHT-free buffer (r=0.885, p<0.001). In conclusion, we provide evidence invalidating a commonly-utilized commercially-available DHT immunoassay because significant cross-reactivity exists between testosterone and the EIA and because the changes in DHT observed via EIA were not associated with a validated gold-standard measurement technique. The cross-reactivity of testosterone is particularly concerning because testsoterone is present in 100-fold greater concentrations than is DHT within the circulation. PMID:24012740

Yarrow, Joshua F; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Beggs, Luke A; Goldberger, Bruce A; Borst, Stephen E

2013-12-11

124

An indirect enzyme immunoassay for the mycotoxin citrinin.  

PubMed Central

An indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay using rabbit antisera could detect citrinin in buffer solutions at 1 to 13 ng/ml (0.05 to 0.65 ng per assay). Cross-reactivity with austdiol, alternariol, ochratoxin A, and deoxynivalenol was < 0.1% relative to citrinin. Recovery of citrinin added to wheat flour at 200 to 2,000 ng/g was 89 to 104%, with a coefficient of variation of 6.9 to 13%. PMID:7646038

Abramson, D; Usleber, E; Märtlbauer, E

1995-01-01

125

Cooperative Immunoassays: Ultrasensitive Assays with Mixed Monoclonal Antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixtures of certain monoclonal antibodies appear to bind human chorionic gonadotropin in a ``cooperative'' fashion because they form circular complexes with the hormone. Experiments illustrate how this property might be exploited to develop very sensitive immunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin or any other antigen. Since the assays are not based on competitive inhibition between radiolabeled and unlabeled antigen, they are much more sensitive than a traditional radioimmunoassay in which either one of the same antibodies is used alone.

Ehrlich, Paul H.; Moyle, William R.

1983-07-01

126

DGTI Register of Rare Donors  

PubMed Central

Summary For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed ‘DGTI Register of Rare Donors’ and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534

Hustinx, Hein

2014-01-01

127

DGTI Register of Rare Donors.  

PubMed

For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed 'DGTI Register of Rare Donors' and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534

Hustinx, Hein

2014-10-01

128

Laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic nephrectomy with ablative intent has been performed clinically. The current study aimed to determine whether a physiologically and anatomically intact kidney suitable for transplantation could be harvested laparoscopically. Three weeks after an ablative laparoscopic right nephrectomy, 15 pigs were divided into two groups: the study group (n = 10) underwent a laparoscopic live-donor left nephrectomy of the solitary kidney and conventional autotransplantation; the control group (n = 5) underwent an open live-donor left nephrectomy of the solitary kidney and conventional autotransplantation. All study kidneys underwent laparoscopic in situ hypothermic perfusion. The mean length of the left renal artery and vein were similar in the study and control groups: 3.1 cm and 3.4 cm, respectively, in the study group compared with 2.5 cm and 3.8 cm, respectively, in the control group (P = 0.5). No intraoperative renal vascular injuries or postoperative ureteral complications were noted in either group. Renal histopathologic examination immediately after live-donor nephrectomy and at 1 month post-transplant showed similar findings in the two groups. The mean serum creatinine at 7 and 30 days postoperatively was not significantly different: 2.1 mg/dL and 1.6 mg/dL, respectively, in the study group and 1.7 mg/dL, and 1.4 mg/dL, respectively, in the control group (P = 0.4). We conclude that laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy can be performed safely and reproducibly in the porcine model. PMID:8061673

Gill, I S; Carbone, J M; Clayman, R V; Fadden, P A; Stone, M A; Lucas, B A; McRoberts, J W

1994-04-01

129

Single Step Nanoplasmonic Immunoassay for the Measurement of Protein Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

A nanoplasmonic biosensor for highly-sensitive, single-step detection of protein biomarkers is presented. The principle is based on the utilization of the optical scattering properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to bio-recognition molecules. The nanoplasmonic properties of the GNRs were utilized to detect proteins using near-infrared light interferometry. We show that the antibody-conjugated GNRs can specifically bind to our model analyte, Glucose Transporter-1 (Glut-1). The signal intensity of back-scattered light from the GNRs bound after incubation, correlated well to the Glut-1 concentration as per the calibration curve. The detection range using this nanoplasmonic immunoassay ranges from 10 ng/mL to 1 ug/mL for Glut-1. The minimal detectable concentration based on the lowest discernable concentration from zero is 10 ng/mL. This nanoplasmonic immunoassay can act as a simple, selective, sensitive strategy for effective disease diagnosis. It offers advantages such as wide detection range, increased speed of analysis (due to fewer incubation/washing steps), and no label development as compared to traditional immunoassay techniques. Our future goal is to incorporate this detection strategy onto a microfluidic platform to be used as a point-of-care diagnostic tool.

Prabhulkar, Shradha; de la Zerda, Adam; Paranjape, Amit; Awdeh, Richard M.

2013-01-01

130

Increasing the sensitivity of microfluidics based immunoassays using isotachophoresis.  

PubMed

We have developed a microfluidic device that enhances the sensitivity of protein immunoassays by preconcentrating the protein sample using isotachophoresis (ITP). Two approaches were followed to study the sensitivity gain achieved that way. The first approach was using antibody-coated magnetic beads loaded into a microchannel to capture the proteins within the ITP sample zone. The second was to directly bind the antibodies to the microchannel surface. The use of ITP increased the sensitivity of both the direct and the bead-based immunoassay and lowered the model protein's detection limit. Our setup also uses electrokinetic injection for sample charging, thereby sparing the need for integrating mechanical components such as pumps or valves and reducing the complexity of the setup. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using ITP as a preconcentration mechanism of proteins in immunoassays. The protein was concentrated by a factor of 100 and the assay's limit of detection was in the picomolar range. ITP can be applied to any sample of mixed content, separating and preconcentrating the desired analyte before it reaches the detection region with immobilized antibodies, without the need for separating and concentrating the sample in an independent step. PMID:25028696

Khnouf, Ruba; Goet, Gabriele; Baier, Tobias; Hardt, Steffen

2014-09-21

131

Multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers using chitosan nanocomposites.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel and sensitive multiplexed immunoassay protocol for simultaneous electrochemical determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was designed using functionalized chitosan composites. The immunosensing platform was prepared via immobilizing capture anti-AFP and anti-CEA on chitosan-Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) through EDC/NHS linking. The signal tags were fabricated by immobilizing electroactive redox probes - Prussian blue (PB) and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc) on chitosan (CHIT), following by absorbing AuNPs to immobilize labeled anti-AFP and anti-CEA, respectively. A sandwich-type immunoassay format was employed for the simultaneous detection of AFP and CEA. The assay was based on the electrochemical oxidation/reduction of the redox species in signal tags, which has a relationship with the concentration of analytes. Experimental results revealed that the multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay enabled the simultaneous monitoring of AFP and CEA with a wide range of 0.05-100 ng mL(-1) for both AFP and CEA. The detection limits (LOD) was 0.03 ng mL(-1) for AFP and 0.02 ng mL(-1) for CEA (S/N=3). The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method were in a good agreement with the reference values from standard ELISA method. And the negligible cross-reactivity between the two analytes makes it possesses potential promise in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24413402

Chen, Xia; Ma, Zhanfang

2014-05-15

132

History of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of biomolecules requires highly sensitive and selective detection methods capable of tolerating a complex, biological matrix. First applications of biomolecule detection by ICP-MS relied on the use of heteroelements as a label for quantification. However, the combination of immunoassays and ICP-MS facilitates multiparametric analyses through elemental tagging, and provides a powerful alternative to common bioanalytical methods. This approach extends the detection of biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, and has the potential to provide a deeper understanding of the investigated biological system. The results might lead to the detection of diseases at an early stage, or guide treatment plans. Immunoassays are well accepted and established for diagnostic purposes, albeit ICP-MS is scarcely applied for the detection of immune-based assays. However, the screening of biomarkers demands high throughput and multiplex/multiparametric techniques, considering the variety of analytes to be queried. Finally, quantitative information on the expression level of biomarkers is highly desirable to identify abnormalities in a given organism. Thus, it is the aim of this review to introduce the fundamentals, and to discuss the enormous strength of ICP-MS for the detection of different immunoassays on the basis of selected applications, with a special focus on LA-ICP-MS.

Giesen, Charlotte; Waentig, Larissa; Panne, Ulrich; Jakubowski, Norbert

2012-10-01

133

Bead-based microfluidic immunoassays: the next generation.  

PubMed

Microfluidic devices possess many advantages like high throughput, short analysis time, small volume and high sensitivity that fulfill all the important criteria of an immunoassay used for clinical diagnoses, environmental analyses and biochemical studies. These devices can be made from a few different materials, with polymers presently emerging as the most popular choice. Other than being optically clear, non-toxic and cheap, polymers can also be easily fabricated with a variety of techniques. In addition, there are many polymer surface modification methods available to improve the efficiency of these devices. Unfortunately, current microfluidic immunoassays have limited multiplexing capability compared to flow cytometric assays. Flow cytometry employ the use of encoded microbeads in contrast with normal or paramagnetic microbeads applied in current microfluidic devices. The encoded microbead is the key in providing multiplexing capability to the assay by allowing multi-analyte analysis. Using several unique sets of code, different analytes can be detected in a single assay by tracing the identity of individual beads. The same principle could be applied to microfluidic immunoassays in order to retain all the advantages of a fluidic device and significantly improve multiplexing capability. PMID:16857357

Lim, C T; Zhang, Y

2007-02-15

134

Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) report for the Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems pentachlorophenol (PCPpcp) immunoassays  

SciTech Connect

The results of the demonstration of two Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems (WBAS) immunoassay technologies are described in the report. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in environmental water samples. The study was conducted under the Superfund innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program and designed to evaluate the ruggedness and utility of a semiquantitative immunoassay field kit. Results obtained from the field kit were compared to those obtained from a quantitative, high-sample-capacity plate immunoassay. The results of the WBAS immunoassay demonstration support the conclusion that the field immunoassay is a useful screening tool. The demonstration verified that the method can provide qualitative or semiquantitative screening information. Although the results were more variable than had been anticipated, the incorporation of additional procedural precautions and carefully chosen quality control acceptance criteria for on-site analysis could improve performance substantially. Both immunoassays produced results biased high compared to the GC/MS results, but the tendency was not large and may have been partly due to loss during sample extraction (EPA Method 3510) prior to analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The detection of structurally related compounds by the immunoassays may have also contributed to the high bias. The results indicate that the plate immunoassay is an accurate and precise method for quantitating pentachlorophenol in water.

Silverstein, M.E.; White, R.J.; Gerlach, R.W.; Van Emon, J.M.

1992-05-01

135

A plasmonic nanosensor for immunoassay via enzyme-triggered click chemistry.  

PubMed

Current techniques for plasmonic immunoassay often require the introduction and additional conjugation of enzyme, and thus cannot accommodate conventional immunoassay platforms. Herein, we develop a plasmonic nanosensor that well accommodates conventional immunoassays and dramatically improves their sensitivity and stability. This plasmonic nanosensor directly employs alkaline phosphatase-triggered click chemistry between azide/alkyne functionalized gold nanoparticles as the readout. This straightforward approach broadens the applicability of nanoparticle-based immunoassays and has great potential for applications in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25423357

Xianyu, Yunlei; Wang, Zhuo; Jiang, Xingyu

2014-12-23

136

Activated phosphonated trifunctional chelates for highly sensitive lanthanide-based FRET immunoassays applied to total prostate specific antigen detection.  

PubMed

The first example of an activated phosphonated trifunctional chelate (TFC) is presented, which combines a non-macrocyclic coordination site for lanthanide coordination based on two aminobis-methylphosphonate coordinating arms, a central bispyrazolylpyridyl antenna and an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester in para position of the central pyridine as an activated function for the labeling of biomaterial. The synthesis of the TFC is presented together with photo-physical studies of the related Tb and Eu complexes. Excited state lifetime measurements in H2O and D2O confirmed an excellent shielding of the cation from water molecules with a hydration number of zero. The Tb complex provides a high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 24% in aqueous solutions (0.01 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and a very long luminescence lifetime of 2.6 ms. The activated ligand was conjugated to different biological compounds such as streptavidin, and a monoclonal antibody against total prostate specific antigen (TPSA). In combination with AlexaFluor647 (AF647) and crosslinked allophycocyanin (XL665) antibody (ABs) conjugates, homogeneous time-resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) immunoassays of TPSA were performed in serum samples. The Tb donor-dye acceptor FRET pairs provided large Förster distances of 5.3 nm (AF647) and 7.1 nm (XL665). A detailed time-resolved FRET analysis of Tb donor and dye acceptor PL decays revealed average donor-acceptor distances of 4.2 nm (AF647) and 6.3 nm (XL665) within the sandwich immunocomplex and FRET efficiencies of 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. Very low detection limits of 1.4 ng mL(-1) (43 pM) and 2.4 ng mL(-1) (74 pM) TPSA were determined using a KRYPTOR fluorescence immunoanalyzer. These results demonstrate the applicability of our novel Tb-bioconjugates for highly sensitive clinical diagnostics. PMID:23851931

Nchimi-Nono, Katia; Wegner, K David; Lindén, Stina; Lecointre, Alexandre; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence; Shakir, Shakir; Hildebrandt, Niko; Charbonnière, Loïc J

2013-10-14

137

Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors  

PubMed Central

Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF) and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5?mL/min/1.73?m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended. PMID:24163758

Akoh, Jacob A.; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar

2013-01-01

138

Multicenter Analytical Evaluation of the Automated Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Cyclosporine  

PubMed Central

Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used as a posttransplantation immunosuppressant drug, and careful monitoring of CsA concentration in whole blood is essential. A new automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for CsA measurement has been assessed in a multicenter evaluation. Methods: Residual EDTA whole blood samples from patients undergoing CsA therapy after organ transplant were used in assay evaluation at 5 clinical laboratories in Europe. Experiments included imprecision according to CLSI EP5-A2 (within-run and intermediate), lower limit of quantification, linearity according to CLSI EP6-A, and recovery of commercial external quality control samples. In addition, comparisons to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in routine use at each investigational site and to commercial chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay methods were performed. Results: Imprecision testing gave coefficients of variation of less than 9% in the 30–2000 mcg/L range for both within-run and intermediate imprecision. Lower limit of quantification of 6.8 mcg/L at one investigational site and 1.8 mcg/L at a second site at 20% coefficient of variation were observed. Linearity was measured over the concentration range 0–2000 mcg/L, yielding a deviation of less than ±12%. External quality control sample recovery by ECLIA was 93%–114% of LC-MS/MS sample recovery. Deming regression analysis of ECLIA method comparison to combined LC-MS/MS results yielded a slope of 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.06] and intercept of 2.8 mcg/L (95% CI, 1.5–4.1 mcg/L). Comparison to chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.85–0.89) and intercept of 1.4 mcg/L (95% CI, ?0.89 to 3.7 mcg/L); comparison to antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93–0.98) and intercept of ?4.2 mcg/L (95% CI, ?7.1 to ?1.2 mcg/L). Conclusions: The data from this multicenter evaluation indicate that the new ECLIA-based cyclosporine assay is fit for its purpose, the therapeutic monitoring of CsA. PMID:24646730

Vogeser, Michael; Shipkova, Maria; Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Wallemacq, Pierre; Orth, Matthias; Widmann, Monika

2014-01-01

139

Donor free radical explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

1980-04-01

140

Reactive donor notification: First error reported.  

PubMed

Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS) records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard. PMID:25161357

Kotwal, Urvershi; Doda, Veena; Arora, Satyam; Joshi, Meena

2014-07-01

141

Europium chelate labels in time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays and DNA hybridization assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many analytical methodologies, immunoassays and nucleic acid hybridization assays rely on the reaction between an analyte of interest and a specific reagent. The analyte concentration is then deduced by measuring either the amount of analyte-reagent complex formed (product) or the amount of residual reagent. The authors describe the application of fluorescent rare-earth chelates to immunoassay and DNA probing.

Eleftherios P. Diamandis; Theodore K. Christopoulos

1990-01-01

142

An immunoassay for atrazine using tunable immunosorbent Jae-Young Kim,a,b  

E-print Network

An immunoassay for atrazine using tunable immunosorbent Jae-Young Kim,a,b Ashok Mulchandani friendly tunable immunosorbent-based immunoassay for sensitive and selective determination of atrazine repeating units of the pentapeptide VPGVG and a single-chain Fv of an anti-atrazine antibody were

Chen, Wilfred

143

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Healthy Blood Donors in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3%) tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28%) tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–6.5), raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR?=?5.3; 95% CI: 1.5–19.1), having a cat in the household (adjusted OR?=?2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.2), a lower education level (adjusted OR?=?1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.3), and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR?=?2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–3.9) were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. PMID:23133557

Chiang, Ting-Yi; Hsieh, Hwei-Ho; Kuo, Ming-Chu; Chiu, Kai-Tse; Lin, Wei-Chen; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Fang, Chi-Tai; Ji, Dar-Der

2012-01-01

144

Micromotor-based lab-on-chip immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields.Here we describe the first example of using self-propelled antibody-functionalized synthetic catalytic microengines for capturing and transporting target proteins between the different reservoirs of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. A new catalytic polymer/Ni/Pt microtube engine, containing carboxy moieties on its mixed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/COOH-PEDOT polymeric outermost layer, is further functionalized with the antibody receptor to selectively recognize and capture the target protein. The new motor-based microchip immunoassay operations are carried out without any bulk fluid flow, replacing the common washing steps in antibody-based protein bioassays with the active transport of the captured protein throughout the different reservoirs, where each step of the immunoassay takes place. A first microchip format involving an `on-the-fly' double-antibody sandwich assay (DASA) is used for demonstrating the selective capture of the target protein, in the presence of excess of non-target proteins. A secondary antibody tagged with a polymeric-sphere tracer allows the direct visualization of the binding events. In a second approach the immuno-nanomotor captures and transports the microsphere-tagged antigen through a microchannel network. An anti-protein-A modified microengine is finally used to demonstrate the selective capture, transport and convenient label-free optical detection of a Staphylococcus aureus target bacteria (containing proteinA in its cell wall) in the presence of a large excess of non-target (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. The resulting nanomotor-based microchip immunoassay offers considerable potential for diverse applications in clinical diagnostics, environmental and security monitoring fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32400h

García, Miguel; Orozco, Jahir; Guix, Maria; Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Escarpa, Alberto; Merkoçi, Arben; Wang, Joseph

2013-01-01

145

Detection of rat, porcine, and bovine group B rotavirus in fecal specimens by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme immunoassay that uses easily regenerated reagents was developed and evaluated for the ability to detect group B rotaviruses (GBR) in fecal specimens. Homologous rat GBR and heterologous porcine and bovine GBR were detected by this immunoassay, although a human GBR isolate was not. This immunoassay should prove useful in studies of GBR infections of animals. PMID:8027324

Vonderfecht, S L; Lindsay, D A; Eiden, J J

1994-01-01

146

AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF THREE IMMUNOASSAY TEST KITS FOR ANTHRAX, BOTULINUM TOXIN AND RICIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Immunoassay test kits are based on immunoassay methods, where specific antibodies are used to detect and measure the contaminants of interest. Immunoassay test kits rely on the reaction of a contaminant or antigen with a selective antibody to give a product that can be measures....

147

Association of aminothiols with the clinical outcome in hemodialysis patients: comparison of chromatography and immunoassay for homocysteine determination  

E-print Network

of chromatography and immunoassay for homocysteine determination Stéphanie Badiou1 , Nathalie Terrier1 , Isabelle the influence of the method used for Hcy determination (chromatography or immunoassay), in regard by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

NCI at Frederick: Research Donor Program (RDP)  

Cancer.gov

The Research Donor Program (RDP) serves as a central repository for the collection and distribution of whole blood samples from healthy volunteers to the Frederick National Lab Investigators for in vitro research use. Approved projects can obtain timely and inexpensive samples through OHS. Employees of the Frederick National Lab and Fort Detrick community may volunteer to be donors. Monetary compensation is provided for donor participation. The program is administered by Occupational Health Services.

149

NCI at Frederick: Donor Eligibility and Enrollment  

Cancer.gov

Establishment of the RDP donor pool is accomplished by voluntary employee enrollment. Individuals must be employees of the Frederick National Lab or Fort Detrick community, must be age 18 or older, and weigh at least 110 pounds to be eligible for inclusion in the RDP donor pool. In addition, donors must attend a scheduled RDP Counseling meeting and submit to select blood-borne pathogen and CBC testing upon inclusion and every six months thereafter.

150

Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic yersinia by immunoassays.  

PubMed

Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie

2015-01-01

151

Immunoassay Methods and their Applications in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Basic Methodology and Recent Advances  

PubMed Central

Immunoassays are bioanalytical methods in which the quantitation of the analyte depends on the reaction of an antigen (analyte) and an antibody. Immunoassays have been widely used in many important areas of pharmaceutical analysis such as diagnosis of diseases, therapeutic drug monitoring, clinical pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in drug discovery and pharmaceutical industries. The importance and widespread of immunoassay methods in pharmaceutical analysis are attributed to their inherent specificity, high-throughput, and high sensitivity for the analysis of wide range of analytes in biological samples. Recently, marked improvements were achieved in the field of immunoassay development for the purposes of pharmaceutical analysis. These improvements involved the preparation of the unique immunoanalytical reagents, analysis of new categories of compounds, methodology, and instrumentation. The basic methodologies and recent advances in immunoassay methods applied in different fields of pharmaceutical analysis have been reviewed. PMID:23674985

Darwish, Ibrahim A.

2006-01-01

152

Species Specific Bacterial Spore Detection Using Lateral-Flow Immunoassay with DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of detecting bacterial spores incorporates (1) A method of lateral-flow immunoassay in combination with (2) A method based on the luminescence of Tb3+ ions to which molecules of dipicolinic acid (DPA) released from the spores have become bound. The present combination of lateral-flow immunoassay and DPA-triggered Tb luminescence was developed as a superior alternative to a prior lateral-flow immunoassay method in which detection involves the visual observation and/or measurement of red light scattered from colloidal gold nanoparticles. The advantage of the present combination method is that it affords both (1) High selectivity for spores of the species of bacteria that one seeks to detect (a characteristic of lateral-flow immunoassay in general) and (2) Detection sensitivity much greater (by virtue of the use of DPA-triggered Tb luminescence instead of gold nanoparticles) than that of the prior lateral-flow immunoassay method

Ponce, Adrian

2003-01-01

153

Living-donor liver transplantation: current perspective.  

PubMed

The disparity between the number of available deceased liver donors and the number of patients awaiting transplantation continues to be an ongoing issue predisposing to death on the liver transplant waiting list. Deceased donor shortage strategies including the use of extended donor-criteria deceased donor grafts, split liver transplants, and organs harvested after cardiac death have fallen short of organ demand. Efforts to raise donor awareness are ongoing, but the course has been arduous to date. Living donor transplantation is a means to access an unlimited donor organ supply and offers potential advantages to deceased donation. Donor safety remains paramount demanding improvements and innovations in both the donor and recipient operations to ensure superior outcomes. The specialty operation is best preformed at centers with specific expertise and shuttling of select patients to these centers supported by third party payers is critical. Training future surgeons at centers with this specific experience can help disseminate this technology to improve local availability. Ongoing research in immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal and tolerance induction may make living donation a desired first-line operation rather than a necessary albeit less-desirable option. This chapter summarizes the progress of living liver donation and its potential applications. PMID:23397534

Lobritto, Steven; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean

2012-11-01

154

REGGI and the American Rare Donor Program  

PubMed Central

Summary The American Rare Donor Program (ARDP) was formed in 1998 to provide rare blood units for patients in need. Members of the program identify rare donors and submit donor information for entrance into a database, REGGI. Information on patients in need of rare blood is also submitted and entered into REGGI. REGGI serves to match phenotypes of registered donors with patients having the respective antibodies. A search process for available units ensues, and blood is provided to the patient. This report provides information on REGGI and its use in the ARDP. PMID:25538535

Flickinger, Cynthia

2014-01-01

155

Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.  

PubMed

The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

1983-01-01

156

Demonstration of four immunoassay formats using the array biosensor.  

PubMed

The ability of a fluorescence-based array biosensor to measure and quantify the binding of an antigen to an immobilized antibody has been demonstrated using the four different immunoassay formats: direct, competitive, displacement, and sandwich. A patterned array of antibodies specific for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) immobilized onto the surface of a planar waveguide and used to measure signals from different antigen concentrations simultaneously. For direct, competitive, and displacement assays, which are one-step assays, measurements were obtained in real time. Dose-response curves were calculated for all four assay formats, demonstrating the array biosensor's ability to quantify the amount of antigen present in solution. PMID:11924964

Sapsford, Kim E; Charles, Paul T; Patterson, Charles H; Ligler, Frances S

2002-03-01

157

Demonstration of four immunoassay formats using the array biosensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of a fluorescence-based array biosensor to measure and quantify the binding of an antigen to an immobilized antibody has been demonstrated using the four different immunoassay formats: direct, competitive, displacement, and sandwich. A patterned array of antibodies specific for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) immobilized onto the surface of a planar waveguide and used to measure signals from different antigen concentrations simultaneously. For direct, competitive, and displacement assays, which are one-step assays, measurements were obtained in real time. Dose-response curves were calculated for all four assay formats, demonstrating the array biosensor's ability to quantify the amount of antigen present in solution.

Sapsford, Kim E.; Charles, Paul T.; Patterson, Charles H Jr; Ligler, Frances S.

2002-01-01

158

Enzyme immunoassay for screening of sulfathiazole in honey.  

PubMed

A simple enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed to screen honey samples for sulfathiazole (ST) adulteration. Honey samples required only a 30-fold dilution before use in the procedure. Because 96 well microtiter plates were used and only 100 microL of diluted honey sample was required per well, numerous replicates or samples could be tested simultaneously. The EIA was able to detect at least 0.3 ppm levels of ST in honey and also provide a rough quantitation of ST amounts. PMID:2289917

Sheth, H B; Sporns, P

1990-01-01

159

75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...parties within the organ donation and transplant community regarding guidance for a possible...transplanted per donor (OTPD), and post- transplant recipient outcomes. DATES: Written...considerable discussion among critical care and transplant specialists regarding donor...

2010-09-24

160

Novel diode laser-compatible fluorophores and their application to single molecule detection, protein labeling and fluorescence resonance energy transfer immunoassay.  

PubMed

We describe a series of new long-wave absorbing and fluorescing cyanine dyes and labels (based on a general logic for the design of such dyes), their spectra, covalent and noncovalent linkage to proteins, their use in single molecule detection (SMD) and as donors and acceptors, respectively, in fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies. The new labels represent water-soluble and reactive fluorophores whose quantum yields increase substantially if noncovalently or covalently bound to proteins. Due to their strong absorptions between 550 and 700 nm they are excitable by light-emitting diodes or diode lasers. Their high absorbances (epsilon around 100,000) and adequate fluorescence quantum yields (phi up to 0.68 if bound to proteins) along with their availability as reactive NHS esters make them viable labels for proteins and oligomers, e.g. in context with SMD or fluorescence energy transfer immunoassay which is demonstrated for the system HSA/anti-HSA. PMID:11547561

Oswald, B; Gruber, M; Böhmer, M; Lehmann, F; Probst, M; Wolfbeis, O S

2001-08-01

161

Psychological aspects of donor insemination.  

PubMed

This survey of the psychological literature on Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID) pays particular attention to the secrecy. Studies of couples beforehand do not arrive at criteria for choosing psychologically suitable couples. Follow-up questionnaires are superficial and cannot inform us which couples and what percentage of couples encounter psychological difficulties. Case reports of couples who encountered difficulties are too few to permit generalization and cannot specify AID's role in generating symptoms. A second look at the data suggests that, although overlooked, the secrecy surrounding AID may create psychological difficulties, a view supported by the findings at our clinic. A plea is made with specific recommendations to create an ambience in which openness is possible, and which will allow in-depth research of the psychological aspects of AID. PMID:7095981

Berger, D M

1982-01-01

162

Development of surface-plasmon-resonance-based immunoassay for cephalexin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The public concern surrounding antibiotic contamination in food and food products has made it imperative to develop analytical methods for their detection. Polyclonal antibodies and protein-hapten conjugates to cephalexin were used in the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition immunoassay to cephalexin. A conjugate consisting of cephalexin-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilised on the dextran gel surface. Dissociation between the antibody and antigen was easily achieved with 10 mmol l-1 NaOH and was very reproducible. Standards of free hapten were prepared and premixed with antibody and, after a suitable incubation time, passed over the surface of the chip with the protein-hapten conjugate immobilised. The hapten in solution inhibited the binding of antibody to the surface resulting in higher response units of antibody bound at lower concentrations of free drug. Model inhibition immunoassays to cephalexin were developed in PBS and spiked milk samples. These assays had detection ranges between 4.88 to 2,500 ng ml-1 and 244 to 3,900 ng ml-1, respectively, with reproducible results.

Dillon, Paul P.; Daly, Stephen J.; Browne, Johnathan; Manning, Bernadette M.; O'Kennedy, Richard; van Amerongen, Aart

2003-03-01

163

Finger-Actuated, Self-Contained Immunoassay Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering chamber, and needle seats. The bottom processing component contains connection needles, a mixing chamber, and a detection chamber with immobilized proteins. Subsequent to sample introduction, the storage and processing components are mated. The needles form hydraulic connections between the two parts and, in some cases, close valves. The pouches are then actuated sequentially to induce flow of various reagents and facilitate process operations. The cassette is compatible with different detection modalities. Both a cassette with immunochromatographic-based detection and a cassette with microbead-based detection were constructed and evaluated. The immunochromatographic cassette was used to detect antibodies to HIV in saliva samples. The bead-based cassette was used to detect the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8. The experimental data demonstrates good repeatability and reasonable sensitivity. PMID:19597994

Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A.; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G.; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

2010-01-01

164

Development of immunoassays to determinate sulfamethoxazole residues in wastewaters.  

PubMed

Different immunoassays have been developed to monitor sulfamethoxazole (SMX), an antibiotic frequently detected in water. The immunoassays were developed and optimized in two different formats: ELISA in polystyrene 96-well plate and microarray on compact disc (CD) support. Competitive microimmunoassays were performed by direct adsorption of immunoreagents on the polycarbonate surface of a low-reflectivity CD. Results were displayed using nanogold-labeled immunoglobulins and silver staining developer. High sensitivity was achieved with both formats: LD 0.001 ng mL(-1) in the ELISA-plate, and 0.09 ng mL(-1) in the CD format. The novel CD methodology presents advantages such as simplicity, sensitivity, portability, analytical capacity (2560 spots per disc), in addition to reductions in immunoreagents required, costs and time for analysis. Both proposed methods were applied to determine SMX at nanograms per litre level in wastewater samples without previous preconcentration. Finally, the determination of several fortified wastewater samples using the CD format protocol showed a mean recovery of 87%, which confirms that this assay format is a good screening tool to detect sulfamethoxazole in water samples rapidly and reliably. PMID:19436870

Pastor-Navarro, Nuria; Brun, Eva M; Gallego-Iglesias, Ester; Maquieira, Angel; Puchades, Rosa

2009-05-01

165

Sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay of triclopyr by digital image analysis.  

PubMed

An image based detection of chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for the quantification of triclopyr has been developed. The immunoassay was an indirect competitive immunoassay with an anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Chemiluminescence was produced by the luminol/H(2)O(2)/HRP reaction, detected by a monochrome video CCD camera and digitized with an Imagraph IC-PCI frame grabber using a custom program developed in C(++) (Microsoft Visual C(++) 6.0). Two main improvements are reported in the data processing software: the implementation of a circular mesh covering the perimeter of each well, eliminating diffuse light from the neighboring wells, and the use of volume (the integration of light intensity of all pixels that define a well) as an analytical signal instead of CL intensity or area (as usual in commercial plate readers) to improve precision for normalization of the total light output. The standard curve was produced for 0.01-10 ng/L triclopyr. The limit of detection was 0.8 ng/L and the variation coefficient was 3.07% (n=10, P=0.05). PMID:22841045

Díaz, Aurora N; Sánchez, Francisco G; Baro, Enrique N; Díaz, Ana F G; Aguilar, Alfonso; Algarra, Manuel

2012-08-15

166

Fast and Sensitive Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons, and it is essential to develop a rapid and simple method to detect B. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The immunoassay is a rapid and easy-to-use method for the detection of B. anthracis by means of antibodies directed against surface spore antigens. With this objective in view, we have produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies against B. anthracis and developed colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays. Using Meso Scale Discovery ECL technology, which is based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection utilizing a sulfo-Tag label that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation (using a dedicated ECL plate reader, an electrical current is placed across the microplate with electrodes integrated into the bottom of the plate, resulting in a series of electrically induced reactions leading to a luminescent signal), a detection limit ranging between 0.3 × 103 and 103 CFU/ml (i.e., 30 to 100 spores per test), depending on the B. anthracis strain assayed, was achieved. In complex matrices (5 mg/ml of soil or simulated powder), the detection level (without any sample purification or concentration) was never altered more than 3-fold compared with the results obtained in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:22773632

Volland, Hervé; Dano, Julie; Lamourette, Patricia; Sylvestre, Patricia; Mock, Michèle; Créminon, Christophe

2012-01-01

167

Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India  

PubMed Central

Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were ­conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be ­maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, ­professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using ­relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, ­unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing ­information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring ­monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

2011-01-01

168

Preoperative liver donor evaluation: Imaging and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the rationale behind living (related) donor liver transplantation, the role of imaging in the preoperative evaluation of the potential donor, and the currently available imaging modalities for fulfilling this task. Furthermore, the normal hepatic vascular and biliary anatomy, as seen on imaging, is reviewed and the most common anomalies are highlighted. Finally, critical concepts in the diagnostic

Koenraad J. Mortelé; Vito Cantisani; Roberto Troisi; Bernard de Hemptinne; Stuart G. Silverman

2003-01-01

169

The Experience of Living Kidney Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

2008-01-01

170

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40(a), (b), and (e) subsequently may donate Source Plasma for use in the preparation of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin...due to HTLV, types I and II, may serve as a donor of Source Plasma; (5) A deferred donor who tests reactive for a...

2010-04-01

171

Low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors  

PubMed Central

Low hemoglobin deferral occurs in about 10% of attempted whole blood donations and commonly is a consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Pre-menopausal women often have iron deficiency anemia caused by menstruation and pregnancy and have low hemoglobin deferral on their first donation attempt. Frequent donors also develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia because blood donation removes a large amount of iron from the donor and the 56-day minimum inter-donation interval for donors in the United States is not sufficient for recovery of hemoglobin and iron stores. Other causes for low hemoglobin deferral range from a medically insignificant deferral of a woman with hemoglobin between 12.0 and 12.4 g/dL, which is within the normal reference range but below the 12.5 g/dL needed to donate blood, to anemia caused by an unrecognized malignancy in a “healthy” individual attempting to donate blood. The diverse causes of anemia in blood donors make it difficult to provide accurate information to donors about the cause of their low hemoglobin deferral and complicate implementation of programs to prevent them by blood collecting agencies. This article reviews how hemoglobin is measured and the demographics and causes of low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors. It provides recommendations for how blood collection agencies can provide donors with accurate information about the cause of their deferral and discusses programs that can be implemented to decrease these deferrals in regular donors. PMID:24332843

Mast, Alan E.

2013-01-01

172

Transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I by blood components from a donor lacking anti-p24: a case report. The Transfusion Safety Study Group.  

PubMed

The present criteria for confirmation of human T-lymphotrophic virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II) infection in blood donors are based on seroreactivity to p24 (gag) and gp46 and/or gp61 (env) on Western blot (WB) and radioimmunoprecipitation assays (WB/RIPA). Any single band and other combinations are classified as indeterminate. This case report documents infection in a donor with a repeatedly indeterminate pattern. The blood donor was anti-HTLV-I/II positive on enzyme-linked immunoassay, and two sera taken 5 years apart were WB/RIPA-indeterminate (p19 and gp68 only). His donations in the interval were associated with transmission of HTLV-I to four of the six recipients available for study. Other recipients of blood from donors whose WB/RIPA results were indeterminate by present criteria should be examined to determine if additional patterns are at least occasionally associated with transmission. The likelihood that such donors are infected is important to those who are counseling them and making decisions concerning recipients of their bloody. PMID:1731439

Donegan, E; Pell, P; Lee, H; Shaw, G M; Mosley, J W

1992-01-01

173

Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

1984-01-01

174

Nursing care of donor site wounds.  

PubMed

The list of ideal donor site characteristics includes many items related to nursing care such as the ability of the dressing to minimize pain, permit patient mobility, and simplify postoperative care. Biobrane must adhere to the donor site wound bed and be allowed to dry without fluid accumulation. Coarse-mesh gauze wraps applied over the Biobrane in the operating room help maintain contact between Biobrane and the wound bed, protect the donor site from traumatic dislodgment in the early postoperative period, and serve to wick wound drainage in the first 24 hours. Twenty-four hours after surgery the nurse removes the outer dressing. The Biobrane is usually adherent to the wound, and the site is left open to dry. The primary goal of nursing care is to maintain sufficient airflow around the site. Nursing care of Biobrane-covered donor sites is uncomplicated but requires adherence to certain procedures to promote optimal donor site healing. PMID:7673321

Hansbrough, W

1995-01-01

175

Non Heart-Beating Donors in England  

PubMed Central

When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non-heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation. PMID:18297216

Chaib, Eleazar

2008-01-01

176

Non heart-beating donors in England.  

PubMed

When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation. PMID:18297216

Chaib, Eleazar

2008-02-01

177

Immunoassay of goat antihuman immunoglobulin G antibody based on luminescence resonance energy transfer between near-infrared responsive NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR) light can penetrate biological samples and even tissues without causing sample damage and avoid autofluorescence from biological samples in fluorescence detection. Thus, a luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET)-based immunoassay that can be excited by NIR irradiation is a promising approach to the analysis of biological samples. Here we demonstrate the use of NIR-to-visible upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as an energy donor, which can emit a visible light upon the NIR irradiation, and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as an energy acceptor, which can absorb the visible light emitted from the donor, to develop a sandwich-type LRET-based immunoassay for the detection of goat antihuman immunoglobulin G (IgG). Amino-functionalized NaYF(4):Yb, Er UCNPs and Au NPs were first prepared and then conjugated with the human IgG and rabbit antigoat IgG, respectively. The NIR-excited fluorescence emission band of human IgG-conjugated NaYF(4):Yb, Er UCNPs (lambda(max) = 542 nm) partially overlaps with the visible absorption band of the rabbit antigoat IgG-conjugated colloidal Au NPs (lambda(max) = 530 nm), satisfying the requirement of spectral overlap between donors and acceptors for LRET. A LRET system was then formed when goat antihuman IgG was added to a mixture of human IgG-modified NaYF(4):Yb, Er UCNPs (donor) and rabbit antigoat IgG-modified Au NPs (acceptor). The sandwich-type immunoreactions between the added goat antihuman IgG (primary antibody) and the two different proteins (antigen and secondary antibody on the surface of the donors and acceptors, respectively) cross-bridge the donors and acceptors and thus shorten their spacing, leading to the occurrence of LRET from UCNPs to Au NPs upon NIR irradiation. As a result, the quenching of the NIR-excited fluorescence of the UCNPs is linearly correlated to the concentration of the goat antihuman IgG (in the range of 3-67 microg x mL(-1)) present in the system, enabling the detection and quantification of the antibody. Such sandwich-type LRET-based approach can reach a very low detection limit of goat antihuman IgG (0.88 microg x mL(-1)), indicating that this method is applicable for the trace protein detection. This approach is expected to be extended to the detection of other biological molecules once the donor and acceptor nanoparticles are modified by proper molecules that can recognize the target biomolecules. PMID:19807113

Wang, Meng; Hou, Wei; Mi, Cong-Cong; Wang, Wen-Xing; Xu, Zhang-Run; Teng, Hong-Hui; Mao, Chuan-Bin; Xu, Shu-Kun

2009-11-01

178

An Extensive Targeted Proteomic Analysis of Disease-Related Protein Biomarkers in Urine from Healthy Donors  

PubMed Central

The analysis of protein biomarkers in urine is expected to lead to advances in a variety of clinical settings. Several characteristics of urine including a low-protein matrix, ease of testing and a demonstrated proteomic stability offer distinct advantages over current widely used biofluids, serum and plasma. Improvements in our understanding of the urine proteome and in methods used in its evaluation will facilitate the clinical development of urinary protein biomarkers. Multiplexed bead-based immunoassays were utilized to evaluate 211 proteins in urines from 103 healthy donors. An additional 25 healthy donors provided serial urine samples over the course of two days in order to assess temporal variation in selected biomarkers. Nearly one-third of the evaluated biomarkers were detected in urine at levels greater than 1ng/ml, representing a diverse panel of proteins with respect to structure, function and biological role. The presence of several biomarkers in urine was confirmed by western blot. Several methods of data normalization were employed to assess impact on biomarker variability. A complex pattern of correlations with urine creatinine, albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was observed indicating the presence of highly specific mechanisms of renal filtration. Further investigation of the urinary protein biomarkers identified in this preliminary study along with a consideration of the underlying proteomic trends suggested by these findings should lead to an improved capability to identify candidate biomarkers for clinical development. PMID:23723977

Nolen, Brian M.; Orlichenko, Lidiya S.; Marrangoni, Adele; Velikokhatnaya, Liudmila; Prosser, Denise; Grizzle, William E.; Ho, Kevin; Jenkins, Frank J.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Lokshin, Anna E.

2013-01-01

179

Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunoassays for the measurement of palytoxin in biological samples.  

PubMed

Mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies were produced against conjugates of keyhole limpet hemocyanin and chemically defined palytoxin haptens. Palytoxin haptens were produced by derivatization of the primary amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate or succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate. Selected antibodies were used to develop five palytoxin-specific enzyme-linked immunoassay formats for the quantitation of palytoxin in biological matrices, including crude extracts of Palythoa tuberculosa. The formats developed include an indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay, two types of direct competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassays, and both indirect and direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are capable of detecting as little as 10 pg palytoxin per test, but may be subject to matrix interference. The direct competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassays detect as little as 30 pg palytoxin per test with a total assay time of only 4 hr. The enzyme-linked immunoassays do not cross-react with the other marine toxins tested, but do cross-react with certain non-toxic, treated preparations of palytoxin. The enzyme-linked immunoassays were used to quantitate palytoxin in P. tuberculosa extracts and to monitor toxin isolation. These enzyme-linked immunoassay systems can substitute for the mouse bioassay of palytoxin, providing a rapid, sensitive, and accurate means of toxin detection. PMID:1354900

Bignami, G S; Raybould, T J; Sachinvala, N D; Grothaus, P G; Simpson, S B; Lazo, C B; Byrnes, J B; Moore, R E; Vann, D C

1992-07-01

180

Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.  

PubMed

In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship. PMID:23763691

Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

2013-06-01

181

Europium Nanoparticle-Based High Performing Immunoassay for the Screening of Treponemal Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Tp) is the causative agent of syphilis which mainly spreads through sexual contact, blood transfusion and perinatal route. In order to curtail the spread of the infection and to clinically manage the disease, timely, accurate and reliable diagnosis is very important. We have developed an immunoassay for the detection of treponemal antibodies in human serum or plasma samples. In vivo biotinylated and non-biotinylated versions of the recombinant antigen were designed by the fusion of three Tp-specific antigens namely Tp15, Tp17 and Tp47. These fusion antigens were expressed in E. coli and purified using single-step metal affinity chromatography. Biotinylated fusion antigen immobilized on streptavidin coated plate was used to capture the treponemal antibodies and the non-biotinylated antigen coated on europium nanoparticles was used as tracer. Assays with two different incubation times of 10 min and 1 h were developed, and following the incubation the europium fluorescence was measured using time-resolved fluorometry. The developed time-resolved fluorometric (TRF) immunoassays were evaluated with in-house and commercial serum/plasma sample panels. For well-established treponemal antibodies positive or negative samples, the sensitivity of TRF immunoassay with 10 min incubation time was 97.4%, and of TRF immunoassay with 1 h incubation time was 98.7%, and the specificities of both the TRF immunoassays were 99.2%. For the samples with discordant results with the reference assays, both the TRF immunoassays showed better specificity than the Enzygnost syphilis enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. The two different incubation times did not have any significant effect on the signal to cutoff (S/Co) ratios obtained with the two immunoassays (p?=?0.06). Our results indicate that the developed immunoassay with a short incubation time of 10 min has the potential to be used in clinical laboratories and in blood-bank settings as a screening test for treponemal antibodies. PMID:24386329

Talha, Sheikh M.; Hytönen, Jukka; Westhorpe, Adam; Kumar, Sushil; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

2013-01-01

182

21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability...

2013-04-01

183

21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability...

2012-04-01

184

21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.  

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability...

2014-04-01

185

21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability...

2011-04-01

186

21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability...

2010-04-01

187

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2011-04-01

188

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2012-04-01

189

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2013-04-01

190

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2014-04-01

191

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

2010-04-01

192

21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for donor suitability...

2010-04-01

193

Development of a Disperse Dye Immunoassay Technique for Detection of Antibodies against Neospora caninum in Cattle  

PubMed Central

In this study a disperse dye immunoassay method was standardized and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in cattle. Sera from 150 cattle with a recent history of abortion were collected and tested by commercial ELISA kit and a standardized in-house dye immunoassay system. The positivity rate for the sera used in this study was 34.6% for the disperse dye immunoassay (DDIA) compared to 32% obtained by ELISA kit. This study showed no significant difference between DDIA and ELISA. The results indicated that the DDIA provide an economic, simple, rapid and robust test for detection of N. caninum infection in cattle. PMID:23467930

Selahi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein; Mansourian, Maryam; Tahamtan, Yahya

2013-01-01

194

Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise  

PubMed Central

Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

195

Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil  

PubMed Central

The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 ?g/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2720-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19263041

Smits, Nathalie G. E.; Haasnoot, Willem

2009-01-01

196

Determination of pantothenic acid in foods by optical biosensor immunoassay.  

PubMed

An optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay was developed using a specific pantothenic acid-binding protein for the quantitation of free pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) in foodstuffs. Samples were prepared by a simple extraction procedure in buffer, and vitamin content was estimated against authentic calibrants in the same buffer. Performance parameters included a working range of 10-5000 ng/mL, a limit of detection of 4.4 ng/mL, precision relative standard deviation of 5.4-7.1% over a range of concentrations, and recoveries > 95% in the matrixes tested. A wide range of foodstuffs, including National Institute of Standards and Technology reference samples, were tested in 3 independent laboratories and the results were compared with microbiological assay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods. The results indicate that the biosensor technique is appropriate for the estimation of pantothenic acid in a wide range of foodstuffs. PMID:16152915

Haughey, Simon A; O'Kane, Anthony A; Baxter, G Andrew; Kalman, Andras; Trisconi, Marie-José; Indyk, Harvey E; Watene, Gaylene A

2005-01-01

197

Polymerization-based signal amplification for paper-based immunoassays.  

PubMed

Diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings require technologies that are affordable and easy to use with minimal infrastructure. Colorimetric detection methods that produce results that are readable by eye, without reliance on specialized and expensive equipment, have great utility in these settings. We report a colorimetric method that integrates a paper-based immunoassay with a rapid, visible-light-induced polymerization to provide high visual contrast between a positive and a negative result. Using Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 as an example, we demonstrate that this method allows visual detection of proteins in complex matrices such as human serum and provides quantitative information regarding analyte levels when combined with cellphone-based imaging. It also allows the user to decouple the capture of analyte from signal amplification and visualization steps. PMID:25427131

Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Lathwal, Shefali; Kaastrup, Kaja; Al-Sayah, Mohammad; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Smith, Barbara S; Whitesides, George M; Sikes, Hadley D

2015-01-22

198

An evaluation of five commercial immunoassay data analysis software systems.  

PubMed

An evaluation of five commercial software systems used for immunoassay data analysis revealed numerous deficiencies. Often, the utility of statistical output was compromised by poor documentation. Several data sets were run through each system using a four-parameter calibration function, and the results were compared to those from an independent method. Comparable results between systems were obtained, but often several attempts at analysis were necessary. The evaluation process revealed that it is difficult to monitor the numerous options available on these types of programs, and that incorrect results could easily be obtained if comparison analyses were not used. Recommendations for improved software functionality and for using the four-parameter calibration model are presented. PMID:8368494

Gerlach, R W; White, R J; Deming, S N; Palasota, J A; van Emon, J M

1993-07-01

199

Latent cytomegalovirus infection in blood donors  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one out of 32 apparently healthy blood donors aged 21 to 65 years yielded positive complement fixation tests with a cytomegalovirus antigen, at titres ranging from 1:8 to 1:64. Virus was present in leucocyte cultures of fresh peripheral blood of two seropositive subjects from a total of 35 donors examined. Plasma and 48-hour stored blood specimens failed to disclose virus in culture. Viruria could not be demonstrated, and there was no evidence of recent illness in the study group. These findings suggest that subclinical viraemia is not uncommon in blood donors. PMID:4311727

Diosi, Peter; Moldovan, Eva; Tomescu, Nicholas

1969-01-01

200

Latent cytomegalovirus infection in blood donors.  

PubMed

Twenty-one out of 32 apparently healthy blood donors aged 21 to 65 years yielded positive complement fixation tests with a cytomegalovirus antigen, at titres ranging from 1:8 to 1:64. Virus was present in leucocyte cultures of fresh peripheral blood of two seropositive subjects from a total of 35 donors examined. Plasma and 48-hour stored blood specimens failed to disclose virus in culture. Viruria could not be demonstrated, and there was no evidence of recent illness in the study group. These findings suggest that subclinical viraemia is not uncommon in blood donors. PMID:4311727

Diosi, P; Moldovan, E; Tomescu, N

1969-12-13

201

Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant  

PubMed Central

The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

2014-01-01

202

Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant.  

PubMed

The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

2014-05-28

203

Current research on organ donor management.  

PubMed

A shortage of organs is available for transplantation, with 116,000 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing wait list. Because the demand for organs outweighs the supply, considerable care must be taken to maximize the number of organs transplanted per donor and optimize the quality of recovered organs. Studies designed to determine optimal donor management therapies are limited, and this research has many challenges. Although evidenced-based guidelines for managing potential organ donors do not exist, research in this area is increasing. This article reviews the existing literature and highlights recent trials that can guide management. PMID:24287350

Sally, Mitchell; Malinoski, Darren

2013-12-01

204

Multiplexed magnetic microsphere immunoassays for detection of pathogens in foods  

PubMed Central

Foodstuffs have traditionally been challenging matrices for conducting immunoassays. Proteins, carbohydrates, and other macromolecules present in food matrices may interfere with both immunoassays and PCR-based tests, and removal of particulate matter may also prove challenging prior to analyses. This has been found true when testing for bacterial contamination of foods using the standard polystyrene microspheres utilized with Luminex flow cytometers. Luminex MagPlex microspheres are encoded with the same dyes as standard xMAP microspheres, but have superparamagnetic properties to aid in preparation of samples in complex matrices. In this work, we present results demonstrating use of MagPlex for sample preparation and identification of bacteria and a toxin spiked into a variety of food samples. Fluorescence-coded MagPlex microsphere sets coated with antibodies for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were used to capture these bacteria and toxin from spiked foodstuffs and then evaluated by the Luminex system in a multiplex format; spiked foods included apple juice, green pepper, tomato, ground beef, alfalfa sprouts, milk, lettuce, spinach, and chicken washes. Although MagPlex microspheres facilitated recovery of the microspheres and targets from the complex matrices, assay sensitivity was sometimes inhibited by up to one to three orders of magnitude; for example the detection limits E. coli spiked into apple juice or milk increased 100-fold, from 1000 to 100,000 cfu/mL. Thus, while the magnetic and fluorescent properties of the Luminex MagPlex microspheres allow for rapid, multiplexed testing for bacterial contamination in typically problematic food matrices, our data demonstrate that achieving desired limits of detection is still a challenge. PMID:20953301

Kim, Jason S.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

2010-01-01

205

Flexible paper-based ZnO nanorod light-emitting diodes induced multiplexed photoelectrochemical immunoassay.  

PubMed

ZnO nanorods inorganic-organic heterostructured light-emitting diodes have been demonstrated on a cheap/disposable paper substrate and applied in multiplexed photoelectrochemical immunoassay. PMID:24358464

Zhang, Yan; Ge, Lei; Li, Meng; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang; Cao, Bingqiang

2014-02-11

206

Development of an integrated capillary valve-based preconcentrator and surface-based immunoassay  

E-print Network

A new generation of integrated preconcentrator and immunoassay was developed. A novel, self-aligned method for patterning Nafion resin was developed and applied to create a preconcentrator. In a parallel effort, a surface-based ...

Liu, Vincent Hok

2009-01-01

207

Immunoassay Techniques for Detection of the Herbicide Simazine Based on Use of Oppositely  

E-print Network

Immunoassay Techniques for Detection of the Herbicide Simazine Based on Use of Oppositely Charged to an assay for the herbicide simazine. Both enzyme-linked immu- nosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot blot formats

Hammock, Bruce D.

208

An inexpensive, fast and sensitive quantitative lateral flow magneto-immunoassay for total prostate specific antigen.  

PubMed

We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

Barnett, Jacqueline M; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

2014-09-01

209

An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen  

PubMed Central

We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

2014-01-01

210

Normalization and Statistical Analysis of Multiplexed Bead-Based Immunoassay Data Using Mixed-Effects Modeling  

E-print Network

Multiplexed bead-based flow cytometric immunoassays are a powerful experimental tool for investigating cellular communication networks, yet their widespread adoption is limited in part by challenges in robust quantitative ...

Clarke, David C.

211

Day-of-surgery rejection of donors in living donor liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study diagnostic laparoscopy as a tool for excluding donors on the day of surgery in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: This study analyzed prospectively collected data from all potential donors for LDLT. All of the donors were subjected to a three-step donor evaluation protocol at our institution. Step one consisted of a clinical and social evaluation, including a liver profile, hepatitis markers, a renal profile, a complete blood count, and an abdominal ultrasound with Doppler. Step two involved tests to exclude liver diseases and to evaluate the donor’s serological status. This step also included a radiological evaluation of the biliary anatomy and liver vascular anatomy using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and a computed tomography (CT) angiogram, respectively. A CT volumetric study was used to calculate the volume of the liver parenchyma. Step three included an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Between November 2002 and May 2009, sixty-nine potential living donors were assessed by open exploration prior to harvesting the planned part of the liver. Between the end of May 2009 and October 2010, 30 potential living donors were assessed laparoscopically to determine whether to proceed with the abdominal incision to harvest part of the liver for donation. RESULTS: Ninety-nine living donor liver transplants were attempted at our center between November 2002 and October 2010. Twelve of these procedures were aborted on the day of surgery (12.1%) due to donor findings, and eighty-seven were completed (87.9%). These 87 liver transplants were divided into the following groups: Group A, which included 65 transplants that were performed between November 2002 and May 2009, and Group B, which included 22 transplants that were performed between the end of May 2009 and October 2010. The demographic data for the two groups of donors were found to match; moreover, no significant difference was observed between the two groups of donors with respect to hospital stay, narcotic and non-narcotic analgesia requirements or the incidence of complications. Regarding the recipients, our study clearly revealed that there was no significant difference in either the incidence of different complications or the incidence of retransplantation between the two groups. Day-of-surgery donor assessment for LDLT procedures at our center has passed through two eras, open and laparoscopic. In the first era, sixty-nine LDLT procedures were attempted between November 2002 and May 2009. Upon open exploration of the donors on the day of surgery, sixty-five donors were found to have livers with a grossly normal appearance. Four donors out of 69 (5.7%) were rejected on the day of surgery because their livers were grossly fatty and pale. In the laparoscopic era, thirty LDLT procedures were attempted between the end of May 2009 and October 2010. After the laparoscopic assessment on the day of surgery, twenty-two transplantation procedures were completed (73.4%), and eight were aborted (26.6%). Our data showed that the levels of steatosis in the rejected donors were in the acceptable range. Moreover, the results of the liver biopsies of rejected donors were comparable between the group A and group B donors. The laparoscopic assessment of donors presents many advantages relative to the assessment of donors through open exploration; in particular, the laparoscopic assessment causes less pain, requires a shorter hospital stay and leads to far superior cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic assessment of donors in LDLT is a safe and acceptable procedure that avoids unnecessary large abdominal incisions and increases the chance of achieving donor safety. PMID:23293715

Hegab, Bassem; Abdelfattah, Mohamed Rabei; Azzam, Ayman; Mohamed, Hazem; Hamoudi, Waleed Al; Alkhail, Faisal Aba; Bahili, Hamad Al; Khalaf, Hatem; Sofayan, Mohammed Al; Sebayel, Mohammed Al

2012-01-01

212

Donor Immune Cells Attack Metastatic Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In patients with metastatic breast cancer, immune cells from a genetically matched donor can attack and shrink tumors, researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago.

213

Bone marrow transplantation from a cadaveric donor.  

PubMed

A 2.5-year-old girl with neurogenic Gaucher's disease was transplanted with donor bone marrow from her HLA-compatible 12-year-old brother whose marrow was harvested 30 min post-mortem, after he suffered a severe head and neck injury. The marrow was stored in liquid nitrogen for 30 days prior to infusion. The post-transplantation period was uneventful with good engraftment and no signs of graft-versus-host disease. Currently, 6 months post-allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT), analysis of both bone marrow and blood samples by PCR documented only cells of donor origin. This case demonstrates the feasibility of cadaveric marrow as a source of donor cells. To our knowledge, this patient is the only survivor of alloBMT from a cadaveric donor. PMID:9603417

Kapelushnik, J; Aker, M; Pugatsch, T; Samuel, S; Slavin, S

1998-04-01

214

21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor...

2012-04-01

215

21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.  

...Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor...

2014-04-01

216

21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor...

2011-04-01

217

21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor...

2010-04-01

218

21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor...

2013-04-01

219

Detection of borna disease virus-reactive antibodies from patients with psychiatric disorders and from horses by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Borna disease virus (BDV)-specific antibodies among patients with psychiatric disorders and healthy individuals has varied in several reports using several different serological assay methods. A reliable and specific method for anti-BDV antibodies needs to be developed to clarify the pathological significance of BDV infections in humans. We developed a new electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for the antibody to BDV that uses two recombinant proteins of BDV, p40 and p24 (full length). Using this ECLIA, we examined 3,476 serum samples from humans with various diseases and 917 sera from blood donors in Japan for the presence of anti-BDV antibodies. By ECLIA, 26 (3.08%) of 845 schizophrenia patients and 9 (3.59%) of 251 patients with mood disorders were seropositive for BDV. Among 323 patients with other psychiatric diseases, 114 with neurological diseases, 75 with chronic fatigue syndrome, 85 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, 50 with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosis and 17 with leprosy, there was no positive case except one case each with alcohol addiction, AIDS, and dementia. Although 19 (1.36%) of 1,393 patients with various ocular diseases, 10 (1.09%) of 917 blood donors, and 3 (4.55%) of 66 multitransfused patients were seropositive for BDV-specific antigen, high levels of seroprevalence in schizophrenia patients and young patients (16 to 59 years old) with mood disorders were statistically significant. The immunoreactivity of seropositive sera could be verified for specificity by blocking with soluble p40 and/or p24 recombinant protein. Anti-p24 antibody was more frequent than p40 antibody in most cases, and in some psychotic patients antibody profiles showed only p40 antibody. Although serum positive for both p40 and p24 antibodies was not found in this study, the p40 ECLIA count in schizophrenia patients was higher than that of blood donors. Furthermore, we examined 90 sera from Japanese feral horses. Antibody profiles of control human samples are similar to that of naturally BDV-infected feral horses. We concluded that BDV infection was associated in some way with psychiatric disorders. PMID:10473520

Yamaguchi, K; Sawada, T; Naraki, T; Igata-Yi, R; Shiraki, H; Horii, Y; Ishii, T; Ikeda, K; Asou, N; Okabe, H; Mochizuki, M; Takahashi, K; Yamada, S; Kubo, K; Yashiki, S; Waltrip, R W; Carbone, K M

1999-09-01

220

Photoluminescence of donor–acceptor carbazole chromophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption and emission features of various chromophores both in the solid amorphous state and in solution are presented. These 1-(N-ethyl-carbazolyl)-2-substituted-2-cyanovinylene molecules contain in their structure the electron-donor carbazole nucleus and cyanovinylene bearing different acceptor moieties such as either another nitrile function, a methylester, a phenyl, or a para-nitro-phenyl group. It is shown that depending on the strength of the donor–acceptor

M. C. Castex; C. Olivero; G. Pichler; D. Adès; E. Cloutet; A. Siove

2001-01-01

221

Latent cytomegalovirus infection in blood donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one out of 32 apparently healthy blood donors aged 21 to 65 years yielded positive complement fixation tests with a cytomegalovirus antigen, at titres ranging from 1:8 to 1:64. Virus was present in leucocyte cultures of fresh peripheral blood of two seropositive subjects from a total of 35 donors examined. Plasma and 48-hour stored blood specimens failed to disclose virus

Peter Diosi; Eva Moldovan; Nicholas Tomescu

1969-01-01

222

Cross-reactivity of acetylfentanyl and risperidone with a fentanyl immunoassay.  

PubMed

Fentanyl and its analogs, such as acetylfentanyl, have become a concern for potential abuse. Fentanyl compliance monitoring and urine drug testing are becoming increasingly necessary; however, a limited number of fentanyl immunoassays have been validated for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of the DRI® fentanyl immunoassay, determine the potential cross-reactivity of acetylfentanyl and other pharmaceuticals, and investigate acetylfentanyl use in San Francisco. All urine toxicology samples from patients presenting to the emergency department were analyzed using the fentanyl immunoassay for 4 months. Positive samples were analyzed qualitatively using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for fentanyl, fentanyl metabolites, fentanyl analogs and greater than 200 common drugs and metabolites. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was performed using LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Acetylfentanyl, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were found to cross-react with the fentanyl immunoassay. No acetylfentanyl was detected in our emergency department patient population. The fentanyl immunoassay demonstrated 100% diagnostic sensitivity in a subset of urines tested; however, the specificity was only 86% due to seven false-positive samples observed. Five of the seven samples were positive for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone. The DRI® fentanyl immunoassay can be used to screen for fentanyl or acetylfentanyl; however, confirmatory testing should be performed for all samples that screen positive. PMID:25248490

Wang, Bei-Tzu; Colby, Jennifer M; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L

2014-01-01

223

Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections  

PubMed Central

Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

2014-01-01

224

A novel organ donor facility: a decade of experience with liver donors.  

PubMed

Transplant surgeons have historically traveled to donor hospitals, performing complex, time-sensitive procedures with unfamiliar personnel. This often involves air travel, significant delays, and frequently occurs overnight.In 2001, we established the nation's first organ recovery center. The goal was to increase efficiency,reduce costs and reduce surgeon travel. Liver donors and recipients, donor costs, surgeon hours and travel time, from April 1,2001 through December 31,2011 were analyzed. Nine hundred and fifteen liver transplants performed at our center were analyzed based on procurement location (living donors and donation after cardiac death donors were excluded). In year 1, 36% (9/25) of donor procurements occurred at the organ procurement organization (OPO) facility, rising to 93%(56/60) in the last year of analysis. Travel time was reduced from 8 to 2.7 h (p<0.0001), with a reduction of surgeon fly outs by 93% (14/15) in 2011. Liver organ donor charges generated by the donor were reduced by37% overall for donors recovered at the OPO facility versus acute care hospital. Organs recovered in this novel facility resulted in significantly reduced surgeon hours, air travel and cost. This practice has major implications for cost containment and OPO national policy and could become the standard of care. PMID:24612713

Doyle, M B M; Vachharajani, N; Wellen, J R; Lowell, J A; Shenoy, S; Ridolfi, G; Jendrisak, M D; Coleman, J; Maher, M; Brockmeier, D; Kappel, D; Chapman, W C

2014-03-01

225

Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.  

PubMed

The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. PMID:25052215

Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

2014-11-01

226

Preoperative CT evaluation of potential donors in living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Living donor liver transplantation is an effective, life sustaining surgical treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease and a successful liver transplant requires a close working relationship between the radiologist and the transplant surgeon. There is extreme variability in hepatic vascular anatomy; therefore, preoperative imaging of potential liver donors is crucial not only in donor selection but also helps the surgeons in planning their surgical approach. In this article, we elaborate important aspects in evaluation of potential liver donors on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and the utility of MDCT in presurgical assessment of the hepatic parenchyma, relevant hepatic vascular anatomy and segmental liver volumes. PMID:25489128

Vohra, Sandeep; Goyal, Neerav; Gupta, Subash

2014-10-01

227

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in the markedly obese living renal donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy is safe and efficacious in markedly obese renal donors.Methods. From 1996 to 1999, 431 laparoscopic living donor nephrectomies were performed. The markedly obese group consisted of 41 patients with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35. Forty-one controls with a BMI less than 30 were matched to the obese donors by

Stephen C Jacobs; Eugene Cho; Brian J Dunkin; Stephen T Bartlett; John L Flowers; Bruce Jarrell

2000-01-01

228

Quality of Life in Donors after Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) decreases the shortage of liver grafts for patients in need of a liver transplant, but involves two patients – a recipient and a living donor. Despite the magnitude of the procedure for the LDLT donor, only a few studies have investigated the effect of LDLT on the quality of life (QOL) of the donor. METHODS We performed a systematic search of the MEDLINE database to identify peer-reviewed articles assessing QOL in adults after LDLT donation. RESULTS Nineteen studies describing 768 unique donors met our inclusion criteria for this review. The median number of donors enrolled in each study was 30 (range 10–143) and the median follow-up 10.4 months (range 6–51.3). Prior to donation, donor QOL is significantly better than in control adult populations across all measured QOL domains. Within the first 3 months after donation, physical domains of QOL are significantly worse than pre-donation levels but return to baseline levels at 6 months in the majority (80–93%) of patients. Mental domains of QOL remain unchanged throughout the donation process. Common donor concerns after LDLT include bloating, loss of muscle tone, poor body image, and fatigue. DISCUSSION Based on our review of the existing literature, most LDLT donors return to baseline QOL within 6 months. However, there is a lack of long-term data on donor QOL after LDLT and few standardized assessments include measures of common patient concerns. Additional studies are necessary to develop a comprehensive risk profile for LDLT that includes a rigorous assessment of donor QOL. PMID:21117194

Parikh, Neehar D.; Ladner, Daniela; Abecassis, Michael; Butt, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

229

Donor morbidity in right and left hemiliver living donor liver transplantation: the impact of graft selection and surgical innovation on donor safety.  

PubMed

This study investigated adequate liver graft selection for donor safety by comparing postoperative donor liver function and morbidity between the right and left hemilivers (RL and LL, respectively) of living donors. Between April 2006 and March 2012, RL (n = 168) and LL (n = 140) donor operations were performed for liver transplantation at Kyoto University Hospital. Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia and coagulopathy persisted in RL donors, whereas the liver function of LL donors normalized more rapidly. The overall complication rate of the RL donors was significantly higher than that of the LL donors (59.5% vs. 30.7%; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in severe complications worse than Clavien grade IIIa or in biliary complication rates between the two donor groups. In April 2006, we introduced an innovative surgical procedure: hilar dissection preserving the blood supply to the bile duct during donor hepatectomy. Compared with our previous outcomes (1990-2006), the biliary complication rate of the RL donors decreased from 12.2% to 7.2%, and the severity of these complications was significantly lower. In conclusion, LL donors demonstrated good recovery in postoperative liver function and lower morbidity, and our surgical innovations reduced the severity of biliary complications in living donors. PMID:25082133

Iwasaki, Junji; Iida, Taku; Mizumoto, Masaki; Uemura, Tadahiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Hori, Tomohide; Ogawa, Kohei; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Mori, Akira; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

2014-11-01

230

Donor Relations 2.0: Using Web 2.0 to Connect with Donors Lynne M. Thomas, Northern Illinois University  

E-print Network

Donor Relations 2.0: Using Web 2.0 to Connect with Donors Lynne M. Thomas, Northern Illinois University Society of American Archivists 2009 Conference Session #401: The Potential of Web 2.0 for Donor that this paper will give you some pragmatic ideas for conducting donor relations virtually in a Web 2

Karonis, Nicholas T.

231

Building Better Donors: A Well-Informed Donor is an Asset to Any Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Billionaire philanthropists compare notes in private with their peers. Whether experienced philanthropists or first-time donors, they all want their gifts to make a difference, and they are hungry for knowledge about how to be effective donors. They want to be educated about philanthropy. Educational institutions are experts at making the case for…

Minter, Michele

2011-01-01

232

Factors Among Select Donors and Non-Donors Related to Major Gifts to a Private University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at the University of Miami to identify factors that might distinguish between donors and nondonors to the financial support of private universities. The theoretical framework for the study was based largely upon Lecky's self-consistency theory of personality. Three groups of donors and a group of nondonors to the University…

McKinney, Ricardo J.; And Others

233

Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination.  

PubMed

The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility. PMID:19470135

Burr, Jennifer

2009-07-01

234

The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ?66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ? 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and patients now have evidence that corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study from donors through age 75 years are suitable for transplantation. PMID:18387407

2009-01-01

235

Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times of Single Donors and Donor Clusters in Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atomistic method of calculating the spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 ) is presented for donors in silicon nanostructures comprising of millions of atoms. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian, and hence, the deformation potential, is directly evaluated from the strain-dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian. The technique is applied to single donors and donor clusters in silicon, and explains the variation of T1 with the number of donors and electrons, as well as donor locations. Without any adjustable parameters, the relaxation rates in a magnetic field for both systems are found to vary as B5 , in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. The results also show that by engineering electronic wave functions in nanostructures, T1 times can be varied by orders of magnitude.

Hsueh, Yu-Ling; Büch, Holger; Tan, Yaohua; Wang, Yu; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Rahman, Rajib

2014-12-01

236

Towards a single P donor in Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual P donors in Si form the basis of several schemes for realizing solid-state qubits. Technologically, all such schemes rely on the precise positioning of P donors in the Si crystal and fabrication of local gates, only a few tens of nanometers wide. Towards this goal, we have demonstrated that the spatial resolution of STM-lithography allows precise positioning of donors on the sub-nm length scale and also fabrication of all-epitaxial, planar quantum dot (QD) architectures, with source, drain, and gate patterns of precisely defined dimensions. Here, we report the STM-lithography fabrication of an ultra-small QD consisting, in the extreme limit, of a single P donor. Transport spectroscopy of the QD-device at mK temperatures shows stable Coulomb oscillations with an addition energy (around zero gate bias) of 44±2 meV. This value corresponds to the difference in the binding energies of the 1-electron (D^0) and the 2 --electron (D^-) states of a P donor in Si. The first two D^0 excited states have also been identified.

Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Wei, Tang; Ryu, Hoon; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle

2010-03-01

237

Quantitative immunochromatographic analysis: theory and application to theophylline immunoassay.  

PubMed

The development of an immunochromatographic technique suitable for rapid analysis of biological fluids is described. Quasi-one-dimensional antibody lattices specific for theophylline were constructed by packing Sepharose beads conjugated with specific antibody into specially designed narrow capillary tubes. The design of these capillary columns was such that they would subtract a preset threshold quantity of antigen (label and analyte) from the total amount presented. Labeled antigen, which appeared in the flowthrough, could then be used to precisely quantitate the analyte present. The ideal format would permit very precise subtraction of 100% of the available antigen up to the threshold amount and none of the remainder. The microcolumn described here comes close to this ideal behavior through the attainment of very high ratios of bound/free antigen. The elevated bound/free ratio could be explained by theoretical analysis of the effect on equilibria of the high antibody concentration in this quasi-one-dimensional system. Lattices containing anti-theophylline antibodies were used to develop a competitive enzyme immunoassay for theophylline which demonstrated a dose-response that was closely similar to that predicted by theoretical treatment. The entire assay procedure was performed in less than 30 min and demonstrated a sensitivity limit of approximately 20 ng/ml. Preliminary studies on clinical serum samples suggest that this assay has potential for the routine analysis of biological fluids. PMID:3674415

Lee, S R; Liberti, P A

1987-10-01

238

Sensitive giant magnetoresistive-based immunoassay for multiplex mycotoxin detection.  

PubMed

Rapid and multiplexed measurement is vital in the detection of food-borne pathogens. While highly specific and sensitive, traditional immunochemical assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) often require expensive read-out equipment (e.g. fluorescent labels) and lack the capability of multiplex detection. By combining the superior specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and simplicity of magnetic detection, we have developed a novel multiplex magnetic nanotag-based detection platform for mycotoxins that functions on a sub-picomolar concentration level. Unlike fluorescent labels, magnetic nanotags (MNTs) can be detected with inexpensive giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors such as spin-valve sensors. In the system presented here, each spin-valve sensor has an active area of 90 microm x 90 microm, arranged in an 8 x 8 array. Sample is added to the antibody-immobilized sensor array prior to the addition of the biotinylated detection antibody. The sensor response is recorded in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-linked MNTs on the chip. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins (aflatoxins B(1), zearalenone and HT-2) and show that a detection limit of 50 pg/mL can be achieved. PMID:20047828

Mak, Andy C; Osterfeld, Sebastian J; Yu, Heng; Wang, Shan X; Davis, Ronald W; Jejelowo, Olufisayo A; Pourmand, Nader

2010-03-15

239

Sensitive Giant Magnetoresistive-based Immunoassay for Multiplex Mycotoxin Detection  

PubMed Central

Rapid and multiplexed measurement is vital in the detection of food-borne pathogens. While highly specific and sensitive, traditional immunochemical assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) often require expensive read-out equipment (e.g. fluorescent labels) and lack the capability of multiplex detection. By combining the superior specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and simplicity of magnetic detection, we have developed a novel multiplex magnetic nanotag-based detection platform for mycotoxins that functions on a sub-picomolar concentration level. Unlike fluorescent labels, magnetic nanotags (MNTs) can be detected with inexpensive giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors such as spin-valve sensors. In the system presented here, each spin-valve sensor has an active area of 90 × 90 µm2, arranged in an 8×8 array. Sample is added to the antibody-immobilized sensor array prior to the addition of the biotinylated detection antibody. The sensor response is recorded in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-linked MNTs on the chip. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, zearalenone and HT-2) and show that a detection limit of 50 pg/mL can be achieved. PMID:20047828

Mak, Andy C.; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Yu, Heng; Wang, Shan X.; Davis, Ronald W.; Jejelowo, Olufisayo A.; Pourmand, Nader

2010-01-01

240

Rapid dioxin screening of milk and water by enzyme immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

A simple and easy to use enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system has been developed for rapid screening of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378D). This EIA has been adapted to analysis of water and milk using an automated system for extraction of liquid samples. Water analysis can be performed directly following extraction and solvent exchange with no extract clean-up. The same automated system is used for milk extraction and the extract is then cleaned chromatographically using the automated FMS Dioxin-Prep{trademark} System. Sensitivity for 2378D in the EIA is approximately 100 pg per analysis. Thus sensitivity to 10 ppt 2378D (whole weight basis) in milk is possible using only 50 ml or less of sample and sensitivity to 0.1 ppt 2378D in water is possible using 1-2 liters of sample. Total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 3 hours for water and 4.5 hours for milk.

Harrison, R.O. [ImmunoSystems Inc., Scarborough, ME (United States); Carlson, R.E. [Ecochem Research, Inc., Chaska, MN (United States); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-01

241

Ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical immunoassay through tag induced exciton trapping.  

PubMed

The development of photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensors with novel principles is of significance in realizing sensitive and low-cost detection. This work uses CuO NPs labeled antibody to construct a simple and sensitive sandwich-type immunobiosensor for the detection of protein. The detection signal is produced by dissolving the CuO NPs to release copper ions, which are then added on a quantum dots (QDs) modified F-doped tin oxide to quench the photocurrent of QDs via copper ion-induced formation of exciton trapping. The formed exciton trapping blocks the escape of photoelectron and thus leads to a "signal off" PEC method for sensitive immunoassay. The proposed method shows a detectable range from 0.05 to 500ng/mL for ?-fetoprotein (AFP) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.038ng/mL. This work further extends the application of exciton trapping-based PEC biosensing strategy in bioanalysis. The sensitive analytical performance of the designed route implies a promising potential of the PEC sensing in clinical diagnosis. PMID:25618699

Wen, Guangming; Ju, Huangxian

2015-03-01

242

System and method for a parallel immunoassay system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for detecting a target antigen using massively parallel immunoassay technology. In this system, high affinity antibodies of the antigen are covalently linked to small beads or particles. The beads are exposed to a solution containing DNA-oligomer-mimics of the antigen. The mimics which are reactive with the covalently attached antibody or antibodies will bind to the appropriate antibody molecule on the bead. The particles or beads are then washed to remove any unbound DNA-oligomer-mimics and are then immobilized or trapped. The bead-antibody complexes are then exposed to a test solution which may contain the targeted antigens. If the antigen is present it will replace the mimic since it has a greater affinity for the respective antibody. The particles are then removed from the solution leaving a residual solution. This residual solution is applied a DNA chip containing many samples of complimentary DNA. If the DNA tag from a mimic binds with its complimentary DNA, it indicates the presence of the target antigen. A flourescent tag can be used to more easily identify the bound DNA tag.

Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01

243

Analysis of cooked-food mutagens by HPLC/immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing that an immunoassay for these aminoimidazoazaarenes (AIAs) could be an analytical method with higher sample throughput and would be less costly, we developed a set of monoclonal antibodies that selectively bind to each of the AIAs. We selected PhIP (6-phenyl-2-amino-1-methylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) for the initial assay development because it is the AIA that is most abundant by mass in cooked meat and it is the most genotoxic AIA in mammalian-cell short-term bioassays. It is, however, the least active AIA in the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. We have recently developed a set of four monoclonals that bind to the PhIP. These antibodies were produced by standard methods and were derived from the immunogen described previously. The binding specificity of each of these antibodies has been well characterized. The most specific antibody, called PhIP-1, will bind PhIP with a 50% inhibition point (I/sub 50/) of 30 ng, and it will not bind to any of the other AIA mutagens, nor to any of a number of synthetically produced derivatives of PhIP, such as Iso-PhIP (6-phenyl-2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine). PhIP-1 does bind with 2-deamino-PhIP and 2-deamino-2-nitro-PhIP with an I/sub 50/ of 13 and 16 ng, respectively. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Watkins, B.E.; Vanderlaan, M.; Felton, J.S.

1988-10-10

244

Graphene oxide-based SPR biosensor chip for immunoassay applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work develops a highly sensitive immunoassay sensor for use in graphene oxide sheet (GOS)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips. This sensing film, which is formed by chemically modifying a GOS surface, has covalent bonds that strongly interact with the bovine serum albumin (BSA), explaining why it has a higher sensitivity. This GOS film-based SPR chip has a BSA concentration detection limit that is 100 times higher than that of the conventional Au-film-based sensor. The affinity constants ( K A) on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip for 100 ?g/ml BSA are 80.82 × 106 M-1 and 15.67 × 106 M-1, respectively. Therefore, the affinity constant of the GOS film-based SPR chip is 5.2 times higher than that of the conventional chip. With respect to the protein-protein interaction, the SPR sensor capability to detect angle changes at a low concentration anti-BSA of 75.75 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip is 36.1867 and 26.1759 mdeg, respectively. At a high concentration, anti-BSA of 378.78 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip reveals two times increases in the SPR angle shift. Above results demonstrate that the GOS film is promising for highly sensitive clinical diagnostic applications.

Chiu, Nan-Fu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Liu, Kou-Chen

2014-08-01

245

Rapid polyelectrolyte-based membrane immunoassay for the herbicide butachlor.  

PubMed

Oppositely charged water-soluble polyelectrolytes were used in the developed membrane immunoenzyme assay for the herbicide butachlor. High-affinity and rapid binding between polyanion polymethacrylate and polycation poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium) was applied to separate reacted and free immunoreactants. Competitive immunoassay format with peroxidase-labeled antigen was realized. The insoluble colored product of the peroxidase reaction was formed by bound labeled immune complexes and was reflectometrically detected. The assay combines short duration (15 min), high sensitivity (0.03 g/mL) and availability for out-of-laboratory testing. Different image processing algorithms were used to determine the herbicide content. Low variation coefficients of the measurements in the proposed quantitative assay, namely 4.8-9.0% for the range of antigen concentrations from 0.1 to 3.0 ng/mL, are evidence of the assay effectiveness. Possibility to control the butachlor content in mineral, artesian, and drinking water was demonstrated. PMID:16011148

Dzantiev, B B; Byzova, N A; Zherdev, A V; Hennion, M C

2005-01-01

246

The microassay on a card: A rugged, portable immunoassay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microassay on a Card (MAC) is a portable, hand-held, non-instrumental immunoassay that can test for the presence of a wide variety of substances in the environment. The MAC is a simple device to use. A drop of test solution is placed on one side of the card and within five minutes a color is developed on the other side in proportion to the amount of substance in the test solution, with sensitivity approaching 10 ng/ml. The MAC is self-contained and self-timed; no reagents or timing is necessary. The MAC may be configured with multiple wells to provide simultaneous testing for multiple species. As envisioned, the MAC will be employed first as an on-site screen for drugs of abuse in urine or saliva. If the MAC can be used as a screen of saliva for drugs of abuse, it could be applied to driving while intoxicated, use of drugs on the job, or testing of the identity of seized materials. With appropriate modifications, the MAC also could be used to test for environmental toxins or pollutants.

Kidwell, David

1991-01-01

247

Aqueous two-phase systems enable multiplexing of homogeneous immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Quantitative measurement of protein biomarkers is critical for biomarker validation and early disease detection. Current multiplex immunoassays are time consuming costly and can suffer from low accuracy. For example, multiplex ELISAs require multiple, tedious, washing and blocking steps. Moreover, they suffer from nonspecific antibody cross-reactions, leading to high background and false-positive signals. Here, we show that co-localizing antibody-bead pairs in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) enables multiplexing of sensitive, no-wash, homogeneous assays, while preventing nonspecific antibody cross-reactions. Our cross-reaction-free, multiplex assay can simultaneously detect picomolar concentrations of four protein biomarkers ((C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6) in cell supernatants using a single assay well. The potential clinical utility of the assay is demonstrated by detecting diagnostic biomarkers (CXCL10 and CXCL9) in plasma from 88 patients at the onset of the clinical symptoms of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PMID:25083509

Simon, Arlyne B.; Frampton, John P.; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

2014-01-01

248

Cell and Colloidal Substrates for Dielectrophoretic Microfluidic Immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a term commonly used to describe the field induced polarization and translational motion of a polarizable particle in a non-uniform AC field. The frequency at which the induced particle dipole goes to zero, known as the crossover frequency (cof), is highly dependent on the surface conductance of the particle. We have shown previously that DNA hybridization on the surface of a 100 nm functionalized silica particle leads to detectable surface conduction changes which make it possible to detect DNA hybridization reactions by simply measuring changes in particle suspension cof. In this work we present a similar detection scheme using novel colloidal and cell substrates as dielectrophoretic immunosensors. Aminated cell or nanocolloid surfaces are subjected to a polymer coating glutaraldehyde treatment followed by antibody coupling reaction for immunoassay based detection. By varying the polymer coating thickness on the colloid or cell surface we demonstrate the ability to tune, stabilize the cell and colloid cof, and minimized non-specific adsorption of proteins. As such, a library of cof labeled colloids and cells are created and used for multiple antigen analysis. By measuring the colloid and cell specific DEP cof prior to and after antibody-antigen interaction we demonstrate the ability to perform rapid label free protein detection within a microfluidic device.

Mazur, Jill; Gagnon, Zachary; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

2009-03-01

249

Graphene oxide-based SPR biosensor chip for immunoassay applications  

PubMed Central

This work develops a highly sensitive immunoassay sensor for use in graphene oxide sheet (GOS)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips. This sensing film, which is formed by chemically modifying a GOS surface, has covalent bonds that strongly interact with the bovine serum albumin (BSA), explaining why it has a higher sensitivity. This GOS film-based SPR chip has a BSA concentration detection limit that is 100 times higher than that of the conventional Au-film-based sensor. The affinity constants (KA) on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip for 100 ?g/ml BSA are 80.82?×?106 M-1 and 15.67?×?106 M-1, respectively. Therefore, the affinity constant of the GOS film-based SPR chip is 5.2 times higher than that of the conventional chip. With respect to the protein-protein interaction, the SPR sensor capability to detect angle changes at a low concentration anti-BSA of 75.75 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip is 36.1867 and 26.1759 mdeg, respectively. At a high concentration, anti-BSA of 378.78 nM on the GOS film-based SPR chip and the conventional SPR chip reveals two times increases in the SPR angle shift. Above results demonstrate that the GOS film is promising for highly sensitive clinical diagnostic applications. PMID:25232298

2014-01-01

250

Comparative urine protein phenotyping using mass spectrometric immunoassay.  

PubMed

Reported here, human urine samples were analyzed for beta-2-microglobulin (beta2m), transthyretin (TTR), cystatin C, urine protein 1 (UP1), retinol binding protein (RBP), albumin, transferrin, and human neutrophil defensin peptides (HNP) using mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA). MSIA is a unique analytical technique, which allows for the generation of distinct protein profiles of specific target proteins from each subject, which may be subsequently used in comparative protein expression profiling between all subjects. Comparative profiling allows for the rapid identification of variations within individual protein expression profiles. Although the majority of analyses performed in this study revealed homology between study participants, roughly one-quarter showed variation in the protein profiles. Some of these observed variants included a point mutation in TTR, absence of wild-type RBP, monomeric forms UP1, a novel beta2m glycated end product and altered HNP ratios. MSIA has been previously used in the analysis of blood proteins, but this study shows how MSIA easily transitions to the analysis, of urine samples. This study displays how qualitative urine protein differentiation is readily achievable with MSIA and is useful in identifying proteomic differences between subjects that might be otherwise overlooked with other analytical techniques due to complexity of the resulting data or insufficient sensitivity. PMID:12716133

Kiernan, Urban A; Tubbs, Kemmons A; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Niederkofler, Eric E; McConnell, Elizabeth; Nelson, Randall W

2003-01-01

251

Designing novel nano-immunoassays: antibody orientation versus sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest in the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for their application in quantitative and highly sensitive biosensors. Their use as labels of biological recognition events and their detection by means of some magnetic method constitute a very promising strategy for quantitative high-sensitive lateral-flow assays. In this paper, we report the importance of nanoparticle functionalization for the improvement of sensitivity for a lateral-flow immunoassay. More precisely, we have found that immobilization of IgG anti-hCG through its polysaccharide moieties on MNPs allows more successful recognition of the hCG hormone. Although we have used the detection of hCG as a model in this work, the strategy of binding antibodies to MNPs through its sugar chains reported here is applicable to other antibodies. It has huge potential as it will be very useful for the development of quantitative and high-sensitive lateral-flow assays for its use on human and veterinary, medicine, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceutical, medical biologics and personal care product production, environmental remediation, etc.

Puertas, S.; Moros, M.; Fernández-Pacheco, R.; Ibarra, M. R.; Grazú, V.; de la Fuente, J. M.

2010-12-01

252

Donor Safety in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Single-Center Analysis of 300 Cases  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the safety to donors of living-donor liver transplantation. Methods This study included 300 consecutive living liver tissue donors who underwent operations at our center from July 2002 to December 2012. We evaluated the safety of donors with regard to three aspects complications were recorded prospectively and stratified by grade according to Clavien’s classification, and the data were compared in two stages (the first 5 years’ experience (pre-January 2008) and the latter 5 years’ experience (post-January 2008); laboratory tests such as liver function and blood biochemistry were performed; and the health-related quality of life was evaluated. Results There was no donor mortality at our center, and the overall morbidity rate was 25.3%. Most of the complications of living donors were either grade I or II. There were significantly fewer complications in the latter period of our study than in the initial period (19.9% vs 32.6%, P<0.001), and biliary complications were the most common complications, with an incidence of 9%. All of the liver dysfunction was temporary; however, the post-operative suppression of platelet count lasted for years. Although within the normal range, eight years after operation, 22 donors showed lower platelet levels (189×109/L) compared with the pre-operative levels (267×109/L) (P<0.05). A total of 98.4% of donors had returned to their previous levels of social activity and work, and 99.2% of donors would donate again if it was required and feasible. With the exception of two donors who experienced grade III complications (whose recipients died) and a few cases of abdominal discomfort, fatigue, chronic pain and scar itching, none of the living donors were affected by physical problems. Conclusion With careful donor selection and specialized patient care, low morbidity rates and satisfactory long-term recovery can be achieved after hepatectomy for living-donor liver transplantation. PMID:23637904

Lei, Jianyong; Yan, Lunan; Wang, Wentao

2013-01-01

253

Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.  

PubMed

Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676?±?251 g (mean?±?SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80%?±?13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3%?±?0.4% (8?donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P?=?0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR?=?4.50, P?=?0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P?>?0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor of the rate of regeneration, and donor remnant fraction affects postresection function. Liver Transpl 21:79-88, 2015. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25065488

Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

2015-01-01

254

Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

2014-01-01

255

Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.  

PubMed

Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471

Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

2013-12-01

256

Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program demonstration plan for Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems pentachlorophenol immunoassays  

SciTech Connect

The plan provides a detailed design and description of the demonstration and evaluation program for the Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems immunoassay technologies specific for the analysis of pentachlorophenol. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in water. The demonstration is being conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. It is expected that proper execution of the demonstration plan will provide information that enables data users and reviewers to assess the performance of the technology in terms of its usefulness and limitations for the Superfund Program. The main focus of the demonstration is to evaluate on site a semiquantitative immunoassay field analysis kit for its utility as a rapid field screening tool. The results obtained from the field kit analyses will be compared to those obtained from a quantitative high-sample-capacity plate immunoassay also developed by Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems. In addition, both immunoassay techniques will be compared to the standard gas chromatography/mass spectrometry procedure for pentachlorophenol determination. The quality assurance plan for the demonstration is provided in an appendix.

Silverstein, M.E.; White, R.J.; Gerlach, R.W.; Van Emon, J.M.

1992-04-14

257

Label-free impedimetric immunoassay for trace levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in insulating oil.  

PubMed

A rapid, ultrasensitive, and practical label-free impedimetric immunoassay for measuring trace levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil was developed. First, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (RU6F9) for PCBs by using a designed immunogen and characterized its binding affinity for a commercial mixtures of PCBs and its main congeners. A micro comblike gold electrode was fabricated, and the antibody was covalently immobilized on the electrode through a self-assembled monolayer formed by dithiobis-N-succinimidyl propionate. The antigen-binding event on the surface of the functionalized electrode was determined as the change in charge transfer resistance by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resulting impedimetric immunoassay in aqueous solution achieved a wide determination range (0.01-10 ?g/L) and a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.001 ?g/L, which was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional flow-based immunoassay for PCBs. By combining the impedimetric immunoassay with a cleanup procedure for insulating oil utilizing a multilayer cleanup column followed by DMSO partitioning, an LOD of 0.052 mg/kg-oil was achieved, which satisfied the Japanese regulation criterion of 0.5 mg/kg-oil. Finally, the immunoassay was employed to determine total PCB levels in actual used insulating oils (n = 33) sampled from a used transformer containing trace levels of PCBs, and the results agreed well with the Japanese official method (HRGC/HRMS). PMID:24528234

Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Yukie; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Ohmura, Naoya; Matsue, Tomokazu

2014-03-18

258

Donor-conceived children looking for their sperm donor: what do they want to know?  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper aims to gain in-depth understanding of why some donor-conceived offspring want to know the identity of their sperm donor. Methods: Step-by-step inductive thematic analysis was performed on first-hand quotes from donor-conceived offspring selected from a wide range of sources (including empirical studies and donor conception networks, registries and support groups). Results: We found that at least 7 different objectives can underlie the wish to know one’s donor: to avoid medical risks and consanguineous relationships; to connect with one’s roots; to complete one’s life (hi-)story; to understand where one’s traits come from; to discover or assess one’s defining characteristics and capabilities; to rectify a wrong-doing, and to map out one’s ancestral history. Conclusion: The analysis shows that there is great variance among identity-seekers in the weight they attribute to wanting to know their donor. It is also clear that they have very different assumptions about the role and importance of genetics in terms of establishing ‘who they are’ or ‘can become’, including deterministic misconceptions. Rather than treat all donor-conceived offspring’s needs as of equal concern, this analysis should help distinguish between and assess the relevance of the various motivations. PMID:24753953

Ravelingien, A.; Provoost, V.; Pennings, G.

2013-01-01

259

When 'sperm' becomes 'donor': Transitions in parents' views of the sperm donor.  

PubMed

Abstract Little is known about recipients' views of their sperm donor. This study aimed to examine the possible transitions or consistencies in donor sperm recipients' (DSRs') view on the sperm donor over time. A longitudinal qualitative study of 19 Belgian heterosexual DSRs was undertaken. Interviews took place with both partners of the couple during pregnancy, at birth and 1.5-2 years after birth, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Recipients who intended to disclose exhibited a transition in their awareness of the donor from being of minimal importance to one who was increasingly seen as part of their family narrative. This was partly triggered by the offspring's life, remarks about resemblance and the socio-cultural context. The perceived position of the donor changed for most recipients from a threatening rival to a 'distractor'. This change was supported by the emerging father-child bond and the confidence that stemmed from it. These observations were applicable to those recipients who intended to disclose their donor conception; for those recipients who intended not to disclose, little or no transition was observed. This study describes and analyses the transitions and consistencies in recipients' views of the donor over different stages of the family life-cycle (pregnancy, birth, toddler stage) and could help the fertility clinics tailor their counselling to the specific stages of parenthood. PMID:24851674

Indekeu, Astrid; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Daniels, Ken R; Dierickx, Kris; Rober, Peter

2014-12-01

260

Alternative donors extend transplantation for patients with lymphoma who lack an HLA matched donor.  

PubMed

Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high-risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000-2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele HLA-A, -B, -C and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUDs; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared with MUD (35%; P=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; P=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared with unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, P=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; P=0.48). In multivariate analysis, UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic GVHD compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: hazard ratio (HR)=0.68, P=0.05; HR=0.35; P<0.001). Adjusted 3-year OS was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). These data highlight the observation that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can extend the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

Bachanova, V; Burns, L J; Wang, T; Carreras, J; Gale, R P; Wiernik, P H; Ballen, K K; Wirk, B; Munker, R; Rizzieri, D A; Chen, Y-B; Gibson, J; Akpek, G; Costa, L J; Kamble, R T; Aljurf, M D; Hsu, J W; Cairo, M S; Schouten, H C; Bacher, U; Savani, B N; Wingard, J R; Lazarus, H M; Laport, G G; Montoto, S; Maloney, D G; Smith, S M; Brunstein, C; Saber, W

2015-02-01

261

Simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies associated with viral hemorrhagic fever by a multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay.  

PubMed

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are worldwide diseases caused by several kinds of viruses. With the emergence of new viruses, advanced diagnostic methods are urgently needed for identification of VHFs. Based on Luminex xMAP technology, a rapid, sensitive, multi-pathogen and high-throughput method which could simultaneously detect hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) specific IgG antibodies was developed. Recombinant antigens of nine HFVs including Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Puumala virus (PUUV), Andes virus (ANDV), Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) and dengue virus (DENV) were produced and purified from a prokaryotic expression system and the influence of the coupling amount was investigated. Cross-reactions among antigens and their rabbit immune sera were evaluated. Serum samples collected from 51 laboratory confirmed hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients, 43 confirmed SFTS patients and 88 healthy donors were analyzed. Results showed that recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the five viruses belonging to the genus Hantavirus, had serological cross-reactivity with their corresponding rabbit immune sera, but not apparent with immune sera of other four viruses. Evaluation of this new method with clinical serum samples showed 98.04% diagnostic sensitivity for HFRS, 90.70% for SFTS detection and the specificity was ranging from 66.67% to 100.00%. The multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay has firstly been established in our study, which provides a potentially reliable diagnostic tool for IgG antibody detection of VHFs. PMID:24631566

Wu, Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Qu, Jing; Zhang, Quanfu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jiandong; Jin, Cong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Dexin

2014-07-17

262

Performance of a conventional enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis C virus core antigen in the early phases of hepatitis C infection.  

PubMed

There are periods within the early phase of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in which the anti-HCV antibody test is unable to confirm HCV viremia. To reduce the risk of transmitting HCV through transfusions, we developed a simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which detects the core antigen of HCV (HCVcAg). This assay employed a conventional colorimetric EIA system, and was based on a two-step sandwich assay, using a 96- well microplate. The reproducibility of the results was very high. When the cutoff values were set to 30 fmol of recombinant HCVcAg/L, as determined by the distribution of healthy subject sera (n=223), 99.6% of healthy subject sera and 100% of hepatitis B patient sera (n=50) were negative for HCVcAg. The clinical performance of this EIA was examined using 14 commercially available seroconversion panels. In every panel, HCVcAg could be detected at points preceding the seroconversion of anti-HCV antibodies. The points at which HCVcAg was detected were the same as those at which it was detected by an AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test. The EIA's window period for detecting the HCVcAg in all panels was on average 26 days shorter than that of the anti-HCV antibody test. In three panels where the first sample is negative for HCV RNA, the window period was shortened 50 days by this EIA for HCVcAg. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of HCVcAg and HCV RNA in anti-HCV antibody negative specimens. This assay was simpler to perform than assays based on gene amplification technology for the detection of HCV RNA, and the window period was shortened to that of the AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test. Thus, the EIA for HCVcAg would be useful in screening seroconverting donors and could reduce the residual risk of secondary HCV infections through transfusions. PMID:11294574

Aoyagi, K; Iida, K; Ohue, C; Matsunaga, Y; Tanaka, E; Kiyosawa, K; Yagi, S

2001-01-01

263

Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Idiotypic Heavy-Chain Single-Domain Antibody for the Aflatoxin Immunoassay  

E-print Network

Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Idiotypic Heavy-Chain Single-Domain Antibody for the Aflatoxin ImmunoassayAb) 1C11. Three anti- idiotypic VHH antibodies were isolated and applied to immunoassay toward aflatoxin/mL toward aflatoxin B1 and cross-reactivity toward aflatoxin B2, G1, and G2 of 90.4%, 54.4%, and 37

Hammock, Bruce D.

264

Comparison of five enzyme immunoassays, electron microscopy, and latex agglutination for detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens.  

PubMed Central

Five different enzyme immunoassays, electron microscopy, and latex agglutination (Slidex; bioMerieux) were compared for the rapid detection of human rotavirus in fecal specimens. The enzyme immunoassay using rotavirus polyclonal antiserum (Dakopatts) with simple in-house modifications was shown by the use of confirmatory tests to be the most sensitive and specific procedure. PMID:2536758

Kok, T W; Burrell, C J

1989-01-01

265

Presentation of a nano-based tag for immunoassay, based on amine-modified bovine serum albumin nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate four immunoassays, based on amine-modified bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (AMBSANPs). First, the capability of nitrate absorption by AMBSANPs under different conditions was evaluated. Then, serial concentrations of pure ?HCG were added to wells coated with ?HCG antibody for immunoassays 1 and 2, and wells coated with ?HCG aptamer for immunoassays 3 and 4. Next, AMBSANPs conjugated with ?HCG antibody was added for immunoassays 1 and 3, and AMBSANPs conjugated with ?HCG aptamer were added for immunoassays 2 and 4. Finally, the optical density (OD) of each well was read at 340 nm, and compared with controls. Moreover, the concentration of ?HCG in the clinical samples was quantified by immunoassays 1, 2, 3, 4 and ELISA, and then compared. The effect of some serum interferences on these immunoassay methods was evaluated. The authors observed that the amount of nitrate absorption by AMBSANPs increased with an increase in H + ion concentration and temperature, and decreased with an increase in ion strength. The correlation (R(2)) between ELISA and immunoassays 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 0.97, 0.97, 0.98, 0.99, respectively. It was found that the increase in the serum interferences led to a decrease in the measured ?HCG concentration. PMID:25650325

Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Fuente, Jesus Martinez De La

2015-02-01

266

UC Davis MIND Institute Donor Payment Form  

E-print Network

UC Davis MIND Institute Donor Payment Form Contact Information: Name the need is greatest within MIND Institute (ND40567) ADHD (ADHDMND) Autism (AUTISM1) Chromosome 22q11: ____________________________ (Please Specify) Send the completed form to: c/o UC Davis MIND Institute Health Science Advancement 4900

Leistikow, Bruce N.

267

Recommendations for managing vital-organ donors.  

PubMed

This chart describes some clinical problems organ donors may face, how the nurse should intervene, and the rationale for the intervention. The recommendations were developed by Corrinne Morgan, RN, CCRN, CNRN, for the Delaware Valley, Pa., transplant program, which serves eastern Pennsylvania, southern, New Jersey, and Delaware. PMID:10640003

1999-01-01

268

FY 2012-2013 Cardinal Level Donors  

E-print Network

FY 2012-2013 Cardinal Level Donors Charles Altmann Jeffrey Lewis Arey Nathanael Lee Barrett William Lee *Robert Lee *John & Edith Leonis *Stephen Carroll Lipman *Fang Zhi Liu *Elizabeth Hogue Lonnes, Jr. *Gordon Marshall *Fariborz Maseeh *Merrill H. Maughan *John Douglas McConaghy *Ralph Lewis Mc

Zhou, Chongwu

269

Ensuring the ANNUAL REPORT OF DONORS  

E-print Network

OF DONORS Officers Richard M. Kelleher '76, President Chairman, CEO & Founder Pyramid Advisors, LLC Robert M Analyst, Emerging Markets Manulife Asset Management Robert B. Brack '60 (Retired) President Barker Steel International Paul S. Doherty President & Co-Founder Doherty, Wallace, Pillsbury, & Murphy Robert L. Epstein '67

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

270

Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

Wilson, Jr., Edward L. (Baytown, TX); Mitchell, Willard N. (Baytown, TX)

1980-01-01

271

Coal processing: the Exxon donor solvent process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Exxon coal liquefaction process over 10 years is described. Exxon is using lower temperatures and lower pressures (approximately 100 bar) than were used in the Bergius process. The donor solvent is produced in a separate, fixed bed, catalytic hydrogenation step. Early research was broad in scope including, both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated recycle solvent studies. Alternate solids\\/liquids

L. E. Furlong; E. Effron; L. W. Vernon; E. L. Wilson

1976-01-01

272

[The blood donors' haemovigilance in France].  

PubMed

This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. PMID:23587615

Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N

2013-05-01

273

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements under §§ 610.46 and 610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you are aware...information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements under §§ 610.46 and 610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you are aware...information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66...

2013-04-01

275

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

...requirements under §§ 610.46 and 610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you are aware...information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66...

2014-04-01

276

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements under §§ 610.46 and 610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you are aware...information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66...

2012-04-01

277

Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay based on Pt nanoparticle with peroxidase activity.  

PubMed

A lateral flow immunoassay (LF-immunoassay) with an enhanced sensitivity and thermostability was developed by using Pt nanoparticles with a peroxidase activity. The Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction method, and the peroxidase activity of Pt nanoparticles was optimized by adjusting reaction conditions. The peroxidase activity was estimated by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics model with TMB as a chromogenic substrate. The kinetics parameters of KM and Vmax were calculated and compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The thermal stability of the Pt nanoparticles was compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) according to the storage temperature and long-term storage period. The feasibility of lateral flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band was demonstrated by the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a model analyte, and the sensitivity was determined to be improved by as much as 1000-fold compared to the conventional rapid test based on colored gold-colloids. PMID:25467480

Park, Jong-Min; Jung, Ha-Wook; Chang, Young Wook; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

2015-01-01

278

Comparison of a simplified liquid chromatographic assay of gentamicin in serum with enzyme immunoassay and bioassay.  

PubMed

A sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for assay of gentamicin in serum using ultrafiltration of serum samples and pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde. The procedure was compared with a bioassay and an enzyme immunoassay. Coefficients of correlation were 0.98 for HPLC vs. bioassay and 0.97 for HPLC vs. immunoassay. The between-day imprecision (n = 5) was estimated from the coefficients of variation at a concentration of 6 mg/l. Values were 9.4% for the bioassay, 6.5% for the immunoassay and 2.4% for the chromatographic method. The major advantage of the method described is simplified sample preparation and optimal serum extraction. The latter is important in routine use because it prolongs column life and thus reduces costs. PMID:6761112

Essers, L

1982-12-01

279

In-field assessment of chemical high explosives using immunoassay techniques  

SciTech Connect

Base realignment and weapons complex reconfiguration have prompted closure of former military related properties. As a result, chemical high explosives in environmental media are encountered with greater frequency during accelerated site characterization activities. The DOE`s Pantex nuclear weapons production/disassembly facility in Amarillo, Texas has observed nitroaromatic and nitramine compounds in soil and groundwater. Recognizing that phases characterization programs are time consuming and expensive, Pantex has employed compound specific immunoassay screening techniques to semi-quantitatively assess high explosive contamination in environmental media. As a result of using immunoassay techniques at over 500 sample locations, Pantex has achieved significant benefits corollary to reduced analytical expenses and timeframes, waste generation and management expenditures, field mobilization, and site characterization timeframes. Pantex Plant concludes that the use of immunoassay field screening of samples for chemical high explosives results in accelerated site characterization at a decreased expense while maintaining quality protocols and worker protection.

Hardy, D.J.; Crossley, D.B.; O`Connell, M.S. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

280

Optimizing Two-Color Semiconductor Nanocrystal Immunoassays in Single Well Microtiter Plate Formats  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous detection of two analytes, chicken IgY (IgG) and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), in the single well of a 96-well plate is demonstrated using luminescent semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystal (NC) tracers. The NC-labeled antibodies were prepared via sulfhydryl-reactive chemistry using a facile protocol that took <3 h. Dose response curves for each target were evaluated in a single immunoassay format and compared to Cy5, a fluorophore commonly used in fluorescent immunoassays, and found to be equivalent. Immunoassays were then performed in a duplex format, demonstrating multiplex detection in a single well with limits of detection equivalent to the single assay format: 9.8 ng/mL chicken IgG and 7.8 ng/mL SEB. PMID:22164051

Sapsford, Kim E.; Spindel, Samantha; Jennings, Travis; Tao, Guoliang; Triulzi, Robert C.; Algar, W. Russ; Medintz, Igor L.

2011-01-01

281

Enzyme Immunoassays for Measurement of Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M Antibody  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is often accomplished by the detection of circulating antibody directed against CMV. We devised a method for measuring CMV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) based on the isolation of IgM antibody by reaction with a solid phase coated with antihuman IgM. The determination of IgM antibody specific for CMV was accomplished by the subsequent addition of CMV or control antigen and enzyme-labeled CMV antibody (solid phase-IgM method). We compared the sensitivity and specificity of this method with those of a conventional form of solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in which CMV antigen is bound to the solid phase (solid phase-antigen method). Both assay systems were capable of detecting CMV-specific IgM antibody in the sera of 10 babies with documented CMV infection and in those of the mothers of 4 of these babies. The solid phase-IgM method yielded negative results in all 66 sera available from babies who did not have congenital CMV infection. On the other hand, the solid phase-antigen system yielded false-positive results in 12 (18%) of these sera. In addition, the solid phase-antigen system yielded false-positive results in 8 of 12 sera obtained from patients with demonstrable rheumatoid factor. However, the solid phase-IgM system yielded negative results for the rheumatoid sera, provided that appropriate control reactions were performed. The solid phase-IgM system is thus a specific and sensitive method for the determination of CMV IgM antibody. PMID:6270191

Yolken, Robert H.; Leister, Flora J.

1981-01-01

282

Antibody characterization and immunoassays for palytoxin using an SPR biosensor.  

PubMed

Palytoxin (PLTX), a polyether marine toxin originally isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa toxica, is one of the most toxic non-protein substances known. Fatal poisonings have been linked to ingestion of PLTX-contaminated seafood, and effects in humans have been associated with dermal and inhalational exposure to PLTX containing organisms and waters. Additionally, PLTX co-occurrence with other well-characterized seafood toxins (e.g., ciguatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin) has hindered direct associations of PLTX to seafood-borne illnesses. There are currently no validated methods for the quantitative detection of PLTX(s). As such, a well-characterized, robust, specific analytical technique is needed for the detection of PLTX(s) in source organisms, surrounding waters, and clinical samples. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors are ideally suited for antibody characterization and quantitative immunoassay detection. Herein, we describe a newly developed SPR assay for PLTX. An anti-mouse substrate was used to characterize the kinetic values for a previously developed monoclonal anti-PLTX. The characterized antibody was then incorporated into a sensitive, rapid, and selective PLTX assay. Buffer type, flow rate, analyte-binding time, and regeneration conditions were optimized for the antibody-PLTX system. Cross-reactivity to potentially co-occurring seafood toxins was also evaluated. We show that this optimized assay is capable of measuring low- to sub-ng/mL PLTX levels in buffer and two seafood matrices (grouper and clam). Preliminary results indicate that this SPR biosensor assay allows for (1) rapid characterization of antibodies and (2) rapid, sensitive PLTX concentration determination in seafood matrices. Method development information contained herein may be broadly applied to future PLTX detection and/or antibody characterization efforts. PMID:21523328

Yakes, Betsy Jean; DeGrasse, Stacey L; Poli, Mark; Deeds, Jonathan R

2011-07-01

283

Screening for treponemal infection by a new enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

A new enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Captia Syphilis-G) for detecting IgG antibodies against Treponema pallidum was evaluated as a screening test for syphilis. When serum samples were tested at a dilution of 1 in 20 (EIA20), the overall agreement between the IgG EIA and serological status based on the T pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) and the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test was 99.2% (1310/1321). The sensitivity of the EIA20 was 98.4% (60/61) and the specificity 99.3% (1251/1260). Discrimination between patients with and without treponemal infection was good: the mean EIA20 absorbance ratios (patient/mean low titre positive control results) were 0.49 for antibody negative patients, 3.30 for patients with positive Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and TPHA results, and 1.77 for patients with negative VDRL but positive TPHA results. The cut off point for excluding treponemal infection was taken as 0.9. Specimens with ratios of more than 0.9 should be confirmed by the FTA-ABS test and evaluated for specific IgM antibodies to treponemes. When serum samples were tested at a 1 in 50 dilution (EIA50) the sensitivity was lower (80.3%) but the specificity was absolute. The reduction in sensitivity correlated with low absorbance ratios in the patients who were VDRL negative and TPHA positive. The screening performance of the IgG EIA20 is thus comparable with that provided by a combination of the VDRL test and TPHA. The potential for automation makes the EIA an attractive alternative, particularly in larger centres. Alternatively, the test can be performed at a 1 in 50 dilution (EIA50), at which level it is ideally suited for confirming the treponemal status of antibodies in serum samples preselected by positive cardiolipin antigen screening test results. PMID:2666302

Young, H; Moyes, A; McMillan, A; Robertson, D H

1989-01-01

284

Using cheminformatics to predict cross reactivity of “designer drugs” to their currently available immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Background A challenge for drug of abuse testing is presented by ‘designer drugs’, compounds typically discovered by modifications of existing clinical drug classes such as amphetamines and cannabinoids. Drug of abuse screening immunoassays directed at amphetamine or methamphetamine only detect a small subset of designer amphetamine-like drugs, and those immunoassays designed for tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites generally do not cross-react with synthetic cannabinoids lacking the classic cannabinoid chemical backbone. This suggests complexity in understanding how to detect and identify whether a patient has taken a molecule of one class or another, impacting clinical care. Methods Cross-reactivity data from immunoassays specifically targeting designer amphetamine-like and synthetic cannabinoid drugs was collected from multiple published sources, and virtual chemical libraries for molecular similarity analysis were built. The virtual library for synthetic cannabinoid analysis contained a total of 169 structures, while the virtual library for amphetamine-type stimulants contained 288 compounds. Two-dimensional (2D) similarity for each test compound was compared to the target molecule of the immunoassay undergoing analysis. Results 2D similarity differentiated between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds for immunoassays targeting mephedrone/methcathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, benzylpiperazine, mephentermine, and synthetic cannabinoids. Conclusions In this study, we applied 2D molecular similarity analysis to the designer amphetamine-type stimulants and synthetic cannabinoids. Similarity calculations can be used to more efficiently decide which drugs and metabolites should be tested in cross-reactivity studies, as well as to design experiments and potentially predict antigens that would lead to immunoassays with cross reactivity for a broader array of designer drugs. PMID:24851137

2014-01-01

285

Recombinant hepatitis A virus antigen: improved production and utility in diagnostic immunoassays.  

PubMed

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) immunoassays use cell culture-derived HAV antigen to detect HAV-specific antibodies. The current method of production of HAV antigen in tissue culture is time-consuming and expensive. We previously expressed the HAV open reading frame in recombinant vaccinia viruses (rV-ORF). The recombinant HAV polyprotein was accurately processed and was assembled into subviral particles. These particles were bound by HAV-neutralizing antibodies and were able to elicit antibodies which were detected by commercial immunoassays. The present investigation compared the production of HAV antigen by standard tissue culture methods to the production of HAV antigen with the recombinant vaccinia virus system. In addition, HAV and rV-ORF antigens were assessed for their utility in diagnostic immunoassays. Serum or plasma samples from HAV antibody-positive and antibody-negative individuals were evaluated by immunoassay that used either HAV or rV-ORF antigen. All samples (86 of 86) in which HAV antibody was detected by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also tested positive by the recombinant antigen-based immunoassay (VacRIA). Similarly, all samples (50 of 50) that were HAV antibody negative also tested negative by the VacRIA. The lower limit of detection of HAV antibody was similar among immunoassays with either HAV or rV-ORF antigen. Thus, in the population studied, the sensitivity and specificity of the VacRIA were equivalent to those of the commercial ELISA. Since production of recombinant antigen is faster and less expensive than production of traditional HAV antigen, the development of diagnostic HAV antibody tests with recombinant HAV antigen appears warranted. PMID:9650953

LaBrecque, F D; LaBrecque, D R; Klinzman, D; Perlman, S; Cederna, J B; Winokur, P L; Han, J Q; Stapleton, J T

1998-07-01

286

Measurement of testosterone by immunoassays and mass spectrometry in mouse serum, testicular, and ovarian extracts.  

PubMed

Accurate measurement of testosterone is important for reproductive endocrinology research, but the validity of direct (nonextraction) testosterone immunoassays, developed and validated for human serum, has not been appraised for application to mouse serum or steroidogenic tissue extracts. Testosterone was measured in serum and extracts of testis or ovary from male and female wild-type mice by 2 commercial direct testosterone immunoassays, with and without preassay extraction, and by the liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry reference method. Results were compared hierarchically by correlation (Kendall's ?), regression (Passing-Bablok), and deviance (Bland-Altman) analysis, under the null hypothesis of perfect agreement between assays (slope = 1, intercept and deviation = 0). For mouse serum, immunoassays displayed an upward bias with performance better for male vs female sera and, within gender, improved by preassay extraction relative to liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry. Testosterone was detectable in all serum samples, but few (male 54%, female 9%) were accurate (within 20% of the reference measurement). For mouse testis extracts, immunoassays were biased upwards, and preassay extraction improved immunoassay performance. Although testosterone was detectable in all extracts, a minority (45%) was accurate. For mouse ovary extracts, all correlations were poor with severe, upward bias, and while testosterone was detectable in all samples, virtually none were accurate. We conclude that these direct testosterone immunoassay kits provide relatively, but not absolutely, accurate results with male mouse serum and testis extracts but not with female mouse serum and ovary extracts, with performance improved by preassay extraction. Whether relative accuracy is fit for purpose depends on the experimental aims, design, and interpretation. PMID:25365769

Handelsman, David J; Jimenez, Mark; Singh, Gurmeet K S; Spaliviero, Jenny; Desai, Reena; Walters, Kirsty A

2015-01-01

287

Panchromatic donor-acceptor-donor conjugated oligomers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.  

PubMed

We report on a sexithienyl and two donor-acceptor-donor oligothiophenes, employing benzothiadiazole and isoindigo as electron-acceptors, each functionalized with a phosphonic acid group for anchoring onto TiO2 substrates as light-harvesting molecules for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes absorb light to wavelengths as long as 700 nm, as their optical HOMO/LUMO energy gaps are reduced from 2.40 to 1.77 eV with increasing acceptor strength. The oligomers were adsorbed onto mesoporous TiO2 films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates and incorporated into DSSCs, which show AM1.5 power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ranging between 2.6% and 6.4%. This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecular structures coupled to phosphonic acid anchoring groups, which have not been used in DSSCs, can lead to high PCEs. PMID:24807377

Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S

2014-06-11

288

Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.  

PubMed

This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor. PMID:22683233

Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

2012-12-01

289

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2011-04-01

290

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2011-04-01

291

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2012-04-01

292

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2012-04-01

293

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2013-04-01

294

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2013-04-01

295

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2014-04-01

296

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2014-04-01

297

21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

2010-04-01

298

21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

2010-04-01

299

Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1979, the Committee of Donor Agencies promotes the development of small enterprise in developing countries. This site offers numerous working and research papers about the Committee of Donor Agencies and its members. Showcased on the site are the Committee's Donor Business Development Services Case Studies. The Case studies are browseable by several categories including Region, Country, Theme, and Member Agency. Also provided are the Donor Committee Guidelines and links to member agencies's sites.

300

20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood donor locator service. 401.200 Section...Records and Information § 401.200 Blood donor locator service. (a) General...addresses (residence or post office box) of blood donors whose blood donations...

2010-04-01

301

Synthesis of a photocontrollable hydrogen sulfide donor using ketoprofenate photocages.  

PubMed

We report the design, synthesis and application of a directly photocontrollable hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, which releases H2S proportionally to the intensity and duration of photoirradiation. Photocontrolled H2S release from this donor was also demonstrated in bovine serum. This H2S donor should be suitable for use in various biological systems. PMID:24280741

Fukushima, Naoki; Ieda, Naoya; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

2014-01-18

302

Packaging Student Financial Assistance: The Case for the Private Donor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of reducing student aid packages by the dollar amount of private donors' gifts to individual students as a means of reducing institutional gift assistance is criticized as effectively subverting the donor's intent in giving the gift and as possibly placing the donor in legal jeopardy. (MSE)

Munger, John H.

1983-01-01

303

Laboratory evaluation of five assay methods for vancomycin: bioassay, high-pressure liquid chromatography, fluorescence polarization immunoassay, radioimmunoassay, and fluorescence immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

We compared the precision and accuracy of five methods used to measure the concentration of vancomycin in serum: bioassay, high-pressure liquid chromatography, fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA [TDX; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.]), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and fluorescence immunoassay. Based on an analysis of seven standards and of 106 patient samples, all five methods were accurate, and four (bioassay, high-pressure liquid chromatography, FPIA, and RIA) were also precise. The FPIA was the most precise and the fluorescence immunoassay was the least precise of the methods tested; intrarun coefficients of variation for these two methods were 0.9 to 3.0% versus 8.9 to 14.5%, and interrun coefficients of variation were 2.8 to 8.1% versus 12.2 to 16.2%, respectively. The RIA was inconvenient because it required an extra dilution of the specimen being tested and an additional (64 micrograms/ml) vancomycin standard for specimens with 32 to 64 micrograms of vancomycin per ml. Based on its rapid turnaround time and the stability of its standard curve, we believe that the FPIA is the best method currently available to quantitate vancomycin in the clinical laboratory. PMID:6386852

Pfaller, M A; Krogstad, D J; Granich, G G; Murray, P R

1984-01-01

304

Seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis infections in Iranian blood donors.  

PubMed

To determine the frequency of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and syphilis infections in Iranian blood donors. The prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections were evaluated in 318029 consecutive volunteer blood donors attending to Tehran blood transfusion service from March 2005 to March 2006. Those positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2 and VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory) reactivity were analyzed with a second independent HBsAg enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and neutralization assay; an additional independent anti-HCV EIA and HCV-RIBA assay; second independent anti-HIV1/2 test, HIV western blot and fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorbed (FTA-ABS), respectively. In 318029 participants, prevalence of positive HBsAg, HCV RNA, HIV western blot and FTA-ABS was 1684 (0.487%), 323 (0.093%), 11 (0.003%) and 19 (0.005%), respectively. In 1014 subjects randomly selected from these 318029 participants, besides standard interview, physical exam and routine serologic tests; anthropometric and biochemical were studies. In this selected group frequency of HBsAg was 3 (0.29, 95% CI: 0-0.64%); frequency of anti-HCV was 21 (2.07%), but it was (0.09%, 95% CI: 0-0.30%) by confirmatory HCV RNA test; frequency of HIV-Abl, 2 was 8 (0.78%), but it was 2 (0.19%, 95% CI: 0-0.48%) by confirmatory test; frequency of RPR was 0 (0%, 95% CI: 0-0.30%). Despite excluding subjects with high-risk behaviors by standard interview and physical examination, still a few asymptomatic hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV-infected subjects existed among volunteer blood donors with demographic and biochemical findings similar to non-infected ones. PMID:19093512

Khedmat, Hossein; Fallahian, Farahnaz; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Miri, Seyyed Mohammad; Jafari, Amir Masoud

2007-12-15

305

Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

2014-01-01

306

Acute Appendicitis following Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Acute abdominal pain following laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LLDN) might be a diagnostic dilemma, and prompt diagnosis and management is of paramount importance. Herein, we describe a case of acute appendicitis in a 62-year-old kidney donor who presented with acute abdominal pain 16 days following LLDN with features inconsistent with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. An ultrasound scan suggested strangulated Spigelian hernia unrelated to the operative wound. Exploration of the wound and mini-laparotomy showed no evidence of wound dehiscence or a hernia, but revealed an inflamed appendix wrapped up with omentum. Appendectomy led to complete recovery of the patient. It is imperative to maintain a high index of suspicion for acute appendicitis in this situation to avoid septic complications that might adversely affect the residual renal function and cause negative impact on kidney donation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute appendicitis following LLDN. PMID:25013574

Kumar, A.; Elenin, H.; Clayton, C.; Basarab-Horwath, C.; Man Shrestha, B.

2010-01-01

307

Strategies of the donor search for children with second CR ALL lacking a matched sibling donor.  

PubMed

During the last 10 years, the number of alternative Haematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) performed on children in Europe has increased significantly and has reached 61% of the allografts. In this paper, we provide practical guidelines to help define an algorithm for the treatment of children relapsing during or after first-line chemotherapy for ALL and lacking a matched sibling donor. A simultaneous search for an unrelated donor and for a cord blood unit should be started. This study focuses mainly on the effects of some factors on survival in an effort to highlight the influence that these factors have on our choices. Matching the patient for HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles remains the top priority: a single HLA class I or II allele mismatch has no influence on survival, while multiple mismatching for more than one class I allele and simultaneous disparities in class I and II alleles increase mortality. The impact of additional mismatches for HLA-DQ and -DP loci on survival is still controversial. Young donor age is the most important factor that has a significant effect on better survival from among several other factors, including CMV sero-status, gender and ABO. An 18- to 30-year-old, 8/8 allele-matched donor (excluding allele matching at DQB1) or for many teams 10/10 allele-matched donor; or a 4 out of 6 (considering Ag HLA-A, -B and allelic typing of DRB1) CB unit containing more than 3.0 x 10(7) nuclear cells is considered by most institutions. The choice should be made on the basis of urgency. If a donor or a CB unit is not found within an appropriate time frame, generally less than 3 months after obtention of remission, haploidentical HSCT should be offered. Some institutions consider haploidentical HSCT the second therapeutic option when a matched donor is not available. PMID:18545249

Lanino, E; Sacchi, N; Peters, C; Giardino, S; Rocha, V; Dini, G

2008-06-01

308

Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort.  

PubMed

Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been shown to reduce pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Live kidney donors may also benefit from the use of low pressure during LDN. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy to reduce post-operative pain, we performed a randomized blinded study. Twenty donors were randomly assigned to standard (14 mmHg) or low (7 mmHg) pressure during LDN. One conversion from low to standard pressure was indicated by protocol due to lack of progression. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that low pressure resulted in a significantly longer skin-to-skin time (149 ± 86 vs. 111 ± 19 min), higher urine output during pneumoperitoneum (23 ± 35 vs. 11 ± 20 mL/h), lower cumulative overall pain score after 72 h (9.4 ± 3.2 vs. 13.5 ± 4.5), lower deep intra-abdominal pain score (11 ± 3.3 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1), and a lower cumulative overall referred pain score (1.8 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 3). Donor serum creatinine levels, complications, and quality of life dimensions were not significantly different. Our data show that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during LDN is feasible and may contribute to increase live donors' comfort during the early post-operative phase. PMID:23795745

Warlé, M C; Berkers, A W; Langenhuijsen, J F; van der Jagt, M F; Dooper, Ph M; Kloke, H J; Pilzecker, D; Renes, S H; Wever, K E; Hoitsma, A J; van der Vliet, J A; D'Ancona, F C H

2013-01-01

309

78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based...Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based...Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...

2013-11-05

310

Organ Donation and Transplantation for Older Donors and Recipients: Resources from the U.S. Government  

MedlinePLUS

... potential donors and transplant recipients over age 50. Potential Donors Over Age 50 How old can you ... national, though some organs are offered first to potential recipients within the donor’s region. More resources for ...

311

21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?  

...ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor...3(t), must determine and document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is...

2014-04-01

312

Phage-Displayed Peptide That Mimics Aflatoxins and Its Application in Immunoassay  

E-print Network

Phage-Displayed Peptide That Mimics Aflatoxins and Its Application in Immunoassay Yanru Wang, California 95616, United States ABSTRACT: To search for an alternative to using protein conjugated aflatoxin as a coating antigen in aflatoxin detection by an ELISA method, a random-8-peptide library was constructed

Hammock, Bruce D.

313

Specific immunoreaction-induced controlled release strategy for sensitive impedance immunoassay of a cancer marker.  

PubMed

A simple and facile impedance immunoassay strategy for sensitive detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as a model cancer marker, was developed by using target-induced release of nanogold particle-labelled anti-AFP antibodies from polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated magnetic carbon nanotubes. PMID:21829823

Tang, Juan; Tang, Dianping; Su, Biling; Li, Qunfang; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan

2011-10-01

314

Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

315

Determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat bran and whole-wheat flour by fluorescence polarization immunoassay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A rapid and accurate fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been optimized for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in bran and whole-wheat flour. A preliminary treatment with activated charcoal was used to eliminate the strong matrix effect due to highly colored interfering compounds p...

316

Production of anti-idiotype antibodies for deoxynivalenol and their evaluation with three immunoassay platforms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immunoassays for deoxynivalenol (DON) that involve the competition for binding to DON-specific antibodies have been widely developed. In such assays, the responses of samples are generally compared to calibration curves generated by using DON in competition with labeled reagents such as enzymatic or...

317

SERS-based immunoassay of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide for early diagnosis of  

E-print Network

to be a new clinical tool for the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid arthritis (RASERS-based immunoassay of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis Hyangah Chon,a Sangyeop Lee,a Rui Wang,a So-Young Bang,b Hye-Soon Lee,b Sang-Cheol Bae,b Hyoban

Kim, Bongsoo

318

Functionalized Europium Oxide Nanoparticles Used as a Fluorescent Label in an Immunoassay  

E-print Network

Functionalized Europium Oxide Nanoparticles Used as a Fluorescent Label in an Immunoassay properties that are typical of europium, that is, a spectrally narrow, red emission and a long fluorescence may be based on lanthanide-derived phosphors. For example, the optical properties of europium chelates

Hammock, Bruce D.

319

Detection of   and   Light Chain Monoclonal Proteins in Human Serum: Automated Immunoassay versus Immunofixation Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, turbidimetric immunoassays for detecting and quantifying and free light chains (FLC) have become available and are promoted as being more sensitive than immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) in detecting FLC monoclonal proteins. In this study, we assessed the ability of these turbidimetric assays to detect serum monoclonal proteins involving both free and heavy-chain-bound and light chains compared to standard immunofixation electrophoresis.

Troy D. Jaskowski; Christine M. Litwin; Harry R. Hill

2006-01-01

320

Quantum dot-based immunoassay enhanced by high-density vertical ZnO nanowire array.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report an efficient and high-performance immunoassay platform by combining high-density vertical ZnO nanowire array with photostable quantum dot (QD) labeling. The ZnO nanowire array provides a large surface area for the immobilization of biomolecules, which makes it an efficient substrate for the immunoreaction of biomolecules. When a sandwich immunoassay with QD label was conducted on various substrates, the ZnO nanowire substrate showed stronger fluorescence signal than ZnO thin film and bare glass substrates by 3.8 and 8.5 times, respectively. We found that the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from QD to ZnO nanowire could be suppressed by extending their distance with multilayer biotin-streptavidin complex. In addition, we demonstrated the QD-based immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on a ZnO nanowire substrate, showing an excellent immunoassay performance with a very low detection limit (0.001 ng/mL) and a large detection range up to 100 ng/mL. PMID:24384261

Kim, Jung; Kwon, Seyong; Park, Je-Kyun; Park, Inkyu

2014-05-15

321

Immunoassay of Serum Galactosyltransferase Isoenzyme II in Cancer Patients and Control Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum galactosyltransferase isoenzyme II (GT-II) was assayed in 409 coded serum samples obtained from the National Cancer Institute Tumor Serum Bank using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay. The serum panel consisted of samples from patients with confirmed, met- astatic ovarian, breast, stomach, esophageal, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and cervical cancer, as well as benign disease controls corresponding to each cancer

Morito Uemura; Richard C. Winant; Alan E. Brandt

1988-01-01

322

Use of Microtiter Plates for Latex Agglutination Immunoassay of Serum Alpha2Macroglobulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive turbidimetric immunoassay is described for analysis of alpha2-macroglobulin (AMG) in serum, using microtiter plates and a commercial kit that features a sensitive latex reagent. Using microwells as reaction vessels and the latex reagent made it possible to minimize the sample size and the amounts of reagents. The procedure involves two pipetting steps and a brief incubation (10

Tetsuo Makino

323

Screening of salbutamol residues in swine meat and animal feed by an enzyme immunoassay in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ELISA was developed for routine examination for extensive monitoring and screening programs for the residues of salbutamol in swine serum, animal feed, meat, and meat-related products destined for human consumption in Taiwan. Objectives of the study were to investigate the use of a new immunoassay for the detection of salbutamol residues in swine meat and animal feed samples, and

Shi-Yuan Sheu; Yi-Chih Lei; Yung-Te Tai; Tong-Hsuan Chang; Tzong-Fu Kuo

2009-01-01

324

Analytica Chimica Acta 466 (2002) 247256 Development of an enzyme immunoassay for  

E-print Network

Analytica Chimica Acta 466 (2002) 247­256 Development of an enzyme immunoassay for linoleic acid-linked immunosorbent assay for the diol derivatives of linoleic acid, cis-9,10-dihydroxyoctadec-12(Z)-enoic acid synthesized by conjugation of LTXD/iso-LTXD, dihydroxystearic acid, ricinoleic acid (OLE), ricelaidic acid

Hammock, Bruce D.

325

Competitive Immunoassays for Simultaneous Detection of Metabolites and Proteins Using Micromosaic Patterning  

PubMed Central

New high-throughput immunoassay methods for rapid point-of-care diagnostic applications represent an unmet need and current focus of numerous innovative methods. We report a new micromosaic competitive immunoassay developed for the analysis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP), and the oxidative damage marker 3-nitrotyrosine (BSA–3NT) on a silicon nitride substrate. To demonstrate the versatility of the method, both direct and indirect format competitive immunoassays were developed and could be applied simultaneously for single samples. Signals from standard solutions were fit to a logistic equation, allowing simultaneous detection of T4 (7.7–257.2 nM), CRP (0.3–4.2 µg/mL), and BSA–3NT (0.03–22.3 µg/mL). Total assay time including sample introduction, washing, and fluorescence measurement was less than 45 min. Dissociation constants for affinity pairs in the system have been estimated using regression. This proof-of-concept experiment shows that both small and macromolecular biomarkers can be quantified from a single sample using the method and suggests that groups of clinically related analytes may be analyzed by competitive micromosaic immunoassay techniques. PMID:18092765

Murphy, Brian M.; He, Xinya; Dandy, David; Henry, Charles S.

2010-01-01

326

Laser light scattering immunoassay: An improved data analysis by CONTIN method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser light scattering immunoassay (LIA) is a diagnostic method for the detection of antibody by monitoring the agglutination of antigen carrier particles mediated by antibody, using dynamic light scattering (DLS) as probe. We have used this method for the detection of antibody to P. falciparum that cause malaria. The data were analysed using CONTIN method and the superiority of the

Thomas Antony; Anita Saxena; K. B Roy; H. B Bohidar

1998-01-01

327

Visible paper chip immunoassay for rapid determination of bacteria in water distribution system.  

PubMed

Paper chips for immunoassay were patterned by screen printing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or wax pencil drawing. The methods for paper chip patterning are cheap, convenient, rapid and suitable for most laboratories. The whole time for patterning a paper chip is no more than 10 min. Visible immunoassay for the detection of bacteria (Escherichia coli ) has been realized using the paper chip, on which the antibody for capturing E. Coli was immobilized on the detection zones of the paper chip, while the detection antibody was labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a signal reporter. After an immunological reaction, the AuNPs bound on the paper chip can effectively catalyse the reduction of silver ions during the silver enhancing step, generating a visible result that can be read by naked eyes. The quantitative results can be acquired by scanning the silver stained paper chip with a commercial scanner/or digital camera. The density of E. coli in water samples can be measured after calibrating the gray value of silver stained spots with the logarithmic number of bacteria. The time and reagents consumed on the paper chip immunoassay is much smaller than those of conventional ELISA, while the sensitivity of the paper chip immunoassay is comparable to conventional ELISA. The technology proposed in this work displays a great potential in the in-situ analysis when daily monitoring of water quality are required. PMID:24468352

Ma, Sai; Tang, Yanyan; Liu, Jingqing; Wu, Jianmin

2014-03-01

328

ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROBIAL ANTIGENS AND THEIR ANTIBODIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages of enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) over radioactive assay techniques are mainly convenience in use, in that the labelled immunoreagents are stable for long periods, and the precautions and disposal procedures required for radioisotopes are unnecessary. In addition, the us...

329

A commercial rapid optical immunoassay detects Streptococcus agalactiae from aquatic cultures and clinical specimens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The BioStar STREPT B Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) (BioStar® OIA® Strep B Assay Kit; Biostar Incorporation; Louisville, CO, USA) was used to identify 32 known group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates of fish, dolphin, bovine, and human origin. Thirteen non-GBS isolates from fish and other animals were test...

330

AUTOMATED FLOW FLUORESCENT IMMUNOASSAY FOR PART PER TRILLION DETECTION OF THE NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDE THIAMETHOXAM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An ultra sensitive automated flow fluorescent immunoassay was developed using the KinExATM 3000 system for quantitative analysis of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. Five monoclonal antibodies were obtained and screened with a competitive ELISA. One monoclonal antibody designated as E6VI ...

331

Heparin interferes with the radioenzymatic and homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for aminoglycosides  

SciTech Connect

Heparin interferes with measurement of aminoglycosides in serum by biological, radioenzymatic, and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay techniques, but not with radioimmunoassay. At concentrations greater than or equal to 10/sup 5/ and greater than or equal to 3 X 10/sup 6/ USP units/L, respectively, it interferes with the radioenzymatic assay by inhibiting the gentamicin 3-acetyltransferase and kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase enzymes used in the assay. It interferes with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for gentamicin and tobramycin (at concentrations greater than or equal to 10/sup 5/ and greater than or equal to10/sup 4/ USP units/L, respectively), but not with the commercially available homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for other drugs. Heparin interference with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for aminoglycosides requires both the heparin polyanion and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase bound to a cationic aminoglycoside. This interference can be reproduced with dextran sulfate (but not dextran), and does not occur with free enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) alone. Heparin interference with these two assays and at concentrations that may be present in intravenous infusions or in seriously underfilled blood-collection tubes is described. (JMT)

Krogstad, D.J. (Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, MO); Granich, G.G.; Murray, P.R.; Pfaller, M.A.; Valdes, R.

1981-07-01

332

Quantitative determination of nuclear estrogen receptors by an enzyme immunoassay: applicability and caveats.  

PubMed

A method is presented with which approx. 95% of nuclear estrogen receptors appear to be extracted from MCF-7 cells. Since both nuclear isolation and nuclear estrogen receptor extraction take place in a single test tube with only vortex mixing, loss of nuclear material is minimized. The amount of nuclear estrogen receptors in the nuclear extract was determined by direct [3H]estradiol labeling of monolayer cultures and with a commercially available estrogen receptor immunoassay (ER-EIA) kit. Since the ER-EIA kit was designed and calibrated for quantitative determination of cytosolic estrogen receptor isolated in low ionic strength buffer, the applicability of the ER-EIA to quantitative determination of estrogen receptor content in high ionic strength nuclear extraction buffer was tested. A linear relationship exists between the amount of nuclear estrogen receptor detected by the immunoassay, the amount of receptor present in serial dilutions of the nuclear extract and the amount of nuclear estrogen receptor detected in cells by [3H]estradiol labeling of monolayer cultures, the absolute amount of nuclear estrogen receptors determined by the immunoassay consistently exceeded the amount of receptor detected by [3H]estradiol labeling. The possibility that the enzyme immunoassay must be properly calibrated for the specific conditions of the nuclear estrogen receptor assay is discussed. PMID:3050279

Kral, L G; Doherty, L M; Brooks, S C

1988-10-01

333

Plasmonic metal scattering immunoassay by total internal reflection scattering microscopy with nanoscale lateral resolution.  

PubMed

Immunoassays on nanopatterned chips through TIRS detection based on reconstructing the three dimensional position provided a nanoscale accuracy of the lateral resolution by using the z-stage controller in the spatial range up to 10 nm. This method offers highly accurate and sensitive quantification with the zeptomolar (?10(-21) M) detection of proteins. PMID:25434430

Lee, Seungah; Yu, Hyunung; Kang, Seong Ho

2015-01-18

334

Magnetic gold nanoparticles in SERS-based sandwich immunoassay for antigen detection by well oriented antibodies.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to develop an indirect, robust and simple in application method for the detection of bovine leukemia virus antigen gp51. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was applied as detection method. Magnetic gold nanoparticles (MNP-Au) modified by antibodies in oriented or random manner were used for the binding of gp51. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the best antibody immobilization and antigen capturing efficiency was achieved using fragmented antibodies obtained after reduction of intact antibodies with dithiothreitol. In order to increase efficiency and sensitivity of immunoassay Raman labels consisting of gold nanorods coated by 5-thio-nitrobenzoic acid layer with covalently bounded antibodies have been constructed. The LOD and LOQ of the proposed immunoassay for antigen gp51 detection were found to be 0.95?gmL(-1) and 3.14?gmL(-1), respectively. This immunoassay was successfully applied for the detection of gp51 in milk samples in a rapid, reliable and selective manner. We believe that the proposed SERS-based immunoassay format can be applied for the detection of other proteins. PMID:23334004

Baniukevic, Julija; Hakki Boyaci, Ismail; Goktug Bozkurt, Akif; Tamer, Ugur; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Ramanaviciene, Almira

2013-05-15

335

A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic nucleotides based on chemiluminescence energy transfer.  

PubMed Central

A chemiluminescent derivative of cyclic AMP, aminobutylethylisoluminol succinyl cyclic AMP (ABEI-scAMP), was synthesized in order to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on non-radiative energy transfer. ABEI-scAMP was chemiluminescent (5.1 X 10(18) luminescent counts X mol-1 at pH 13), pure (greater than 95%) stable and immunologically active. A conventional immunoassay was established using ABEI-scAMP and a solid-phase anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G which could detect cyclic AMP at least down to 25fmol. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic AMP was established by measuring the shift in wavelength from 460 to 525nm which occurred when ABEI-scAMP was bound to fluorescein-labelled anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G. The assay was at least as sensitive as the conventional radioimmunoassay using cyclic [3H]AMP and could measure cyclic AMP over the range 1-1000nM. The homogeneous chemiluminescent energy transfer assay was also able to quantify the association and dissociation of antibody-antigen complexes. Chemiluminescence energy transfer occurred between fluorescein-labelled antibodies and several other ABEI-labelled antigens (Mr values 314-150000) including progesterone, cyclic GMP, complement component C9 and immunoglobulin G. The results provide a homogeneous immunoassay capable of measuring free cyclic AMP under conditions likely to exist inside cells. PMID:6316935

Campbell, A K; Patel, A

1983-01-01

336

Development and clinical application of immunoassays for european adder ( vipera berus berus) venom and antivenom  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ovine affinity purified Fab antivenom was used in a clinical trial in Sweden to treat European adder (Vipera berus berus) envenoming. Immunoassays were developed to measure V. b. berus venom and antivenom concentrations in clinical samples to help assess the efficacy of treatment. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed, optimized and validated to measure plasma levels of V. b. berus

Lena Sjostrom; Christine Karlson-Stiber; Hans Persson; Ibrahim H. Al-Abdulla; Damon C. Smith

1996-01-01

337

Monoclonal antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for monitoring organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agriculture and domestic settings can result in widespread water contamination. The development of easy-to-use and rapid-screening immunoassay methods in a class-selective manner is a topic of considerable environmental interest. In this wo...

338

The use of coated paramagnetic particles as a physical label in a magneto-immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal label for use in an immunoassay would require no further chemical or electromagnetic stimulation prior to its detection and would be free from interference from the sample matrix. Micron sized paramagnetic particles are able to perturb magnetic fields. This perturbation can be directly detected using a suitable electronic device and is independent of the sample matrix. In this

J. Richardson; P. Hawkins; R. Luxton

2001-01-01

339

Design of liquid level measurement for sampling module of full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support the need for the design of sampling module in the full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument, this paper completed the design and verification of liquid level detector based on capacitive sensor. Using the capacitance effect existing between the sample needle and the ground (the machine frame), we take the sample needle and the ground as the capacitor poles. By means

Hong Li; Lianqing Zhu; Haitao Chang; Yan Bao

2010-01-01

340

Evaluation of Three Immunoassay Kits for Rapid Detection of Influenza Virus A and B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza causes high morbidity and mortality in very young and elderly individuals, which can be controlled with antivirals and\\/or vaccines. The success of therapeutic measures is predicated on the rapid and precise diagnosis of the infection. We compared three rapid influenza immunoassay (RIIA) kits for the diagnosis of influenza virus A and B using 178 respiratory specimens submitted for routine

Adriana Weinberg; Miranda L. Walker

2005-01-01

341

Rapid detection of cardioactive bufalin toxicity using fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin.  

PubMed

Intoxication caused by digitalis-like substances after ingestion of cooked toad soup has been reported. Bufalin, a cardioactive compound, is found in toad. Bufalin is also found in many Chinese medicines. Earlier reports demonstrated cross reactivity of bufalin with fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digoxin. In this report, the authors demonstrated a significantly higher cross reactivity of bufalin with the fluorescence polarization assay for digitoxin. They supplemented aliquots of normal plasma that had various concentrations of bufalin (1 to 50 micrograms/ml) from a local blood bank and measured apparent digitoxin concentrations using fluorescence polarization immunoassay and chemiluminescent assays (ACS digitoxin) for digitoxin. They measured apparent digoxin and digitoxin concentrations using fluorescence polarization, microparticle enzyme immunoassay, and chemiluminescent assays for digitoxin. They observed apparent digitoxin or digoxin concentrations in sera supplemented with bufalin only with the fluorescence polarization assays. For example, the apparent digitoxin concentration observed in a serum supplemented with 25 ng/ml of bufalin was 24.3 ng/ml of digitoxin equivalent. The apparent digoxin concentration observed in the same specimen was 1.33 ng/ml digoxin equivalent. Bufalin caused positive interference in serum digoxin or digitoxin measurements in specimens containing digoxin or digitoxin when concentrations were measured by fluorescence polarization assays. In contrast, bufalin lowered the measured digoxin concentrations in serum pools containing digoxin when digoxin concentrations were measured by the microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The authors conclude that bufalin toxicity can be rapidly detected by the fluorescence polarization assay for digitoxin. PMID:9485564

Dasgupta, A; Datta, P

1998-02-01

342

Detection of drug usage via breath analysis with an immunoassay film badge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monolayer of antibody on a semimirror comprised of small islands of indium acts as a sensor capable of detecting vapors at extremely low concentrations without the use of wet chemistry. Already shown capable of detecting cocaine vapors at 4 femtograms per cc of air, the use of the device, called an immunoassay film badge, for detecting drugs on the

Herbert R. Lukens

1997-01-01

343

Detection of E. coli O157:H7 by immunomagnetic separation coupled with fluorescence immunoassay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional culture-based methods for detection of E. coli O157:H7 in foods and water sources are time-consuming, and results can be ambiguous, requiring further confirmation by biochemical testing and PCR. A rapid immunoassay prior to cultivation to identify presumptive positive sample would save...

344

The measurement of triclosan in water using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay to determine triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in drinking water and wastewater was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocya...

345

A microsphere immunoassay for detection of antibodies to avian influenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microsphere immunoassay (MIA) was developed for the detection of serum antibodies to avian influenza virus. A recombinant influenza A nucleoprotein expressed in baculovirus was conjugated to microspheres and incubated with antibodies. High median fluorescent intensities (MFIs) were obtained with a monoclonal antibody and positive chicken sera. Chickens were inoculated with 10 strains of avian influenza virus representing different subtypes,

Dirk Deregt; Tara L. Furukawa-Stoffer; Kara L. Tokaryk; John Pasick; Kimberley M. Burton Hughes; Kathleen Hooper-McGrevy; Shailja Baxi; Mohit K. Baxi

2006-01-01

346

A multiplexed immunoassay for detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease in poultry and outbreaks can have dramatic economic and health implications. For effective disease surveillance, rapid and sensitive assays are needed to detect antibodies against AI virus (AIV) proteins. In this study, we report the development of a multiplexed fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for detection of antibodies against AIV proteins in poultry.

Douglas S. Watson; Sanjay M. Reddy; Vinayak Brahmakshatriya; Blanca Lupiani

2009-01-01

347

Immunoassay for Simazine and Atrazine with Low Cross-Reactivity for Propazine  

E-print Network

Immunoassay for Simazine and Atrazine with Low Cross-Reactivity for Propazine Monika Wortberg Toxicology, University of California, Davis, California 95616 An antibody for simazine and atrazine has been developed that exhibits low cross-reactivity to propazine relative to most atrazine antibodies heretofore

Hammock, Bruce D.

348

Synthesis of Protein Conjugates and Development of Immunoassays for AAL Toxins  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Protein Conjugates and Development of Immunoassays for AAL Toxins Ferenc Szurdoki and animal feeds. We developed novel methods for the synthesis of protein conjugates of the AAL toxin TA toxins. Keywords: AAL toxins; fumonisins; synthesis of conjugates of AAL toxin TA; polyclonal mouse

Hammock, Bruce D.

349

Automated digital microfluidic platform for magnetic-particle-based immunoassays with optimization by design of experiments.  

PubMed

We introduce an automated digital microfluidic (DMF) platform capable of performing immunoassays from sample to analysis with minimal manual intervention. This platform features (a) a 90 Pogo pin interface for digital microfluidic control, (b) an integrated (and motorized) photomultiplier tube for chemiluminescent detection, and (c) a magnetic lens assembly which focuses magnetic fields into a narrow region on the surface of the DMF device, facilitating up to eight simultaneous digital microfluidic magnetic separations. The new platform was used to implement a three-level full factorial design of experiments (DOE) optimization for thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassays, varying (1) the analyte concentration, (2) the sample incubation time, and (3) the sample volume, resulting in an optimized protocol that reduced the detection limit and sample incubation time by up to 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, relative to those from previous work. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a DOE optimization for immunoassays in a microfluidic system of any format. We propose that this new platform paves the way for a benchtop tool that is useful for implementing immunoassays in near-patient settings, including community hospitals, physicians' offices, and small clinical laboratories. PMID:23978190

Choi, Kihwan; Ng, Alphonsus H C; Fobel, Ryan; Chang-Yen, David A; Yarnell, Lyle E; Pearson, Elroy L; Oleksak, Carl M; Fischer, Andrew T; Luoma, Robert P; Robinson, John M; Audet, Julie; Wheeler, Aaron R

2013-10-15

350

IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

351

Cadmium mobilization by nitrogen donor chelating agents.  

PubMed

The relative abilities of a series of acyclic polyamine chelating agents containing only nitrogen donors (N-donors) to induce the urinary excretion of cadmium has been examined in the rat. The compounds examined include triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (TRIEN), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine trihydrochloride (TREN), tetraethylenepentamine pentahydrochloride (TETRAEN), and pentaethylenehexamine hexahydrochloride (PENTAEN). Sodium N-methyl-D-glucamine-N-carbodithioate (NaG) was used as a positive control compound. The polyamines induced a significant increase in the urinary excretion of cadmium in rats that had been loaded with cadmium at least 4 d prior to the polyamine treatments. A comparison of these with similar data on macrocylic nitrogen donor systems, which form much more stable complexes with cadmium but are also ineffective in enhancing the excretion of cadmium from such aged deposits, suggests that the factors responsible for the relative inefficiency of these compounds may involve either a difficulty in penetrating cellular membranes or a slow rate of reaction with biologically bound cadmium. The occurrence of oliguria and anuria following the administration of the several of the polyamines indicates that their use is accompanied by significant renal damage in cadmium-exposed rats. PMID:8637059

Jones, M M; Xu, C; Singh, P K; Walker, E M

1996-05-01

352

Retroperitoneoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy: 7 Cases  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy causes less pain, shorter hospital stays and a quicker return to daily activities. Because of potential bowel injuries and risk of intestinal obstruction secondary to adhesions later on, the retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN) technique has been developed. The first 7 RDN cases carried out at our organ transplantation unit between December 2006 and May 2007 were retrospectively examined. The male/female ratio of the patients was 4/3. Left nephrectomy was performed in all cases. In two patients, the conventional method was performed because of an adhesion in the hilar area in one patient and because of technical difficulty after entering the peritoneum in another patient. Serious complications such as massive hemorrhage and intestinal injury were not observed. None of the patients required blood transfusion. The mean operative time was 161 minutes, with the exception of 2 patients who required conversion to other methods. Mean warm ischemia duration was 125 seconds. Oral feeding began the first postoperative day. The mean inpatient stay was 3.5 days. The mean recipient creatinine levels 24 hours and 1 month post-procedure were 3.78 mg/dl and 1.04 mg/dl, respectively. RDN is technically more difficult and has a steeper learning curve compared to transperitoneal donor nephrectomy. As our RDN cases increase, we will obtain more representative data on complications.

Mesci, Ayhan; Dinckan, Ayhan; Ozcan, Bar?s; Gurkan, Alihan

2008-01-01

353

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays: applications, fundamentals, and optimization  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments of SPR and SERS. Chapter 4 introduces a novel method of reducing sample incubation time via capture substrate rotation. Moreover, this work led to a method of virus quantification without the use of standards. Chapter 5 extends the methodology developed in Chapter 4 to both the antigen and ERL labeling step to perform assays with improved analytical performance in less time than can be accomplished in diffusion controlled assays. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and speculates on the future of this exciting approach to carrying out immunoassays.

Jeremy Daniel Driskell

2006-08-09

354

Comparisons of Immunoassay and Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Serum Estradiol Levels and Their Influence on Clinical Association Studies in Men  

PubMed Central

Context: Immunoassay-based techniques, routinely used to measure serum estradiol (E2), are known to have reduced specificity, especially at lower concentrations, when compared with the gold standard technique of mass spectrometry (MS). Different measurement techniques may be responsible for the conflicting results of associations between serum E2 and clinical phenotypes in men. Objective: Our objective was to compare immunoassay and MS measurements of E2 levels in men and evaluate associations with clinical phenotypes. Design and Setting: Middle-aged and older male subjects participating in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden study (n = 2599), MrOS US (n = 688), and the European Male Aging Study (n = 2908) were included. Main Outcome Measures: Immunoassay and MS measurements of serum E2 were compared and related to bone mineral density (BMD; measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and ankle-brachial index. Results: Within each cohort, serum E2 levels obtained by immunoassay and MS correlated moderately (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rS 0.53–0.76). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels associated significantly (albeit to a low extent, rS = 0.29) with immunoassay E2 but not with MS E2 levels. Similar associations of immunoassay E2 and MS E2 were seen with lumbar spine and total hip BMD, independent of serum CRP. However, immunoassay E2, but not MS E2, associated inversely with ankle-brachial index, and this correlation was lost after adjustment for CRP. Conclusions: Our findings suggest interference in the immunoassay E2 analyses, possibly by CRP or a CRP-associated factor. Although associations with BMD remain unaffected, this might imply for a reevaluation of previous association studies between immunoassay E2 levels and inflammation-related outcomes. PMID:23633197

Nilsson, Maria E.; Tivesten, ?sa; Ryberg, Henrik; Mellström, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Ljunggren, Östen; Labrie, Fernand; Orwoll, Eric S.; Lee, David M.; Pye, Stephen R.; O'Neill, Terence W.; Finn, Joseph D.; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Boonen, Steven; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E. J.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Vandenput, Liesbeth

2013-01-01

355

Description and evaluation of a canine volunteer blood donor program.  

PubMed

Human volunteer blood donor programs are commonplace, but the concept of nonhuman animal blood banking is relatively new. Few studies exist regarding efficacy, donor screening, and safety for volunteer companion animals. This retrospective study evaluated a nonprofit, community-based canine volunteer donor program using community blood drives. Of 98 potential donors, 14 were ineligible to donate, including 4 who tested seropositive for blood-borne pathogens. Of 84 donors, 45 were Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA) 1.1 positive and 39 were DEA1.1 negative. Donations totaling 143 included 29 repeat donors (35%). No serious adverse events occurred. Minor adverse events included acute donor reaction (2.8%), hematoma (4.2%), rebleeding (2.1%), and skin irritation (0.7%). Adverse event rates were comparable to data for human blood donations. A substantial fraction of donors donated multiple times, suggesting that volunteer donors and their guardians perceived the donation process to be safe and effective. This article discusses the issue of donor consent and use of the term volunteer. This study indicates that nonprofit, community-based canine volunteer donor programs for animal blood banks can be successful while maintaining high safety standards and ethical treatment of volunteers. PMID:16956317

DeLuca, Lawrence A; Glass, Sharon G; Johnson, Richard E; Burger, Melissa

2006-01-01

356

Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.  

PubMed

The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web. PMID:12216954

Müller, Carlheinz R

2002-08-01

357

Photocurrent measurement on donor bound excitons in Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Donor bound excitons are formed when free excitons are captured by neutral donor impurities. Due to the spatial localization of exciton at the impurity site, the decay process of donor bound exciton state to neutral donor state features extremely narrow linewidth in energy. Utilizing this inherent feature, it would be feasible to identify nuclear spin states of the donor impurity resulting from the hyperfine interaction between phosphorus nucleus spin and electron spin. We study ensembles of phosphorus donor bound excitons in Si via photocurrent measurements at low temperatures since Auger non-radiative decay process is primarily dominant in an indirect band-gap semiconductor such as Si. We report electric and magnetic field effects on photocurrent signals of phosphorus donor bound excitons.

Kim, Na Young; Sleiter, Darin; Ladd, Thaddeus; Nozawa, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

2009-03-01

358

Investigation of Antigen-Antibody Interactions of Sulfonamides with a Monoclonal Antibody in a Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay Using 3D-QSAR Models  

PubMed Central

A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model of sulfonamide analogs binding a monoclonal antibody (MAbSMR) produced against sulfamerazine was carried out by Distance Comparison (DISCOtech), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The affinities of the MAbSMR, expressed as Log10IC50, for 17 sulfonamide analogs were determined by competitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The results demonstrated that the proposed pharmacophore model containing two hydrogen-bond acceptors, two hydrogen-bond donors and two hydrophobic centers characterized the structural features of the sulfonamides necessary for MAbSMR binding. Removal of two outliers from the initial set of 17 sulfonamide analogs improved the predictability of the models. The 3D-QSAR models of 15 sulfonamides based on CoMFA and CoMSIA resulted in q2 cv values of 0.600 and 0.523, and r2 values of 0.995 and 0.994, respectively, which indicates that both methods have significant predictive capability. Connolly surface analysis, which mainly focused on steric force fields, was performed to complement the results from CoMFA and CoMSIA. This novel study combining FPIA with pharmacophore modeling demonstrates that multidisciplinary research is useful for investigating antigen-antibody interactions and also may provide information required for the design of new haptens. PMID:22754368

Wang, Zhanhui; Kai, Zhenpeng; Beier, Ross C.; Shen, Jianzhong; Yang, Xinling

2012-01-01

359

ENDOWMENT HONOR ROLL 2013 The List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed Department  

E-print Network

ENDOWMENT HONOR ROLL 2013 The List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed DepartmentThe List Below Includes All Donors to Endowed Department Funds

360

Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.  

PubMed

The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety. PMID:20505995

Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

2011-08-01

361

Approaches to managing volunteer marrow donor registry HLA data. Algorithms for directing donor center-initiated HLA-DR typing of selected donors.  

PubMed

The German bone marrow donor center (DKMS) hasrecruited over 732 500 donors during the first 9 years of its existence. Initially, donors were typed for HLA-A and B, and DR typing was only done on request for a patient-initiated search. In 1994, a project was started which led to the donor center-initiated DR typing (DCI-DRT) of >35,000 donors. These donors were selected by donor-specific criteria (age, sex, height and weight) and according to HLA-A and B phenotypes. The latter was done to avoid unnecessary DR typing of the most common A, B phenotypes With a follow up of >6 years, this strategy has led to a number of confirmatory typings (CT) (n=4588) and stem cell harvests (n=568), which is at least comparable to those ensuing after patient-initiated HLA-DR typing (126 000 DR typings, 8,213 CTs, 888 resulting in stem-cell donation). DCI-DRT seems to be a cost-effective strategy which may help to reduce search times and improve search outcome, and improve the overall efficiency of donor center operations PMID:12361095

Schuler, U; Rutt, C; Baier, D; Keller, J V; Stahr, A; Grathwohl, A; Ehninger, G

2000-01-01

362

Determination of anti-HBsAg IgM monoclonal antibodies in cell culture media by perfusion immunoassay.  

PubMed

A rapid, specific, perfusion immunoassay for active anti-HBsAg monoclonal IgM is described. The immunoassay requires less than 3.5 min per sample. The precision was found to be 3.6% at an IgM concentration of 17 microg/ml. A detection limit of 1 microg/ml IgM in culture media was determined. Assay results were found to correlate very well with standard size exclusion chromatography and radial immunodiffusion techniques. This perfusion immunoassay was demonstrated to be useful for determining anti-HBsAg IgM in complex matrices such as cell culture media. The utility of the immunoassay for monitoring production of anti-HBsAg IgM in a perfusion bioreactor is demonstrated. PMID:9005942

Brackett, J M; Cousineau, K L; Wang, H; Annapragada, A V; Cabal, O D; Gall, G S; Peterson, B; Robey, W G

1997-01-15

363

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: PCP IMMUNOASSAY TECHNOLOGIES - PENTA RISC BY ENSYS INC., PENTA RAPID BY OHMICRON CORP., ENVIROGARD BY MILLIPORE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this demonstration were to test these field screening technologies for accuracy and precision in detecting Pentachlorophenol (PCP) levels in soil and water by comparing their results with those of a confirmatory laboratory. The three immunoassay technologies ...

364

In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms  

SciTech Connect

The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion.

Lorenson, M.Y.

1985-04-01

365

Evaluation of a fluorescent polarization immunoassay for whole blood everolimus determination using samples from renal transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:This study compared the performance of a fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) against HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for the measurement of everolimus in renal transplant recipients.

Paul Salm; Christopher Warnholtz; Jared Boyd; Lili Arabshahi; Peter Marbach; Paul J. Taylor

2006-01-01

366

HCV Genotypes, Characterization of Mutations Conferring Drug Resistance to Protease Inhibitors, and Risk Factors among Blood Donors in São Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem estimated to affect almost 200 million people worldwide. The aim of this study is to analyze the subtypes and existence of variants resistant to protease inhibitors and their association with potential HCV risk factors among blood donors in Brazil. Methods Repeat anti-HCV reactive blood donors are systematically asked to return for retest, notification, and counseling in which they are interviewed for risk factors for transfusion-transmitted diseases. We analyzed 202 donors who returned for counseling from 2007 to 2010 and presented enzyme immunoassay- and immunoblot-reactive results. The HCV genotypes and resistance mutation analyses were determined by the direct sequencing of the NS5b and NS3 regions, respectively. The HCV viral load was determined using an in-house real-time PCR assay targeting the 5?-NCR. Results HCV subtypes 1b, 1a, and 3a were found in 45.5%, 32.0%, and 18.0% of the donors, respectively. The mean viral load of genotype 1 was significantly higher than that of the genotype 3 isolates. Subtype 1a was more frequent among young donors and 3a was more frequent among older donors. Protease inhibitor-resistant variants were detected in 12.8% of the sequenced samples belonging to genotype 1, and a higher frequency was observed among subtype 1a (20%) in comparison to 1b (8%). There was no difference in the prevalence of HCV risk factors among the genotypes or drug-resistant variants. Conclusions We found a predominance of subtype 1b, with an increase in the frequency of subtype 1a, in young subjects. Mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors were frequent in treatment-naïve blood donors, particularly those infected with subtype 1a. These variants were detected in the major viral population of HCV quasispecies, have replicative capacities comparable to nonresistant strains, and could be important for predicting the response to antiviral triple therapy. PMID:24466079

Nishiya, Anna S.; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Ferreira, Suzete C.; Alencar, Cecília S.; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, Claudia; Levi, José E.; Salles, Nanci A.; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester C.

2014-01-01

367

A highly efficient colorimetric immunoassay using a nanocomposite entrapping magnetic and platinum nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Nanocomposite to achieve ultrafast immunoassay: a new synergistically integrated nanocomposite consisting of magnetic and platinum nanoparticles, simultaneously entrapped in mesoporous carbon, is developed as a promising enzyme mimetic candidate to achieve ultrafast colorimetric immunoassays. Using new assay system, clinically important target molecules, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and diarrhea-causing rotavirus, can be detected in only 3 min at room temperature with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23832855

Kim, Moon Il; Ye, Youngjin; Woo, Min-Ah; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Hyun Gyu

2014-01-01

368

Clinical outcomes of and patient satisfaction with different incision methods for donor hepatectomy in living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

With the decrease in the average donor age and the increase in the proportion of female donors, both donor safety and cosmetic appearance are major concerns for some living donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) because a large abdominal incision is needed that may influence the donor's quality of life. In all, 429 donors who underwent donor hepatectomy for LDLT from April 2010 to February 2013 were included in the study. Donors were divided into 3 groups based on the type of incision: conventional inverted L incision (n?=?268; the C group), upper midline incision (n?=?147; the M group), and transverse incision with laparoscopy (n?=?14; the T group). Demographics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications for donors and recipients, and questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction with cosmetic appearance were compared. The mean age was lower (P?donor satisfaction matched by age (±5 years), sex, graft, height, weight, and BMI, a more satisfactory cosmetic result and more self-confidence were noted in the M and T groups versus the C group. In conclusion, the use of a minimal incision is technically feasible for some donor hepatectomy cases with a favorable safety profile. The patient satisfaction levels were greater with improved cosmetic outcomes in cases of minimal incision versus cases of conventional incision. Liver Transpl 21:72-78, 2015. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25348280

Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

2015-01-01

369

Renal Transplantation from Non-Heart Beating Donors: A Promising Alternative to Enlarge the Donor Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the survival and midterm function of kidneys from non-heart beating do- nors (NHBD) with those of kidneys from heart beating donors (HBD). From 1989 to 1998, 144 kidneys were procured from NHBD at the Hospital Clinico San Carlos in Madrid, of which 95 were transplanted. The kidney grafts were maintained from the

DOLORES PRATS; JAIME TORRENTE; M. JES; CRISTINA FERN ´ ANDEZ; JOAQUIN ALVAREZ; ALBERTO BARRIENTOS

2000-01-01

370

A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.  

PubMed

A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs. PMID:17158322

Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

2006-12-01

371

Can carbon monoxide-poisoned victims be organ donors?  

PubMed Central

The increasing demand for organ allografts to treat end-stage organ failure has driven changes in traditional donor criteria. Patients who have succumbed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a common cause of toxicological mortality, are usually rejected as organ donors. To fulfill the increasing demand, selection criteria must be expanded to include CO-poisoned donors. However, the use of allografts exposed to high CO concentrations is still under debate. Basic research and literature review data suggest that patients with brain death caused by CO poisoning should be considered appropriate organ donors. Accepting organs from CO-poisoned victims could increase the number of potential donors and lower the death rate of patients on the waiting lists. This review and reported cases may increase awareness among emergency department physicians, as well as transplant teams, that patients dying of CO exposure may be acceptable organ donors. PMID:25097755

2014-01-01

372

Are Concerns Over Right Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy Unwarranted?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the ability of several large, experienced transplantation centers to perform right-sided laparoscopic donor nephrectomy safely with equivalent long-term renal allograft function. Summary Background Data Early reports noted a higher incidence of renal vein thrombosis and eventual graft loss. However, exclusion of right-sided donors would deprive a significant proportion of donors a laparoscopically harvested graft. Methods A retrospective review was performed among 97 patients from seven centers performing right-sided laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Surgical and postoperative demographic factors were evaluated. Complications were identified and long-term renal allograft function was compared with historical left-sided laparoscopic donor nephrectomy cohorts. Results Right laparoscopic donor nephrectomy was performed for varying reasons, including multiple left renal arteries or veins, smaller right kidney, or cystic right renal mass. Mean surgical time was 235.0 ± 66.7 minutes, with a mean blood loss of 139 ± 165.8 mL. Conversion was required in three patients secondary to bleeding or anatomical anomalies. Mean warm ischemic time was limited at 238 ± 112 seconds. Return to diet was achieved on average after 7.5 ± 2.3 hours, with mean discharge at 54.6 ± 22.8 hours. Two grafts were lost during the early experience of these centers to renal vein thrombosis. Both surgical and postoperative complications were limited, with few long-term adverse effects. Mean serum creatinine levels were higher than open and left laparoscopic donor nephrectomy on postoperative day 1, but at all remaining intervals the right laparoscopic donors had equivalent creatinine values. Conclusions These results confirm that right laparoscopic donor nephrectomy provides similar patient benefits, including early return to diet and discharge. Long-term creatinine values were no higher than in traditional open donor or left laparoscopic donor cohorts. These results establish that early concerns about high thrombosis rates are not supported by a multiinstitutional review of laparoscopic right donor nephrectomies. PMID:11323503

Buell, Joseph F.; Edye, Michael; Johnson, Mark; Li, Christine; Koffron, Alan; Cho, Eugene; Kuo, Paul; Johnson, Lynt; Hanaway, Michael; Potter, Steven R.; Bruce, David S.; Cronin, David C.; Newell, Kenneth A.; Leventhal, Joseph; Jacobs, Stephen; Woodle, E. Steve; Bartlett, Stephen T.; Flowers, John L.

2001-01-01

373

Exploring necrotizing autoimmune myopathies with a novel immunoassay for anti-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase autoantibodies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies (NAM) have recently been defined as a distinct group of severe acquired myopathies, characterized by prominent myofiber necrosis without significant muscle inflammation. Because of the lack of appropriate biomarkers, these diseases have been long misdiagnosed as atypical forms of myositis. NAM may be associated to autoantibodies directed against signal recognition particle (SRP) or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR). The objective of this work was to quantify anti-HMGCR autoantibodies in patients with suspicion of NAM through the development of a new addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA). Methods Recombinant HMGCR C-domain was bound to fluorescent beads. After incubation with serum, autoantibodies were revealed using class- or subclass-specific anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Anti-HMGCR levels were assayed in 150 patients with suspicion of NAM, 142 controls with different inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and 100 healthy donors. Inhibition with free recombinant HMGCR and immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed test specificity. Reproducibility and repeatability were determined from sera with various levels of anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. A multiplex assay (ALBIA-NAM) was also developed to permit the simultaneous quantification of anti-HMGCR and anti-signal recognition particle autoantibodies. Results No controls scored positive. Of 150 patients with suspicion of NAM, 24% were positive for anti-HMGCR autoantibodies with levels ranging from 24 to 2,656 AU/mL. Anti-HMGCR positivity could be associated to a cytoplasmic pattern in immunofluorescence assay on HEp-2 cells. Anti-HMGCR-positive patients had high creatine kinase (CK) levels (mean 6,630 IU/L) and only 40% of them had been exposed to statins. Multiplex ALBIA-NAM was equally as effective as monoplex anti-HMGCR and anti-SRP ALBIA. Conclusions Both monoplex ALBIA-HMGCR and multiplex ALBIA-NAM reliably detect and quantify anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. A positive result allows ascribing patients with a necrotizing myopathy to an autoimmune form. Anti-HMGCR autoantibodies may be found in patients who have not taken statins. PMID:24484965

2014-01-01

374

Photoconductivity in Donor-Acceptor Polyferrocenylsilane-Fullerene Composite Films  

E-print Network

-state photoconductive and photovoltaic devices using thin films of blends of poly(ferrocenylmethylphenylsilane) (PFMPSPhotoconductivity in Donor-Acceptor Polyferrocenylsilane-Fullerene Composite Films Paul W. Cyr

375

Implications of Donor Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation on Kidney Allograft Recipients  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is common in deceased kidney donors and is considered a relative contraindication to donation. The significance of donor DIC on recipient kidney function is poorly understood. Additionally, the significance of thrombocytopenia in recipients of kidneys from DIC-positive donors is understudied. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a retrospective cohort of 162 kidney transplants, the presence of DIC in donors, the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in recipients, and risk factors for delayed or slow graft function (DGF/SGF) were assessed. The effects of DIC donor status on DGF/SGF in the study sample as a whole, and of thrombocytopenia on DGF/SGF in recipients of DIC-positive kidneys specifically, were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results DIC donor status was not associated with occurrence of DGF/SGF, but thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with DIC-positive donor status (P = 0.008). Thrombocytopenia was independently associated with DGF/SGF only in the recipients of DIC-positive kidneys (P = 0.005). Patient and graft survival at 1 year were not affected by donor DIC status or by thrombocytopenia status. Conclusions Donor DIC was not associated with short-term suboptimal graft function, defined as DGF/SGF, nor with long-term patient or graft survival. However, thrombocytopenia appears to portend DGF/SGF in recipients of DIC-positive kidneys and may be a clinical sign on which the basis of therapeutic decisions could be undertaken. PMID:21372214

Shafique, Shahzad; McCullagh, Johanna; Diederich, Dennis A.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Wetmore, James B.

2011-01-01

376

Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy: A Step Forward in Kidney Transplantation?  

PubMed Central

Open donor nephrectomy for live donor kidney transplantation is a safe procedure that has been used for more than 30 years with excellent results. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a relatively new technique that has the potential of decreased postoperative pain, less incisional morbidity, and shorter recovery time. Furthermore, it has been reported that this potentially less traumatic approach increases the number of potential live donors. This review article focuses on the currently used laparoscopic techniques in live kidney donation as well as the controversy regarding its efficacy, safety, and future. PMID:14558706

Skrekas, George; Papalois, Vassilios E.; Mitsis, Michail

2003-01-01

377

Expanding the donor pool: donation after cardiac death.  

PubMed

Lung transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment of patients with end-stage lung disease. Availability of donor lungs remains the primary limitation and leads to substantial wait-list mortality. Efforts to expand the donor pool have included a resurgence of interest in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. Unique in its physiology, lung viability seems more tolerant to the variable durations of ischemia that occur in DCD donors. Initial experience with DCD LTx is promising and, in combination with ex vivo lung perfusion systems, seems a valuable opportunity to expand the lung donor pool. PMID:25430428

Elgharably, Haytham; Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P

2015-01-01

378

A microsphere-based immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibodies.  

PubMed

This study describes a novel blocking microsphere-based immunoassay for highly sensitive and specific detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The intra- and inter-assay variability are 4.9% and less than 7%, respectively, and variability of bead conjugations is less than 6.6%. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated by testing a total of 509 serum samples. Based on a negative/positive cut-off value of 30.3%, the assay has a sensitivity of 99.4% and a specificity of 98.3% relative to ELISA. The new microsphere immunoassay provides an alternative to conventional ELISA systems and can be used for high-throughput screening in the BVD control programmes. PMID:20403384

Xia, Hongyan; Liu, Lihong; Nordengrahn, Ann; Kiss, István; Merza, Malik; Eriksson, Ronnie; Blomberg, Jonas; Belák, Sándor

2010-09-01

379

Graphene oxide as nanocarrier for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of clenbuterol based on labeling amplification strategy.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of clenbuterol (CLB) is fabricated using glucose oxidase (GOD)-functionalized grahene oxide (GO) nanocomposites to label CLB. The immunosensor was constructed by layer-by-layer assembly colloidal prussian blue (PB), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and CLB antibodies (Abs) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In this competitive immunoassay system, PB acts as the redox mediator to reduce H2O2 originated from the catalyst cycle of GOD. The high ratio of GOD to GO effectively amplified the signal for this competitive-type immunoassay. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor shows a wide linear range from 0.5 to 1,000 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL. The dual signal amplification of GOD-functionalized GO nanocomposites as a label is promising to be applied to design other sensitive immunosenseors. PMID:23598209

Lai, Yanjun; Bai, Jing; Shi, Xinhao; Zeng, Yanbo; Xian, Yuezhong; Hou, Jie; Jin, Litong

2013-03-30

380

Assessment and remediation of PCP-affected soils using immunoassay technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and regulatory considerations in a fast track soils assessment and remediation using real-time field analytical techniques. A Georgia saw milling operation formerly surface-coated freshly cut lumber with a sapstain preventive. A property acquisition audit prompted the need for a thorough assessment and possible remediation. The project consisted of assessment, hazard characterization, and removal/verification testing. To accomplish the project, immunoassay technology with laboratory confirmation analysis was employed. Immunoassay was selected for field screening because it was a cost-effective method of providing rapid on-site results to efficiently characterize pentachlorophenol-impacted soil and guide the subsequent soil removal operation. Two detection levels, 5 ppm and 50 ppm, provided a semi-quantitative assessment of the pentachlorophenol present in the soils. Detection levels were selected to satisfy anticipated regulatory criteria.

Armes, R.L.; Petermann, M.A. [RMT, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

1994-12-31

381

Internally Calibrated Quantification of VEGF in Human Plasma by Fluorescence Immunoassays in Disposable Elastomeric Microfluidic Devices  

PubMed Central

Herein we report on a proof of principle for the reproducible quantification of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in human plasma by fluorescence sandwich immunoassays using disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chips. The system requires 100 times less sample than typical clinical blood tests, while its current quantification limit is established at 4 pM. The in-built calibration method of spiking the plasma with known concentrations of commercially available antigen avoids common sources of error and improves the reliability of the test results. The demonstrated technique is important for immunoassay applications in fundamental scientific research and “point-of-care” (POC) biomedical diagnostics. In particular, the system is immediately applicable to microfluidic quantification of VEGF in human plasma in cancer studies. PMID:19748324

Lin, David H.; Taylor, Clive R.; Anderson, W. French; Scherer, Axel; Kartalov, Emil P.

2009-01-01

382

Hapten modification approach for switching immunoassay specificity from selective to generic.  

PubMed

The cross-reactivity profile of polyclonal antibodies against a low molecular weight analyte is strongly influenced by design of the coating or enzyme-linked hapten. The hapten modification effect on immunoassay specificity was studied. Heterology in hapten type and linking method were applied. The influence of these factors on analyses of two groups of antibiotics, 16-membered macrolides and glycopeptides was studied. This approach was used to convert the selective ELISAs to tylosin and eremomycin for group determination of tylosin\\tilmicosin, tylosin\\spiramycin and eremomycin\\vancomycin. It was shown that the analytical spectrum of the developed polyclonal antibody-based immunoassays could be expanded and depended mainly on the type of coating hapten but not on the linking method. Modification of the hapten type in coating conjugates applied in present study served as a mechanism for switching specificity of the ELISA between selective and group. PMID:23234756

Burkin, Maksim A; Galvidis, Inna A

2013-02-28

383

Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part II. Assay development and application to residue determination in food.  

PubMed

Immunochemical assays constitute complementary analytical methods for small organic molecule determination. We herein describe the characterisation and optimisation of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in different formats using monoclonal antibodies to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide trifloxystrobin. Antibody selectivity was evaluated using a variety of agrochemicals and the main trifloxystrobin metabolite. Acceptable tolerance of the immunoassay to methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile was observed in all cases, whereas a dissimilar influence of buffer pH and ionic strength was found. Moreover, the influence of Tween 20 over the analytical parameters was studied. The limits of detection of the optimised assays were below 0.1 ?g L(-1). Excellent recoveries, even at 10 ?g kg(-1), were obtained when strawberry, tomato, and cucumber samples spiked with trifloxystrobin were analysed. Finally, statistical agreement was found between immunoassay and reference chromatographic results using blind-spiked and in-field treated samples. PMID:24874355

Mercader, Josep V; López-Moreno, Rosario; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2014-11-01

384

Liver cancer immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles and MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) labeled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors. AFP is an important hepatic tumor biomarker and the detection of AFP has significant applications for clinical diagnostics and immunoassay for early-stage liver cancer indications. In this work, MgO-based MTJ sensors and 20-nm iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for detecting AFP antigens by a sandwich-assay configuration. The MTJ sensors with a sensing area of 4 × 2 ?m2 possess tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of 122% and sensitivity of 0.95%/Oe at room temperature. The target AFP antigens of three concentrations were successfully detected, and the experimental data indicate that the resistance variations of the MTJ sensor increased with the AFP concentration ratios proportionally. These results demonstrate that MgO-based MTJ sensors together with MNPs are a promising biosensing platform for liver cancer immunoassay.

Lei, Z. Q.; Li, L.; Li, G. J.; Leung, C. W.; Shi, J.; Wong, C. M.; Lo, K. C.; Chan, W. K.; Mak, C. S. K.; Chan, S. B.; Chan, N. M. M.; Leung, C. H.; Lai, P. T.; Pong, P. W. T.

2012-04-01

385

Design of liquid level measurement for sampling module of full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the need for the design of sampling module in the full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument, this paper completed the design and verification of liquid level detector based on capacitive sensor. Using the capacitance effect existing between the sample needle and the ground (the machine frame), we take the sample needle and the ground as the capacitor poles. By means of the RC oscillation circuit, we convert the change of capacitance to frequency for a measure, in order to achieve the level detection. The stepping motor controls the sample arm with the modular design, and C8051F330 is chosen as main control chip in this system. Through the experimental analysis, we proved the reliability of the detection of the sample level based on the capacitance liquid level detection principle. This study provided a theoretical basis to the level parameters of the full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument.

Li, Hong; Zhu, Lianqing; Chang, Haitao; Bao, Yan

2011-05-01

386

Design of liquid level measurement for sampling module of full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the need for the design of sampling module in the full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument, this paper completed the design and verification of liquid level detector based on capacitive sensor. Using the capacitance effect existing between the sample needle and the ground (the machine frame), we take the sample needle and the ground as the capacitor poles. By means of the RC oscillation circuit, we convert the change of capacitance to frequency for a measure, in order to achieve the level detection. The stepping motor controls the sample arm with the modular design, and C8051F330 is chosen as main control chip in this system. Through the experimental analysis, we proved the reliability of the detection of the sample level based on the capacitance liquid level detection principle. This study provided a theoretical basis to the level parameters of the full-automatic enzyme immunoassay instrument.

Li, Hong; Zhu, Lianqing; Chang, Haitao; Bao, Yan

2010-12-01

387

Hapten synthesis and polyclonal antibody-based immunoassay development for the analysis of forchlorfenuron in kiwifruit.  

PubMed

High-affinity polyclonal antibodies directed against the synthetic cytokinin forchlorfenuron (CPPU) were produced from three immunizing haptens with equivalent spacer arms located at different positions. A competitive immunoassay was developed with a limit of detection in buffer of 12.42 +/- 3.06 ng/L. In addition, the ability of the produced antibodies to recognize a set of synthetic CPPU analogues was studied. It was evidenced that the linker position had a strong impact on the specificity of the generated polyclonals, which were more sensitive to changes at moieties of the target analyte located furthest from the derivatization site of the immunogen. Finally, matrix effects of gold and green kiwifruit over assay parameters were evaluated. Excellent recoveries and low coefficients of variation were found with just a 100-fold dilution of the sample in buffer, hence indicating the effectiveness of the developed immunoassay as an analytical tool for monitoring this agrochemical in kiwifruit samples. PMID:20681638

Suárez-Pantaleón, Celia; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2010-08-11

388

Laser-based double beam absorption detection for aggregation immunoassays using gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A laser-based double beam absorption detection system for aggregation immunoassays has been developed. The assay was based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles that are coated with protein antigens in the presence of their corresponding antibodies. The aggregation of the gold nanoparticles results in an absorption change that is monitored at 635 nm using the double beam spectrometer. The noise level of the spectrometer is 1x10(-6)arbitrary units. This corresponds to a tenfold improvement in comparison to commercial absorption detectors and is comparable with previously reported more complicated laser-based absorption spectrometers. The dye Nile-Blue-A was used to test the analytical performance of the system. A limit of detection of 3x10(-8 )M Nile-Blue-A was observed. The relative standard deviation between consecutive measurements was lower than 1.5%. The system is suitable for field applications of aggregation-based immunoassays. PMID:12474081

Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Rees, J Harrison; Rosenzweig, Zeev

2002-12-01

389

Two dimensional barcode-inspired automatic analysis for arrayed microfluidic immunoassays  

PubMed Central

The usability of many high-throughput lab-on-a-chip devices in point-of-care applications is currently limited by the manual data acquisition and analysis process, which are labor intensive and time consuming. Based on our original design in the biochemical reactions, we proposed here a universal approach to perform automatic, fast, and robust analysis for high-throughput array-based microfluidic immunoassays. Inspired by two-dimensional (2D) barcodes, we incorporated asymmetric function patterns into a microfluidic array. These function patterns provide quantitative information on the characteristic dimensions of the microfluidic array, as well as mark its orientation and origin of coordinates. We used a computer program to perform automatic analysis for a high-throughput antigen/antibody interaction experiment in 10 s, which was more than 500 times faster than conventional manual processing. Our method is broadly applicable to many other microchannel-based immunoassays. PMID:24404030

Zhang, Yi; Qiao, Lingbo; Ren, Yunke; Wang, Xuwei; Gao, Ming; Tang, Yunfang; Jeff Xi, Jianzhong; Fu, Tzung-May; Jiang, Xingyu

2013-01-01

390

Nano-immunoassay with improved performance for detection of cancer biomarkers.  

PubMed

Nano-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect is an analytical technique with high sensitivity that holds a great promise for early cancer detection. In its current standing the assay is capable of discriminating samples of healthy individuals from samples of pancreatic cancer patients. Further improvements in sensitivity and reproducibility will extend practical applications of the SERS-based detection platforms to wider range of problems. In this report, we discuss several strategies designed to improve performance of the SERS-based detection system. We demonstrate that reproducibility of the platform is improved by using atomically smooth mica surface as a template for preparation of capture surface in SERS sandwich immunoassay. Furthermore, assay's stability and sensitivity can be further improved by using either polymer or graphene monolayer as a thin protective layer applied on top of the assay addresses. The protective layer renders signal to be more stable against photo-induced damage and carbonaceous contamination. PMID:25200613

Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Torres, María P; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Lipert, Robert J; Jain, Maneesh; Batra, Surinder K; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

2014-09-01

391

The donor-conceived child's "Right to Personal Identity": the public debate on donor anonymity in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

On 1 April 2005, with the implementation of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Information) Regulations 2004, United Kingdom law was changed to allow children born through gamete donation to access details identifying the donor. Drawing on trends in adoption law, the decision to abolish donor anonymity was strongly influenced by a discourse that asserted the ‘child's right to personal identity’. Through examination of the donor anonymity debate in the public realm, while adopting a social constructionist approach, this article discusses how donor anonymity has been defined as a social problem that requires a regulative response. It focuses on the child's ‘right to personal identity’ claims, and discusses the genetic essentialism behind these claims. By basing its assumptions on an adoption analogy, United Kingdom law ascribes a social meaning to the genetic relatedness between gamete donors and the offspring. PMID:22530247

Turkmendag, Ilke

2012-01-01

392

Multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers using metal sulfide quantum dot nanolabels and trifunctionalized magnetic beads.  

PubMed

A novel multiplexed stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers (CA 125, CA 15-3, and CA 19-9 used as models) using PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide quantum dot (QD) nanolabels as distinguishable signal tags and trifunctionalized magnetic beads as an immunosensing probe. The probe was prepared by means of co-immobilization of primary monoclonal anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 antibodies on a single magnetic bead. The PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide QD nanolabels containing CdS, ZnS and PbS were synthesized by using in situ synthesis method, which were utilized for the labeling of polyclonal rabbit anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 detection antibodies, respectively. A sandwich-type immunoassay format was adopted for the simultaneous determination of target biomarkers in a low-binding microtiter plate. The subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric analysis of cadmium, zinc, and lead components released by acid from the corresponding QD nanolabels was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode based on the difference of peak potentials. Experimental results indicated that the multiplexed immunoassay enabled the simultaneous detection of three cancer biomarkers in a single run with wide dynamic ranges of 0.01-50 U mL(-1) and detection limits (LODs) of 0.005 U mL(-1). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 7.2% and 10.4%, respectively. No significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 10 clinical serum specimens between the multiplexed immunoassay and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:23500474

Tang, Dianping; Hou, Li; Niessner, Reinhard; Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Knopp, Dietmar

2013-08-15

393

Magnetic luminescent nanoparticles as internal calibration for an immunoassay for ricin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence techniques rely on measurement of relative fluorescence units and require calibration to obtain reliable and comparable quantitative data. Fluorescent immunoassays are a very sensitive and convenient method of choice for rapid detection of biotoxins, such as ricin. Here we present the application of magnetic luminescent nanoparticles (MLNPs) with a magnetic core of Fe 3O 4 and a fluorescent shell of Eu:Gd IIO 3 as carriers for a nanobead-immunoassay for the detection of ricin with internal calibration. A sandwich immunoassay for ricin was performed on the surface of the MLNPs. The particles were functionalized with capture polyclonal antibodies. Anti-ricin antibodies labeled with Alexa Fluor dye were used as the detecting antibodies. After magnetic extraction, the amount of ricin bound to the particle surface was quantified and related to the fluorescence signal of the nanoparticles. In this new platform, the MLNPs have three main functions: (1) a probe for the specific extraction of the target analyte from the sample; (2) a carrier in the quantitative immunoassay with magnetic separation; and (3) an internal standard in the fluorescence measurement of the dye reporter. The MLNPs serve as an internal control for the total analysis including extraction and assay performance. This approach eliminates the experimental error inherent in particle extraction and measurement of absolute organic dye fluorescence intensities. All fluorescent measurements were performed in a microplate reader. The standard curve for ricin had a dynamic range from 20 ng/ml to 100 ?g/ml with a detection limit of 5 ng/ml. The configuration that has been developed can be easily adapted to a high throughput miniaturized system.

Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Ma, Zhi-Ya; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

2008-02-01

394

Magneto-controlled graphene immunosensing platform for simultaneous multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay using distinguishable signal tags.  

PubMed

A novel flow-through multiplexed immunoassay protocol for simultaneous electrochemical determination of carcinoembryonic (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in biological fluids was designed using biofunctionalized magnetic graphene nanosheets (MGO) as immunosensing probes and multifunctional nanogold hollow microspheres (GHS) as distinguishable signal tags. The probes were fabricated by means of co-immobilization of primary anti-CEA (Ab(1)) and anti-AFP (Ab(2)) antibodies on the Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle-coated graphene nanosheets (MGO-Ab(1,2)). The reverse-micelle method was used for the synthesis of distinguishable signal tags by encapsulation of horseradish peroxide (HRP)-thionine and HRP-ferrocene into nanogold hollow microspheres, respectively, which were utilized as labels of the corresponding GHS-Ab(1) and GHS-Ab(2). A sandwich-type immunoassay format was employed for the online detection of CEA and AFP by coupling a flow-through detection cell with an external magnet. The assay was based on the catalytic reduction of H(2)O(2) at the various peak potentials in the presence of the corresponding mediators. Experimental results revealed that the multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay enabled the simultaneous monitoring of AFP and CEA in a single run with wide working ranges of 0.01-200 ng mL(-1) for AFP and 0.01-80 ng mL(-1) for CEA. The detection limits (LODs) for both analytes at 1.0 pg mL(-1) (at 3s(B)) were very low. No obvious nonspecific adsorption and cross-talk were observed during a series of analyses to detect target analytes. Intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation were <10%. Importantly, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of clinical serum specimens, receiving a good correlation between the flow-through multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay and an electrochemiluminescence method as a reference. PMID:21639090

Tang, Juan; Tang, Dianping; Niessner, Reinhard; Chen, Guonan; Knopp, Dietmar

2011-07-01

395

Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

2014-01-01

396

Enzyme Immunoassay for the Quantification of Mitomycin C Using ß-Galactosidaseas a Label1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mitomycin C (MMC) antibody was produced following immunization of rabbits with a MMC-bovine serum albumin conjugate, which was newly synthesized by coupling MMC to mercaptosuccinylated bovine serum albumin via a cross-linker, W-maleoyl aminobutyric acid. Enzyme labeling of MMC was performed using \\/S-o-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) via m-ma- leoyl benzoic acid. An enzyme immunoassay for MMC was developed utilizing these reagents

Kunio Fujiwara; Hitoshi Saikusa; Motomi Yasuno; Tsunehiro Kitagawa

397

Measuring prions causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy or chronic wasting disease by immunoassays and transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing concern over the extent to which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions have been transmitted to humans, as a result of the rising number of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) cases. Toward preventing new transmissions, diagnostic tests for prions in livestock have been developed using the conformation-dependent immunoassay (CDI), which simultaneously measures specific antibody binding to denatured and native

Jiri G. Safar; Michael Scott; Jeff Monaghan; Camille Deering; Svetlana Didorenko; Julie Vergara; Haydn Ball; Giuseppe Legname; Estelle Leclerc; Laura Solforosi; Hana Serban; Darlene Groth; R. Anthony Williamson; Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

398

Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation  

SciTech Connect

An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W

2003-12-15

399

Comparison of glucan detection and galactomannan enzyme immunoassay in gastrointestinal and systemic murine candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse models of systemic and gastrointestinal infection with the yeast Candida albicans were used to investigate the ability of a commercial mannan antigen enzyme immunoassay and a commercial (1?3) ?-D-Glucan limulus assay to detect systemic infection and to differentiate between colonization and infection. Both assays were positive in all i.v. infected mice and negative in all uninfected control mice. In

Thomas Nichterlein; Dieter Buchheidt; Andreas Hein; Klaus-Peter Becker; Korinna Mosbach; Marianne Kretschmar

2003-01-01

400

High-Sensitivity Chemiluminescence Immunoassays for Detection of Growth Hormone Doping in Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is abused in sports, but adequate routine dop- ing tests are lacking. Analysis of serum hGH isoform composition has been shown to be effective in detect- ing rhGH doping. We developed and validated selec- tive immunoassays for isoform analysis with potential utility for screening and confirmation in doping tests. METHODS: Monoclonal antibodies with preference

Martin Bidlingmaier; Jennifer Suhr; Andrea Ernst; Zida Wu; Alexandra Keller; Christian J. Strasburger; Andreas Bergmann

2009-01-01

401

Development of rapid flow-through-based dot-immunoassay for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IgG-ELISA used recombinant antigen and a rapid flow-through enzyme immunoassay were developed for rapid screening of leptospiral antibodies in dogs using recombinant LipL41, which is one of the conserved outer membrane proteins in pathogenic leptospires as the coating antigen. Results from this study were compared with the standard microscopic agglutination test and found that the sensitivity and specificity of

M. Subathra; T. M. A. Senthilkumar; P. Ramadass; G. Dhinakar Raj

2011-01-01

402

Silver nanowire–graphene hybrid nanocomposites as label for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunoassay was developed for determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum with a sandwich-type mode by using silver nanowire–graphene hybrid nanocomposites (AgNW–GPs) as label. One-pot hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of the AgNW–GPs with the aid of trisodium citrate. The as-prepared AgNW–GP was not only utilized for the label of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated

Juan Tang; Dianping Tang; Biling Su; Qunfang Li; Bing Qiu; Guonan Chen

2011-01-01

403

Development of a Prototype Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) for the Rapid Diagnosis of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3–7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD) to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI); the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (?0.2 ng/ml). The analytical reactivity (inclusivity) of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77) when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity) testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36) were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation. PMID:24651568

Houghton, Raymond L.; Reed, Dana E.; Hubbard, Mark A.; Dillon, Michael J.; Chen, Hongjing; Currie, Bart J.; Mayo, Mark; Sarovich, Derek S.; Theobald, Vanessa; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Duval, Brea; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; AuCoin, David P.

2014-01-01

404

Tube-Immunoassay for Rapid Detection of Carbaryl Residues in Agricultural Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antibody-based rapid, quantitative, and qualitative tube enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (tube-ELISA) was developed and used to determine carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) residues in agricultural products (apple, Chinese cabbage, rice, and barley). The tube-ELISA is a competitive immunoassay in which the antibody is coated in the polystyrene tube, with a dynamic range between 0.7 and 46.3 ?g kg. Carbaryl was extracted from

SHUO WANG; CHUNDI YU; YAN ZHANG; JUNPING WANG; ZHENJUAN DUAN; JUANKUN ZHANG

2006-01-01

405

Do we really need high-sensitivity troponin immunoassays in the emergency department? Maybe not.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has challenged the minds of cardiologists, emergency physicians and laboratorists for decades. A major breakthrough has, however, occurred at the dawn of the third millennium, with development, commercialization and introduction into clinical practice of troponin immunoassays. A novel generation of these methods, conventionally defined as "high-sensitivity" (HS), has more recently emerged. These latest generation assays are characterized by improved analytical sensitivity, which would theoretically allow earlier and more efficient diagnosis of ACS. Despite the considerable amount of information gathered over the past few years about the clinical use of conventional and HS immunoassays, several doubts persist and - according to our personal perspective - the evidence that the latest generation methods would represent a real breakthrough in management of patients in short-stay units such as the emergency department is still an unresolved issue. Beside the mystifying nomenclature that characterizes several commercial tests, recent evidence suggests that the diagnostic performance of some contemporary sensitive methods would equal those of HS immunoassays for early diagnosis, serial assessment and even prognostication of patients. Conversely, the better diagnostic specificity of conventional methods may represent an advantage for triaging patients in overcrowded emergency departments. There is hence a tangible threat that the measurement of troponin with HS methods would become more or less an "expensive cholesterol of the third millennium", and this risk must be carefully considered in a world of limited resources. So, our answer to the question if we do really need HS troponin immunoassays in the emergency department is "maybe not". PMID:23898022

Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco

2014-02-01

406

Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for ?-casein detection in bovine milk samples.  

PubMed

In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of ?-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-?-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-?-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of ?-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-?-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between ?-casein and the anti-?-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of ?-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of ?-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of ?-casein in bovine milk samples. PMID:25522084

Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

2015-04-15

407

Rapid Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Optical Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multi-health center study, a new rapid optical immunoassay (OIA) for the detection of Shiga toxin types 1 and 2, the BioStar OIA SHIGATOX kit (Inverness Medical Professional Diagnostics, Inc.), was used to prospectively screen 742 fresh fecal samples for Shiga toxins in parallel with the Premier enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) kit (Meridian BioScience, Inc.) with and without enrichment

Louise D. Teel; Judy A. Daly; Robert C. Jerris; Diana Maul; Gregory Svanas; Alison D. O'Brien; Choong H. Park

2007-01-01

408

Novel Recombinant-Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay for Serological Diagnosis of Syphilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is an ideal method for screening large numbers of patients for syphilis. We evaluated a novel immune-capture EIA (ICE Syphilis; Murex Diagnostics) that uses three recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens (TpN15, TpN17, and TpN47) and compared the results with those obtained by the native T. pallidum antigen EIA (Captia SelectSyph-G; Centocor) that we currently use for the serodiagnosis

H. YOUNG; A. MOYES; L. SEAGAR; A. MCMILLAN

1998-01-01

409

Detection of drug usage via breath analysis with an immunoassay film badge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monolayer of antibody on a semimirror comprised of small islands of indium acts as a sensor capable of detecting vapors at extremely low concentrations without the use of wet chemistry. Already shown capable of detecting cocaine vapors at 4 femtograms per cc of air, the use of the device, called an immunoassay film badge, for detecting drugs on the breath is a natural extension of the sensor's use. This paper describes this application and initial experiments that demonstrate its feasibility.

Lukens, Herbert R.

1997-01-01

410

Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

1982-05-01

411

Magnetic Electrochemical Immunoassays with Quantum Dot Labels for Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase in Plasma  

SciTech Connect

A new magnetic electrochemical immunoassay has been developed as a tool for biomonitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds, e.g., insecticides and chemical nerve agents, by directly detecting organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP?AChE). This immunoassay uniquely incorporates highly efficient magnetic separation with ultrasensitive square wave voltammetry (SWV) analysis with quantum dots (QDs) as labels. A pair of antibodies was used to achieve the specific recognition of OP?AChE that was prepared with paraoxon as an OP model agent. Antiphosphoserine polyclonal antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic particles preferably chosen to capture OP?AChE from the sample matrixes by binding their phosphoserine moieties that were exposed through unfolding the protein adducts. This was validated by electrochemical examinations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, antihuman AChE monoclonal antibodies were labeled with cadmium-source QDs to selectively recognize the captured OP?AChE, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent electrochemical SWV analysis of the cadmium component released by acid from the coupled QDs was conducted on disposable screen-printed electrodes. Experimental results indicated that the SWV-based immunoassays could yield a linear response over a broad concentration range of 0.3?300 ng/mL OP?AChE in human plasma with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Such a novel electrochemical immunoassay holds great promise as a simple, selective, sensitive, and field-deployable tool for the effective biomonitoring and diagnosis of potential exposures to nerve agents and pesticides.

Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

2008-11-01

412

USING A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY TO QUANTIFY TESTOSTERONE IN AVIAN PLASMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a commercially available testos- terone enzyme immunoassay (EIA), we developed and validated an assay procedure for determining testosterone levels in small-volume (20 mL) avian plasma samples. We evaluated this EIA's utility by measuring plasma testosterone levels in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). Standard bio- chemical validations (e.g.,

BRIAN E. WASHBURN; JOSHUA J. MILLSPAUGH; DANA L. MORRIS; JOHN H. SCHULZ; JOHN FAABORG

2007-01-01

413

Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays for the sensitive detection of s-triazines in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassays in pesticide residue analysis significantly profit from the monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology because a sufficient supply of standardized antibodies can be provided. For the production of atrazine-specific mAbs hybridoma cells were produced by fusion of mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice which were immunized with 4-chloro-6-ethylamino- 1,3,5-triazine-2-(6-aminohexanoic acid) coupled to keyhole limped hemocyanin. After screening with a

Bertold Hock; Thomas Giersch; Karl Kramer

1993-01-01

414

Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 ?g/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

2014-02-01

415

Magnetic electrochemical immunoassays with quantum dot labels for detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase in plasma.  

PubMed

A new magnetic electrochemical immunoassay has been developed as a tool for biomonitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds, e.g., insecticides and chemical nerve agents, by directly detecting organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE). This immunoassay uniquely incorporates highly efficient magnetic separation with ultrasensitive square wave voltammetry (SWV) analysis with quantum dots (QDs) as labels. A pair of antibodies was used to achieve the specific recognition of OP-AChE that was prepared with paraoxon as an OP model agent. Antiphosphoserine polyclonal antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic particles preferably chosen to capture OP-AChE from the sample matrixes by binding their phosphoserine moieties that were exposed through unfolding the protein adducts. This was validated by electrochemical examinations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, antihuman AChE monoclonal antibodies were labeled with cadmium-source QDs to selectively recognize the captured OP-AChE, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent electrochemical SWV analysis of the cadmium component released by acid from the coupled QDs was conducted on disposable screen-printed electrodes. Experimental results indicated that the SWV-based immunoassays could yield a linear response over a broad concentration range of 0.3-300 ng/mL OP-AChE in human plasma with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Such a novel electrochemical immunoassay holds great promise as a simple, selective, sensitive, and field-deployable tool for the effective biomonitoring and diagnosis of potential exposures to nerve agents and pesticides. PMID:18855408

Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

2008-11-15

416

Normalization and Statistical Analysis of Multiplexed Bead-based Immunoassay Data Using Mixed-effects Modeling*  

PubMed Central

Multiplexed bead-based flow cytometric immunoassays are a powerful experimental tool for investigating cellular communication networks, yet their widespread adoption is limited in part by challenges in robust quantitative analysis of the measurements. Here we report our application of mixed-effects modeling for the normalization and statistical analysis of bead-based immunoassay data. Our data set consisted of bead-based immunoassay measurements of 16 phospho-proteins in lysates of HepG2 cells treated with ligands that regulate acute-phase protein secretion. Mixed-effects modeling provided estimates for the effects of both the technical and biological sources of variance, and normalization was achieved by subtracting the technical effects from the measured values. This approach allowed us to detect ligand effects on signaling with greater precision and sensitivity and to more accurately characterize the HepG2 cell signaling network using constrained fuzzy logic. Mixed-effects modeling analysis of our data was vital for ascertaining that IL-1? and TGF-? treatment increased the activities of more pathways than IL-6 and TNF-? and that TGF-? and TNF-? increased p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phospho-protein levels in a synergistic manner. Moreover, we used mixed-effects modeling-based technical effect estimates to reveal the substantial variance contributed by batch effects along with the absence of loading order and assay plate position effects. We conclude that mixed-effects modeling enabled additional insights to be gained from our data than would otherwise be possible and we discuss how this methodology can play an important role in enhancing the value of experiments employing multiplexed bead-based immunoassays. PMID:23071098

Clarke, David C.; Morris, Melody K.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2013-01-01

417

Wick Chromatography for Rapid and Reliable Immunoassay of Insulin, Glucagon and Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE essential principle of competition for a given amount of anti-hormone between standard or unknown quantities of hormone and a fixed amount of labelled hormone in Yalow and Berson's1 radio-immunoassay has been maintained in all modifications. The modifications have simplified the apparatus and have achieved a more rapid and complete separation of free and antibody-bound radioactive hormone after the immunological

Hans Ørskov; Hans Grønlund Thomsen; Hans Yde

1968-01-01

418

A necessary step toward kidney donor safety: the transition from locking polymer clips to transfixion techniques in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Donor safety is of paramount importance in addressing end-stage renal failure through living kidney transplantation. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Class II recall on the use of Hem-o-lok (Teleflex, Limerick, Pennsylvania, United States) polymer clips on the renal artery in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) in June 2006 following 3 reported cases of donor deaths secondary to slipped ligature. The National University Hospital of Singapore made the transition regarding hilar control in minimally invasive donor nephrectomy, from using polymer and titanium clips to transfixion techniques (pure or hand-assisted laparoscopic) via laparoscopic staples or intracorporeal suturing, respectively. This study assessed safety during the transition in arterial transfixion techniques in minimally invasive donor nephrectomy for both donors and recipients. Forty-five consecutive kidney donors underwent donor nephrectomy over a 2-year period starting from June 2010. A total of 37 donors who underwent LDN (pure laparoscopic or hand-assisted laparoscopic) were included in the analysis. Of the 37 patients, 23 kidney donors had renal arterial control using Hem-o-lok while 14 patients from November 2011 onward underwent transfixion of the renal artery. The 2 groups of donor who underwent renal arterial control by either clips ligature or transfixion technique were comparable. The outcomes for the recipients in each group were similar with no statistical difference between postoperative creatinine level, incidence of delayed graft function, or graft survival at 1 year. We conclude that the transition in renal arterial control technique to transfixion techniques in LDN in line with FDA recommendation is feasible and affords equivalent donor and recipient outcomes. PMID:24655950

Goh, Y S B; Cheong, P S C; Lata, R; Goh, A; Vathsala, A; Li, M K; Tiong, H Y

2014-01-01

419

A Multiplex Immunoassay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Iron, Vitamin A and Inflammation Status Markers  

PubMed Central

Deficiencies of vitamin A and iron affect a significant portion of the world's population, and efforts to characterize patterns of these deficiencies are hampered by a lack of measurement tools appropriate for large-scale population-based surveys. Vitamin A and iron are not easily measured directly, so reliable proxy markers for deficiency status have been identified and adopted. Measurement of inflammatory markers is necessary to interpret vitamin A and iron status markers, because circulating levels are altered by inflammation. We developed a multiplex immunoassay method for simultaneous measurement of five markers relevant to assessing inflammation, vitamin A and iron status: ?-1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. Serum and plasma specimens were used to optimize the assay protocol. To evaluate assay performance, plasma from 72 volunteers was assayed using the multiplex technique and compared to conventional immunoassay methods for each of the five markers. Results of the new and conventional assay methods were highly correlated (Pearson Correlations of 0.606 to 0.991, p<.0001). Inter-assay imprecision for the multiplex panel varied from 1% to 8%, and all samples fell within the limits of quantification for all assays at a single dilution. Absolute values given by the multiplex and conventional assays differed, indicating a need for further work to devise a new standard curve. This multiplexed micronutrient immunoassay technique has excellent potential as a cost effective tool for use in large-scale deficiency assessment efforts. PMID:25525806

Crudder, Christopher; Levin, Carol E.; Garrett, Dean; Lyman, Chris; Boyle, David S.

2014-01-01

420

Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting  

PubMed Central

We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (f?-hCG) in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and f?-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of f?-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health. PMID:25132703

Imholz, Sandra; Kuc, Sylwia; de Vries, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Wendy

2014-01-01

421

Superhydrophobic surface-based magnetic electrochemical immunoassay for detection of Schistosoma japonicum antibodies.  

PubMed

In this paper, a magnetic electrochemical immunoassay that uses a superhydrophobic surface-based analytical platform (SSAP) has been initially developed for detection of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) antibodies (SjAb). The SSAP is fabricated by modifying the inner surfaces of plastic test tubes with superhydrophobic polycarbonate coatings that show a water contact angle up to 160° and a water rolling angle less than 5°. In a noncompetitive sandwich format, the SjAb immunoassay with magnetic particles is based on sensitive stripping voltammetry analysis coupled with the copper enhanced Au nanoparticle tag amplification. This technique is quantitatively sensitive to SjAb concentrations ranging from 2 ng ml(-1) to 15 ?g ml(-1), with a detection limit of ?1.3 ngml(-1). Moreover, the results of assaying several serum specimens prove its feasibility of practical applications. The self-cleaning SSAP can be reused, because no aqueous samples reagents or contaminate the superhydrophobic polycarbonate during the experiments. The comparison study additionally demonstrates that the SSAP-based magnetic electrochemical immunoassays can offer preferable advantages over the existing approaches for SjAb detection, in terms of volumes of samples and reagents, assay time, and detection limit. PMID:22270051

Nie, Jinfang; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Wang, Shiping; Shen, Guoli

2012-03-15

422

Surface-enhanced Raman Immunoassay (SERIA): detection of Bacillus globigii in ground water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the development of new methodologies centering on surfaces with immunologically induced affinities for biomaterials in aqueous systems. The immunologically active surfaces concentrate the biomaterials at the interface and therefore eliminate the need for preconcentration steps. This results in a highly sensitive and rapid immunoassay technique. The very strong localized of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) that occurs at noble metal surfaces is combined with the unparalleled selectivity of immunoassays. Localization of the SERS signal eliminates the problem of washing and allows assays to be performed without treatment steps associated with removing excess agents. Previous work with small illicit drug molecules and large microorganisms clearly demonstrates trace detection of species in aqueous environments is possible. This paper discusses further work to detect Bacillus globigii by couping surface enhanced Raman scattering with immunoassays (SERIA) using citrate reduced silver nanoparticles. The spores of B. globigii are used to simulate the behavior of another bacterium that forms spores-the potential biological warfare agent, Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax.

Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.

2004-12-01

423

Production of anti-idiotype antibodies for deoxynivalenol and their evaluation with three immunoassay platforms.  

PubMed

Immunoassays for deoxynivalenol (DON) that involve binding to DON-specific antibodies have been widely developed. In such assays, the responses of samples are generally compared with calibration curves generated by using DON in competition with labeled reagents such as enzymatic or fluorescent conjugates of the toxin. However, materials that mimic the toxin can also be used, provided that they compete effectively with the labeled reagents for the DON-specific antibodies. Examples include certain types of anti-idiotype antibodies, obtained by the immunization of animals with toxin-specific antibodies. In the present work, anti-idiotype antibodies were developed which mimicked DON in the ability to bind to a DON-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab). Fab fragments of the Mab (Ab1) were used to immunize rabbits. Sera were screened by competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) for the presence of anti-idiotype antibodies (Ab2). In order to determine the most effective screening format and also the potential efficacy in various forms of biosensors, the sera were further evaluated in biolayer interferometry (BLI) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) formats. All three formats were used to demonstrate the presence of anti-idiotypes capable of binding to the paratope of the DON antibody (subtypes Ab2? or Ab2?). Such materials have the potential to replace DON as calibrants in immunoassays for this toxin. PMID:24526340

Maragos, C M

2014-05-01

424

Successively amplified electrochemical immunoassay based on biocatalytic deposition of silver nanoparticles and silver enhancement.  

PubMed

A successively signal-amplified electrochemical immunoassay has been reported on the basis of the biocatalytic deposition of silver nanoparticles with their subsequent enlargement by nanoparticle-promoted catalytic precipitation of silver from the silver-enhancer solution. The immunoassay was carried out based on a heterogeneous sandwich procedure using polystyrene microwells to immobilize antibody. After all the processes comprising the formation of immunocomplex, biocatalytic deposition of silver nanoparticles and following silver enhancement were completed, the silver on polystyrene microwells was dissolved and quantified by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The effect of relevant experimental conditions, including the concentration of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-p) substrate and Ag(I) ions, the biocatalytic deposition time, and of crucial importance, the silver enhancement time, were investigated and optimized. The anodic stripping peak current was proportional to the concentration of human IgG in a dynamic range of 0.1-10 ng ml(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 ng ml(-1). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to characterize the silver nanoparticles before and after silver enhancement on the surface of polystyrene microplates. By coupling the highly catalytic effect of enzyme and nanoparticles to successively amplify the analytical signal, the sensitivity of immunoassay was enhanced so dramatically that this approach would be a promising strategy to achieve a lower detection limit for bioassays. PMID:17720472

Chen, Zhao-Peng; Peng, Zhao-Feng; Luo, Yan; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

2007-11-30

425

Gel pad array chip for high throughput and multi-analyte microbead-based immunoassays.  

PubMed

We present here a gel pad array chip for high-throughput and multi-analyte microbead-based immunoassays. The chip is fabricated by photo-patterning of two polymeric gels, polyacrylamide gel and polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, on a glass slide. The resulting chip consists of 40 polyacrylamide gel pad array units for the immobilization of microbeads and each gel pad array is surrounded with a PEG micropillar ring to confine the samples within the microarray. As a proof of concept, this chip was tested for quantitative immunoassays for two model cancer markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), in serum samples. Detection limits below the physiological threshold level for cancer diagnosis were achieved with good inter- and intra-chip reproducibility. Moreover, by using spatial encoded microbeads, simultaneous detection of both hCG and PSA on each gel pad array is achieved with single filter fluorescence imaging. This gel pad array chip is easy to use, easy to fabricate with low cost materials and minimal equipment and reusable. It could be a useful tool for common biolabs to customize their own microbead array for multi-analyte immunoassays. PMID:25463645

Zhu, Qingdi; Trau, Dieter

2015-04-15

426

Isolation of alpaca anti-idiotypic heavy chain single domain antibody for the aflatoxin immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize the antigenic determinants of an antibody, thus can be used as surrogate antigens. Single domain antibodies from camlid heavy chain antibodies with the benefit features of small size, thermostability and ease in expression, are leading candidates to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. In this work, we constructed an antibody phage library from the mRNA of an alpaca immunized with an anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1C11. Three anti-idiotypic VHH antibodies were isolated and applied to immunoassay towards aflatoxin as a coating antigen. The best immunoassay developed with one of these VHH antibodies shows an IC50 of 0.16 ng/mL towards aflatoxin B1 and cross-reactivity towards aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2 of 90.4%, 54.4% and 37.7%, respectively. The VHH-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the analysis of peanuts, corn and rice, which are the predominant commodities regularly contaminated by aflatoxins. A good correlation (r2=0.89) was found between the data obtained from the conventional ELISA and the ELISA based on a VHH coating antigen for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanuts and feedstuff. The use of biotechnology in developing the surrogate, the absence of standard aflatoxin and organic solvents in the synthesis procedures, and the reproducibility of the VHH antibody makes it an ideal strategy for replacing conventional synthesized antigens. PMID:23965250

Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Majkova, Zuzana; Bever, Candace R. S.; Kim, Hee Joo; Zhang, Qi; Dechant, Julie E.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2013-01-01

427

The effects of laser welding on heterogeneous immunoassay performance in a microfluidic cartridge.  

PubMed

Sealing of a microfluidic cartridge is a challenge, because the cartridge commonly contains heat-sensitive biomolecules that must also be protected from contamination. In addition, the objective is usually to obtain a sealing method suitable for mass production. Laser welding is a rapid technique that can be accomplished with low unit costs. Even though the technique has been widely adopted in industry, the literature on its use in microfluidic applications is not large. This paper is the first to report the effects of laser welding on the performance of the heterogeneous immunoassay in a polystyrene microfluidic cartridge in which biomolecules are immobilized into the reaction surface of the cartridge before sealing. The paper compares the immunoassay performance of microfluidic cartridges that are sealed either with an adhesive tape or by use of laser transmission welding. The model analyte used is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results show that the concentration curves in the laser-welded cartridges are very close to the curves in the taped cartridges. This indicates, first, that laser welding does not cause any significant reduction in immunoassay performance, and second, that the polystyrene cover does not have significant effect on the signal levels. Interestingly, the coefficients of variance between parallel samples were lower in the laser-welded cartridges than in the taped cartridges. PMID:22685505

Mäntymaa, Anne; Halme, Jussi; Välimaa, Lasse; Kallio, Pasi

2011-12-01

428

Indirect competitive immunoassay for detection of vitamin B? in foods and pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

An indirect immunoassay for the determination of vitamin B2 in food samples and vitamin tablets was developed. A carbodiimide-modified active ester method was used to synthesize the immunogen for vitamin B2. The coupling ratio of vitamin B2 to carrier protein in immunogen was 19.98:1. The titer of the polyclonal antibody was 1:64000, and the antibody showed high specificity in the presence of vitamin B2 photolytic products and other B group vitamins. The immunoassay showed detection limits (LODs) of 1.07 ng/mL in PBS, 24.6 ng/g in vitamin drink, and 0.50 mg/kg in milk powder. Recovery was 99.58-110.91% in milk powder and 70.20-100.5% in vitamin drink. Vitamin B2 samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the immunoassay, and results showed good agreement. Finally, this method was applied to detect vitamin B2 in commercial milk powder and vitamin tablets, and the detected amount correlated well with the labeled amount. PMID:23855378

Wang, Peng; Yin, Yongmei; Eremin, Sergei A; Rybakov, Victor B; Zhang, Taichang; Xu, Zhihuan; Ren, Linlin; He, Xiaodan; Meng, Meng; Xi, Rimo

2013-07-24

429

Electrophoretic build-up of multi nanoparticle array for a highly sensitive immunoassay  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges in shrinking immunoassays to smaller sizes is to immobilize the biological molecules to nanometer-scaled spots. To overcome this complication, we have employed a particle-based immunoassay to create a nanostructured platform with a regular array of sensing elements. The technique makes use of an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES) to immobilize nanoparticles that are coated with biological reagents into wells using a very small trapping potential. To provide useful information for controlling the trapping force and optimal design of the nanoarray, electrophoretic trapping of a nanoparticle was modeled numerically. The trapping efficiency, defined as the fraction of wells occupied by a single particle, was 91%. The performance of the array was demonstrated with a competitive immunoassay for a small molecule analyte, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (214.2 g mole?1). The limit of detection determined with a basic fluorescence microscope was 0.006 ?g l?1 (30 pM); this represented a sixteen-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to a standard 96-well plate-based ELISA; the improvement was attributed to the small size of the sample volume and the presence of light diffraction among factors unique to this structure. The EPES/nanoarray system promises to offer a new standard in applications that require portable, point-of-care and real-time monitoring with high sensitivity. PMID:23021853

Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Sudheendra, L.; Hass, Elizabeth A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

2012-01-01

430

A multiplex immunoassay method for simultaneous quantification of iron, vitamin a and inflammation status markers.  

PubMed

Deficiencies of vitamin A and iron affect a significant portion of the world's population, and efforts to characterize patterns of these deficiencies are hampered by a lack of measurement tools appropriate for large-scale population-based surveys. Vitamin A and iron are not easily measured directly, so reliable proxy markers for deficiency status have been identified and adopted. Measurement of inflammatory markers is necessary to interpret vitamin A and iron status markers, because circulating levels are altered by inflammation. We developed a multiplex immunoassay method for simultaneous measurement of five markers relevant to assessing inflammation, vitamin A and iron status: ?-1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. Serum and plasma specimens were used to optimize the assay protocol. To evaluate assay performance, plasma from 72 volunteers was assayed using the multiplex technique and compared to conventional immunoassay methods for each of the five markers. Results of the new and conventional assay methods were highly correlated (Pearson Correlations of 0.606 to 0.991, p<.0001). Inter-assay imprecision for the multiplex panel varied from 1% to 8%, and all samples fell within the limits of quantification for all assays at a single dilution. Absolute values given by the multiplex and conventional assays differed, indicating a need for further work to devise a new standard curve. This multiplexed micronutrient immunoassay technique has excellent potential as a cost effective tool for use in large-scale deficiency assessment efforts. PMID:25525806

Brindle, Eleanor; Stevens, Daniel; Crudder, Christopher; Levin, Carol E; Garrett, Dean; Lyman, Chris; Boyle, David S

2014-01-01

431

False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.  

PubMed

Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

2014-09-01

432

Development of Fluorescence-Based Liposome Immunoassay for Detection of Cronobacter muytjensii in Pure Culture.  

PubMed

Cronobacter spp. are important foodborne pathogens that carry a very high risk of infection to neonates as well as immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, fluorescence-based liposome immunoassay was developed as a new sensitive and rapid diagnostic system for detection of Cronobacter muytjensii (C. muytjensii). Liposomes (size, 206 nm) used in this study were made from cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)], and sulforhodamine B (SRB). The outer surface of liposome was conjugated with rabbit anti-C. muytjensii IgG in order to develop immunoliposome. The immunoliposome was incubated with C. muytjensii, which was coated on a 96-well plate. Immunoliposomes bound to C. muytjensii were lysed with 30 mM octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside, after which the SRB fluorescence signal was measured at an excitation wavelength of 550 nm and emission wavelength of 585 nm. The signal was directly proportional to the amount of bacterial cells in the test sample. The developed fluorescence-based liposome immunoassay was confirmed to be highly specific to C. muytjensii with a detection limit of 6.3 × 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in pure culture as well as sensitive, efficient, and rapid when compared to culture-based methods. Based on its rapid efficiency and low cost, this fluorescence-based liposome immunoassay may be used to develop diagnostic kits for C. muytjensii detection. PMID:25300633

Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Younghoan; Kim, Myunghee

2015-02-01

433

Cross-reactivities and structure-reactivity relationships of six benzodiazepines to EMIT(®) immunoassay.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently prescribed drugs due to their sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant and antiepileptic properties. Considering the high consumption of benzodiazepines worldwide, there is increased potential for addiction and abuse in cases of crime, driving under the influence of drugs, suicide and drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). For these reasons, this class of drugs and their metabolites are frequently present in both clinical and forensic cases. In a forensic toxicology laboratory, typical screening analysis for benzodiazepine involves various immunoassay screening methods. The present study investigates the cross-reactivity profiles of six benzodiazepines not included in the manufacturer's instructions (3-hydroxy-flunitrazepam, 7-amino-nitrazepam, brotizolam, delorazepam, pinazepam, ?-hydroxy-midazolam) to EMIT(®) II Plus Benzodiazepine Assay. Pinazepam, delorazepam and brotizolam are the most reactive molecules, while the other ones present a very low cross-reactivity. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to confirm the concentrations of the spiked urines for immunoassay test and to make a comparison between the quantitative results of the different methods. Structure-reactivity relationships to EMIT(®) II Plus Benzodiazepine Assay were also evaluated. This paper draws attention to the problem of careless use of immunoassay tests for forensic purposes as they may provide false positive and/or negative results. PMID:23835060

Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Furlanetto, Sandra; Mari, Francesco

2013-10-01

434

Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed with a new Raman reporter and a unique SERS-active substrate incorporated into a microfluidic device. An appropriately designed Raman reporter, basic fuchsin (FC), gives strong SERS enhancement and has the ability to bind both the antibody and gold nanostructures. The fuchsin-labeled immuno-Au nanoflowers can form a sandwich structure with the antigen and the antibody immobilized on the SERS-active substrate based on Au-Ag coated GaN. Our experimental results indicate that this SERS-active substrate with its strong surface-enhancement factor, high stability and reproducibility plays a crucial role in improving the efficiency of SERS immunoassay. This SERS assay was applied to the detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) in human blood plasma. A calibration curve was obtained by plotting the intensity of SERS signal of FC band at 1178cm(-1) versus the concentration of antigen. The low detection limit for Hepatitis B virus antigen was estimated to be 0.01IU/mL. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) of this method is less than 10%. This SERS immunoassay gives exact results over a broad linear range, reflecting clinically relevant HBsAg concentrations. It also exhibits high biological specificity for the detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen. PMID:25497986

Kami?ska, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Evelin; Winkler, Katarzyna; Dzi?cielewski, Igor; Weyher, Jan L; Waluk, Jacek

2015-04-15

435

Hapten-grafted graphene as a transducer for homogeneous competitive immunoassay of small molecules.  

PubMed

A hapten-grafted graphene-based biosensor by integrating both the graphene nanosheets and immunoassay sensing technologies was developed for ultrasensitive homogeneous competitive immunoassay of small molecules. The structure of hapten-grafted graphene avoids the activity loss of biomolecules immobilized onto the graphene surface and is beneficial to preserve the binding affinity between small molecule and its specific antibody. The sandwich structure formed between hapten-grafted graphene nanosheets and fluorescence-labeled antibody increases the quenching efficiency of the organic dye, thereby resulting in high signal-to-background ratios and improved sensitivity for Bisphenol A (BPA) detection. On the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and homogeneous competitive immunoassay mechanism, high BPA concentrations in the sample reduce the amount of fluorescence-labeled anti-BPA antibody bound to graphene-BPA nanosheets, thus resulting in remarkable fluorescence signals. The linear quantification of BPA over concentration ranges from 0.5 to 50 nM with a detection limit determined as 0.12 nM. These findings show that the proposed method provides a powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of small molecules in biological and environmental samples. PMID:24588121

Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Shi, Hanchang; Wang, Hongchen

2014-03-18

436

Coherent control of donor states in Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin degrees of freedom of group V donors in Si satisfy many of the criteria required for qubits [1,2]. The orbital Rydberg states of group V donors can also be used to control these spins coherently [3,4]. Critical to such schemes are the population (T1) and dephasing (T2) lifetimes of these Rydberg states. We describe the use the free electron laser FELIX [5] to perform pump-probe experiments to measure T1 [6] and photon echo experiments to measure T2 [7]. The lifetimes we obtain from a theoretical analysis of the experiments are ˜ 200 ps, which is long enough for orbital excitation to be a practical control mechanism for 2-qubit quantum gates. The experimental and theoretical analysis of these gates is also described. [4pt] [1] DiVincenzo D P, "The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation," arXiv:quant-ph/0002077 [0pt] [2] Morley G W, et al, "Initializing, manipulating and storing quantum information with bismuth dopants in silicon" Nature Materials 9 725 -- 729 (2010) (doi:10.1038/nmat2828) [0pt] [3] Stoneham, A. M., Fisher, A. J. & Greenland, P.T. "Optically driven silicon-based quantum gates with potential for high-temperature operation" J Phys Condens Matter 15, L447-451 (2003). [0pt] [4] http://arxiv.org/find/cond-mat/1/au:+WuW/0/1/0/all/0/1 Wu W, Greenland P T, Fisher A J, "Exchange in multi-defect semiconductor clusters: assessment of `control-qubit' architectures" http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.0084 [0pt] [5] Knippels G M H, et al, "Generation and Complete Electric-Field Characterization of Intense Ultrashort Tunable Far-Infrared Laser Pulses" Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578-1581 (1999) [0pt] [6] N Q Vinh N Q et al, "Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states" PNAS 105 10649-10653 (2008) [0pt] [7] Greenland P T et al Nature, 465, 1057-1061 (2010) (doi:10.1038/nature09112)

Greenland, Thornton

2011-03-01

437

Anonymous or known donors? A brief discussion of the psychosocial issues raised by removing anonymity from sperm donors.  

PubMed

In spite of a trend towards open identity, the ethical issues raised by the removal of anonymity from sperm donors are still contentious and raise controversy about the significance of genetic inheritance and what are often seen as competing rights claims for the children born, for donors and for the parents of donor insemination (DI) offspring. This review provides a short discussion of the arguments for and against the disclosure of donor insemination status to offspring, which are at the heart of the controversy over anonymity as they relate to the stakeholders in the process. PMID:23548093

Burr, Jennifer A

2013-03-01

438

Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study. PMID:25363518

Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

2015-03-01

439

Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs  

PubMed Central

During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17401442

Miller, M R; Megson, I L

2007-01-01

440

Detection of light scattering for lab-on-a-chip immunoassays using optical fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops technology for microfluidic point-of-care immunoassay devices. This research (2004-2007) improved microfluidic immunoassay performance by reducing reagent consumption, decreasing analysis time, increasing sensitivity, and integrating processes using a lab-on-a-chip. Estimates show that typical hospital laboratories can save $1.0 million per year by using microfluidic chips. Our first objective was to enhance mixing in a microfluidic channel, which had been one of the main barriers to using these devices. Another goal of our studies was to simplify immunoassays by eliminating surfactants. Manufacturers of latex immunoassays add surfactants to prevent non-specific aggregation of microspheres. However, these same surfactants can cause false positives (and negatives) during diagnostic testing. This work, published in Appendix A ((c) 2006 Elsevier) shows that highly carboxylated polystyrene (HCPS) microspheres can replace surfactants and induce rapid mixing via diffusion in microfluidic devices. Our second objective was to develop a microfluidic device using fiber optics to detect static light scattering (SLS) of microspheres in Appendix B ((c) 2007 Elsevier). Fiber optics were used to deliver light emitting diode (LED) or laser light. A miniature spectrometer was used to measure 45° forward light scattering collected by optical fiber. Latex microspheres coated with PR3 proteins were used to test for the vasculitis marker, anti-PR3. No false negatives or positives were observed. A limit of detection (LOD) of 50 ng mL-1 was demonstrated. This optical detection system works without fluorescence or chemiluminescence markers. It is cost effective, small, and re-usable with simple rinsing. The final objective in this dissertation, published in Appendix C ((c) 2007 Elsevier), developed a multiplex immunoassay. A lab-on-a-chip was used to detect multiple antibodies using microsphere light scattering and quantum dot (QD) emission. We conjugated QDs onto microspheres and named this configuration "nano-on-micro" or "NOM". Upon radiation with UV light, strong light scattering is observed. Since QDs also provide fluorescent emission, we are able to use increased light scattering for detecting antigen-antibody reactions, and decreased QD emission to identify which antibody is present.

Lucas, Lonnie J.

2007-12-01

441

Negative pressure wound dressing of the radial forearm donor site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donor site complications of the radial forearm are a significant cause of post-operative morbidity. 15 patients had radial forearm free tissue donor sites treated with split skin grafts and a negative pressure dressing. All grafts showed 100% take at 5 days. The advantages of this technique include rapid healing at an unfavourable graft recipient site, increased graft take and decreased

C. Avery; J. Pereira; A. Moody; M. Gargiulo; I. Whitworth

2000-01-01

442

Planned Gift Summary Benefits to Donors and the University  

E-print Network

Planned Gift Summary Benefits to Donors and the University Type of Gift Benefits to Donor Benefits to U of S Gift Examples Suitable For Bequest Satisfaction of providing for future gift while retaining full control of assets Gift receipt for use with final income tax return Expectancy of future gift

Saskatchewan, University of

443

A Comparative Analysis of Educational Donors in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from 1,373 households participating in the 2005 Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey, this paper examines the characteristics of educational donors in comparison with other types of charitable donors and with nondonors. Charitable giving is quite common in the Netherlands, but there is no established higher education advancement…

James, Russell N., III; Wiepking, Pamala

2008-01-01

444

Fathers Anonymous: Beyond the Best Interests of the Sperm Donor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the rationale for the practice of Artificial Insemination Donor (AID) practices, the manner whereby donors are selected, and how records are kept. The importance of developing standards which serve the best interests of the AID child is stressed. (Author/DB)

Annas, George J.

1981-01-01

445

Lung procurement for transplantation: new criteria for lung donor selection.  

PubMed

In Italy, like everywhere in the world, the organ shortage for transplantation is a real problem. It is well known that lung donors (LD) are particularly difficult to procure and that management of the organ do not care during the diagnosis of cerebral death represents a difficult challenge. In this context, the salvage of the so-called "marginal donors" may increase the pool of donors, favoring organ retrieval. To increase lung procurement, the intensivist must recognize "marginal donors," optimizing organ selection and function. The aim of our study was to review LD procured in 2008, as identified by the unrestricted criteria, of the Nord Italian Transplant program Center (NITp). Particularly, the age and habits of donors and the presence of a parenchyma contusion were not sufficient per se to exclude donation. We revisited lung ventilation and monitoring modalities during cerebral death before retrieval. In 2008, the application of enlarged criteria for LD enabled us to collect 21 LD, namely 33% of all cerebral deaths, versus 13% in 2007. Seeking to maintain good gas exchange and lung function, we implemented a safe ventilation program avoided high peak pressures, and fluid therapy properly guided by the cardiac index and extravascular lung water index monitoring. Specific actions to improve LD procurement may help cope with the organ-donor shortage. Although our series was small, our results were encouraging; they underline the necessity to continuously review donor criteria and care, allowing good donor/recipient matching. PMID:20534222

Moretti, M P; Betto, C; Gambacorta, M; Vesconi, S; Scalamogna, M; Benazzi, E; Ravini, M

2010-05-01

446

Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

Jarrell, Andrea

2013-01-01

447

Carbon Donor and Microbial Inocula Addition for the Polishing of  

E-print Network

Carbon Donor and Microbial Inocula Addition for the Polishing of SEAR Treated Source Material - OU2, Hill AFB Carbon Donor and Microbial Inocula Addition for the Polishing of SEAR Treated Source Material that Surfactant Treated OU2 Source Zone Material Will Exhibit TCE Dechlorination Capability in Response to Carbon

Dupont, R. Ryan

448

The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation

Lyn Turney

2010-01-01

449

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2011-04-01

450

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2012-04-01

451

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2013-04-01

452

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2014-04-01

453

Graphite electrodes as electron donors for anaerobic respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has been demonstrated previously that Geobacter species can transfer electrons directly to electrodes. In order to determine whether electrodes could serve as electron donors for microbial respiration, enrich- ment cultures were established from a sediment inoc- ulum with a potentiostat-poised graphite electrode as the sole electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite

Kelvin B. Gregory; Daniel R. Bond; Derek R. Lovley

2004-01-01

454

University of Washington Medical Center Living Donor Program  

E-print Network

with important information to help evaluate your potential as living kidney donor also to help and support you of your kidneys? 2. How long have you been contemplating this decision? 3. What do you know at this time about being a living kidney donor? Where did you obtain this information? #12;University of Washington

Borenstein, Elhanan

455

The Influence of Donor Characteristics on Survival After Heart Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With improved immunosuppressive regimens, transplantation techniques, and postoperative care, heart transplantation (HTx) has been established as a definite therapy for end-stage heart disease. Because of a donor shortage, we have accepted marginal individuals. In this study, we identified donor-related factors influencing survival after HTx by retrospective analysis of recipient data after primary HTx from February 2002 to December 2006. The

C. I. Tsao; R. J. Chen; N. K. Chou; W. J. Ko; N. H. Chi; H. Y. Yu; Y. S. Chen; S. C. Chen; S. S. Wang

2008-01-01

456

21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

2010-04-01

457

Some findings in transgalactosylations employing modified donor substrates.  

PubMed

The scope of transgalactosylation with ?-galactosidase (bovine testis) was studied employing a series of modified donor substrates based on p-nitrophenyl ?-D-galactopyranoside and as uniform acceptor allyl 2-N-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-D-galactopyranoside. Structurally diverse donor molecules were recognized by the enzyme and led to novel disaccharide components, yet an excessive structural distortion was not accepted. PMID:25238124

Kröger, Lars; Thiem, Joachim

2014-10-29

458

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TO SUPPORT NETWORKING AMONG NGOs AND DONORS  

E-print Network

of north south partnership NGO sector gained much more importance and is considered to be a vibrant part of the civil society. The term, "non-governmental organization" or NGO, came into use in 1945 because, empowerment and good governance. (Sattar and Baig 2001) #12;2. NGO-DONOR COLLABORATION. NGOs and donor

459

Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the…

Cook, Heather J.

2012-01-01

460

Hyperfine Stark effect of shallow donors in silicon  

E-print Network

We present a complete theoretical treatment of Stark effects in doped silicon, whose predictions are supported by experimental measurements. A multi-valley effective mass theory, dealing non-perturbatively with valley-orbit interactions induced by a donor-dependent central cell potential, allows us to obtain a very reliable picture of the donor wave function within a relatively simple framework. Variational optimization of the 1s donor binding energies calculated with a new trial wave function, in a pseudopotential with two fitting parameters, allows an accurate match of the experimentally determined donor energy levels, while the correct limiting behavior for the electronic density, both close to and far from each impurity nucleus, is captured by fitting the measured contact hyperfine coupling between the donor nuclear and electron spin. We go on to include an external uniform electric field in order to model Stark physics: With no extra ad hoc parameters, variational minimization of the complete donor ground energy allows a quantitative description of the field-induced reduction of electronic density at each impurity nucleus. Detailed comparisons with experimental values for the shifts of the contact hyperfine coupling reveal very close agreement for all the donors measured (P, As, Sb and Bi). Finally, we estimate field ionization thresholds for the donor ground states, thus setting upper limits to the gate manipulation times for single qubit operations in Kane-like architectures: the Si:Bi system is shown to allow for A gates as fast as around 10 MHz.

G. Pica; G. Wolfowicz; M. Urdampilleta; M. L. W. Thewalt; H. Riemann; N. V. Abrosimov; P. Becker; H. -J. Pohl; J. J. L. Morton; R. N. Bhatt; S. A. Lyon; B. W. Lovett

2014-08-19