Sample records for donor immunoassay cedia

  1. Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2013-06-01

    The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

  2. False-positive buprenorphine by CEDIA in patients prescribed amisulpride or sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Birch, M A; Couchman, L; Pietromartire, S; Karna, T; Paton, C; McAllister, R; Marsh, A; Flanagan, R J

    2013-05-01

    Buprenorphine is a potent partial opioid agonist that is analyzed in urine to (i) monitor adherence to maintenance or detoxification therapy and (ii) detect illicit use. Buprenorphine analysis is commonly conducted on urine by immunoassay, but is subject to cross-reactivity from other drugs/drug metabolites, including morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine. This study reports false-positive buprenorphine analysis [Thermo Fisher Scientific cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA)] in patients who denied unauthorized buprenorphine use prior to sampling, but who had been prescribed amisulpride. In two cases, confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was negative (<0.5 µg/L) for buprenorphine and metabolites and positive for amisulpride. Although the cross-reactivity of amisulpride and sulpiride in the CEDIA buprenorphine assay is low (estimated at 0.003 and 0.002%, respectively), it remains a significant consideration given the likely high concentrations of these compounds in urine relative to the low cutoff of the buprenorphine assay. Neither amisulpride nor sulpiride was listed as potential sources of interference on the CEDIA data sheet when this work was performed. These findings highlight the importance of confirming immunoassay-positive buprenorphine results using a more selective analytical technique. PMID:23471956

  3. Comparison of CEDIA FK506 assay with HPLC/MS/MS in a large cohort of pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lower, Darla R; Cropcho, Lorna; Rosendorff, Adam

    2013-06-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus), a macrolide immunosuppressant, is widely used in pediatric transplant patients, but a relatively narrow therapeutic window in children vs adults requires close and accurate monitoring of whole blood FK506 levels. High-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS)-based assays have been viewed as the gold standard but are more time and labor intensive than cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA). To analyze differences between the 2 assays, we assayed FK506 in 348 split samples simultaneously by both methods. A further 70 samples were stratified by organ transplantation type: cardiac (13%), renal (23%), small bowel (22%), or liver transplantation (42%). Results were analyzed using standard statistical techniques for method comparison. CEDIA overestimated the FK506 value relative to HPLC/MS/MS by more than 20% in 40% of cases (139/348), whereas CEDIA underestimated the FK506 value relative to HPLC/MS/MS by more than 20% in 13.5% of cases, for a total inaccuracy of 53% using a ±20% cutoff. Only 28% of samples (99/348) measured by CEDIA were within 10% of the value obtained by HPLC/MS/MS. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of 9.5% in favor of CEDIA over HPLC/MS/MS (95% confidence interval, 6.1%-12.9%). Positive bias was greatest for liver transplant and R(2) values were lowest for intestinal transplant patients, indicating that HPLC/MS/MS may be a better option for this pediatric transplant subgroup. PMID:23690122

  4. Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. PMID:24665024

  5. Time-Resolved Analysis of a Highly Sensitive Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Immunoassay Using Terbium Complexes as Donors and Quantum Dots as Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Niko; Charbonnière, Loïc J.; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2007-01-01

    CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are used as efficient Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) acceptors in a time-resolved immunoassays with Tb complexes as donors providing a long-lived luminescence decay. A detailed decay time analysis of the FRET process is presented. QD FRET sensitization is evidenced by a more than 1000-fold increase of the QD luminescence decay time reaching ca. 0.5 milliseconds, the same value to which the Tb donor decay time is quenched due to FRET to the QD acceptors. The FRET system has an extremely large Förster radius of approx. 100 Å and more than 70% FRET efficiency with a mean donor-acceptor distance of ca. 84 Å, confirming the applied biotin-streptavidin binding system. Time-resolved measurement allows for suppression of short-lived emission due to background fluorescence and directly excited QDs. By this means a detection limit of 18 attomol QDs within the immunoassay is accomplished, an improvement of more than two orders of magnitude compared to commercial systems. PMID:18273412

  6. Screening tests for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in blood donors: evaluation of two chemiluminescent immunoassay systems.

    PubMed

    Sommese, Linda; Sabia, Chiara; Paolillo, Rossella; Parente, Delia; Capuano, Maria; Iannone, Carmela; Cavalca, Francesco; Schiano, Concetta; Vasco, Maria; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Casamassimi, Amelia; Napoli, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) are useful for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus 1/2 antigen/antibodies (HIV 1/2 Ag/Ab) in blood donor screening. Eight hundred and forty serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), and HIV1/2 Ag/Ab in parallel using 2 different CLIAs (Abbott Architect i2000SR and Roche Cobas e411). The concordance between the 2 systems was high (Cohen's kappa 0.97 for HBsAg, 0.77 for anti-HCV, 0.92 for HIV1/2 Ag/Ab) and the specificity and the positive predictive value were comparable. Among the 12 discrepant results, 11 were false-positive and 1 (reactive by Architect) was true-positive for anti-HCV. Positivity for HBV DNA, HCV RNA, and HIV RNA was recorded in 90.9%, 38.9%, and 100% of true-positive samples, respectively. This study represents the first stringent comparison between Architect i2000SR and Cobas e411 in blood donors. We observed a good correlation and high agreement among HBV, HCV, and HIV with the 2 automated systems. PMID:25073538

  7. Determining immunoassay cutoff value using Western blot results to predict hepatitis C infection in blood donors with low-titer anti-HCV reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Cakmak, Saadet; Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Tas, Tekin; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2013-07-01

    Since the 1990s, blood donors have been scanned for anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) antibodies, which can be defined by enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. In this population, false-reactive ratios have been high. Recently, some authors have aimed to find a cutoff value for anti-HCV different from those established by test manufacturers to predict HCV infection. In this study, 321 patients, after two repeating tests, had reactive results in s/co <10 titers on anti-HCV test. The patients were 29.6 % (n?=?95) in women and 70.4 % (n?=?226) in men. The patients were classified into three groups by Western blot (WB) results (PS, positive; NG, negative; and ID, indeterminate). The average anti-HCV titer of the whole group was 2.61?±?1.96. Anti-HCV titers of subgroups were 2.43?±?1.95 in NG, 4.93?±?2.53 in PS, and 2.50?±?1.65 in ID (p?2.61 s/co, with 74.1 % sensitivity and 71.6 % specificity (area under the curve, 0.820; 95 % confidence interval, 0.753 to 0.887). We suggest that an effective cutoff value for anti-HCV other than that established by the manufacturer cannot be assigned to predict hepatitis C infection for blood donors in low-prevalence areas. PMID:23208738

  8. Immunoassay Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Kyn Wai

    This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Bone­specific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

  9. Evaluation of five immunoassays for the determination of digoxin in serum.

    PubMed

    Sasieta, M; Jimeno, P

    1996-11-01

    Five immunoassays for the determination of digoxin have been evaluated (Digoxin II, Abbott; Cedia Digoxin XL, Microgenics; Coat-a-Count Digoxin, Diagnostic Procedure Corporation, DPC; "On-line" Digoxin, Roche Diagnostic Systems; EMIT 2000 Digoxin, Syva). Four of them required no sample pre-treatment. The methods included a radioimmunoassay, fluoroimmunoassay, two enzyme-immunoassays and a turbidimetric immunoassay: the last three mentioned were adapted to the Cobas Mira Plus. The intra- and inter-assay precision was lower than 9%, except for Microgenics. The calibration stability fluctuated from 120 days for Abbott to 27 days for the Roche test, 7 days for the Syva assay and 2 days for Microgenics. The DPC test was not assayed for calibration stability. The interference from "digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s)" differed according to the assay. The highest interference was seen with Abbott and Microgenics, and the lowest with the DPC test. The comparison among all the methods offered values of "r" higher than 0.95 except Microgenics and Syva assays where "r" was 0.896. The results obtained with Roche and Microgenics were higher than 12% of the remaining assays. PMID:8960471

  10. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient?s serum to develop a...

  11. In situ enzymatic ascorbic acid production as electron donor for CdS quantum dots equipped TiO2 nanotubes: a general and efficient approach for new photoelectrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Ma, Zheng-Yuan; Yan, Dong-Yang; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2012-12-18

    In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoanalysis format was developed for sensitive and specific detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based on an in situ electron donor producing approach. Thioglycolic acid-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) equipped TiO(2) nanotubes (NTs) were fabricated via a facile electrostatic adsorption method. The coupling of CdS QDs and TiO(2) NTs results in an enhanced excitation and photo-to-electric conversion efficiency. Using alkaline phosphatase catalytic chemistry to in situ generate ascorbic acid for electron donating, an exquisite immunosandwich protocol was successfully constructed for the PSA assay due to the dependence of the photocurrent signal on the concentration of electron donor. This work opens a different perspective for transducer design in PEC detection and provides a general format for future development of PEC immunoanalysis. PMID:23198754

  12. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  13. Multiple homogeneous immunoassays based on a quantum dots-gold nanorods FRET nanoplatform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Zeng; Y. Zhang; X. Liu; L. Tu; X. Kong; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Multi-sized quantum dots (QDs) donors and tailor-made gold nanorods (GNRs) are employed to form a FRET nanoplatform for homogeneous immunoassays developed for analysis of multiple virus antigens. The single GNRs\\/multiple QDs nanocomposite based nanosensor offers a simple and sensitive approach for multiple analytes detection in a homogeneous format.

  14. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  15. Field Analytic Technologies: Immunoassay and Enzymatic Assays

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features a discussion of immunoassays in the context of testing for environmental contaminants, including a fairly detailed explanation of how immunoassays are conducted and advantages and limitations in the analysis of environmental problems. There is also a discussion of analytical concerns - interferences, limits of detection, accuracy and precision, calibrating immunoassays, etc.

  16. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  17. Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste Guomin Shan*, Wei Huang*, Shirley J. Gee with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled re- agents. The advantage of isotopic with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay

  18. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay of Mycotoxins: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are routinely used in the screening of commodities and foods for fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Demands to increase speed and lower costs have lead to continued improvements in such assays. Because many reported mycotoxins are low molecular weight (below 1 Kdal), immunoassays for their d...

  19. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Electrokinetic Microstrirring to Enhance Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Hope; Sigurdson, Marin; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    Electrokinetic microstirring is used to improve the sensitivity of microfluidic heterogeneous immuno-sensors by enhancing the transport in diffusion-limited reactions. The AC electrokinetic force, Electrothermal Flow, is exploited to create a circular stirring fluid motion, thereby providing more binding opportunities between suspended and wall-immobilized molecules. This process can significantly reduce test times, important for both field-portable biosensors and for lab-based assays. A 2-D numerical simulation model is used to predict the effect of electrothermal flow on a heterogeneous immunoassay resulting from an AC potential applied to two parallel electrodes. The binding is increased by a factor of 7 for an applied voltage of 10 Vrms. The effect was investigated experimentally using a high affinity biotin-streptavidin reaction. Microstirred reaction rates were compared with passive reactions. The measurements show on average an order of magnitude increase in binding between immobilized biotin and fluorescently-labeled streptavidin after 5 minutes. Therefore, this technique shows significant promise for reducing incubation time and enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassays.

  1. Novel immunoassay formats for integrated microfluidic circuits: diffusion immunoassays (DIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hatch, Anson; Kamholz, Andrew E.; Yager, Paul

    2000-03-01

    Novel designs of integrated fluidic microchips allow separations, chemical reactions, and calibration-free analytical measurements to be performed directly in very small quantities of complex samples such as whole blood and contaminated environmental samples. This technology lends itself to applications such as clinical diagnostics, including tumor marker screening, and environmental sensing in remote locations. Lab-on-a-Chip based systems offer many *advantages over traditional analytical devices: They consume extremely low volumes of both samples and reagents. Each chip is inexpensive and small. The sampling-to-result time is extremely short. They perform all analytical functions, including sampling, sample pretreatment, separation, dilution, and mixing steps, chemical reactions, and detection in an integrated microfluidic circuit. Lab-on-a-Chip systems enable the design of small, portable, rugged, low-cost, easy to use, yet extremely versatile and capable diagnostic instruments. In addition, fluids flowing in microchannels exhibit unique characteristics ('microfluidics'), which allow the design of analytical devices and assay formats that would not function on a macroscale. Existing Lab-on-a-chip technologies work very well for highly predictable and homogeneous samples common in genetic testing and drug discovery processes. One of the biggest challenges for current Labs-on-a-chip, however, is to perform analysis in the presence of the complexity and heterogeneity of actual samples such as whole blood or contaminated environmental samples. Micronics has developed a variety of Lab-on-a-Chip assays that can overcome those shortcomings. We will now present various types of novel Lab- on-a-Chip-based immunoassays, including the so-called Diffusion Immunoassays (DIA) that are based on the competitive laminar diffusion of analyte molecules and tracer molecules into a region of the chip containing antibodies that target the analyte molecules. Advantages of this technique are a reduction in reagents, higher sensitivity, minimal preparation of complex samples such as blood, real-time calibration, and extremely rapid analysis.

  2. An enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Kominami, G.; Yamauchi, A.; Ishihara, S.; Kono, M.

    1981-03-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for plasma betamethasone was developed using betamethasone-3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate as a labelled antigen and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside as a fluorescence substrate. The performances of the enzyme immunoassay were compared with that of a radioimmunoassay using /sup 3/H-betamethasone and the same antiserum. The minimal detectable level for the enzyme immunoassay was 0.15 pg/tube or 0.15 ng/ml of plasma, which was remarkably more sensitive than the radioimmunoassay level of 10 pg/tube or 2 ng/ml of plasma. The specificity was sufficient, in particular, the cross reactivity of cortisol as 0.008%. However, the precision of the enzyme immunoassay was inferior to that of the radioimmunoassay.

  3. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay of Mycotoxins: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Maragos, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Immunoassays are routinely used in the screening of commodities and foods for fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Demands to increase speed and lower costs have lead to continued improvements in such assays. Because many reported mycotoxins are low molecular weight (below 1 kDa), immunoassays for their detection have generally been constructed in competitive heterogeneous formats. An exception is fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), a homogeneous format that does not require the separation of bound and free labels (tracer). The potential for rapid, solution phase, immunoassays has been realized in the development of FPIA for many of the major groups of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, group B trichothecenes (primarily deoxynivalenol), ochratoxin A, and zearalenone. This review describes the basic principles of FPIA and summarizes recent research in this area with regard to mycotoxins. PMID:22069541

  4. High-risk donors: expanding donor criteria.

    PubMed

    Jordan, M L; Shapiro, R; Vivas, C A; Scantlebury, V P; Corry, R J; Randhawa, P; Hakala, T R; Starzl, T E

    1999-01-01

    Advances in the surgical techniques, preservation solutions, and methods for predicting eventual long-term renal function from expanded donors will be critical in allowing precise selection criteria for kidneys for transplantation, resulting in the optimum use of a scarce and precious resource. Until other options such as xenotransplantation or tissue engineering become realistic, the challenge for the millennium will be to identify which donor organs previously considered suboptimal can be safely used to expand the organ donor pool. PMID:10083620

  5. Our Future Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    The rhetorical advantages and dangers involved in casting the students as "future donors" are explained. The way in which the institutions have to change for casting its students as future donors is described.

  6. Contacting My Donor Family

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at a ... can take to get started. The process of writing your letter may take some time, but at ...

  7. Multi-Analyte Immunoassay for Pesticides: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Jiang; Fan Ming-tao

    2012-01-01

    The current trend of pesticide immunoassay is developing multi-analyte immunoassay, i.e., more than one target can be detected per test. In this mini-review the strategies of achieve multi-analyte immunoassay, which include multi-antibody strategy, broad-specificity antibody strategy and others, were briefly introduced. In addition, the recent developments of multi-analyte immunoassay for pesticides were summarized. At last, we give a future outlook

  8. Latex piezoelectric immunoassay: it's application for clinical and environmental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kurosawa; M. Muratsugu; CHIKASHI NAKAMURA; HIDENOBU AIZAWA; NORIHIKO MINOURA; JUN MIYAKE; MINORU YOSHIMOTO; NAOKI KAMO

    1999-01-01

    Latex piezoelectric immunoassay (LPEIA) is a new immunoassay method that requires no immobilization of antigen or antibody on the electrode surface of quartz crystal, in contrast to previous immunoassays in which a piezoelectric crystal is used as a microbalance and immobilization is essential. The frequency change was observed during the aggregation of antibody- or antigen-coated latex particles. This method was

  9. Lung donor selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  10. FRET-based homogeneous immunoassay on a nanoparticle-based photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Sudheendra, Lakshmana; Kennedy, Ian M

    2015-07-01

    The potential of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a photonic crystal (PC) nanostructured array to enhance the speed and sensitivity of a protein-based immunoassay was tested. Forty-nanometer carboxylated particles conjugated with donor-labeled capture antibodies were trapped by electrophoresis and used as a FRET energy donor. The PC array was able to enhance fluorescent excitation and emission by phase matching. To provide a proof of concept for this FRET-based homogeneous assay on a PC chip, an immunoassay was tested with a simple immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based reaction. A standard curve was generated by testing two different antibody reaction times: 20 min. and 1 min. The results were compared directly to those obtained from a FRET assay that used a modern, high-sensitivity plate reader with a 96-well plate and a reaction time of 1 h. The rabbit-IgG detection limits of the FRET-based homogeneous assay on the PC were 0.001 and 0.1 ?g/mL for incubation times of 20 and 1 min, respectively; the sensitivities were 10(3) and 10 times better than the 96-well plate reader, respectively. Thus, FRET on a PC immunoplatform was shown to be a facile, effective, rapid, and sensitive detection technology. PMID:25956600

  11. FRET-Based Quantum Dot Immunoassay for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aspergillus amstelodami

    PubMed Central

    Kattke, Michele D.; Gao, Elizabeth J.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Stephenson, Larry D.; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based quantum dot (QD) immunoassay for detection and identification of Aspergillus amstelodami was developed. Biosensors were formed by conjugating QDs to IgG antibodies and incubating with quencher-labeled analytes; QD energy was transferred to the quencher species through FRET, resulting in diminished fluorescence from the QD donor. During a detection event, quencher-labeled analytes are displaced by higher affinity target analytes, creating a detectable fluorescence signal increase from the QD donor. Conjugation and the resulting antibody:QD ratios were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and QuantiT protein assay. The sensitivity of initial fluorescence experiments was compromised by inherent autofluorescence of mold spores, which produced low signal-to-noise and inconsistent readings. Therefore, excitation wavelength, QD, and quencher were adjusted to provide optimal signal-to-noise over spore background. Affinities of anti-Aspergillus antibody for different mold species were estimated with sandwich immunoassays, which identified A. fumigatus and A. amstelodami for use as quencher-labeled- and target-analytes, respectively. The optimized displacement immunoassay detected A. amstelodami concentrations as low as 103 spores/mL in five minutes or less. Additionally, baseline fluorescence was produced in the presence of 105 CFU/mL heat-killed E. coli O157:H7, demonstrating high specificity. This sensing modality may be useful for identification and detection of other biological threat agents, pending identification of suitable antibodies. Overall, these FRET-based QD-antibody biosensors represent a significant advancement in detection capabilities, offering sensitive and reliable detection of targets with applications in areas from biological terrorism defense to clinical analysis. PMID:22163961

  12. FRET-based quantum dot immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of Aspergillus amstelodami.

    PubMed

    Kattke, Michele D; Gao, Elizabeth J; Sapsford, Kim E; Stephenson, Larry D; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based quantum dot (QD) immunoassay for detection and identification of Aspergillus amstelodami was developed. Biosensors were formed by conjugating QDs to IgG antibodies and incubating with quencher-labeled analytes; QD energy was transferred to the quencher species through FRET, resulting in diminished fluorescence from the QD donor. During a detection event, quencher-labeled analytes are displaced by higher affinity target analytes, creating a detectable fluorescence signal increase from the QD donor. Conjugation and the resulting antibody:QD ratios were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and QuantiT protein assay. The sensitivity of initial fluorescence experiments was compromised by inherent autofluorescence of mold spores, which produced low signal-to-noise and inconsistent readings. Therefore, excitation wavelength, QD, and quencher were adjusted to provide optimal signal-to-noise over spore background. Affinities of anti-Aspergillus antibody for different mold species were estimated with sandwich immunoassays, which identified A. fumigatus and A. amstelodami for use as quencher-labeled- and target-analytes, respectively. The optimized displacement immunoassay detected A. amstelodami concentrations as low as 10(3) spores/mL in five minutes or less. Additionally, baseline fluorescence was produced in the presence of 10(5) CFU/mL heat-killed E. coli O157:H7, demonstrating high specificity. This sensing modality may be useful for identification and detection of other biological threat agents, pending identification of suitable antibodies. Overall, these FRET-based QD-antibody biosensors represent a significant advancement in detection capabilities, offering sensitive and reliable detection of targets with applications in areas from biological terrorism defense to clinical analysis. PMID:22163961

  13. Hepatitis C antibody prevalence in blood donors in different governorates in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray R. Arthur; Nassef Farahat Hassan; Mahasan Yousef Abdallah; Mohamed Said El-Sharkawy; Magdy Darwish Saad; Barbara G. Hackbart; Imam Zaghloul Imam

    1997-01-01

    Markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were sought in serum samples from 2644 blood donors in 24 of Egypt's 26 governorates. Of the 2644 samples, 656 (24·8%) were shown to contain anti-HCV immunoglobulin G antibody by Abbott second generation enzyme immunoassays (EIA). Of 85 EIA-positive samples tested by recombinant immunoblot assay, 72 (85%) were

  14. Enzyme Immunoassay Detection of Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, N.; Alleman, J. E.; Smith, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    An exploratory effort to selectively detect the presence of a nitrifying bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, successfully demonstrated the fundamental utility of an enzyme-based immunoassay protocol. The applied polyclonal antibody test seemingly offered a marked improvement over the available analytical options, including plating, activity, and fluorescence immunoassay techniques. Following an initial purification step to enhance overall specificity, this procedure had an apparent lower limit of detection of ?5 × 106 cells per ml. Tests conducted with activated sludge samples exhibited a distinct difference between nitrifying and nonnitrifying mixed liquors, although the highest Nitrosomonas levels observed (i.e., at 1 to 2% of the overall viable cell density) were relatively close to the latter detection boundary. PMID:16349287

  15. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Recombinant Antigen-Based Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M Automated Immunoassay Using the Abbott AxSYM Analyzer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. MAINE; R. STRICKER; M. SCHULER; J. SPESARD; S. BROJANAC; B. IRIARTE; K. HERWIG; T. GRAMINS; B. COMBS; J. WISE; H. SIMMONS; T. GRAM; J. LONZE; D. RUZICKI; B. BYRNE; J. D. CLIFTON; L. E. CHOVAN; D. WACHTA; C. HOLAS; D. WANG; T. WILSON; S. TOMAZIC-ALLEN; M. A. CLEMENTS; G. L. WRIGHT; T. LAZZAROTTO; A. RIPALTI; M. P. LANDINI

    2000-01-01

    A new microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) test, was developed on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer. This test uses recombinant CMV antigens derived from portions of four structural and nonstructural proteins of CMV: pUL32 (pp150), pUL44 (pp52), pUL83 (pp65), and pUL80a (pp38). A total of 1,608 specimens from random volunteer blood donors (n 5 300), pregnant

  16. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  17. Enzyme immunoassays with special reference to ELISA techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Voller; A Bartlett; D E Bidwell

    1978-01-01

    In this review outlines are given on various types of enzyme immunoassay. The applications to such enzyme immunoassays, especially ELISA, are dealth with in detail. It is concluded that these techniques have high sensitivity and will be suitable in due course as routine laboratory tests.

  18. Fluorescent immunoassay visualization of sorbed pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.K.; Mossman, D.J. [Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, Kansas City, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwab, A.P. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Feldbush, T.L. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Current methods of detecting sorbed soil pollutants require that the contaminant be extracted from the soil. In an effort to make detection simpler and safer, standard fluorescent immunoassay techniques are being modified to allow fluorescent tags on the pollutant to be viewed and photographed with epifluorescent microscopy. Initial research focuses on detecting chlorinated benzenes on various soil types and developing a technique for tagging these pollutants with appropriate antibodies. This should lead to detection in actual soil cores and a better understanding of how contaminants progress through different soils.

  19. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-12-15

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial–antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

  20. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for measuring leptin.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kohno, Hideki; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2011-01-01

    Leptin is one of the representative adipocyte-derived protein hormones. Measuring the serum leptin concentration gives an important index for preventing and treating diabetes mellitus and other diseases. We constructed in this study a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for measuring leptin by using the anti-leptin polyclonal antibody and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The method applies the IgG-conjugated ferrite particle to capture leptin in a sample and the ALP-conjugated Fab fragment to detect the captured leptin. We tested Block ace, CE510, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for their abilities to block non-specific binding of ALP-conjugated anti-leptin Fab to the ferrite particle and found BSA to be the most effective. The measurable range with this ELISA for leptin was 0.1-1.0 pg/mL of leptin and the detection limit (blank+2SD) was 0.1 pg/mL of leptin. These results demonstrate sufficient sensitivity with our system to measure the serum leptin concentration and its clinical usefulness. The results also suggest that a sensitive enzyme immunoassay can be constructed by using only one polyclonal antibody. PMID:21512229

  1. Fluorimetric Immunoassay for Multianalysis of Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive fluorimetric ELISA was developed for the analysis of aflatoxins. The assay was performed in a 384 microwell plate, wherein high specificity monoclonal antibody against AFM1 (mAb-AFM1) was used as capture antibody and FITC conjugated secondary antibody was used for detection and quantification of the analyte. The linear range of the immunoassay was found to be 6.25–50?pg/mL. AFM1 as low as 1?pg/mL was detected by this method with assay volume 40??L. The multi-analysis of different aflatoxins was also investigated in the microwell plate, based on the cross-reactivity (CR) approach. Real milk samples were tested along with certified reference material by standard addition method and recovery analysis was done. The mAb-AFM1 showed 23.2% CR with AFB1, 50% CR with respect to AFM2, and least CR towards AFG1 (<1%). Furthermore, mixture analysis of AFM2 and AFB1 was carried out at specific concentrations of AFM1. The advantages of this developed immunoassay are high sensitivity, high throughput, multianalyte detection, versatility, and ease of handling. PMID:24000318

  2. Dialing for Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    When times get tough, grown children often turn to their parents for help--for some extra cash, even somewhere to stay. For colleges and universities, that role is filled by alumni donors. In 2011, with education budgets slashed across the country, giving accounted for 6.5 percent of college expenditures, according to the Council for Aid to…

  3. [Present status and future of enzyme immunoassay--hormone].

    PubMed

    Uchimura, H

    1995-09-01

    Recently various non-radioisotopic immunoassays have been developed instead of radioisotopic assay and widely used in the laboratory. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is most popular in use including chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). At present few hormones (thyroid related and gonadotropic hormones) are measured by EIA with semi or full automatic analysers and satisfactory specificity and sensitivity were already obtained. However, most hormones are still measured by RIA or IRMA. EIA for these hormones should be developed. Standardization of reference interval and calibrators would also be needed for the compatibility between different assays. PMID:7474388

  4. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  5. Immunoassay procedures for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1988-04-01

    There is an increasing need for the development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for use with fiber optic sensors. These detection systems can be used for such applications as disease diagnosis, detection of chemical and biological warfare agents or drugs of abuse, pollution control, therapeutic monitoring, and explosive detection. This specific program is designed to produce generic chemistries for use with existing fiber optic-based sensors to detect pathogens of particular threat to Army personnel as determined by USAMRIID. The detection system under development involves the attachment of antibodies to an optical fiber at high density. In addition, the immobilization must be achieved in a way which retains the antibody's ability to bind antigen. The functionality of the antibody will be tested through the binding of a labelled antigen. In the future, this assay could incorporate the antibodies developed by the Army for pathogens of particularly military concern.

  6. Lanthanide-based time-resolved luminescence immunoassays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Hagan; T. Zuchner

    2011-01-01

    The sensitive and specific detection of analytes such as proteins in biological samples is critical for a variety of applications,\\u000a for example disease diagnosis. In immunoassays a signal in response to the concentration of analyte present is generated by\\u000a use of antibodies labeled with radioisotopes, luminophores, or enzymes. All immunoassays suffer to some extent from the problem\\u000a of the background

  7. Detection of narcotics with an immunoassay film badge

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, H.R. [Diametrix Detectors, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Efficient personnel performance, a major requirement for a safe nuclear industry, is jeopardized where personnel use narcotics. However, detection of narcotics at nuclear plants is a challenge. The unique specificity and sensitivity of an immunoassay has been implemented in the form of a small, dry immunoassay film badge (IFB) for the detection of vapors emitted by narcotics. The device is suitable as an area monitor, and its characteristics are suitable for use as a breath monitor for the detection of drug use.

  8. Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Annette C.; Willicott, Corey W.; Hage, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoassays have long been an important set of tools in clinical laboratories for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of disease. Over the last two decades there has been growing interest in utilizing capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a means for conducting immunoassays with clinical samples. The resulting method is known as a CE immunoassay. This approach makes use of the selective and strong binding of antibodies for their targets, as is employed in a traditional immunoassay, and combines this with the speed, efficiency, and small sample requirements of CE. This review discusses the variety of ways in which CE immunoassays have been employed with clinical samples. An overview of the formats and detection modes that have been employed in these applications is first presented. A more detailed discussion is then given on the type of clinical targets and samples that have been measured or studied by using CE immunoassays. Particular attention is given to the use of this method in the fields of endocrinology, pharmaceutical measurements, protein and peptide analysis, immunology, infectious disease detection, and oncology. Representative applications in each of these areas are described, with these examples involving work with both traditional and microanalytical CE systems. PMID:24132682

  9. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  10. Analysis of Donor Motivations in Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Abdeldayem, Hesham; Kashkoush, Samy; Hegab, Bassem Soliman; Aziz, Amr; Shoreem, Hany; Saleh, Shereef

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives toward LDLT. Methods: This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living-liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient, and motives toward proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant center is confidential. Results: The donors’ mean age was 25.53?±?6.39?years with a range of 18–45?years. Males represented 64.7% and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n?=?62) were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n?=?43, daughters: n?=?19) while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n?=?21, fathers: n?=?8). Brothers and sisters represent 16.5% (brothers: n?=?22, sisters: n?=?10). Nephews and nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%). Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins and 1 uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%). Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations. Conclusion: Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is mandatory that the donor is truly willing to donate. PMID:25593949

  11. Donor factors influencing graft outcomes in live donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Issa, Naim; Stephany, Brian; Fatica, Richard; Nurko, Saul; Krishnamurthi, Venkatesh; Goldfarb, David A; Braun, William E; Dennis, Vincent W; Heeger, Peter S; Poggio, Emilio D

    2007-03-15

    Living donor renal allograft survival is superior to that achieved from deceased donors, although graft outcome is suboptimal in some of these patients. In an effort to identify the subset of patients at high risk for poor outcomes we studied donor risk factors in 248 living kidney donor-recipient pairs. Unadjusted donor (125)I-iothalamate GFR (iGFR), donor age more than 45 years, donor total cholesterol level less than 200 mg/dL, and donor systolic blood pressure (SBP) less than 120 mm Hg were correlated with allograft estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and incidence of acute rejection (AR), delayed graft function and/or graft loss at 2 years posttransplantation. Donor iGFR less than 110 mL/min (slope=-7.40, P<0.01), donors more than 45 years (slope=-8.76, P<0.01), donor total cholesterol levels more than 200 mg/dL (slope=-10.03, P<0.01), and SBP more than 120 mm Hg (slope=-5.60, P=0.03) were associated with lower eGFR. By multivariable linear regression analysis these variables remained independently associated with lower eGFR, and poorer outcomes. The increasing number of donor factors (age, iGFR, cholesterol, and blood pressure) was directly associated with worse posttransplant eGFR (P<0.01). In conclusion, our data suggest that routine assessment of living donor parameters could supplement the consideration of recipient characteristics in predicting posttransplant risk of graft injury/dysfunction. PMID:17353780

  12. Surface second-harmonic generation (SSHG): a new scheme for immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; McStay, Daniel; Quinn, Peter J.

    1996-04-01

    A new optical immunoassay scheme based on surface second harmonic generation (SHG) is proposed. The utility of the technique has been investigated by deposition of sample antigen and antibody (bovine serum albumin & mouse anti-bovine serum albumin IgG antibody) on glass surfaces. The laser-induced second harmonic signals generated from these sample surfaces were monitored using a photomultiplier tube (Thorn EMI, 9524A). The surface second harmonic generation characteristics of an enzyme-linked immunoassay process were investigated, which is parallely monitored by a conventional ELISA method. The SSHG immunoassay experiment was performed using a conventional sandwich immunoassay scheme on ELISA immunoassay plates. The laser-induced surface-second harmonic signals generated from sample wells of different populations of the antigen-antibody complex were subsequently measured using the photomultiplier tube. To verify the new SSHG immunoassay results, a conventional ELISA sandwich immunoassay was performed, and their results compared. The new SSHG immunoassay results showed a virtually identical conclusion as that of conventional ELISA sandwich immunoassay. The SSHG readings are promotional to that of the ELISA data. However, the readings from the new SSHG immunoassay were found much larger, which is in agreement with the theoretical expectation. In this paper, detailed experimental results of the new SSHG immunoassay are described, and subsequently compared with those of a conventional ELISA immunoassay. The feasibility and advantages of the SSHG as a new immunoassay technique also are discussed.

  13. A new modular chemiluminescence immunoassay analyser evaluated.

    PubMed

    Ognibene, A; Drake, C J; Jeng, K Y; Pascucci, T E; Hsu, S; Luceri, F; Messeri, G

    2000-03-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and testosterone assays have been used as a probe to evaluate the performances of a new modular chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay analyser, the Abbott Architect 2000. The evaluation was run in parallel on other systems that use CL as the detection reaction: DPC Immulite, Chiron Diagnostics ACS-180 and ACS Centaur (TSH functional sensitivity only). TSH functional sensitivity was 0.0012, 0.009, 0.033 and 0.039 mU/I for the Architect, Immulite, ACS Centaur and ACS-180, respectively. Testosterone functional sensitivity was 0.38, 3.7 and 2.0 nmol/l for Architect, Immulite and ACS-180, respectively. Good correlation was obtained between the ACS-180 and Architect for all assays. The Immulite correlation did not agree well with the Architect or ACS-180 for fT4 and testosterone but was in good agreement for TSH. Regarding fT4 and testosterone, equilibrium dialysis and isotopic dilution gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively were used as reference methods. For both within- and between-run precision, the Architect showed the best reproducibility for all three analytes (CV < 6%). PMID:10905763

  14. Donor compensation: an ethical imperative!

    PubMed

    Reichardt, J-O

    2010-01-01

    The number of living organ donors is increasing worldwide, but donor needs are widely neglected in support of anticommodification policies. This article argues that the warrant of donor autonomy during the decision process to donate is only one requirement of adequate donor care. Another is the donor's protection against the systematic and institutional exploitation of his altruistic dispositions. People with the disposition to support those, who are in desperate need, with a nonrenewable part of their own body, despite a small but unavoidable risk of death or health impairment, do not deserve to be additionally burdened with further disincentives, such as financial risks and uncompensated costs of donation. And although the borderline between a morally required disincentive removal and a more controversial net incentive to boost donation might be vague and open to discussion, to disadvantage living donors by design constitutes a serious barrier to the fairness of living organ donation-a barrier that should be removed. PMID:20172295

  15. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Immunoassay for Fat Cell Differentiation Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Johlfs, Mary G.; Gorjala, Priyatham; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Le, Thuc T.; Fiscus, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    Profiling cellular proteome is critical to understanding signal integration during cell fate determination. In this study, the capability of capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) immunoassays to detect post-translational modifications (PTM) of protein isoforms is demonstrated. cIEF immunoassays exhibit protein detection sensitivity at up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than traditional methods. This detection ultra-sensitivity permits proteomic profiling of several nanograms of tissue samples. cIEF immunoassays are employed to simultaneously profile three protein kinases during fat cell differentiation: cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG-I) of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, protein kinase B (Akt) of the insulin signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Interestingly, a switch in the expression level of PKG- isoforms is observed during fat cell differentiation. While both PKG-I? and PKG-I? isoforms are present in preadipocytes, only PKG-I? isoform is expressed in adipocytes. On the other hand, the phosphorylation level increases for Akt while decreases for ERK1 and ERK2 following the maturation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Taken together, cIEF immunoassay provides a highly sensitive means to study fat cell differentiation proteomics. cIEF immunoassay should be a powerful proteomics tool to study complex protein signal integration in biological systems. PMID:26132171

  16. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION PLAN FOR WESTINGHOUSE BIO-ANALYTIC SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This plan provides a detailed design and description of the demonstration and evaluation program for the Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems immunoassay technologies specific for the analysis of pentachlorophenol. he immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachl...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic ...

  18. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) REPORT FOR THE WESTINGHOUSE BIOANALYTICAL SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of the demonstration of two Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems (WBAS) immunoassay technologies are described in this report. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in environmental water samples. The study was conducted under the...

  19. The Effects of Sample Matrices on Immunoassays to Detect Microcystin-LR in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Immunoassays are widely used biochemical techniques to detect microcystins in environmental samples. The use of immunoassays for the detection of microcystins is vulnerable to matrix components and other interferents. This study is an evaluation of the effects of interf...

  20. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  1. Quality assurance in immunoassay performance--comparison of different enzyme immunoassays for the determination of caffeine in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Grandke, Julia; Oberleitner, Lidia; Resch-Genger, Ute; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2013-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays with optical detection are amongst the most widely used bioanalytical tools. We defined seven parameters for the quality assessment of immunoassays that were addressed in a systematic study of direct and indirect immunoassays, using the enzymes horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), the chromogenic substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and para-nitrophenyl phosphate, and the fluorescent substrates 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate. The same monoclonal antibody against caffeine was used throughout the study. The four quality parameters regarding the standard curve were the test midpoint (sensitivity), the measurement range, the relative dynamic range of the signal, and the goodness of fit of the adjusted four-parameter logistic function. All HRP immunoassays showed a higher sensitivity compared to the AP assays. On the basis of all four criteria, it was established that the direct assay format is superior to the indirect format, the immunoassay using HRP TMB fulfilling all requirements best. In a second step, caffeine concentrations in 24 beverage and cosmetics samples were determined and three more quality parameters were assessed with this application. The direct HRP TMB assay showed one of the best intra- and inter-plate precisions and the best accuracy, defined by the correlation of results with those from the chosen reference method liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Considering all criteria, HRP TMB seems to be the enzyme substrate system of choice preferably used in the direct assay format. PMID:23224576

  2. Detection of bound residues in soils by sandwich-immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, M.; Weller, M.G.; Niessner, R. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Institute of Hydrochemistry

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassays are useful analytical instruments for the detection of many environmental compounds. This method was not introduced for the detection of non-extractable compounds in soil. So-called ``bound residues`` consist of a soil component, e.g. humic acids and an irreversibly bound pollutant. Because of the complexity of those macromolecules conventional analytical methods in general do not work. Enzyme immunoassays, in contrast, seem to have a large potential for applications and further developments in this field. The use of antibodies with high affinity to the analytes makes a selective detection of environmental pollutants possible. With the development of an enzyme-labeled sandwich-immunoassay polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) irreversibly bound to humic acids were determined for the first time.

  3. Enzyme immunoassays as screening tools for catalysts and reaction discovery.

    PubMed

    Créminon, Christophe; Taran, Frédéric

    2015-05-11

    Enzyme immunoassays are incredibly powerful analytical tools for the quantifiable detection of target molecules in complex media. These techniques, which exploit the fantastic specific binding properties of antibodies, are fast, precise, selective and highly sensitive and thus perfectly adapted to high-throughput detection of important analytes. Although immunoassays have been used routinely by biologists for more than 50 years, especially for diagnostic purposes, it is only recently that chemists have used them to address pure chemical problems. In this feature article, we provide an overview of progress in the development of immunoassays and their use in two main fields of organic chemistry: the identification of efficient catalysts in libraries and the discovery of new chemical reactions. PMID:25765583

  4. Marrow transplantation from unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Sierra, J; Anasetti, C

    1995-11-01

    The use of an HLA-compatible unrelated donor is an option for patients who require an allogeneic transplant but lack a family member match. Grafts from unrelated volunteer donors have provided long-term disease-free survival for a variable proportion of patients, depending on degree of HLA matching with the donor, patient's disease, disease stage, and age. The number of volunteers in marrow donor registries worldwide has increased to more than 2.5 million. The number of unrelated donor transplants facilitated by the US National Marrow Donor Program alone will exceed 900 this year. Progress in HLA-typing technology results in a more precise definition of donor and recipient matching and new assays have been developed with initial success to measure alloreactive T-cell precursors for selection of donors with less antihost reactivity. Prevention and treatment of graft failure, graft-versus-host disease, opportunistic infections, and Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease remain a challenge. PMID:9372034

  5. Donor Preferences and Charitable Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephanie Roderick

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to learn more of the differences that may exist between the two most powerful groups of donors today, baby boomers (40-58 years old) and mature donors (59 and older), in an effort to help organizations improve fundraising efforts. Questions about the importance of organizational efficiency, program outcomes, and the desire for…

  6. Management of Young Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal reaction rates and increase donor retention. The donation process can be significantly improved. Future interventions may include more dietary salt, a shorter muscle tension program to make it more feasible, recommendations for post-donation muscle tension / squatting / laying down for lightheadedness, more donor education by the staff at the collection site, more staff attention to donors with fear or higher risk for a vasovagal reaction (e.g. estimated blood volume near 3.5 l, first-time donor), and a more focused donation process to ensure a pleasant and safer procedure. PMID:25254024

  7. The Dirt on the Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mary Margaret

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of donor records in college and university fund-raising programs looks at a variety of issues, including who sees them (administrators, donors, volunteers, and members of the legal profession), how access to them is controlled, and what is kept in them. Suggestions are offered for managing such records, and the experiences of a number…

  8. Donor registries and search strategies.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Carolyn K; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Setterholm, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The optimal donor of hematopoietic progenitor cells shares alleles of the major histocompatibility genes with the recipient. This chapter describes the strategies aimed at identifying such a matched donor from registries of volunteers or from umbilical cord blood banks. PMID:22665254

  9. Management of young blood donors.

    PubMed

    Newman, Bruce H

    2014-07-01

    The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal reaction rates and increase donor retention. The donation process can be significantly improved. Future interventions may include more dietary salt, a shorter muscle tension program to make it more feasible, recommendations for post-donation muscle tension / squatting / laying down for lightheadedness, more donor education by the staff at the collection site, more staff attention to donors with fear or higher risk for a vasovagal reaction (e.g. estimated blood volume near 3.5 l, first-time donor), and a more focused donation process to ensure a pleasant and safer procedure. PMID:25254024

  10. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them. PMID:25936672

  11. Live Donors in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been controversial since its inception. Begun in response to deceased donor organ shortage and waiting list mortality, LDLT was initiated in 1989 in children, grew rapidly after its first general application in adults in the US in 1998, and has declined since 2001. There are significant risks to the living donor, including the risk of death and substantial morbidity, and two highly publicized donor deaths are thought to have contributed to decreased enthusiasm for LDLT. Significant improvements in outcomes have been seen over recent years and data, including from the NIH-funded Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, A2ALL, has established a survival benefit from pursuing LDLT. Despite this, LDLT still comprises less than 5% of adult liver transplants, significantly less than in kidney transplantation where living donors comprise approximately 40% of all transplant performed. The ethics, optimal utility and application of LDLT remain to be defined. In addition, most studies to date have focused on post-transplant outcomes and not included the effect of the learning curve on outcome or the potential impact of LDLT on waiting list mortality. Further growth of LDLT will depend on defining the optimal recipient and donor characteristics for this procedure as well as broader acceptance and experience in the public and in transplant centers. PMID:18471556

  12. Toxicological detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair using radio immunoassay, fluorescence polarisation immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans H. Maurer; Christian F. Fritz

    1990-01-01

    Summary Pholcodine (3-O-(2'-morpholinoethyl)-morphine) is used in many countries as an antitussive without analgesic or addictive properties. It is of forensic relevance that pholcodine interferes with opiate immunoassays. In this paper a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) procedure for the precise and sensitive detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair, after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation, is presented. Furthermore,

  13. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R. (Columbus, OH); Bednarski, Mark D. (Berkeley, CA); Gruber, Patrick R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1997-01-01

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

  14. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-11-25

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

  15. A rapid diffusion immunoassay in a T-sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anson Hatch; Andrew Evan Kamholz; Kenneth R. Hawkins; Matthew S. Munson; Eric A. Schilling; Bernhard H. Weigl; Paul Yager

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a rapid diffusion immunoassay that allows measurement of small molecules down to subnanomolar concentrations in <1 min. This competitive assay is based on measuring the distribution of a labeled probe molecule after it diffuses for a short time from one region into another region containing antigen-specific antibodies. The assay was demonstrated in the T-sensor, a simple microfluidic

  16. Streamlining Immunoassays with Immiscible Filtrations Assisted by Surface Tension

    E-print Network

    Beebe, David J.

    cancer biomarker, prostate specific antigen (PSA). Assay performance was assessed by measuring known, such as the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to detect prostate cancer (FDA approved in 19942 ), new biomarkers fg of protein. IFAST immunoassay functionality is demonstrated by detecting a well accepted prostate

  17. DETECTION OF NORWALK VIRUS IN STOOLS BY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a solid-phase microtiter enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stool samples is described. The EIA was compared with a previously developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of Norwalk virus antigen in stools obtained from 30 vol...

  18. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS IMMUNOASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) immunoassay format for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is demonstrated. A fluorescent labeled 2,4-D analog competes with the analyte of interest for a finite number of binding sites provided by anti-2,4-D monoclonal antibodies. CE then pr...

  19. A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shuhua; Zeng, Hulie; Yang, Jianmin; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays. PMID:24859022

  20. Effect of phenolic compounds on immunoassays of peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are antioxidants. Because of their health benefit, PCs may be added to some food products. Occasionally, these products may be subjected to screening for food allergens (i.e. peanuts). In this case, the screening (an immunoassay technique) may or may not be affected by the P...

  1. Monitoring Pesticides and Personal Care Chemicals in Water by Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increasing number and quantity of organic pollutants, regulatory authorities require implementation of rapid, reliable, and cost-effective technologies for monitoring of water quality. Immunoassays provide a simple, powerful and inexpensive method for monitoring organic contaminants in bo...

  2. Reusable solid phase immunoassay for the detection of citrate lyase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Joyeux; E. Chrzavzez; C. Y. Boquien; D. Picque; G. Corrieu

    1996-01-01

    An enzymatic immunoassay on a solid phase was developed to detect citrate lyase, an intracellular enzyme of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis. A monoclonal antibody to citrate lyase was immobilized on a nylon membrane. The capture of the antigen was proved by measurement of citrate lyase activity. The immunologie support could capture citrate lyase either in a purified solution

  3. Rapid homogenous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) immunoassay for anthrax detection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noam; Mechaly, Adva; Mazor, Ohad; Fisher, Morly; Zahavy, Eran

    2014-05-01

    Infection with Bacillus anthracsis spores induces an acute anthrax disease that can cause casualties and death in untreated cases. Thus rapid diagnosis of anthrax at early stage of the disease is essential to allow an effective treatment. Here we present the development of rapid and sensitive homogenous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) immunoassays based on the energy transfer process of europium cryptate (EuK) donor to AlexaFluor647 acceptor. The energy transfer process is limited to d?donor and acceptor antibodies to the analyte would result in positive signal. HTRF assay was developed for the detection of the bacterial Protective Antigen (PA) toxin, a serological marker that correlates with bacteremia in infected hosts, using two monoclonal anti-PA antibodies that specifically recognize two different epitopes on the PA molecule. The assay was sensitive enabling detection of 2 ng/ml PA in the serum of B. anthracsis-infected rabbits in only 15 min assay. Additionally, HTRF assay was developed for the detection of bacterial spores using polyclonal anti-spore antibodies that recognize many epitopes on the bacterial surface. The assay enabled the detection of 2?×?10(6) spores/ml in 30 min assay and was specific, showing no cross reactivity with closely related non-virulent bacillus cereus strain. This study describes the use of the HTRF assay for the detection of both singled-epitope (proteins) and multi-epitope (particles) as rapid, simple and sensitive method that can be used at the time that fast results are needed to allow an effective medical care. PMID:24515915

  4. Select utilization of obese donors in living donor liver transplantation: implications for the donor pool.

    PubMed

    Moss, J; Lapointe-Rudow, D; Renz, J F; Kinkhabwala, M; Dove, L M; Gaglio, P J; Emond, J C; Brown, R S

    2005-12-01

    Living donor liver transplantation evolved in response to donor shortage. Current guidelines recommend potential living donors (LD) have a body mass index (BMI) <30. With the current obesity epidemic, locating nonobese LD is difficult. From September 1999 to August 2003, 68 LD with normal liver function test (LFTs) and without significant comorbidities underwent donor hepatectomy at our center. Post-operative complications were collected, including wound infection, pneumonia, hernia, fever, ileus, biliary leak, biliary stricture, thrombosis, bleeding, hepatic dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, difficult to control pain, depression and anxiety. Complication rates for LD with BMI >30 (n = 16) and BMI <30 (n = 52) were compared. The incidence of wound infection increased with BMI, 4% for nonobese and 25% for obese LD (p = 0.024). There were no statistically significant differences for all other complications. No LD died. Recipient survival was 100% with obese LD and 80% with nonobese LD (p = 0.1). Select donors with a BMI >30 may undergo donor hepatectomy with acceptable morbidity and excellent recipient results. Updating current guidelines to include select LD with BMI >30 has the potential to safely increase the donor pool. PMID:16303013

  5. Donor Matching for Allogenic Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Registry . They have access to millions of international records, and have successfully matched thousands of donors and ... single match can require going through millions of records. Now that transplant centers are more often using ...

  6. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  7. Complications of Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei Wedmid; Michael A. Palese

    \\u000a “Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a unique surgical procedure due to the fact that the surgeon is operating on a healthy\\u000a individual in order to benefit another patient he or she is unlikely managing, with a potential for complications ensuing\\u000a in both the donor and the recipient patients. Overall surgical technique, anatomic considerations, and perioperative management\\u000a remain important for minimizing the

  8. Mass transfer from giant donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovskii, K.; Ivanova, N.

    2015-06-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass-loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass-transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in the donor's response to mass-loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass-transfer rate via L1 allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass-transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolve stably through the conservative mass transfer varies from 1.5 to 2.2, which is about twice as large as previously believed. In underdeveloped giants with shallow convective envelopes, this critical ratio may be even larger. When the convective envelope is still growing, and in particular for most cases of massive donors, the critical mass ratio gradually decreases to this value, from that of radiative donors.

  9. The changing profile of the cardiac donor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm V Brock; Jorge D Salazar; Duke E Cameron; William A Baumgartner; John V Conte

    2001-01-01

    Background: Expansion of traditional donor criteria has become standard in most centers. To determine how this has affected donor profiles, at our institution, we reviewed all adult (age ? 16) cardiac donors of the past 15 years.Methods: We separated 261 cardiac donors into 2 groups based on time periods: Group I, 1983 to 1991 (n = 131), and Group II,

  10. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  11. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA.

    PubMed

    Tak For Yu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M; Cornell, Timothy T; Shanley, Thomas P; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology ('AlphaLISA') in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45?min with a limit of detection down to 10?pg mL(-1). The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications. PMID:26074253

  12. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA

    PubMed Central

    Tak For Yu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M.; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology (‘AlphaLISA’) in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45?min with a limit of detection down to 10?pg mL?1. The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications. PMID:26074253

  13. Who is the best alternative allotransplant donor?

    PubMed

    Gale, R P; Eapen, M

    2015-06-01

    Assuming that most physicians will chose an HLA-identical sibling as the best allotransplant donor, the question arises who is the best alternative donor when an HLA-identical sibling is unavailable? The most commonly used alternative donors are HLA-identical or -mismatched unrelated donors, HLA-matched or -mismatched umbilical cord blood donor or a related, HLA-haplotype-matched related donors. Each alternative donor option has advantages and disadvantages. We discuss selected aspects of these issues based on data from randomized clinical trials and observational databases. However, because there are limited data to address specific clinical settings, quantification of expert opinion is sometimes needed. PMID:26039206

  14. Donor height in combination with islet donor score improves pancreas donor selection for pancreatic islet isolation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, L J; Cochet, O; Wang, X J; Krzystyniak, A; Misawa, R; Golab, K; Tibudan, M; Grose, R; Savari, O; Millis, J M; Witkowski, P

    2014-01-01

    To maximize the islet isolation yield for successful islet transplantation, the key task has been to identify an ideal pancreas donor. Since implementation of the islet donor score in donor selection, we have consistently obtained higher islet yields and transplantation rates. In this study, we tested whether assessing donor height as an independent variable in combination with the donor score could improve the pancreas donor selection. Donor and islet isolation information (n = 22) were collected and studied between 2011 and 2012. Pearson correlation analysis was used in statistical analysis. Donor height as an independent variable was significantly correlated to the weight of the pancreas, pre-Islet Equivalents (pre-IEQ), post-IEQ, and IDS (P < .05). When donor with height of 179 cm ± 3 was selected in combination with IDS > 80, the clinical islet transplantation rate reached 80%. PMID:25131085

  15. Evaluation of third generation anti-HCV enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, A K; Nayak, B; Dixit, R; Acharya, S K; Panda, S K

    1998-01-01

    The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a major cause of post transfusion hepatitis. The introduction of HCV antibody screening has reduced the risk of post transfusion hepatitis significantly. However, the test is yet to be used routinely in blood banks of several developing countries with limited resources. We have developed an Enzyme immunoassay using synthetic peptides. The test was compared to seven commercial tests available in the Indian market. The test was evaluated using a panel of 90 sera which were chosen from an earlier panel based on detection of HCV RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction RT-PCR. In case of any discrepancy the sera were further analysed by Line immunoassay (LIA). The sensitivity of the in house EIA was 90%. The specificity of the commercial EIAs varied. PMID:9828708

  16. Selected strategies for improving sensitivity and reliability of immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Kricka, L J

    1994-03-01

    Selected recent advances in immunoassay are reviewed. Development has continued on new labels (beta-lactamase, pyrophosphatase, luciferases, photoproteins, pyridopyridazines, europium cryptates, metal carbonyl complexes, porphines, phosphors) and label-detection methods (e.g., chemiluminescence assays, thermometric assays, NADP(+)- and FADP-based coupled assays). Various methods have been explored to increase assay sensitivity, including label amplification via catalyzed reporter deposition (peroxidase label) and immuno-polymerase chain reaction (DNA label). The focus of new immunoassay strategies has been on improved reliability (bispecific antibodies), assay simplification (piezoelectric and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors, phase-modulation fluorescence spectroscopy, polymerized bilayer assemblies), and simultaneous multianalyte testing (e.g., quadruple labeling with lanthanides, one-step test devices for drugs of abuse). PMID:7802752

  17. [Study of regeneration based on SERS labelled immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Ge, Ming; Yao, Jian-lin; Sun, Ru; Gu, Ren-ao

    2010-07-01

    Labelled immunoassay by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has great research and application value. It combines SERS which has the high sensitivity and high selectivity with specific adsorption in immunology. The present paper mainly studies the regeneration about SERS labelled immunoassay, striving to develop the recycling value of it. The authors used glycine-HCl eluent for the sandwich structure including solid matrix antibody, antigen and labelled immuno-gold colloids, then the authors had got expected result. The complex of antibody and antigen would be separated by changing the pH scale. It could elute the most antigen and the labelled immuno-gold colloids. Also the authors could assemble it again and distinguish the characteristic SERS spectrum of the reporter molecules. Under this condition, we researched the stability and reusing of this technology. The authors found that it has better stability and it retained activity after 10 recycles of applications. PMID:20827970

  18. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

  19. SlipChip for immunoassays in nanoliter volumes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weishan; Chen, Delai; Du, Wenbin; Nichols, Kevin P.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a SlipChip-based approach to perform bead-based heterogeneous immunoassays with multiple nanoliter-volume samples. As a potential device to analyze the output of the chemistrode, the performance of this platform was tested using low concentrations of biomolecules. Two strategies to perform the immunoassay in the SlipChip were tested: 1) a unidirectional slipping method to combine the well containing a sample with a series of wells preloaded with reagents; 2) a back-and-forth slipping method to introduce a series of reagents to a well containing the sample by reloading and slipping the well containing the reagent. The SlipChips were fabricated with hydrophilic surfaces on the interior of the wells and with hydrophobic surfaces on the face of the SlipChip to enhance filling, transferring, and maintaining aqueous solutions in shallow wells. Nanopatterning was used to increase the hydrophobic nature of the SlipChip surface. Magnetic beads containing the capture antibody were efficiently transferred between wells and washed by serial dilution. An insulin immunoenzymatic assay showed a detection of limit of ~13 pM. Forty eight droplets of nanoliter volume were analyzed in parallel, including an on-chip calibration. The design of the SlipChip is flexible to accommodate other types of immunoassays, both heterogeneous and homogeneous. This work establishes the possibility of using SlipChip-based immunoassays in small volumes for a range of possible applications, including analysis of plugs from a chemistrode, detection of molecules from single cells, and diagnostic monitoring. PMID:20334360

  20. An Immunoassay Platform Based on CMOS Hall Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turgut Aytur; P. Robert Beatty; Bernhard Boser; Tomohiro Ishikawa

    2002-01-01

    We describe an immunoassay utilizing standard CMOS technology. An array of Hall sensors is used to detect the magnetic beads that serve as the assay signal. Electrical and magnetic modulation is employed to improve the sensitivity of the sensors. The devices receive two post-processing steps to improve sensitivity and biocompatibility. We have fabricated prototype devices using a 0.25-µm BiCMOS process,

  1. A microfluidic chip for heterogeneous immunoassay using electrokinetical control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoqing Hu; Yali Gao; Philip M. Sherman; Dongqing Li

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the development of a novel, automated, electrokinetically controlled heterogeneous immunoassay on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic chip. A numerical method has been developed to simulate the electrokinetically driven, time-dependent delivery processes of reagents and washing solutions within the complex microchannel network. Based on the parameters determined from the numerical simulations, fully automated on-chip experiments to detect Helicobacter pylori

  2. Flow-through amperometric immunosensor: fast ‘sandwich’ scheme immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L Ghindilis; R Krishnan; P Atanasov; E Wilkins

    1997-01-01

    A flow-through immunosensor based on a high-surface-area carbon immunoelectrode has been developed. Dispersed carbon material serves as a carrier for immobilized antibodies and at the same time as an electrode material. The ‘sandwich’ scheme of immunoassay has been used. Iodine formed as a result of the enzymatic oxidation of iodide by a peroxidase label has been detected amperometrically. The immunosensor

  3. PCB detection by immunoassay -- A wipe test for surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dautlick, J.X.; Teaney, G.B.; Hudak, R.T.; Melby, J.M. [Strategic Diagnostics Industries Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassay based field screening methods are gaining acceptance by the environmental diagnostics industry for on-site characterization and remediation monitoring. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of molecules classified as potential carcinogens, can be easily detected on-site by immunoassay screening methods. This results in reduced project cost and improved onsite efficiency, since field screening immunoassays short cut the long turn around time of laboratory analysis while providing reliable results. On site wipe test technology for assessing PCB contamination on surfaces such as walls and floors of PCB storage facilities has been developed to supplement the D TECH{trademark} PCB soil assay. This sampling technique can also be used to monitor for transformer leaks, spills and to evaluate equipment decontamination processes. The D TECH PCB wipe test is quick, cost effective, highly specific and user friendly. The surface is sampled by wiping a 100 cm{sup 2} area with a 1 cm{sup 2} pad saturated with an extractant. The PCB is extracted from the sampling pad during a short extraction step. The sample is filtered, diluted, and run in the D TECH PCB field screening system. The components of the immunoassay include PCB specific antibodies (Ab) covalently linked to small latex particles, a PCB analog which is covalently linked to alkaline phosphatase, and the free PCB from the sample. The free PCB competes with the enzyme linked analog for the Ab binding sites. The latex particles are then collected on a filter device, washed, and an enzyme substrate is added. The amount of color produced is inversely proportional to the concentration of free PCB on the sample, and can be determined using a hand held reflectometer, or a color card.

  4. EVALUATION OF A NEW IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY ETHYL GLUCURONIDE TESTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLOF BECK; ANDERS HELANDER

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The minor ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used as a sensitive and specific test for recent alcohol consumption with clinical and forensic applications. This study evaluated a new enzyme immunoassay (DRI-EtG EIA, Microgenics Corp.) for determination of the EtG concentration in urine samples. Methods: Evaluation was done using the kit calibrators (range 0-5.0 mg\\/L) and controls, an external

  5. Determination of 4- n -nonylphenol in water by enzyme immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne V. Samsonova; Maya Yu. Rubtsova; Milan Franek

    2003-01-01

    A range of monoclonal antibody-based competitive immunoassays in the format of microtitre plate ELISA and dipstick tests for quantitative and semi-quantitative detection of 4- n -nonylphenol in water was developed. A simple visual dipstick test was based on changing of spot colour from green to brown in the presence of 4- n -nonylphenol at concentrations within the range 10-100 ng

  6. 64 FR 34260 - Blood Donor Suitability Workshop: Donor History of Hepatitis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-06-25

    ...Suitability Workshop: Donor History of Hepatitis AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Suitability Workshop: Donor History of Hepatitis.'' The purpose of the workshop is...blood donors with a history of viral hepatitis should be deferred from donating...

  7. Single Step Nanoplasmonic Immunoassay for the Measurement of Protein Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; de la Zerda, Adam; Paranjape, Amit; Awdeh, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoplasmonic biosensor for highly-sensitive, single-step detection of protein biomarkers is presented. The principle is based on the utilization of the optical scattering properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to bio-recognition molecules. The nanoplasmonic properties of the GNRs were utilized to detect proteins using near-infrared light interferometry. We show that the antibody-conjugated GNRs can specifically bind to our model analyte, Glucose Transporter-1 (Glut-1). The signal intensity of back-scattered light from the GNRs bound after incubation, correlated well to the Glut-1 concentration as per the calibration curve. The detection range using this nanoplasmonic immunoassay ranges from 10 ng/mL to 1 ug/mL for Glut-1. The minimal detectable concentration based on the lowest discernable concentration from zero is 10 ng/mL. This nanoplasmonic immunoassay can act as a simple, selective, sensitive strategy for effective disease diagnosis. It offers advantages such as wide detection range, increased speed of analysis (due to fewer incubation/washing steps), and no label development as compared to traditional immunoassay techniques. Our future goal is to incorporate this detection strategy onto a microfluidic platform to be used as a point-of-care diagnostic tool. PMID:25587399

  8. Single step nanoplasmonic immunoassay for the measurement of protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; de la Zerda, Adam; Paranjape, Amit; Awdeh, Richard M

    2013-03-01

    A nanoplasmonic biosensor for highly-sensitive, single-step detection of protein biomarkers is presented. The principle is based on the utilization of the optical scattering properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to bio-recognition molecules. The nanoplasmonic properties of the GNRs were utilized to detect proteins using near-infrared light interferometry. We show that the antibody-conjugated GNRs can specifically bind to our model analyte, Glucose Transporter-1 (Glut-1). The signal intensity of back-scattered light from the GNRs bound after incubation, correlated well to the Glut-1 concentration as per the calibration curve. The detection range using this nanoplasmonic immunoassay ranges from 10 ng/mL to 1 ug/mL for Glut-1. The minimal detectable concentration based on the lowest discernable concentration from zero is 10 ng/mL. This nanoplasmonic immunoassay can act as a simple, selective, sensitive strategy for effective disease diagnosis. It offers advantages such as wide detection range, increased speed of analysis (due to fewer incubation/washing steps), and no label development as compared to traditional immunoassay techniques. Our future goal is to incorporate this detection strategy onto a microfluidic platform to be used as a point-of-care diagnostic tool. PMID:25587399

  9. Development of immunoassays for detecting clothianidin residue in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Sheng, Enze; Cong, Lujing; Wang, Minghua

    2013-04-17

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) for clothianidin are described: colorimetric detection format (ELISA) and pattern of chemiluminescent assay (CLEIA). Clothianidin hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to produce immunogen and coating antigen. Anticlothianidin PcAbs were obtained from immunized New Zealand white rabbits. Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC??) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC??) of clothianidin were 0.046 and 0.0028 mg/L for the ELISA and 0.015 and 0.0014 mg/L for the CLEIA, respectively. There were no obvious cross-reactivities of the antibodies with its analogues except for dinotefuran. Recoveries of 76.4-116.4% for the immunoassays were achieved from spiked samples. The results of immunoassays for the spiked and authentic samples were largely consistent with gas chromatography. Therefore, the proposed immunoassays would be convenient and satisfactory analytical methods for the monitoring of clothianidin in agricultural products. PMID:23527939

  10. Ultrasensitive immunoassay based on electrochemical measurement of enzymatically produced polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Lai, Guosong; Zhang, Haili; Tamanna, Tasnuva; Yu, Aimin

    2014-02-01

    A novel ultrasensitive immunoassay method was developed based on the electrochemical measurement of polyaniline, which was catalytically produced by horseradish peroxidase-functionalized gold nanoparticle (HRP-Au NP) probe at an immunosensor. The immunosensor was prepared step-wise by first modifying the electrode with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Au NPs nanocomposite followed by the immobilization of capture antibodies on its surface. After performing a sandwich immunoreaction, the quantitatively captured HRP-Au NP nanoprobes could catalyze oxidation of aniline to produce electroactive polyaniline on the immunosensor surface. The electrochemical measurement of polyaniline enabled a novel detection strategy for HRP-based immunoassay. Both the signal amplification of the HRP-Au NP nanoprobe and the electron transfer acceleration of rGO/Au NPs on the immunosensor surface greatly improved the detection sensitivity of the immunoassay method. With the use of human IgG as a model analyte, this method showed a wide linear range over 4 orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 9.7 pg/mL. In addition, the immunosensor had low cost, satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and acceptable reliability. The relatively positive potential range for the polyaniline measurement completely excluded the conventional interference from dissolved oxygen. Thus, this method provides a promising potential for practical applications. PMID:24392763

  11. A capillary-based amperometric flow immunoassay for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catalin Nistor; Jenny Emnéus

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of two different capillary-based heterogeneous competitive flow immunoassay formats (capillary flow injection immunoassay (CFIIA) and capillary sequential injection immunoassay (CSIIA)) for the determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The assays are based on the competition between the analyte and an analyte derivative labelled with the enzyme #-galactosidase, for an anti-TCP antibody, followed by the injection of the

  12. Immunoassay on Free-Standing Electrospun Dapeng Wu, Daewoo Han, and Andrew J. Steckl*

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    - mercial membranes have been widely used as bioassay substrates for DNA (Southern blotting) (1), protein (Western blotting) (2), lateral flow immunochromatographic assays, and common immunoassays (3). After 30

  13. Multicenter Analytical Evaluation of the Automated Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Cyclosporine

    PubMed Central

    Vogeser, Michael; Shipkova, Maria; Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Wallemacq, Pierre; Orth, Matthias; Widmann, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used as a posttransplantation immunosuppressant drug, and careful monitoring of CsA concentration in whole blood is essential. A new automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for CsA measurement has been assessed in a multicenter evaluation. Methods: Residual EDTA whole blood samples from patients undergoing CsA therapy after organ transplant were used in assay evaluation at 5 clinical laboratories in Europe. Experiments included imprecision according to CLSI EP5-A2 (within-run and intermediate), lower limit of quantification, linearity according to CLSI EP6-A, and recovery of commercial external quality control samples. In addition, comparisons to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in routine use at each investigational site and to commercial chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay methods were performed. Results: Imprecision testing gave coefficients of variation of less than 9% in the 30–2000 mcg/L range for both within-run and intermediate imprecision. Lower limit of quantification of 6.8 mcg/L at one investigational site and 1.8 mcg/L at a second site at 20% coefficient of variation were observed. Linearity was measured over the concentration range 0–2000 mcg/L, yielding a deviation of less than ±12%. External quality control sample recovery by ECLIA was 93%–114% of LC-MS/MS sample recovery. Deming regression analysis of ECLIA method comparison to combined LC-MS/MS results yielded a slope of 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.06] and intercept of 2.8 mcg/L (95% CI, 1.5–4.1 mcg/L). Comparison to chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.85–0.89) and intercept of 1.4 mcg/L (95% CI, ?0.89 to 3.7 mcg/L); comparison to antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay yielded a slope of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93–0.98) and intercept of ?4.2 mcg/L (95% CI, ?7.1 to ?1.2 mcg/L). Conclusions: The data from this multicenter evaluation indicate that the new ECLIA-based cyclosporine assay is fit for its purpose, the therapeutic monitoring of CsA. PMID:24646730

  14. Extended-donor criteria liver allografts.

    PubMed

    Alkofer, Barbara; Samstein, Benjamin; Guarrera, James V; Kin, Cindy; Jan, Dominique; Bellemare, Sarah; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Brown, Robert; Emond, Jean C; Renz, John F

    2006-08-01

    Extended-donor criteria liver allografts do not meet traditional criteria for transplantation. Although these organs offer immediate expansion of the donor pool, transplantation of extended-donor criteria liver allografts increases potential short- and long-term risk to the recipient. This risk may manifest as impaired allograft function or donor-transmitted disease. Guidelines defining this category of donor, level of acceptable risk, principles of consent, and post-transplantation surveillance have not been defined. This article reviews the utilization, ethical considerations, and outcomes of extended-donor criteria liver allografts. PMID:16850371

  15. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  16. When do donors trust recipient country systems ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Knack

    2012-01-01

    The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness sets targets for increased use by donors of recipient country systems for managing aid. The target is premised on a view that country systems are strengthened when donors trust recipients to manage aid funds, but undermined when donors manage aid through their own separate parallel systems. This study provides an analytical framework for

  17. Outcomes of Donor Evaluation in Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, James F.; Wisniewski, Karen A.; Terrault, Norah A.; Everhart, James E.; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Weinrieb, Robert M.; Fair, Jeffrey H.; Fisher, Robert A.; Koffron, Alan J.; Saab, Sammy; Merion, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of donor evaluation for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is to discover medical conditions that could increase the donor postoperative risk of complications and to determine whether the donor can yield a suitable graft for the recipient. We report the outcomes of LDLT donor candidates evaluated in a large multicenter study of LDLT. The records of all donor candidates and their respective recipients between 1998 and 2003 were reviewed as part of the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL). The outcomes of the evaluation were recorded along with demographic data on the donors and recipients. Of the 1011 donor candidates evaluated, 405 (40%) were accepted for donation. The donor characteristics associated with acceptance (P < 0.05) were younger age, lower body mass index, and biological or spousal relationship to the recipient. Recipient characteristics associated with donor acceptance were younger age, lower Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, and shorter time from listing to first donor evaluation. Other predictors of donor acceptance included earlier year of evaluation and transplant center. Conclusion Both donor and recipient features appear to affect acceptance for LDLT. These findings may aid the donor evaluation process and allow an objective assessment of the likelihood of donor candidate acceptance. PMID:17668879

  18. Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies to Six Nonhuman-Primate Viruses by Multiplex Microbead Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran H. Khan; Sara Mendoza; JoAnn Yee; Matthew Deane; Kodumudi Venkateswaran; Shan S. Zhou; Peter A. Barry; Nicholas W. Lerche; Paul A. Luciw

    2006-01-01

    To maintain healthy nonhuman primates for use in biomedical research, animals are routinely screened for several infectious agents at most facilities. Commonly, monkey serum samples are tested by conventional immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or Western blotting, for antibodies to specific infectious agents. For testing for antibodies against multiple agents in each sample, conventional immunoassays are laborious and

  19. Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Hapten Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies for Development of Sensitive Immunoassay

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Hapten Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies for Development of Sensitive of immunoassay. We expressed VHHs from an immunized alpaca and developed a VHH-based immunoassay using 3-phenox sequences from immunized alpaca and phage display technology for antibody selection. Since the first

  20. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Enteropathogenic Yersinia by Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 103 CFU/ml to 8.8 × 104 CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 105 CFU/ml to 106 CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  1. REGULATING REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: TIMING, UNCERTAINTY, AND DONOR ANONYMITY

    E-print Network

    Finzi, Adrien

    1189 ESSAY REGULATING REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: TIMING, UNCERTAINTY, AND DONOR ANONYMITY GAIA................................................................................ 1202 III. DONOR ANONYMITY AND THE DIFFUSION OF ART........................... 1205 A. Prohibitions on Donor Anonymity and the Supply of Donor Gametes

  2. [Living Donor Liver Transplantation - Past and Present.

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, F; Bauschke, A; Bärthel, E; Scheuerlein, H; Schüle, S; Malessa, C; Settmacher, U

    2013-07-01

    Since the first living donor liver transplantations at the end of the 1980s, this transplantation technique has developed as an established tool within the modern transplantation medicine. Especially in Asia, the majority of liver transplantation is performed through living donation, mainly for religious reasons. Liver grafts for adult recipients are mainly the right liver lobe of the donor, for paediatric recipients mainly the left lateral lobe. In some cases, the living donor liver transplantation is realised from two different donors for one recipient, the so-called "dual graft" transplantation. This article summarises the history of living donor liver transplantation up to the current status of this transplantation procedure worldwide. PMID:23824621

  3. Laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gill, I S; Carbone, J M; Clayman, R V; Fadden, P A; Stone, M A; Lucas, B A; McRoberts, J W

    1994-04-01

    Laparoscopic nephrectomy with ablative intent has been performed clinically. The current study aimed to determine whether a physiologically and anatomically intact kidney suitable for transplantation could be harvested laparoscopically. Three weeks after an ablative laparoscopic right nephrectomy, 15 pigs were divided into two groups: the study group (n = 10) underwent a laparoscopic live-donor left nephrectomy of the solitary kidney and conventional autotransplantation; the control group (n = 5) underwent an open live-donor left nephrectomy of the solitary kidney and conventional autotransplantation. All study kidneys underwent laparoscopic in situ hypothermic perfusion. The mean length of the left renal artery and vein were similar in the study and control groups: 3.1 cm and 3.4 cm, respectively, in the study group compared with 2.5 cm and 3.8 cm, respectively, in the control group (P = 0.5). No intraoperative renal vascular injuries or postoperative ureteral complications were noted in either group. Renal histopathologic examination immediately after live-donor nephrectomy and at 1 month post-transplant showed similar findings in the two groups. The mean serum creatinine at 7 and 30 days postoperatively was not significantly different: 2.1 mg/dL and 1.6 mg/dL, respectively, in the study group and 1.7 mg/dL, and 1.4 mg/dL, respectively, in the control group (P = 0.4). We conclude that laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy can be performed safely and reproducibly in the porcine model. PMID:8061673

  4. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    PubMed Central

    Akoh, Jacob A.; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar

    2013-01-01

    Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF) and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5?mL/min/1.73?m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended. PMID:24163758

  6. Novel and sensitive enzyme immunoassay (immune-complex-transfer enzyme immunoassay) for alpha-fetoprotein from hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kohno, T; Kitamura, T; Tsuda, K; Ishikawa, E

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein in sera from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was fractionated into three peaks by affinity chromatography on a column of Lens culinaris agglutinin-Sepharose 4B. One peak (the first peak), which passed through the column without adsorption, was found in both healthy subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The second and third peaks were reactive with L. culinaris agglutinin and found only in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. For alpha-fetoprotein in the second and third peaks, a novel and sensitive enzyme immunoassay (immune-complex-transfer enzyme immunoassay) was developed. Alpha-fetoprotein in test serum was reacted with dinitrophenyl affinity-purified anti-alpha-fetoprotein IgG, and the complex formed was trapped onto affinity-purified (antidinitrophenyl bovine serum albumin) IgG-coated polystyrene balls. The polystyrene balls were washed to eliminate substance(s) other than alpha-fetoprotein in the test serum, and the complex was eluted from the polystyrene balls with dinitrophenyl-L-lysine. The eluted complex containing alpha-fetoprotein in the second and third peaks was trapped onto L. culinaris agglutinin-coated polystyrene balls and reacted with affinity-purified anti-alpha-fetoprotein Fab'-beta-D-galactosidase conjugate. Beta-D-galactosidase activity bound to the polystyrene balls was assayed by fluorimetry. The maximal volume of serum that could be used without interference was 20 microliters, which was 100-fold larger than that in the previous enzyme immunoassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1693671

  7. Comparison of a chemiluminescent immunoassay with two microparticle enzyme immunoassays for detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Diepersloot, R J; van Zantvliet-van Oostrom, Y; Gleaves, C A

    2000-11-01

    A comparative evaluation of the following commercial immunoassays for the detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed: the Abbott AxSYM, Abbott IMx, and DPC IMMULITE assays. The specificity was 100% for all assays. Twelve samples were identified and were confirmed to be positive for HBsAg by all three methods. One additional sample was identified as reactive and was confirmed to be positive by the Abbott AxSYM assay only. Prior to confirmation testing the DPC IMMULITE assay produced significantly fewer false-positive results than the Abbott AxSYM assay (P < 0.05). PMID:11063488

  8. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Hervé; Dano, Julie; Lamourette, Patricia; Sylvestre, Patricia; Mock, Michèle; Créminon, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons, and it is essential to develop a rapid and simple method to detect B. anthracis spores in environmental samples. The immunoassay is a rapid and easy-to-use method for the detection of B. anthracis by means of antibodies directed against surface spore antigens. With this objective in view, we have produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies against B. anthracis and developed colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays. Using Meso Scale Discovery ECL technology, which is based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection utilizing a sulfo-Tag label that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation (using a dedicated ECL plate reader, an electrical current is placed across the microplate with electrodes integrated into the bottom of the plate, resulting in a series of electrically induced reactions leading to a luminescent signal), a detection limit ranging between 0.3 × 103 and 103 CFU/ml (i.e., 30 to 100 spores per test), depending on the B. anthracis strain assayed, was achieved. In complex matrices (5 mg/ml of soil or simulated powder), the detection level (without any sample purification or concentration) was never altered more than 3-fold compared with the results obtained in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:22773632

  9. Development of competitive immunoassays to hydroxyl containing fungicide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Jarvis, Shila; Maddison, Ben C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of monoclonal antibodies and the development of competitive immunoassays to pesticide metabolites of the fungicides imazalil, carbendazim and thiabendazole. The metabolite specific hydroxyl residues were used as the reactive group with which to link the metabolite to the carrier proteins Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). In each case immune responses in mice were raised and monoclonal antibodies were produced. Antibodies were developed into competitive ELISAs to the appropriate metabolite. The antibody raised to a metabolite of imazalil was optimised into a competitive ELISA format which had an assay IC50 of 7.5 ?g/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.1 ?g/L. A single antibody isolated against the metabolite of carbendazim had assay IC50s of 3.2 and 2.7 ?g/L for the metabolites of carbendazim and thiabendazole respectively with an LOD of 0.38 ?g/L for both. These sensitive immunoassays may have application in the monitoring of human exposure to these fungicide residues either by occupational or non-occupational routes. PMID:21728812

  10. Sensitive Immunoassays of Nitrated Fibrinogen in Human Biofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Qian, Weijun; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Smith, Richard D.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-05

    Three new sandwich immunoassays for detection of nitrated biomarker have been established with potential applications in biomedical studies and clinical practice. In this study, nitrated human fibrinogen, a potential oxidative stress biomarker for several pathologies, was chosen as the target. To improve the sensitivity and overcome the interference caused by the complexity of human biofluids, we developed three sandwich strategies using various combinations of primary antibody and secondary antibody. All three strategies demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity towards nitrated forms of fibrinogen in buffer, but their performances were dramatically reduced when tested with human plasma and serum samples. Systematically optimizations were carried out to investigate the effects of numerous factors, including sampling, coating, blocking, and immunoreactions. Our final optimization results indicate that two of these strategies retain sufficient sensitivity and selectivity for use as assays in human physiological samples. Specifically, detection limits reached the pM level and the linear response ranges were up to nM level with a correlation coefficient > 0.99. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of using an electrochemical immunoassay for a nitrated biomarker in a physiological fluid. This novel approach provides a rapid, sensitive, selective, cost efficient and robust bioassay for detection of oxidative stress in pathology and for clinical applications. Moreover, the sandwich strategies developed in this paper can be readily used to establish effective methods targeting other nitration biomarkers.

  11. Aequorin fusion proteins as bioluminescent tracers for competitive immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Deo, Sapna K.; Dikici, Emre; Roda, Aldo; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-06-01

    The use of bio- and chemiluminescence for the development of quantitative binding assays offers undoubted advantages over other detection systems, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, or radioactivity. Indeed, bio- and chemiluminescence detection provides similar, or even better, sensitivity and detectability than radioisotopes, while avoiding the problems of health hazards, waste disposal, and instability associated with the use of radioisotopes. Among bioluminescent labels, the calcium-activated photoprotein aequorin, originally isolated from Aequorea victoria and today available as a recombinant product, is characterized by very high detectability, down to attomole levels. It has been used as a bioluminescent label for developing a variety of highly sensitive immunoassays, using various analyte-aequorin conjugation strategies. When the analyte is a protein or a peptide, genetic engineering techniques can be used to produce protein fusions where the analyte is in-frame fused with aequorin, thus producing homogeneous one-to-one conjugation products, available in virtually unlimited amount. Various assays were developed using this strategy: a short review of the most interesting applications is presented, as well as the cloning, purification and initial characterization of an endothelin-1-aequorin conjugate suitable for developing a competitive immunoassay for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, involved in hypertension.

  12. Heterophilic antibodies as a source of error in immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, L.; Witkin, M.; Shuler, S.; Neely, H.; Gilbert, S.

    1985-05-01

    Antibodies directed against IgG used in an immunoassay, when present in patient serum, may lead to erroneous estimates of analyte by combining with the primary antibody and effectively reducing its concentration. In two patients with anti-rabbit IgG the authors obtained apparently elevated TSH, LH, and FSH estimates using competitive, second antibody kits Dilutional parallelism could not be demonstrated using these kits. Normal TSH estimates were obtained using one of several IRMAs and a competitive assay which included rabbit IgG in the buffer. Normal LH and FSH estimates (including dilutional parallelism) were obtained using competitive assay kits which included rabbit IgG in the buffer. The authors were not able to repair the antibody-limited kits by adding rabbit IgG, as the second antibody concentration was inadequate to precipitate the added IgG Heterophilic antibody directed against the assay antibody presents a significant potential problem in immunoassay. This problem is most pronounced in antibody limited systems and may be avoided by the addition of same-species IgG. The laboratory user may not be able to make this addition unless the separation step is reoptomized. Antibody excess (IRMA) systems are effected if the offending antibody is present in concentrations sufficient to saturate the extracting antibody. Practically, a heterophilic antibody must be suspected by demonstrating nonparallelism. This potential problem should be more widely appreciated.

  13. Multiplex Detection of Plant Pathogens Using a Microsphere Immunoassay Technology

    PubMed Central

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R.; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection. PMID:23638044

  14. Molecular blood grouping of donors.

    PubMed

    St-Louis, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    For many decades, hemagglutination has been the sole means to type blood donors. Since the first blood group gene cloning in the early 1990s, knowledge on the molecular basis of most red blood cell, platelet and neutrophil antigens brought the possibility of using nucleotide-based techniques to predict phenotype. This review will summarized methodologies available to genotype blood groups from laboratory developed assays to commercially available platforms, and how proficiency assays become more present. The author will also share her vision of the transfusion medicine future. The field is presently at the crossroads, bringing new perspectives to a century old practice. PMID:24656492

  15. Quantum Dots as Reporters in Multiplexed Immunoassays for Biomarkers of Exposure to Agrochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nichkova, M.; Dosev, D.; Davies, A. E.; Gee, S. J.; Kennedy, I. M.; Hammock, B. D.

    2008-01-01

    The application of quantum dots (QDs) as labels in immunoassay microarrays for the multiplex detection of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) and atrazine-mercapturate (AM) has been demonstrated. PBA and AM are biomarkers of exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides and to the herbicide atrazine, respectively. Microarrays were fabricated by microcontact printing of the coating antigens in line patterns onto glass substrates. Competitive immunoassays were successfully performed using QDs (QD560 and QD620) as reporters. The multiplexed immunoassays were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The application of QD fluorophores facilitates multiplex assays and therefore can contribute to enhanced throughput in biomonitoring. PMID:19079795

  16. Electron donors for biological sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Liamleam, Warounsak; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2007-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction is widely used for treating sulfate-containing wastewaters from industries such as mining, tannery, pulp and paper, and textiles. In biological reduction, sulfate is converted to hydrogen sulfide as the end product. The process is, therefore, ideally suited for treating metal-containing wastewater from which heavy metals are simultaneously removed through the formation of metal sulfides. Metal sulfide precipitates are more stable than metal hydroxides that are sensitive to pH change. Theoretically, conversion of 1 mol of sulfate requires 0.67 mol of chemical oxygen demand or electron donors. Sulfate rich wastewaters are usually deficient in electron donors and require external addition of electron donors in order to achieve complete sulfate reduction. This paper reviews various electron donors employed in biological sulfate reduction. Widely used electron donors include hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, sugar, and molasses. The selection criteria for suitable electron donors are discussed. PMID:17572039

  17. [Assessment and selection of kidney living donors].

    PubMed

    Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Pereira Palomo, Porfirio

    2010-01-01

    Donor protection should always be taken account during the selection and assessment of a living donor. On these terms, the evaluation of a potential donor must include these issues: 1) The donor act is altruistic, consciousness and out of coercion; 2) Life expectancy and quality of life of the recipient will improve after the living donor kidney transplantation; 3) The donor has normal renal function and the potential risk of developing nephropathy in the long term follow up is scarce (familiar nephropathies and other processes that may increase the potential risk for renal disease in the future, like severe hypertension, diabetes, etc must be ruled out). The glomerular filtrate should meet criteria for the normal function corresponding to age furthermore the absence of proteinuria and urine smear is normal; 4) The screening in the donor should contemplate those clinical situations or diseases non related to the kidney function but might elevate the surgical and/or anesthesia risk besides disease transmission to the recipient (as neoplasia or infections); 5) The surgical act is possible without technical difficulties and always performed after a negative result of the crossmatch between donor and recipient. The living donor evaluation process will follow a different schedule based on each particular case and the center facilities. Any case, the mentioned process is divided in two parts: The first one contains an initial screening (using non invasive and low cost tests) that allows discarding contraindications for donation (in both donor and recipient). In a second phase the assessment of the donor varies with donor characteristics. However, a test for renal function is mandatory besides imaging techniques (like angioTC), screening for transmissible diseases and a detailed evaluation for psychosocial aspects preferably made by professional. Moreover Spanish policy on living donation requires a report with information about the consent for donation developed by an independent board (ethics committee) besides the consent for donation given at the civil registry. PMID:21183963

  18. Prediction of kidney transplant outcome by donor quality scoring systems: expanded criteria donor and deceased donor score.

    PubMed

    Arnau, A; Rodrigo, E; Miñambres, E; Ruiz, J C; Ballesteros, M A; Piñera, C; Fernandez-Fresnedo, G; Palomar, R; Arias, M

    2012-11-01

    Due to disparity between organ supply and demand, use of kidneys from suboptimal donors has become increasingly common. Several donor quality systems have been developed to identify kidneys with an increased risk for graft dysfunction and loss. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of deceased donor score (DDS) and expanded criteria donor (ECD) status to predict kidney transplant outcomes in a single center. We analysed 280 deceased donor renal transplantation procedures, collecting data from the prospectively maintained institutional database. Kidney transplant outcome variable included delayed graft function, 1-year glomerular filtration rate (GFR1y), and death-censored graft loss (DCGL). Kidneys were obtained from marginal donors in 45.7% of transplant recipients by DDS and in 24.9% by ECD. DDS-defined marginal donors suffered delayed graft function (DGF) more frequently than nonmarginal donors (40.8% vs 25.0%; P = .006), whereas ECD did not develop DGF at a greater rate. GFR1Y was significantly worse among patients receiving kidneys from marginal donors: DDS 40.3 ± 12.9 vs 57.7 ± 19.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P < .001) and ECD 39.4 ± 14.1 vs 53.8 ± 19.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P < .0001). The most severe donor category defined by DDS (grade D) showed an independently worse death-censored graft survival hazard rate [HR] 2.661, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.076-6.582; P = .034). DDS and ECD scoring systems are based on donor information available at the time of transplantation that predict 1-year graft function. Moreover in our center, DDS was better to predict DGF and death-censored graft survival than ECD. PMID:23146452

  19. Hybrid super electron donors – preparation and reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Jean; Thomson, Douglas W; Zhou, Shengze; Jolly, Phillip I; Berlouis, Leonard E A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor). The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed. PMID:23019427

  20. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health Resources and...Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health Resources and...uncontrolled donation after circulatory death donors, the CIOP Program...generally focused on specific organ systems and not on donor...

  1. Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

  2. One-step homogeneous immunoassay for small analytes.

    PubMed

    Pulli, Timo; Höyhtyä, Matti; Söderlund, Hans; Takkinen, Kristiina

    2005-04-15

    We have developed a one-step, homogeneous noncompetitive immunoassay for small analytes using recombinant antibodies and morphine as the model analyte. A highly specific antibody against the immune complex (IC) formed between an anti-morphine antibody and morphine was selected from a naive scFv phage display library. The in vitro phage library selection procedure avoids the difficulties associated with the production of anti-IC antibodies by animal immunization. The anti-morphine and the anti-IC antibodies were labeled with a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) fluorophores. In the FRET assay the labeled antibodies were incubated with saliva samples spiked with morphine, codeine, or heroin. Within 2 min, 5 ng/mL morphine, which is clearly under the recommended cutoff level, was detected without cross-reactivity to codeine or heroin. This assay principle is also widely applicable to other small analytes. PMID:15828804

  3. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulfamethoxydiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Yan, Nali; Qu, Lingbo; Zhang, Hongquan

    2011-10-01

    Sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), which is often used for animal disease treatment, is harmful to human health. No SMD residue should be detected in food in some countries, such as USA and Japan. Therefore, it is significant to develop a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and accurate method for the determination of the content of SMD in food. In this paper, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for quantification of SMD. For this method, the limit of detection was 3.2 pg/ml, the linear range was from 10 to 2000 pg/ml, the within-day and inter-day precision were below 13% and below 18%, respectively, and the recovery was from 85% to 105%. Milk and egg were selected as samples to be examined with this method, and the result indicated that this CLEIA method was suitable for screening and quality control of food.

  4. An enzyme immunoassay for determining plasma concentrations of didemnin B.

    PubMed

    Raybould, T J; Grothaus, P G; Simpson, S B; Bignami, G S; Lazo, C B; Newman, R A

    1992-01-01

    Didemnin A was conjugated at the amino terminus of the N-methylleucine residue, via the linkers N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate and trans-1,4-maleimidomethyl-cyclohexane carboxylic acid, to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The didemnin-KLH conjugates were used to hyperimmunize rabbits. The resulting high titer antisera were employed with didemnin-BSA conjugate-coated microtiter plate wells to develop an indirect competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA) that was fully cross reactive with didemnin B. A CIEIA is described that is capable of detecting the drug in plasma from didemnin B-treated patients at concentrations down to 1-3 ng/ml. This simple, sensitive CIEIA has been employed to demonstrate plasma drug clearance profiles with samples from didemnin B-treated patients. PMID:1506980

  5. A highly sensitive caffeine immunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, José João; Weller, Michael G; Panne, Ulrich; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2010-04-01

    A new immunoassay has been developed based on a commercially available anti-caffeine monoclonal antibody and a de novo synthesized tracer, using horseradish peroxidase and UV-visible detection. Caffeine, which is frequently found in surface waters, can be quantified with a relative error lower than 20% for concentrations above 0.025 microg L(-1) (limit of quantitation, direct analysis). The limit of detection is 0.001 microg L(-1) and can be reduced by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Moreover, with minor adaptations, the assay can be used to quantify caffeine in several beverages, shampoo, and caffeine tablets. The results obtained by ELISA correlate well with those from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the tested matrices. Several surface waters from Berlin were analysed and all tested positive for caffeine, with concentrations higher than 0.030 microg L(-1). In one run 66 samples can be analysed within 2 h. PMID:20155491

  6. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  7. Multiplexed magnetic microsphere immunoassays for detection of pathogens in foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jason S.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2010-01-01

    Foodstuffs have traditionally been challenging matrices for conducting immunoassays. Proteins, carbohydrates, and other macromolecules present in food matrices may interfere with both immunoassays and PCR-based tests, and removal of particulate matter may also prove challenging prior to analyses. This has been found true when testing for bacterial contamination of foods using the standard polystyrene microspheres utilized with Luminex flow cytometers. Luminex MagPlex microspheres are encoded with the same dyes as standard xMAP microspheres, but have superparamagnetic properties to aid in preparation of samples in complex matrices. In this work, we present results demonstrating use of MagPlex for sample preparation and identification of bacteria and a toxin spiked into a variety of food samples. Fluorescence-coded MagPlex microsphere sets coated with antibodies for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were used to capture these bacteria and toxin from spiked foodstuffs and then evaluated by the Luminex system in a multiplex format; spiked foods included apple juice, green pepper, tomato, ground beef, alfalfa sprouts, milk, lettuce, spinach, and chicken washes. Although MagPlex microspheres facilitated recovery of the microspheres and targets from the complex matrices, assay sensitivity was sometimes inhibited by up to one to three orders of magnitude; for example the detection limits E. coli spiked into apple juice or milk increased 100-fold, from 1000 to 100,000 cfu/mL. Thus, while the magnetic and fluorescent properties of the Luminex MagPlex microspheres allow for rapid, multiplexed testing for bacterial contamination in typically problematic food matrices, our data demonstrate that achieving desired limits of detection is still a challenge. PMID:20953301

  8. Donor characteristics as risk factors in recipients after transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors: the effect of donor age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Kollman; Craig W. S. Howe; Claudio Anasetti; Joseph H. Antin; Stella M. Davies; Alexandra H. Filipovich; Janet Hegland; Naynesh Kamani; Nancy A. Kernan; Roberta King; Voravit Ratanatharathorn; Daniel Weisdorf; Dennis L. Confer

    2001-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) maintains a registry of approxi- mately 4 million volunteer unrelated do- nors for patients in need of a stem cell transplant. When several comparably HLA-matched volunteers are identified for a patient, various criteria are used to select a donor. A retrospective analysis of 6978 bone marrow transplantations facili- tated by the NMDP from 1987

  9. Transmission of donor illness by stem cell transplantation: should screening be different in older donors?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Niederwieser; C Gentilini; U Hegenbart; T Lange; P Moosmann; W Pönisch; H Al-Ali; M Raida; P Ljungman; A Tyndall; A Urbano-Ispizua; H M Lazarus; A Gratwohl

    2004-01-01

    With increasing donor age, the potential of transmitting diseases from donor to recipient reaches new dimensions. Potentially transmittable diseases from donors include infections, congenital disorders, and acquired illnesses like autoimmune diseases or malignancies of hematological or nonhematological origin. While established nonmalignant or malignant diseases might be easy to discover, early-stage hematological diseases like CML, light-chain multiple myelomas, aleukemic leukemias, occult

  10. Detecting benzodiazepines: immunoassays compared with negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R L; Rexin, D A; Herold, D A

    1994-03-01

    We tested 231 urine samples by six immunoassay methods--EMIT d.a.u., EMIT II, Roche Abuscreen Online, Abbott TDx, Diagnostic Products Corp. (DPC) double-antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA), and Biosite Triage--and by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine how the immunoassays performed on samples selected for suspected benzodiazepine use (n = 100) and in random urine drug screening (n = 131). In general, all of the assays were successful in detecting oxazepam and related metabolites, even at concentrations below the stated cutoffs. However, the negative predictive value of benzodiazepine immunoassays for samples selected for suspected benzodiazepine use ranged from 86% to 96%. A primary difference between the test kits was the ability of DPC RIA and Triage to detect lorazepam when other assays did not. Contrary to previous reports, pretreatment of specimens with glucuronidase was not necessary to detect oxazepam-related metabolites with these immunoassays. PMID:8131270

  11. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  12. Validation of an automated enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of serum total thyroxine in cats

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tim L.; Archer, Joy

    2015-05-18

    immunoassay (EIA) for use with feline serum and derivation of a TT4 reference interval (RI) for cats aged 9 years and older). Methods: Assay precision, reproducibility, and linearity were evaluated. Interference by hemolysis was also assessed. Method...

  13. Application of Antibody and Fluorophore-Derivatized Liposomes to Heterogeneous Immunoassays for D-dimer

    E-print Network

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Application of Antibody and Fluorophore-Derivatized Liposomes to Heterogeneous Immunoassays for D Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 Small unilamellar liposomes comprised functionalized with antibodies. The liposomes were conjugated with thousands of fluorescein molecules and 10

  14. Development of an integrated capillary valve-based preconcentrator and surface-based immunoassay

    E-print Network

    Liu, Vincent Hok

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of integrated preconcentrator and immunoassay was developed. A novel, self-aligned method for patterning Nafion resin was developed and applied to create a preconcentrator. In a parallel effort, a surface-based ...

  15. Hepatitis C antibody prevalence in blood donors in different governorates in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R R; Hassan, N F; Abdallah, M Y; el-Sharkawy, M S; Saad, M D; Hackbart, B G; Imam, I Z

    1997-01-01

    Markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were sought in serum samples from 2644 blood donors in 24 of Egypt's 26 governorates. Of the 2644 samples, 656 (24.8%) were shown to contain anti-HCV immunoglobulin G antibody by Abbott second generation enzyme immunoassays (EIA). Of 85 EIA-positive samples tested by recombinant immunoblot assay, 72 (85%) were positive. HCV seroprevalence in the governorates ranged from zero to 38%; 15 governorates (62%) had an HCV antibody prevalence greater than 20%, and 6 (25%) greater than 30%. Governorates with higher sero-prevalences were located in the central and north-eastern Nile river delta, and south of Cairo in the Nile river valley. Subjects from areas in and adjoining the Sinai peninsula, in the eastern and western desert, and in southernmost Egypt, had the lowest prevalence of HCV antibody. The large urban governorates of Cairo and Alexandria had antibody prevalences of 19% and 11%, respectively. A total of 39.4% subjects had evidence of HBV infection (and-HBV core antigen total antibody). HCV infections were detected more frequently in donors with markers for HBV infections than in uninfected subjects (36% versus 18%, P < 0.001). PMID:9231192

  16. Microparticle-Enhanced Nephelometric Immunoassay of Alpha-Lactalbumin in Human Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Louise Cuillière; Mounia Abbadi; Claire Molé; Paul Montagne; Marie-Christine Béné; Gilbert Faure

    1997-01-01

    A microparticle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay was developed for alpha-lactalbumin quantitation in human milk. It is based on the nephelometric measurement of the light scattered during the competitive immunoagglutination of a microparticle-alpha-lactalbumin conjugate with an anti-alpha-lactalbumin antiserum. This immunoassay is sensitive (detection limit in reaction mixture, 1.5 ?g\\/L) and could be performed in high dilution of milk, excluding any interference or sample

  17. Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Rozental, R

    2006-01-01

    Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed. PMID:17494300

  18. Donor leukocyte infusions for multiple myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Salama; T Nevill; D Marcellus; P Parker; M Johnson; A Kirk; D Porter; S Giralt; JE Levine; W Drobyski; AJ Barrett; M Horowitz; RH Collins

    2000-01-01

    Donor leukocyte infusion (dli) has well-documented activity in cml, but the role of dli in other diseases is less well defined. to evaluate the strategy in multiple myeloma (mm) we evaluated 25 mm patients from 15 centers who were treated with dli. patients with persistent or recurrent disease after allogeneic bmt received dli from the original marrow donor (23 matched

  19. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...40(a), (b), and (e) subsequently may donate Source Plasma for use in the preparation of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin...due to HTLV, types I and II, may serve as a donor of Source Plasma; (5) A deferred donor who tests reactive for a...

  20. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...40(a), (b), and (e) subsequently may donate Source Plasma for use in the preparation of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin...due to HTLV, types I and II, may serve as a donor of Source Plasma; (5) A deferred donor who tests reactive for a...

  1. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...40(a), (b), and (e) subsequently may donate Source Plasma for use in the preparation of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin...due to HTLV, types I and II, may serve as a donor of Source Plasma; (5) A deferred donor who tests reactive for a...

  2. Living Kidney Donor Decision Making and Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandi W. Smith; Samantha Nazione; Carolyn LaPlante; Rose Clark-Hitt; Hee Sun Park; Randall Sung; Alan Leichtman

    2011-01-01

    There is high demand for kidney donors in the United States, and it is widely accepted that living donation is optimal for individuals who need a kidney. Much research has focused on the potential recipient, but little has been studied about the communication and decision making of living kidney donors. Interviews assessed the communication and decision-making processes of 43 kidney

  3. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  4. Payment for donor kidneys: Pros and cons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Friedman; A L Friedman

    2006-01-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: ‘17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can’t take place because of the shortage of donated organs.’ Strategies to expand

  5. Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

  6. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

  7. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability under § 640.3 of this...

  8. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet the criteria for donor suitability under § 640.3 of this...

  9. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

  10. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

  11. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

  12. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed...

  13. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages. In the present manuscript, the current experience with oocyte donation using cryopreservation technology is reviewed. The outcomes of two recently established donor egg cryobanks at Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Spain and Reproductive Biology Associates in the USA (involving a large number of cases) demonstrate that egg cryo-survival is high and that fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates are similar to those reported after fresh egg donation. It also provides additional advantages of being more efficient, more economical, easier for both donors and recipients and potentially also safer, because eggs can now be quarantined for 6 months (or longer) to retest for infectious diseases in the donors. It is the opinion of the authors, based on several advantages associated with the use of donor egg cryobanking, that in the future there will be fewer traditional egg donations and increasingly more cryo-egg donations. PMID:21767989

  14. Psychosocial Assessment of Living Organ Donors: Clinical and Ethical Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellen Olbrisch; Sharon M. Benedict

    2001-01-01

    This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, \\

  15. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  16. Endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Masaki, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a case of endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue obtained after brain death. A 52-year-old man with endothelial dysfunction of unknown cause in the right eye underwent non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK) with tissue from an infant donor (2 years). Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Best corrected visual acuity and donor central endothelial cell density were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Infant donor tissue preparation with a microkeratome set at 300 ?m was successful; the donor tissue was extremely elastic and soft compared with adult tissue. The central endothelial cell density of the infant donor tissue was as high as 4,291 cells/mm2. No complications were observed during donor tissue (8.0 mm in diameter) insertion with the double-glide technique (Busin glide with intraocular lens sheet glide) or any of the other procedures. Best corrected visual acuity improved from 1.7 logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; 0.02 decimal visual acuity) preoperatively to 0.2 logMAR (0.6) after 6 months and 0.1 logMAR (0.8) after 1 year. The central endothelial cell density after 6 months was 4,098 cells/mm2 (representing a 4.5% cell loss from preoperative donor cell measurements), and the central endothelial cell density after 1 year was 4,032 cells/mm2 (6.0% decrease). Infant donor tissue may be preferably used for DSAEK/nDASEK, since it may not be suitable for penetrating keratoplasty or Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:25246761

  17. Remuneration of hematopoietic stem cell donors: principles and perspective of the World Marrow Donor Association.

    PubMed

    Boo, Michael; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Chapman, Jeremy; Lindberg, Brian; Schmidt, Alexander H; Shaw, Bronwen E; Switzer, Galen E; Yang, Edward; Egeland, Torstein

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative procedure for life-threatening hematologic diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from an unrelated donor, frequently residing in another country, may be the only option for 70% of those in need of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To maximize the opportunity to find the best available donor, individual donor registries collaborate internationally. To provide homogeneity of practice among registries, the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) sets standards against which registries are accredited and provides guidance and regulations about unrelated donor safety and care. A basic tenet of the donor registries is that unrelated HSC donation is an altruistic act; nonpayment of donors is entrenched in the WMDA standards and in international practice. In the United States, the prohibition against remuneration of donors has recently been challenged. Here, we describe the reasons that the WMDA continues to believe that HSC donors should not be paid because of ethical concerns raised by remuneration, potential to damage the public will to act altruistically, the potential for coercion and exploitation of donors, increased risk to patients, harm to local transplantation programs and international stem cell exchange, and the possibility of benefiting some patients while disadvantaging others. PMID:20921337

  18. Phonon induced spin relaxation times of single donors and donor clusters in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Yuling; Buch, Holger; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Simmons, Michelle; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib

    2014-03-01

    The phonon induced relaxation times (T1) of electron spins bound to single phosphorous (P) donors and P donor clusters in silicon is computed using the atomistic tight-binding method. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian is directly computed from the strain dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian, and the relaxation time is computed from Fermi's Golden Rule using the donor states and the electron-phonon Hamiltonian. The self-consistent Hartree method is used to compute the multi-electron wavefunctions in donor clusters. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction, and captures both valley repopulation and single valley g-factor shifts in a unified framework. The single donor relaxation rate varies proportionally to B5, and is of the order of seconds at B =2T, both in good agreement with experimental single donor data (A. Morello et. al., Nature 467, 687 (2010)). T1 calculations in donor clusters show variations for different electron numbers and donor numbers and locations. The computed T1 in a 4P:5e donor cluster match well with a scanning tunneling microscope patterned P donor cluster (H. Buch et. al., Nature Communications 4, 2017 (2013)).

  19. State of the art of immunoassay methods for B-type natriuretic peptides: An update.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Franzini, Maria; Masotti, Silvia; Prontera, Concetta; Passino, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides. Using chromatographic procedures, several studies reported an increasing number of circulating peptides related to BNP in human plasma of patients with heart failure. These peptides may have reduced or even no biological activity. Furthermore, other studies have suggested that, using immunoassays that are considered specific for BNP, the precursor of the peptide hormone, proBNP, constitutes a major portion of the peptide measured in plasma of patients with heart failure. Because BNP immunoassay methods show large (up to 50%) systematic differences in values, the use of identical decision values for all immunoassay methods, as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, seems unreasonable. Since proBNP significantly cross-reacts with all commercial immunoassay methods considered specific for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the degree of cross-reactivity of glycosylated and non-glycosylated proBNP in their BNP immunoassay methods. Clinicians should take into account that there are large systematic differences between methods when they compare results from different laboratories that use different BNP immunoassays. On the other hand, clinical laboratories should take part in external quality assessment (EQA) programs to evaluate the bias of their method in comparison to other BNP methods. Finally, the authors believe that the development of more specific methods for the active peptide, BNP1-32, should reduce the systematic differences between methods and result in better harmonization of results. PMID:25547534

  20. Donor deactivation in silicon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Björk, Mikael T; Schmid, Heinz; Knoch, Joachim; Riel, Heike; Riess, Walter

    2009-02-01

    The operation of electronic devices relies on the density of free charge carriers available in the semiconductor; in most semiconductor devices this density is controlled by the addition of doping atoms. As dimensions are scaled down to achieve economic and performance benefits, the presence of interfaces and materials adjacent to the semiconductor will become more important and will eventually completely determine the electronic properties of the device. To sustain further improvements in performance, novel field-effect transistor architectures, such as FinFETs and nanowire field-effect transistors, have been proposed as replacements for the planar devices used today, and also for applications in biosensing and power generation. The successful operation of such devices will depend on our ability to precisely control the location and number of active impurity atoms in the host semiconductor during the fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate that the free carrier density in semiconductor nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. By measuring the electrical conduction of doped silicon nanowires as a function of nanowire radius, temperature and dielectric surrounding, we show that the donor ionization energy increases with decreasing nanowire radius, and that it profoundly modifies the attainable free carrier density at values of the radius much larger than those at which quantum and dopant surface segregation effects set in. At a nanowire radius of 15 nm the carrier density is already 50% lower than in bulk silicon due to the dielectric mismatch between the conducting channel and its surroundings. PMID:19197312

  1. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  2. Sensitive Giant Magnetoresistive-based Immunoassay for Multiplex Mycotoxin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Andy C.; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Yu, Heng; Wang, Shan X.; Davis, Ronald W.; Jejelowo, Olufisayo A.; Pourmand, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and multiplexed measurement is vital in the detection of food-borne pathogens. While highly specific and sensitive, traditional immunochemical assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) often require expensive read-out equipment (e.g. fluorescent labels) and lack the capability of multiplex detection. By combining the superior specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and simplicity of magnetic detection, we have developed a novel multiplex magnetic nanotag-based detection platform for mycotoxins that functions on a sub-picomolar concentration level. Unlike fluorescent labels, magnetic nanotags (MNTs) can be detected with inexpensive giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors such as spin-valve sensors. In the system presented here, each spin-valve sensor has an active area of 90 × 90 µm2, arranged in an 8×8 array. Sample is added to the antibody-immobilized sensor array prior to the addition of the biotinylated detection antibody. The sensor response is recorded in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-linked MNTs on the chip. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, zearalenone and HT-2) and show that a detection limit of 50 pg/mL can be achieved. PMID:20047828

  3. Backscattering particle immunoassays in wire-guide droplet manipulations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; You, David J

    2008-01-01

    A simpler way for manipulating droplets on a flat surface was demonstrated, eliminating the complications in the existing methods of open-surface digital microfluidics. Programmed and motorized movements of 10 muL droplets were demonstrated using stepper motors and microcontrollers, including merging, complicated movement along the programmed path, and rapid mixing. Latex immunoagglutination assays for mouse immunoglobulin G, bovine viral diarrhea virus and Escherichia coli were demonstrated by merging two droplets on a superhydrophobic surface (contact angle = 155 +/- 2 degrees ) and using subsequent back light scattering detection, with detection limits of 50 pg mL-1, 2.5 TCID50 mL-1 and 85 CFU mL-1, respectively, all significantly lower than the other immunoassay demonstrations in conventional microfluidics (~1 ng mL-1 for proteins, ~100 TCID50 mL-1 for viruses and ~100 CFU mL-1 for bacteria). Advantages of this system over conventional microfluidics or microwell plate assays include: (1) minimized biofouling and repeated use (>100 times) of a platform; (2) possibility of nanoliter droplet manipulation; (3) reprogrammability with a computer or a game pad interface. PMID:19014703

  4. Designing novel nano-immunoassays: antibody orientation versus sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, S.; Moros, M.; Fernández-Pacheco, R.; Ibarra, M. R.; Grazú, V.; de la Fuente, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for their application in quantitative and highly sensitive biosensors. Their use as labels of biological recognition events and their detection by means of some magnetic method constitute a very promising strategy for quantitative high-sensitive lateral-flow assays. In this paper, we report the importance of nanoparticle functionalization for the improvement of sensitivity for a lateral-flow immunoassay. More precisely, we have found that immobilization of IgG anti-hCG through its polysaccharide moieties on MNPs allows more successful recognition of the hCG hormone. Although we have used the detection of hCG as a model in this work, the strategy of binding antibodies to MNPs through its sugar chains reported here is applicable to other antibodies. It has huge potential as it will be very useful for the development of quantitative and high-sensitive lateral-flow assays for its use on human and veterinary, medicine, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceutical, medical biologics and personal care product production, environmental remediation, etc.

  5. Flow-through amperometric immunosensor: fast 'sandwich' scheme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ghindilis, A L; Krishnan, R; Atanasov, P; Wilkins, E

    1997-01-01

    A flow-through immunosensor based on a high-surface-area carbon immunoelectrode has been developed. Dispersed carbon material serves as a carrier for immobilized antibodies and at the same time as an electrode material. The 'sandwich' scheme of immunoassay has been used. Iodine formed as a result of the enzymatic oxidation of iodide by a peroxidase label has been detected amperometrically. The immunosensor consists of a disposable sensing element (immunocolumn) containing dispersed carbon material with immobilized antibodies which also acts as a working electrode. A current collector connects the working electrode to the measuring device. The electrochemical detection time of the peroxidase-labeled immuno-complex does not exceed several minutes. The overall time of analysis including flowing of analyte, flowing of antigen, washing and detection stages is as low as 22 min. This technique allows fast determination of rabbit IgG (used as a model analyte) with a low detection limit in the picomolar range and also the determination of human IgM in blood plasma with a low detection limit in the nanomolar range. PMID:9228733

  6. Sensitive, Fast, and Specific Immunoassays for Methyltestosterone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Na; Song, Shanshan; Peng, Juan; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT) residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%–100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed. PMID:25938198

  7. Enzyme immunoassay for tenuazonic acid in apple and tomato products.

    PubMed

    Gross, Madeleine; Curtui, Valeriu; Ackermann, Yvonne; Latif, Hadri; Usleber, Ewald

    2011-12-14

    The Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid was derivatized with succinic anhydride and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. The KLH conjugate was used to produce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. A competitive direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for tenuazonic acid was established, which was moderately sensitive for tenuazonic acid [50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)): 320 ± 130 ng/mL] but strongly reacted with tenuazonic acid acetate (IC(50): 23.3 ± 7.5 ng/mL). Therefore, an optimized EIA protocol was established, which employed acetylation of standard and sample extract solutions. The mean standard curve detection limit (IC(30)) for tenuazonic acid acetate was 5.4 ± 2.0 ng/mL, enabling detection limits for tenuazonic acid in apple and tomato products of 25-50 ng/g (150 ng/g in tomato paste). Recoveries in a concentration range of 50-2000 ng/g were 60-130% in apple juice and tomato juice and 40-150% in other tomato products. Tenuazonic acid was detected in apple juice and tomato products from German retail shops at levels of 50-200 ng/g. In conclusion, this novel EIA for tenuazonic acid could be useful within a screening program for Alternaria mycotoxins in food. PMID:22054343

  8. System and method for a parallel immunoassay system

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method and system for detecting a target antigen using massively parallel immunoassay technology. In this system, high affinity antibodies of the antigen are covalently linked to small beads or particles. The beads are exposed to a solution containing DNA-oligomer-mimics of the antigen. The mimics which are reactive with the covalently attached antibody or antibodies will bind to the appropriate antibody molecule on the bead. The particles or beads are then washed to remove any unbound DNA-oligomer-mimics and are then immobilized or trapped. The bead-antibody complexes are then exposed to a test solution which may contain the targeted antigens. If the antigen is present it will replace the mimic since it has a greater affinity for the respective antibody. The particles are then removed from the solution leaving a residual solution. This residual solution is applied a DNA chip containing many samples of complimentary DNA. If the DNA tag from a mimic binds with its complimentary DNA, it indicates the presence of the target antigen. A flourescent tag can be used to more easily identify the bound DNA tag.

  9. Aqueous two-phase systems enable multiplexing of homogeneous immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arlyne B.; Frampton, John P.; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of protein biomarkers is critical for biomarker validation and early disease detection. Current multiplex immunoassays are time consuming costly and can suffer from low accuracy. For example, multiplex ELISAs require multiple, tedious, washing and blocking steps. Moreover, they suffer from nonspecific antibody cross-reactions, leading to high background and false-positive signals. Here, we show that co-localizing antibody-bead pairs in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) enables multiplexing of sensitive, no-wash, homogeneous assays, while preventing nonspecific antibody cross-reactions. Our cross-reaction-free, multiplex assay can simultaneously detect picomolar concentrations of four protein biomarkers ((C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6) in cell supernatants using a single assay well. The potential clinical utility of the assay is demonstrated by detecting diagnostic biomarkers (CXCL10 and CXCL9) in plasma from 88 patients at the onset of the clinical symptoms of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PMID:25083509

  10. Rapid dioxin screening of milk and water by enzyme immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.O. [ImmunoSystems Inc., Scarborough, ME (United States); Carlson, R.E. [Ecochem Research, Inc., Chaska, MN (United States); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A simple and easy to use enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system has been developed for rapid screening of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2378D). This EIA has been adapted to analysis of water and milk using an automated system for extraction of liquid samples. Water analysis can be performed directly following extraction and solvent exchange with no extract clean-up. The same automated system is used for milk extraction and the extract is then cleaned chromatographically using the automated FMS Dioxin-Prep{trademark} System. Sensitivity for 2378D in the EIA is approximately 100 pg per analysis. Thus sensitivity to 10 ppt 2378D (whole weight basis) in milk is possible using only 50 ml or less of sample and sensitivity to 0.1 ppt 2378D in water is possible using 1-2 liters of sample. Total time for sample preparation and analysis is about 3 hours for water and 4.5 hours for milk.

  11. The microassay on a card: A rugged, portable immunoassay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidwell, David

    1991-01-01

    The Microassay on a Card (MAC) is a portable, hand-held, non-instrumental immunoassay that can test for the presence of a wide variety of substances in the environment. The MAC is a simple device to use. A drop of test solution is placed on one side of the card and within five minutes a color is developed on the other side in proportion to the amount of substance in the test solution, with sensitivity approaching 10 ng/ml. The MAC is self-contained and self-timed; no reagents or timing is necessary. The MAC may be configured with multiple wells to provide simultaneous testing for multiple species. As envisioned, the MAC will be employed first as an on-site screen for drugs of abuse in urine or saliva. If the MAC can be used as a screen of saliva for drugs of abuse, it could be applied to driving while intoxicated, use of drugs on the job, or testing of the identity of seized materials. With appropriate modifications, the MAC also could be used to test for environmental toxins or pollutants.

  12. Backscattering particle immunoassays in wire-guide droplet manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; You, David J

    2008-01-01

    A simpler way for manipulating droplets on a flat surface was demonstrated, eliminating the complications in the existing methods of open-surface digital microfluidics. Programmed and motorized movements of 10 ?L droplets were demonstrated using stepper motors and microcontrollers, including merging, complicated movement along the programmed path, and rapid mixing. Latex immunoagglutination assays for mouse immunoglobulin G, bovine viral diarrhea virus and Escherichia coli were demonstrated by merging two droplets on a superhydrophobic surface (contact angle = 155 ± 2°) and using subsequent back light scattering detection, with detection limits of 50 pg mL-1, 2.5 TCID50 mL-1 and 85 CFU mL-1, respectively, all significantly lower than the other immunoassay demonstrations in conventional microfluidics (~1 ng mL-1 for proteins, ~100 TCID50 mL-1 for viruses and ~100 CFU mL-1 for bacteria). Advantages of this system over conventional microfluidics or microwell plate assays include: (1) minimized biofouling and repeated use (>100 times) of a platform; (2) possibility of nanoliter droplet manipulation; (3) reprogrammability with a computer or a game pad interface. PMID:19014703

  13. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

  14. A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerald B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

  15. Who Can Be a Living Organ Donor?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living Organ Donor? Questions and Answers about Live Organ Donation American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, Suite ... and state employees can get special leave for organ donation. Some private employers also give special leave. Talk ...

  16. Non-organ donors' attitudes toward incentives.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Abdullah, Nawi; Ng, Kok-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Malaysians indicating that they did not intend to become organ donors upon their death were surveyed regarding interest in non-fungible financial incentives to be granted to surviving family members. Among the 730 (56% of the total sample of 1311) indicating unwillingness to be donors, 29.6% (216/730) subsequently indicated that they would be willing donors if the government introduced policies that, upon their death, "rewarded your (their) family with incentives for your (their) deeds." Among the 69% (504/730) who insisted that they would not become organ donor even with incentive, nearly 80% (404/501) of them were able to identify relevant incentives they thought should be provided by the state to those who make organ donations upon death. The majority of both groups preferred the state provide medical benefits to a surviving family member, suggesting this may be an attractive policy option for the state to raise the deceased organ donation pool. PMID:23600843

  17. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES ...establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make reasonable...types of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not...

  18. Change in Donor Profile Influenced the Percentage of Organs Transplanted From Multiple Organ Donors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Meers; D. Van Raemdonck; F. Van Gelder; D. Van Hees; B. Desschans; J. De Roey; J. Vanhaecke; J. Pirenne

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that the change in donor profile over the years influenced the percentage of transplantations. We reviewed medical records for all multiple-organ donors (MODs) within our network. The percentage of transplanted organs was compared between 1991–1992 (A) and 2006–2007 (B). In period A, 156 potential MODs were identified compared with 278 in period B. Fifteen potential donors (10%) in

  19. Autoantibody testing for connective tissue diseases. Comparison of immunodiffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A J; Lorden, T E; Havighurst, T C

    1997-10-01

    We evaluated 500 consecutive patient serum samples for the presence of six autoantibodies by three antibody detection methods: immunodiffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme immunoassay. Clinical data were reviewed for each patient with positive antibody test results. Serum samples from 60 patients revealed antibodies to Sm, ribonucleoprotein (RNP), SSA/Ro, SSB/La, Scl-70, or Jo-1. There were 7 false-positive test results (1%). All three methods detected autoantibodies in 36 (68%) of 53 patients with connective tissue disease. Immunoblot was the most sensitive method to detect autoantibodies (92%). Enzyme immunoassay and immunodiffusion were less sensitive (81% and 74%, respectively). Antiribonucleoprotein and anti-SSB/La antibodies were more often detected by immunoblotting, whereas anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were more often detected by enzyme immunoassay. Newer antibody detection methods (immunoblot and enzyme immunoassay) are less time consuming than immunodiffusion and show good interassay sensitivity without loss of specificity. A combination of immunoblot and enzyme immunoassay yielded excellent assay sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99%) for detection of autoantibodies. PMID:9322593

  20. Molecular similarity methods for predicting cross-reactivity with therapeutic drug monitoring immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Siam, Mohamed G; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2009-06-01

    Immunoassays are used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), yet may suffer from cross-reacting compounds able to bind the assay antibodies in a manner similar to the target molecule. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation using computational tools to predict cross-reactivity with TDM immunoassays. The authors used molecular similarity methods to enable calculation of structural similarity for a wide range of compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target molecules of TDM immunoassays. Utilizing different molecular descriptors (MDL public keys, functional class fingerprints, and pharmacophore fingerprints) and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient, the authors compared cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for in vitro diagnostic use. Using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient showed a strong and statistically significant separation between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds. Thus, 2-dimensional shape similarity of cross-reacting molecules and the target molecules of TDM immunoassays provides a fast chemoinformatics methods for a priori prediction of potential of cross-reactivity that might be otherwise undetected. These methods could be used to reliably focus cross-reactivity testing on compounds with high similarity to the target molecule and limit testing of compounds with low similarity and ultimately with a very low probability of cross-reacting with the assay in vitro. PMID:19333148

  1. Molecular Similarity Methods for Predicting Cross-Reactivity With Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Siam, Mohamed G.; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Immunoassays are used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) yet may suffer from cross-reacting compounds able to bind the assay antibodies in a manner similar to the target molecule. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation using computational tools to predict cross-reactivity with TDM immunoassays. The authors used molecular similarity methods to enable calculation of structural similarity for a wide range of compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target molecules of TDM immunoassays. Utilizing different molecular descriptors (MDL public keys, functional class fingerprints, and pharmacophore fingerprints) and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient, the authors compared cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for in vitro diagnostic use. Using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient showed a strong and statistically significant separation between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds. Thus, two-dimensional shape similarity of cross-reacting molecules and the target molecules of TDM immunoassays provides a fast chemoinformatics methods for a priori prediction of potential of cross-reactivity that might be otherwise undetected. These methods could be used to reliably focus cross-reactivity testing on compounds with high similarity to the target molecule and limit testing of compounds with low similarity and ultimately with a very low probability of cross-reacting with the assay in vitro. PMID:19333148

  2. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain.

    PubMed

    Jose, Joachim; Park, Min; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2010-05-14

    The Z-domain of protein A has been known to bind specifically to the F(c) region of antibodies (IgGs). In this work, the Z-domain of protein A was expressed on the outer membrane of Escherichia coli by using "Autodisplay" technology as a fusion protein of autotransport domain. The E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain was applied to the sandwich-type immunoassay as a solid-support of detection-antibodies against a target analyte. For the feasibility demonstration of the E. coli based immunoassay, C-reactive protein (CRP) assay was carried out by using E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain. The limit of detection (LOD) and binding capacity of the E. coli based immunoassay were estimated to be far more sensitive than the conventional ELISA. Such a far higher sensitivity of E. coli based immunoassay than conventional ELISA was explained by the orientation control of immobilized antibodies and the mobility of E. coli in assay matrix. From the test results of 45 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients' serum and 15 healthy samples, a cut-off value was established to have optimal sensitivity and selectivity values for RA. The CRP test result of each individual sample was compared with ELISA which is the reference method for RA diagnosis. From this work, the E. coli with Z-domain was proved to be feasible for the medical diagnosis based on sandwich-type immunoassay. PMID:20441874

  3. Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

  4. Characterization of long-term mixed donor–donor chimerism after double cord blood transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gertow, J; Berglund, S; Okas, M; Uzunel, M; Berg, L; Kärre, K; Mattsson, J; Uhlin, M

    2010-01-01

    Double cord blood transplantation (DCBT) with two matched or partially matched cord blood units has been implemented successfully to circumvent the limitations of graft cell dose associated with single CBT. After DCBT, sustained haematopoiesis is derived almost exclusively from only one of the donated units. None the less, we previously observed two of six evaluable DCBT patients still having mixed donor–donor chimerism at 28 and 45 months post-transplantation, respectively. In the present study we utilize flow cytometry techniques to perform the first thorough analysis of phenotype and functionality of cord blood units in patients with mixed donor–donor chimerism. Our results suggest that the two stable cord blood units are different phenotypically and functionally: one unit shows more naive T cells, lower T cell cytokine production and higher frequencies of natural killer cells, the other shows higher frequencies of well-differentiated and functional lymphocytes. Additionally, in comparison with control patients having a single prevailing cord blood unit, the patients with donor–donor chimerism exhibit less overall T cell cytokine production and a smaller fraction of memory T cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that human leucocyte antigen-C match of donor units may partly explain the development of a donor–donor mixed chimerism. PMID:20731674

  5. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  6. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field. PMID:21649566

  7. Living donor transplant: wider selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U

    2004-04-01

    The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560

  8. Prevalence of p24 antigen among a cohort of HIV antibody negative blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria - the question of safety of blood transfusion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osaro, Erhabor; Mohammed, Ndakotsu; Zama, Isaac; Yakubu, Abdulrahaman; Dorcas, Ikhuenbor; Festus, Aghedo; Kwaifa, Ibrahim; Sani, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Blood transfusions remain a substantial source of HIV in SSA particularly among children and pregnant women. Aims and objectives: This aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of p24 antigen among HIV antibody seronegative blood donors in Sokoto, North West Nigeria. Methods A total of 15,061 HIV antibody negative blood donors with mean age and age range (29.2 ± 8.18 and 18-50 years) were screened for p24 antigen between January 2010 to July 2013 using the Diapro Diagnostic immunoassay kit for P24 antigen (King Hawk Pharmaceuticals Beijing China). Results The overall prevalence of p24 antigen among the HIV antibody negative donors sample was 5.84%. The yearly prevalence was 9.79, 8.12, 2.7 and 2.84% respectively in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Of the total number of blood donor tested, 14,968 (99.38%) were males while 93 (0.62%) were females. The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among male blood donors 873 (5.8%) compared to females 7(0.05%), (p= 0.001). P24 positivity was significantly higher among blood group O blood donors compared to A, B and AB donors (494 (3.29%) compared to 184 (1.89%), 196 (1.30%) and 6 (0.04%)) respectively, p = 0.001). The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among Rhesus positive blood donors compared to Rhesus negative (807 (5.36%) versus 73 (0.48%), p =0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusion in Nigeria is associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. There is the urgent need to optimize the screening of blood donors in Nigeria by the inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening menu. The Nigerian government urgently need to adopt the WHO blood safety strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV through blood transfusion. PMID:25419301

  9. Detection of Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Oral Fluids: A Large-Scale Evaluation of Immunoassay Performance

    PubMed Central

    Granade, Timothy C.; Phillips, Susan K.; Parekh, Bharat; Gomez, Perry; Kitson-Piggott, Wendy; Oleander, Herbert; Mahabir, Bisram; Charles, Waveney; Lee-Thomas, Stephanie

    1998-01-01

    Paired serum and oral-fluid (OF) specimens (n = 4,448) were collected from blood donors and patients attending local sexually transmitted disease clinics in Trinidad and Tobago and the Bahamas and were tested for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies. Sera were tested by Abbott AB HIV-1/HIV-2 (rDNA) enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and positive specimens were confirmed by Cambridge HIV-1 and HIV-2 Western blotting (WB). OF specimens were collected with the OraSure collection device and were tested by Murex GACELISA and by two EIAs from Organon Teknika (the Oral Fluid Vironostika HIV-1 Microelisa System [OTC-L] and the Vironostika HIV-1 Microelisa System [OTC-M]). EIA-reactive OF specimens were confirmed by miniaturized WB (OFWB). GACELISA detected all 474 HIV-1 seropositive specimens (sensitivity, 100%). OTC-L detected 470 positive specimens (sensitivity, 99.2%), while OTC-M detected 468 positive specimens (sensitivity, 98.8%). Specificities ranged from 99.2 to 100% for the three assays. Concordance of OFWB with serum WB was 99.4%, and banding patterns determined by the two methods were similar. The immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration of OF specimens ranged from 0.21 to 100 ?g/ml, with a mean of 17.1 ?g/ml. Significant differences in OF IgG concentrations were observed between HIV antibody-positive and HIV antibody-negative persons (31.94 versus 15.28 ?g/ml, respectively [P < 0.0001]). These data further confirm the suitability of OF specimens for detection of HIV-1 antibodies. Currently available HIV-1 antibody assays provide sensitivities and specificities with OF specimens comparable to those achieved with serum specimens. PMID:9521138

  10. Performance of a conventional enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis C virus core antigen in the early phases of hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, K; Iida, K; Ohue, C; Matsunaga, Y; Tanaka, E; Kiyosawa, K; Yagi, S

    2001-01-01

    There are periods within the early phase of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in which the anti-HCV antibody test is unable to confirm HCV viremia. To reduce the risk of transmitting HCV through transfusions, we developed a simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which detects the core antigen of HCV (HCVcAg). This assay employed a conventional colorimetric EIA system, and was based on a two-step sandwich assay, using a 96- well microplate. The reproducibility of the results was very high. When the cutoff values were set to 30 fmol of recombinant HCVcAg/L, as determined by the distribution of healthy subject sera (n=223), 99.6% of healthy subject sera and 100% of hepatitis B patient sera (n=50) were negative for HCVcAg. The clinical performance of this EIA was examined using 14 commercially available seroconversion panels. In every panel, HCVcAg could be detected at points preceding the seroconversion of anti-HCV antibodies. The points at which HCVcAg was detected were the same as those at which it was detected by an AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test. The EIA's window period for detecting the HCVcAg in all panels was on average 26 days shorter than that of the anti-HCV antibody test. In three panels where the first sample is negative for HCV RNA, the window period was shortened 50 days by this EIA for HCVcAg. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of HCVcAg and HCV RNA in anti-HCV antibody negative specimens. This assay was simpler to perform than assays based on gene amplification technology for the detection of HCV RNA, and the window period was shortened to that of the AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test. Thus, the EIA for HCVcAg would be useful in screening seroconverting donors and could reduce the residual risk of secondary HCV infections through transfusions. PMID:11294574

  11. Label-free homogeneous FRET immunoassay for the detection of mycotoxins that utilizes quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Taihua; Byun, Ju-Young; Kim, Bo Bae; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-04-15

    The phenomenon of fluorescence quenching of an antibody by a specific ligand was applied in developing a technique for detection of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B? (AFB?), ochratoxin A, and zearalenone. Studies showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan (Trp) residues in antibodies, promoted by excitation at 280 nm, is quenched upon binding of specific mycotoxin ligands. Fluorescence quenching in FRET system takes place in these systems as a consequence of the overlap of the emission spectra of antibody donors with the absorption spectra of the mycotoxins. Further studies focusing on the detection of AFB? revealed that the Fab fragment, the variable region of the antibody where specific binding of AFB? occurs, can be utilized to increase the sensitivity of the detection system. The results demonstrate that fluorescence of the Fab fragment is almost completely quenched by AFB? whereas emission from intact anti-AFB? is only partially quenched by this mycotoxin. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.85 and 0.09 ng mL?¹ for assays using the intact antibody and the Fab fragment, respectively, corresponding to a 10-fold enhancement. A practical application of the Fab fragment based assay system was demonstrated by its use in the detection of AFB? in spiked barley grain samples. The observations made in this effort show that the new, label-free, non-competitive, and homogeneous FRET immunoassay strategy, which requires a simple sample preparation procedure, serves as a powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive quantitative determination of organic substances such as mycotoxin. PMID:23220067

  12. Presentation of a nano-based tag for immunoassay, based on amine-modified bovine serum albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Fuente, Jesus Martinez De La

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate four immunoassays, based on amine-modified bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (AMBSANPs). First, the capability of nitrate absorption by AMBSANPs under different conditions was evaluated. Then, serial concentrations of pure ?HCG were added to wells coated with ?HCG antibody for immunoassays 1 and 2, and wells coated with ?HCG aptamer for immunoassays 3 and 4. Next, AMBSANPs conjugated with ?HCG antibody was added for immunoassays 1 and 3, and AMBSANPs conjugated with ?HCG aptamer were added for immunoassays 2 and 4. Finally, the optical density (OD) of each well was read at 340 nm, and compared with controls. Moreover, the concentration of ?HCG in the clinical samples was quantified by immunoassays 1, 2, 3, 4 and ELISA, and then compared. The effect of some serum interferences on these immunoassay methods was evaluated. The authors observed that the amount of nitrate absorption by AMBSANPs increased with an increase in H + ion concentration and temperature, and decreased with an increase in ion strength. The correlation (R(2)) between ELISA and immunoassays 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 0.97, 0.97, 0.98, 0.99, respectively. It was found that the increase in the serum interferences led to a decrease in the measured ?HCG concentration. PMID:25650325

  13. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for monitoring nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity.

    PubMed

    Fiene, Amelie; Baqi, Younis; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-01

    The following members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family, NTPDase1 (CD39), NTPDase-2, -3, and -8, play an important role in purinergic signal transduction by regulating extracellular nucleotide levels. Potent and selective NTPDase inhibitors are required as pharmacological tools and have potential as novel drugs, e.g. for anti-cancer and anti-bacterial therapy. We have developed fast and sensitive NTPDase fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassays using the natural substrates (ATP or ADP). During the NTPDase1-catalyzed reaction, the substrate is dephosphorylated to ADP which is further dephosphorylated yielding AMP as the final product (by NTPDase1). NTPDase3 and -8 yield AMP and ADP, while NTPDase2 results mainly in the formation of ADP. Direct quantification of the respective product, AMP or ADP, is achieved by displacement of an appropriate fluorescent tracer nucleotide from a specific antibody leading to a change in fluorescence polarization. The assays are highly sensitive and can be performed with low substrate concentrations (20 ?M ATP or 10 ?M ADP) below the KM values of NTPDases, which simplifies the identification of novel competitive inhibitors. Optimized antibody and enzyme concentrations allow the reproducible detection of 2 ?M ADP and 1 ?M AMP (at 10% substrate conversion). Validation of the assays yielded excellent Z'-factors greater than 0.70 for all investigated NTPDase subtypes indicating high robustness of the analytical method. Furthermore, we tested a standard inhibitor and performed a first exemplary screening campaign with a library consisting of >400 compounds (Z'-factor: 0.87, hit rate 0.5%). Thereby we demonstrated the suitability of the FP assay for IC50 value determination and high-throughput screening in a 384-well format. The new FP assays were shown to be superior to current standard assays. PMID:25372046

  14. A SERS-based microfluidic immunoassay using an in-situ synthesized gold substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kequan; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wu, Lei; Zong, Shenfei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering)-based immunoassay in microfluidic system has been developed with in-situ synthesis of gold substrate and immune reporter named as 4MBA (4-Mercaptobenzoic acid)-labeled immuno-Ag aggregates. The gold substrate was fabricated simply by introducing the hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) trihydrate (HAuCl4) solution to microchannels using a microfluidic pump. It was found that the obtained deposited gold nanoparticles were uniform in size and shape. Then the sandwich immunoassays were performed using the gold substrates based on SERS signals. In the immunoassay, the gold nanoparticles decorated surface was modified with certain antibodies to recognize the specific kind of antigen, which was flowed through the microfluidic channel afterwards. Then 4MBA-labeled immuno-Ag aggregates were employed as the SERS probes to quantitatively detect the antigen. The experimental results showed a good specificity and limit of detection (LOD) about 1 ng/mL.

  15. Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay based on Pt nanoparticle with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Min; Jung, Ha-Wook; Chang, Young Wook; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    A lateral flow immunoassay (LF-immunoassay) with an enhanced sensitivity and thermostability was developed by using Pt nanoparticles with a peroxidase activity. The Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction method, and the peroxidase activity of Pt nanoparticles was optimized by adjusting reaction conditions. The peroxidase activity was estimated by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics model with TMB as a chromogenic substrate. The kinetics parameters of KM and Vmax were calculated and compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The thermal stability of the Pt nanoparticles was compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) according to the storage temperature and long-term storage period. The feasibility of lateral flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band was demonstrated by the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a model analyte, and the sensitivity was determined to be improved by as much as 1000-fold compared to the conventional rapid test based on colored gold-colloids. PMID:25467480

  16. Enabling Rapid and Specific Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Immunoassay Using Nanoscaled Surface Shear Forces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2015-06-23

    A rapid and simple approach is presented to address two critical issues of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay such as removal/avoiding nonspecific adsorption and reducing assay time. The approach demonstrated involves rationally designed fluorophore-integrated gold/silver nanoshells as SERS nanotags and utilizes alternative current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD)-induced nanoscaled surface shear forces to enhance the capture kinetics. The assay performance was validated in comparison with hydrodynamic flow and conventional immunoassay-based devices. These nanoscaled physical forces acting within nanometer distances from the electrode surface enabled rapid (40 min), sensitive (10 fg/mL), and highly specific detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in breast cancer patient samples. We believe this approach presents potential for the development of rapid and sensitive SERS immunoassays for routine clinical diagnosis. PMID:25978642

  17. Evaluation of the medically complex living kidney donor.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of "Medically complex living donors" are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term "Complex living donor" is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor. PMID:22655169

  18. Evaluation of suitable target antigens and immunoassays for high-accuracy immune monitoring of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-specific T cells as targets of interest in immunotherapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Sabine; Dieks, Daria; Sukdolak, Cinja; Bunse, Carola; Figueiredo, Constanca; Immenschuh, Stephan; Borchers, Sylvia; Stripecke, Renata; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Blasczyk, Rainer; Eiz-Vesper, Britta

    2014-06-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with donor-derived antiviral T cells can prevent viral complications such as with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this context accurate monitoring of cellular immunity is essential and requires suitable quantitative and qualitative assays for high-throughput screening. We comparatively analyzed 57 HLA-typed healthy donors for memory T-cell responses to CMV- and EBV-derived proteins, peptide pools and single HLA-restricted peptides by five commonly used immunoassays in parallel: enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), cytokine secretion assay (CSA), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and pMHC multimer staining. T-cell responses varied greatly between the different target antigens in the investigated assays. IFN-? ELISPOT consistently detected the highest T-cell response levels against CMV and EBV. CMV-specific T cells were detected in 100% of CMV-seropositive donors tested using CMVpp65 protein and/or overlapping CMVpp65 peptide pool. CMV-specific T cells in HLA-A*02:01-positive/CMV-seropositive donors were identified directly by HLA-A02/CMVpp65 (A02pp65) multimer staining and, after short in vitro stimulation with HLA-A*02:01-restricted pp65 peptide, by ELISPOT, ELISA, ICS and CSA. A peptide-specific T-cell response was detected in only 4 HLA-A*02:01-positive donors (50%). Despite A02pp65 peptide negativity, T-cell responses to CMVpp65 protein and/or overlapping peptide pool were detected. Comparing the specific immune response against EBV antigens in healthy donors overall, BZLF1-specific T cells (<92.9% peptides, <56.3% peptide pool) were more frequent than EBNA-specific T cells (<64.3% peptides, <46.9% peptide pool) with higher percentage of positive findings for single HLA-restricted EBV peptides. T-cell response against HLA-B*08 peptide epitopes was predominant (multimer staining: EBNA3A: 9/14 and BZLF1: 7/14, IFN-? ELISPOT: EBNA3A: 13/14 and BZLF1: 11/14). The fact that responses to EBV-specific antigens were not detected in every single EBV-seropositive donor as well as that the T-cell frequencies in response to the investigated EBV antigens differed strongly in the donor cohort indicates that these epitopes are less immunodominant than CMVpp65. Taken together, precise monitoring of T-cell immunity against infectious agents in potential T-cell donors and post-transplant recipients requires individual selection of antigens and immunoassays for the efficient detection and generation of clinically relevant T cells. Due to its lower detection limit and direct visualization of each IFN-?-secreting cell we identified ELISPOT analysis to be preferable for high-throughput pre-screening. CSA was found to be advantageous for a more detailed analysis of antigen-specific T-cell subsets. PMID:24877879

  19. Novel Double-Antigen Sandwich Immunoassay for Human Hepatitis B Core Antibody ?

    PubMed Central

    Li, An; Yuan, Quan; Huang, Zhiyin; Fan, Jian; Guo, Ruyi; Lou, Bin; Zheng, Qin; Ge, Shengxiang; Chen, Yixin; Su, Zhijun; Yeo, Anthony E. T.; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2010-01-01

    A novel diagnostic immunoassay testing procedure for hepatitis B virus core antibody (anti-HBc) using homogeneous purified full-length hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) capsids obtained from Escherichia coli was compared with Abbott Architect anti-HBc chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA; indirect method) against a library of specimens. A monoclonal anti-HBc neutralization confirmatory assay was then used to determine the degree of discordance between specimens. The new assay was found to be superior in both sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20107008

  20. The US National Marrow Donor Program role in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Confer; P Robinett

    2008-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP) is headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Established in 1986, the NMDP currently operates the world's largest registry of unrelated adult donors and umbilical cord blood (UCB) units. Since its inception, the NMDP has benefited from continuous financial support provided by the US government through a series of contracts and grant awards. This funding has

  1. Building Better Donors: A Well-Informed Donor is an Asset to Any Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire philanthropists compare notes in private with their peers. Whether experienced philanthropists or first-time donors, they all want their gifts to make a difference, and they are hungry for knowledge about how to be effective donors. They want to be educated about philanthropy. Educational institutions are experts at making the case for…

  2. Living donor liver transplantation: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles M; Smith, Martin L; Diago Uso, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Most solid-organ transplants performed in the Western world are from deceased donors. In the last decade, deceased donation rates have reached a plateau as the number of patients with end-stage organ disease has steadily increased, resulting in a large discrepancy between organ supply and demand. Living donor transplantation is one way to decrease this discrepancy. However, living donation is not universally accepted. For instance, living donation rates vary geographically (eg, living donation is more accepted in Asia than in the Western world) and depend on the organ donated (eg, kidney versus liver donation). In this article we will review the ethical principles guiding living donor liver transplantation, with emphasis on justification and safeguards that support the practice of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation, the most clinically and ethically challenging type of living organ donation. Our ethical justification will include a presentation of triangular or tripartite equipoise, a framework that aims to balance donor safety, expected recipient outcomes, and need. PMID:22499492

  3. Utilization of Extended Donor Criteria Liver Allografts Maximizes Donor Use and Patient Access to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Renz, John F.; Kin, Cindy; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Jan, Dominique; Varadarajan, Rhaghu; Goldstein, Michael; Brown, Robert; Emond, Jean C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of systematic utilization of extended donor criteria liver allografts (EDC), including living donor allografts (LDLT), on patient access to liver transplantation (LTX). Summary Background Data: Utilization of liver allografts that do not meet traditional donor criteria (EDC) offer immediate expansion of the donor pool. EDC are typically allocated by transplant center rather than regional wait-list priority (RA). This single-institution series compares outcomes of EDC and RA allocation to determine the impact of EDC utilization on donor use and patient access to LTX. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 EDC recipients (49 deceased donor, 50 LDLT) and 116 RA recipients from April 2001 through April 2004. Deceased-donor EDC included: age >65 years, donation after cardiac death, positive viral serology (hepatitis C, hepatitis B core antibody, human T-cell lymphotrophic), split-liver, hypernatremia, prior carcinoma, steatosis, and behavioral high-risk donors. Outcome variables included patient and graft survival, hospitalization, initial graft function, and complication categorized as: biliary, vascular, wound, and other. Results: EDC recipients were more frequently diagnosed with hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma and had a lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at LTX (P < 0.01). Wait-time, technical complications, and hospitalization were comparable. Log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates demonstrated no difference in patient or graft survival; however, deaths among deceased-donor EDC recipients were frequently the result of patient comorbidities, whereas LDLT and RA deaths resulted from graft failure (P < 0.01). EDC increased patient access to LTX by 77% and reduced pre-LTX mortality by over 50% compared with regional data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Systematic EDC utilization maximizes donor use, increases access to LTX, and significantly reduces wait-list mortality by providing satisfactory outcomes to select recipients. PMID:16192816

  4. Bead-based microfluidic immunoassay for diagnosis of Johne's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh [University of Tennessee, Center for Wildlife Health, Department of Forestry; Foote, Robert [ORNL; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Eda, Shigetoshi [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics technology offers a platform for development of point-of-care diagnostic devices for various infectious diseases. In this study, we examined whether serodiagnosis of Johne s disease (JD) can be conducted in a bead-based microfluidic assay system. Magnetic micro-beads were coated with antigens of the causative agent of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The antigen-coated beads were incubated with serum samples of JD-positive or negative serum samples and then with a fluorescently-labeled secondary antibody (SAB). To confirm binding of serum antibodies to the antigen, the beads were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. Different conditions (dilutions of serum and SAB, types of SAB, and types of magnetic beads) were optimized for a great degree of differentiation between the JD-negative and JD-positive samples. Using the optimized conditions, we tested a well-classified set of 155 serum samples from JD negative and JD-positive cattle by using the bead-based flow cytometric assay. Of 105 JD-positive samples, 63 samples (60%) showed higher antibody binding levels than a cut-off value determined by using antibody binding levels of JD-negative samples. In contrast, only 43-49 JD-positive samples showed higher antibody binding levels than the cut-off value when the samples were tested by commercially-available immunoassays. Microfluidic assays were performed by magnetically immobilizing a number of beads within a microchannel of a glass microchip and detecting antibody on the collected beads by laser-induced fluorescence. Antigen-coated magnetic beads treated with bovine serum sample and fluorescently-labeled SAB were loaded into a microchannel to measure the fluorescence (reflecting level of antibody binding) on the beads in the microfluidic system. When the results of five bovine serum samples obtained with the system were compared to those obtained with the flow cytometer, a high level of correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.994) was observed. In a further experiment, we magnetically immobilized antigen-coated beads in a microchannel, reacted the beads with serum and SAB in the channel, and detected antibody binding to the beads in the microfluidic system. A strong antibody binding in JD-positive serum was detected, whereas there was only negligible binding in negative control experiments. Our data suggest that the bead-based microfluidic system may form a basis for development of an on-site serodiagnosis of JD. Key Words: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, Johne s disease, microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip.

  5. Multiplex Serum Cytokine Immunoassay Using Nanoplasmonic Biosensor Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengyu; Chung, Meng Ting; McHugh, Walker; Nidetz, Robert; Li, Yuwei; Fu, Jianping; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Precise monitoring of the rapidly changing immune status during the course of a disease requires multiplex analysis of cytokines from frequently sampled human blood. However, the current lack of rapid, multiplex, and low volume assays makes immune monitoring for clinical decision-making (e.g., critically ill patients) impractical. Without such assays, immune monitoring is even virtually impossible for infants and neonates with infectious diseases and/or immune mediated disorders as access to their blood in large quantities is prohibited. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based microfluidic optical biosensing is a promising approach to fill this technical gap as it could potentially permit real-time refractometric detection of biomolecular binding on a metallic nanoparticle surface and sensor miniaturization, both leading to rapid and sample-sparing analyte analysis. Despite this promise, practical implementation of such a microfluidic assay for cytokine biomarker detection in serum samples has not been established primarily due to the limited sensitivity of LSPR biosensing. Here, we developed a high-throughput, label-free, multiarrayed LSPR optical biosensor device with 480 nanoplasmonic sensing spots in microfluidic channel arrays and demonstrated parallel multiplex immunoassays of six cytokines in a complex serum matrix on a single device chip while overcoming technical limitations. The device was fabricated using easy-to-implement, one-step microfluidic patterning and antibody conjugation of gold nanorods (AuNRs). When scanning the scattering light intensity across the microarrays of AuNR ensembles with dark-field imaging optics, our LSPR biosensing technique allowed for high-sensitivity quantitative cytokine measurements at concentrations down to 5–20 pg/mL from a 1 µL serum sample. Using the nanoplasmonic biosensor microarray device, we demonstrated the ability to monitor the inflammatory responses of infants following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery through tracking the time-course variations of their serum cytokines. The whole parallel on-chip assays, which involved the loading, incubation, and washing of samples and reagents, and 10-fold replicated multianalyte detection for each sample using the entire biosensor arrays, were completed within 40 min. PMID:25790830

  6. Stereoselective glycosylations using oxathiane spiroketal glycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Fascione, Martin A; Webb, Nicola J; Kilner, Colin A; Warriner, Stuart L; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Novel oxathiane spiroketal donors have been synthesised and activated via an umpolung S-arylation strategy using 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3-dimethoxybenzene. The comparative reactivity of the resulting 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl (TMP)- and 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (DMP)-oxathiane spiroketal sulfonium ions is discussed, and their ?-stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions is compared to the analogous TMP- and DMP-sulfonium ions derived from an oxathiane glycosyl donor bearing a methyl ketal group. The results show that the stereoselectivity of the oxathiane glycosyl donors is dependent on the structure of the ketal group and reactivity can be tuned by varying the substituent on the sulfonium ion. PMID:22200482

  7. Blood Donor Deferrals by Expert System

    PubMed Central

    Sorace, James M.; Berman, Jules J.; Brown, Lawrence A.; Moore, G. William

    1990-01-01

    Blood collection facilities have recently witnessed a substantial increase in the number of different tests used to detect infectious disease in donor populations. These facilities are also experiencing an increasingly stringent regulatory effort on the part of the Food and Drug Administration to determine the validity of the software used to handle this information. This report describes a precedence-based inference program (PRELOG) and a modular expert system used to determine a donor's suitability for continued donations (donor deferrals), and whether the donated unit can be released for transfusion. PRELOG accepts ternary logic input, in which test results are allowed to be positive, negative, or undetermined; and allows one to assign precedence values to the logic rules. These features enable programs to be written in a shorter, more error-resistant manner. A comparison between PRELOG and PROLOG is included, and the utility of this approach in producing and validating blood bank software is discussed.

  8. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

    2015-01-01

    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676?±?251 g (mean?±?SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80%?±?13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3%?±?0.4% (8?donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P?=?0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR?=?4.50, P?=?0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P?>?0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor of the rate of regeneration, and donor remnant fraction affects postresection function. Liver Transpl 21:79-88, 2015. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25065488

  9. Italian national survey of blood donors: external quality assessment (EQA) of syphilis testing.

    PubMed

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Volpi, Sabrina; Battista, Mara Maria; Barca, Alessandra; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Giampaolo, Adele

    2010-03-01

    The detection of syphilis among blood donors may reveal high-risk sexual behavior, which can go unreported at the time of donor selection and compromise the safety of the donated blood. In Italy, blood is collected, tested, and distributed by transfusion services (TSs), which also perform outpatient transfusions. Although the TSs must screen for syphilis by law, there are no indications of the specific type of method to be used, generating discrepancies in the results obtained by the different TSs. To determine the proficiency of the TSs in screening for syphilis, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA). The EQA was based on two shipments of serum panels; 133 and 118 of the 326 existing TSs participated in the first and second shipments, respectively. Each panel consisted of both positive and negative serum samples. The results confirmed that the use of a single nontreponemal test (the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL] and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] tests) is the least sensitive means of identifying samples that are positive for syphilis antibodies. We also found that the interpretation of the results of manual techniques, such as the RPR test, the VDRL test, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) assay, and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, can vary greatly among different TSs and operators. Total Ig enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the most sensitive. However, the determination of syphilis on the basis of the results of a single test is not sufficient for an accurate screening; and all blood units should thus be assessed by two distinct treponemal tests, that is, a total Ig EIA and the TPHA or the TPPA assay. PMID:20042617

  10. Related hematopoietic cell donor care: is there a role for unrelated donor registries?

    PubMed

    Anthias, C; van Walraven, S M; Sørensen, B S; de Faveri, G N; Fechter, M; Cornish, J; Bacigalupo, A; Müller, C; Boo, M; Shaw, B E

    2015-05-01

    In almost half of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplants, a related donor (RD) is used, yet a lack of standardized guidelines means that their care is heterogeneous. Changes to regulatory standards aim to improve uniformity, but adherence to these regulations can prove logistically difficult for the transplant centers (TCs) managing RDs. Discussion has ensued around possible alternative models of related donor care and a session at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) annual meeting in 2013 debated the question of whether a role exists for unrelated donor registries in the management of 'related' donors. In this overview, we discuss the issues raised at this debate and the pros and cons of donor registry involvement in various aspects of RD management. By examining existing models of related donor care that have been adopted by members of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), we look for ways to enhance and homogenize RD care, while also enabling transplant centers to meet standards required for mandatory accreditation. PMID:25730182

  11. Alternative donors extend transplantation for patients with lymphoma who lack an HLA matched donor.

    PubMed

    Bachanova, V; Burns, L J; Wang, T; Carreras, J; Gale, R P; Wiernik, P H; Ballen, K K; Wirk, B; Munker, R; Rizzieri, D A; Chen, Y-B; Gibson, J; Akpek, G; Costa, L J; Kamble, R T; Aljurf, M D; Hsu, J W; Cairo, M S; Schouten, H C; Bacher, U; Savani, B N; Wingard, J R; Lazarus, H M; Laport, G G; Montoto, S; Maloney, D G; Smith, S M; Brunstein, C; Saber, W

    2015-02-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high-risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000-2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele HLA-A, -B, -C and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUDs; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared with MUD (35%; P=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; P=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared with unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, P=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; P=0.48). In multivariate analysis, UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic GVHD compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: hazard ratio (HR)=0.68, P=0.05; HR=0.35; P<0.001). Adjusted 3-year OS was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). These data highlight the observation that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can extend the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A FLUORESCENT LATEX IMMUNOASSAY FOR DETECTION OF SPECTINOMYCIN ANTIOBIOTIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectinomycin is an antimicrobial agent used to treat infections caused by Gram negative and positive microorganisms in poultry, swine and non-lactating cattle. There is a need to develop a rapid and sensitive method to detect spectinomycin residues in animal tissues. A latex fluorescent immunoassay...

  13. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  14. Freedom from Drug Interference in New Immunoassays for Urinary Catecholamines and Metanephrines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Wassell; Paul Reed; John Kane; Cyril Weinkove

    1999-01-01

    Background: Determination of urinary free catecholamine and total (i.e., free plus conjugated) metanephrine excre- tion is considered the most clinically sensitive biochemical test for pheochromocytoma. In this study, we evaluated new immunoassay methods for the measurement of these analytes for potential drug-based interference. Methods: Urine samples collected from patients on a variety of medications were grouped by specific drug type.

  15. Synthesis of Haptens and Derivation of Monoclonal Antibodies for Immunoassay of the Phenylurea Herbicide Diuron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander E. Karu; Marvin H. Goodrow; Douglas J. Schmidt; Bruce D. Hammock; Michael W. Bigelow

    1994-01-01

    Diuron and related phenylurea herbicides and their metabolites are important candidates for sensitive and specific immunodetection. This paper describes a scheme for the synthesis of two different types of phenylurea haptens for immunization and use as detecting conjugates in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The haptens were used to develop indirect and direct EIAs and to derive a panel of monoclonal antibodies

  16. Development and clinical application of immunoassays for european adder ( vipera berus berus) venom and antivenom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Sjostrom; Christine Karlson-Stiber; Hans Persson; Ibrahim H. Al-Abdulla; Damon C. Smith

    1996-01-01

    An ovine affinity purified Fab antivenom was used in a clinical trial in Sweden to treat European adder (Vipera berus berus) envenoming. Immunoassays were developed to measure V. b. berus venom and antivenom concentrations in clinical samples to help assess the efficacy of treatment. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed, optimized and validated to measure plasma levels of V. b. berus

  17. Application and validation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers immunoassay for environmental and food matrices.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, chicken and soil samples. The assay is rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit ...

  18. Determination of the kinetic response and absolute sensitivity of a fiber-optic immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra F. Feldman; E. E. Uzgiris

    1994-01-01

    We have used an evanescently excited fiber optic immunoassay to study the kinetic response of an immunosensor and determine its absolute sensitivity. We have estimated that when binding sites are saturated approximately 1011 antigen are bound to a fiber probe of 0.57 cm2 active area using optical techniques and without resorting to a radioassay. The number of labeled antigen for

  19. A commercial rapid optical immunoassay detects Streptococcus agalactiae from aquatic cultures and clinical specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioStar STREPT B Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) (BioStar® OIA® Strep B Assay Kit; Biostar Incorporation; Louisville, CO, USA) was used to identify 32 known group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates of fish, dolphin, bovine, and human origin. Thirteen non-GBS isolates from fish and other animals were test...

  20. CHAPTER 35. DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC AND SULFONAMIDE RESIDUES IN MEAT TISSUE BY COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE IMMUNOASSAY KITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Dulin; Clarence A. White; Nitin H. Thaker

    In recent years, the application of immunochemical methods for detecting veterinary drug residues in animal tissue has increased. These methods are based on highly specific antigen-antibody reactions on a solid phase matrix involving conjugation of an enzyme to the drug analyte and specific antibody directed against the analyte. Advantages of enzyme immunoassays include sensitivity (usually in the ng\\/ml range), simplicity

  1. Detection of   and   Light Chain Monoclonal Proteins in Human Serum: Automated Immunoassay versus Immunofixation Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy D. Jaskowski; Christine M. Litwin; Harry R. Hill

    2006-01-01

    Recently, turbidimetric immunoassays for detecting and quantifying and free light chains (FLC) have become available and are promoted as being more sensitive than immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) in detecting FLC monoclonal proteins. In this study, we assessed the ability of these turbidimetric assays to detect serum monoclonal proteins involving both free and heavy-chain-bound and light chains compared to standard immunofixation electrophoresis.

  2. Highly Sensitive, Automated Immunoassay for Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in Serum and Urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur R. Bradwell; Hugh D. Carr-Smith; Graham P. Mead; Lian X. Tang; Paul J. Showell; Mark T. Drayson; Roger Drew

    Background: Bence Jones proteins or monoclonal im- munoglobulin k and l free light chains (FLCs) are important markers for identifying and monitoring many patients with B-cell tumors. Automated immunoassays that measure FLCs in urine and serum have consider- able clinical potential. Methods: Sheep antibodies, specific for FLCs, were prepared by immunization with pure k and l molecules and then adsorbed

  3. Development of monoclonal immunoassays for the determination of triazole fungicides in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Manclús, Juan J; Moreno, María J; Plana, Emma; Montoya, Angel

    2008-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on monoclonal antibodies for the detection of triazole fungicides have been developed. With this aim, hapten-protein conjugates, containing the common triazole and chlorinated aromatic moieties, were prepared. From mice immunized with these conjugates, several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with the ability to sensitively bind several triazoles with different specificity were obtained. Both analyte- and class-specific ELISAs were developed. The hexaconazole-specific immunoassay can determine this fungicide with a limit of detection of 0.3 mug/L in standard buffer. The so-called triazole-specific immunoassay allowed for the detection of tetraconazole, penconazole, cyproconazole, and myclobutanil, with limits of detection in the 0.1-0.7 mug/L range. These immunoassays were applied to the determination of triazoles in spiked fruit juices. Samples were adequately diluted to minimize the matrix effects. Coefficients of variation were below 30%, and recoveries ranged from 62 to 135%. Therefore, the developed immunoassays can determine triazole fungicides in fruit juices down to the maximum residue limits currently legislated, without any sample treatment other than dilution. PMID:18783243

  4. Microarray immunoassay for the detection of grapevine and tree fruit viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Abdullahi; M. Rott

    2009-01-01

    Development and application of DNA microarrays for plant disease diagnosis has to date been limited, and for antibody arrays even more so. In this work, an antibody microarray procedure was developed and its usefulness for the detection of plant viruses demonstrated. Using the conventional monoplex immunoassay ELISA technique as a benchmark, the procedure was used to detect several grapevine and

  5. Rapid Detection of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol in Wheat Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody was developed to measure nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in wheat. A DON-immobilized sensor chip having high sensitivity and stability was prepared, and an SPR detection procedure was developed. The competitiv...

  6. Self-Assembled Monolayers for MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for Immunoassays of Human Protein

    E-print Network

    Mrksich, Milan

    Self-Assembled Monolayers for MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for Immunoassays of Human Protein that combines self-assembled monolayers with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ioniza- tion time-of-flight mass- mobilized on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). This strategy was used to detect multiple protein antigens

  7. The measurement of triclosan in water using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay to determine triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in drinking water and wastewater was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocya...

  8. Enhancement of Immunoassay's Fluorescence and Detection Sensitivity Using Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Nano-Antenna-Dots

    E-print Network

    Enhancement of Immunoassay's Fluorescence and Detection Sensitivity Using Three implications. Here, we report the use of a new plasmonic structure and a molecular spacer to enhance). Furthermore, the average fluorescence enhancement has a dynamic range of 8 orders of magnitude and is uniform

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE: Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhesingh Ravi Shankaran; Norio Miura

    2007-01-01

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the

  10. Monoclonal antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for monitoring organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agriculture and domestic settings can result in widespread water contamination. The development of easy-to-use and rapid-screening immunoassay methods in a class-selective manner is a topic of considerable environmental interest. In this wo...

  11. Metallic nanocrystallites-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbon as labels for a sensitive simultaneous multianalyte electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Lishi

    2015-11-15

    This work reports on a facile, novel multianalyte electrochemical immunoassay for simultaneous detection of a-fetoprotein (AFP) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) using metal-containing nanomaterials confined in the ordered mesoporous carbon matrix (OMC-M) as labels. Well-dispersed uniform metallic nanocrystallites incorporated OMC materials were fabricated through a simple, economical, and green preparative strategy toward phenolic resol as a carbon source and metal nitrate as metal sources. The large amount of metallic nanocrystallites loading on the OMC nanomaterials, greatly amplified the detection signals, and the good biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes-chitosan retained excellent stability for the sandwich-type immunoassay. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunoassay exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of analytes, providing a better linear response range from 0.001 to 150ng/mL for AFP and for HER-2, with a lower limit of detectionof 0.6pg/mL and 0.35pg/mL (S/N=3), respectively. The immunosensor exhibited convenience, low cost, rapidity, good specificity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of AFP and HER-2 in real human serum samples, indicating that the developed immunoassay has the potential to find application in clinical detection of AFP and HER-2 and other tumor markers as an alternative approach. PMID:26046316

  12. Quantum dot-based immunoassay enhanced by high-density vertical ZnO nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung; Kwon, Seyong; Park, Je-Kyun; Park, Inkyu

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we report an efficient and high-performance immunoassay platform by combining high-density vertical ZnO nanowire array with photostable quantum dot (QD) labeling. The ZnO nanowire array provides a large surface area for the immobilization of biomolecules, which makes it an efficient substrate for the immunoreaction of biomolecules. When a sandwich immunoassay with QD label was conducted on various substrates, the ZnO nanowire substrate showed stronger fluorescence signal than ZnO thin film and bare glass substrates by 3.8 and 8.5 times, respectively. We found that the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from QD to ZnO nanowire could be suppressed by extending their distance with multilayer biotin-streptavidin complex. In addition, we demonstrated the QD-based immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on a ZnO nanowire substrate, showing an excellent immunoassay performance with a very low detection limit (0.001 ng/mL) and a large detection range up to 100 ng/mL. PMID:24384261

  13. Diagnosis of Oropouche Virus Infection Using a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOHAMMAD F. SAEED; MARCIO NUNES; PEDRO F. VASCONCELOS; ROBERT E. SHOPE; ROBERT B. TESH; ALAN D. T. BARRETT

    2001-01-01

    Oropouche (ORO) virus is an emerging infectious agent that has caused numerous outbreaks of an acute febrile (dengue-like) illness among humans in Brazil, Peru, and Panama. Diagnosis of ORO virus infection is based mainly on serology. Two different antigens, hamster serum antigen (HSA) and Vero cell lysate antigen (VCLA), are currently used in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in Brazil and Peru,

  14. Multiplex Immunoassay for Serological Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Whelan; Eduard Shuralev; Grainne O'Keeffe; Paula Hyland; Hang Fai Kwok; Philip Snoddy; Amanda O'Brien; Marie Connolly; Padraig Quinn; Matt Groll; Todd Watterson; Sara Call; Kevin Kenny; Anthony Duignan; Mary Jo Hamilton; Bryce M. Buddle; James A. Johnston; William C. Davis; Shane A. Olwill; John Clarke

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to develop a better diagnostic assay for bovine tuberculosis have shown that the sensitivity and specificity of an assay can be improved by the use of two or more antigens. As reported here, we developed a multiplex chemiluminescent immunoassay that can simultaneously detect antibody activity to 25 antigens in a single well in a 96-well plate array format. The

  15. Determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat bran and whole-wheat flour by fluorescence polarization immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid and accurate fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been optimized for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in bran and whole-wheat flour. A preliminary treatment with activated charcoal was used to eliminate the strong matrix effect due to highly colored interfering compounds p...

  16. A 7-plex microbead-based immunoassay for serotyping Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been contingent upon the availability of antisera. Here we describe a 7-plex microbead-based immunoassay to simultaneously serotype seven STEC (i.e., belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) by the Luminex xMA...

  17. Polyclonal Antibody-Based Noncompetitive Immunoassay for Small Analytes Developed with

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    used for this purpose in a broad range of applications from laboratory analysis to home drug-testing-throughput analysis of small molecules such as pesticides, drugs, and hormones in environ- mental and biomedical analysis is rapidly growing. Immunoassays, which are simple, robust, and low-cost techniques, are widely

  18. ON-SITE MERCURY ANALYSIS OF SOIL AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES BY IMMUNOASSAY AND ASV

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two field methods for Hg, immunoassay and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), that can provide onsite results for quick decisions at hazardous waste sites were evaluated. Each method was applied to samples from two Superfund sites that contain high levels of Hg; Sulphur Bank Me...

  19. IMMUNOASSAY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The journal article describes the use of a prototype immunoassay method for the determination of pentacholorphenol (PCP) in soil and sediment. PCP was used as a pesticide and wood preservative and is not currently available to the general public. The paper stresses the importan...

  20. Determination of serum IgG antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in environmental sampling workers using a fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, R; Sammons, D; Smith, J; Page, E; Snawder, J; Striley, C; MacKenzie, B

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate potential exposure to Bacillis anthracis (Ba) spores in sampling/decontamination workers in the aftermath of an anthrax terror attack. Methods: Fifty six serum samples were obtained from workers involved in environmental sampling for Ba spores at the American Media, Inc. (AMI) building in Boca Raton, FL after the anthrax attack there in October 2001. Nineteen sera were drawn from individuals both pre-entry and several weeks after entrance into the building. Nine sera each were drawn from unique individuals at the pre-entry and follow up blood draws. Thirteen donor control sera were also evaluated. Individuals were surveyed for Ba exposure by measurement of serum Ba anti-protective antigen (PA) specific IgG antibodies using a newly developed fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay (FCMIA). Results: Four sera gave positive anti-PA IgG results (defined as anti-PA IgG concentrations ? the mean µg/ml anti-PA IgG from donor control sera (n = 13 plus 2 SD which were also inhibited ? 85% when the serum was pre-adsorbed with PA). The positive sera were the pre-entry and follow up samples of two workers who had received their last dose of anthrax vaccine in 2000. Conclusion: It appears that the sampling/decontamination workers of the present study either had insufficient exposure to Ba spores to cause the production of anti-PA IgG antibodies or they were exposed to anthrax spores without producing antibody. The FCMIA appears to be a fast, sensitive, accurate, and precise method for the measurement of anti-PA IgG antibodies. PMID:15258278

  1. Donor quality of life after living donor liver transplantation: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junichi TogashiYasuhiko; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Noriyo Yamashiki; Junichi Kaneko; Taku Aoki; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Yoshifumi Beck; Masatoshi Makuuchi; Norihiro Kokudo

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/purpose  It is important to determine the health-related quality of life of live donors in liver transplantation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We reviewed 35 live liver donors and prospectively and longitudinally evaluated their health-related quality for 1.5 years\\u000a post-surgery based on the Short Form-36 version 2 questionnaire. Scores of the donors stratified by the clinical data were\\u000a analyzed. The study was approved by the

  2. Development and validation of a microfluidic immunoassay capable of multiplexing parallel samples in microliter volumes.

    PubMed

    Ghodbane, Mehdi; Stucky, Elizabeth C; Maguire, Tim J; Schloss, Rene S; Shreiber, David I; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-07-14

    Immunoassays are widely utilized due to their ability to quantify a vast assortment of biomolecules relevant to biological research and clinical diagnostics. Recently, immunoassay capabilities have been improved by the development of multiplex assays that simultaneously measure multiple analytes in a single sample. However, these assays are hindered by high costs of reagents and relatively large sample requirements. For example, in vitro screening systems currently dedicate individual wells to each time point of interest and this limitation is amplified in screening studies when the investigation of many experimental conditions is necessary; resulting in large volumes for analysis, a correspondingly high cost and a limited temporal experimental design. Microfluidics based immunoassays have been developed in order to overcome these drawbacks. Together, previous studies have demonstrated on-chip assays with either a large dynamic range, high performance sensitivity, and/or the ability to process samples in parallel on a single chip. In this report, we develop a multiplex immunoassay possessing all of these parallel characteristics using commercially available reagents, which allows the analytes of interest to be easily changed. The device presented can measure 6 proteins in 32 samples simultaneously using only 4.2 ?L of sample volume. High quality standard curves are generated for all 6 analytes included in the analysis, and spiked samples are quantified throughout the working range of the assay. In addition, we demonstrate a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.8999) between in vitro supernatant measurements using our device and those obtained from a bench-top multiplex immunoassay. Finally, we describe cytokine secretion in an in vitro inflammatory hippocampus culture system, establishing proof-of-concept of the ability to use this platform as an in vitro screening tool. The low-volume, multiplexing abilities of the microdevice described in this report could be broadly applied to numerous situations where sample volumes and costs are limiting. PMID:26130452

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid immunoassay in the diagnosis of cerebral schistosomiasis: experience in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Heng; Masataka, Hayashi; Lei, Ting; Li, Ming

    2009-10-01

    We analysed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clinical characteristics as well as serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoassay results in 41 patients with cerebral schistosomiasis. Thirty-five cerebral schistosomiasis patients were diagnosed by imaging and immunoassay, five by post-operative pathological examination and one by diagnostic treatment with praziquantel. We found that MRI showed specific enhancement, forming the 'Buddha's hand' appearance. Although this pattern of MRI enhancement may not be present in all cases of cerebral schistosomiasis, when it is observed a diagnosis of cerebral schistosomiasis should be considered. Meanwhile, CSF immunoassay may also play an important role in the differential diagnosis of cerebral schistosomiasis. PMID:19439334

  4. Electron shuttling in phosphorus donor qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Gamble, John King; Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard P.; Witzel, Wayne M.; Montano, Ines; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus donors in silicon are a promising qubit architecture, due in large part to their long nuclear coherence times and the recent development of atomically precise fabrication methods. Here, we investigate issues related to implementing qubits with phosphorus donors in silicon, employing an effective mass theory that non-phenomenologically takes into account inter-valley coupling. We estimate the significant sources of decoherence and control errors in this system to compute the fidelity of primitive gates and gate timescales. We include the effects of valley repopulation during the process of shuttling an electron between a donor and nearby interface or between neighboring donors, evaluating the control requirements for ensuring adiabaticity with respect to the valley sector. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program at Sandia National Labs, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Hyperfine Splitting of Donor States in Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kohn; J. M. Luttinger

    1955-01-01

    The hyperfine splitting of donor states in Si has been theoretically estimated. The results agree with the recent spin resonance experiments of Fletcher et al. within a factor of about 2, which is better than the estimated uncertainty of the calculation.

  6. SECTION A: DONOR INFORMATION Name: Name

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    SECTION A: DONOR INFORMATION Name: Name: Address: Phone: Home Work E-mail Address: SECTION B: BUSINESS INFORMATION Name: Title: Address: Phone: Fax: Country: E-mail Address: SECTION C: PLEDGE INFORMATION Please allocate my pledge of $_____________________ to: Fund for PSU Endowed Fund (Name

  7. UC Davis MIND Institute Donor Payment Form

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    UC Davis MIND Institute Donor Payment Form Contact Information: Name the need is greatest within MIND Institute (ND40567) ADHD (ADHDMND) Autism (AUTISM1) Chromosome 22q11: ____________________________ (Please Specify) Send the completed form to: c/o UC Davis MIND Institute Health Science Advancement 4900

  8. Organ Donor Recognition: Practical and Ethical Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Groot de Y. J

    2012-01-01

    The brain dead patient is the ideal multiorgan donor. Conditions that can lead to the state of brain death are limited. A subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury precede in 83% of the cases the state of brain death. Because of better prevention and treatment options of these conditions, we anticipate a further decline of brain death. Consequently,

  9. Donor Information Your name/maiden name

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    Donor Information Your name/maiden name Spouse/partner name Class year Preferred mailing address: home address business address Street City State ZIP Phone number Fax number E-mail address(es) Further volunteer opportunities Please send me the Berkeley Online electronic newsletter (You must include your e-mail

  10. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L. (Baytown, TX); Mitchell, Willard N. (Baytown, TX)

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  11. Coal processing: the Exxon donor solvent process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Furlong; E. Effron; L. W. Vernon; E. L. Wilson

    1976-01-01

    The development of the Exxon coal liquefaction process over 10 years is described. Exxon is using lower temperatures and lower pressures (approximately 100 bar) than were used in the Bergius process. The donor solvent is produced in a separate, fixed bed, catalytic hydrogenation step. Early research was broad in scope including, both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated recycle solvent studies. Alternate solids\\/liquids

  12. Annual Level Donors Charles and Donna Altmann

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hai

    Annual Level Donors Charles and Donna Altmann Donald Aoki William F. Ballhaus Jr. Walter and Marion Atteberry Walter Babchuk Dwight Baum Judith Ann Baum Dale Allen Beckstead Randy J. Beth Jo Ann Boss AnitaSocietyHonorRoll Elinor Ganzenhuber Barbara J. Gates Merwyn C. Gill James H. Gisbrecht Ahmad Gramian Richard Grey Rudolf W

  13. DONOR-ACCEPTOR INTERACTIONS OF NITROGEN*

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, J. E.; Szent-Györgyi, A.

    1969-01-01

    The nitrogen atoms of organic molecules readily enter into donor-acceptor interactions, giving off an electron from their lone pair. Under favorable conditions the acceptor can form free radicals. S and O atoms behave likewise but less intensely. PMID:4306047

  14. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you...other reliable test results or information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66 FR 31164, June 11, 2001, as...

  15. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...610.47 when a donor tests reactive by a screening test for HIV or HCV required under § 610.40(a) and (b), or when you...other reliable test results or information indicating evidence of HIV or HCV infection. [66 FR 31164, June 11, 2001, as...

  16. Can xenotransplantation solve the organ donor shortfall?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Pyun

    recipient's immune response towards animal organs. As the major molecules in the donor organ - antigens are recognised as foreign, antibodies are developed in the patient's body to destroy them. Among three major immunological processes, the level of hyperacute rejection can be lowered using an organ from an animal closely related to human. However, despite the effective prevention of hyperacute

  17. Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Brazilian Blood Donors; a Multicenter Case-Control Study Using Audio Computer-Assisted Structured-Interviews

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Birch, Rebecca Jeffries; de Carvalho, Silvia Maia F.; Capuani, Ligia; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Miranda, Carolina; Rocha, Pedro Capuani; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Johnson, Bryce R.; Wright, David J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Custer, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for HIV infection are known, it is important for blood centers to understand local epidemiology and disease transmission patterns. Current risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors in Brazil were assessed. Methods A case-control study was conducted at large public blood centers located in four major cities between April 2009 – March 2011. Cases were persons whose donations were confirmed positive by enzyme immunoassays followed by Western Blot confirmation. Audio computer-assisted structured-interviews (ACASI) were completed by all cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There were 341 cases, including 47 with recently-acquired infection, and 791 controls. Disclosed risk factors for both females and males were sex with an HIV-positive person (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.3, 95% CI [4.1, 31.7]) and being an IVDU or sexual partner of an IVDU (AOR 4.65 [1.8, 11.7]). For female blood donors, additional risk factors were having male sex partners who also are MSM (AOR 13.5 [3.1, 59.8]), and having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (AOR 5.19 [2.1, 12.9]). The primary risk factor for male blood donors was MSM activity (AOR 21.6 [8.8, 52.9.]). Behaviors associated with recently-acquired HIV were being a MSM or sex partner of MSM (13.82, [4.7, 40.3]), and IVDU (11.47, [3.0, 43.2]). Conclusion Risk factors in blood donors parallel those in the general population in Brazil. Identified risk factors suggest that donor compliance with selection procedures at the participating blood centers is inadequate. PMID:23517235

  18. Confirmation of the Genome Donors of Aegilops cylindrica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Johnson

    1967-01-01

    A method for identifying the C and D genome donors of Ae. cylindrica (CCDD) from the electrophoretic pattern of protein mixtures of Ae. caudata (CC) and Ae. squarrosa (DD) types may be useful confirming the B genome donor of wheat.

  19. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

  20. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

  1. Is there a role for living donor intestine transplants?

    PubMed

    Fryer, Jonathan; Angelos, Peter

    2004-12-01

    The use of living donors with intestinal transplantation is controversial because it may not significantly improve candidate access to organs when intestine-only grafts are needed, and may involve excessive donor risk when combined liver-intestine grafts are required. Although limited data are available for comparison at this time, graft and patient survival rates for intestinal transplantations using living donors are no different than for deceased donor transplantations. Potential benefits that may be provided to the intestine transplant recipient through the use of living donors include better HLA matching, shorter ischemia times, better bowel preparation, and better opportunities for introducing immunomodulatory strategies. Conversely, living intestine donors are at risk for mortality, significant morbidity, financial loss, and psychologic trauma. The long-term outcomes of living intestine donors have not yet been reported. Ultimately, these data are essential before the wider use of living donors can be advocated for intestinal transplantation. PMID:15663017

  2. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

  3. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

  4. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

  5. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

  6. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

  7. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

  8. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of fatal donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be...

  9. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection...

  10. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed...

  11. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed...

  12. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed...

  13. Alternative donor transplant of benign primary hematologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, J; Sodani, P; Symons, H

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic SCT is currently the only curative therapy for a range of benign inherited and acquired primary hematologic disorders in children, including BM failure syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. The preferred HLA-matched sibling donor is available for only about 25% of such children. However, there has been substantial progress over the last four decades in the use of alternative donors for those without a matched sibling—including HLA-matched unrelated donors, HLA-haploidentical related donors and unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood—so that it is now possible to find a donor for almost every child requiring an allograft. Below, we summarize the relative merits and limitations of the different alternative donors for benign hematologic conditions, first generally, and then in relation to specific disorders, and suggest recommendations for selecting such an alternative donor. PMID:25665040

  14. Retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: donor outcome and complication rate in comparison with three different techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Ruszat; Tullio Sulser; Michael Dickenmann; Thomas Wolff; Lorenz Gürke; Thomas Eugster; Igor Langer; Peter Vogelbach; Jürg Steiger; Thomas C. Gasser; Christian G. Stief; Alexander Bachmann

    2006-01-01

    Four surgical techniques for living donor nephrectomy were analyzed retrospectively in terms of perioperative outcome and\\u000a early complication rate. A total of 182 donor nephrectomies including 69 open (OLDN), 14 fully laparoscopic (LDN), 34 hand-assisted\\u000a laparoscopic (HLDN) and 65 retroperitoneoscopic (RLDN) nephrectomies were analyzed. There was a significant difference in\\u000a mean operating time (OPT) between the OLDN (160 min) and RLDN

  15. Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1979, the Committee of Donor Agencies promotes the development of small enterprise in developing countries. This site offers numerous working and research papers about the Committee of Donor Agencies and its members. Showcased on the site are the Committee's Donor Business Development Services Case Studies. The Case studies are browseable by several categories including Region, Country, Theme, and Member Agency. Also provided are the Donor Committee Guidelines and links to member agencies's sites.

  16. Expanded criteria donors: attempts to increase the renal transplant donor pool.

    PubMed

    Mandal, A K; Kalligonis, A N; Ratner, L E

    2000-04-01

    There is a growing disparity between the demand for and the supply of kidneys for transplantation. The demographics of the donor pool are also changing. The average potential cadaveric organ donor is now more likely to be older, at greater risk for co-morbid conditions such as hypertension or viral infections, and more likely to die from cerebrovascular disease. These factors have led to an expansion of the criteria that defines the suitable organ donor. Expanded criteria donors are defined as the following: (1) at the upper and lower extremes in age; (2) having a history of hypertension or diabetes; (3) hemodynamically unstable; (4) non-heartbeating (cardiopulmonary death rather than brain death); (5) seropositive for hepatitis B or C; (6) having systemic infections; (7) having displayed high-risk social behavior for HIV infection; (8) having a history of malignancy; (9) having abnormal organ function; or (10) with renal anatomic anomalies or injuries. Use of kidneys from these "expanded criteria donors" is a two-edged sword. While they provide more organs for transplantation, the risk of suboptimal recipient outcome is increased. A rational approach to the use of each of these types of kidneys and proper selection of recipients is essential to obtain acceptable results. The article reviews the factors that have contributed to the successful transplantation of kidneys procured from expanded criteria organ donors and how these organs can be allocated most efficaciously to the appropriate recipients. PMID:10782730

  17. Results of a Living Donor Kidney Promotion Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. González Monte; I. Delgado; N. Polanco; E. Hernández; T. Dipalma; A. Hernández; M. Castillo; E. Morales; M. Praga; J. M. Morales; A. Andrés

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundLiving kidney donor transplantation, a treatment option for end-stage kidney failure, may achieve better results than cadaveric donor transplantation. Although its significant use in some countries is due to the scarcity of cadaveric donors, it is also useful because it reduces waiting time for young recipients and avoids dialysis when performed before starting renal replacement therapy. Due to the high

  18. Volumetric analysis of liver segments in 155 living donors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surasak Leelaudomlipi; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Junichi Kaneko; Yuichi Matsui; Takao Ohkubo; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2002-01-01

    Right-lobe graft has been used most frequently for living donor liver transplantation in adult patients; however, some donors cannot donate their right lobe (according to the Healey and Scroy's terminology) because the remaining residual liver would be too small. A recent study suggested the possibility of right posterior segment graft in these donors. The purpose of this study was to

  19. Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Idiotypic Heavy-Chain Single-Domain Antibody for the Aflatoxin Immunoassay

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Idiotypic Heavy-Chain Single-Domain Antibody for the Aflatoxin Immunoassay an antibody phage library from the mRNA of an alpaca immunized with an antiaflatoxin monoclonal antibody (m

  20. Identifying and reducing potentially wrong immunoassay results even when plausible and "not-unreasonable".

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2014-01-01

    The primary role of the clinical laboratory is to report accurate results for diagnosis of disease and management of illnesses. This goal has, to a large extent been achieved for routine biochemical tests, but not for immunoassays which remained susceptible to interference from endogenous immunoglobulin antibodies, causing false, and clinically misleading results. Clinicians regard all abnormal results including false ones as "pathological" necessitating further investigations, or concluding iniquitous diagnosis. Even more seriously, "false-negative" results may wrongly exclude pathology, thus denying patients' necessary treatment. Analytical error rate in immunoassays is relatively high, ranging from 0.4% to 4.0%. Because analytical interference from endogenous antibodies is confined to individuals' sera, it can be inconspicuous, pernicious, sporadic, and insidious because it cannot be detected by internal or external quality assessment procedures. An approach based on Bayesian reasoning can enhance the robustness of clinical validation in highlighting potentially erroneous immunoassay results. When this rational clinical/statistical approach is followed by analytical affirmative follow-up tests, it can help identifying inaccurate and clinically misleading immunoassay data even when they appear plausible and "not-unreasonable." This chapter is largely based on peer reviewed articles associated with and related to this approach. The first section underlines (without mathematical equations) the dominance and misuse of conventional statistics and the underuse of Bayesian paradigm and shows that laboratorians are intuitively (albeit unwittingly) practicing Bayesians. Secondly, because interference from endogenous antibodies is method's dependent (with numerous formats and different reagents), it is almost impossible to accurately assess its incidence in all differently formulated immunoassays and for each analytes/biomarkers. However, reiterating the basic concepts underpinning interference from endogenous antibodies can highlight why interference will remain analytically pernicious, sporadic, and an inveterate problem. The following section discuses various stratagems to reduce this source of inaccuracy in current immunoassay results including the role of Bayesian reasoning. Finally, the role of three commonly used follow-up affirmative tests and their interpretation in confirming analytical interference is discussed. PMID:25344990

  1. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor...3(t), must determine and document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor . A donor is...

  2. Measurement of nine human milk proteins by nephelometric immunoassays: application to the determination of mature milk protein profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M Montagne; Virginie S Trégoat; Marie L Cuillière; Marie C Béné; Gilbert C Faure

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Microparticle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassays for six human milk proteins (?-casein, ?-casein, ?-lactalbumin, serum albumin, lactoferrin, and lysozyme) and conventional immunonephelometry assays for immunoglobulin A, C3, and C4 complement proteins were developed and characterized.Design and methods: Microparticle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassays are competitive assays based on the nephelometric quantification of the inhibition of microparticle-protein conjugates immunoagglutination by the proteins to be assayed.Results: High

  3. A 3D porous polymer monolith-based platform integrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips for immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qin-Shu; Shen, Xiao-Fan; Hu, Na-Na; Hu, Meng-Jia; Liao, Hui; Wang, Han-Zhong; He, Zhi-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the immunocapture and on-line fluorescence immunoassay of protein and virus based on porous polymer monoliths (PPM) in microfluidic devices. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)] monoliths were successfully synthesized in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels by in situ UV-initiated free radical polymerization. After surface modification, PPM provides a high-surface area and specific affinity 3D substrate for immunoassays. Combining with well controlled microfluidic devices, the direct immunoassay of IgG and sandwich immunoassay of inactivated H1N1 influenza virus using 5 ?L sample has been accomplished, with detection limits of 4 ng mL(-1) and less than 10 pg mL(-1), respectively. The enhanced detection sensitivity is due to both high surface area of PPM and flow-through design. The detection time was obviously decreased mainly due to the shortened diffusion distance and improved convective mass transfer inside the monolith, which accelerates the reaction kinetics between antigen and antibody. This work provides a novel microfluidic immunoassay platform with high efficiency thereby enabling fast and sensitive immunoassay. PMID:23478568

  4. Mechnical tuning of ionized donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Kuenzl, Markus; Itoh, Kohei M.; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.

    2015-03-01

    Ionized donors in silicon have been shown to have extraordinarily long coherence times, exceeding tens of minutes even at room temperature, which, combined with the very advanced state of silicon technology, makes them attractive candidates for the realization of solid state qubits. The corresponding near perfect isolation from their environment, however, renders the individual addressing and coupling of such qubits a major challenge on the way towards a spin quantum computer based on ionized donors. We show that the application of strain to the silicon host crystal leads to shifts of the nuclear spin resonance frequencies of 75As+ due to the nuclear quadrupole interaction with crystal fields. This shift can be larger than the resonance linewidth already for modest strains, as we demonstrate by electrically detected electron nuclear double resonance (ED ENDOR) measurements on arsenic donors in strained silicon. We discuss how quadrupole interactions could allow for the individual addressing of ionized nuclear spins by mechanical tuning of their resonance frequency and, possibly, permit the elastic coupling of nuclear spin qubits to a mechanical resonator.

  5. Squaraine donor based organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guodan

    There are three main ongoing avenues to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics (OPV): the development of new organic materials, improved process control and novel device architecture design. In this thesis, through molecular design with chemical modification of functional organic molecules, a family of new highly absorptive solution processable squaraine (SQ) materials have been systematically synthesized and explored to improve the sunlight harvesting and charge transport. The spin-cast SQ donors are then coated with fullerene acceptors to form a unique nanocrystalline heterojunction (NcHJ) OPV device. This combination of a novel and efficient family of SQ donors, a unique NcHJ device architecture and optimized fabrication processes leads to high efficiency solar cells. For example, solar cells with efficiencies of ˜5.7 % and a fill factor ˜0.74 are achieved. We find a correlation between solar cell fill factor with the SQ thin film density, providing support for the molecular design concept that planar end groups result in close intermolecular stacking, and hence improved charge transport and exciton diffusion. Finally, thermal annealing of the films results in the formation of nanocrystalline morphologies that lead to further improvements in device performance. The microcrystal growth of SQ donors have been characterized by XRD, AFM and TEM.

  6. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ?2.0?mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value <0.005; FDR <10%), but by 4 months there were no differences. Transplanting selected kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes. PMID:25808278

  7. Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part II. Assay development and application to residue determination in food.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Josep V; López-Moreno, Rosario; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Immunochemical assays constitute complementary analytical methods for small organic molecule determination. We herein describe the characterisation and optimisation of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in different formats using monoclonal antibodies to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide trifloxystrobin. Antibody selectivity was evaluated using a variety of agrochemicals and the main trifloxystrobin metabolite. Acceptable tolerance of the immunoassay to methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile was observed in all cases, whereas a dissimilar influence of buffer pH and ionic strength was found. Moreover, the influence of Tween 20 over the analytical parameters was studied. The limits of detection of the optimised assays were below 0.1 ?g L(-1). Excellent recoveries, even at 10 ?g kg(-1), were obtained when strawberry, tomato, and cucumber samples spiked with trifloxystrobin were analysed. Finally, statistical agreement was found between immunoassay and reference chromatographic results using blind-spiked and in-field treated samples. PMID:24874355

  8. Dual analyte flow injection fluorescence immunoassays using thiophilic gel reactors and synchronous scanning detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, J C; Miller, J N; Evans, M; Palmer, D A

    2000-10-01

    Heterogeneous fluorescence immunoassays have been automated using flow injection manifolds incorporating thiophilic gel solid phase reactors to separate antibody-bound and unbound analyte molecules. Antibody elution is achieved by changes in ionic strength, thus allowing the use of pH sensitive fluorescent labels. This facilitates the development of dual analyte systems, in which two competitive immunoassays with separate labels are monitored in parallel. Detection of the fluorophores by high speed synchronous fluorescence scanning while the flow is briefly stopped utilises either one synchronous interval which detects both fluorophores, or two separate scans at different wavelength intervals, one for each fluorophore. Simultaneous analyses of serum albumin and transferrin exemplify these novel approaches. Spectroscopic interferences are very small, analyte recoveries are close to 100%, with a relative standard deviation of 5-6% and a sampling rate of 20 h-1. PMID:11070537

  9. Replacing immunoassays with tryptic digestion-peptide immunoaffinity enrichment and LC–MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jessica O; Hoofnagle, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    For decades, immunoassays have provided the framework for protein biomarker studies in clinical medicine and in therapeutic monitoring for drug development. At the same time, investigators have uncovered many issues that make immunoassays unreliable in many human serum and plasma samples. LC-MS/MS after tryptic digestion of proteins is potentially an attractive solution, but the sensitivity of the method is not sufficient to measure many important low-abundance proteins directly. The use of antipeptide antibodies to immunoenrich peptides of interest can improve the sensitivity of the approach, greatly simplify the matrix enabling shortened chromatographic runs, and facilitate the multiplexed quantification of analytes, which could reduce the costs of quantitative protein measurements in complex specimens. We provide an overview of the method and the steps needed to develop an assay. In addition, we review the efforts to make this method generally more applicable. PMID:22303832

  10. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B.

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases.

  11. Serologic test-systems development: immunoassays for antibiotics. Progress report, May 16, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Brake, R.; Hollstein, U.; Hindman, K.

    1983-04-01

    Progress on development of immunoassays for the antibiotics gentamicin, tetracycline, and tylosin is discussed. The development of the gentamicin assay was completed and the assay was transferred to the Beltsville Laboratories of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Quality Service (FSQS). The sensitivity (1 ppB) is 50-fold greater than we have previously reported, and is satisfactory for the current needs. At year's end, work was still in progress on both the tetracycline and tylosin assays. Tetracycline presents a more difficult problem of chemistry than we had anticipated. Immunoassay reagents synthesized by diazonium coupling were only weakly immunoreactive; analysis suggests that this coupling procedure damages the tetracycline structure. Several tetracycline derivatives that offer promising alternative coupling procedures were synthesized. Tylosin was successfully coupled to peroxidase. With this conjugate and antiserum, obtained from R. Mageau of the USDA, some immune-specific binding was demonstrated. Several problems with the tylosin assay remain to be resolved.

  12. Liver cancer immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles and MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z. Q.; Li, L.; Li, G. J.; Leung, C. W.; Shi, J.; Wong, C. M.; Lo, K. C.; Chan, W. K.; Mak, C. S. K.; Chan, S. B.; Chan, N. M. M.; Leung, C. H.; Lai, P. T.; Pong, P. W. T.

    2012-04-01

    We have demonstrated the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) labeled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors. AFP is an important hepatic tumor biomarker and the detection of AFP has significant applications for clinical diagnostics and immunoassay for early-stage liver cancer indications. In this work, MgO-based MTJ sensors and 20-nm iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for detecting AFP antigens by a sandwich-assay configuration. The MTJ sensors with a sensing area of 4 × 2 ?m2 possess tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of 122% and sensitivity of 0.95%/Oe at room temperature. The target AFP antigens of three concentrations were successfully detected, and the experimental data indicate that the resistance variations of the MTJ sensor increased with the AFP concentration ratios proportionally. These results demonstrate that MgO-based MTJ sensors together with MNPs are a promising biosensing platform for liver cancer immunoassay.

  13. The Unexamined Donor: For Better Planning and Greater Returns, Segment the Annual Fund by Giving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardillo, Charlie

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines for conducting an annual fund at colleges and universities stress the importance of aggregate donor behavior and donor value, rather than solicitation technique, in driving strategic planning and goal-setting. Suggests fund raisers track three measures of donor participation: donor retention, lapsed donor reactivation, and new donor

  14. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata [Laboratory of Developmental Engineering, Department of Life Science, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Tomii, Ryo [Laboratory of Developmental Engineering, Department of Life Science, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Kano, Koichiro [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Animal Science, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan); Nagashima, Hiroshi [Laboratory of Developmental Engineering, Department of Life Science, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan)]. E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  15. Ethical guidelines for the evaluation of living organ donors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linda; Faith, Karen; Richardson, Robert; Grant, David

    2004-12-01

    Transplantation is an effective, life-prolonging treatment for organ failure. Demand has steadily increased over the past decade, creating a shortage in the supply of organs. In addition, the number of deceased organ donors has reached a plateau. Living-donor transplantation is increasingly an option, influenced by favourable clinical outcomes and increased waiting times at most transplant centres across North America. Living-donor kidney transplants have exceeded deceased-donor transplant rates at some centres. Organ donations from living donors have challenged transplant programs to develop a framework for determining donor acceptability. After a multidisciplinary consensus-building process of discussion and debate, the Multi-Organ Transplant Program of the University Health Network in Toronto has developed ethical guidelines for these procedures. These proposed guidelines address ethical concerns related to selection criteria and procedures, voluntariness, informed consent and disclosure of risks and benefits to both donor and recipient. PMID:15646438

  16. Gel-based immunoassay for non-instrumental detection of pyrene in water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Yu. Goryacheva; Natalia V. Beloglazova; Sergei A. Eremin; Dmitry A. Mikhirev; Reinhard Niessner; Dietmar Knopp

    2008-01-01

    A new qualitative immunologically based tube test for non-instrumental detection of pyrene (PYR) in water samples was developed. The method combines the pre-concentration of analyte by immunoextraction and its detection by immunoassay using Sepharose 4B-immobilized IgG-fraction of a polyclonal anti-PYR antiserum (immunoaffinity gel) and 1-pyrenebutyric acid-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (PYR-BA-HRP). The immunoaffinity gel was placed in a standard 1-ml SPE column

  17. Magnetic Electrochemical Immunoassays with Quantum Dot Labels for Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Jun; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A new magnetic electrochemical immunoassay has been developed as a tool for biomonitoring exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds, e.g., insecticides and chemical nerve agents, by directly detecting organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP?AChE). This immunoassay uniquely incorporates highly efficient magnetic separation with ultrasensitive square wave voltammetry (SWV) analysis with quantum dots (QDs) as labels. A pair of antibodies was used to achieve the specific recognition of OP?AChE that was prepared with paraoxon as an OP model agent. Antiphosphoserine polyclonal antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic particles preferably chosen to capture OP?AChE from the sample matrixes by binding their phosphoserine moieties that were exposed through unfolding the protein adducts. This was validated by electrochemical examinations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, antihuman AChE monoclonal antibodies were labeled with cadmium-source QDs to selectively recognize the captured OP?AChE, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent electrochemical SWV analysis of the cadmium component released by acid from the coupled QDs was conducted on disposable screen-printed electrodes. Experimental results indicated that the SWV-based immunoassays could yield a linear response over a broad concentration range of 0.3?300 ng/mL OP?AChE in human plasma with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Such a novel electrochemical immunoassay holds great promise as a simple, selective, sensitive, and field-deployable tool for the effective biomonitoring and diagnosis of potential exposures to nerve agents and pesticides.

  18. Development of a Prototype Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) for the Rapid Diagnosis of Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Raymond L.; Reed, Dana E.; Hubbard, Mark A.; Dillon, Michael J.; Chen, Hongjing; Currie, Bart J.; Mayo, Mark; Sarovich, Derek S.; Theobald, Vanessa; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Duval, Brea; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; AuCoin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3–7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD) to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI); the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (?0.2 ng/ml). The analytical reactivity (inclusivity) of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77) when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity) testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36) were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation. PMID:24651568

  19. [Determination of thyroxine in serum by a heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay: results of a joint trial].

    PubMed

    Borner, K; Colombo, J P; Bachmann, C; Haeckel, R; Oellerich, M; Westerink, D; Fischer, M; Wimmer, P; Vogt, W; Tausch, A; Knedel, M; Minder, W; Blum, J; Portenhauser, R

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a heterologous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of total thyroxine in serum by a group of seven clinical chemical laboratories. The test follows the principles of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and uses peroxidase as a marker. The evaluation of analytical reliability yielded the following results within the analytical range from 39 unto 322 nmol/l: 1. Within-batch precision ranged from 3.1 unto 10.4% (coefficient of variation) with single analyses. 2. Between-batch precision ranged from 3.7 unto 20.4% with single analyses. 3. Between-laboratories precision ranged from 5.4 unto 6.8%. 4. Pure thyroxine, added to serum or thyroxine-free serum, gave recoveries between 93 and 120%. 5. Analysis of control sera gave results essentially comparable to the assigned values based upon radioimmunoassays. 6. Analysis of 288 clinical sera gave slightly higher results by the enzyme immunoassay than by the analogous radioimmunoassay from the same manufacturer. 7. Comparison with other methods of analysis (radioimmunoassays, competitive protein ligand assays, hormonal iodine assay) yielded partly comparable, partly higher results. 8. Comparison with the homogenous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) led to comparable results. 9. Interference due to hyperlipemia or hemolysis was not observed. 10. There might be an interference in hyperbilirubinaemic sera, due to an as yet unknown factor. With respect to practicability the ELISA-test compares favourably with the analogous solid phase radioimmunoassay. The main differences are the absence of radioactive material and a longer shelf-live of reagents. Following the manual procedure the time taken to perform the enzyme immunoassay is slightly longer than for the analogous radioimmunoassay. PMID:383882

  20. USING A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY TO QUANTIFY TESTOSTERONE IN AVIAN PLASMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN E. WASHBURN; JOSHUA J. MILLSPAUGH; DANA L. MORRIS; JOHN H. SCHULZ; JOHN FAABORG

    2007-01-01

    Using a commercially available testos- terone enzyme immunoassay (EIA), we developed and validated an assay procedure for determining testosterone levels in small-volume (20 mL) avian plasma samples. We evaluated this EIA's utility by measuring plasma testosterone levels in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). Standard bio- chemical validations (e.g.,

  1. Molecular interference in antibody-antigen interaction studied with magnetic force immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dorokhin, D; van IJzendoorn, L J; de Jong, A M; Nieto, L; Brunsveld, L; Orsel, J G; Prins, M W J

    2015-09-25

    Molecular interferences are an important challenge in biotechnologies based on antibody-antigen interactions, such as sandwich immunoassays. We report how a sandwich immunoassay with magnetic particles as label can be used to probe interference by surfactants. Surfactants are often used to improve the performance of immunoassays, however the surfactants can affect the involved proteins and the mechanism of action of surfactant molecules on the antibody-antigen system is mostly unknown. As an example, we investigated molecular interference by a nonionic surfactant (Pluronic F-127) in a cardiac troponin (cTn) sandwich immunoassay with two monoclonal antibodies. The influence of the surfactant below the critical micelle concentration (0.00-0.04%) on dissociation properties was quantified in a magnetic tweezers setup, where a force is applied to the molecules via magnetic particle labels. The force-dependent dissociation curves revealed the existence of two distinct cTn-dependent bond types, namely a weak bond attributable to non-specific binding of cTn, and a strong bond attributable to the specific binding of cTn. The dissociation rate constant of the strong bonds increased with the surfactant concentration by about a factor of two. Circular dichroism spectroscopy data showed that the nonionic surfactant influences the conformation of cTn while not noticeably affecting the two monoclonal antibodies. This suggests that the surfactant-induced increase of the dissociation rate of the specific sandwich-type cTn binding may be related to a conformational change of the antigen molecule. The described methodology is an effective tool to study the influence of surfactants and other interferences on assays based on protein interactions. PMID:25676839

  2. Detection of Anthrax Toxin by an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay Using Europium Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shixing Tang; Mahtab Moayeri; Zhaochun Chen; Harri Harma; Jiangqin Zhao; Haijing Hu; Robert H. Purcell; Stephen H. Leppla; Indira K. Hewlett

    2009-01-01

    We developed a europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA) for the sensitive detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA). The ENIA exhibited a linear dose-dependent pattern within the detection range of 0.01 to 100 ng\\/ml and was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). False-positive results were not observed with serum samples from healthy adults, mouse plasma without PA, or plasma

  3. Validation of multiplex microbead immunoassay for simultaneous serodetection of multiple infectious agents in laboratory mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Resmi Ravindran; Imran H. Khan; Viswanathan V. Krishnan; Melanie Ziman; Lon V. Kendall; Janelle M. Frasier; Rachel Bates; Steve M. Griffey; James R. Fahey; Paul A. Luciw

    2010-01-01

    Multiplex methodologies enable simultaneous detection of antibodies against several infectious agents allowing sample conservation, cost effectiveness, and amenability to high-throughput\\/automation. We have previously described a multiplex microbead immunoassay for serodetection of ten, high-priority mouse infectious pathogens. Here, we present a validation of this multiplex diagnostic system using approximately four hundred serum samples from different groups of mice. Computer assisted multivariate

  4. Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

    2014-02-01

    Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 ?g/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

  5. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  6. Measuring prions causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy or chronic wasting disease by immunoassays and transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiri G. Safar; Michael Scott; Jeff Monaghan; Camille Deering; Svetlana Didorenko; Julie Vergara; Haydn Ball; Giuseppe Legname; Estelle Leclerc; Laura Solforosi; Hana Serban; Darlene Groth; R. Anthony Williamson; Dennis R. Burton

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing concern over the extent to which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions have been transmitted to humans, as a result of the rising number of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) cases. Toward preventing new transmissions, diagnostic tests for prions in livestock have been developed using the conformation-dependent immunoassay (CDI), which simultaneously measures specific antibody binding to denatured and native

  7. Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W

    2003-12-15

    An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

  8. Gold nanoparticles based dipstick immunoassay for the rapid detection of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane: An organochlorine pesticide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lisa; R. S. Chouhan; A. C. Vinayaka; H. K. Manonmani; M. S. Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) based dipstick competitive immunoassay was developed to detect organochlorine pesticide such as DDT at nanogram level (ppb). GNPs of definite size were synthesized and conjugated to anti-DDT antibodies (IgY), which served as the detecting reagent. DDA-BSA conjugate (antigen) was immobilized on to nitro cellulose (NC) membrane containing strip. GNPs conjugated anti-DDT antibodies were treated with different concentrations

  9. Sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on functionalized silica nanoparticle labels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-03-03

    We present a poly(guanine)-functionalized silica nanoparticle (NP) label-based electrochemical immunoassay for sensitively detecting 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). This immunoassay takes advantage of magnetic bead–based platform for competitive displacement immunoreactions and separation, and use electroactive nanoparticles as labels for signal amplification. For this assay, anti-TNT-coated magnetic beads interacted with TNT analog-conjugated poly(guanine)-silica NPs and formed analog-anti-TNT immunocomplexes on magnetic beads. The immunocomplexes coated magnetic beads were exposed to TNT samples, which resulted in displacing the analog conjugated poly(guanine) silica NPs into solution by TNT. In contrast, there are no guanine residues releasing into the solution in the absence of TNT. The reaction solution was then separated from the magnetic beads and transferred to the electrode surface for electrochemical measurements of guanine oxidation with Ru(bpy)32+ as mediator. The sensitivity of this TNT assay was greatly enhanced through dual signal amplifications: 1) a large amount of guanine residues on silica nanoparticles is introduced into the test solution by displacement immunoreactions and 2) a Ru(bpy)32+-induced guanine catalytic oxidation further enhances the electrochemical signal. Some experimental parameters for the nanoparticle label-based electrochemical immunoassay were studied and the performance of this assay was evaluated. The method is found to be very sensitive and the detection limit of this assay is ~ 0.1 ng mL-1 TNT. The electrochemical immunoassay based on the poly[guanine]-functionalized silica NP label offers a new approach for sensitive detection of explosives.

  10. The Application of Enzyme Immunoassay to the Study of Salivary IGA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy B. Johnson Jr; Junda Liu

    1982-01-01

    In the study of salivary IgA, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay has been able to show that 1) the assay is reliable, 2) minimal loss of IgA occurs from centrifuging or by elimination of insoluble mucins, 3) IgA can be easily measured in fractions from sucrose gradient sedimentation, 4) freezing alone is sufficient to preserve salivary IgA, 5) the concentration in normal

  11. IgG and IgM Antibodies to Rubella Quantitated by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy B. Johnson Jr; Fred C. Jensen; Christopher R. Peter; Robert M. Nakamura

    1982-01-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for rubella antibodies (of IgG, H & L type, IgM-type) is described that requires assay at usually one dilution of serum. Results are reportable in milligrams IgG (or IgM) - equivalents per liter serum and in approximate hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers. The method uses purified rubella virus immobilized by a special process in excess, a 16

  12. Specificity of the carbon immunoassay (CIA) test for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L; Guerrero, O M; Hernández, F

    1992-10-01

    A rapid and low cost procedure, the carbon immunoassay (CIA) test, was evaluated for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Using a closely related parasite (Besnoitia jellisoni) as antigen, and homologous or heterologous immune sera, it was demonstrated by light and electron microscopy that CIA is a very reliable and specific test. As it is neither expensive nor time-consuming, it can be recommended for general and routine laboratory use. PMID:1466141

  13. An enzyme immunoassay for serum and urinary levonorgestrel in human and non-human primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Munro; L. S. Laughlin; T. VonSchalscha; D. M. Baldwin; B. L. Lasley

    1996-01-01

    A microtiter plate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is reported for the measurement of levonorgestrel (LNG) in serum and urine samples of human and non-human primates, and the results are compared to data obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the bovine serum albumin conjugate of the 3-O-carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) derivative of LNG. The enzyme label was produced by

  14. Human Kallikrein 8: Immunoassay Development and Identification in Tissue Extracts and Biological Fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadaaki Kishi; Linda Grass; Antoninus Soosaipillai; Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe; Eleftherios P. Diamandis

    2003-01-01

    Background: The serine protease human kallikrein 8 (hK8; neuropsin), a new member of the human kal- likrein family, was predicted to be secreted; thus, it is expected to be present in biological fluids. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific immunoassay for hK8 (hK8-ELISA) and establish the distribution of hK8 in tissue extracts and biological

  15. Microbead electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for detection and identification of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojiang Dai; Rayanne E. Hilsen; Wei-Gang Hu; R. Elaine Fulton

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay, incorporating chemically biotinylated and ruthenylated antibodies down-selected from a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal reagents, was developed to detect and identify Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the optimized ECL assay was 103pfu\\/ml VEEV TC-83 virus and 1ng\\/ml recombinant (r) VEEV E2 protein. The LOD of the ECL assay was approximately

  16. Harmonization protocols for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoassays: different approaches based on the consensus mean value.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Ripoli, Andrea; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Plebani, Mario

    2015-02-01

    The lack of interchangeable laboratory results and consensus in current practices has underpinned greater attention to standardization and harmonization projects. In the area of method standardization and harmonization, there is considerable debate about how best to achieve comparability of measurement for immunoassays, and in particular heterogeneous proteins. The term standardization should be used only when comparable results among measurement procedures are based on calibration traceability to the International System of Units (SI unit) using a reference measurement procedure (RMP). Recently, it has been promoted the harmonization of methods for many immunoassays, and in particular for thyreotropin (TSH), as accepted RMPs are not available. In a recent paper published in this journal, a group of well-recognized authors used a complex statistical approach in order to reduce variability between the results observed with the 14 TSH immunoassay methods tested in their study. Here we provide data demonstrating that data from an external quality assessment (EQA) study allow similar results to those obtained using the reported statistical approach. PMID:25241732

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman Immunoassay (SERIA): detection of Bacillus globigii in ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-12-01

    This work presents the development of new methodologies centering on surfaces with immunologically induced affinities for biomaterials in aqueous systems. The immunologically active surfaces concentrate the biomaterials at the interface and therefore eliminate the need for preconcentration steps. This results in a highly sensitive and rapid immunoassay technique. The very strong localized of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) that occurs at noble metal surfaces is combined with the unparalleled selectivity of immunoassays. Localization of the SERS signal eliminates the problem of washing and allows assays to be performed without treatment steps associated with removing excess agents. Previous work with small illicit drug molecules and large microorganisms clearly demonstrates trace detection of species in aqueous environments is possible. This paper discusses further work to detect Bacillus globigii by couping surface enhanced Raman scattering with immunoassays (SERIA) using citrate reduced silver nanoparticles. The spores of B. globigii are used to simulate the behavior of another bacterium that forms spores-the potential biological warfare agent, Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax.

  18. Positive predictive values of abused drug immunoassays on the Beckman Synchron in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, D J; Ecos, K; Friedman, D; Beason, S

    2001-04-01

    The pressure to reduce the cost of analytic testing makes it tempting to discontinue routine confirmation of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse by immunoassay. Beyond the economic motivation, the requirement for confirmation should be driven by the positive predictive value of the screening tests. We have quantitated positive predictive values of our screening immunoassays in a large metropolitan Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We reviewed the confirmatory rate of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse with Beckman Synchron reagents from June 1998 to June 1999 and tabulated the false-positive screening rate. There were 175 instances of false-positive screens during the 13 months we analyzed. Positive predictive values ranged from 0% (amphetamine) to 100% (THC). We determined that the low positive predictive value of the amphetamine assay in our laboratory was primarily due to the use of ranitidine (Zantac). Urine specimens containing greater than 43 microg/mL ranitidine were positive in our amphetamine assay. This concentration is routinely exceeded in our patients taking ranitidine. In our clinical and analytic setting, the Beckman THC assay did not require confirmation. The positive predictive values of the Beckman opiate, cocaine, barbiturate, propoxyphene, and methadone immunoassays dictate routine confirmatory testing in specimens that screen positive for these substances. Finally, because of its extreme sensitivity to ranitidine, the Beckman amphetamine assay has little utility in our laboratory setting. PMID:11327349

  19. Development of fluorescence-based liposome immunoassay for detection of Cronobacter muytjensii in pure culture.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Younghoan; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-02-01

    Cronobacter spp. are important foodborne pathogens that carry a very high risk of infection to neonates as well as immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, fluorescence-based liposome immunoassay was developed as a new sensitive and rapid diagnostic system for detection of Cronobacter muytjensii (C. muytjensii). Liposomes (size, 206 nm) used in this study were made from cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)], and sulforhodamine B (SRB). The outer surface of liposome was conjugated with rabbit anti-C. muytjensii IgG in order to develop immunoliposome. The immunoliposome was incubated with C. muytjensii, which was coated on a 96-well plate. Immunoliposomes bound to C. muytjensii were lysed with 30 mM octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside, after which the SRB fluorescence signal was measured at an excitation wavelength of 550 nm and emission wavelength of 585 nm. The signal was directly proportional to the amount of bacterial cells in the test sample. The developed fluorescence-based liposome immunoassay was confirmed to be highly specific to C. muytjensii with a detection limit of 6.3 × 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in pure culture as well as sensitive, efficient, and rapid when compared to culture-based methods. Based on its rapid efficiency and low cost, this fluorescence-based liposome immunoassay may be used to develop diagnostic kits for C. muytjensii detection. PMID:25300633

  20. Electrochemical Immunoassay of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on A Lead Sulfide Nanoparticle Label

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shengfu; Zhang, Xing; Mao, Xun; Zeng, Qingxiang; Xu, Hui; Lin, Yuehe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Guodong

    2008-10-01

    We describe a Lead sulfide nanoparticle (PbS NP) based electrochemical immunoassay to detect a tumor biomarker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Cubic PbS NPs were prepared and functionalized with thioglycolic acid (TGA), which stabilized the formed NPs and offered carboxyl groups to conjugate with CEA antibodies. PbS NP conjugated with monoclonal CEA antibody was used as a label in an immnorecognition event. After a complete sandwich immunoreaction among the primary CEA antibody (immobilized on the carboxyl-modified magnetic beads), CEA, and the PbS-labeled secondary antibody (PbS-anti-CEA), PbS labels were captured to the magnetic-bead (MB) surface through the antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Electrochemical stripping analysis of the captured PbS was used to quantify the concentration of CEA after an acid-dissolution step. The MBs and the magnetic separation platform were used to integrate a facile antibody immobilization with immunoreactions and the isolation of immunocomplexes from reaction solutions in the immunoassay. The performance of this nanoparticle based electrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with human serum spiked with CEA, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for rapid, simple, and cost-effective analysis of tumor biomarkers in biological fluids.

  1. A Novel Colorimetric Immunoassay Utilizing the Peroxidase Mimicking Activity of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Min-Ah; Kim, Moon Il; Jung, Jae Hwan; Park, Ki Soo; Seo, Tae Seok; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2013-01-01

    A simple colorimetric immunoassay system, based on the peroxidase mimicking activity of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), has been developed to detect clinically important antigenic molecules. MNPs with ca. 10 nm in diameter were synthesized and conjugated with specific antibodies against target molecules, such as rotaviruses and breast cancer cells. Conjugation of the MNPs with antibodies (MNP-Abs) enabled specific recognition of the corresponding target antigenic molecules through the generation of color signals arising from the colorimetric reaction between the selected peroxidase substrate, 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2O2. Based on the MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction, the target molecules were detected and quantified by measuring absorbance intensities corresponding to the oxidized form of TMB. Owing to the higher stabilities and economic feasibilities of MNPs as compared to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the new colorimetric system employing MNP-Abs has the potential of serving as a potent immunoassay that should substitute for conventional HRP-based immunoassays. The strategy employed to develop the new methodology has the potential of being extended to the construction of simple diagnostic systems for a variety of biomolecules related to human cancers and infectious diseases, particularly in the realm of point-of-care applications. PMID:23665902

  2. A blocking-free microfluidic fluorescence heterogeneous immunoassay for point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Sherry, Alexander J; Cortes, Jairo A; Anagnostopoulos, Constantine; Faghri, Mohammad

    2011-06-01

    In this article, a rapid, sensitive, and disposable microfluidic immunosensor is presented for point-of-care (POC) testing and clinical diagnosis. For the first time, the blocking process is eliminated from a microfluidic heterogeneous immunoassay by using protein A functionalized polydimethylsiloxane microchannels. The nonspecific binding of the assay is maintained around the chip background level by using a pair of antibodies with different affinity to protein A under optimized experimental conditions. C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker for inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk assessment, is selected as a model analyte to demonstrate the sensitivity of this blocking-free microfluidic heterogeneous immunoassay. A four parameter logistic function is used to model and assess the data. The limit of detection obtained is 0.54 ?g/mL, which is lower than the cut-off value for clinical diagnosis. The overall assay is completed in 5 min. The protein A modified PDMS chips wet-stored at 4°C can maintain biofunctionality up to 14 months. The developed blocking-free microfluidic heterogeneous immunoassay will immediately provide benefits to most immunosensing microdevices targeted for POC diagnostics by shortening analysis time, simplifying fluid transportation, reducing sample consumption, and lowering waste generation. PMID:21286818

  3. Personalized health care beyond oncology: new indications for immunoassay-based companion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Batrla, Richard; Jordan, Bruce W M

    2015-06-01

    Personalized health care (PHC) is an evolving field of medicine aimed at providing the right therapy to the right patient at the right time. This approach often incorporates the use of companion diagnostics (CDx) assays that provide information essential for the safe and effective use of the corresponding drug. In addition to oncology, many other therapy areas, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and infectious and inflammatory diseases, may benefit from PHC, owing to disease complexity and heterogeneity. Furthermore, although most U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved CDx are based on molecular-based technologies, immunoassays can provide a significant contribution to the evolution of CDx in patient management. In this review we discuss how the incorporation of biomarker immunoassays into routine diagnostic testing may allow early and definitive detection of Alzheimer's disease and enable population enrichment in clinical trials. In addition, we will describe how biomarker-based CDx immunoassays have potential utility for stratifying patients with asthma based on their potential response to therapy and for selecting treatment according to phenotypic profile. Continued research into the underlying disease pathology and development of accurate and reliable diagnostic assays may ensure that PHC becomes the future standard for many indications. PMID:25866164

  4. Trace analysis of pollutants by use of honeybees, immunoassays, and chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Girotti, S; Ghini, S; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; Ferri, E N

    2013-01-01

    Specific and sensitive analysis to reveal and monitor the wide variety of chemical contaminants polluting all environment compartments, feed, and food is urgently required because of the increasing attention devoted to the environment and health protection. Our research group has been involved in monitoring the presence and distribution of agrochemicals by monitoring beehives distributed throughout the area studied. Honeybees have been used both as biosensors, because the pesticides affect their viability, and as "contaminant collectors" for all environmental pollutants. We focused our research on the development of analytical procedures able to reveal and quantify pesticides in different samples but with a special attention to the complex honeybee matrix. Specific extraction and purification procedures have been developed and some are still under optimization. The analytes of interest were determined by gas or liquid chromatographic methods and by compound-specific or group-specific immunoassays in the ELISA format, the analytical performance of which was improved by introducing luminescence detection. The range of chemiluminescent immunoassays developed was extended to include the determination of completely different pollutants, for example explosives, volatile organic compounds (including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), and components of plastics, for example bisphenol A. An easier and portable format, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was added to the ELISA format to increase application flexibility in these assays. Aspects of the novelty, the specific characteristics, the analytical performance, and possible future development of the different chromatographic and immunological methods are described and discussed. PMID:23064670

  5. The effects of laser welding on heterogeneous immunoassay performance in a microfluidic cartridge.

    PubMed

    Mäntymaa, Anne; Halme, Jussi; Välimaa, Lasse; Kallio, Pasi

    2011-12-01

    Sealing of a microfluidic cartridge is a challenge, because the cartridge commonly contains heat-sensitive biomolecules that must also be protected from contamination. In addition, the objective is usually to obtain a sealing method suitable for mass production. Laser welding is a rapid technique that can be accomplished with low unit costs. Even though the technique has been widely adopted in industry, the literature on its use in microfluidic applications is not large. This paper is the first to report the effects of laser welding on the performance of the heterogeneous immunoassay in a polystyrene microfluidic cartridge in which biomolecules are immobilized into the reaction surface of the cartridge before sealing. The paper compares the immunoassay performance of microfluidic cartridges that are sealed either with an adhesive tape or by use of laser transmission welding. The model analyte used is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results show that the concentration curves in the laser-welded cartridges are very close to the curves in the taped cartridges. This indicates, first, that laser welding does not cause any significant reduction in immunoassay performance, and second, that the polystyrene cover does not have significant effect on the signal levels. Interestingly, the coefficients of variance between parallel samples were lower in the laser-welded cartridges than in the taped cartridges. PMID:22685505

  6. Matrix Effects on the Microcystin-LR Fluorescent Immunoassay Based on Optical Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Long, Feng; Zhu, An-na; Sheng, Jian-Wu; He, Miao; Shi, Han-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Matrix effects on the microcystin-LR fluorescent immunoassay based on the evanescent wave all-fiber immunosensor (EWAI) and their elimination methods were studied. The results indicated that PBS and humic acid did not affect the monitoring of samples under the investigated conditions. When the pH was less than 6 or higher than 8, the fluorescence signals detected by immunosensor systems were obviously reduced with the decrease or increase of pH. When the pH ranged from 6 to 8, IC50 and the linear working range of MC-LR calculated from the detection curves were 1.01?1.04 ?g/L and 0.12?10.5 ?g/L, respectively, which was favourable for an MC-LR immunoassay. Low concentrations of Cu2+ rarely affected the detection performance of MC-LR. When the concentration of CuSO4 was higher than 5 mg/L, the fluorescence signal detected by EWAI clearly decreased, and when the concentration of CuSO4 was 10 mg/L, the fluorescence signal detected was reduced by 70%. The influence of Cu2+ on the immunoassay could effectively be compromised when chelating reagent EDTA was added to the pre-reaction mixture. PMID:22574059

  7. Isolation of Alpaca Anti-Hapten Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies for Development of Sensitive Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Joo; McCoy, Mark R.; Majkova, Zuzana; Dechant, Julie E.; Gee, Shirley J.; Rosa, Sofia Tabares-da; González-Sapienza, Gualberto G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Some unique subclasses of Camelidae antibodies are devoid of light chain and the antigen binding site is comprised exclusively of the variable domain of the heavy chain (VHH). Although conventional antibodies dominate current assay development, recombinant VHHs have a high potential as alternative reagents for the next generation of immunoassay. We expressed VHHs from an immunized alpaca and developed a VHH-based immunoassay using 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a major metabolite of pyrethroid insecticides as a model system. A phage VHH library was constructed and seven VHH clones were selected by competitive binding with 3-PBA. The best immunoassay developed with one of these VHHs showed an IC50 of 1.4 ng/mL (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.1 ng/mL). These parameters were further improved by using the phage borne VHH, IC50 = 0.1 ng/mL and LOD = 0.01 ng/mL. Both assays showed a similar tolerance to methanol and dimethylsulfoxide up to 50% in assay buffer. The assay was highly specific to 3-PBA and its 4-hydroxylated derivative, 4-hydroxy 3-PBA (150% cross reactivity) with negligible cross reactivity with other tested structural analogs and the recovery from spiked urine sample ranged from 80 to 112%. In conclusion, a highly specific and sensitive VHH for 3-PBA was developed using sequences from immunized alpaca and phage display technology for antibody selection. PMID:22148739

  8. The effects of laser welding on heterogeneous immunoassay performance in a microfluidic cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Mäntymaa, Anne; Halme, Jussi; Välimaa, Lasse; Kallio, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Sealing of a microfluidic cartridge is a challenge, because the cartridge commonly contains heat-sensitive biomolecules that must also be protected from contamination. In addition, the objective is usually to obtain a sealing method suitable for mass production. Laser welding is a rapid technique that can be accomplished with low unit costs. Even though the technique has been widely adopted in industry, the literature on its use in microfluidic applications is not large. This paper is the first to report the effects of laser welding on the performance of the heterogeneous immunoassay in a polystyrene microfluidic cartridge in which biomolecules are immobilized into the reaction surface of the cartridge before sealing. The paper compares the immunoassay performance of microfluidic cartridges that are sealed either with an adhesive tape or by use of laser transmission welding. The model analyte used is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results show that the concentration curves in the laser-welded cartridges are very close to the curves in the taped cartridges. This indicates, first, that laser welding does not cause any significant reduction in immunoassay performance, and second, that the polystyrene cover does not have significant effect on the signal levels. Interestingly, the coefficients of variance between parallel samples were lower in the laser-welded cartridges than in the taped cartridges. PMID:22685505

  9. Multiplexed immunoassay: quantitation and profiling of serum biomarkers using magnetic nanoprobes and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Yi; Chuang, Szu-An; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-Shing; Chen, Shu-Hua; Ouarda, Saib; Pan, Wen-Harn; Lee, Ping-Ying; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2008-08-15

    Taking advantage of efficient affinity extraction by surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and accurate MALDI-TOF MS readout, we present a multiplexed immunoassay for simultaneous enrichment and quantitation of multiple disease-associated antigens, serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid P (SAP) from human serum. To obtain reproducible MALDI signal response with direct on-MNP detection, the seed-layer method improved homogeneity of the cocrystallization of MNPs and captured antigens. Our methodology demonstrated good quantitation linearity of targeted analytes (R(2) approximately 0.97) with reduced signal variation (RSD < 10%). The lower limit of quantitation is in the nanogram level with overall assay precision (intraday, 7.0%; interday, 11.3%) and accuracy (intraday, 6.3%; interday, 17.5%) including steps of nanoprobe extraction and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. This triplexed immunoassay showed overexpression of SAA and CRP in patients with cardiac catheterization or gastric cancer (P < 0.05), consistent with single-analyte ELISA and previous studies. Compared to the determination of disease onset by single protein quantitation, our multiplexed immunoassay revealed a distinct triplexed pattern in the control group, patients with gastric cancer, and cardiac catheterization. On the basis of the advantages of flexibility in nanoprobe preparation, high specificity and sensitivity, and rapid screening by MALDI-TOF MS, this platform may provide a new methodology for disease diagnosis. PMID:18642877

  10. Superhydrophobic surface-based magnetic electrochemical immunoassay for detection of Schistosoma japonicum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jinfang; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Wang, Shiping; Shen, Guoli

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, a magnetic electrochemical immunoassay that uses a superhydrophobic surface-based analytical platform (SSAP) has been initially developed for detection of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) antibodies (SjAb). The SSAP is fabricated by modifying the inner surfaces of plastic test tubes with superhydrophobic polycarbonate coatings that show a water contact angle up to 160° and a water rolling angle less than 5°. In a noncompetitive sandwich format, the SjAb immunoassay with magnetic particles is based on sensitive stripping voltammetry analysis coupled with the copper enhanced Au nanoparticle tag amplification. This technique is quantitatively sensitive to SjAb concentrations ranging from 2 ng ml(-1) to 15 ?g ml(-1), with a detection limit of ?1.3 ngml(-1). Moreover, the results of assaying several serum specimens prove its feasibility of practical applications. The self-cleaning SSAP can be reused, because no aqueous samples reagents or contaminate the superhydrophobic polycarbonate during the experiments. The comparison study additionally demonstrates that the SSAP-based magnetic electrochemical immunoassays can offer preferable advantages over the existing approaches for SjAb detection, in terms of volumes of samples and reagents, assay time, and detection limit. PMID:22270051

  11. Indirect competitive immunoassay for detection of vitamin B? in foods and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Yin, Yongmei; Eremin, Sergei A; Rybakov, Victor B; Zhang, Taichang; Xu, Zhihuan; Ren, Linlin; He, Xiaodan; Meng, Meng; Xi, Rimo

    2013-07-24

    An indirect immunoassay for the determination of vitamin B2 in food samples and vitamin tablets was developed. A carbodiimide-modified active ester method was used to synthesize the immunogen for vitamin B2. The coupling ratio of vitamin B2 to carrier protein in immunogen was 19.98:1. The titer of the polyclonal antibody was 1:64000, and the antibody showed high specificity in the presence of vitamin B2 photolytic products and other B group vitamins. The immunoassay showed detection limits (LODs) of 1.07 ng/mL in PBS, 24.6 ng/g in vitamin drink, and 0.50 mg/kg in milk powder. Recovery was 99.58-110.91% in milk powder and 70.20-100.5% in vitamin drink. Vitamin B2 samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the immunoassay, and results showed good agreement. Finally, this method was applied to detect vitamin B2 in commercial milk powder and vitamin tablets, and the detected amount correlated well with the labeled amount. PMID:23855378

  12. Is the Kidney Donor Risk Index a step forward in the assessment of deceased donor kidney quality?

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison P K; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The allocation of deceased donor kidneys has become more complex because of the increasing spectrum of donors and recipients age and comorbidities. Several scoring systems have been proposed to evaluate the donor quality of deceased donor kidneys, based on clinical, pathological or combined parameters to predict the risk of renal allograft failure. Nonetheless, besides the dichotomous extended criteria donor (ECD) score, none of the others have been used in clinical practice because of numerous reasons, ranging from lack of robust validation to the technical challenges associated with the evaluation of donor biopsies. Recently, the Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) and Profile Index (KDPI) were introduced in the USA as a refined version of the ECD score. This scoring system is based on 10 donor factors, therefore providing a finely granulated evaluation of donor quality without the need of a kidney biopsy.Here, we review the advantages and drawbacks of the main scoring systems, and we describe the components of the KDRI and KDPI. It is an easily accessible online tool, based solely on donor factors readily available at the moment of the donor offer. Importantly, the KDPI has also been made part of the 'longevity matching' allocation in the USA, where the best kidneys are allocated to the recipients with the longest predicted post-transplant survival. The KDRI should provide us with a robust qualitative evaluation of deceased donor quality, and therefore will probably play a role in deceased donor kidney allocation policies across Europe in the near future. Hopefully, the KDRI and the KDPI should help transplant programmes to better allocate the scarce resource of deceased donor kidneys. PMID:25282158

  13. Donor Rejection Before Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Causes and Cost Effective Analysis in an Egyptian Transplant Center.

    PubMed Central

    El-Meteini, Mahmoud; Dabbous, Hany; Sakr, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Amany; Fawzy, Iman; Bahaa, Mohamed; Abdelaal, Amr; Fathy, Mohamed; Said, Hany; Rady, Mohamed; El-Dorry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the living donor liver transplant setting, the preoperative assessment of potential donors is important to ensure the donor safety. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify causes and costs of living liver-donors rejection in the donation process. Materials and Methods: From June 2010 to June 2012, all potential living liver donors for 66 liver transplant candidates were screened at the Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation. Potential donors were evaluated in 3 phases, and their data were reviewed to determine the causes and at which phase the donors were rejected. Results: One hundred and ninety two potential living liver donors, including 157 (81.7%) males, were screened for 66 potential recipients. Of these, 126 (65.6%) were disqualified for the donation. The causes of rejection were classified as surgical (9.5 %) or medical (90.5 %). Five donors (3.9 %) were rejected due to multiple causes. Factor V Leiden mutation was detected in 29 (23 %) rejected donors (P = 0.001), 25 (19.8 %) donors had positive results for hepatitis serology (P = 0.005), and 16 (12.7 %) tested positive for drug abuse. Portal vein trifurcation (n = 9, 7.1%) and small size liver graft estimated by CT volumetric analysis (n = 6, 4.8 %) were the main surgical causes which precluded the donation. Conclusions: Among potential Egyptian living liver donors, Factor V Leiden mutation was a significant cause for live donor rejection. A stepwise approach to donor assessment was found to be cost-effective. PMID:24497879

  14. Thermoelectric Performance of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Conjugated Polymers Based on Benzothiadiazole Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Shouli; Zhen, Shijie; Lin, Kaiwen; Zhao, Li; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Wang, Liangying; Xiong, Jinhua; Zhu, Zhengzhou

    2015-06-01

    Donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are superior to other thermoelectric organic materials because it is much easier to modify their structure to reduce the bandgap between the conduction and valence bands, which is desirable for thermoelectric materials with high Seebeck coefficients. Despite this, studies of the thermoelectric performance of donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are rare. In this study, four low-bandgap donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers, poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (PEBTE), poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]selenadiazole) (PEBSeE), poly (4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4- c] pyridine) (PEPTE), and poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]selenadiazolo[3,4- c]pyridine) (PEPSeE), were deposited by electrochemical polymerization of 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (EBTE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydro-thieno[3,4-b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]selenadiazole (EBSeE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c] pyridine (EPTE) and 4,7-bis (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5] selenadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (EPSeE), respectively and their thermoelectric performance was investi- gated. Compared with polyselenophenes, PEBTE and PEBSeE in pressed pellets had higher electrical conductivity (10-1-101 S cm-1) but lower Seebeck coefficient (14.0 ?V K-1) at room temperature. Future work may focus on treatment of these donor-acceptor-donor polymers to improve their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, and further investigation of their thermoelectric performance.

  15. Biochip array technology immunoassay performance and quantitative confirmation of designer piperazines for urine workplace drug testing.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Barnes, Allan J; Concheiro, Marta; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Designer piperazines are emerging novel psychoactive substances (NPS) with few high-throughput screening methods for their identification. We evaluated a biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for phenylpiperazines (PNP) and benzylpiperazines (BZP) and analyzed 20,017 randomly collected urine workplace specimens. Immunoassay performance at recommended cutoffs was evaluated for PNPI (5 ?g/L), PNPII (7.5 ?g/L), and BZP (5 ?g/L) antibodies. Eight hundred forty positive and 206 randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Assay limits of detection for PNPI, PNPII, and BZP were 2.9, 6.3, and 2.1 ?g/L, respectively. Calibration curves were linear (R (2)?>?0.99) with upper limits of 42 ?g/L for PNPI/PNII and 100 ?g/L for BZP. Quality control samples demonstrated imprecision <19.3 %CV and accuracies 86.0-94.5 % of target. There were no interferences from 106 non-piperazine substances. Seventy-eight of 840 presumptive positive specimens (9.3 %) were LC-HRMS positive, with 72 positive for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), a designer piperazine and antidepressant trazodone metabolite. Of 206 presumptive negative specimens, one confirmed positive for mCPP (3.3 ?g/L) and one for BZP (3.6 ?g/L). BAT specificity (21.1 to 91.4 %) and efficiency (27.0 to 91.6 %) increased, and sensitivity slightly decreased (97.5 to 93.8 %) with optimized cutoffs of 25 ?g/L PNPI, 42 ?g/L PNPI, and 100 ?g/L BZP. A high-throughput screening method is needed to identify piperazine NPS. We evaluated performance of the Randox BAT immunoassay to identify urinary piperazines and documented improved performance when antibody cutoffs were raised. In addition, in randomized workplace urine specimens, all but two positive specimens contained mCPP and/or trazodone, most likely from legitimate medical prescriptions. Graphical Abstract Biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for designer piperazines detection in urine. In chemiluminescent immunoassay, the labeled-drug (antigen) competes with the drug in the urine. In the absence of drug, the labeled-drug binds to the antibody releasing an enzyme (horseradish peroxidase) to react with the substrate and producing chemiluminescence. The higher the drug concentration in urine, the weaker the chemiluminescent signal is produced. All presumptive positive specimens and randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were analyzed and confirmed by a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry with limit of quantification of 2.5 or 5 ?g/L. PMID:25903022

  16. Detection of light scattering for lab-on-a-chip immunoassays using optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Lonnie J.

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation develops technology for microfluidic point-of-care immunoassay devices. This research (2004-2007) improved microfluidic immunoassay performance by reducing reagent consumption, decreasing analysis time, increasing sensitivity, and integrating processes using a lab-on-a-chip. Estimates show that typical hospital laboratories can save $1.0 million per year by using microfluidic chips. Our first objective was to enhance mixing in a microfluidic channel, which had been one of the main barriers to using these devices. Another goal of our studies was to simplify immunoassays by eliminating surfactants. Manufacturers of latex immunoassays add surfactants to prevent non-specific aggregation of microspheres. However, these same surfactants can cause false positives (and negatives) during diagnostic testing. This work, published in Appendix A ((c) 2006 Elsevier) shows that highly carboxylated polystyrene (HCPS) microspheres can replace surfactants and induce rapid mixing via diffusion in microfluidic devices. Our second objective was to develop a microfluidic device using fiber optics to detect static light scattering (SLS) of microspheres in Appendix B ((c) 2007 Elsevier). Fiber optics were used to deliver light emitting diode (LED) or laser light. A miniature spectrometer was used to measure 45° forward light scattering collected by optical fiber. Latex microspheres coated with PR3 proteins were used to test for the vasculitis marker, anti-PR3. No false negatives or positives were observed. A limit of detection (LOD) of 50 ng mL-1 was demonstrated. This optical detection system works without fluorescence or chemiluminescence markers. It is cost effective, small, and re-usable with simple rinsing. The final objective in this dissertation, published in Appendix C ((c) 2007 Elsevier), developed a multiplex immunoassay. A lab-on-a-chip was used to detect multiple antibodies using microsphere light scattering and quantum dot (QD) emission. We conjugated QDs onto microspheres and named this configuration "nano-on-micro" or "NOM". Upon radiation with UV light, strong light scattering is observed. Since QDs also provide fluorescent emission, we are able to use increased light scattering for detecting antigen-antibody reactions, and decreased QD emission to identify which antibody is present.

  17. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety. PMID:20505995

  18. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Gyu; Moon, Deok-Bog

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) may be the best curative treatment that offers a chance of cure for the tumor and the underlying cirrhosis by complete extirpation of both. In Asia, where the supply of cadaveric grafts remains scarce and the incidence of HCC combined with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease is high, adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been settled upon as a practical alternative to deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT). Even in Western countries, where adequate access to DDLT is feasible for HCC patients satisfying the Milan criteria, the necessity for LDLT is well established in particular for more advanced HCC patients who are disadvantaged by current allocation algorithms for grafts from deceased donors due to organ shortage, increasing waiting lists, and the expectation that many patients listed for LT will die while awaiting a suitable organ. In the field of LDLT in Asia, numerous technical innovations were achieved to secure donor safety, as well as to ensure patient survival. The experience with LDLT for HCC has been progressively increasing in many Asian countries to date. Although there are questions regarding the higher recurrence of HCC after LDLT than after DDLT, the application of the Milan and UCSF criteria to LDLT in high-volume multicenter cohorts from Japan and Korea has resulted in patient survival outcomes very similar to those following DDLT. Recently, inclusion of biologic tumor markers such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K antagonist II (PIVKA II), and positive positron emission tomography (PET) in addition to parameters of tumor morphology might be the key to establishing the best criteria for LDLT for HCC. As pretransplant treatments, most LDLT centers in Asia cannot adopt the strategy of bridging therapy under scarcity of cadaveric organ donation but have to use those multi-modality treatments as a salvage intending for primary curative treatment or a downstaging therapy before LDLT. After LDLT, basically there is no difference in the management strategy for HCC recurrence between DDLD and LDLT. PMID:22941020

  19. Bladder perforation during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, P D; Hickey, L; Lawen, J G

    2004-12-01

    We present two cases of bladder perforation during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy at our institution. Neither of the surgeries was otherwise complicated, and the diagnoses were made post-operatively. The kidneys were extracted through a Pfannenstiel incision and used blunt dissection to penetrate the peritoneum. Both patients had previous tubal ligations, adhesions from which may have increased the chance of injury. We believe that this is a previously unreported complication that merits attention. Care should be taken with the peritoneal incision and dissection as the bladder may be susceptible to injury. PMID:15636672

  20. Improving institutional fairness to live kidney donors: donor needs must be addressed by safeguarding donation risks and compensating donation costs.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Baldes, Annette; Delmonico, Francis L

    2007-11-01

    The number of kidney transplants from live donors is increasing worldwide, yet donor needs have not been satisfactorily addressed in either developed or developing countries. This paper argues that unmet donor needs are unfair to live kidney donors in two ways. First, when safeguards against the risks of donation are insufficient, live donation can impair the donor's health and thus his or her fair opportunities to access jobs and offices and to function as a free and equal citizen more generally. Secondly, when the financial costs of donation are not fully compensated, operational fairness (associated with the nephrectomy event) is compromised for the donor. The donor assumes the risks of a nontherapeutic intervention--for the good of the recipient and society--and should not have to incur costs for donating. Based on a systematic analysis of unmet donor needs in developed and developing countries, context-relative measures to improve institutional fairness to live kidney donors are delineated in this paper. The identified ways of safeguarding donation risks and compensating donation costs are not merely means to removing disincentives for donation and increasing donation rates. They are essential for preserving institutional fairness in the health care of the live kidney donor. PMID:17711405

  1. Estimated donor glomerular filtration rate is the most important donor characteristic predicting graft function in recipients of kidneys from live donors.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Carmel M; Kearsley, Jamie; Campbell, Scott B; Mudge, David W; Isbel, Nicole M; Johnson, David W; May, Kylie; Preston, John; Griffin, Anthony; Wall, Daryl; Burke, John; McTaggart, Steven J; Frohloff, Gayle; Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that predictors of outcome in live donor transplants were likely to differ significantly from deceased donor transplants, in which cold ischaemia time, cause of donor death and other donor factors are the most important predictors. The primary aim was to explore the independent predictors of graft function in recipients of live donor kidneys (LDK). Our secondary aim was to determine which donor characteristics are the most useful predictors. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of all patients receiving live donor (n = 206) renal transplants at our institution between 31 May 1994 and 15 October 2002. Twelve patients were excluded from the analysis. Follow-up was completed on all patients until graft loss, death or 22 November 2003. We explored predictors of Nankivell glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 6 months by multivariate linear regression. In the 194 patients studied, the mean recipient 6-month Nankivell GFR was 59 +/- 15 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Independent predictors of recipient GFR in at 6 months were donor Cockcroft-Gault GFR (CrCl; beta 0.16; CI 0.13 to 0.29; P < 0.0001), steroid resistant rejection (beta-6.07; CI -12.05 to -0.09; P = 0.006) and delayed graft function (DGF) (beta-10.0; CI -19.52 to -0.49; P = 0.039). Renal function in an LDK transplant recipients is predicted by donor GFR, episodes of steroid resistant rejection and DGF. Importantly, donor Cockcroft-Gault GFR is the most important characteristic for predicting the recipient renal function. PMID:17181655

  2. Current trends in donor testing to detect syphilis infection.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Karoll J; Greenwald, Melissa A

    2014-09-01

    Potential organ and tissue donors are tested to detect infection with T. pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. Important considerations for testing potential donors include available specimen type and volume, turnaround time, and ability to distinguish between past and current infection. Aspects of syphilis infection that inform organ and tissue donor assay selection and interpretation and the principles underlying available assays are described. Serologic assays for syphilis are the methods most commonly used in donor testing. The two categories of serologic assays, treponemal and nontreponemal, have advantages and limitations for testing potential donors. Knowledge of the common syphilis-testing algorithms used in clinical diagnostic testing is useful for assay selection in the organ and tissue donor setting. PMID:25048112

  3. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary

    E-print Network

    S. P. Littlefair; V. S. Dhillon; T. R. Marsh; Boris T. Gaensicke; John Southworth; C. A. Watson

    2006-12-08

    A long standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from sub-stellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. Here we apply a technique which allows us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We are able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052+/-0.002 Msun. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs.

  4. Renal Transplantation from Non-Heart Beating Donors: A Promising Alternative to Enlarge the Donor Pool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOLORES PRATS; JAIME TORRENTE; M. JES; CRISTINA FERN ´ ANDEZ; JOAQUIN ALVAREZ; ALBERTO BARRIENTOS

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the survival and midterm function of kidneys from non-heart beating do- nors (NHBD) with those of kidneys from heart beating donors (HBD). From 1989 to 1998, 144 kidneys were procured from NHBD at the Hospital Clinico San Carlos in Madrid, of which 95 were transplanted. The kidney grafts were maintained from the

  5. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roel J. W. MeulepasAlfons; Alfons J. M. Stams; Piet N. L. Lens

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams.\\u000a However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane\\u000a from natural gas or biogas would be a more attractive electron donor. Sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor prevails\\u000a in marine sediments. Recently,

  6. Living Liver Donor Mortality: Where Do We Stand?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina A. Bramstedt

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the use of medical journals, lay media, registries, and transplant center websites to discuss living liver donor mortality.METHODS:To study the incidence of and circumstances relating to living liver donor death, medical journals and lay print media were searched to create a case summary of worldwide living liver donor deaths. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and European

  7. Toward an Optimal Global Stem Cell Donor Recruitment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pingel, Julia; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Population-specific matching probabilities (MP) are a key parameter to assess the benefits of unrelated stem cell donor registries and the need for further donor recruitment efforts. In this study, we describe a general framework for MP estimations of specific and mixed patient populations under consideration of international stem cell donor exchange. Calculations were based on population-specific 4-locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1) high-resolution haplotype frequencies (HF) of up to 21 populations. In various scenarios, we calculated several quantities of high practical relevance, including the maximal MP that can be reached by recruiting a fixed number of donors, the corresponding optimal composition by population of new registrants, and the minimal number of donors who need to be recruited to reach a defined MP. Starting at current donor numbers, the largest MP increases due to n?=?500,000 additional same-population donors were observed for patients from Bosnia-Herzegovina (+0.25), Greece (+0.21) and Romania (+0.20). Especially small MP increases occurred for European Americans (+0.004), Germans (+0.01) and Hispanic Americans (+0.01). Due to the large Chinese population, the optimal distribution of n?=?5,000,000 new donors worldwide included 3.9 million Chinese donors. As a general result of our calculations, we observed a need for same-population donor recruitment in order to increase population-specific MP efficiently. This result was robust despite limitations of our input data, including the use of HF derived from relatively small samples ranging from n?=?1028 (Bosnia-Herzegovina) to n?=?33,083 (Turkey) individuals. National strategies that neglect domestic donor recruitment should therefore be critically re-assessed, especially if only few donors have been recruited so far. PMID:24497958

  8. Toward an optimal global stem cell donor recruitment strategy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander H; Sauter, Jürgen; Pingel, Julia; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Population-specific matching probabilities (MP) are a key parameter to assess the benefits of unrelated stem cell donor registries and the need for further donor recruitment efforts. In this study, we describe a general framework for MP estimations of specific and mixed patient populations under consideration of international stem cell donor exchange. Calculations were based on population-specific 4-locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1) high-resolution haplotype frequencies (HF) of up to 21 populations. In various scenarios, we calculated several quantities of high practical relevance, including the maximal MP that can be reached by recruiting a fixed number of donors, the corresponding optimal composition by population of new registrants, and the minimal number of donors who need to be recruited to reach a defined MP. Starting at current donor numbers, the largest MP increases due to n?=?500,000 additional same-population donors were observed for patients from Bosnia-Herzegovina (+0.25), Greece (+0.21) and Romania (+0.20). Especially small MP increases occurred for European Americans (+0.004), Germans (+0.01) and Hispanic Americans (+0.01). Due to the large Chinese population, the optimal distribution of n?=?5,000,000 new donors worldwide included 3.9 million Chinese donors. As a general result of our calculations, we observed a need for same-population donor recruitment in order to increase population-specific MP efficiently. This result was robust despite limitations of our input data, including the use of HF derived from relatively small samples ranging from n?=?1028 (Bosnia-Herzegovina) to n?=?33,083 (Turkey) individuals. National strategies that neglect domestic donor recruitment should therefore be critically re-assessed, especially if only few donors have been recruited so far. PMID:24497958

  9. Anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of low-abundance proteins using quantum dot aggregated hollow microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Tang, Dianping; Goryacheva, Irina Yu; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2013-02-11

    A new anodic-stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol for detection of IgG1, as a model protein, was designed by using CdS quantum dot (QD) layer-by-layer assembled hollow microspheres (QDHMS) as molecular tags. Initially, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 specific antibodies were anchored on amorphous magnetic beads preferably selective to capture F(ab) of IgG1 analyte from the sample. For detection, monoclonal anti-human IgG1 (F(c)-specific) antibodies were covalently coupled to the synthesized QDHMS. In a sandwich-type immunoassay format, subsequent anodic-stripping voltammetric detection of cadmium released under acidic conditions from the coupled QDs was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode. The immunoassay combines highly efficient magnetic separation with signal amplification by the multilayered QD labels. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 1.0?fg?mL(-1) to 1.0??g?mL(-1) of IgG1 with a detection limit of 0.1?fg?mL(-1). The electrochemical immunoassay showed good reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. The analysis of clinical serum specimens revealed good accordance with the results obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The new immunoassay is promising for enzyme-free, and cost-effective analysis of low-abundance biomarkers. PMID:23292875

  10. False tacrolimus concentrations measured by antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay in liver transplant patient: 2 case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ohmura, Takafumi; Ohya, Yuki; Horio, Momoko; Furukawa, Kumiko; Jono, Hirofumi; Inomata, Yukihiro; Saito, Hideyuki

    2014-10-01

    Safe use of tacrolimus relies on regular whole-blood drug monitoring. Of the methods used to assess whole-blood tacrolimus concentration, antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay is mostly used for therapeutic drug monitoring because it requires only a minimal sample preparation and no pretreatment procedure. However, several cases recently have been reported in which abnormally false elevated tacrolimus concentrations were measured by antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay (>15 ng/mL), despite the absence of clinical symptoms. We present 2 cases of falsely detected tacrolimus concentrations that did not show abnormally high values within the therapeutic range. Whole-blood tacrolimus concentrations obtained by antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay showed well-controlled concentrations (approximately 2-8 ng/mL), whereas those obtained by another immunoassay and in washed erythrocytes were below the assay range (< 1.2 ng/mL). Thus, antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay can elicit falsely positive results of tacrolimus concentrations, even though they are within the therapeutic range. PMID:24206050

  11. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry. PMID:23986403

  12. Mortality and cardiovascular disease among older live kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Reese, P P; Bloom, R D; Feldman, H I; Rosenbaum, P; Wang, W; Saynisch, P; Tarsi, N M; Mukherjee, N; Garg, A X; Mussell, A; Shults, J; Even-Shoshan, O; Townsend, R R; Silber, J H

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, live kidney donation by older individuals (?55 years) has become more common. Given the strong associations of older age with cardiovascular disease (CVD), nephrectomy could make older donors vulnerable to death and cardiovascular events. We performed a cohort study among older live kidney donors who were matched to healthy older individuals in the Health and Retirement Study. The primary outcome was mortality ascertained through national death registries. Secondary outcomes ascertained among pairs with Medicare coverage included death or CVD ascertained through Medicare claims data. During the period from 1996 to 2006, there were 5717 older donors in the United States. We matched 3368 donors 1:1 to older healthy nondonors. Among donors and matched pairs, the mean age was 59 years; 41% were male and 7% were black race. In median follow-up of 7.8 years, mortality was not different between donors and matched pairs (p?=?0.21). Among donors with Medicare, the combined outcome of death/CVD (p?=?0.70) was also not different between donors and nondonors. In summary, carefully selected older kidney donors do not face a higher risk of death or CVD. These findings should be provided to older individuals considering live kidney donation. PMID:25039276

  13. Complications of Living Donor Hepatic Lobectomy—A Comprehensive Report

    PubMed Central

    Abecassis, M. M.; Fisher, R. A.; Olthoff, K. M.; Freise, C. E.; Rodrigo, D. R.; Samstein, B.; Kam, I.; Merion, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    A wider application of living donor liver transplantation is limited by donor morbidity concerns. An observational cohort of 760 living donors accepted for surgery and enrolled in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation cohort study provides a comprehensive assessment of incidence, severity and natural history of living liver donation (LLD) complications. Donor morbidity (assessed by 29 specific complications), predictors, time from donation to complications and time from complication onset to resolution were measured outcomes over a 12-year period. Out of the 760 donor procedures, 20 were aborted and 740 were completed. Forty percent of donors had complications (557 complications among 296 donors), mostly Clavien grades 1 and 2. Most severe counted by complication category; grade 1 (minor, n = 232); grade 2 (possibly life-threatening, n = 269); grade 3 (residual disability, n = 5) and grade 4 (leading to death, n = 3). Hernias (7%) and psychological complications (3%) occurred >1 year postdonation. Complications risk increased with transfusion requirement, intraoperative hypotension and predonation serum bilirubin, but did not decline with the increased center experience with LLD. The probability of complication resolution within 1 year was overall 95%, but only 75% for hernias and 42% for psychological complications. This report comprehensively quantifies LLD complication risk and should inform decision making by potential donors and their caregivers. PMID:22335782

  14. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n?=?624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n?=?460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context. PMID:25824702

  15. Long-term outcome of renal transplantation from marginal donors.

    PubMed

    Collini, A; De Bartolomeis, C; Ruggieri, G; Barni, R; Bernini, M; Carmellini, M

    2006-12-01

    Long-term survival of kidneys from suboptimal donors is known to be not as good as that from optimal ones. However, the shortage of donors has led many transplant centers to consider accepting older donors with comorbidities. We analyzed 238 patients who received deceased donor renal transplants in the period 2000-2005. The recipients were matched to be no more than 15 years older or younger than the corresponding donors. Among them 125 received a single and 18 a double transplantation from donors considered marginal, according to UNOS criteria for expanded criteria donor (ECD). Most kidneys were evaluated with a pretransplant biopsy, using the scoring system introduced by Karpinski in 1999. The analysis indicated clearly better results in the non-ECD group: both patients and graft survival rates were 10% higher at 1, 2, and 3 years. However, the ECD group showed satisfactory outcomes, confirming the utility of this procedure. The long-term survival rates of single or double grafts from marginal donors are satisfactory, confirming the practice of allocating kidneys after a preimplantation histological evaluation, allowing expansion of the donor pool and providing older patients access to the waiting lists. PMID:17175283

  16. Inflammatory mediators in exhaled breath condensate of healthy donors and exacerbated COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Tateosian, Nancy L; Costa, María J; Guerrieri, Diego; Barro, Analía; Mazzei, Juan A; Eduardo Chuluyan, H

    2012-06-01

    Samples of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provide a convenient and non-invasive method to study inflammation in lung diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the inflammatory protein mediator levels in EBC from healthy donors (HD) and from patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using an EBC collection device with and without a coating of albumin as a carrier. We studied 13 HD and 26 patients with exacerbation of COPD. The concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO), IFN? and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in EBC were measured by immunoassays. The EBC samples from HD and COPD patients showed higher concentrations of MPO when samples were recovered with an albumin-coated device. Furthermore, levels of MPO in COPD patients were significantly higher than in HD. An inverse correlation was observed between MPO and spirometric parameters (FVC and FEV1). Almost all samples collected with the albumin-coated device showed higher amounts of IFN? and SLPI than those collected with the uncoated device. The levels of SLPI in COPD patients were significantly higher than in HD. A direct correlation was observed between FVC% predicted and SLPI. We concluded that coating the collection device with albumin increased the sensitivity of the technique, at least for measurements of MPO, SLPI and IFN?. Furthermore, the higher levels of MPO and SLPI and lower levels of IFN? in EBC from COPD patients could reflect the immunological status and the response of lung parenchyma to treatment during the exacerbation of the illness. PMID:22469918

  17. On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Daly; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Speiser, Shammai; Peskin, Uri

    2009-03-01

    We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

  18. The donor-conceived child's "Right to Personal Identity": the public debate on donor anonymity in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Turkmendag, Ilke

    2012-01-01

    On 1 April 2005, with the implementation of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Information) Regulations 2004, United Kingdom law was changed to allow children born through gamete donation to access details identifying the donor. Drawing on trends in adoption law, the decision to abolish donor anonymity was strongly influenced by a discourse that asserted the ‘child's right to personal identity’. Through examination of the donor anonymity debate in the public realm, while adopting a social constructionist approach, this article discusses how donor anonymity has been defined as a social problem that requires a regulative response. It focuses on the child's ‘right to personal identity’ claims, and discusses the genetic essentialism behind these claims. By basing its assumptions on an adoption analogy, United Kingdom law ascribes a social meaning to the genetic relatedness between gamete donors and the offspring. PMID:22530247

  19. Comparison of fluorescence polarization immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, and thin-layer chromatography for urine cannabinoid screening. Effects of analyte adsorption and vigorous mixing of specimen on detectability.

    PubMed

    Dextraze, P; Griffiths, W C; Camara, P; Audette, L; Rosner, M

    1989-01-01

    Four commercial assays for the screening of cannabinoids in urine were compared. Urine specimens from 93 selected subjects were run by fluorescence polarization immunoassay on the Abbott TDx; by enzyme multiplied immunoassay with two Syva EMIT assays; and by thin-layer chromatography with the TOXI-LAB system (Marion Laboratories). The TDx cannabinoid threshold can be set anywhere from 25 to 150 micrograms per L. Twenty-five micrograms per L was chosen for this study. The thresholds for EMIT are fixed at 20 micrograms per L for one assay and 100 micrograms per L for the other. The detection limit for TOXI-LAB, according to the manufacturer, can be anywhere from 5 to 50 micrograms/L, depending on the specimen. Urines, positive by at least one method, were further analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), The detection limit for the GC/MS method was 10 micrograms per L. The results showed a few false negatives and unconfirmable positives; in general, correlation was considered acceptable. Dose-response curves comparing TDx and EMIT gave paralell results, with comparable cross-reactivity for the major metabolite, 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (delta-9-THC-COOH). A dose-response study of TOXI-LAB using delta-9-THC-COOH also gave acceptable results. Adsorption to glass was investigated using spiked urine; a 27 percent reduction in concentration was caused by this phenomenon. Foaming of spiked urine caused by vigorous mixing resulted in a reversible 89 percent apparent reduction in concentration. PMID:2546480

  20. Utility of Slot?Blot?ELISA as a New, Fast, and Sensitive Immunoassay for Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Urine Samples of Patients with Various Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Lotfy; Lamiaa Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most widely used clinical tumor marker. CEA immunoassay has found acceptance as a diagnostic adjunct in clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors (GIT). Several immunoassays have been established for detection of CEA in plasma, serum, tissue, feces, and urine of cancer patients using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies raised against CEA. Some of these assays display both

  1. Validation of a multiplex electrochemiluminescent immunoassay platform in human and mouse samples

    PubMed Central

    Bastarache, J.A.; Koyama, T.; Wickersham, N.E; Ware, L.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of multiplex immunoassays, there are very few scientific reports that test the accuracy and reliability of a platform prior to publication of experimental data. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the need for new assay platform validation prior to use of biologic samples from large studies in order to optimize sample handling and assay performance. In this study, our goal was to test the accuracy and reproducibility of an electrochemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay platform (Meso Scale Discovery, MSD®) and compare this platform to validated, singleplex immunoassays (R&D Systems®) using actual study subject (human plasma and mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma) samples. We found that the MSD platform performed well on intra- and inter-assay comparisons, spike and recovery and cross-platform comparisons. The mean intra-assay CV% and range for MSD was 3.49 (0.0-10.4) for IL-6 and 2.04 (0.1-7.9) for IL-8. The correlation between values for identical samples measured on both MSD and R&D was R=0.97 for both analytes. The mouse MSD assay had a broader range of CV% with means ranging from 9.5-28.5 depending on the analyte. The range of mean CV% was similar for single plex ELISAs at 4.3-23.7 depending on the analyte. Regardless of species or sample type, CV% was more variable at lower protein concentrations. In conclusion, we validated a multiplex electrochemiluminscent assay system and found that it has superior test characteristics in human plasma compared to mouse BALF and plasma. Both human and MSD assays compared favorably to well-validated singleplex ELISA's PMID:24768796

  2. Immunoassay on a power-free microchip with laminar flow-assisted dendritic amplification.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuo; Omata, Masaki; Maeda, Mizuo

    2007-08-01

    We demonstrate a rapid (<30 min) and ultrasensitive (sub-picomolar) immunoassay on a microchip which needs no external power sources for fluid transport. We previously reported a rapid immunoassay of human C-reactive protein (CRP) on the power-free microchip with moderate sensitivity, i.e., a limit of detection (LOD) in sub-nanomolar range, due to the lack of signal amplification. In the current work, we have improved the LOD by 3 orders of magnitude by employing dendritic amplification (DA) methods. Specifically, a sandwich immunocomplex with a biotinylated secondary antibody was constructed on the inner surface of the microchannel as described in the previous report. Onto the immunocomplex, solutions of FITC-labeled streptavidin (F-SA) and biotinylated anti-streptavidin (B-anti-SA) were supplied to grow a dendritic structure. First, we alternately supplied the two solutions for layer-by-layer growth up to three layers. As a result, we obtained an LOD of 0.21 pM with a CRP sample volume of 1.0 microL and assay time of approximately 30 min under an ordinary fluorescence microscope. Second, to reduce the number of incubation steps, we have devised a new DA method: laminar flow-assisted dendritic amplification (LFDA). In this method, F-SA and B-anti-SA were simultaneously and continuously supplied from two laminar streams formed by a Y-shaped microchannel. The immunoassay with the LFDA for 10 min (total assay time of approximately 23 min) with a CRP sample volume of 0.5 microL yielded an LOD of 0.15 pM, which is equivalent to 75 zmol. The combination of the power-free microchip and the LFDA will provide a new opportunity for ultrasensitive point-of-care testing. PMID:17614367

  3. Capillary nano-immunoassays: advancing quantitative proteomics analysis, biomarker assessment, and molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Qiu; Wakefield, Lalage M; Goldstein, David J

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging demand for the use of molecular profiling to facilitate biomarker identification and development, and to stratify patients for more efficient treatment decisions with reduced adverse effects. In the past decade, great strides have been made to advance genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to address these demands. While there has been much progress with these large scale approaches, profiling at the protein level still faces challenges due to limitations in clinical sample size, poor reproducibility, unreliable quantitation, and lack of assay robustness. A novel automated capillary nano-immunoassay (CNIA) technology has been developed. This technology offers precise and accurate measurement of proteins and their post-translational modifications using either charge-based or size-based separation formats. The system not only uses ultralow nanogram levels of protein but also allows multi-analyte analysis using a parallel single-analyte format for increased sensitivity and specificity. The high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility of this technology make it particularly powerful for analysis of clinical samples. Furthermore, the system can distinguish and detect specific protein post-translational modifications that conventional Western blot and other immunoassays cannot easily capture. This review will summarize and evaluate the latest progress to optimize the CNIA system for comprehensive, quantitative protein and signaling event characterization. It will also discuss how the technology has been successfully applied in both discovery research and clinical studies, for signaling pathway dissection, proteomic biomarker assessment, targeted treatment evaluation and quantitative proteomic analysis. Lastly, a comparison of this novel system with other conventional immuno-assay platforms is performed. PMID:26048678

  4. Evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 50 in human serum using magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Lin, Jin-Ming; Ying, Xitang

    2007-08-29

    A magnetic particles (MPs)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) with high sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, and reproducibility was proposed for the evaluation of tumor marker, carbohydrate antigen 50 (CA50) in human serum. The immunomagnetic particles coated with anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antibody was used as dispersed solid phase for the immunoassay, which was based on a sandwich immunoreaction of FITC-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, CA50 antigen, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, and was based on a subsequent chemiluminescence reaction of ALP with 4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphate-phenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane) (AMPPD) solution. The CL emission intensity was directly proportional to the amount of analyte present in a sample solution. The effects of several physicochemical parameters, including the concentration of FITC-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, the dilution ratio of ALP-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, the volume of MPs and substrate, the immunoreaction time and other relevant variables upon the immunoassay were studied and optimized. The proposed method exhibited advantages in a lower minimum detectable concentration of 1.0 U mL(-1) with comparison to the commercially available immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and showed a larger linear range of 0 to 300 U mL(-1), as well as less total assay time of only 50 min with comparison to both IRMA and microplate CLEIA. The coefficient of variation was less than 7 and 11% for intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of CA50 in human serum with recoveries from 82 to 112%, and showed a good correlation with the commercially available CA50 IRMA. PMID:17719901

  5. Development of nanobody-based flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Sun, Yanyan; Kang, Xuejun; Wan, Yakun

    2014-11-15

    Nanobodies, derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies, have novel and impactful applications in clinical diagnostics. Our objective is to develop a nanobody-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensitive detection of human prealbumin (PA). In this context, a phage display nanobody library is constructed via immunizing dromedary camel with human prealbumin. Three nanobodies have been identified by five successive bio-panning steps. Based on their high expression level and good affinity, two out of three are chosen for further study. Magnetic beads (MBs) were functionalized with PEI by acylamide bond formed between the carboxyl group on the surface of the MB. Then, an anti-PA nanobody (Nb1) can be effectively immobilized onto the surface of the functionalized MB using glutaradehyde as the link. The modified MBs with Nb1 can specifically capture the target PA and reacted with silica nanoparticles with co-immobilized HRP and anti-PA nanobody (Nb2). The concentration of PA was detected by flow injection chemiluminescence. When using MB/PEI as the carrier of anti-PA Nb1, the CL signal significantly increased to 4-fold compared with the signal using MB without PEI modification. The CL signal was further amplified to 5-fold when Si/Nb2 was used as the signal probe. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a wide quantitative range from 0.05 to 1000 ?g L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.01 ?g L(-1). The sensitivity of the proposed immunoassay offers great promises in providing a sensitive, specific, time saving, and potential method for detecting PA in clinical settings. PMID:24874660

  6. A Novel Europium Chelate Coated Nanosphere for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifeng; Xu, Shaohan; He, Donghua

    2015-01-01

    A novel europium ligand 2, 2’, 2’’, 2’’’-(4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline-2, 9-diyl) bis (methylene) bis (azanetriyl) tetra acetic acid (BC-EDTA) was synthesized and characterized. It shows an emission spectrum peak at 610 nm when it is excited at 360 nm, with a large Stock shift (250 nm). It is covalently coated on the surface of a bare silica nanosphere containi free amino groups, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. We also observed an interesting phenomenon that when BC-EDTA is labeled with a silica nanosphere, the chelate shows different excitation spectrum peaks of about 295 nm. We speculate that the carboxyl has a significant influence on its excitation spectrum. The BC-EDTA/Eu3+coated nanosphere could be used as a fluorescent probe for time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. We labeled the antibody with the fluorescent nanosphere to develop a nanosphere based hepatitis B surface antigen as a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay reagent, which is very easy to operate and eliminates potential contamination of Eu3+ contained in the environment. The analytical and functional sensitivities are 0.0037 ?g/L and 0.08 ?g/L (S/N?2.0) respectively. The detection range is 0.08-166.67 ?g/L, which is much wider than that of ELISA (0.2-5?g/L). It is comparable to the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoro-immunoassay system (DELFIA) reagents (0.2-145?g/L). We propose that it can fulfill clinical applications. PMID:26056826

  7. Dual-Mode SERS-Fluorescence Immunoassay Using Graphene Quantum Dot Labeling on One-Dimensional Aligned Magnetoplasmonic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Fengming; Zhou, Hongjian; Tan, Tran Van; Kim, Jeonghyo; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom

    2015-06-10

    A novel dual-mode immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence was designed using graphene quantum dot (GQD) labels to detect a tuberculosis (TB) antigen, CFP-10, via a newly developed sensing platform of linearly aligned magnetoplasmonic (MagPlas) nanoparticles (NPs). The GQDs were excellent bilabeling materials for simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The one-dimensional (1D) alignment of MagPlas NPs simplified the immunoassay process and enabled fast, enhanced signal transduction. With a sandwich-type immunoassay using dual-mode nanoprobes, both SERS signals and fluorescence images were recognized in a highly sensitive and selective manner with a detection limit of 0.0511 pg mL(-1). PMID:26006156

  8. Platelet donation drives: a novel initiative to recruit platelet donors.

    PubMed

    Tendulkar, Anita; Shah, Sneha; Patil, Dipali; Tambe, Manisha

    2014-06-01

    The most important strategy to ensure a safe and an adequate supply of blood and blood products is motivation, recruitment, selection and retention of voluntary non remunerated blood donors. With a view of the increased platelet necessity in our oncology setup, the first platelet donation drive in the city and to the best of our knowledge, in India was conducted by our hospital in November 2009. The aim was to identify target groups and expand our donor database. It was also essential that the donor's contribution is acknowledged and appropriately felicitated. A campaign called "Save a Life" was initiated and publicized locally. A core team consisting of Transfusion Medicine specialists, clinicians and an NGO (nongovernment organization) was formed. The best suitable date and venue were finalized for the platelet camp. The audience was addressed and willing donors were registered as volunteer platelet donors with our institute. In a span of 40 months, 15 platelet camps were organized in colleges, social organizations, and corporate offices. A total of 1035 donors were registered out of which, 382 (37%) donated platelets in our hospital. 125/382 (33.2%) donated Single Donor Platelets (SDP) more than once. The largest number of platelet donations by a single camp donor was 24 times. Due to multiple donations from donors, the SDP number was enhanced considerably and lead to addition of 699 SDP units to our inventory. The annual indoor and camp voluntary platelet donor numbers increased from 142 in 2006 to 631 in 2012 due to platelet drives. All platelet donations were altruistic as no incentives were offered to the donors. Ready availability of platelets and planning SDP inventory as per patient blood group requirements had a positive impact on clinical services. PMID:24793425

  9. Ethical evaluation of risks related to living donor transplantation programs.

    PubMed

    Panocchia, N; Bossola, M; Silvestri, P; Midolo, E; Teleman, A A; Tazza, L; Sacchini, D; Minacori, R; Di Pietro, M L; Spagnolo, A G

    2013-09-01

    The shortage of available cadaveric organs for transplantation and the growing demand has incresed live donation. To increase the number of transplantations from living donors, programs have been implemented to coordinate donations in direct or indirect form (cross-over, paired, and domino chain). Living donors with complex medical conditions are accepted by several transplantation programs. In this way, the number of transplants from living has exceeded that from cadaver donors in several European countries. No mortality has been reported in the case of lung, pancreas, or intestinal Living donations, but the perioperative complications range from 15% to 30% for pancreas and lung donors. In living kidney donors, the perioperative mortality is 3 per 10,000. Their frequency of end-stage renal disease does not exceed the United States rate for the general population. However, long-term follow-up studies of living donors for kidney transplantations have several limitations. The frequency of complications in live donor liver transplantation is 40%, of these, 48% are possibly life-threatening according to the Clavien classification. Residual disability, liver failure, or death has occurred in 1% of cases. The changes in live donor acceptance criteria raise ethical issues, in particular, the physician's role in evaluating and accepting the risks taken by the living donor. Some workers argue to set aside medical paternalism on behalf of the principle of donor autonomy. In this way the medical rule "primum non nocere" is overcome. Transplantation centers should reason beyond the shortage of organs and think in terms of the care for both donor and recipient. PMID:24034000

  10. Laser Surface Treatment of Plastics for a Single-Channel Multiple Immunoassays Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooie, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masato; Yamachoshi, Yuji; Nakahara, Tomonori; Abe, Kaori; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    A novel micro immunoassay chip for detecting biomarkers in blood plasma has been developed by using an injector-based antibody immobilization. Since multiple detectors were made in a single channel, the chip was able to detect various biomarkers simultaneously. UV Laser processing of the substrate was performed to enhance immobilization of the antibody. In P1CP, which is a biomarker for osteoporosis, this simple plastic chip requires only 1 micro liter per lane of blood plasma and 30 min of reaction time, one twentieth the sample volume required for the ELISA-kit and six times the through put.

  11. Positive interference of the analgesic nefopam in the urine immunoassay for benzodiazepines in a secure setting.

    PubMed

    Reid, K S

    2009-11-01

    An inpatient on a secure unit with a history of bipolar affective disorder and physical complaints including pain was prescribed carbamazepine, quetiapine, dihydrocodeine, nefopam, paracetamol and various aperients. A benzodiazepine urine test by immunoassay was positive. Initial literature searches did not suggest a candidate drug for positive interference. Other explanations were excluded. Positive results continued, despite room searches and other disruptive security measures. Further literature searches revealed one experimental series demonstrating positive interference of nefopam in the relevant assay. Benzodiazepine assays were negative after cessation of nefopam. This is the first such clinical case to our knowledge. PMID:18635712

  12. An enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone - Applications to the study of growth hormone variants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrington, Marianne A.; Hymer, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone (GH) is described and its use in the detection of GH variants is demonstrated. In the present assay, soluble GH and GH adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-GH antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-GH complex is detected and quantified using goat antimonkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. It is noted that the assay can be performed in 27 hours and that sensitivities in the range of 0.19 to 25 ng can be obtained in the region of 10 to 90 percent binding.

  13. Determination of morphine by capillary zone electrophoresis immunoassay combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Chang, Wen-Bao

    2004-01-01

    A competitive immunoassay for detecting morphine in bio-samples was established by capillary zone electrophoresis combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CZE-LIF). The antigen of morphine was labeled with isothiocyano-fluorescein (FITC) and then incubated with morphine monoclonal antibody and samples. The linear range was 50-1000 ng/mL, which was suitable for clinical and forensic applications. The detection limit can reach 40 ng/mL, based on S/N = 2. The recoveries of morphine from serum were satisfactory. PMID:15038617

  14. An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths.

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.

    2010-07-01

    We present a platform that combines patterned photopolymerized polymer monoliths with living radical polymerization (LRP) to develop a low cost microfluidic based immunoassay capable of sensitive (low to sub pM) and rapid (<30 minute) detection of protein in 100 {micro}L sample. The introduction of LRP functionality to the porous monolith allows one step grafting of functionalized affinity probes from the monolith surface while the composition of the hydrophilic graft chain reduces non-specific interactions and helps to significantly improve the limit of detection.

  15. Monitoring estrogen replacement therapy and identifying rapid bone losers with an immunoassay for deoxypyridinoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Hesley; K. A. Shepard; D. K. Jenkins; B. L. Riggs

    1998-01-01

    We have assessed urinary deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) levels by immunoassay in women who participated in a double-masked, placebo-controlled\\u000a trial of the bone loss prevention effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Ninety-one women who had undergone recent\\u000a surgical menopause were randomdized to receive either placebo or 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg\\/day transdermal 17?-estradiol for 2\\u000a years. Mean Dpd levels in the postmenopausal

  16. Application of magnetic nanoparticles in full-automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaomao; Ohnishi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Yuki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-05-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Therma-Max™ were used as a carrier to develop an automated sandwich chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) to detect thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a sensitive and specific way. The Therma-Max™ particles allow for automation because, unlike magnetic microspheres, they are completely dispersed in aqueous solution and allow for accurate automatic handling. Signal intensities detected with MNPs were 8-fold higher than those found with conventional micron-sized magnetic particles. A reproducibility study suggests that these particles allow for a stable detection method, as the coefficient of variation (CV) is less than 6% ( n=10).

  17. Optimization of Dengue Immunoassay by Label-Free Interferometric Optical Detection Method

    PubMed Central

    Laguna, María F.; Holgado, Miguel; Sanza, Francisco J.; Lavín, Alvaro; López, Ana; Casquel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    In this communication we report a direct immunoassay for detecting dengue virus by means of a label-free interferometric optical detection method. We also demonstrate how we can optimize this sensing response by adding a blocking step able to significantly enhance the optical sensing response. The blocking reagent used for this optimization is a dry milk diluted in phosphate buffered saline. The recognition curve of dengue virus over the proposed surface sensor demonstrates the capacity of this method to be applied in Point of Care technology. PMID:24727502

  18. Seeding-induced self-assembling protein nanowires dramatically increase the sensitivity of immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Men, Dong; Guo, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Hong-ping; Zhou, Ya-Feng; Cui, Zong-Qiang; Liang, Xiao-Sheng; Li, Ke; Leng, Yan; You, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2009-06-01

    Aiming to build a supersensitive and easily operable immunoassay, bifunctional protein nanowires were generated by seeding-induced self-assembling of the yeast amyloid protein Sup35p that genetically fused with protein G and an enzyme (methyl-parathion hydrolase, MPH), respectively. The protein nanowires possessed a high ratio of enzyme molecules to protein G, allowing a dramatic increase of the enzymatic signal when protein G was bound to an antibody target. As a result, a 100-fold enhancement of the sensitivity was obtained when applied in the detection of the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen. PMID:19402649

  19. Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, Jenny Ancca; Richards, Jean; Rath, Bruno; Machaca, Victor Quispe; Castro, Yagahira E; Málaga, Edith S; Levy, Katelyn; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Levy, Michael Z

    2011-05-01

    Insecticide-impregnated nets can kill triatomine bugs, but it remains unclear whether they can protect against Chagas disease transmission. In a field trial in Quequeña, Peru, sentinel guinea pigs placed in intervention enclosures covered by deltamethrin-treated nets showed significantly lower antibody responses to saliva of Triatoma infestans compared with animals placed in pre-existing control enclosures. Our results strongly suggest that insecticide-treated nets prevent triatomine bites and can thereby protect against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Anti-salivary immunoassays are powerful new tools to evaluate intervention strategies against Chagas disease. PMID:21426907

  20. Preferred allocation for registered organ donors.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2008-07-01

    A shortage of transplantable organs in the United States can be traced to low rates of donation. Incentives for organ donation might partially remedy these organ shortfalls. Although incentives countervail the dominant philanthropy model, this model is neither well supported by ethical argument nor strictly applied. Preferred allocation, consisting in the practice of awarding extra priority points to previously registered organ donors who need transplants, is attractive in that it offers a potentially effective incentive while deviating less radically from entrenched practices than financial incentives. It is supported by the public and conforms to intuitions about justice and reciprocity. Moreover, it highlights moral features of the transplant community as a particular moral community within the greater medical community. PMID:18631870

  1. Technical problems in living donor transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, L

    2005-01-01

    Inferior outcomes are generally described with grafts having multiple arteries or renovascular disease. A consecutive series of 261 living donor (LD) transplants performed in the CsA era was classified in three groups with regard to the graft arterial abnormalities and the techniques employed for revascularization. Two hundred eleven recipients had a kidney with one "healthy" renal artery (Group I); 11 patients, multiple arteries, which were reconstructed by various intracorporeal techniques (Group II); 39 patients, one diseased renal artery or multiple arteries, which were reconstructed on the bench (Group III). One- and 3-year graft survivals not censored for death, were 91%, 82%, 100% and 87%, 82%, 100%, respectively, for Group I, Group II, and Group III. An aggressive policy in performing microsurgical bench reconstruction, also for kidneys with one artery that are affected by intrinsic disease, allowed us to obtain a 3-year graft survival of 100% in our more recent consecutive series of 53 LD transplants. PMID:16182704

  2. Compensating egg donors. Is the money worth it?

    PubMed

    Barlyn, S

    1999-09-01

    When infertility clinics throughout the state doubled egg donor compensation to $5,000 last year, assisted reproductive technologies gained a heightened level of public awareness. Although the bold move prompted ethical debate about egg donation, offers of generous remuneration are helping many New Jersey infertility clinics maintain a steady pool of qualified donors. PMID:10502932

  3. Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Martin Morse

    2011-01-01

    What responsibilities do universities have to donors, many of whom are alumni? Presumably, one responsibility is to respect their wishes when they provide gifts with specific purposes. Yet Martin Morse Wooster shows in this report that universities often neglect the wishes of contributors. "Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them"…

  4. Lung procurement for transplantation: new criteria for lung donor selection.

    PubMed

    Moretti, M P; Betto, C; Gambacorta, M; Vesconi, S; Scalamogna, M; Benazzi, E; Ravini, M

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, like everywhere in the world, the organ shortage for transplantation is a real problem. It is well known that lung donors (LD) are particularly difficult to procure and that management of the organ do not care during the diagnosis of cerebral death represents a difficult challenge. In this context, the salvage of the so-called "marginal donors" may increase the pool of donors, favoring organ retrieval. To increase lung procurement, the intensivist must recognize "marginal donors," optimizing organ selection and function. The aim of our study was to review LD procured in 2008, as identified by the unrestricted criteria, of the Nord Italian Transplant program Center (NITp). Particularly, the age and habits of donors and the presence of a parenchyma contusion were not sufficient per se to exclude donation. We revisited lung ventilation and monitoring modalities during cerebral death before retrieval. In 2008, the application of enlarged criteria for LD enabled us to collect 21 LD, namely 33% of all cerebral deaths, versus 13% in 2007. Seeking to maintain good gas exchange and lung function, we implemented a safe ventilation program avoided high peak pressures, and fluid therapy properly guided by the cardiac index and extravascular lung water index monitoring. Specific actions to improve LD procurement may help cope with the organ-donor shortage. Although our series was small, our results were encouraging; they underline the necessity to continuously review donor criteria and care, allowing good donor/recipient matching. PMID:20534222

  5. Graphite electrodes as electron donors for anaerobic respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelvin B. Gregory; Daniel R. Bond; Derek R. Lovley

    2004-01-01

    Summary It has been demonstrated previously that Geobacter species can transfer electrons directly to electrodes. In order to determine whether electrodes could serve as electron donors for microbial respiration, enrich- ment cultures were established from a sediment inoc- ulum with a potentiostat-poised graphite electrode as the sole electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite

  6. What Drives Donor Funding in Population Assistance Programs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik P. van Dalen; Mieke Reuser

    2005-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) established goals for the expansion of population assistance. This global effort has so far not sufficiently been supported by donor funds. Dynamic panel estimation methods are used to see what lies behind the sharing of burdens and level of donor contributions. Panel data on expenditures for population and AIDS activities have

  7. Hyperfine Stark effect of shallow donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Giuseppe; Wolfowicz, Gary; Urdampilleta, Matias; Thewalt, Mike L. W.; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V.; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J. L.; Bhatt, R. N.; Lyon, S. A.; Lovett, Brendon W.

    2014-11-01

    We present a complete theoretical treatment of Stark effects in bulk doped silicon, whose predictions are supported by experimental measurements. A multivalley effective mass theory, dealing nonperturbatively with valley-orbit interactions induced by a donor-dependent central cell potential, allows us to obtain a very reliable picture of the donor wave function within a relatively simple framework. Variational optimization of the 1 s donor binding energies calculated with a new trial wave function, in a pseudopotential with two fitting parameters, allows an accurate match of the experimentally determined donor energy levels, while the correct limiting behavior for the electronic density, both close to and far from each impurity nucleus, is captured by fitting the measured contact hyperfine coupling between the donor nuclear and electron spin. We go on to include an external uniform electric field in order to model Stark physics: with no extra ad hoc parameters, variational minimization of the complete donor ground energy allows a quantitative description of the field-induced reduction of electronic density at each impurity nucleus. Detailed comparisons with experimental values for the shifts of the contact hyperfine coupling reveal very close agreement for all the donors measured (P, As, Sb, and Bi). Finally, we estimate field ionization thresholds for the donor ground states, thus setting upper limits to the gate manipulation times for single qubit operations in Kane-like architectures: the Si:Bi system is shown to allow for A gates as fast as ?10 MHz.

  8. Donor insemination and infertility: what general urologists need to know

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin S Han; Robert E Brannigan

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic donor insemination (TDI), also known as artificial insemination by donor, is one of the oldest forms of male infertility treatment. With the advent of assisted reproductive technologies and in vitro fertilization techniques over the past few decades, the use of TDI in male infertility treatment has decreased dramatically. Knowledge of its use, indications, efficacy, and related psychosocial issues has

  9. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

  10. Laparosopic Hand-Assisted Living Donor Nephrectomy: The Niguarda Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maione; C. V. Sansalone; P. Aseni; A. De Roberto; S. Soldano; I. Mangoni; L. Perrino; E. Minetti; G. Civati

    2005-01-01

    Perioperative donor morbidity, a barrier to living organ donation, may be mitigated by the laparoscopic approach. From September 2002 to September 2004, 15 living donors, of ages ranging from 36 to 59 years, underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy. We used a hand-assisted device to increase the safety of the procedure. The average operating time was 200 minutes. The average blood loss was

  11. Effects of Methyl Donor Diets on Incisional Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Liang, Deyong; Sahbaie, Peyman; Clark, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary supplementation with methyl donors can influence the programming of epigenetic patterns resulting in persistent alterations in disease susceptibility and behavior. However, the dietary effects of methyl donors on pain have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary methyl donor content on pain responses in mice. Methods Male and female C57BL/6J mice were treated with high or low methyl donor diets either in the perinatal period or after weaning. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive sensitivity were measured before and after incision. Results Mice fed high or low methyl donor diets displayed equal weight gain over the course of the experiments. When exposed to these dietary manipulations in the perinatal period, only male offspring of dams fed a high methyl donor diet displayed increased mechanical allodynia. Hindpaw incision in these animals caused enhanced nociceptive sensitization, but dietary history did not affect the duration of sensitization. For mice exposed to high or low methyl donor diets after weaning, no significant differences were observed in mechanical or thermal nociceptive sensitivity either at baseline or in response to hindpaw incision. Conclusions Perinatal dietary factors such as methyl donor content may impact pain experiences in later life. These effects, however, may be specific to sex and pain modality. PMID:24205011

  12. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

  13. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

  14. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

  15. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor... The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be examined by a qualified...

  16. European Marrow Donor Information System: Concept and Praxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Steiner

    2010-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an increasingly used treatment option for patients with severe disorders of hematopoiesis. In roughly two thirds of the cases, an unrelated donor must be sought in international databases. These searches would nowadays be unimaginable without the support of information technologies. Reliable communication and data transfer of donor and patient records between all partners in this

  17. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TO SUPPORT NETWORKING AMONG NGOs AND DONORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saqib Saeed; Tim Reichling; Volker Wulf

    2008-01-01

    IT support for civil society organizations is an interesting area of research. The collaboration between north and south has resulted in a rapid growth of Donor organizations and NGOs. As the NGOs and donors are going specific in their choice of collaborators the number of parameters for selection increases. Hence, it becomes difficult for the staff of civil society organizations

  18. Multivalley effective mass theory simulation of donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John King; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Nielsen, Erik; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Moussa, Jonathan E.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.

    2015-06-01

    Last year, Salfi et al. made the first direct measurements of a donor wave function and found extremely good theoretical agreement with atomistic tight-binding theory results [Salfi et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 605 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3941]. Here, we show that multivalley effective mass theory, applied properly, does achieve close agreement with tight-binding results and hence gives reliable predictions. To demonstrate this, we variationally solve the coupled six-valley Shindo-Nara equations, including silicon's full Bloch functions. Surprisingly, we find that including the full Bloch functions necessitates a tetrahedral, rather than spherical, donor central cell correction to accurately reproduce the experimental energy spectrum of a phosphorus impurity in silicon. We cross-validate this method against atomistic tight-binding calculations, showing that the two theories agree well for the calculation of donor-donor tunnel coupling. Further, we benchmark our results by performing a statistical uncertainty analysis, confirming that derived quantities such as the wave function profile and tunnel couplings are robust with respect to variational energy fluctuations. Finally, we apply this method to exhaustively enumerate the tunnel coupling for all donor-donor configurations within a large search volume, demonstrating conclusively that the tunnel coupling has no spatially stable regions. Although this instability is problematic for reliably coupling donor pairs for two-qubit operations, we identify specific target locations where donor qubits can be placed with scanning tunneling microscopy technology to achieve reliably large tunnel couplings.

  19. Alternative Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kanakry, Christopher G; de Lima, Marcos J; Luznik, Leo

    2015-07-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) provides a potentially curative therapy for patients with high-risk or chemorefractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Historically, the applicability of alloHCT has been limited as only 30%-35% of patients have human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings and outcomes using other donor types have been markedly inferior due to excess toxicity, graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and consequently non-relapse mortality. Advances in HLA typing, GVHD prophylactic approaches, and other transplantation techniques have successfully addressed these historical challenges. Herein, we review recent alloHCT studies using volunteer unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or HLA-haploidentical donors, specifically focusing on studies that compared outcomes between donor sources. Although none are randomized and most are retrospective, these analyses suggest that current outcomes for AML patients using most alternative donor types are comparable to those seen using HLA-matched siblings. PMID:26111471

  20. Surgical aspects of donor hand recovery for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Banegas, Rodrigo N; Moreno, Rodrigo; Duggal, Anil; Breidenbach, Warren C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share our institution's experience in optimizing the suitability of composite donor tissue for use in hand transplantation. The centerpiece of this process includes procurement techniques, preservation and timing issues, and anatomical matching. Recovery of the donor hand must proceed in an efficient, organized, and expedient manner. Proper timing of the donor operation not only ensures the quality of donor tissue and outcome for the hand recipient, but also allows surgeons recovering other organs to obtain high quality tissue for those recipients. Timing remains a critical factor in preserving tissue after removal from the donor. We will also consider the factors of temperature and preservation solution during transport. PMID:21861253

  1. Reconsidering the dead donor rule: is it important that organ donors be dead?

    PubMed

    Fost, Norman

    2004-09-01

    The "dead donor rule" is increasingly under attack for several reasons. First, there has long been disagreement about whether there is a correct or coherent definition of "death." Second, it has long been clear that the concept and ascertainment of "brain death" is medically flawed. Third, the requirement stands in the way of improving organ supply by prohibiting organ removal from patients who have little to lose--e.g., infants with anencephaly--and from patients who ardently want to donate while still alive--e.g., patients in a permanent vegetative state. One argument against abandoning the dead donor rule has been that the rule is important to the general public. There is now data suggesting that this assumption also may be flawed. These findings add additional weight to proposals to abandon the dead donor rule so that organ supply can be expanded in a way that is consistent with traditional notions of ethics, law, public policy, and public opinion. PMID:15495382

  2. Pushing the frontiers of living donor right hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Young Kyu; Park, Sang-Jae

    2014-12-28

    Living donor right hepatectomy (LDRH) is currently the most common donor surgery in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation although the morbidity and mortality reported in living donors still contradicts the Hippocratic tenet of "do no harm". Achieving low complication rates in LDRH remains a matter of major concern. Living donor surgery is performed worldwide as an established solution to the donor shortage. The aim of this study was to assess the current status of LDRH and comment on the future of the procedure; assessment was made from the standpoint of optimizing the donor selection criteria and reducing morbidity based on both the authors' 8-year institutional experience and a literature review. New possibilities have been explored regarding selection criteria. The safety of living donors with unfavorable conditions, such as low remnant liver volume, fatty change, or old age, should also be considered. Abdominal incisions have become shorter, even without laparoscopic assistance; upper midline laparotomy is the primary incision used in more than 400 consecutive LDRHs in the authors' institution. Various surgical techniques based on preoperative imaging technology of vascular and biliary anomalies have decreased the anatomical barriers in LDRH. Operative time has been reduced, with low blood loss. Laparoscopic or robotic LDRH has been tried in only a few selected donors. The LDRH-specific, long-term outcomes remain to be addressed. The follow-up duration of these studies should be long enough to address possible late complications. Donor safety, which is the highest priority, is ensured by three factors: preoperative selection, intraoperative surgical technique, and postoperative management. These three focus areas should be continuously refined, with the ultimate goal of zero morbidity. PMID:25561777

  3. Comparison of open and laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, J L; Jacobs, S; Cho, E; Morton, A; Rosenberger, W F; Evans, D; Imbembo, A L; Bartlett, S T

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compares an initial group of patients undergoing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy to a group of patients undergoing open donor nephrectomy to assess the efficacy, morbidity, and patient recovery after the laparoscopic technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent data have shown the technical feasibility of harvesting live renal allografts using a laparoscopic approach. However, comparison of donor recovery, morbidity, and short-term graft function to open donor nephrectomy has not been performed previously. METHODS: An initial series of patients undergoing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy were compared to historic control subjects undergoing open donor nephrectomy. The groups were matched for age, gender, race, and comorbidity. Graft function, intraoperative variables, and clinical outcome of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy was attempted in 70 patients and completed successfully in 94% of cases. Graft survival was 97% versus 98% (p = 0.6191), and immediate graft function occurred in 97% versus 100% in the laparoscopic and open groups, respectively (p = 0.4961). Blood loss, length of stay, parenteral narcotic requirements, resumption of diet, and return to normal activity were significantly less in the laparoscopic group. Mean warm ischemia time was 3 minutes after laparoscopic harvest. Morbidity was 14% in the laparoscopic group and 35% in the open group. There was no mortality in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be performed with morbidity and mortality comparable to open donor nephrectomy, with substantial improvements in patient recovery after the laparoscopic approach. Initial graft survival and function rates are equal to those of open donor nephrectomy, but longer follow-up is necessary to confirm these observations. PMID:9351716

  4. The Significance of Evalution of Haematocrit in Plateletpheresis Donors

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Pratap Eknath; Nagane, Nitin Sopan; Dhonde, Sushma Prakash; Belwalkar, Gajanan J.; Mane, Vaibhav Pandurang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The collection of platelets by apheresis is considered as a very great progress in transfusion medicine. In present era, many automated cell separation are available each model has tried to improve productivity, quality of plateletpheresis. Further various studies have been done to correlate the quality of platelet concentrates. Also, various biochemical studies have been done on plateletpheresis donors. However, safety issue with regards to post procedure levels of biochemical parameters decreased in donors undergoing plateletpheresis have been only minimally explored. Objectives: Investigating Haematological and Biochemical parameters (Hematocrit value and Serum Calcium levels) pre and post in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods: Sixty two healthy first time voluntary plateletpheresis donors at Apheresis unit in blood bank Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College & Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hematocrit value of plateletpheresis donors were analysed and based on mean value 43.2% considering this as standard in the present study. We categorized plateletpheresis donors in two groups (A) these having value less than 43.2% (n = 36) and Group (B) having haematocrit more than 43.3% (n = 26). Volume of ACD required for donors from both group were noted. Result: We observed mean of ACD infused in group A plateletpheresis donors was 347.7 ml ± 35.75 SD while group ‘B’ donors required mean volume ACD to be infused was 379.6 ml ± 46.24 S.D. was statistically significant (p <0.005). Conclusion: Plateletpheresis induces marked metabolic effects, with sustained changes in serum calcium and haematocrit after ACD infusion, the results show, before procedure (Plateletpheresis) one must consider the haematocrit value along with serum calcium levels in Plateletpheresis donor to avoid severe symptoms of hypocalcaemia. PMID:26023547

  5. Donor Heart Utilization following Cardiopulmonary Arrest and Resuscitation: Influence of Donor Characteristics and Wait Times in Transplant Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Luke; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Procurement of hearts from cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitated (CPR) donors for transplantation is suboptimal. We studied the influences of donor factors and regional wait times on CPR donor heart utilization. Methods. From UNOS database (1998 to 2012), we identified 44,744 heart donors, of which 4,964 (11%) received CPR. Based on procurement of heart for transplantation, CPR donors were divided into hearts procured (HP) and hearts not procured (HNP) groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of heart procurement. Results. Of the 4,964 CPR donors, 1,427 (28.8%) were in the HP group. Donor characteristics that favored heart procurement include younger age (25.5?±?15?yrs versus 39?±?18?yrs, P ? 0.0001), male gender (34% versus 23%, P ? 0.0001), shorter CPR duration (<15?min versus >30?min, P ? 0.0001), and head trauma (60% versus 15%). Among the 11 UNOS regions, the highest procurement was in Region 1 (37%) and the lowest in Region 3 (24%). Regional transplant volumes and median waiting times did not influence heart procurement rates. Conclusions. Only 28.8% of CPR donor hearts were procured for transplantation. Factors favoring heart procurement include younger age, male gender, short CPR duration, and traumatic head injury. Heart procurement varied by region but not by transplant volumes or wait times. PMID:25114798

  6. Paucity of HLA-Identical Unrelated donors for African-Americans with Hematologic Malignancies: The Need for New Donor Options

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Alexander; Collins-Jones, Demetria; Artz, Andrew; Rich, Elizabeth; Stock, Wendy; Swanson, Kate; van Besien, Koen

    2008-01-01

    Identification of an HLA identical donor/recipient pair using high-resolution techniques at HLA A, B, C and DRB1 optimizes survival after adult unrelated hematopoetic stem cell transplant. It has been estimated that roughly 50% of African-Americans have suitable unrelated donors based on serologic typing, but there is little information on the likelihood of identifying an HLA-identical unrelated donor using molecular techniques. From 2/2002 to 5/2007, we performed 51 unrelated donor searches for African-American patients using the National Marrow Donor Program® and found HLA identical unrelated donors for only three. By contrast, 50 (98%) had at least one and often multiple appropriately matched cord blood units available. Very few African-American recipients have HLA-identical unrelated donors. In order to allow more African-American patients to proceed to transplant, innovative donor strategies, including adult cord blood transplantation, haplo-identical transplant or the identification of permissive mismatches should be investigated. PMID:18640578

  7. Cold Ischemia Time and Allograft Outcomes in Live Donor Renal Transplantation: Is Live Donor Organ Transport Feasible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Simpkins; R. A. Montgomery; A. M. Hawxby; J. E. Locke; S. E. Gentry; D. S. Warren; D. L. Segev

    2007-01-01

    One of the greatest obstacles to the implementation of regional or national kidney paired donation pro- grams (KPD) is the need for the donor to travel to their matched recipient's hospital. While transport of the kidney is an attractive alternative, there is concern that prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) would dimin- ish the benefits of live donor transplantation (LDTx). To

  8. Engraftment and survival after unrelated-donor bone marrow transplantation: a report from the National Marrow Donor Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella M. Davies; Craig Kollman; Claudio Anasetti; Joseph H. Antin; James Gajewski; James T. Casper; Auayporn Nademanee; Harriet Noreen; Roberta King; Dennis Confer; Nancy A. Kernan

    We analyzed engraftment of unrelated- donor (URD) bone marrow in 5246 pa- tients who received transplants facili- tated by the National Marrow Donor Program between August 1991 and June 1999. Among patients surviving at least 28 days, 4% had primary graft failure (failure to achieve an absolute neutrophil count > 5 3 108\\/L before death or second stem-cell infusion). Multivariate

  9. The application of immunoassay techniques, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to snake venom research.

    PubMed

    Theakston, R D

    1983-01-01

    The development and application of immunoassay techniques in relation to snake venom research is reviewed. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is compared with radioimmunoassay, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, haemagglutination and immunoelectrophoresis. It is concluded that ELISA is the most versatile immunoassay technique so far applied to the field of venom research, its main advantages over other methods including relatively high levels of sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, simplicity and ease of sample collection. It can also be readily modified into kit form and is easily adapted for use in large scale epidemiological studies and for accurate retrospective diagnosis of snake bite. None of the other assay systems considered fulfil these criteria to the same extent. ELISA is helping to advance epidemiological knowledge of snake bite, in exploring the role of active immunisation and in the compilation of accurate clinical patterns of envenoming. Other applications of the test include its use for potency screening of both new and developed commercially available antivenoms and for the detection of monoclonal antibodies which should eventually result in increased specificity of the assay system by eliminating cross reactions between venoms and antibodies of closely related species. PMID:6414106

  10. Highly sensitive immunoassay of protein molecules based on single nanoparticle fluorescence detection in a nanowell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2011-03-01

    A nanoarray based-single molecule detection system was developed for detecting proteins with extremely high sensitivity. The nanoarray was able to effectively trap nanoparticles conjugated with biological sample into nanowells by integrating with an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES). The nanoarray/EPES is superior to other biosensor using immunoassays in terms of saving the amounts of biological solution and enhancing kinetics of antibody binding due to reduced steric hindrance from the neighboring biological molecules. The nanoarray patterned onto a layer of PMMA and LOL on conductive and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspension of 500 nm-fluorescent (green emission)-carboxylated polystyrene (PS) particles coated with protein-A followed by BDE 47 polyclonal antibody was added to the chip that was connected to the positive voltage. The droplet was covered by another ITO-coated-glass slide and connected to a ground terminal. After trapping the particles into the nanowells, the solution of different concentrations of anti-rabbit- IgG labeled with Alexa 532 was added for an immunoassay. A single molecule detection system could quantify the anti-rabbit IgG down to atto-mole level by counting photons emitted from the fluorescent dye bound to a single nanoparticle in a nanowell.

  11. Concentration Gradient Immunoassay (CGIA) II. Computational Modeling for Analysis and Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jennifer O.; Nelson, Kjell; Mashadi-Hossein, Afshin; Finlayson, Bruce A.; Yager, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A novel microfluidic surface-based competition immunoassay, termed the concentration gradient immunoassay (CGIA, described in detail in a companion paper1) uses surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging to rapidly measure the concentration of small molecules. To conduct this assay, antibody and analyte are introduced into the two inlets of a T-sensor.2, 3 Several millimeters downstream, antibody molecules with open binding sites can bind to a surface functionalized with immobilized antigen. This space- and time-dependent binding can be sensitively observed using SPR imaging. In this paper, we describe a complex three-dimensional finite element model developed to better understand the dynamic processes occurring with this assay. The model shows strong qualitative agreement with experimental results for small molecule detection. The model confirms the experimental finding that the position within the microchannel at which the antibody binds to the immobilized analyte may be used to quantify the concentration of analyte. In addition, the model was used to explore the sensitivity of assay performance to parameters such as antibody and analyte concentrations, thereby giving insight into ways to optimize analysis speed and accuracy. Given the experimental verification of the computational results, this model serves as an efficient method to explore the influence of the flow rate, microchannel dimensions, and antibody concentration on the sensitivity of the assay. PMID:17437333

  12. A secondary antibody format chemiluminescence immunoassay for the determination of estradiol in human serum.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tian-Bing; Chen, Hui; Lin, Zhen; Liang, Shu-Xuan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2010-09-15

    A competitive immunoassay for estradiol (E2) based on secondary antibody format was established. The donkey anti-rabbit IgG was used as the secondary antibody to coat micro-plates, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H(2)O(2) chemiluminescent system with high sensitivity was chosen as the detection system. The addition of sodium trichloroacetate (CCl(3)COONa) in the enzyme buffer as a replaceable packing material can realize directly analysis of E2 in human serum without extraction, which improved reproducibility and resolution of the assay. Additionally, the method showed specific recognition of estrogen, without cross-reaction for the major steroids (estrone (E1), estriol (E3), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione, testosterone (T)) commonly found in human serum. The chemiluminescence immunoassay with secondary antibody can be applied to detect E2 with good precision at concentrations as low as 1.48 pg mL(-1). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of E2 in 97 human sera and showed a good correlation compared with the commercially radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with a correlative coefficient of 0.9881. This method has exhibited great potential in the fabrication of diagnostic kit and can be used in the clinical analysis of E2 in human serum. PMID:20801358

  13. Rapid solid-phase immunoassay for 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha on microplates

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, W.; Smith, R.H.; Jackson, T.M.; Craig, P.A.; Grates, H.E.; Minton, L.L. (BioQuant of Ann Arbor, Inc., MI (USA))

    1990-03-01

    We describe, for the measurement of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha in biological media, a solid-phase immunoassay with immobilized antibodies that requires a total processing time of less than 2 h with hands-on time less than 30 min for 40 samples. The method combines the convenience of the microplate format with the sensitivity of radiolabeled prostaglandin derivatives as tracers in a competitive immunoassay. The intra- and interassay variations at 50% displacement of the radiolabeled prostaglandin derivative as tracer were 9.0% and 11.8%, respectively. At 50% displacement of the radiolabeled tracer, the sensitivity is about 20 pg per well. Optimal incubation time is between 60 and 90 min. Nonspecific binding was less than 1% if about 8 pg of tracer (approximately 25,000 counts/min per well) was used. Inhibition curves of samples in different dilutions were parallel to standard curves. The variation of bound radiolabeled prostaglandin derivative within the wells of one microplate (n = 96) was less than 3%. Human plasma samples and medium from tissue culture assayed for 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha correlated well with results obtained with a solid-phase assay based on use of magnetic particles (r = 0.99, n = 24) for culture-medium samples; r = 0.99; n = 26 for plasma samples.

  14. Heightened sense for sensing: recent advances in pathogen immunoassay sensing platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, N; Tarasow, T; Tok, J B

    2007-01-09

    As part of its own defense mechanism, most bacteria have developed an innate ability to enable toxic secretion to ward off potential predators or invaders. However, this naturally occurring process has been abused since over production of the bacteria's toxin molecules could render them as potential bioweapons. As these processes (also known as ''black biology'') can be clandestinely performed in a laboratory, the threat of inflicting enormous potential damage to a nation's security and economy is invariably clear and present. Thus, efficient detection of these biothreat agents in a timely and accurate manner is highly desirable. A wealth of publications describing various pathogen immuno-sensing advances has appeared over the last few years, and it is not the intent of this review article to detail each reported approach. Instead, we aim to survey a few recent highlights in hopes of providing the reader an overall sense of the breath of these sensing systems and platforms. Antigen targets are diverse and complex as they encompass proteins, whole viruses, and bacterial spores. The signaling processes for these reported immunoassays are usually based on colorimetric, optical, or electrochemical changes. Of equal interest is the type of platform in which the immunoassay can be performed. A few platforms suitable for pathogen detection are described.

  15. Ultrasensitive On-Chip Immunoassays with a Nanoparticle-Assembled Photonic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Hee; Sudheendra, L.; Kim, Hee-Joo; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES) is employed to generate 2D array of nanoparticles coated with biological molecules (i.e. antibodies). Phase matching of the excitation and the emission in the 2D arrays with particles produces a highly enhanced fluorescence signal that was shown to improve the limit of detection in immunoassays. The phase matching is achieved when the particle are in the sub-100 nm range. A comparison between different size particles shows that the sensitivity of an immunoassay is extended to a range that is difficult to achieve with standard technology (e.g. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-ELISA). The effectiveness of this novel configuration of particle-in-a well was demonstrated with an assay for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; breast cancer biomarker), with a detection limit as low as 10 aM in less than 10 ?l of serum-based sample. The limit of detection of HER2 indicated far superior assay performance compared to the corresponding standard 96-well plate-based ELISA. The particle-based photonic platform reduces the reagent volume and the time for performing an assay in comparison to competing methods. The simplicity of operation and the level of sensitivity demonstrated here can be used for rapid and early-stage detection of biomarkers. PMID:22957818

  16. Magnetic Bead-Based Colorimetric Immunoassay for Aflatoxin B1 Using Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    A competitive colorimetric immunoassay for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) has been established using biofunctionalized magnetic beads (MBs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Aflatoxin B1-bovine serum albumin conjugates (AFB-BSA) modified MBs were employed as capture probe, which could specifically bind with GNP-labeled anti-AFB antibodies through immunoreaction, while such specific binding was competitively inhibited by the addition of AFB. After magnetic separation, the supernatant solution containing unbound GNPs was directly tested by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The absorption intensity was directly proportional to the AFB concentration. The influence of GNP size, incubation time and pH was investigated in detail. After optimization, the developed method could detect AFB in a linear range from 20 to 800 ng/L, with the limit of detection at 12 ng/L. The recoveries for spiked maize samples ranged from 92.8% to 122.0%. The proposed immunoassay provides a promising approach for simple, rapid, specific and cost-effective detection of toxins in the field of food safety. PMID:25405511

  17. Evaluation of factors affecting the performance of enzymatic SPan-1 immunoassays for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ho, J J; Chung, Y S; Ryan, W; Henslee, J G; Kim, Y S

    1989-12-20

    An avidin-biotin complex (ABC) sandwich enzymatic immunoassay was developed utilizing SPan-1, a murine monoclonal antibody of the IgM isotype. Biotin was attached to the epsilon-amino group of lysines of SPan-1 using biotin-N-hydroxysuccinimide esters with or without a spacer (aminohexane). Addition of biotin to carbohydrates was with biotin hydrazide after periodate oxidation of the immunoglobulin. The resultant assays were compared to a sandwich radioimmunoassay and to another form of the SPan-1 enzymatic immunoassay in which oxidized horseradish peroxidase had been directly conjugated to SPan-1. Comparable antigen detection limits were obtained regardless of whether biotin was added to the peptide or carbohydrates or whether a spacer was used or not. The ABC assay had approximately the same SPan-1 antigen detection limit as the radioimmunoassay. 90.6% of the human pancreatic cancer sera tested positive in the ABC assay as compared to a previously reported 93% positive rate with a radioimmunoassay. PMID:2691579

  18. Clinicians' perspective on the use of immunoassay versus definitive laboratory quantitation methodologies for medication monitoring.

    PubMed

    McCarberg, Bill H; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Passik, Steven D

    2014-09-01

    Treating chronic pain is complicated. Primary care doctors and others are called on to treat the vast majority of patients with pain, to do so in brief visits and to do it safely. This is a tall order, but it is possible to do it well when the proper tools are employed to aid the clinician in diagnosing and monitoring the patient. Among these tools, the one that has been most useful is urine drug testing. Prescribers can perform presumptive screens with the immunoassay method in my office, but this method has limitations in accuracy and specificity and sensitivity. When medically necessary, it makes sense to seek definitive testing from the laboratory to confirm results of immunoassay tests with chromatographic testing and/or when there is the possibility of a false negative in the office. These "false negatives" are extremely common, with patients using nonprescribed opioids and illicit medications often go undetected if one were to stop at the office-based result. These patients are in danger of addiction and overdose, and this added information is crucial in efforts to treat pain and avoid these complications. PMID:25102041

  19. Highly sensitive detection of clenbuterol using competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guichi; Hu, Yongjun; Gao, Jiao; Zhong, Liang

    2011-07-01

    In this report, we present a novel approach to detect clenbuterol based on competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay. Herein, a SERS nanoprobe that relies on gold nanoparticle (GNP) is labeled by 4,4'-dipyridyl (DP) and clenbuterol antibody, respectively. The detection of clenbuterol is carried out by competitive binding between free clenbuterol and clenbuterol-BSA fastened on the substrate with their antibody labeled on SERS nanoprobes. The present method allows us to detect clenbuterol over a much wider concentration range (0.1-100 pg mL(-1)) with a lower limit of detection (ca. 0.1 pg mL(-1)) than the conventional methods. Furthermore, by the use of this new competitive SERS immunoassay, the clenbuterol-BSA (antigen) is chosen to fasten on the substrate instead of the clenbuterol antibody, which could reduce the cost of the assay. Results demonstrate that the proposed method has the wide potential applications in food safety and agonist control. PMID:21641419

  20. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2012-07-01

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases. PMID:22472132

  1. Enhanced competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the trace detection of insecticide triazophos.

    PubMed

    Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Gui, Wenjun; Shi, Xiaomei; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Guonian

    2012-05-01

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for triazophos was developed, which was based on the anti-THHe IgG monoclonal antibody and a heterogeneous enzyme tracer (THHu-HRP). Several components of chemiluminescent enhanced solution (CES) were optimized. The results showed that 1 mM of p-iodo-phenol, 0.625 mM of luminol, and 4 mM of H(2)O(2) had the best performance. Based on the study of CES, the influence of several factors (assay buffer, blocking substance, and solvent) on the immunoassay was investigated. The sensitivity for detection, IC(50) value was 0.87 ng/mL at a practical working concentration range between 0.04 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL and the limit of detection for triazophos was 0.063 ng/mL. The average recovery of triazophos added to lettuce, carrot, apple, water, and soil were 78.71%, 67.52%, 118.3%, 117.2%, and 122.0%, respectively. Finally, comparison between the methods of CLEIA and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrum (HPLC-MS/MS) was performed. The results obtained from CLEIA were in agreement with those of HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:22490114

  2. Autoantibodies against thyroid hormones and their influence on thyroxine determination with chemiluminescence immunoassay in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Michael; Hoppen, Hans-Otto

    2010-01-01

    Autoantibodies against thyroxin (T4AA) and triiodothyronine (T3AA) are present in dogs with autoimmune thyroiditis and have been reported to interfere with immunoassays. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of autoantibodies and to determine whether interference occurs by T4AA, using a non-immunological method (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) for thyroxin (T4) measurement. Based on clinical symptoms, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, 1,339 dogs were divided into six groups: Group 1: hypothyroid (n = 149); Group 2: subclinical thyroiditis (n = 110); Group 3: suspicious for non thyroidal illness (n = 691); Group 4: biochemical euthyroid (n = 138); Group 5: hypothyroid dogs under substitution therapy (n = 141); Group 6: healthy dogs (n = 110). The incidence of T4AA and T3AA, determined using radiometric assay, was low (0.5% and 3.8%) and higher in hypothyroid dogs compared to dogs suspicious for hypothyroidism (Group 2-4) (p<0.05). T4AA was not detected in dogs with normal T4 and elevated TSH. T4 concentrations of T4AA positive samples determined using HPLC were comparable to results obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay. These findings indicate that the probability of interference of T4AA leading to falsely elevated T4 concentration in the T4 assay seems to be low. PMID:20706025

  3. Rapid screening of aflatoxin B1 in beer by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N V; Eremin, S A

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript describes the development of a sensitive, fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in various beer samples, both lager and dark. The highest sensitivity was determined for six poly- and monoclonal antibodies selective towards aflatoxins. The sample pretreatment design was emphasized since beer samples are characterized by extremely diverse matrices. Herein, the choice of sorbent for effective removal of matrix interferences prior to analysis was crucial. The samples were diluted with a borate buffer solution containing 1% PEG 6000 and passed through the clean-up column packed with NH2-derivated silica. This sample pretreatment technique was perfectly suitable for the FPIA of lager beer samples, but for dark beer and ale it did not suffice. An artificial matrix was constructed to plot a calibration curve and quantify the results of the latter samples. The developed immunoassay was characterized by a limit of detection of 1ngmL(-1). Apparent recovery values of 89-114% for lager and 80-125% for dark beer were established. The FPIA data for AFB1 was characterized by elevated linear regression coefficients, 0.9953 for spiked lager and 0.9895 for dark beer samples respectively. PMID:26003708

  4. Multi-analyte homogenous immunoassay based on quenching of quantum dots by functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Anfossi, L; Calza, P; Sordello, F; Giovannoli, C; Di Nardo, F; Passini, C; Cerruti, M; Goryacheva, I Y; Speranskaya, E S; Baggiani, C

    2014-08-01

    We propose a homogenous multi-analyte immunoassay based on the quenching of quantum dot (QD) fluorescence by means of graphene. Two QDs with emission maxima at 636 and 607 nm were bound to antibodies selective for mouse or chicken immunoglobulins, respectively, and graphene functionalized with carboxylic moieties was employed to covalently link the respective antigen. The antibody-antigen interaction led graphene close enough to QDs to quench the QD fluorescence by resonance energy transfer. The addition of free antigens that competed with those linked to graphene acted as a "turn-on" effect on QD fluorescence. Fluorescence emitted by the two QDs could be recorded simultaneously since the QDs emitted light at different wavelengths while being excited at the same wavelength and proved to be linearly correlated with free antigen concentration. The developed assay allows measuring both antigens over 2-3 orders of magnitude and showed estimated limits of detection in the nanomolar range. This approach is thus a promising universal strategy to develop homogenous immunoassays for diverse antigens (cells, proteins, low-molecular-mass analytes) in a multi-analyte configuration. PMID:24848118

  5. A stacking flow immunoassay for the detection of dengue-specific immunoglobulins in salivary fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-03-21

    Paper-based immunoassays, usually in the form of lateral flow tests, are currently the standard platform for home diagnostics. However, conventional lateral tests are often complicated by severe non-specific adsorption of detector particles when applied to test samples containing salivary fluid. It is believed that a high concentration of proteinaceous substances in salivary fluid causes particle aggregation and adhesion. In this study, we developed a stacking flow platform for single-step detection of a target antibody in salivary fluid. Stacking flow circumvents the need for separate sample pre-treatments, such as filtration or centrifugation, which are often required prior to testing saliva samples using paper-based immunoassays. This is achieved by guiding the samples and reagents to the test strip through different paths. By doing so, salivary substances that interfere with the particle-based sensing system are removed before they come into contact with the detection reagents, which greatly reduces the background. In addition, the stacking flow configuration enables uniform flow with a unique flow regulator, which leads to even test lines with good quantification capability, enabling the detection of ~20 ng mL(-1) ?-fetoprotein in the serum. We have successfully applied the stacking flow device to detect dengue-specific immunoglobulins that are present in salivary fluid. PMID:25608951

  6. A reusable biosensor chip for SERS-fluorescence dual mode immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Fan, Kequan; Zong, Shenfei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    Research continues in an effort to develop a versatile platform for clinical diagnosis with easy operation and low cost. In the present study, a biosensor chip has been designed and fabricated for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)- fluorescence dual mode immunoassay. Here, a dual channel microfluidic chip was employed for simultaneous SERS and fluorescence detection. Unlike previously reported microfluidic immunoassays using fluorescence or SERS method independently, the proposed dual mode biosensor combined the advantages of these two optical detection techniques. The fluorescence mode can be used for fast screening of biomolecules while the SERS mode can be employed for accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis. In addition, the chip-based microfluidic platform greatly reduced the reagents cost and complicated operation. The whole detection process from sample preparation to optical detection can be finished in 90 min. Moreover, the reversibly bonded biosensor chip could be reused after cleaning, which further reduced the cost for each assay. All these merits make it a potential powerful tool for practical clinical diagnosis.

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE: Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio

    2007-12-01

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles.

  8. Detection of inflammatory cytokines using a fiber optic microsphere immunoassay array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2006-10-01

    A multiplexed fiber optic microsphere-based immunoassay array capable of simultaneously measuring five inflammatory cytokines has been developed. Five groups of amine-functionalized 3.1 micron microspheres were internally encoded with five distinct concentrations of a europium dye and converted to cytokine probes by covalently coupling monoclonal capture antibodies specific for human VEGF, IFN-gamma, RANTES, IP-10, and Eotaxin-3 to the microspheres via glutaraldehyde chemistry. The microspheres were pooled and loaded into a 1 mm diameter fiber optic bundle containing ~50,000 individual etched microwells, producing the multiplexed cytokine immunoassay array. Multiple arrays can be created from a single microsphere pool for high throughput sample analysis. Sandwich fluoroimmunoassays were performed by incubating the probe array in a sample, followed by incubation in a mixture of biotin-labeled detection antibodies that are complementary to the five cytokines. Finally, universal detection of each protein was performed using a fluorescence imaging system after briefly immersing the array in a solution of fluorophore-labeled streptavidin. The multiplexed cytokine array has been shown to respond selectively to VEGF, IFNgamma, RANTES, IP-10, and Eotaxin-3, permitting multiplexed quantitative analysis. Ultimately, the multiplexed cytokine array will be utilized to evaluate the potential of using saliva as a noninvasive diagnostic fluid for pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as asthma.

  9. Accelerated immunoassays based on magnetic particle dynamics in a rotating capillary tube with stationary magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Tae; Sudheendra, L.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and simple magnetic particle-based immunoassay has been demonstrated in a capillary mixing system. Antibody-coated micrometer size super-paramagnetic polystyrene (SPP) particles were used in an assay for rabbit IgG in a sandwich (non-competitive) format. The kinetics of the assay was compared between a plate – based system and a single capillary tube. The interaction between the antigen (R-IgG) and the antibody (anti-R-IgG) that was carried by the SPP particles in a rotating capillary was tested under a stationary magnetic field. Competing magnetic and viscous drag forces helped to enhance the interaction between the analyte and the capture antibodies on the particles. The dimensionless Mason number (Mn) was employed to characterize the magnetic particle dynamics – a previously determined critical Mason number (Mnc) was employed as a guide to the appropriate experimental conditions of magnetic field strength and rotational speed of the capillary. The advantage of the rotating capillary system included a short assay time and a reduced reactive volume (20?l). The results show that the immunoassay kinetics were improved by the formation of chains of the SPP particles for the conditions that corresponded to the critical Mason number. PMID:22931580

  10. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food...and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit...

  11. 72 FR 44560 - Guidance for Industry: Adequate and Appropriate Donor Screening Tests for Hepatitis B; Hepatitis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-08-08

    ...Adequate and Appropriate Donor Screening Tests for Hepatitis B; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Assays Used to Test Donors of Whole...Adequate and Appropriate Donor Screening Tests for Hepatitis B; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)...

  12. 76 FR 44013 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...for Use in Screening Donors of Source Plasma; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...for Use in Screening Donors of Source Plasma'' dated July 2011. The draft guidance...recommendations for collecting Source Plasma donor history information. The...

  13. Infectious disease markers in blood donors in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mundee, Y; Kamtorn, N; Chaiyaphruk, S; Nantachit, N; Ness, P M; Nelson, K E

    1995-03-01

    A major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections has developed in Thailand since 1988. The blood banks in Chiang Mai began screening donors for HIV-1 antibodies in February 1988 and for p24 antigen in April 1992. The trends of HIV-1 antibody prevalence were analyzed by type of donor (i.e., paid, replacement, and voluntary) for the period of 1988 through 1993. In addition, the prevalence of HIV-1 p24 antigen and of antibodies to syphilis, hepatitis B surface antigen, and hepatitis C virus was evaluated among blood donors at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Thai Red Cross blood banks in Chiang Mai. The prevalence of HIV-1 antibodies in donor sera increased from 0.84% in 1988 to 3.23% in 1989. It continued to increase in subsequent years, reaching a maximum of 4.04% in 1991; the prevalence declined slightly in 1992 and 1993. In the first year of screening, the prevalence of HIV antibodies was highest in paid professional donors. The use of paid donors was discontinued on July 1, 1992, largely because of their high rates of HIV seropositivity. This action lowered the prevalence of HIV infection in the overall donor population in 1992 to 3.61%, from the peak of 4.04% in 1991. Antibody prevalence in replacement donors increased from 0.56% in 1988 to 5.82% in 1991. Screening for p24 antigen, introduced on April 29, 1992, identified 48 infected donors (among the 44,446 donors tested in 1992 and 1993) who were HIV p24 antigen positive. Altogether, 7 (0.016%) donors tested repeatedly reactive for p24 antigen, had positive p24 antigen neutralization tests, and were negative for antibodies to HIV. The exclusion of paid donors and the use of p24 antigen testing are justified in northern Thailand. Additional strategies to exclude donors at very high risk and to attract those at low risk for infection should be developed. PMID:7878721

  14. Personality of semen donors and their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Taus, L; Gerzová, J

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined, using three generally accepted methods, the personality structure of 80 semen donors (Cattell's 16-factor questionnaire, 16PF, Eysenck's personality questionnaire, EOD, and Leary's method of interpersonal diagnosis of personality). The donors were selected by means of the Questionnaire of semen donors. The group is subdivided into four sub-groups by the grade of education, i.e. university graduates, men with secondary and elementary education and university students. All are 20-40 years old. The authors describe the assembled results in different sub-groups and in the group as a whole and compare them mutually and with the standardized norm. With regard to the specificity of individual methods and their application the findings are summarized. The donors are balanced personalities, slightly extrovert, emotionally well developed with a realistic outlook. They have positive, sensitive relations with their environment an behaviour towards other people, they are considerate, careful and disciplined. They respect social norms as regards preservation of originality of personality. They have a slight tendency of sheltering behaviour, they wish to be somewhat more aggressive. No pathological phenomena were observed in the donors. Their intelligence is above average. They make a favourable impression with regard to the demand of mental health and transmission of genetic information. The authors evaluate favourably the Questionnaire for semen donors as the method for selection of donors. PMID:1807935

  15. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy: Decreasing Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ari J.; Williams, Darin S.; Bohorquez, Humberto; Bruce, David S.; Carmody, Ian C.; Reichman, Trevor; Loss, George E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of robotic operations performed with the da Vinci Surgical System has increased during the past decade. This system allows for greater maneuverability and control than hand-assisted laparoscopic procedures, resulting in less tissue manipulation and irritation. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the results of 100 consecutive robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies and compared them to our most recent 20 hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. Results Between May 2008 and June 2012, 120 laparoscopic donor nephrectomies were performed at Ochsner Clinic Foundation. Of those, 100 live kidney donors underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. Surgical time and hospital length of stay improved after the first 20 patients receiving robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomies, which was considered the learning curve. Sixty percent of patients who underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies were released on postoperative day 1 compared to 45% of patients who underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic techniques. Conclusion In our experience, robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy resulted in decreased postoperative length of stay that decreased the global cost of the procedure and allowed our institution to admit more patients. PMID:25829876

  16. Progress in donor assisted coal liquefaction: Hydroaromatic compound formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kottenstette, R.J.; Stephens, H.P.

    1993-12-31

    The role of hydrogen donor compounds in coal liquefaction has been extensively investigated since the mid 1960`s using model compounds and process derived hydrogen donor solvents. Our recent research and that of other investigators have shown that two model compounds in particular have great efficacy in solvating low rank coals. 1,2,3,10b tetrahydrofluoranthene (H{sub 4}Fl) and 1,2,3,6,7,8 hexahydropyrene (H{sub 6}Py) have been used to dissolve Wyodak coal to > 95% soluble material as measured by tetrahydrofuran (THF). Although these hydrogen donors are very effective, they may not be found in any significant concentrations in actual liquefaction process recycle solvents. Therefore, studies with process derived recycle materials are necessary to understand donor solvent chemistry. The objective of this paper is to present results of solvent hydrogenation experiments using heavy distillate solvents produced during testing at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility. We evaluated the impact of hydrogenation conditions upon hydrogen donor formation in process derived distillates and compared these process derived solvents with the highly effective H{sub 4}Fl and H{sub 6}Py donors in coal liquefaction tests. This paper presents data on reaction conditions used for distillate hydrotreating and subsequent coal liquefaction, with an aim toward understanding the relationship between reaction conditions and donor solvent quality in recycle distillates.

  17. Identifying Potential Kidney Donors Using Social Networking Websites

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E.; Turner, Hang T.; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H.; Grams, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion, and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2–69); 88% were U.S. residents. Other posted information included the individual’s photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation. PMID:23600791

  18. Long-term medical risks to the living kidney donor.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ngan N; Lentine, Krista L; Levey, Andrew S; Kasiske, Bertram L; Garg, Amit X

    2015-07-01

    Living kidney donation benefits recipients and society but carries short-term and long-term risks for the donor. This Review summarizes the studies that underlie our current understanding of these risks in the first decade after donation, with a view to improving the informed consent process. Two studies report a higher risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among donors than among healthy nondonors; however, the absolute 15-year incidence of ESRD is <1%. All-cause mortality and the risk of cardiovascular events are similar among donors and healthy nondonors, although one study provides evidence for a 5% increase in all-cause mortality after 25 years that is attributable to donation. Some evidence suggests that the 20-year incidence of gout is slightly higher among donors than among healthy nondonors. The risks of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia seem to be 6% higher in pregnancies among donors than in pregnancies among healthy nondonors. The incidences of acute kidney injury, kidney stones that require surgical intervention, gastrointestinal bleeding and fractures seem no higher among donors than among healthy nondonors, although some of these conclusions are based on a small number of events. Future studies must clarify the lifetime incidence of long-term outcomes, particularly in relation to a donor's age, race, and history of comorbidities. PMID:25941060

  19. Anonymous semen donor recruitment without reimbursement in Canada.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Alfonso P; Bradley, Leanne; Said, Tamer

    2008-01-01

    A previous review of 22 studies from eight countries, conducted between 1980 and 2003, concluded that semen donors who are older, married or are fathers are less likely to be financially motivated. Despite the Assisted Human Reproduction Act coming into force in 2004, no data originating from Canada have been published on this topic. The objective of this study was to validate these findings in the Canadian population within the context of an anonymous semen donor programme in Canada. A survey of 301 donor applicants was conducted to collect demographic data including age, marital status, paternity status and occupation, in addition to information assessing donor eligibility and willingness to donate without reimbursement. Eligible candidates were screened to determine their acceptance or exclusion from the semen donor programme. The results showed that the relationships found between donor applicant demographics and their willingness to participate without reimbursement do not appear to be consistent with earlier published studies in various countries. Further screening resulted in a recruitment rate of less than 1%. Additional studies will be required to investigate the feasibility of altruistic semen donation programmes in Canada, and to determine the potential impact of these findings on Canadians who rely on donor gamete services to build their families. PMID:18644218

  20. DETECTION OF HEAVY METALS BY IMMUNOASSAY: OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION OF A RAPID, PORTABLE ASSAY FOR IONIC CADMIUM (R824029)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoassay is described that measured Cd(II) in aqueous samples at concentrations from approximately 7 to 500 ppb. The assay utilized a monoclonal antibody that bound tightly to a cadmium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex but not to metal-free EDTA...

  1. Strip-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in agricultural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A semiquantitative strip immunoassay was developed for the rapid detection of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in agricultural products using specific nanocolloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies. The conjugates of imidacloprid-BSA and thiamethoxam-BSA and goat anti-mouse IgG were coated on the ni...

  2. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip-based immunoassay with multiple reaction zones: Toward on-chip multiplex detection platform

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhaohui; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-09-20

    In this work, a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip-based immuno-sensing platform with integrated pneumatic micro valves is described. The microchip was fabricated with multiple layer soft lithography technology. By controlling the activation status of corresponding valves, reagent flows in the microchannel network can be well manipulated so that immuno-reactions only take place at designated reaction zones (DRZs). Four DRZs are included in the prototype microchip. Since these DRZs are all isolated from each other by micro valves, cross contamination is prevented. Using the inner surface of the all-PDMS microchannel as immunoassay substrate, on-chip sandwich format solid phase immunoassay was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this immuno-sensing platform. Mouse IgG and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as the model analyte and the signal reporter respectively. Only 10 ul sample is needed for the assay and low detection limit of 5 ng/ml (?33 pM) was achieved though low-cost polyclonal antibodies were used in our experiment for feasibility study only. The encouraging results from mouse IgG immunoassay proved the feasibility of our microchip design. With slight modification of the assay protocol, the same chip design can be used for multi-target detection and can provide a simple, cost-effective and integrated microchip solution for multiplex immunoassay applications.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD MATRICES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, and soil samples. The assay was rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit of det...

  4. An Immunoassay for Dibutyl Phthalate Based on Direct Hapten Linkage to the Polystyrene Surface of Microtiter Plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenxi Wei; Shumao Ding; Huihui You; Yaran Zhang; Yao Wang; Xu Yang; Junlin Yuan

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundDibutyl phthalate (DBP) is predominantly used as a plasticizer inplastics to make them flexible. Extensive use of phthalates in both industrial processes and other consumer products has resulted in the ubiquitous presence of phthalates in the environment. In order to better determine the level of pollution in the environment and evaluate the potential adverse effects of exposure to DBP, immunoassay

  5. DNA Labeling Generates a Unique Amplification Probe for Sensitive Photoelectrochemical Immunoassay of HIV-1 p24 Antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Han, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay is an attractive methodology as it allows for an elegant and sensitive protein assay. However, advanced PEC immunoassay remains challenging and the established amplifications rely almost exclusively on the labeling of various enzymes, which usually suffer the inferior stabilities. Here we report the development and validation of the DNA labeling that leads to a unique amplification probe for the sensitive PEC immunoassay of HIV-1 capsid protein, p24 antigen, an important biomarker of human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Following the sandwich immunobinding, the DNA tags could be released and the subsequent dipurinization of the oligonucleotide strands enables the easy oxidation of free nucleobases at a CdTe quantum dots (QDs) modified ITO transducer. Such DNA tags induced PEC amplification and readout permits the exquisite assay of HIV-1 p24 antigen with high sensitivity. As compared to the existing method of enzymatic labeling, the easy preparation and stability of these labels make them very suitable for PEC amplification. Another merit of this method is that it separates the immunobinding from the PEC transducer, which eliminates the commonly existing affection during the biorecognition processes. This work paves a new route for the PEC immunoassay of HIV-1 p24 antigen and provides a general format for the PEC biomolecular detection by means of the DNA labeling. PMID:25981906

  6. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine on the ADVIA Centaur immunoassay system: A multicenter assessment of analytical performance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    prevalence of 13% in France [1]. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement is the most common test and thyroid hormone measurements remain a concern for the application of clinical practice guidelinesThyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine on the ADVIA Centaur immunoassay system

  7. Development of a Rapid and Sensitive Immunoassay for Detection and Subsequent Recovery of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus anthracis is considered a major threat as an agent of bioterrorism. B. anthracis spores are readily dispersed as aerosols, are very persistent, and are resistant to normal disinfection treatments. Immunoassays have been developed to rapidly detect B. anthracis spores at high concentration...

  8. Lateral-flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol with two indicator ranges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Yu. Kolosova; Liberty Sibanda; Frédéric Dumoulin; Janet Lewis; Etienne Duveiller; Carlos Van Peteghem; Sarah De Saeger

    2008-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay using a colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol (DON). Different parameters, such as the amount of immunoreagents, type of the materials, composition of the blocking solution and of the detector reagent mixture, were investigated to provide the optimum assay performance. The experimental results demonstrated that such a visual test had an

  9. Inference of Nonlinear State-Space Models for Sandwich-Type Lateral Flow Immunoassay Using Extended Kalman Filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nianyin Zeng; Zidong Wang; Yurong Li; Min Du; Xiaohui Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for sandwich- type lateral flow immunoassay is developed via short available time series. A nonlinear dynamic stochastic model is considered that consists of the biochemical reaction system equations and the observation equation. After specifying the model structure, we ap- ply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm for identifying both the states and parameters of

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF TRICLOSAN IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay for triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The triclosan ligand and horse radis...

  11. Signal amplification by adsorption-induced catalytic reduction of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for electrochemiluminescent immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shengyuan; Hou, Zhentao; Lei, Jianping; Lin, Dajie; Hu, Zheng; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2011-11-28

    A signal amplification strategy was proposed for quantum dot-based electrochemiluminescence by an adsorption-induced catalytic reduction of dissolved oxygen at the sidewall of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, which led to a 'signal-on' sandwich immunoassay with a linear range of 6 orders of magnitude. PMID:22006261

  12. Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the quantitation of salivary antibody responses to selected waterborne pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saliva has an important advantage over serum as a medium for antibody detection due to non-invasive sampling, which is critical for community-based epidemiological surveys. The development of a Luminex multiplex immunoassay for measurement of salivary IgG and IgA responses to pot...

  13. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  14. Development of a rapid and sensitive immunoassay for detection and subsequent recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores in environmental samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Hang; Appavu K. Sundaram; Peixuan Zhu; Daniel R. Shelton; Jeffrey S. Karns; Phyllis A. W. Martin; Shuhong Li; Platte Amstutz; Cha-Mei Tang

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is considered a major threat as an agent of bioterrorism. B. anthracis spores are readily dispersed as aerosols, are very persistent, and are resistant to normal disinfection treatments. Immunoassays have been developed to rapidly detect B. anthracis spores at high concentrations. However, detection of B. anthracis spores at lower concentrations is problematic due to the fact that closely

  15. Homogeneous fluorescence-based immunoassay via inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles on fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiang; Liu, Mei; Li, Baoxin

    2012-07-21

    Homogeneous immunoassays are becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because they are superior to heterogeneous immunoassays in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the inner filter effect (IFE) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on CdTe QDs fluorescence. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the IFE of AuNPs on CdTe QDs fluorescence is greatly enhanced, resulting in a decrease of fluorescence intensity in the system. Based on this phenomenon, a wide dynamic range of 1-100 pg mL(-1) for determination of IgG can be obtained. The proposed method shows a detection limit of 0.3 pg mL(-1) for human IgG, which is much lower than the corresponding absorbance-based approach and compares favorably with other reported fluorescent methods. This immunoassay method is simple, rapid, cheap, and sensitive. The proposed method has been successfully applied to measuring IgG in serum samples, and the obtained results agreed well with those of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:22655288

  16. Application of computer-assisted molecular modeling (CAMM) for immunoassay of low molecular weight food contaminants: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassay for low molecular weight food contaminants, such as pesticides, veterinary drugs, and mycotoxins is now a well-established technique which meets the demands for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective analytical method. However, due to limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of i...

  17. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  18. Living Donor Liver Transplant is a Transparent Activity in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subash

    2013-03-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) has progressed rapidly in India with at least two major centers performing over 200 transplants annually. There have been concerns regarding donor safety as donor deaths have been reported worldwide. In India, there is a possible underreporting of donor complications and mortality leading to the allegation that LDLT is a clandestine activity. Deceased donor liver transplantation activity may be less transparent as there are no national guidelines for retrieval and allocation of organs. LDLT is for a named person and as the activity can only be conducted in major hospitals with involvement of over 100 medical personnel in each operation, it cannot be a clandestine operation. Government regulations require licensing of hospitals following inspection by senior doctors and reporting of transplant activity periodically. About 2500 living donor liver transplants have been conducted in India and there have been 7 donor deaths reported in India. Rather than not being transparent, donor morbidity and mortality has received excessive media attention. Most liver transplant activity in India is well organized with clearance from hepatologists and anesthetists. Unrelated donation needs to be cleared from a State appointed Authorization Committee. Foreigners cannot be transplanted without State clearance and approval of the concerned embassy. The donor risk is discussed and the success of the recipient operation is also explained to all patients. The ever-increasing popularity of the operation in spite of the high cost and the requirement for donation from a family member suggests that many patients are living healthy life after transplantation. Overall LDLT is a transparent activity in India. PMID:25755472

  19. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end???stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long???term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to donate on socially acceptable norms rather than informed consent as understood in modern medicine. PMID:24935278

  20. Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in ?-Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, J. B.; Weber, J. R.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2010-10-01

    Using hybrid functionals we have investigated the role of oxygen vacancies and various impurities in the electrical and optical properties of the transparent conducting oxide ?-Ga2O3. We find that oxygen vacancies are deep donors, and thus cannot explain the unintentional n-type conductivity. Instead, we attribute the conductivity to common background impurities such as silicon and hydrogen. Monatomic hydrogen has low formation energies and acts as a shallow donor in both interstitial and substitutional configurations. We also explore other dopants, where substitutional forms of Si, Ge, Sn, F, and Cl are shown to behave as shallow donors.

  1. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences. PMID:24141358

  2. Shallow-donor lasers in uniaxially stressed silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalevsky, K. A., E-mail: atan4@yandex.ru; Zhukavin, R. Kh.; Tsyplenkov, V. V.; Shastin, V. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H. [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth (Germany); Pavlov, S. G.; Huebers, H.-W. [DLR, Institute of Planetary Research (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The effects of the terahertz-stimulated emission of Group-V donors (phosphorus, antimony, arsenic, bismuth) in uniaxially stressed silicon, excited by CO{sub 2} laser radiation are experimentally studied. It is shown that uniaxial compressive stress of the crystal along the [100] direction increases the gain and efficiency of stimulated radiation, significantly decreasing the threshold pump intensity. The donor frequencies are measured and active transitions are identified in stressed silicon. The dependence of the residual population of active donor states on the uniaxial compressive stress along the [100] direction is theoretically estimated.

  3. Association between CYP3A5 genotypes in graft liver and increase in tacrolimus biotransformation from steroid treatment in living-donor liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Hosohata, Keiko; Uesugi, Miwa; Hashi, Sachiyo; Hosokawa, Mio; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Ogawa, Kohei; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji; Masuda, Satohiro

    2014-01-01

      We retrospectively examined whether cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 genotypes are associated with high-dose steroid pulse treatment-induced functional gain of tacrolimus biotransformation in living-donor liver transplant patients. Concentrations of tacrolimus and its 3 primary metabolites, 13-O-demethyl tacrolimus (M-I), 31-O-demethyl tacrolimus (M-II), and 15-O-demethyl tacrolimus (M-III), were measured in trough blood samples from 18 liver transplant patients, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In patients engrafted with a CYP3A5*1-carrying liver but not with a CYP3A5*3/*3-carrying liver, the concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus significantly fell after therapy, while ratios of M-I/tacrolimus, M-II/tacrolimus, and M-III/tacrolimus were significantly higher after therapy than before (p = 0.032, p = 0.023, and p = 0.0078, respectively). After steroid pulse therapy, the concentration of tacrolimus measured by immunoassay was significantly higher than that measured by LC-MS/MS in patients engrafted with a CYP3A5*1-carrying liver, but not those engrafted with a CYP3A5*3/*3-carrying liver. This suggests that the increased ratio of tacrolimus metabolites/tacrolimus can be explained by induction of CYP3A5 via high-dose steroid pulse therapy. Further, the concentrations of tacrolimus measured by the immunoassays were overestimated, partly because of cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody they incorporated to detect tacrolimus, with the increased metabolites in patients with a CYP3A5*1-carrying graft liver. PMID:23955548

  4. Differentiation of Classical Swine Fever Virus Infection from CP7_E2alf Marker Vaccination by a Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Blome, Sandra; Widén, Frederik; Beer, Martin; Belák, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs that has a tremendous socioeconomic impact. Vaccines are available for disease control. However, most industrialized countries are implementing stamping-out strategies to eliminate the disease and avoid trade restrictions. These restrictions can be avoided through the use of marker vaccines such as CP7_E2alf. Marker vaccines have to be accompanied by reliable and robust discriminatory assays. In this context, a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was developed to distinguish CSF virus (CSFV)-infected animals from CP7_E2alf-vaccinated animals. To this end, three viral proteins, namely, CSFV E2, CSFV Erns, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2, were produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system; they were used as antigens in a microsphere immunoassay, which was further evaluated by testing a large panel of pig sera and compared to a well-characterized commercial CSFV E2 antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a test version of an improved CSFV Erns antibody ELISA. Under a cutoff median fluorescence intensity value of 5,522, the multiplex microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.9% for the detection of antibodies against CSFV E2. The microsphere immunoassay and the CSFV Erns ELISA gave the same results for 155 out of 187 samples (82.8%) for the presence of CSFV Erns antibodies. This novel multiplex immunoassay is a valuable tool for measuring and differentiating immune responses to vaccination and/or infection in animals. PMID:25378351

  5. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    PubMed Central

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know. PMID:25489130

  6. High precision quantum control of single donor spins in silicon

    E-print Network

    Rajib Rahman; Cameron J. Wellard; Forrest R. Bradbury; Marta Prada; Jared H. Cole; Gerhard Klimeck; Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg

    2007-05-15

    The Stark shift of the hyperfine coupling constant is investigated for a P donor in Si far below the ionization regime in the presence of interfaces using Tight-binding and Band Minima Basis approaches and compared to the recent precision measurements. The TB electronic structure calculations included over 3 million atoms. In contrast to previous effective mass based results, the quadratic Stark coefficient obtained from both theories agrees closely with the experiments. This work represents the most sensitive and precise comparison between theory and experiment for single donor spin control. It is also shown that there is a significant linear Stark effect for an impurity near the interface, whereas, far from the interface, the quadratic Stark effect dominates. Such precise control of single donor spin states is required particularly in quantum computing applications of single donor electronics, which forms the driving motivation of this work.

  7. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Plasmapheresis donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.63, excluding the phrase “other than malaria” in paragraph (c) (9) of that section. Informed consent shall be required as prescribed in § 640.61. [42 FR...

  8. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Plasmapheresis donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.63, excluding the phrase “other than malaria” in paragraph (c) (9) of that section. Informed consent shall be required as prescribed in § 640.61. [42 FR...

  9. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Plasmapheresis donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.63, excluding the phrase “other than malaria” in paragraph (c) (9) of that section. Informed consent shall be required as prescribed in § 640.61. [42 FR...

  10. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Plasmapheresis donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.63, excluding the phrase “other than malaria” in paragraph (c) (9) of that section. Informed consent shall be required as prescribed in § 640.61. [42 FR...

  11. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Plasmapheresis donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.63, excluding the phrase “other than malaria” in paragraph (c) (9) of that section. Informed consent shall be required as prescribed in § 640.61. [42 FR...

  12. Implementation of a mandatory donor RHD screening in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Crottet, Sofia Lejon; Henny, Christine; Meyer, Stefan; Still, Franziska; Stolz, Martin; Gottschalk, Jochen; Neuenschwander, Kathrin; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Gowland, Peter; Frey, Beat M; Fontana, Stefano; Hustinx, Hein; Niederhauser, Christoph; Gassner, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Starting in 2013, blood donors must be tested at least using: (1) one monoclonal anti-D and one anti-CDE (alternatively full RhCcEe phenotyping), and (2) all RhD negative donors must be tested for RHD exons 5 and 10 plus one further exonic, or intronic RHD specificity, according to the guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross (BTS SRC). In 2012 an adequate stock of RHD screened donors was built. Of all 25,370 RhD negative Swiss donors tested in 2012, 20,015 tested at BTS Berne and 5355 at BTS Zürich, showed 120 (0.47%) RHD positivity. Thirty-seven (0.15%) had to be redefined as RhD positive. Routine molecular RHD screening is reliable, rapid and cost-effective and provides safer RBC units in Switzerland. PMID:24679597

  13. Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, jianfeng [Washington State University, Pullman; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Selim, F. A. [Washington State University, Pullman

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature thermo-luminescence (TL) was applied to measurements of the ionization energy of donors in ZnO. Three hydrogen-related donors were characterized with ionization energies of 36, 47 and 55 meV - values that are in complete agreement with previous reports. The donor types can be switched by relevant thermal treatments. These measurements also revealed the presence of two distinct sources for the green luminescence in ZnO. This work indicates that TL can be used to measure the donor energies in luminescent semiconductors. This approach can be particularly useful for thin-film investigations when the results of Hall-effect measurements are obscured by contributions from conductive interfaces or substrates.

  14. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial

    E-print Network

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial Abstract Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem bound- aries and subsidize predators in recipient

  15. The ethical limits in expanding living donor transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2006-06-01

    The past decade has witnessed the emergence of novel methods to increase the number of living donors. Although such programs are not likely to yield high volumes of organs, some transplant centers have gone to great lengths to establish one or more of them. I discuss some of the ethical and policy issues raised by five such programs: (1) living-paired and cascade exchanges; (2) unbalanced living-paired exchanges; (3) list-paired exchanges; (4) nondirected donors; and (5) nondirected donors catalyzing cascade exchanges. I argue that living-paired and cascade exchanges are ethically sound, but will lead to only a few additional transplants. Unbalanced exchanges and list-paired exchanges raise ethical issues that should limit their permissibility. Nondirected donations can be ethically sound with adherence to strict eligibility criteria and fair allocation procedures. Nondirected donors catalyzing cascade exchanges can be ethically sound provided that individuals with blood types O and B are not made worse off. PMID:17036445

  16. Donor lung pathology: correlation with outcome of transplanted contralateral lung.

    PubMed

    Husain, A N; Hinkamp, T J

    1993-01-01

    To compare clinical results of single lung transplantation with pretransplantation pathology, we reviewed 15 human lungs from 12 donors, which clinically satisfied donor lung criteria but were not transplanted. In nine of these cases the contralateral lung was transplanted. Seven of these nine unused lungs showed mild pathologic changes, including emphysema, focal fibrosis, and old and recent hemorrhage, which had no impact on the outcome of the transplanted contralateral lung. One case had moderate generalized emphysema, which also did not affect the outcome because the other lung was given to a patient with severe emphysema. One donor lung showed severe overinflation artifact, which we think contributed to the early graft failure in a patient with primary pulmonary hypertension. We conclude that, despite satisfying standard donor lung criteria, many lungs have abnormal pathology. This may impact both short- and long-term survival. PMID:8312318

  17. Pressure dependence of donor excitation spectra in AlSb

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.; McCluskey, M.D.; Haller, E.E.

    2002-01-16

    We have investigated the behavior of ground to bound excited-state electronic transitions of Se and Te donors in AlSb as a function of hydrostatic pressure. Using broadband far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, we observe qualitatively different behaviors of the electronic transition energies of the two donors. While the pressure derivative of the Te transition energy is small and constant, as might be expected for a shallow donor, the pressure derivatives of the Se transition energies are quadratic and large at low pressures, indicating that Se is actually a deep donor. In addition, at pressures between 30 and 50 kbar, we observe evidence of an anti-crossing between one of the selenium electronic transitions and a two-phonon mode.

  18. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-09-02

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  19. One-year morbidity after donor right hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Rudow, Dianne Lapointe; Brown, Robert S; Emond, Jean C; Marratta, Douglas; Bellemare, Sarah; Kinkhabwala, Milan

    2004-11-01

    Live donors are becoming an increasingly important source of donor organs in liver transplantation; however, long-term functional aspects of recovery from donor right hepatectomy are unknown. We analyzed donor outcomes at 1-year follow-up. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of 70 right hepatectomy donors. Six-week and 1-year postoperative follow-up results were compared to preoperative baseline values. Ultrasonography was performed in all donors at 6 weeks and as clinically indicated. All donors were alive and well at the end of the study period. Of 66 right hepatic donors, only 22 (32%) were fully compliant with a 1-year follow-up visit. All those not compliant were contacted by phone. All complications except 1 (late finding of portal vein thrombosis) occurred in the perioperative (90-day) period. The incidence of bile leak was 4.3%, incisional hernia 20%, and autologous transfusion 1.0%. There were no aborted procedures. In those compliant with full 1-year follow-up, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were normal in 97%. A total of 5 donors were noted to have persistence of asymptomatic thrombocytopenia beyond the perioperative period (90 days). These were investigated with Doppler sonography. Sonography was unremarkable in 3 of the 5, while 2 had abnormal findings: splenomegaly alone in 1, and splenomegaly with portal vein thrombosis in the other. Magnetic resonance angiography was performed in both, and the patient with portal vein thrombosis underwent endoscopy, which failed to reveal varices. Neither has clinical portal hypertension. Both remain asymptomatic albeit with stable thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, the majority of complications after donor right hepatectomy occur in the perioperative period. Later findings may include asymptomatic thrombocytopenia, with an incidence possibly as high as 23%, though the significance of this finding remains uncertain. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the true incidence and clinical significance of persistent thrombocytopenia in the donor hepatectomy population. Strategies to improve compliance with 1-year follow-up visits need to be developed. PMID:15497145

  20. Improvement of an enzyme immunoassay for the determination of mercury (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, A.; Kroetz, E.; Hock, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Dept. of Botany

    1998-07-01

    Three systems were tested for the optimization of a heterogeneous noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the determination of Hg (II). The sensitivity of the nonoptimized Hg-EIA with a detection limit of 2.1 {micro}g/L Hg (II) was improved by an avidin-biotin-complex (ABC) amplification system to a 2-fold lower detection limit (1.1 {micro}g/L Hg (II)). A conventional competitive EIA with the competition reaction between bound and free Hg (II) for antibody (ab) binding sites yielded a detection limit of 1.0 {micro}g/L Hg (II). Further improvement of sensitivity could be achieved by a competitive displacement EIA. In this case ab molecules bound to immobilized haptens are displaced in the next step by free Hg (II). The detection limit of the displacement approach is 0.4 {micro}g/L Hg (II).