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1

Cortical Regulation of Dopamine Depletion-Induced Dendritic Spine Loss in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons  

PubMed Central

The proximate cause of Parkinson’s Disease is striatal dopamine depletion. Although no overt toxicity to striatal neurons has been reported in Parkinson’s Disease, one of the consequences of striatal dopamine loss is a decrease in the number of dendritic spines on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Dendrites of these neurons receive cortical glutamatergic inputs onto the dendritic spine head and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra onto the spine neck. This synaptic arrangement suggests that dopamine gates corticostriatal glutamatergic drive onto spines. Using triple organotypic slice cultures comprised of ventral mesencephalon, striatum, and cortex, we examined the role of the cortex in dopamine depletion-induced dendritic spine loss in MSNs. The striatal dopamine innervation was lesioned by treatment of the cultures with the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPP+ or by removing the mesencephalon. Both MPP+ and mesencephalic ablation decreased MSN dendritic spine density. Analysis of spine morphology revealed that thin spines were preferentially lost after dopamine depletion. Removal of the cortex completely prevented dopamine depletion-induced spine loss. These data indicate that the dendritic remodeling of MSNs seen in parkinsonism occurs secondary to increases in corticostriatal glutamatergic drive, and suggest that modulation of cortical activity may be a useful therapeutic strategy in Parkinson’s Disease. PMID:17888581

Neely, M. Diana; Schmidt, Dennis E.; Deutch, Ariel Y.

2007-01-01

2

Melatonin in concentrated ethanol and ethanol alone attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin, ethanol and temperature changes on methamphetamine-induced\\u000a neurotoxicity in both sexes of mice. Mice exhibited a similar degree of striatal dopamine depletion when methamphetamine was\\u000a administered during the light and dark cycles. Moreover, 10?mg\\/kg, but not 5?mg\\/kg, of methamphetamine, significantly increased\\u000a body temperature even though dopamine depletions were observed

L. Yu; C.-F. G. Cherng; C. Chen

2002-01-01

3

25-Hydroxyvitamin D Depletion Does Not Exacerbate MPTP-Induced Dopamine Neuron Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical evidence supports a link between 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <30 ng/mL) and Parkinson’s disease. To investigate the effect of 25(OH)D depletion on neuronal susceptibility to toxic insult, we induced a state of 25(OH)D deficiency in mice and then challenged them with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We found there was no significant difference between control and 25(OH)D-deficient animals in striatal dopamine levels or dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase expression after lesioning with MPTP. Additionally, we found no difference in tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our data suggest that reducing 25(OH)D serum levels in mice has no effect on the vulnerability of nigral dopaminergic neurons in vivo in this model system of parkinsonism. PMID:22768297

Dean, E. Danielle; Mexas, Lydia M.; Cápiro, Natalie L.; McKeon, Jeanne E.; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Doorn, Jonathan A.; Tangpricha, Vin; Miller, Gary W.; Evatt, Marian L.

2012-01-01

4

Orbitofrontal Dopamine Depletion Upregulates Caudate Dopamine and Alters Behavior via Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is associated with upregulation of dopamine (DA) release in the caudate nucleus. The caudate has dense connections with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) via the frontostriatal loops, and both areas exhibit pathophysiological change in schizophrenia. Despite evidence that abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and prefrontal cortex function co-occur in schizophrenia, the influence of OFC DA on caudate DA and reinforcement processing is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that OFC dopaminergic dysfunction disrupts caudate dopamine function, we selectively depleted dopamine from the OFC of marmoset monkeys and measured striatal extracellular dopamine levels (using microdialysis) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding (using positron emission tomography), while modeling reinforcement-related behavior in a discrimination learning paradigm. OFC dopamine depletion caused an increase in tonic dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus and a corresponding reduction in D2/D3 receptor binding. Computational modeling of behavior showed that the lesion increased response exploration, reducing the tendency to persist with a recently chosen response side. This effect is akin to increased response switching previously seen in schizophrenia and was correlated with striatal but not OFC D2/D3 receptor binding. These results demonstrate that OFC dopamine depletion is sufficient to induce striatal hyperdopaminergia and changes in reinforcement learning relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:24872570

Cardinal, R. N.; Rygula, R.; Hong, Y. T.; Fryer, T. D.; Sawiak, S. J.; Ferrari, V.; Cockcroft, G.; Aigbirhio, F. I.; Robbins, T. W.; Roberts, A. C.

2014-01-01

5

Amphetamine disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle is reversed by depletion of mesolimbic dopamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine (DA) agonists disrupt sensorimotor gating as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR) in rats; other reports suggest that this stimulant-induced disruption of PPI may reflect drug-induced increases in ASR amplitude rather than changes in sensorimotor gating. In the current study, 6-hydroxydopamine lesions that depleted dopamine from the nucleus accumbens,

N. R. Swerdlow; R. S. Mansbach; M. A. Geyer; L. Pulvirenti; G. F. Koob; D. L. Braff

1990-01-01

6

Dopamine precursors depletion impairs impulse control in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to decipher the role of the dopamine system in impulse control. Impulsive actions entail (i) activation of the motor system by an impulse, which is an urge to act and (ii) a failure to suppress that impulse, when inappropriate, in order to prevent an error. These two aspects of action impulsivity can be experimentally disentangled in conflict reaction time tasks such as the Simon task, which measures susceptibility to acting on spontaneous impulses (as well as the proficiency of suppressing these impulses). In 12 healthy volunteers performing a Simon task, dopamine availability was reduced with an amino acid drink deficient in the dopamine precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Classic behavioral measures were augmented with an analysis of the electromyographic activity of the response effectors. Electromyography allows one to detect covert activations undetectable with strictly behavioral measures and further reveals the participants' ability to quickly suppress covert activations before they result in an overt movement. Following dopamine depletion, compared with a placebo condition, participants displayed comparable impulse activation but were less proficient at suppressing the interference from this activation. These results provide evidence that the dopamine system is directly involved in the suppression of maladaptive response impulses. PMID:25038871

Ramdani, Céline; Carbonnell, Laurence; Vidal, Franck; Béranger, Cyrille; Dagher, Alain; Hasbroucq, Thierry

2015-01-01

7

Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

Cheng, Jinglei [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ohsaki, Yuki [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Tauchi-Sato, Kumi [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Fujita, Akikazu [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Fujimoto, Toyoshi [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail: tfujimot@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

2006-12-08

8

Small Effect of Dopamine Release and No Effect of Dopamine Depletion  

E-print Network

D2 radioligand; D-amphetamine; a-methyl-para-tyrosine; phasic; tonic; PET ABSTRACT Molecular imaging]fallypride and (2) both D-amphetamine-induced and a-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT)-induced changes in dopamin release studies at baseline and fol- lowing oral D-amphetamine administration (0.5 mg/kg) and oral AMPT

Shen, Jun

9

Dopamine and norepinephrine depletion in ring doves fed DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The levels of dopamine and norepinephrine were measured in one-half of the brain of ring doves fed a control diet or a diet containing 2, 20, or 200 ppm DDE; 1, 4, or 16 ppm dieldrin; or 1, 10, or 100 ppm Aroclor 1254. Levels of DDE, dieldrin, or Aroclor 1254 were determined in the other half of each brain. The intermediate and high levels of each chemical caused depletions in both neurotransmitters, and brain residues of each chemical were negatively correlated with levels of neurotransmitters. The highest concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254 depressed averages of dopamine to 42.4, 41.4, and 45.2% of the control level and norepinephrine to 61.6, 62.0, and 56.9% of controls, respectively. Depletions of dopamine and norepinephrine could result in abnormal behavior of contaminated birds in the wild, and the detection of such depletions could become an important tool in assessing contaminant-induced behavioral aberrations in birds.

Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Contrera, J.F.

1980-01-01

10

Differential sensitivity of cranial and limb motor function to nigrostriatal dopamine depletion  

PubMed Central

The present study determined the differential effects of unilateral striatal dopamine depletion on cranial motor versus limb motor function. Forty male Long Evans rats were first trained on a comprehensive motor testing battery that dissociated cranial versus limb motor function and included: cylinder forepaw placement, single pellet reaching, vermicelli pasta handling; sunflower seed opening, pasta biting acoustics, and a licking task. Following baseline testing, animals were randomized to either a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n = 20) or control (n = 20) group. Animals in the 6-OHDA group received unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA infusions to induce striatal dopamine depletion. Six-weeks following infusion, all animals were re-tested on the same battery of motor tests. Near infrared densitometry was performed on sections taken through the striatum that were immunohistochemically stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Animals in the 6-OHDA condition showed a mean reduction in TH staining of 88.27%. Although 6-OHDA animals were significantly impaired on all motor tasks, limb motor deficits were more severe than cranial motor impairments. Further, performance on limb motor tasks was correlated with degree of TH depletion while performance on cranial motor impairments showed no significant correlation. These results suggest that limb motor function may be more sensitive to striatal dopaminergic depletion than cranial motor function and is consistent with the clinical observation that therapies targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson’s disease are more effective for limb motor symptoms than cranial motor impairments. PMID:23018122

Plowman, Emily K.; Maling, Nicholas; Rivera, Benjamin J.; Larson, Krista; Thomas, Nagheme J.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

11

Phasic-like stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle augments striatal gene expression despite methamphetamine-induced partial dopamine denervation  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine-induced partial dopamine depletions are associated with impaired basal ganglia function, including decreased preprotachykinin mRNA expression and impaired transcriptional activation of activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) gene in striatum. Recent work implicates deficits in phasic dopamine signaling as a potential mechanism linking methamphetamine-induced dopamine loss to impaired basal ganglia function. The present study thus sought to establish a causal link between phasic dopamine transmission and altered basal ganglia function by determining whether the deficits in striatal neuron gene expression could be restored by increasing phasic dopamine release. Three weeks after pretreatment with saline or a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine, rats underwent phasic- or tonic-like stimulation of ascending dopamine neurons. Striatal gene expression was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Phasic-like, but not tonic-like, stimulation induced immediate-early genes Arc and zif268 in both groups, despite the partial striatal dopamine denervation in methamphetamine-pretreated rats, with the Arc expression occurring in presumed striatonigral efferent neurons. Phasic-like stimulation also restored preprotachykinin mRNA expression. These results suggest that disruption of phasic dopamine signaling likely underlies methamphetamine-induced impairments in basal ganglia function, and that restoring phasic dopamine signaling may be a viable approach to manage long-term consequences of methamphetamine-induced dopamine loss on basal ganglia functions. PMID:23480199

Howard, Christopher D.; Pastuzyn, Elissa D.; Barker-Haliski, Melissa L.; Garris, Paul A.; Keefe, Kristen A.

2013-01-01

12

Tongue force and tongue motility are differently affected by unilateral vs bilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion in rats  

PubMed Central

In addition to its cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, resting tremor and postural disturbances, Parkinson’s disease (PD) also affects orolingual motor function. Orolingual motor deficits can contribute to dysphagia, which increases morbidity and mortality in this population. Previous preclinical studies describing orolingual motor deficits in animal models of PD have focused on unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion. In this study we compared the effects of unilateral vs bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced DA depletion in rats trained to lick water from an isometric force-sensing disc. Rats received either unilateral or bilateral 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle and were tested for four weeks post-lesion. Dependent variables included task engagement (the number of licks per session), tongue force (mean and maximum), and tongue motility (the number of licks per second). While both lesion groups exhibited decreased tongue force output, tongue motility deficits were present in only the group that received unilateral nigrostriatal DA depletion. Task engagement was not significantly diminished by 6-OHDA. Analysis of striatal DA tissue content revealed that DA depletion was ~97% in the unilateral group and ~90% in the bilateral group. These results suggest that while nigrostriatal DA depletion affects tongue force output, deficits in tongue motility may instead result from a functional imbalance in neural pathways affecting this midline structure. PMID:22796604

Nuckolls, Andrea L.; Worley, Cole; Leto, Christopher; Zhang, Hongyu; Morris, Jill K.; Stanford, John A.

2012-01-01

13

D1 Dopamine Receptor Supersensitivity in the Dopamine-Depleted Striatum Results from a Switch in the  

E-print Network

afferents. Moreover, in the dopamine-intact striatum, treatment with full D1 dopamine receptor agonists striatal projection neurons. Key words: dopamine; striatum; Parkinson's disease; gene regulation; signal projection neurons (Gerfen et al., 1990). The loss of dopamine input to the striatum in Parkinson's disease

Baker, Chris I.

14

Multisite Intracerebral Microdialysis to Study the Mechanism of L-DOPA Induced Dopamine and Serotonin Release in the Parkinsonian Brain  

PubMed Central

L-DOPA is currently one of the best medications for Parkinson’s disease. It was assumed for several years that its benefits and side effects were related to the enhancement of dopamine release in the dopamine-depleted striatum. The use of intracerebral microdialysis combined with a pharmacological approach has led to the discovery that serotonergic neurons are responsible for dopamine release induced by L-DOPA. The subsequent use of multisite microdialysis has further revealed that L-DOPA-stimulated dopamine release is widespread and related to the serotonergic innervation. The present Review emphasizes the functional impact of extrastriatal release of dopamine induced by L-DOPA in both the therapeutic and side effects of L-DOPA. PMID:23541043

2013-01-01

15

Altered neuronal activity in the primary motor cortex and globus pallidus after dopamine depletion in rats.  

PubMed

The involvement of dopamine (DA) neuron loss in the etiology of Parkinson's disease has been well documented. The neural mechanisms underlying the effects of DA loss and the resultant motor dysfunction remain unknown. To gain insights into how loss of DA disrupts the electrical processes in the cortico-subcortical network, the present study explores the effects of DA neuron depletion on electrical activity in the primary motor cortex (M1), on the external and the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi respectively), and on their temporal relationships. Comparison of local field potentials (LFPs) in these brain regions from unilateral hemispheric DA neuron depleted rats and neurologically intact rats revealed that the spectrum power of LFPs in 12-70Hz (for M1, and GPe) and in 25-40Hz (for GPi) was significantly greater in the DA depleted rats than that in the control group. These changes were associated with a shortening of latency in LFP activities between M1 and GPe, from several hundred milliseconds in the intact animals to close to zero in the DA depleted animals. LFP oscillations in M1 were significantly more synchronized with those in GPe in the DA depleted rats compared with those in the control rats. By contrast, the synchronization of oscillation in LFP activities between M1 and GPi did not differ between the DA depleted and intact rats. Not surprisingly, rats that had DA neuron depletion spent more time along the ladder compared with the control rats. These data suggest that enhanced oscillatory activity and increased synchronization of LFPs may contribute to movement impairment in the rat model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25542079

Wang, Min; Li, Min; Geng, Xiwen; Song, Zhimin; Albers, H Elliott; Yang, Maoquan; Zhang, Xiao; Xie, Jinlu; Qu, Qingyang; He, Tingting

2015-01-15

16

Propentophylline increases striatal dopamine release but dampens methamphetamine-induced dopamine dynamics: A microdialysis study.  

PubMed

While there are currently no medications approved for methamphetamine (METH) addiction, it has been shown that propentofylline (PPF), an atypical methylxanthine, can suppress the rewarding effects of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. This experiment studied the interactions of PPF with METH in striatal dopaminergic transmission. Herein, the impact of PPF (10-40mM, intrastriatally perfused (80min) on the effect of METH (5mg/kg, i.p.) on striatal dopamine (DA) release was evaluated using brain microdialysis in Sprague-Dawley adult rats. METH was injected at the 60min time point of the 80min PPF perfusion. The extracellular levels of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). PPF induced a concentration-dependent increase in DA release beginning 30min after the onset of PPF perfusion. DA peak levels evoked by 40mM PPF were similar to those induced by 5mg/kg METH i.p. Only the highest concentration of PPF decreased the METH-induced DA peak (circa 70%). The significant decreases in extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA evoked by METH were partially blocked by 10 and 20mM PPF. Although 40mM of PPF also partially blocked the METH-induced DOPAC decrease, it completely blocked HVA depletion after a transient increase in HVA levels in METH-treated rats. Data indicates for the first time that while PPF increases presynaptic striatal DA dynamics it attenuates METH-induced striatal DA release and metabolism. PMID:25049173

Gough, B; Pereira, F C; Fontes Ribeiro, C A; Ali, S F; Binienda, Z K

2014-10-01

17

METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY DISRUPTS NATURALLY OCCURRING PHASIC DOPAMINE SIGNALING  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive drug that is also neurotoxic to central dopamine (DA) systems. Although striatal DA depletions induced by METH are associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments, the link between these phenomena remains poorly understood. Previous work in both METH-pretreated animals and the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson’s disease suggests that a disruption of phasic DA signaling, which is important for learning and goal-directed behavior, may be such a link. However, prior studies used electrical stimulation to elicit phasic-like DA responses and were also performed under anesthesia, which alters DA neuron activity and presynaptic function. Here we investigated the consequences of METH-induced DA terminal loss on both electrically evoked phasic-like DA signals and so-called “spontaneous” phasic DA transients measured by voltammetry in awake rats. Not ostensibly attributable to discrete stimuli, these sub-second DA changes may play a role in enhancing reward-cue associations. METH-pretreatment reduced tissue DA content in the dorsomedial striatum and nucleus accumbens by ~55%. Analysis of phasic-like DA responses elicited by reinforcing stimulation revealed that METH pretreatment decreased their amplitude and underlying mechanisms for release and uptake to a similar degree as DA content in both striatal subregions. Most importantly, characteristics of DA transients were altered by METH-induced DA terminal loss, with amplitude and frequency decreased and duration increased. These results demonstrate for the first time that denervation of DA neurons alters naturally occurring DA transients and are consistent with diminished phasic DA signaling as a plausible mechanism linking METH-induced striatal DA depletions and cognitive deficits. PMID:23574406

Howard, Christopher D.; Daberkow, David P.; Ramsson, Eric S.; Keefe, Kristen A.; Garris, Paul A.

2013-01-01

18

Cognitive effects of dopamine depletion in the context of diminished acetylcholine signaling capacity in mice  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A subset of patients with Parkinson’s disease acquires a debilitating dementia characterized by severe cognitive impairments (i.e. Parkinson’s disease dementia; PDD). Brains from PDD patients show extensive cholinergic loss as well as dopamine (DA) depletion. We used a mutant mouse model to directly test whether combined cholinergic and DA depletion leads to a cognitive profile resembling PDD. Mice carrying heterozygous deletion of the high-affinity, hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter (CHTHET) show reduced levels of acetylcholine throughout the brain. We achieved bilateral DA depletion in CHTHET and wild-type (WT) littermates via intra-striatal infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), or used vehicle as control. Executive function and memory were evaluated using rodent versions of cognitive tasks commonly used with human subjects: the set-shifting task and spatial and novel-object recognition paradigms. Our studies revealed impaired acquisition of attentional set in the set-shifting paradigm in WT-6OHDA and CHTHET-vehicle mice that was exacerbated in the CHTHET-6OHDA mice. The object recognition test following a 24-hour delay was also impaired in CHTHET-6OHDA mice compared with all other groups. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors physostigmine (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) and donepezil (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) reversed the impaired object recognition of the CHTHET-6OHDA mice. Our data demonstrate an exacerbated cognitive phenotype with dual ACh and DA depletion as compared with either insult alone, with traits analogous to those observed in PDD patients. The results suggest that combined loss of DA and ACh could be sufficient for pathogenesis of specific cognitive deficits in PDD. PMID:22864020

Zurkovsky, Lilia; Bychkov, Evgeny; Tsakem, Elviche L.; Siedlecki, Carley; Blakely, Randy D.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

2013-01-01

19

The role of forebrain dopamine systems in amphetamine induced stereotyped behavior in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caudate nucleus or the tuberculum olfactorium of the rat was lesioned by bilateral stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. The degree of dopamine depletion was assessed by a sensitive regional dopamine assay and revealed severe depletions in the lesioned areas. The locomotor response to a low dose of d-amphetamine was not modified by either lesion. However, the stereotypy response to a

Ian Creese; Susan D. Iversen

1974-01-01

20

Alteration of Daily and Circadian Rhythms following Dopamine Depletion in MPTP Treated Non-Human Primates  

PubMed Central

Disturbances of the daily sleep/wake cycle are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of dopamine (DA) depletion on circadian rhythms in PD patients or non-human primate (NHP) models of the disorder have not been investigated. We evaluated alterations of circadian rhythms in NHP following MPTP lesion of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal system. DA degeneration was assessed by in vivo PET ([11C]-PE2I) and post-mortem TH and DAT quantification. In a light?dark cycle, control and MPTP-treated NHP both exhibit rest-wake locomotor rhythms, although DA-depleted NHP show reduced amplitude, decreased stability and increased fragmentation. In all animals, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin peaks at night and cortisol in early morning. When the circadian system is challenged by exposure to constant light, controls retain locomotor rest-wake and hormonal rhythms that free-run with stable phase relationships whereas in the DA-depleted NHP, locomotor rhythms are severely disturbed or completely abolished. The amplitude and phase relations of hormonal rhythms nevertheless remain unaltered. Use of a light-dark masking paradigm shows that expression of daily rest-wake activity in MPTP monkeys requires the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of light and darkness. These results suggest that following DA lesion, the central clock in the SCN remains intact but, in the absence of environmental timing cues, is unable to drive downstream rhythmic processes of striatal clock gene and dopaminergic functions that control locomotor output. These findings suggest that the circadian component of the sleep-wake disturbances in PD is more profoundly affected than previously assumed. PMID:24465981

Fifel, Karim; Vezoli, Julien; Dzahini, Kwamivi; Claustrat, Bruno; Leviel, Vincent; Kennedy, Henry; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M.

2014-01-01

21

Hypoinsulinemia Regulates Amphetamine-Induced Reverse Transport of Dopamine  

PubMed Central

The behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH) arise from their ability to elicit increases in extracellular dopamine (DA). These AMPH-induced increases are achieved by DA transporter (DAT)-mediated transmitter efflux. Recently, we have shown that AMPH self-administration is reduced in rats that have been depleted of insulin with the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin (STZ). In vitro studies suggest that hypoinsulinemia may regulate the actions of AMPH by inhibiting the insulin downstream effectors phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB, or Akt), which we have previously shown are able to fine-tune DAT cell-surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that striatal Akt function, as well as DAT cell-surface expression, are significantly reduced by STZ. In addition, our data show that the release of DA, determined by high-speed chronoamperometry (HSCA) in the striatum, in response to AMPH, is severely impaired in these insulin-deficient rats. Importantly, selective inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 within the striatum results in a profound reduction in the subsequent potential for AMPH to evoke DA efflux. Consistent with our biochemical and in vivo electrochemical data, findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments reveal that the ability of AMPH to elicit positive blood oxygen level–dependent signal changes in the striatum is significantly blunted in STZ-treated rats. Finally, local infusion of insulin into the striatum of STZ-treated animals significantly recovers the ability of AMPH to stimulate DA release as measured by high-speed chronoamperometry. The present studies establish that PI3K signaling regulates the neurochemical actions of AMPH-like psychomotor stimulants. These data suggest that insulin signaling pathways may represent a novel mechanism for regulating DA transmission, one which may be targeted for the treatment of AMPH abuse and potentially other dopaminergic disorders. PMID:17941718

Williams, Jason M; Owens, W. Anthony; Turner, Gregory H; Saunders, Christine; Dipace, Concetta; Blakely, Randy D; France, Charles P; Gore, John C; Daws, Lynette C; Avison, Malcolm J; Galli, Aurelio

2007-01-01

22

Long-term effects of a high-dose methamphetamine regimen on subsequent methamphetamine-induced dopamine release in vivo.  

PubMed

Rats were treated with a high-dose methamphetamine (METH) regimen (40 mg/kg/injection, four times at 2-h intervals) or a saline regimen (four injections at 2-h intervals). Temperature related measures taken during the high-dose METH treatment were maximum core temperature and minimum chamber temperature. Fourteen rats (METH N=7; Saline N=7) were implanted with in-vivo dialysis probes 4-7 weeks post-regimen (average=6 weeks). The next day, they received a challenge dose of METH (4.0 mg/kg) and dopamine release was measured. Results showed a significant decrease in challenge-induced dopamine release in rats previously treated with the high-dose METH regimen. These findings demonstrate a functional deficit in the dopamine system 6 weeks after high-dose METH treatment. Temperature-related measures taken during the high-dose regimen were not correlated with METH-induced dopamine release 6 weeks later. An additional group of rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after the high-dose regimen (METH N=12; Saline N=10), and their brains was analyzed for dopamine and serotonin concentrations. Tissue concentrations of dopamine were significantly depleted in striatum and nucleus accumbens/olfactory tubercle, but not septum, hypothalamus, or ventral mid-brain 6 weeks after the high-dose regimen. Tissue concentrations of serotonin were also significantly depleted in striatum, nucleus accumbens/olfactory tubercle, hippocampus, somatosensory cortex, but not septum, hypothalamus or ventral mid-brain. Significant correlations between the temperature-related measures and post-mortem neurotransmitter tissue concentrations were region and transmitter dependent. PMID:11172757

Sabol, K E; Roach, J T; Broom, S L; Ferreira, C; Preau, M M

2001-02-16

23

Rats with partial striatal dopamine depletions exhibit robust and long-lasting behavioral deficits in a simple fixed-ratio bar-pressing task.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that enduring parkinsonian symptoms are only evident if there are few remaining dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and dopamine levels in the basal ganglia are very low [26,41]. In the present study, partial dopamine depletions were produced by infusing 6-OHDA bilaterally into the ventrolateral striatum as previously described [11,12,44]. Consistent with previous studies, behavioral deficits were detectable in rats with partial lesions with a simple fixed-ratio bar-pressing task. The present study demonstrated that these behavioral deficits were long-lasting, and that the sensitivity of this bar-pressing task could be increased by manipulating the level of difficulty of the task-higher fixed ratios were more sensitive to partial dopamine depletions. Deficits in rats with partial dopamine depletions could also be detected using non-automated neurological tests of parkinsonian symptoms developed for rats with severe unilateral dopamine depletions, but these deficits were transient and not as robust as those detected with the bar-pressing task. Oral Sinemet (L-DOPA:carbidopa) did not attenuate behavioral deficits related to partial dopamine depletions in this simple fixed-ratio bar-pressing task, but the present results suggest that Parkinson's patients might be identifiable earlier in the disease process, at a time when they could benefit from treatment with neuroprotective/neurotrophic agents. In addition, the results of the present study demonstrate that robust behavioral deficits may emerge with age. Mild dopamine depletions that were not detectable behaviorally at the time of the insult became clearly evident 10 months after the lesion with this bar-pressing task, and this may represent a more clinically relevant rodent model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:9105579

Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Francis, J M; Blaney, T J; Salamone, J D; Emerich, D F

1997-06-01

24

Dopamine induces a slow afterdepolarization in lateral amygdala neurons.  

PubMed

The amygdala and dopaminergic innervation thereunto are considered to cooperatively regulate emotional states and behaviors. The present experiments examined effects of dopamine on lateral amygdala (LA) neuron excitability by whole cell recordings. Bath application of dopamine induced slow afterdepolarization (sADP). This sADP lasted for >5 s, and its magnitude varied in a concentration-dependent manner. Co-application of the D1 receptor antagonist SKF83566 reduced its amplitude. The D1 receptor agonist SKF38393, applied alone, induced sADP of a smaller amplitude. Induction of the full sADP required 5-HT(2) and noradrenalin alpha(1) receptor activation as well. D2 receptor activation or blockade did not affect sADP induction. The calcium channel blocker cadmium or intracellular calcium chelator bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) blocked induction of the sADP, which was suggested to be triggered by calcium influx. Under voltage clamp, membrane conductance decreased at the peak of sADP current (I(sADP)). I(sADP) was suppressed by cesium included in pipettes. The I-V curve of the net I(sADP) was shifted as the external concentration of potassium was raised, and the reversal potential was identical to that of potassium, suggesting that dopamine decreases potassium conductance to induce the sADP. The present sADP may serve as a positive-feedback regulator of excitability in LA neurons. PMID:17553953

Yamamoto, Ryo; Ueta, Yoshifumi; Kato, Nobuo

2007-08-01

25

Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography Imaging of Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in Drug-Free Schizophrenic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission is associated with this illness, but direct observation of abnormalities of dopamine function in schizophrenia has remained elusive. We used a newly developed single photon emission computerized tomography method to measure amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the striatum of fifteen patients with schizophrenia and fifteen healthy controls. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release

Marc Laruelle; Anissa Abi-Dargham; Christopher H. van Dyck; Roberto Gil; Cyril D. D'Souza; Joseph Erdos; Elinore McCance; William Rosenblatt; Christine Fingado; Sami S. Zoghbi; Ronald M. Baldwin; John P. Seibyl; John H. Krystal; Dennis S. Charney; Robert B. Innis

1996-01-01

26

Rat globus pallidus neurons: functional classification and effects of dopamine depletion.  

PubMed

The rat globus pallidus (GP) is homologous to the primate GP externus. Studies with injectable anesthetics suggest that GP neurons can be classified into Type-I and Type-II cells based on extracellularly recorded spike shape, or positively coupled (PC), negatively coupled (NC), and uncoupled (UC) cells based on functional connectivity with the cortex. In this study, we examined the electrophysiology of rat GP neurons using the inhalational anesthetic isoflurane which offers more constant and easily regulated levels of anesthesia than injectable anesthetics. In 130 GP neurons recorded using small-tip glass electrodes (<1 ?m), all but one fired Type-II spikes (positive/negative waveform). Type-I cells were unlikely to be inhibited by isoflurane since all GP neurons also fired Type-II spikes under ketamine-induced anesthesia. When recorded with large-tip electrodes (?2 ?m), however, over 70% of GP neurons exhibited Type-I spikes (negative/positive waveform). These results suggest that the spike shape, recorded extracellularly, varies depending on the electrode used and is not reliable in distinguishing Type-I and Type-II neurons. Using dual-site recording, 40% of GP neurons were identified as PC cells, 17.5% NC cells, and 42.5% UC cells. The three subtypes also differed significantly in firing rate and pattern. Lesions of dopamine neurons increased the number of NC cells, decreased that of UC cells, and significantly shifted the phase relationship between PC cells and the cortex. These results support the presence of GP neuron subtypes and suggest that each subtype plays a different role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Synapse 69:41-51, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25196543

Karain, Brad; Xu, Dan; Bellone, John A; Hartman, Richard E; Shi, Wei-Xing

2015-01-01

27

Desynchronization of Fast-Spiking Interneurons Reduces ?-Band Oscillations and Imbalance in Firing in the Dopamine-Depleted Striatum.  

PubMed

Oscillations in the ?-band (8-30 Hz) that emerge in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia during Parkinson's disease, along with an imbalanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways, have been linked to the hypokinetic motor output associated with the disease. Although dopamine depletion causes a change in cellular and network properties in the striatum, it is unclear whether abnormal activity measured in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata is caused by abnormal striatal activity. Here we use a computational network model of medium spiny neurons (MSNs)-fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), based on data from several mammalian species, and find that robust ?-band oscillations and imbalanced firing emerge from implementation of changes to cellular and circuit properties caused by dopamine depletion. These changes include a reduction in connections between MSNs, a doubling of FSI inhibition to D2 MSNs, an increase in D2 MSN dendritic excitability, and a reduction in D2 MSN somatic excitability. The model reveals that the reduced decorrelation between MSNs attributable to weakened lateral inhibition enables the strong influence of synchronous FSIs on MSN firing and oscillations. Weakened lateral inhibition also produces an increased sensitivity of MSN output to cortical correlation, a condition relevant to the parkinsonian striatum. The oscillations of FSIs, in turn, are strongly modulated by fast electrical transmission between FSIs through gap junctions. These results suggest that pharmaceuticals that desynchronize FSI activity may provide a novel treatment for the enhanced ?-band oscillations, imbalanced firing, and motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25609629

Damodaran, Sriraman; Cressman, John R; Jedrzejewski-Szmek, Zbigniew; Blackwell, Kim T

2015-01-21

28

Activation of D1 Dopamine Receptors Induces Emergence from Isoflurane General Anesthesia  

E-print Network

Background: A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the ...

Taylor, Norman E.

29

Individual differences in schizotypal personality traits correlate with amphetamine induced dopamine release in striatal and  

E-print Network

Individual differences in schizotypal personality traits correlate with amphetamine induced.43 mg/kg) d-amphetamine. Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each subject's d-amphetamine scan and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extra-striatal brain regions. D-amphetamine induced

Park, Sohee

30

Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, whereupon the animals were killed. Length, weight, and specific weight of the left femur were measured. After 28 days on the respective diet the remaining animals were killed and one proximal tibia from each animal was processed for light microscopy and subjected to stereological analysis. Both experimental groups developed progressive growth retardation, more so the phosphate-depleted group. The calciopenic animals developed severe hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, whereas the phosphate-depleted animals, in spite of marked secondary hypercalcaemia, had unaltered levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone. By 28 days both experimental groups displayed rachitic changes, more pronounced in the phosphate-depleted animals. This paper provides quantitative data demonstrating that calciopenia per se may cause rickets in young rats, but that the rachitic changes in this condition are less severe, and the growth pattern different from those in phosphate depletion. PMID:2206984

Abugassa, S; Svensson, O

1990-10-01

31

Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, whereupon the animals were killed. Length, weight, and specific weight of the left femur were measured. After 28 days on the respective diet the remaining animals were killed and one proximal tibia from each animal was processed for light microscopy and subjected to stereological analysis. Both experimental groups developed progressive growth retardation, more so the phosphate-depleted group. The calciopenic animals developed severe hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, whereas the phosphate-depleted animals, in spite of marked secondary hypercalcaemia, had unaltered levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone. By 28 days both experimental groups displayed rachitic changes, more pronounced in the phosphate-depleted animals. This paper provides quantitative data demonstrating that calciopenia per se may cause rickets in young rats, but that the rachitic changes in this condition are less severe, and the growth pattern different from those in phosphate depletion. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2206984

Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.

1990-01-01

32

Testosterone Induces Molecular Changes in Dopamine Signaling Pathway Molecules in the Adolescent Male Rat Nigrostriatal Pathway  

PubMed Central

Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase), transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), dopamine transporter (DAT)] and receptors (DRD1-D5)] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17?-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen receptor-driven events as estradiol had minimal effect. We conclude that nigrostriatal responsivity to dopamine may be modulated by testosterone acting via androgen receptors to alter gene expression of molecules involved in dopamine signaling during adolescence. PMID:24618531

Purves-Tyson, Tertia D.; Owens, Samantha J.; Double, Kay L.; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

2014-01-01

33

Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates dopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by suppressing oxidative stress.  

PubMed

In Parkinson's disease, neuroprotective therapy to rescue dopamine neurons has been proposed. Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the biologically active ingredients of ginseng, may be a candidate neuroprotective drug. In the present study, the mechanism underlying the neuroprotection provided by ginsenosde Rg1 was studied against apoptosis induced by exogenous dopamine in PC12 cells. Pretreatment with ginsenoside Rg1 markedly reduced the generation of dopamine-induced reactive oxygen species and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, and subsequently inhibited the activation of caspase-3. In addition, Rg1 pretreatment also reduced inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein level and NO production. These results suggested that ginsenoside Rg1 may attenuate dopamine-induced apoptotic cell death through suppression of intracellular oxidative stress, and that it may rescue or protect dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:12877931

Chen, Xiao-Chun; Zhu, Yuan-Gui; Zhu, Li-An; Huang, Chun; Chen, Ying; Chen, Li-Min; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Yi-Can; Zhao, Chao-Hui

2003-07-18

34

Nicotine Decreases Ethanol-induced Dopamine Signaling and Increases Self-administration via Stress Hormones  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases alcohol-induced dopamine responses. The blunted dopamine response was due to increased inhibitory synaptic transmission onto dopamine neurons. Blocking stress hormone receptors prior to nicotine exposure prevented all interactions with alcohol that we measured, including the increased inhibition onto dopamine neurons, the decreased dopamine responses, and the increased alcohol self-administration. These results indicate that nicotine recruits neuroendocrine systems to influence neurotransmission and behavior associated with alcohol reinforcement. PMID:23871233

Doyon, William M.; Dong, Yu; Ostroumov, Alexey; Thomas, Alyse M.; Zhang, Tao A.; Dani, John A.

2013-01-01

35

Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates dopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by suppressing oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Parkinson's disease, neuroprotective therapy to rescue dopamine neurons has been proposed. Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the biologically active ingredients of ginseng, may be a candidate neuroprotective drug. In the present study, the mechanism underlying the neuroprotection provided by ginsenosde Rg1 was studied against apoptosis induced by exogenous dopamine in PC12 cells. Pretreatment with ginsenoside Rg1 markedly reduced the generation

Xiao-Chun Chen; Yuan-Gui Zhu; Li-An Zhu; Chun Huang; Ying Chen; Li-Min Chen; Fang Fang; Yi-Can Zhou; Chao-Hui Zhao

2003-01-01

36

Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area Mediating Nicotine-Induced Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine or cocaine, when administered intravenously, induces an increase of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The nicotine-mediated increase was shown to occur at least in part through increase of the activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. As part of our continuing studies of the mechanisms of nicotine effects in the brain, in particular, effects on reward

Istvan Sziráki; Henry Sershen; Audrey Hashim; Abel Lajtha

2002-01-01

37

Relationship between cocaine-induced subjective effects and dopamine transporter occupancy  

SciTech Connect

The ability of cocaine to occupy the dopamine transporter has been linked to its reinforcing properties. However, such a relationship has not been demonstrated in humans. Methods: Positron Emission Tomography and [C-11]cocaine were used to estimate dopamine transporter occupancies after different doses of cocaine in 18 active cocaine abusers. The ratio of the distribution volume of [C-11]cocaine in striatum to that in cerebellum, which corresponds to Bmax/Kd +1 and is insensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow, was our measure of dopamine transporter availability. In parallel subjective effects were measured to assess the relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and cocaines behavioral effects. Intravenous cocaine produced a significant dose,-dependent blockade of dopamine transporters: 73 % for 0.6 mg/kg; 601/6 for 0.3 mg/kg; 48 % for 0.1 mg/kg iv and 40 % for 0.05 mg/kg. In addition, dopamine transporter occupancies were significantly correlated with cocaine plasma concentration (r = 0.55 p < 0.001). Cocaine also produced dose-dependent increases in self-reported ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} which were significantly correlated with the levels of dopamine transporter blockade. Discussion: These results provide the first documentation in humans that dopamine transporter occupancy is associated with cocaine induced subjective effects. They also suggest that dopamine transporter occupancies equal to or greater than 60% are required to produce significant effects on ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1997-05-01

38

Reserpine attenuates D-amphetamine and MDMA-induced transmitter release in vivo: a consideration of dose, core temperature and dopamine synthesis.  

PubMed

Amphetamine releases dopamine through a transporter-mediated mechanism. The purpose of this report was to further our understanding of the intracellular pool from which amphetamine releases dopamine: the cytoplasmic pool, the vesicular pool, or both. Rats were treated with D-amphetamine (AMPH) (1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) or an amphetamine analog, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (2.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg). Pre-treatment with 10.0 mg/kg reserpine (18 h prior to AMPH or MDMA) attenuated dopamine release for high and low AMPH doses; however the low-dose effect showed borderline significance. Pre-treatment with 10.0 mg/kg reserpine attenuated dopamine and serotonin release induced by MDMA. The dopamine effect was seen at all three MDMA doses; the effect on serotonin was only measured at the 10.0 mg/kg dose. Reserpine pre-treatment caused reductions in core body temperature; heating the rats to normal body temperature for 3 h prior to AMPH or MDMA, and during the 4 h post-treatment period partially reversed the reserpine-induced attenuation of dopamine release. However, the intermediate level of dopamine release for the reserpinized-heated animals was not significantly different from either the reserpine group (not heated) or the AMPH or MDMA alone groups. In a separate group of rats, the effects of reserpine and reserpine+heat on dopamine synthesis were measured. DOPA accumulation after treatment with the aromatic acid decarboxylase inhibitor NSD-1015 (100 mg/kg, 30 min before sacrifice), was greater in rats treated with reserpine compared to controls; heating the reserpinized rats did not significantly alter the amount of DOPA accumulation; however there was a trend towards further increase. These results suggest that D-amphetamine releases dopamine that is stored in both vesicles and the cytoplasm. Cooling may contribute to the attenuation of AMPH or MDMA-induced dopamine release observed after reserpine; however, AMPH or MDMA dependence upon vesicular stores most likely explains the diminished release after reserpine. The attenuation of AMPH or MDMA-induced transmitter release by reserpine is thought to be counteracted by a reserpine-induced replenishment of stores. Therefore, all doses of D-amphetamine may use vesicular stores; the degree to which new synthesis counteracts the vesicular depletion may be the variable which differentiates low from high doses of D-amphetamine. PMID:9739110

Sabol, K E; Seiden, L S

1998-09-21

39

Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity disrupts pharmacologically evoked dopamine transients in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum.  

PubMed

Phasic dopamine (DA) signaling, during which burst firing by DA neurons generates short-lived elevations in extracellular DA in terminal fields called DA transients, is implicated in reinforcement learning. Disrupted phasic DA signaling is proposed to link DA depletions and cognitive-behavioral impairment in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we further investigated this disruption by assessing effects of METH pretreatment on DA transients elicited by a drug cocktail of raclopride, a D2 DA receptor antagonist, and nomifensine, an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT). One advantage of this approach is that pharmacological activation provides a large, high-quality data set of transients elicited by endogenous burst firing of DA neurons for analysis of regional differences and neurotoxicity. These pharmacologically evoked DA transients were measured in the dorsomedial (DM) and dorsolateral (DL) striatum of urethane-anesthetized rats by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Electrically evoked DA levels were also recorded to quantify DA release and uptake, and DAT binding was determined by means of autoradiography to index DA denervation. Pharmacologically evoked DA transients in intact animals exhibited a greater amplitude and frequency and shorter duration in the DM compared to the DL striatum, despite similar pre- and post-drug assessments of DA release and uptake in both sub-regions as determined from the electrically evoked DA signals. METH pretreatment reduced transient activity. The most prominent effect of METH pretreatment on transients across striatal sub-region was decreased amplitude, which mirrored decreased DAT binding and was accompanied by decreased DA release. Overall, these results identify marked intrastriatal differences in the activity of DA transients that appear independent of presynaptic mechanisms for DA release and uptake and further support disrupted phasic DA signaling mediated by decreased DA release in rats with METH-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24562969

Robinson, John D; Howard, Christopher D; Pastuzyn, Elissa D; Byers, Diane L; Keefe, Kristen A; Garris, Paul A

2014-08-01

40

JNK inhibition of VMAT2 contributes to rotenone-induced oxidative stress and dopamine neuron death.  

PubMed

Treatment with rotenone, both in vitro and in vivo, is widely used to model dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease upon exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and pesticides. Mechanisms underlying rotenone neurotoxicity are still being defined. Our recent studies suggest that rotenone-induced dopamine neuron death involves microtubule destabilization, which leads to accumulation of cytosolic dopamine and consequently reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is required for rotenone-induced dopamine neuron death. Here we report that the neural specific JNK3 isoform of the JNKs, but not JNK1 or JNK2, is responsible for this neuron death in primary cultured dopamine neurons. Treatment with taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent, attenuates rotenone-induced phosphorylation and presumably activation of JNK. This suggests that JNK is activated by microtubule destabilization upon rotenone exposure. Moreover, rotenone inhibits VMAT2 activity but not VMAT2 protein levels. Significantly, treatment with SP600125, a pharmacological inhibitor of JNKs, attenuates rotenone inhibition of VMAT2. Furthermore, decreased VMAT2 activity following in vitro incubation of recombinant JNK3 protein with purified mesencephalic synaptic vesicles suggests that JNK3 can inhibit VMAT2 activity. Together with our previous findings, these results suggest that rotenone induces dopamine neuron death through a series of sequential events including microtubule destabilization, JNK3 activation, VMAT2 inhibition, accumulation of cytosolic dopamine, and generation of ROS. Our data identify JNK3 as a novel regulator of VMAT2 activity. PMID:25496994

Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Xia, Zhengui

2015-02-01

41

Nucleus accumbens dopamine mediates amphetamine-induced impairment of social bonding  

E-print Network

Nucleus accumbens dopamine mediates amphetamine-induced impairment of social bonding and related neural circuitry. In our first experiment, amphetamine (AMPH) motivated behavior was examined, administration of psychostimulant drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and amphetamine (AMPH), results in persistent

Wang, Zuoxin

42

Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01

43

Identifying the induced depletion of ^166m Ho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current nuclear data indicates that incoming photons below 300 keV may allow for an induced depletion of the ^166Ho isomer. Such photons will excite the nucleus of a sample of ^166mHo up to a higher state. From there, the nucleus could decay back to this first metastable state or take a separate decay path down to the ground state. While the first metastable state has a half-life of 1200 years, such an induced depletion would allow the nucleus to decay to its ground state in just fractions of a second. From there, further beta decay occurs on the order of about 24 hours. During the induced depletion cascade, a 136 keV gamma ray will be emitted from a level that has a 185 ?s half-life and is above the initial isomer. A detection system has been designed to detect this unique photon as well as evidence of the 185 ?s half-life; both are signals that the induced depletion has occurred. A cerium-doped lanthanum chloride (LaCl3:Ce) scintillator coupled to a gated photomultiplier tube is used to observe gamma rays from the isomeric sample of ^166Ho. Timing data of the unique photon will be recorded in between bremsstrahlung pulses from an electron linac. First results of this experiment will be discussed.

Detwiler, B. A.; Caldwell, N.; Trees, G. P.; Carroll, J. J.; Pereira, N.; Litz, M.; Merkel, G.; Schumer, J.

2009-10-01

44

Prenatal L-DOPA exposure produces lasting changes in brain dopamine content, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine conditioned place preference  

PubMed Central

Dopamine, its receptors and transporter are present in the brain beginning from early in the embryonic period. Dopamine receptor activation can influence developmental events including neurogenesis, neuronal migration and differentiation raising the possibility that dopamine imbalance in the fetal brain can alter development of the brain and behavior. We examined whether elevated dopamine levels during gestation can produce persisting changes in brain dopamine content and dopamine-mediated behaviors. We administered L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in drinking water to timed-pregnant CD1 mice from the 11th day of gestation until the day of parturition. The prenatal L-DOPA exposure led to significantly lower cocaine conditioned place preference, a behavioral test of reward, at postnatal day 60 (P60). However, in vivo microdialysis measurements showed significant increases in cocaine-induced dopamine release in the caudate putamen of P26 and P60 mice exposed to L-DOPA prenatally, ruling out attenuated dopamine release in the caudate putamen as a contributor to decreased conditioned place preference. Although dopamine release was induced in the nucleus accumbens of prenatally L-DOPA exposed mice at P60 by cocaine, the dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens was not significantly different between the L-DOPA and control groups. However, basal dopamine release was significantly higher in the prenatally L-DOPA exposed mice at P60 suggesting that the L-DOPA exposed mice may require a higher dose of cocaine for induction of cocaine place preference than the controls. The prenatal L-DOPA exposure did not alter cocaine-induced locomotor response, suggesting dissociation between the effects of prenatal L-DOPA exposure on conditioned place preference and locomotor activity. Tissue concentration of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum and ventral midbrain were significantly affected by the L-DOPA exposure as well as by developmental changes over the P14 to P60 period. Thus, elevation of dopamine levels during gestation can produce persisting changes in brain dopamine content, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine conditioned place preference. PMID:20854831

Ren, Jia-Qian; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhihui; McCarthy, Deirdre; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M.; Tropea, Thomas F.; Kosofsky, Barry E.; Bhide, Pradeep G.

2010-01-01

45

Endogenous dopamine is involved in the herbicide paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death.  

PubMed

The herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Systemic exposure of mice to paraquat causes a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, although paraquat is not selectively incorporated in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report a contribution of endogenous dopamine to paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death. Exposure of PC12 cells to paraquat (50?M) caused delayed toxicity from 36 h onward. A decline in intracellular dopamine content achieved by inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme for dopamine synthesis, conferred resistance to paraquat toxicity on dopaminergic cells. Paraquat increased the levels of cytosolic and vesicular dopamine, accompanied by transiently increased TH activity. Quinone derived from cytosolic dopamine conjugates with cysteine residues in functional proteins to form quinoproteins. Formation of quinoprotein was transiently increased early during exposure to paraquat. Furthermore, pretreatment with ascorbic acid, which suppressed the elevations of intracellular dopamine and quinoprotein, almost completely prevented paraquat toxicity. These results suggest that the elevation of cytosolic dopamine induced by paraquat participates in the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to delayed toxicity through the formation of quinoproteins. PMID:24743698

Izumi, Yasuhiko; Ezumi, Masayuki; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

2014-06-01

46

Dopamine induces the accumulation of insoluble prion protein and affects autophagic flux  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of protein aggregates is a histopathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, but in most cases the aggregation occurs without defined mutations or clinical histories, suggesting that certain endogenous metabolites can promote aggregation of specific proteins. One example that supports this hypothesis is dopamine and its metabolites. Dopamine metabolism generates several oxidative metabolites that induce aggregation of ?-synuclein, and represents the main etiology of Parkinson's diseases. Because dopamine and its metabolites are unstable and can be highly reactive, we investigated whether these molecules can also affect other proteins that are prone to aggregate, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC). In this study, we showed that dopamine treatment of neuronal cells reduced the number of viable cells and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall PrPC expression level was not altered by dopamine treatment, but its unglycosylated form was consistently reduced at 100 ?M of dopamine. At the same concentration, the level of phosphorylated mTOR and 4EBP1 was also reduced. Moreover, dopamine treatment decreased the solubility of PrPC, and increased its accumulation in autophagosomal compartments with concomitant induction of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1 levels. In vitro oxidation of dopamine promoted formation of high-order oligomers of recombinant prion protein. These results suggest that dopamine metabolites alter the conformation of PrPC, which in turn is sorted to degradation pathway, causing autophagosome overload and attenuation of protein synthesis. Accumulation of PrPC aggregates is an important feature of prion diseases. Thus, this study brings new insight into the dopamine metabolism as a source of endogenous metabolites capable of altering PrPC solubility and its subcellular localization.

da Luz, Marcio H. M.; Peres, Italo T.; Santos, Tiago G.; Martins, Vilma R.; Icimoto, Marcelo Y.; Lee, Kil S.

2015-01-01

47

Depletion-induced structure and dynamics in bimodal colloidal suspensions.  

SciTech Connect

Combined small angle x-ray scattering and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy studies of moderately concentrated bimodal hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in the fluid phase show that depletion-induced demixing introduces spatially heterogeneous dynamics with two distinct time scales. The adhesive nature, as well as the mobility, of the large particles is determined by the level of interaction within the monomodal domains. This interaction is driven by osmotic forces, which are governed by the relative concentration of the constituents.

Sikorski, M.; Sandy, A. R.; Narayanan, S. (X-Ray Science Division)

2011-05-03

48

Dopamine induces neurite retraction in retinal horizontal cells via diacylglycerol and protein kinase C.  

PubMed Central

Dopamine causes a significant retraction of neurites of bull-head catfish horizontal cells maintained in culture. The effects of dopamine are blocked by haloperidol and SCH 23390, a D1 antagonist, but not by sulpiride, a D2 antagonist. The dopamine-induced morphological changes were mimicked by SKF 38393, a D1 agonist, but not by quinpirole, a D2 agonist. Kainate also caused process retraction, but other neuroactive substances tested including glutamate, 5-hydroxytryptamine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glycine caused only minor changes in neurite length. Cyclic AMP analogues do not induce neurite retraction in horizontal cells, indicating that this effect of dopamine is not mediated by cyclic AMP. However, a protein kinase C activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and synthetic diacylglycerol analogs (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol and dioctanoglycerol) caused marked neurite retraction. Their effects, as well as the dopamine-induced changes, were blocked by staurosporine, a potent protein kinase antagonist. The results suggest that dopamine causes neurite retraction by the activation of protein kinase C via diacylglycerol. Images PMID:2263620

Rodrigues, P dos S; Dowling, J E

1990-01-01

49

Dieldrin exposure induces oxidative damage in the mouse nigrostriatal dopamine system  

PubMed Central

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we provide evidence that the insecticide dieldrin causes specific oxidative damage in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We report that exposure of mice to low levels of dieldrin for 30 days resulted in alterations in dopamine-handling as evidenced by a decrease in dopamine metabolites, DOPAC (31.7% decrease) and HVA (29.2% decrease) and significantly increased cysteinyl-catechol levels in the striatum. Furthermore, dieldrin resulted in a 53% decrease in total glutathione, an increase in the redox potential of glutathione, and a 90% increase in protein carbonyls. ?-Synuclein protein expression was also significantly increased in the striatum (25% increase). Finally, dieldrin caused a significant decrease in striatal expression of the dopamine transporter as measured by 3H-WIN 35,428 binding and 3H-dopamine uptake. These alterations occurred in the absence of dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. These effects represent the ability of low doses of dieldrin to increase the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by inducing oxidative stress and suggest that pesticide exposure may act as a promoter of PD. PMID:17291500

Hatcher, Jaime M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; McCormack, Alison L.; Di Monte, Donato A.; Jones, Dean P.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Miller, Gary W.

2007-01-01

50

Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness.  

PubMed

This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a depressed level of desire for action, associated with decreased blood flow in prefrontal, cerebellar and subcortical regions, structures thought to be organized in open loops subserving executive control. In the striatum, dopamine modulates excitatory glutamatergic synapses of the projections from the frontal cortex to striatal neurons, which in turn project back to the frontal cortex via the pallidum and ventral thalamus. The present study was designed to investigate whether endogenous dopamine release increases during loss of executive control in meditation. Participants underwent two 11C-raclopride PET scans: one while attending to speech with eyes closed, and one during active meditation. The tracer competes with endogenous dopamine for access to dopamine D2 receptors predominantly found in the basal ganglia. During meditation, 11C-raclopride binding in ventral striatum decreased by 7.9%. This corresponds to a 65% increase in endogenous dopamine release. The reduced raclopride binding correlated significantly with a concomitant increase in EEG theta activity, a characteristic feature of meditation. All participants reported a decreased desire for action during meditation, along with heightened sensory imagery. The level of gratification and the depth of relaxation did not differ between the attention and meditation conditions. Here we show increased striatal dopamine release during meditation associated with the experience of reduced readiness for action. It is suggested that being in the conscious state of meditation causes a suppression of cortico-striatal glutamatergic transmission. To our knowledge this is the first time in vivo evidence has been provided for regulation of conscious states at a synaptic level. PMID:11958969

Kjaer, Troels W; Bertelsen, Camilla; Piccini, Paola; Brooks, David; Alving, Jørgen; Lou, Hans C

2002-04-01

51

Cystamine induces AIF-mediated apoptosis through glutathione depletion.  

PubMed

Cystamine and its reduced form cysteamine showed protective effects in various models of neurodegenerative disease, including Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Other lines of evidence demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of cysteamine on duodenal mucosa leading to ulcer development. However, the mechanism for cystamine cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here, we report a new pathway in which cystamine induces apoptosis by targeting apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). By screening of various cell lines, we observed that cystamine and cysteamine induce cell death in a cell type-specific manner. Comparison between cystamine-sensitive and cystamine-resistant cell lines revealed that cystamine cytotoxicity is not associated with unfolded protein response, reactive oxygen species generation and transglutaminase or caspase activity; rather, it is associated with the ability of cystamine to trigger AIF nuclear translocation. In cystamine-sensitive cells, cystamine suppresses the levels of intracellular glutathione by inhibiting ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression that triggers AIF translocation. Conversely, glutathione supplementation completely prevents cystamine-induced AIF translocation and apoptosis. In rats, cysteamine administration induces glutathione depletion and AIF translocation leading to apoptosis of duodenal epithelium. These results indicate that AIF translocation through glutathione depletion is the molecular mechanism of cystamine toxicity, and provide important implications for cystamine in the neurodegenerative disease therapeutics as well as in the regulation of AIF-mediated cell death. PMID:25549939

Cho, Sung-Yup; Lee, Jin-Haeng; Ju, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, Hyo-Jun; Lim, Jisun; Lee, Seungun; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Park, Hyun Ho; Choi, Kihang; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Kim, In-Gyu

2015-03-01

52

Schizophrenia is associated with elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations: Evidence from a novel positron emission tomography?method  

PubMed Central

A major line of evidence that supports the hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is the psychomimetic potential of agents such as amphetamine that stimulate dopamine outflow. A novel brain imaging method provides an indirect measure of in vivo synaptic dopamine concentration by quantifying the change in dopamine receptor radiotracer binding produced by agents that alter dopamine release but do not themselves bind to dopamine receptors. The purpose of this investigation is (i) to determine the sensitivity (i.e., amount of dopamine reflected in radiotracer binding changes) of this method by examining the relationship between amphetamine-induced changes in simultaneously derived striatal extracellular dopamine levels with in vivo microdialysis and striatal binding levels with the dopamine D2/D3 positron-emission tomography radioligand [11C]raclopride in nonhuman primates, and (ii) to test the hypothesis of elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In the nonhuman primate study (n = 4), doubling the amphetamine dose produced a doubling in [11C]raclopride specific binding reductions. In addition, the ratio of percent mean dopamine increase to percent mean striatal binding reduction for amphetamine (0.2 mg/kg) was 44:1, demonstrating that relatively small binding changes reflect large changes in dopamine outflow. In the clinical study, patients with schizophrenia (n = 11) compared with healthy volunteers (n = 12) had significantly greater amphetamine-related reductions in [11C]raclopride specific binding (mean ± SEM): ?22.3% (±2.7) vs. ?15.5% (±1.8), P = 0.04, respectively. Inferences from the preclinical study suggest that the patients’ elevation in synaptic dopamine concentrations was substantially greater than controls. These data provide direct evidence for the hypothesis of elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations in schizophrenia. PMID:9122236

Breier, A.; Su, T.-P.; Saunders, R.; Carson, R. E.; Kolachana, B. S.; de Bartolomeis, A.; Weinberger, D. R.; Weisenfeld, N.; Malhotra, A. K.; Eckelman, W. C.; Pickar, D.

1997-01-01

53

Selective Effects of Dopamine Depletion and L-DOPA Therapy on Learning-Related Firing Dynamics of Striatal Neurons  

E-print Network

Despite evidence that dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum is critical for learning as well as for movement control, little is yet known about how the learning-related dynamics of striatal activity are affected by ...

Hernandez, Ledia F.

54

Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function  

SciTech Connect

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 {mu}M) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 {mu}M) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 {mu}M) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD.

Elwan, Mohamed A. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Richardson, Jason R. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Guillot, Thomas S. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Caudle, W. Michael [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Miller, Gary W. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States) and Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: gary.miller@emory.edu

2006-03-15

55

Involvement of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) in Pardaxin-Induced Dopamine Release from PC12 Cells  

E-print Network

Involvement of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) in Pardaxin-Induced Dopamine Release kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in pardaxin-induced dopamine (DA) release DA release. Time course exper- iments indicated that PX, at nontoxic concentrations, stimu- lated ERK

Linial, Michal

56

Dopamine blocks stress mediated ovarian carcinoma growth  

PubMed Central

Purpose Increased adrenergic activity in response to chronic stress is known to promote tumor growth by stimulating the tumor microenvironment. The focus of the current study was to determine whether dopamine, an inhibitory catecholamine, could block the effects of chronic stress on tumor growth. Experimental Design Expression of dopamine receptors (DR1-DR5) was analyzed by real time reverse transcription-PCR and by Western blotting. In vitro effects of dopamine on cell viability, apoptosis and migration were examined. For in vivo therapy, murine and human DR2-siRNA’s were incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles (CH). Results In this model of chronic stress, tumoral norepinephrine levels remained elevated while dopamine levels were significantly decreased compared to non-stressed animals. Daily restraint stress resulted in significantly increased tumor growth in both immunodeficient (SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8) and immunocompetent (ID8) ovarian cancer models. This increase was completely blocked with daily dopamine treatment. Dopamine treatment also blocked the stress induced increase in angiogenesis. Endothelial and ovarian cancer cells expressed all dopamine receptors except for the lack of DR3 expression in ovarian cancer cells. DR2 was responsible for the inhibitory effects of dopamine on tumor growth and microvessel density (MVD) as well as the stimulatory effect on apoptosis, since the DR2-antagonist eticlopride, reversed these effects. Dopamine significantly inhibited cell viability and stimulated apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, dopamine reduced cAMP levels and inhibited norepinephrine and VPF/VEGF induced Src kinase activation. Conclusions Dopamine depletion under chronic stress conditions creates a permissive microenvironment for tumor growth that can be reversed by dopamine replacement. PMID:21531818

Moreno-Smith, Myrthala; Lu, Chunhua; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Armaiz Pena, Guillermo N.; Allen, Julie K.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Han, Hee Dong; Kim, Hye Sun; Farley, Donna; Berestein, Gabriel Lopez; Cole, Steve W.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Sood, Anil K.

2011-01-01

57

Effects of pharmacologic dopamine ?-hydroxylase inhibition on cocaine-induced reinstatement and dopamine neurochemistry in squirrel monkeys.  

PubMed

Disulfiram has shown promise as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence in clinical settings, although it has many targets, and the behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying its efficacy are unclear. One of many biochemical actions of disulfiram is inhibition of dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons. Thus, disulfiram simultaneously reduces NE and elevates DA tissue levels in the brain. In rats, both disulfiram and the selective DBH inhibitor nepicastat block cocaine-primed reinstatement, a paradigm which is thought to model some aspects of drug relapse. This is consistent with some clinical results and supports the use of DBH inhibitors for the treatment of cocaine dependence. The present study was conducted to confirm and extend these results in nonhuman primates. Squirrel monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine were pretreated with disulfiram or nepicastat prior to cocaine-induced reinstatement sessions. Neither DBH inhibitor altered cocaine-induced reinstatement. Unexpectedly, nepicastat administered alone induced a modest reinstatement effect in squirrel monkeys, but not in rats. To investigate the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the behavioral results, the effects of DBH inhibition on extracellular DA were analyzed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) using in vivo microdialysis in squirrel monkeys. Both DBH inhibitors attenuated cocaine-induced DA overflow in the NAc. Hence, the attenuation of cocaine-induced changes in accumbal DA neurochemistry was not associated with altered cocaine-seeking behavior. Overall, the reported behavioral effects of DBH inhibition in rodent models of relapse did not extend to nonhuman primates under the conditions used in the current studies. PMID:24817036

Cooper, Debra A; Kimmel, Heather L; Manvich, Daniel F; Schmidt, Karl T; Weinshenker, David; Howell, Leonard L

2014-07-01

58

Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a depressed level of desire for action, associated with decreased blood flow in prefrontal, cerebellar and subcortical regions, structures thought to

Troels W Kjaer; Camilla Bertelsen; Paola Piccini; David Brooks; Jørgen Alving; Hans C Lou

2002-01-01

59

Restoration of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization in dopamine D 1 receptor-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and objectives  Amphetamine-induced sensitization is thought to involve dopamine D1 receptors. Using mice lacking dopamine D1 receptors (D1?\\/?), we found that they exhibited blunted sensitization to low doses of amphetamine, while others using different treatment\\u000a and testing regimens reported inconsistent results. We investigated whether experimental variables, alteration in gene expression\\u000a or cholinergic input played a role in amphetamine-induced responses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  D1?\\/?

Mufida B. El-Ghundi; Theresa Fan; Joanna M. Karasinska; John Yeung; Millee Zhou; Brian F. O’Dowd; Susan R. George

2010-01-01

60

Endocannabinoid signaling mediates cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in midbrain dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain reduce cocaine seeking in rodents and humans, suggesting that GABAergic inhibition regulates cocaine-seeking behavior. We previously reported that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo facilitates long-term potentiation by reducing the strength of GABAergic inhibition in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Selective blockade of cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition in the VTA might diminish cocaine-induced aberrant synaptic plasticity and addictive behavior. Here, we investigated the mechanism for cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition. We show that a pathophysiologically relevant concentration of cocaine enables a normally ineffective stimulus to induce long-term depression (LTD) of IPSCs (I-LTD) in VTA dopamine neurons of midbrain slices. Activation of D2 dopamine receptors and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors and subsequent recruitment of endocannabinoid signaling are required for I-LTD induction. We further demonstrate that in vivo pretreatment with antagonists to these receptors blocks cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition and that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo occludes the subsequent induction of I-LTD ex vivo. Together, these results suggest that repeated cocaine exposure reduces the strength of GABAergic inhibition in dopamine neurons by inducing I-LTD-like modification in vivo. PMID:18256258

Pan, Bin; Hillard, Cecilia J; Liu, Qing-song

2008-02-01

61

Neutrophil depletion inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness induced by ozone exposure  

SciTech Connect

We studied whether ozone-induced hyperresponsiveness could be inhibited by neutrophil depletion in dogs. Responsiveness was assessed with dose-response curves of acetylcholine aerosol versus pulmonary resistance; depletion was assessed by counting neutrophils in venous blood and in biopsies of the airway epithelium. Responsiveness and neutrophil numbers were determined 5 days and 1 day before ozone and 1 h after ozone (3.0 ppm, 2 h) in 6 untreated dogs and in 6 dogs treated with hydroxyurea (200 mg/kg daily for 5 days starting 5 days before ozone). In untreated dogs, responsiveness and neutrophil numbers 5 days and 1 day before ozone did not change, but responsiveness and epithelial neutrophils increased markedly after ozone. In treated dogs, circulating neutrophils decreased from 8.9 +/- 2.2 to 0.6 +/- 0.01 X 10(3) per mm3 (mean +/- SEM), and responsiveness before ozone did not change. Furthermore, increases in responsiveness and epithelial neutrophils did not occur after ozone. Six wk after stopping hydroxyurea, responsiveness and epithelial neutrophils increased markedly after ozone. The results suggest that ozone-induced hyperresponsiveness may depend on the mobilization of neutrophils into the airways.

O'Byrne, P.M.; Walters, E.H.; Gold, B.D.; Aizawa, H.A.; Fabbri, L.M.; Alpert, S.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Holtzman, M.J.

1984-08-01

62

Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND  

PubMed Central

Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

2013-01-01

63

Dopamine-Induced Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease. PMID:21603184

Park, Ariane; Stacy, Mark

2011-01-01

64

Dopamine-induced nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease. PMID:21603184

Park, Ariane; Stacy, Mark

2011-01-01

65

Evidence for a Role of Transporter-Mediated Currents in the Depletion of Brain Serotonin Induced by Serotonin Transporter Substrates  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) substrates like fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine cause long-term depletion of brain 5-HT, while certain other substrates do not. The 5-HT deficits produced by SERT substrates are dependent upon transporter proteins, but the exact mechanisms responsible are unclear. Here, we compared the pharmacology of several SERT substrates: fenfluramine, d-fenfluramine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperainze (TFMPP), to establish relationships between acute drug mechanisms and the propensity for long-term 5-HT depletions. In vivo microdialysis was carried out in rat nucleus accumbens to examine acute 5-HT release and long-term depletion in the same subjects. In vitro assays were performed to measure efflux of [3H]5-HT in rat brain synaptosomes and transporter-mediated ionic currents in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. When administered repeatedly to rats (6?mg/kg, i.p., four doses), all drugs produce large sustained elevations in extracellular 5-HT (>5-fold) with minimal effects on dopamine. Importantly, 2 weeks after dosing, only rats exposed to fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine display depletion of brain 5-HT. All test drugs evoke fluoxetine-sensitive efflux of [3H]5-HT from synaptosomes, but d-fenfluramine and its bioactive metabolite d-norfenfluramine induce significantly greater SERT-mediated currents than phenylpiperazines. Our data confirm that drug-induced 5-HT release probably does not mediate 5-HT depletion. However, the magnitude of transporter-mediated inward current may be a critical factor in the cascade of events leading to 5-HT deficits. This hypothesis warrants further study, especially given the growing popularity of designer drugs that target SERT. PMID:24287719

Baumann, Michael H; Bulling, Simon; Benaderet, Tova S; Saha, Kusumika; Ayestas, Mario A; Partilla, John S; Ali, Syed F; Stockner, Thomas; Rothman, Richard B; Sandtner, Walter; Sitte, Harald H

2014-01-01

66

Imaging of Alcohol-Induced Dopamine Release in Rats: Preliminary Findings With  

E-print Network

to mediate the reinforcing properties of alcohol that can lead to alcohol abuse and dependence (Martin grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and AlcoholismImaging of Alcohol-Induced Dopamine Release in Rats: Preliminary Findings With [11 C]Raclopride PET

Morris, Evan D,

67

Nitric oxide and DOPAC-induced cell death: from GSH depletion to mitochondrial energy crisis.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms inherent to cell death associated with Parkinson's disease are not clearly understood. Diverse pathways, sequence of events and models have been explored in several studies. Recently, we have proposed an integrative mechanism, encompassing the interaction of nitric oxide (•NO) and a major dopamine metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC), leading to a synergistic mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death that may be operative in PD. In this study, we have studied the sequence of events underlying the mechanisms of cell death in PC12 cells exposed to •NO and DOPAC in terms of: a) free radical production; b) modulation by glutathione (GSH); c) energetic status and d) outer membrane mitochondria permeability. Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) it is shown the early production of oxygen free radicals followed by a depletion of GSH reflected by an increase of GSSG/GSH ratio in the cells treated with the mixture of •NO/DOPAC, as compared with the cells individually exposed to each of the stimulus. Glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may rescue cells from death, increasing GSH content and preventing ATP loss in cells treated with the mixture DOPAC/•NO but failed to exert similar effects in the cells challenged only with •NO. The depletion of GSH is accompanied by a decreased activity of mitochondrial complex I. At a later stage, the concerted action of DOPAC and •NO include a rise in the ratio Bax/Bcl-2, an observation not evident when cells were exposed only to •NO. The results support a free radical-induced pathway leading to cell death involving the concerted action of DOPAC and •NO and the critical role of GSH in maintaining a functional mitochondria. PMID:21708261

Nunes, Carla; Barbosa, Rui M; Almeida, Leonor; Laranjinha, João

2011-09-01

68

SK channel blockade reverses cognitive and motor deficits induced by nigrostriatal dopamine lesions in rats.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease has traditionally been viewed as a motor disorder caused by the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, emotional and cognitive syndromes can precede the onset of the motor deficits and provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Potassium channels have recently emerged as potential new targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The selective blockade of small conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (SK channels) by apamin is known to increase burst firing in midbrain DA neurons and therefore DA release. We thus investigated the effects of systemic administration of apamin on the motor, cognitive deficits and anxiety present after bilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in rats. Apamin administration (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg i.p.) counteracted the depression, anxiety-like behaviors evaluated on sucrose consumption and in the elevated plus maze, social recognition and spatial memory deficits produced by partial 6-OHDA lesions. Apamin also reduced asymmetric motor deficits on circling behavior and postural adjustments in the unilateral extensive 6-OHDA model. The partial 6-OHDA lesions (56% striatal DA depletion) produced 20% decrease of iodinated apamin binding sites in the substantia nigra pars compacta in correlation with the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells, without modifying apamin binding in brain regions receiving DAergic innervation. Striatal extracellular levels of DA, not detectable after 6-OHDA lesions, were enhanced by apamin treatment as measured by in vivo microdialysis. These results indicate that blocking SK channels may reinstate minimal DA activity in the striatum to alleviate the non-motor symptoms induced by partial striatal DA lesions. PMID:24661728

Chen, Lin; Deltheil, Thierry; Turle-Lorenzo, Nathalie; Liberge, Martine; Rosier, Corinne; Watabe, Isabelle; Sreng, Leam; Amalric, Marianne; Mourre, Christiane

2014-08-01

69

Cocaine-Induced Intracellular Signaling and Gene Expression Are Oppositely Regulated by the Dopamine D1 and D3 Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated exposure to cocaine can induce neuroadaptations in the brain. One mechanism by which persistent changes occur involves alterations in gene expression mediated by the dopamine receptors. Both the dopamine D1 and D3 receptors have been shown to mediate gene expression changes. Moreover, the D1 and D3 receptors are also coexpressed in the same neurons, particularly in the nucleus accumbens

Lu Zhang; Danwen Lou; Hongyuan Jiao; Dongsheng Zhang; Xinkang Wang; Ying Xia; Jianhua Zhang; Ming Xu

2004-01-01

70

Attenuation of antagonist-induced impairment of dopamine receptors by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide  

SciTech Connect

The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether chronic,long-term postnatal challenge of rat pups per se, with specific dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, would modify the ontogeny of the respective receptor types. Since the neuropeptide L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) attenuates the effect of haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptors in adult rats it was of interest to determine whether PLG would modulate antagonists-induced alterations in the ontogeny of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Half of the rats were treated daily for 32 days from birth with SCH-23390, a selective dopamine D1 antagonist; or spiroperidol, a selective dopamine D2 antagonists; or both SCH-23390 and spiroperidol; or saline. The other half of the litters were treated with PLG, in combination with the other treatments. Animals were decapitated at 5, 8, and 12 weeks from birth for neurochemical analysis of the striatum. Chronic SCH-23390 treatment produced a 70-80% decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 to striatal homogenates. The alteration at 5 weeks was associated with a 78% decrease in the Bmax for ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 binding, and no change in the K{sub D}. Similarly, at 5, 8, and 12 weeks, chronic spiroperidol treatment reduced the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol to striatal homogenates by 70-80%.

Saleh, M.I.M.

1988-01-01

71

Adaptations of presynaptic dopamine terminals induced by psychostimulant self-administration.  

PubMed

A great deal of research has focused on investigating neurobiological alterations induced by chronic psychostimulant use in an effort to describe, understand, and treat the pathology of psychostimulant addiction. It has been known for several decades that dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is integrally involved in the selection and execution of motivated and goal-directed behaviors, and that psychostimulants act on this system to exert many of their effects. As such, a large body of work has focused on defining the consequences of psychostimulant use on dopamine signaling in the striatum as it relates to addictive behaviors. Here, we review presynaptic dopamine terminal alterations observed following self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine, as well as possible mechanisms by which these alterations occur and their impact on the progression of addiction. PMID:25491345

Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Jones, Sara R

2015-01-21

72

Antipsychotic drugs rapidly induce dopamine neuron depolarization block in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Repeated administration of antipsychotic drugs to normal rats has been shown to induce a state of dopamine neuron inactivation known as depolarization block, which correlates with the ability of the drugs to exhibit antipsychotic efficacy and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenia patients. Nonetheless, in normal rats depolarization block requires weeks of antipsychotic drug administration, whereas schizophrenia patients exhibit initial effects soon after initiating antipsychotic drug treatment. We now report that, in a developmental disruption rat model of schizophrenia [methyl-azoxymethanol acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.) injected into G17 pregnant female rats, with offspring tested as adults], the extant hyperdopaminergic state combines with the excitatory actions of a first- (haloperidol; 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and a second- (sertindole; 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) generation antipsychotic drug to rapidly induce depolarization block in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Acute injection of either antipsychotic drug induced an immediate reduction in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons (cells per electrode track; termed population activity). Repeated administration of either antipsychotic drug for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 21 d continued to reduce dopamine neuron population activity. Both acute and repeated effects on population activity were reversed by acute apomorphine injections, which is consistent with the reversal of dopamine neuron depolarization block. Although this action may account for the effects of D2 antagonist drugs on alleviating psychosis and the lack of development of tolerance in humans, the drugs appear to do so by inducing an offsetting deficit rather than attacking the primary pathology present in schizophrenia. PMID:21865475

Valenti, Ornella; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Gill, Kathryn M; Grace, Anthony A

2011-08-24

73

Caffeine Expectancies but Not Caffeine Reduce Depletion-Induced Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is the most widely consumed central nervous system stimulant in the world, yet little is known about its effects on aggressive behavior. Individuals often consume caffeine to increase energy and ward off mental depletion. Because mental depletion increases aggression when people are provoked, caffeine might reduce aggression by ameliorating the negative effects of depletion. In 2 experiments, participants consumed

Thomas F. Denson; Mandi Jacobson; William von Hippel; Richard I. Kemp; Tinnie Mak

2012-01-01

74

PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/?) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/?, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

2014-01-01

75

Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Depletion-Induced Interactions for Soft Matter Systems  

E-print Network

Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (WCA) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.

Tyler N. Shendruk; Martin Bertrand; James L. Harden; Gary W. Slater; Hendrick W. de Haan

2014-08-01

76

Neuroprotection of desferrioxamine in lipopolysaccharide-induced nigrostriatal dopamine neuron degeneration.  

PubMed

Inflammation and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra (SN) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the relationship between neuroinflammation and iron mismanagement remain largely unknown. In the present study, an animal model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to evaluate iron concentration in the ventral midbrain with or without neuroinflammation. Furthermore, the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO) was used to explore its neuroprotective property against LPS-induced nigrostriatal degeneration. Adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with DFO (2.5 µg) commenced 3 days prior to or following microinjection of LPS into the striatum. Animal behavioral tests, as well as pathological and biochemical assays were performed to evaluate the nigrostriatal dopamine neuron degeneration and neuroprotective effects of DFO. Here, we report that the iron concentration in the ventral midbrain significantly increased following intrastriatal injection of LPS, and administration of DFO improved behavior deficits, attenuated dopamine (DA) neuron loss and striatal DA reduction, and alleviated microglial activation in the SN. These results suggest that DFO may possess neuroprotective effect against LPS-induced nigrostriatal dopamine neuron degeneration. PMID:22076309

Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Keke; Du, Xinrui; Li, Yanbin

2012-02-01

77

Hyperthermia restores apoptosis induced by death receptors through aggregation-induced c-FLIP cytosolic depletion.  

PubMed

TRAIL is involved in immune tumor surveillance and is considered a promising anti-cancer agent owing to its limited side effects on healthy cells. However, some cancer cells display resistance, or become resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Hyperthermia can enhance sensitivity to TRAIL-induced cell death in various resistant cancer cell lines, including lung, breast, colon or prostate carcinomas. Mild heat shock treatment has been proposed to restore Fas ligand or TRAIL-induced apoptosis through c-FLIP degradation or the mitochondrial pathway. We demonstrate here that neither the mitochondria nor c-FLIP degradation are required for TRAIL-induced cell death restoration during hyperthermia. Our data provide evidence that insolubilization of c-FLIP, alone, is sufficient to enhance apoptosis induced by death receptors. Hyperthermia induced c-FLIP depletion from the cytosolic fraction, without apparent degradation, thereby preventing c-FLIP recruitment to the TRAIL DISC and allowing efficient caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. Hyperthermia-induced c-FLIP depletion was independent of c-FLIP DED2 FL chain assembly motif or ubiquitination-mediated c-FLIP degradation, as assessed using c-FLIP point mutants on lysine 167 and 195 or threonine 166, a phosphorylation site known to regulate ubiquitination of c-FLIP. Rather, c-FLIP depletion was associated with aggregation, because addition of glycerol not only prevented the loss of c-FLIP from the cytosol but also enabled c-FLIP recruitment within the TRAIL DISC, thus inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis during hyperthermia. Altogether our results demonstrate that c-FLIP is a thermosensitive protein whose targeting by hyperthermia allows restoration of apoptosis induced by TNF ligands, including TRAIL. Our findings suggest that combining TRAIL agonists with whole-body or localized hyperthermia may be an interesting approach in cancer therapy. PMID:25675293

Morlé, A; Garrido, C; Micheau, O

2015-01-01

78

Coenzyme Q induces nigral mitochondrial uncoupling and prevents dopamine cell loss in a primate model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine cell loss of the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine may destroy dopamine neurons through oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q is a cofactor of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins that enhances state-4 respiration and eliminate superoxides. Here we report that short-term oral administration of coenzyme Q induces nigral mitochondrial uncoupling and prevents dopamine cell loss after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine administration in monkeys. PMID:12810526

Horvath, Tamas L; Diano, Sabrina; Leranth, Csaba; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Cowley, Michael A; Shanabrough, Marya; Elsworth, John D; Sotonyi, Peter; Roth, Robert H; Dietrich, Edwin H; Matthews, Russel T; Barnstable, Colin J; Redmond, D Eugene

2003-07-01

79

Coenzyme Q Induces Nigral Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Prevents Dopamine Cell Loss in a Primate Model of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine cell loss of the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine may destroy do- pamine neurons through oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q is a cofactor of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins that enhances state-4 respiration and eliminate superoxides. Here we report that short-term oral administration of coenzyme Q induces nigral mitochondrial uncoupling and prevents dopamine

TAMAS L. HORVATH; SABRINA DIANO; CSABA LERANTH; LUIS MIGUEL GARCIA-SEGURA; MICHAEL A. COWLEY; MARYA SHANABROUGH; JOHN D. ELSWORTH; PETER SOTONYI; ROBERT H. ROTH; EDWIN H. DIETRICH; RUSSEL T. MATTHEWS; COLIN J. BARNSTABLE; D. EUGENE REDMOND

2003-01-01

80

Calcium Store Depletion Induces Persistent Perisomatic Increases in the Functional Density  

E-print Network

Neuron Article Calcium Store Depletion Induces Persistent Perisomatic Increases in the Functional of intracellular calcium by the endo- plasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in neuronal function. While the consequences associated with depleting calcium from the ER have been studied in multiple systems

Alford, Simon

81

Prenatal Inflammation-Induced Hypoferremia Alters Dopamine Function in the Adult Offspring in Rat: Relevance for Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Maternal infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased incidence of schizophrenia in the adult offspring. Mechanistically, this has been partially attributed to neurodevelopmental disruption of the dopamine neurons, as a consequence of exacerbated maternal immunity. In the present study we sought to target hypoferremia, a cytokine-induced reduction of serum non-heme iron, which is common to all types of infections. Adequate iron supply to the fetus is fundamental for the development of the mesencephalic dopamine neurons and disruption of this following maternal infection can affect the offspring's dopamine function. Using a rat model of localized injury induced by turpentine, which triggers the innate immune response and inflammation, we investigated the effects of maternal iron supplementation on the offspring's dopamine function by assessing behavioral responses to acute and repeated administration of the dopamine indirect agonist, amphetamine. In addition we measured protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, and tissue levels of dopamine and its metabolites, in ventral tegmental area, susbtantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Offspring of turpentine-treated mothers exhibited greater responses to a single amphetamine injection and enhanced behavioral sensitization following repeated exposure to this drug, when compared to control offspring. These behavioral changes were accompanied by increased baseline levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine and its metabolites, selectively in the nucleus accumbens. Both, the behavioral and neurochemical changes were prevented by maternal iron supplementation. Localized prenatal inflammation induced a deregulation in iron homeostasis, which resulted in fundamental alterations in dopamine function and behavioral alterations in the adult offspring. These changes are characteristic of schizophrenia symptoms in humans. PMID:20532043

Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Flores, Cecilia; Luheshi, Giamal N.

2010-01-01

82

Stimulants as Specific Inducers of Dopamine-Independent ? Agonist Self-Administration in Rats  

PubMed Central

A previous study showed that cocaine self-administration induced dopamine-independent reinforcing effects of ? agonists mediated by their selective actions at ?1 receptors (?1Rs), which are intracellularly mobile chaperone proteins implicated in abuse-related effects of stimulants. The present study assessed whether the induction was specific to self-administration of cocaine. Rats were trained to self-administer the dopamine releaser, d-methamphetamine (0.01–0.32 mg/kg per injection), the ?-opioid receptor agonist, heroin (0.001–0.032 mg/kg per injection), and the noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor/channel antagonist ketamine (0.032–1.0 mg/kg per injection). As with cocaine, self-administration of d-methamphetamine induced reinforcing effects of the selective ?1R agonists PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride] and (+)-pentazocine (0.032–1.0 mg/kg per injection, each). In contrast, neither self-administration of heroin nor ketamine induced PRE-084 or (+)-pentazocine (0.032–10 mg/kg per injection, each) self-administration. Although the ?1R agonists did not maintain responding in subjects with histories of heroin or ketamine self-administration, substitution for those drugs was obtained with appropriate agonists (e.g., remifentanil, 0.1–3.2 µg/kg per injection, for heroin and (5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ((+)-MK 801; dizocilpine), 0.32–10.0 µg/kg per injection, for ketamine). The ?R antagonist N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine dihydrobromide (BD 1008; 1.0–10 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked PRE-084 self-administration but was inactive against d-methamphetamine, heroin, and ketamine. In contrast, PRE-084 self-administration was affected neither by the dopamine receptor antagonist (+)-butaclamol (10–100 ?g/kg) nor by the opioid antagonist (?)-naltrexone (1.0–10 mg/kg), whereas these antagonists were active against d-methamphetamine and heroin self-administration, respectively. The results indicate that experience specifically with indirect-acting dopamine agonists induces reinforcing effects of previously inactive ?1R agonists. It is further suggested that induced ?1R reinforcing mechanisms may play an essential role in treatment-resistant stimulant abuse, suggesting new approaches for the development of effective medications for its treatment. PMID:23908387

Hiranita, Takato; Soto, Paul L.; Tanda, Gianluigi; Kopajtic, Theresa A.

2013-01-01

83

Transsynaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to

S. L. Dewey; R. Straughter-Moore; R. Chen

1995-01-01

84

Title : Involvement of D1 dopamine receptor in MDMA-induced locomotor activity and striatal gene expression in mice.  

E-print Network

, France Abstract 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a widely used recreational drug with psychoactive properties, induces both serotonin and dopamine release in the brain. In rats and mice MDMA induces behavioural changes and has rewarding effects but little is known about its cellular effects. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of depletion-induced interactions for soft matter systems.  

PubMed

Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA)) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density. PMID:25554183

Shendruk, Tyler N; Bertrand, Martin; Harden, James L; Slater, Gary W; de Haan, Hendrick W

2014-12-28

86

Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of depletion-induced interactions for soft matter systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA)) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.

Shendruk, Tyler N.; Bertrand, Martin; Harden, James L.; Slater, Gary W.; de Haan, Hendrick W.

2014-12-01

87

Shock induced multi-mode damage in depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

Recent dynamic damage studies on depleted uranium samples have revealed mixed mode failure mechanisms leading to incipient cracking as well as ductile failure processes. Results show that delamination of inclusions upon compression may provide nucleation sites for damage initiation in the form of crack tip production. However, under tension the material propagates cracks in a mixed shear localization and mode-I ductile tearing and cracking. Cracks tips appear to link up through regions of severe, shear dominated plastic flow. Shock recovery experiments were conducted on a 50 mm single stage light gas gun. Serial metallographic sectioning was conducted on the recovered samples to characterize the bulk response of the sample. Experiments show delaminated inclusions due to uniaxial compression without damage propagation. Further results show the propagation of the damage through tensile loading to the incipient state, illustrating ductile processes coupled with mixed mode-I tensile ductile tearing, shear localization, and mode-I cracking in depleted uranium.

Koller, Darcie D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

88

Macrophage depletion ameliorates nephritis induced by pathogenic antibodies.  

PubMed

Kidney involvement affects 40-60% of patients with lupus, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Using depletion approaches, several studies have suggested that macrophages may play a key role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. However, "off target" effects of macrophage depletion, such as altered hematopoiesis or enhanced autoantibody production, impeded the determination of a conclusive relationship. In this study, we investigated the role of macrophages in mice receiving rabbit anti-glomerular antibodies, or nephrotoxic serum (NTS), an experimental model which closely mimics the immune complex mediated disease seen in murine and human lupus nephritis. GW2580, a selective inhibitor of the colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor kinase, was used for macrophage depletion. We found that GW2580-treated, NTS challenged mice did not develop the increased levels of proteinuria, serum creatinine, and BUN seen in control-treated, NTS challenged mice. NTS challenged mice exhibited significantly increased kidney expression of inflammatory cytokines including RANTES, IP-10, VCAM-1 and iNOS, whereas GW2580-treated mice were protected from the robust expression of these inflammatory cytokines that are associated with lupus nephritis. Quantification of macrophage related gene expression, flow cytometry analysis of kidney single cell suspensions, and immunofluorescence staining confirmed the depletion of macrophages in GW2580-treated mice, specifically within renal glomeruli. Our results strongly implicate a specific and necessary role for macrophages in the development of immune glomerulonephritis mediated by pathogenic antibodies, and support the development of macrophage targeting approaches for the treatment of lupus nephritis. PMID:25554644

Chalmers, Samantha A; Chitu, Violeta; Herlitz, Leal C; Sahu, Ranjit; Stanley, E Richard; Putterman, Chaim

2015-02-01

89

Dopamine induces light-adaptive retinomotor movements in bullfrog cones via D2 receptors and in retinal pigment epithelium via D1 receptors.  

PubMed

In the eyes of lower vertebrates, retinal photoreceptors and melanin pigment granules of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) exhibit characteristic retinomotor movements in response to changes in ambient illumination and to signals from an endogenous circadian clock. We previously reported that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) mimicked the effect of light on these movements in photo-receptors and RPE cells of green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, by interacting with D2 dopaminergic receptors. Here, we report that dopamine also mimics the effect of light on cone and RPE retinomotor movements in bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, i.e., dopamine induces cone contraction and RPE pigment dispersion. Dopamine induced cone contraction in isolated dark-adapted bullfrog retinas incubated in constant darkness in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). This effect of dopamine was inhibited by a D2 but not a D1 antagonist and mimicked by a D2 but not a D1 agonist. These results suggest that induction of cone contraction by dopamine is mediated by D2 dopaminergic receptors and that cone adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited. Thus, dopamine acts via the same type of receptor in both bullfrog and green sunfish retinas to induce cone contraction. In contrast, dopamine influences RPE retinomotor movement via different receptors in fish and bullfrog. Dopamine induced light-adaptive pigment dispersion in isolated dark-adapted bullfrog RPE-eyecups incubated in constant darkness in normal Ringer's solution. Because the retina was not present, these experiments demonstrate a direct effect of dopamine on bullfrog RPE. This effect of dopamine on bullfrog RPE was inhibited by a D1 but not a D2 antagonist and mimicked by a D1 but not a D2 agonist. Furthermore, agents that increase the concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP also induced pigment dispersion in dark-adapted bullfrog RPE-eyecups incubated in the dark. These results suggest that dopamine induces pigment dispersion in bullfrog RPE via D1 dopaminergic receptors. Thus, dopamine acts via different receptors on bullfrog (D1) versus green sunfish (D2) RPE to induce pigment dispersion. In addition, inhibitor studies indicate that pigment dispersion is actin dependent in teleost but not in bullfrog RPE. Dopamine-induced pigment dispersion was inhibited by cytochalasin D in isolated RPE sheets of green sunfish but not in RPE-eyecups of bullfrogs. Together, these observations indicate that dopamine mimics the effect of light on cone and RPE retinomotor movements in both fish and bullfrogs. However, in the RPE, different receptors mediate the effect of dopamine, and different cytoskeletal mechanisms are used to affect pigment transport.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2156019

Dearry, A; Edelman, J L; Miller, S; Burnside, B

1990-04-01

90

Activation of D1 dopamine receptors induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that selective dopamine receptor activation induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, we tested the effects of chloro-APB (D1 agonist) and quinpirole (D2 agonist) on time to emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. We then performed a dose–response study to test for chloro-APB-induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. SCH-23390 (D1 antagonist) was used to confirm that the effects induced by chloro-APB are specifically mediated by D1 receptors. In a separate group of animals, spectral analysis was performed on surface electroencephalogram recordings to assess neurophysiological changes induced by chloro-APB and quinpirole during isoflurane general anesthesia. RESULTS Chloro-APB decreased median time to emergence from 330s to 50s. The median difference in time to emergence between the saline control group (n=6) and the chloro-APB group (n = 6) was 222s (95% CI: 77–534s, Mann-Whitney test). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0082). During continuous isoflurane anesthesia, chloro-APB dose-dependently restored righting (n = 6) and decreased electroencephalogram delta power (n = 4). These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with SCH-23390. Quinpirole did not restore righting (n = 6) and had no significant effect on the electroencephalogram (n = 4) during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS Activation of D1 receptors by chloro-APB decreases time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia, and produces behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of arousal during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. These findings suggest that selective activation of a D1 receptor-mediated arousal mechanism is sufficient to induce emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. PMID:23221866

Taylor, Norman E.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

2012-01-01

91

Differential behavioral reinforcement effects of dopamine receptor agonists in the rat with bilateral lesion of the posterior ventral tegmental area.  

PubMed

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease has been attributed to dopamine replacement therapies and/or a lesion of the dopaminergic system. The dopaminergic neuronal loss targets the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We hypothesize that dopamine replacement therapy is responsible for the potential reinforcement effect in Parkinson's disease by acting on the neuronal reward circuitry. Therefore this study was designed to explore the potential motivational effect of dopamine replacement therapy in bilateral VTA-lesioned animals. The posterior (p)VTA, which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) constitutes the major dopamine neuronal circuitry implicated in addictive disorders. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) behavioral paradigm, we investigated the motivational effects of dopamine receptor agonists, and cocaine in rat with a 6-OHDA bilateral lesion of the pVTA. Amongst the dopamine receptor agonists used in this study only the D2R and D3R agonists (bromocriptine, PD128907 and pramipexole), induced a significant CPP in pVTA-lesioned animals. Dopamine receptor agonists did not induce behavioral sensitization in sham animals. Moreover, confocal D2R immunostaining analysis showed a significant increase in the number of D2R per cell body in the NAc shell of pVTA lesioned rats compared to sham. This result correlated, for the first time, the dopamine receptor agonists effect with DR2 overexpression in the NAc shell of pVTA-lesioned rats. In addition, cocaine, which is known to increase dopamine release, induced behavioral sensitization in sham group but not in dopamine deprived group. Thus, the later result highlighted the importance of pVTA-NAc dopaminergic pathway in positive reinforcements. Altogether these data suggested that the implication of the dopamine replacement therapy in the appearance of dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease is probably due to both neuronal degeneration in the posterior VTA and dopamine receptor sensitization in the dopamine depleted NAc. PMID:23727149

Ouachikh, Omar; Dieb, Wisam; Durif, Franck; Hafidi, Aziz

2013-09-01

92

Hydrogen peroxide induces loss of dopamine transporter activity: a calcium-dependent oxidative mechanism.  

PubMed

H2O2 dose dependently inhibited dopamine uptake in PC12 cells and in striatal synaptosomes. Treatment with H2O2 resulted in a reversible reduction in Vmax, with no effect on its Km value. This suppressive effect of H2O2 could be relieved by reducing agents (dithiothreitol and cysteine). Furthermore, an oxidizer (dithiodipyridine) also markedly suppressed the dopamine transporter (DAT). Oxidative stress therefore might contribute to the action of H2O2. H2O2 appeared to modify DAT at both extracellular and intracellular sites because cumene-H2O2 (a radical generator mostly restricted to plasma membranes) at high concentrations also slightly suppressed DAT activity and the intracellular overexpression of catalase ameliorated the inhibitory effect of H2O2. Internalization was unlikely to be involved because concanavalin A, which blocked endocytosis, did not prevent the H2O2-evoked inhibition of DAT activity. Interestingly, H2O2 treatment evoked a Ca2+ influx in PC12 cells. Moreover, removal of external calcium by EGTA or reduction in the intracellular calcium level using BAPTA-AM reversed the inhibitory effect of H2O2. Conversely, depletion of intracellular calcium stores using thapsigargin did not affect the reduction in DAT activity by H2O2. Collectively, our results indicate that the DAT, one of the most important proteins controlling the dopaminergic system, is also a redox sensor. In addition, H2O2 might suppress the DAT by a Ca2+-dependent oxidative pathway. PMID:12911632

Huang, Chuen-Lin; Huang, Nai-Kuei; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chern, Yijuang

2003-09-01

93

Increased L-DOPA-derived dopamine following selective MAO-A or-B inhibition in rat striatum depleted of dopaminergic and serotonergic innervation  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Selective MAO type B (MAO-B) inhibitors are effective in potentiation of the clinical effect of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease, but dopamine (DA) is deaminated mainly by MAO type A (MAO-A) in rat brain. We sought to clarify the roles of MAO-A and MAO-B in deamination of DA formed from exogenous L-DOPA in rat striatum depleted of dopaminergic, or both dopaminergic and serotonergic innervations. We also studied the effect of organic cation transporter-3 (OCT-3) inhibition by decinium-22 on extracellular DA levels following L-DOPA. Experimental Approach Striatal dopaminergic and/or serotonergic neuronal innervations were lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine respectively. Microdialysate DA levels after systemic L-DOPA were measured after inhibition of MAO-A or MAO-B by clorgyline or rasagiline respectively. MAO subtype localization in the striatum was determined by immunofluorescence. Key Results Rasagiline increased DA extracellular levels following L-DOPA to a greater extent in double-than in single-lesioned rats (2.8-and 1.8-fold increase, respectively, relative to saline treatment); however, clorgyline elevated DA levels in both models over 10-fold. MAO-A was strongly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in intact and lesioned striata, while MAO-B was localized in glia and to a small extent in MSNs. Inhibition of OCT-3 increased DA levels in the double-more than the single-lesion animals. Conclusions and Implications In striatum devoid of dopaminergic and serotonergic inputs, most deamination of L-DOPA-derived DA is mediated by MAO-A in MSN and a smaller amount by MAO-B in both MSN and glia. OCT-3 plays a significant role in uptake of DA from extracellular space. Inhibitors of OCT-3 are potential future targets for anti-Parkinsonian treatments. PMID:23992249

Sader-Mazbar, O; Loboda, Y; Rabey, M J; Finberg, J P M

2013-01-01

94

The Extent of Desmoglein 3 Depletion in Pemphigus Vulgaris Is Dependent on Ca2+-Induced Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disease of the skin and mucous membranes and is characterized by development of autoantibodies against the desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and Dsg1 and formation of intraepidermal suprabasal blisters. Depletion of Dsg3 is a critical mechanism in PV pathogenesis. Because we did not detect reduced Dsg3 levels in keratinocytes cultured for longer periods under high-Ca2+ conditions, we hypothesized that Dsg depletion depends on Ca2+-mediated keratinocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that depletion of Dsg3 occurs specifically in deep epidermal layers both in skin of patients with PV and in an organotypic raft model of human epidermis incubated using IgG fractions from patients with PV. In addition, Dsg3 depletion and loss of Dsg3 staining were prominent in cultured primary keratinocytes and in HaCaT cells incubated in high-Ca2+ medium for 3 days, but were less pronounced in HaCaT cultures after 8 days. These effects were dependent on protein kinase C signaling because inhibition of protein kinase C blunted both Dsg3 depletion and loss of intercellular adhesion. Moreover, protein kinase C inhibition blocked suprabasal Dsg3 depletion in cultured human epidermis and blister formation in a neonatal mouse model. Considered together, our data indicate a contribution of Dsg depletion to PV pathogenesis dependent on Ca2+-induced differentiation. Furthermore, prominent depletion in basal epidermal layers may contribute to the suprabasal cleavage plane observed in PV. PMID:21864491

Spindler, Volker; Endlich, Alexander; Hartlieb, Eva; Vielmuth, Franziska; Schmidt, Enno; Waschke, Jens

2011-01-01

95

Methamphetamine Increases Locomotion and Dopamine Transporter Activity in Dopamine D5 Receptor-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behavioral response to methamphetamine. Interestingly, D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice displayed increased ambulation in response to methamphetamine. Furthermore, dopamine transporter threonine phosphorylation levels, which regulate amphetamine-induced dopamine release, were elevated in D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. The increase in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was eliminated by pretreatment with the dopamine transporter blocker GBR12909. Taken together, these results suggest that dopamine transporter activity and threonine phosphorylation levels are regulated by D5 dopamine receptors. PMID:24155877

Hayashizaki, Seiji; Hirai, Shinobu; Ito, Yumi; Honda, Yoshiko; Arime, Yosefu; Sora, Ichiro; Okado, Haruo; Kodama, Tohru; Takada, Masahiko

2013-01-01

96

Maturation-Dependent Vulnerability of Oligodendrocytes to Oxidative Stress-Induced Death Caused by Glutathione Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death of oligodendrocyte (OL) precursors can be triggered in vitro by cystine deprivation, a form of oxidative stress that involves depletion of intracellular glutathione. We report here that OLs demonstrate maturation-dependent differences in sur- vival when subjected to free radical-mediated injury induced by glutathione depletion. Using immunopanning to isolate rat preoligodendrocytes (preOLs), we generated highly enriched populations of preOLs and

Stephen A. Back; Xiaodong Gan; Ya Li; Paul A. Rosenberg; Joseph J. Volpe

1998-01-01

97

Quantification of Depletion Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells P. Steffen1  

E-print Network

Quantification of Depletion Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells P. Steffen1 ,C. Verdier2 , C blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Quantification of Depletion Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells P. Steffen1  

E-print Network

Quantification of Depletion Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells P. Steffen1 , C. Verdier2 , C blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Ethanol-induced increases in extracellular dopamine are blunted in brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice  

PubMed Central

Drugs of abuse like ethanol have the ability to stimulate forebrain dopaminergic pathways. Although the positive reinforcing properties of abused substances are largely attributed to their effects on dopamine transmission, alcohol addiction involves complex interactions between numerous molecular mediators. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suggested to have a protective role in regulating the reinforcing effects of ethanol. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of an acute, systemic injection of ethanol (2 g/kg) on BDNF protein levels and extracellular dopamine concentrations, measured by in vivo microdialysis, in the caudate-putamen of wildtype and heterozygous BDNF mice. In both genotypes, the peak increase in extracellular dopamine following ethanol coincided temporally with a decrease in BDNF protein levels following a similar ethanol treatment. Moreover, the effect of ethanol to increase extracellular dopamine was blunted in heterozygous BDNF mice compared to wildtype mice. While the magnitude of decrease in BDNF protein induced by ethanol was similar between genotypes (two-fold), ethanol treatment induced significantly lower BDNF protein levels in heterozygous BDNF mice overall. These findings suggest the effects of ethanol are influenced by an interaction between BDNF and dopamine transmission, which may relate to the pathway through which BDNF regulates ethanol intake. PMID:21163332

Bosse, Kelly E.; Mathews, Tiffany A.

2010-01-01

100

Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

1987-08-31

101

Effects of nicotine preexposure on sulpiride-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of nicotine preexposure or saline on dopamine release to sulpiride in the rat nucleus accumbens. Microdialysis was used to locally perfuse the sulpiride into the ventral tegmental area while sampling dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. The increase (130% and 165% of basal) in extracellular accumbens dopamine levels observed during ventral tegmental area perfusion for 80

Shafiqur Rahman; Jianhua Zhang; William A Corrigall

2004-01-01

102

Intracellular NAD(+) depletion induces autophagic death in multiple myeloma cells.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell malignancy characterized by the proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite recent therapeutic advances, MM remains an incurable disease. Therefore, research has focused on defining new aspects in MM biology that can be therapeutically targeted. Compelling evidence suggests that malignant cells have a higher nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) turnover rate than normal cells, suggesting that this biosynthetic pathway represents an attractive target for cancer treatment. We recently reported that an intracellular NAD(+)-depleting agent, FK866, exerts its anti-MM effect by triggering autophagic cell death via transcriptional-dependent (transcription factor EB, TFEB) and -independent (PI3K-MTORC1) mechanisms. Our findings link intracellular NAD(+) levels to autophagy in MM cells, providing the rationale for novel targeted therapies in MM. PMID:23221771

Cea, Michele; Cagnetta, Antonia; Patrone, Franco; Nencioni, Alessio; Gobbi, Marco; Anderson, Kenneth C

2013-03-01

103

Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

104

AMPHETAMINE-, SCOPOLAMINE-, AND CAFFEINE-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY FOLLOWING 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE LESIONS OF THE MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

As previously reported, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions to the region of the nucleus accumbens blocked the locomotor activation induced by low doses of d-amphetamine, and produced a supersensitive locomotor response to the dopamine (DA) agonist, apomorphine. This same lesion, ...

105

Preprint Collection of Charles J. Wilson Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine from the substantia nigra in vitro  

E-print Network

Preprint Collection of Charles J. Wilson p. 1 Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine from of chopped tissue from the substantia nigra of the rat brain with d-amphetamine resulted in a significant of amphetamine produces a marked inhibition of neuronal activity in pars compacta of the substantia nigra (1

Wilson, Charles J.

106

D2-dopamine receptor blockade modulates temporal resolution in goldfish.  

PubMed

A possible effect of dopamine on the temporal resolution of goldfish was investigated in a behavioral, two-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Flicker fusion frequency (FFF) was measured before and after bilateral intravitreal injections of D1- or D2-dopamine receptor (D1-/D2-R) antagonists, or after depletion of retinal dopamine by bilateral intravitreal injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Prior to drug injections, fish achieved FFFs of 33-39 Hz. A D1-R antagonist, SCH 23390, reduced FFF by about 12% (P > 0.1). whereas a D2 antagonist, sulpiride, reduced the relative FFF by 25% (P < 0.03). Depletion of retinal dopamine with 6-OHDA induced a gradual reduction in the FFF to a maximal reduction of 50% (P < 0.001) at 2 weeks postinjection. There was recovery to control levels after 3-4 weeks postinjection. The recovery of FFF, at least in one animal, was due to the return of retinal dopamine because FFF could be reduced by intravitreal injections of sulpiride during the recovery phase. These experiments demonstrate that retinal dopamine, particularly acting on D2-R, is important for photopic temporal resolution. PMID:12688674

Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Gangluff, Volker

2002-01-01

107

Neutrophil depletion does not prevent indomethacin-induced ulceration of the rat gastric antrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indomethacin-induced ulceration of the rat gastric antrum is paralleled by an increase in blood neutrophil numbers and of neutrophil infiltration into the antrum. Thus, in this study, neutrophil depletion has been employed to study the potential role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced ulceration of the rat gastric antrum. Pretreatment with an anti-neutrophil serum (ANS) induced a near complete

M. A. Trevethick; N. M. Clayton; A. K. Bahl; S. Sanjar; P. Strong

1994-01-01

108

Imaging of Dopamine in PD and Implications for Motor and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of PD  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopamine depletion in the putamen, which leads to motor dysfunction. As the disease progresses, a substantial degree of dopamine depletion also occurs in caudate and nucleus accumbens. This may explain a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, including depression, apathy, and cognitive decline. Dopamine replacement therapy partially restores motor function but long-term treatment is often associated with motor complications (motor fluctuations and dyskinesias). Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest that the dopamine release rate is substantially higher in PD subjects with motor complications compared to stable responders. Notably, this differential pattern of dopamine release is already present in the early stages of the disease, before motor complications become clinically apparent. Converging evidence suggests that striatal dopamine depletion in PD leads to reduced plasticity in the primary motor cortex and, presumably, in non-motor cortical areas as well. Although dopamine replacement therapy tends to restore physiological plasticity, treatment-induced motor, and neuropsychiatric complications could be related to abnormalities in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:23847589

de la Fuente-Fernández, Raúl

2013-01-01

109

Imaging of Dopamine in PD and Implications for Motor and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of PD.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopamine depletion in the putamen, which leads to motor dysfunction. As the disease progresses, a substantial degree of dopamine depletion also occurs in caudate and nucleus accumbens. This may explain a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, including depression, apathy, and cognitive decline. Dopamine replacement therapy partially restores motor function but long-term treatment is often associated with motor complications (motor fluctuations and dyskinesias). Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest that the dopamine release rate is substantially higher in PD subjects with motor complications compared to stable responders. Notably, this differential pattern of dopamine release is already present in the early stages of the disease, before motor complications become clinically apparent. Converging evidence suggests that striatal dopamine depletion in PD leads to reduced plasticity in the primary motor cortex and, presumably, in non-motor cortical areas as well. Although dopamine replacement therapy tends to restore physiological plasticity, treatment-induced motor, and neuropsychiatric complications could be related to abnormalities in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:23847589

de la Fuente-Fernández, Raúl

2013-01-01

110

Experimental system to search for induced depletion of ^166mHo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Known nuclear data indicate that incoming photons below 300 keV might cause an induced depletion of the 1200 year isomer of ^ 166Ho. This process would be identified by an excess of ground state activity after irradiation with bremsstrahlung or by excess activity in any excited state that was part of the depletion cascade. A unique sign of depletion in ^166Ho would be radiation emitted near 136 keV from a level above the isomer, but part of the expected depletion cascade. A detection system has been developed using a gated fast inorganic scintillator to observe gamma rays after pulsed irradiation of an isomeric sample containing ^166Ho using an electron linac.

Detwiler, Ben; Downing, Shane; Caldwell, Nathan; Carroll, James; Pereira, Nino; Litz, Marc; Merkel, George; Schumer, Joe

2008-10-01

111

Dopamine-Dependent Compensation Maintains Motor Behavior in Mice with Developmental Ablation of Dopaminergic Neurons  

PubMed Central

The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in preservation of motor behavior. In addition, compensatory changes independent of striatal dopamine have been proposed based on PD therapies that modulate nondopaminergic circuits within the basal ganglia. We used a genetic strategy to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons in mice during development to determine the necessity of these neurons for the maintenance of normal motor behavior in adult and aged mice. We find that loss of 90% of SNc dopaminergic neurons and consequent depletion of >95% of striatal dopamine does not result in changes in motor behavior in young-adult or aged mice as evaluated by an extensive array of motor behavior tests. Treatment of aged mutant mice with the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol precipitated motor behavior deficits in aged mutant mice, indicating that <5% of striatal dopamine is sufficient to maintain motor function in these mice. We also found that mutant mice exhibit an exaggerated response to l-DOPA compared with control mice, suggesting that preservation of motor function involves sensitization of striatal dopamine receptors. Our results indicate that congenital loss of dopaminergic neurons induces remarkable adaptions in the nigrostriatal system where limited amounts of dopamine in the dorsal striatum can maintain normal motor function. PMID:24155314

DeMaro, Joseph A.; Knoten, Amanda; Hoshi, Masato; Pehek, Elizabeth; Johnson, Eugene M.; Gereau, Robert W.

2013-01-01

112

Depletion of white adipocyte progenitors induces beige adipocyte differentiation and suppresses obesity development  

PubMed Central

Overgrowth of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity occurs as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Expansion and renewal of adipocytes relies on proliferation and differentiation of white adipocyte progenitors (WAP); however, the requirement of WAP for obesity development has not been proven. Here, we investigate whether depletion of WAP can be used to prevent WAT expansion. We test this approach by using a hunter-killer peptide designed to induce apoptosis selectively in WAP. We show that targeted WAP cytoablation results in a long-term WAT growth suppression despite increased caloric intake in a mouse diet-induced obesity model. Our data indicate that WAP depletion results in a compensatory population of adipose tissue with beige adipocytes. Consistent with reported thermogenic capacity of beige adipose tissue, WAP-depleted mice display increased energy expenditure. We conclude that targeting of white adipocyte progenitors could be developed as a strategy to sustained modulation of WAT metabolic activity. PMID:25342467

Daquinag, A C; Tseng, C; Salameh, A; Zhang, Y; Amaya-Manzanares, F; Dadbin, A; Florez, F; Xu, Y; Tong, Q; Kolonin, M G

2015-01-01

113

Depletion of white adipocyte progenitors induces beige adipocyte differentiation and suppresses obesity development.  

PubMed

Overgrowth of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity occurs as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Expansion and renewal of adipocytes relies on proliferation and differentiation of white adipocyte progenitors (WAP); however, the requirement of WAP for obesity development has not been proven. Here, we investigate whether depletion of WAP can be used to prevent WAT expansion. We test this approach by using a hunter-killer peptide designed to induce apoptosis selectively in WAP. We show that targeted WAP cytoablation results in a long-term WAT growth suppression despite increased caloric intake in a mouse diet-induced obesity model. Our data indicate that WAP depletion results in a compensatory population of adipose tissue with beige adipocytes. Consistent with reported thermogenic capacity of beige adipose tissue, WAP-depleted mice display increased energy expenditure. We conclude that targeting of white adipocyte progenitors could be developed as a strategy to sustained modulation of WAT metabolic activity. PMID:25342467

Daquinag, A C; Tseng, C; Salameh, A; Zhang, Y; Amaya-Manzanares, F; Dadbin, A; Florez, F; Xu, Y; Tong, Q; Kolonin, M G

2015-02-01

114

Nucleus accumbens dopamine mediates amphetamine-induced impairment of social bonding in a monogamous rodent species.  

PubMed

The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating, a behavior in which central dopamine (DA) has been implicated. Here, we used male prairie voles to examine the effects of drug exposure on pair bonding and related neural circuitry. In our first experiment, amphetamine (AMPH) motivated behavior was examined using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and was shown to be mediated by activation of D1-like DA receptors. Next, we examined the effects of repeated AMPH exposure on pair bonding. Intact and saline pretreated control males displayed mating-induced partner preferences, whereas males pretreated with AMPH at the doses effective to induce CPP failed to show mating-induced partner preferences. Such AMPH treatment also enhanced D1, but not D2, DA receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of D1-like DA receptors in the NAcc rescued mating-induced partner preferences in AMPH-treated males. Together, our data indicate that repeated AMPH exposure may narrow the behavioral repertoire of male prairie voles via a DA receptor-specific mechanism in the NAcc, resulting in the impairment of pair bond formation. PMID:20080553

Liu, Yan; Aragona, Brandon J; Young, Kimberly A; Dietz, David M; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Nestler, Eric J; Wang, Zuoxin

2010-01-19

115

Hyperthermia, polyamine depletion, and inhibition of X-ray-induced DNA strand break repair  

SciTech Connect

We have recently demonstrated that HeLa cells that had been depleted of polyamines by treatment with inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis were deficient in their ability to repair X-ray-induced DNA strand breaks. Since it had previously been demonstrated that hyperthermic shock also inhibited strand break repair following X irradiation and that hyperthermia resulted in a leakage of polyamines from cells, it seemed of interest to examine whether the inhibition of repair by hyperthermia was related to this loss of cellular polyamines. In the present paper it is demonstrated that both polyamine depletion and hyperthermia inhibit strand closure, and that a combined treatment further reduces the rate of repair. In cells not depleted of polyamines, repair is restored to normal levels if hyperthermia treatment is followed by a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C before X irradiation. In polyamine-depleted cells, this 37 degrees C incubation does not result in a return of repair ability. Polyamine supplementation was not effective in reversing hyperthermia-dependent repair inhibition, and, in fact, restoration of repair in control cells following hyperthermic shock corresponded to a time at which polyamines show a maximum decrease in those cells. These results suggest that the inhibition of repair and the increased radiosensitivity observed in hyperthermically treated cells is not related to polyamine depletion. However, data further suggest that polyamine-depleted cells may have other alterations, perhaps in chromatin, which render them more sensitive to thermal inhibition of repair.

Snyder, R.D.; Lachmann, P.J. (Merrell Dow Research Institute, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1989-10-01

116

Depletion from a Hard Wall Induced by Aggregation and Gelation Manuel Rottereau, Taco Nicolai,  

E-print Network

Mans cedex 9, France (Dated: December 12, 2005) Diffusion limited cluster aggregation and gelation realistic model of aggregation is diffusion limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). In this model particlesDepletion from a Hard Wall Induced by Aggregation and Gelation Manuel Rottereau, Taco Nicolai

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

EFFECTS OF SYSTEMIC NEUTROPHIL DEPLETION ON LPS-INDUCED AIRWAY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Systemic Neutrophil Depletion on LPS-induced Airway Disease Jordan D. Savov, Stephen H. Gavett*, David M. Brass, Daniel L. Costa*, David A. Schwartz Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Dept of Medicine ? Duke University Medical Center * National Health and E...

118

Single walled carbon nanotubes induce indirect cytotoxicity by medium depletion in A549 lung cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of two types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), namely Arc Discharge (AD) and HiPco® single walled carbon nanotubes, to induce an indirect cytotoxicity in A549 lung cells by means of medium depletion was investigated. The nanotubes were dispersed in a commercial cell culture medium and subsequently removed by centrifugation and filtration. Spectroscopic analysis confirmed the removal of

A. Casey; E. Herzog; F. M. Lyng; H. J. Byrne; G. Chambers; M. Davoren

2008-01-01

119

Footshock facilitates methamphetamine-induced conditioned suppression through HPA axis, not dopamine.  

PubMed

The present study examined whether footshock can enhance methamphetamine (MAMPH)-induced conditioned suppression and whether this effect involves the dopamine (DA) reward system or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We also examined whether the footshock-induced enhancements of MAMPH-induced conditioned suppression are attributable to MAMPH's rewarding or aversive properties. During the footshock phase, all female rats received 0.1mg/kg haloperidol (HAL) and its vehicle (2% tartaric acid solution), or low and high doses of dexamethasone (DEX; 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg) and its vehicle before each footshock (1mA, 2s), or no footshock, in seven trials once per day. The control group did not receive any drugs or footshocks. All of the rats were then allowed 15min access to a 0.1% saccharin solution and then received 2mg/kg MAMPH in five trials once per day. Footshock exhibited an increase in MAMPH-induced taste suppression. The low- and high-dose DEX groups but not the HAL group exhibited a blocking effect of the footshock enhancements of MAMPH-induced taste suppression. The low- and high-dose DEX groups exhibited a significant decrease in corticosterone levels during the footshock treatment phase but not during the testing phase. Altogether, the HPA stress system and not the DA reward system, particularly D2 receptors, appear to mediate the footshock-induced enhancements of MAMPH-induced conditioned taste suppression, which may result from the aversive and not the rewarding properties of MAMPH. The present findings may provide some clinical implications for alternating aversively classical conditioning for psychiatric disorders. PMID:25592442

Huang, Andrew Chih Wei; Wang, Shiun; Wu, José Jiun-Shian; Wang, Cheng Chung

2015-03-15

120

Greater Ethanol-Induced Locomotor Activation in DBA/2J versus C57BL/6J Mice Is Not Predicted by Presynaptic Striatal Dopamine Dynamics  

PubMed Central

A large body of research has aimed to determine the neurochemical factors driving differential sensitivity to ethanol between individuals in an attempt to find predictors of ethanol abuse vulnerability. Here we find that the locomotor activating effects of ethanol are markedly greater in DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice, although it is unclear as to what neurochemical differences between strains mediate this behavior. Dopamine elevations in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen regulate locomotor behavior for most drugs, including ethanol; thus, we aimed to determine if differences in these regions predict strain differences in ethanol-induced locomotor activity. Previous studies suggest that ethanol interacts with the dopamine transporter, potentially mediating its locomotor activating effects; however, we found that ethanol had no effects on dopamine uptake in either strain. Ex vivo voltammetry allows for the determination of ethanol effects on presynaptic dopamine terminals, independent of drug-induced changes in firing rates of afferent inputs from either dopamine neurons or other neurotransmitter systems. However, differences in striatal dopamine dynamics did not predict the locomotor-activating effects of ethanol, since the inhibitory effects of ethanol on dopamine release were similar between strains. There were differences in presynaptic dopamine function between strains, with faster dopamine clearance in the caudate-putamen of DBA/2J mice; however, it is unclear how this difference relates to locomotor behavior. Because of the role of the dopamine system in reinforcement and reward learning, differences in dopamine signaling between the strains could have implications for addiction-related behaviors that extend beyond ethanol effects in the striatum. PMID:24349553

Rose, Jamie H.; Calipari, Erin S.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.

2013-01-01

121

Dopamine receptors and the persistent neurovascular dysregulation induced by methamphetamine self-administration in rats.  

PubMed

Recently abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) abusers showed neurovascular dysregulation within the striatum. The factors that contribute to this dysregulation and the persistence of these effects are unclear. The current study addressed these knowledge gaps. First, we evaluated the brains of rats with a history of Meth self-administration following various periods of forced abstinence. Micro-computed tomography revealed a marked reduction in vessel diameter and vascular volume uniquely within the striatum between 1 and 28 days after Meth self-administration. Microvessels showed a greater impairment than larger vessels. Subsequently, we determined that dopamine (DA) D2 receptors regulated Meth-induced striatal vasoconstriction via acute noncontingent administration of Meth. These receptors likely regulated the response to striatal hypoxia, as hypoxia inducible factor 1? was elevated. Acute Meth exposure also increased striatal levels of endothelin receptor A and decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Collectively, the data provide novel evidence that Meth-induced striatal neurovascular dysregulation involves DA receptor signaling that results in vasoconstriction via endothelin receptor A and nitric oxide signaling. As these effects can lead to hypoxia and trigger neuronal damage, these findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the selective striatal toxicity observed in the brains of Meth-abusing humans. PMID:25185214

Kousik, Sharanya M; Napier, T Celeste; Ross, Ryan D; Sumner, D Rick; Carvey, Paul M

2014-11-01

122

Involvement of brain ANG II in acute sodium depletion induced salty taste changes.  

PubMed

Many investigations have been devoted to determining the role of angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) in sodium-depletion-induced sodium appetite, but few were focused on the mechanisms mediating the salty taste changes accompanied with sodium depletion. To further elucidate the mechanism of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) action in mediating sodium intake behavior and accompanied salty taste changes, the present study examined the salty taste function changes accompanied with sodium depletion induced by furosemide (Furo) combined with different doses of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril (Cap). Both the peripheral and central RAAS activity and the nuclei Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in the forebrain area were investigated. Results showed that sodium depletion induced by Furo+low-Cap increased taste preference for hypertonic NaCl solution with amplified brain action of ANG II but without peripheral action, while Furosemide combined with a high dose of captopril can partially inhibit the formation of brain ANG II, with parallel decreased effects on salty taste changes. And the resulting elevating forebrain ANG II may activate a variety of brain areas including SFO, PVN, SON and OVLT in sodium depleted rats injected with Furo+low-Cap, which underlines salty taste function and sodium intake behavioral changes. Neurons in SFO and OVLT may be activated mainly by brain ANG II, while PVN and SON activation may not be completely ANG II dependent. These findings suggested that forebrain derived ANG II may play a critical role in the salty taste function changes accompanied with acute sodium depletion. PMID:22846885

Lu, Bo; Yan, Jianqun; Yang, Xuejuan; Li, Jinrong; Chen, Ke

2012-11-10

123

The Rat With Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy Is Myopic With Low Retinal Dopamine  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter implicated both in modulating neural retinal signals and in eye growth. Therefore, it may participate in the pathogenesis of the most common clinical sequelae of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual dysfunction and myopia. Paradoxically, in ROP myopia the eye is usually small. The eye of the rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is characterized by retinal dysfunction and short axial length. There have been several investigations of the early maturation of DA in rat retina, but little at older ages, and not in the OIR rat. Therefore, DA, retinal function, and refractive state were investigated in the OIR rat. Methods. In one set of rats, the development of dopaminergic (DAergic) networks was evaluated in retinal cross-sections from rats aged 14 to 120 days using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of DA). In another set of rats, retinoscopy was used to evaluate spherical equivalent (SE), electoretinography (ERG) was used to evaluate retinal function, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate retinal contents of DA, its precursor levodopamine (DOPA), and its primary metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Results. The normally rapid postnatal ramification of DAergic neurons was disrupted in OIR rats. Retinoscopy revealed that OIR rats were relatively myopic. In the same eyes, ERG confirmed retinal dysfunction in OIR. HPLC of those eyes' retinae confirmed low DA. Regression analysis indicated that DA metabolism (evaluated by the ratio of DOPAC to DA) was an important additional predictor of myopia beyond OIR. Conclusions. The OIR rat is the first known animal model of myopia in which the eye is smaller than normal. Dopamine may modulate, or fail to modulate, neural activity in the OIR eye, and thus contribute to this peculiar myopia. PMID:24168993

Zhang, Nan; Favazza, Tara L.; Baglieri, Anna Maria; Benador, Ilan Y.; Noonan, Emily R.; Fulton, Anne B.; Hansen, Ronald M.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Akula, James D.

2013-01-01

124

Modulatory effects of sesamin on dopamine biosynthesis and L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

The effects of sesamin on dopamine biosynthesis and L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells were investigated. Sesamin at concentration ranges of 20-75 ?M exhibited a significant increase in intracellular dopamine levels at 24 h: 50 ?M sesamin increased dopamine levels to 133% and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity to 128.2% of control levels. Sesamin at 20-100 ?M rapidly increased the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) to 158.3%-270.3% of control levels at 30 min. At 50 ?M, sesamin combined with L-DOPA (50, 100 and 200 ?M) further increased the intracellular dopamine levels for 24 h compared to L-DOPA alone. In the absence or presence of L-DOPA (100 and 200 ?M), sesamin (50 ?M) increased the phosphorylation of TH, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), as well as the mRNA levels of TH and CREB for 24 h, an effect which was reduced by L-DOPA (100 and 200 ?M). In addition, 50 ?M sesamin exhibited a protective effect against L-DOPA (100 and 200 ?M)-induced cytotoxicity via the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and superoxide dismutase reduction, induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and BadSer112 phosphorylation and Bcl-2 expression, and inhibition of cleaved-caspase-3 formation. These results suggested that sesamin enhanced dopamine biosynthesis and L-DOPA-induced increase in dopamine levels by inducing TH activity and TH gene expression, which was mediated by cAMP-PKA-CREB systems. Sesamin also protected against L-DOPA (100-200 ?M)-induced cytotoxicity through the suppression of ROS activity via the modulation of ERK1/2, BadSer112, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 pathways in PC12 cells. Therefore, sesamin might serve as an adjuvant phytonutrient for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22293035

Zhang, Min; Lee, Hak Ju; Park, Keun Hong; Park, Hyun Jin; Choi, Hyun Sook; Lim, Sung Cil; Lee, Myung Koo

2012-06-01

125

Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in human ventral striatum correlates with euphoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies in experimental animals have implicated the mesolimbic dopaminergic projections into the ventral striatum in the neural processes underlying behavioral reinforcement and motivated behavior; however, understanding the relationship between subjective emotional experience and ventral striatal dopamine (DA) release has awaited human studies. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we correlated the change in endogenous dopamine concentrations following dextroamphetamine (AMPH) administration

Wayne C. Drevets; Clara Gautier; Julie C. Price; David J. Kupfer; Paul E. Kinahan; Anthony A. Grace; Joseph L. Price; Chester A. Mathis

2001-01-01

126

Glutathione Depletion by L-Buthionine-S,R-Sulfoximine Induces Apoptosis of Cardiomyocytes through Activation of PKC-?.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion in heart-derived H9c2 cells and its mechanism. L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) induced the depletion of cellular GSH, and BSO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was inhibited by glutathione monoethyl ester (GME). Additionally, GME inhibited BSO-induced caspase-3 activation, annexin V-positive cells, and annexin V-negative/propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells. Treatment with rottlerin completely blocked BSO-induced cell death and ROS generation. BSO-induced GSH depletion caused a translocation of PKC-? from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, which was inhibited by treatment with GME. From these results, it is suggested that BSO-induced depletion of cellular GSH causes an activation of PKC-? and, subsequently, generation of ROS, thereby inducing H9c2 cell death. PMID:24244823

Kim, Young-Ae; Kim, Mi-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook

2013-09-30

127

Organophosphates dysregulate dopamine signaling, glutamatergic neurotransmission, and induce neuronal injury markers in striatum  

PubMed Central

The neurological effects of organophosphate pesticides, commonly used on foods and in households, are an important public health concern. Furthermore, subclinical exposure to combinations of organophosphates is implicated in Gulf War illness. Here we characterized the effects of the broadly-used insecticide chlorpyrifos on dopamine and glutamatergic neurotransmission effectors in corticostriatal motor/reward circuitry. Chlorpyrifos potentiated PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the striatal protein DARPP-32 and the GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in mouse brain slices. It also increased GluR1 phosphorylation by PKA when administered systemically. This correlated with enhanced glutamate release from cortical projections in rat striatum. Similar effects were induced by the sarin congener, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, alone or in combination with the putative neuroprotectant, pyridostigmine bromide and the pesticide DEET. This combination, meant to mimic the neurotoxicant exposure encountered by veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, also induced hyperphosphorylation of the neurofibrillary tangle-associated protein tau. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and pyrodostigmine bromide, alone or in combination, also increased the aberrant activity of the protein kinase, Cdk5, as indicated by conversion of its activating cofactor p35 to p25. Thus consistent with recent findings in humans and animals, organophosphate exposure causes dysregulation in the motor/reward circuitry and invokes mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurodegeneration. PMID:21848865

Torres-Altoro, Melissa I.; Mathur, Brian N.; Drerup, Justin M.; Thomas, Rachel; Lovinger, David; O’Callaghan, James P.; Bibb, James A.

2011-01-01

128

Effects of opioid and dopamine receptor antagonists on relapse induced by stress and re-exposure to heroin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of blockade of opioid and dopamine receptors on relapse to heroin-seeking induced by footshock stress and re-exposure to heroin were examined in a reinstatement procedure. Male rats were trained to self-administer heroin (100 µg\\/kg per infusion, IV; four 3-h sessions\\/day for 8–11 consecutive days). Extinction sessions were given for 5–7 days during which saline was substituted for heroin.

Y. Shaham; J. Stewart

1996-01-01

129

Quantification of noradrenaline and dopamine in Portulaca oleracea L. by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a rapid and sensitive method is described for the quantification of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) in Portulaca oleracea L. After derivatization in a dark ultrasonic bath for 4h, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) derivatives of NA and DA were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in 5.5min and detected with laser-induced fluorescence. In the concentration range (0.05–2.00?M), the

Ji-you Zhang; Xing-guo Chen; Zhi-de Hu; Xiao Ma

2002-01-01

130

Schizophrenia is Associated with Elevated Amphetamine-Induced Synaptic Dopamine Concentrations: Evidence from a Novel Positron Emission Tomography Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major line of evidence that supports the hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is the psychomimetic potential of agents such as amphetamine that stimulate dopamine outflow. A novel brain imaging method provides an indirect measure of in vivo synaptic dopamine concentration by quantifying the change in dopamine receptor radiotracer binding produced by agents that alter dopamine release but do

A. Breier; T.-P. Su; R. Saunders; R. E. Carson; B. S. Kolachana; A. de Bartolomeis; D. R. Weinberger; N. Weisenfeld; A. K. Malhotra; W. C. Eckelman; D. Pickar

1997-01-01

131

Dopamine, Affordance and Active Inference Karl J. Friston1  

E-print Network

of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal. Our focus is on the consequences of depleting dopamine and simulating perseveration that is charac

Moran, Rosalyn

132

The effects of chemical sympathectomy on dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline content in some peripheral tissues.  

PubMed

Dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad) depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and pargyline plus 6-OHDA was investigated in the cat left ventricle, mesenteric and renal arteries, renal cortex, renal medulla and adrenal medulla. Catecholamine concentrations in plasma were also analyzed in these two experimental conditions. 6-OHDA alone or in combination with pargyline induced parallel decreases of NA and dopamine contents in the left ventricle. In the main trunk and proximal branches of the mesenteric artery and renal artery 6-OHDA selectively reduced NA without a parallel decrease in dopamine content. Previous treatment with pargyline abolished this selectivity. In the kidney of control animals, dopamine content was greater than could be attributed to its presence only in noradrenergic neurones. In the renal cortex 6-OHDA reduced significantly dopamine and NA contents, and in the renal medulla only NA levels were decreased by this drug. Pargyline plus 6-OHDA did not deplete the NA content either in the renal cortex or in the renal medulla, and only reduced significantly the dopamine content in the renal cortex. NA concentrations in plasma were increased by pargyline plus 6-OHDA whilst Ad remained unaffected. In the adrenal medulla only NA content was reduced either by 6-OHDA or pargyline plus 6-OHDA. The present findings suggest a NA-independent dopamine pool in both segments of the mesenteric artery and renal artery but not in the left ventricle. PMID:3931730

Caramona, M M; Soares-da-Silva, P

1985-10-01

133

The effects of chemical sympathectomy on dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline content in some peripheral tissues.  

PubMed Central

Dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad) depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and pargyline plus 6-OHDA was investigated in the cat left ventricle, mesenteric and renal arteries, renal cortex, renal medulla and adrenal medulla. Catecholamine concentrations in plasma were also analyzed in these two experimental conditions. 6-OHDA alone or in combination with pargyline induced parallel decreases of NA and dopamine contents in the left ventricle. In the main trunk and proximal branches of the mesenteric artery and renal artery 6-OHDA selectively reduced NA without a parallel decrease in dopamine content. Previous treatment with pargyline abolished this selectivity. In the kidney of control animals, dopamine content was greater than could be attributed to its presence only in noradrenergic neurones. In the renal cortex 6-OHDA reduced significantly dopamine and NA contents, and in the renal medulla only NA levels were decreased by this drug. Pargyline plus 6-OHDA did not deplete the NA content either in the renal cortex or in the renal medulla, and only reduced significantly the dopamine content in the renal cortex. NA concentrations in plasma were increased by pargyline plus 6-OHDA whilst Ad remained unaffected. In the adrenal medulla only NA content was reduced either by 6-OHDA or pargyline plus 6-OHDA. The present findings suggest a NA-independent dopamine pool in both segments of the mesenteric artery and renal artery but not in the left ventricle. PMID:3931730

Caramona, M. M.; Soares-da-Silva, P.

1985-01-01

134

Midbrain muscarinic receptors modulate morphine-induced accumbal and striatal dopamine efflux in the rat.  

PubMed

Midbrain dopamine neurons are critical in mediating the rewarding effects of opiates in dependent rats, as well as modulating some manifestations of opiate withdrawal. Morphine is known to excite dopamine neurons and thereby facilitate forebrain dopamine transmission through inhibition of GABA neurons. Cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei provide the principal source of excitatory cholinergic input to ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta dopamine-containing neurons, via actions on midbrain muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study hypothesized that a reduction in tonic cholinergic input via blockade of midbrain muscarinic receptors would reduce the pharmacological effects of morphine on forebrain dopamine release. Using in vivo chronoamperometry, alterations in morphine-evoked dopamine efflux were monitored at stearate-graphite paste electrodes implanted unilaterally in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of urethane (1.5 g/kg) anesthetized rats, following the pharmacological inhibition of ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta muscarinic receptors. The facilitatory effects of morphine (2.0 mg/kg, i.v.) on accumbens and striatal dopamine efflux were markedly reduced by prior infusion of the non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (200 microg/microl) into the ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars compacta, respectively. These findings demonstrate that decreased activation of midbrain muscarinic receptors attenuates the excitatory effects of morphine on mesoaccumbens and nigrostriatal dopaminergic transmission. PMID:16216430

Miller, A D; Forster, G L; Yeomans, J S; Blaha, C D

2005-01-01

135

A dopamine receptor contributes to paraquat-induced neurotoxicity in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Long-term exposure to environmental oxidative stressors, like the herbicide paraquat (PQ), has been linked to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Paraquat is thus frequently used in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and other animal models to study PD and the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) that characterizes this disease. Here, we show that a D1-like dopamine (DA) receptor, DAMB, actively contributes to the fast central nervous system (CNS) failure induced by PQ in the fly. First, we found that a long-term increase in neuronal DA synthesis reduced DAMB expression and protected against PQ neurotoxicity. Secondly, a striking age-related decrease in PQ resistance in young adult flies correlated with an augmentation of DAMB expression. This aging-associated increase in oxidative stress vulnerability was not observed in a DAMB-deficient mutant. Thirdly, targeted inactivation of this receptor in glutamatergic neurons (GNs) markedly enhanced the survival of Drosophila exposed to either PQ or neurotoxic levels of DA, whereas, conversely, DAMB overexpression in these cells made the flies more vulnerable to both compounds. Fourthly, a mutation in the Drosophila ryanodine receptor (RyR), which inhibits activity-induced increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), also strongly enhanced PQ resistance. Finally, we found that DAMB overexpression in specific neuronal populations arrested development of the fly and that in vivo stimulation of either DNs or GNs increased PQ susceptibility. This suggests a model for DA receptor-mediated potentiation of PQ-induced neurotoxicity. Further studies of DAMB signaling in Drosophila could have implications for better understanding DA-related neurodegenerative disorders in humans. PMID:25158689

Cassar, Marlène; Issa, Abdul-Raouf; Riemensperger, Thomas; Petitgas, Céline; Rival, Thomas; Coulom, Hélène; Iché-Torres, Magali; Han, Kyung-An; Birman, Serge

2015-01-01

136

Caffeine's Attenuation of Cocaine-Induced Dopamine Release by Inhibition of Adenosine.  

PubMed

Background: It is well known that the reinforcing properties of cocaine addiction are caused by the sharp increase of dopamine (DA) in the reward areas of the brain. However, other mechanisms have been speculated to contribute to the increase. Adenosine is one system that is associated with the sleep-wake cycle and is most important in regulating neuronal activity. Thus, more and more evidence is pointing to its involvement in regulating DA release. The current study set out to examine the role of adenosine in cocaine-induced DA release. Methods: Increasing doses of cocaine, caffeine, and their combination, as well as, 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), an adenosine A1 antagonist (alone and in combination with cocaine) were used to denote a response curve. A novel biosensor, the BRODERICK PROBE(®) was implanted in the nucleus accumbens to image the drug-induced surge of DA release in vivo, in the freely moving animal in real time. Results: Combinations of cocaine and caffeine were observed to block the increased release of DA moderately after administration of the low dose (2.5?mg/kg cocaine and 12.5?mg/kg caffeine) and dramatically after administration of the high dose (10?mg/kg cocaine and 50?mg/kg caffeine), suggesting neuroprotection. Similarly, CPT and cocaine showed a decreased DA surge when administered in combination. Thus, the low and high dose of a nonselective adenosine antagonist, caffeine, and a moderate dose of a selective adenosine antagonist, CPT, protected against the cocaine-induced DA release. Conclusions: These results show a significant interaction between adenosine and DA release and suggest therapeutic options for cocaine addiction and disorders associated with DA dysfunction. PMID:25054079

Malave, Lauren B; Broderick, Patricia A

2014-06-01

137

Progression of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in a Carnitine-Depleted Rat Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study has been initiated to investigate whether endogenous carnitine depletion and\\/or carnitine deficiency is an additional risk factor and\\/or a mechanism in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to gain insights into the possibility of a mechanism-based protection by L-carnitine against this toxicity. Methods: 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of 10 animals each and received one of

Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed; Maha A. Eissa; Sanaa A. Kenawy; Nadia Mostafa; Menotti Calvani; Abdel-Moneim M. Osman

2004-01-01

138

STUDY OF DEUTERIUM DEPLETED WATER EFFECT IN EXPERIMENTAL CADMIUM CHLORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The present work deals with the study of the deuterium depleted water (DDW) effect on female ratsantioxidant system, in cadmium (20 ppm Cd\\/ b.w. in single dose administration) induced oxidative stress. The deuterium concentration in surface water is about 150 ppm (over 16 mM) and more than 10 mM in living organisms. After 61 days of DDW treatment the

Lucia Olariu; Mihaela Petcu; Iuliana Chi; Camelia Tulcan; Mihaela Pup; Ileana Brudiu

139

An angiogenic inhibitor, cyclic RGDfV, attenuates MPTP-induced dopamine neuron toxicity  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that several dopamine (DA) neurotoxins produced punctate areas of FITC-labeled albumin (FITC-LA) leakage in the substantia nigra and striatum suggesting blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Further, this leakage was co-localized with ?v?3 integrin up-regulation, a marker for angiogenesis. This suggested that the FITC-LA leakage might have been a result of angiogenesis. To assess the possible role of angiogenesis in DA neuron loss, we treated mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and on the following day treated with cyRGDfV, a cyclic peptide that binds to integrin ?v?3 and prevents angiogenesis. Post-treatment for three days (b.i.d.) with cyRGDfV blocked the MPTP-induced upregulation of integrin ?3 immunoreactivity (a marker for angiogenesis), leakage of FITC-LA into brain parenchyma (a marker for BBB disruption) as well as the down regulation of Zona Occludin-1 (ZO-1; a marker for tight junction integrity). In addition, cyRGDfV also completely prevented tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cell loss (a marker for DA neurons) and markedly attenuated the up-regulation of activated microglia (Iba1 cell counts and morphology). These data suggest that cyRGDfV, and perhaps other anti-angiogenic drugs, are neuroprotective following acute MPTP treatment and may suggest that compensatory angiogenesis and BBB dysfunction may contribute to inflammation and DA neuron loss. PMID:21703263

Patel, Aditiben; Toia, Giuseppe V; Colletta, Kalea; Bradaric, Brinda Desai; Carvey, Paul M; Hendey, Bill

2011-01-01

140

Tamoxifen counteracts estradiol induced effects on striatal and hypophyseal dopamine receptors  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the ability of Tamoxifen (TAM), an antiestrogen drug, to counteract the modification induced by estrogens on dopamine (DA) receptors on striatum and on adenohypophysis of ovex female rats. Subacute treatment with 17..beta..-estradiol (E/sub 2/) at both low (0.1 ..mu..g/kg) and high (20 ..mu..g/kg) doses confirmed its ability to increase the number of striatal /sup 3/H-Spiperone (/sup 3/H-SPI) binding sites in a dose dependent manner. By contrast in the pituitary, only high doses of estrogen were effective in reducing the number of DA receptors. We treated ovex female rats for 15 days with TAM alone or associated with E/sub 2/, to see if these estrogenic effects could be suppressed by an antiestrogenic drug. TAM did not affect the number of striatal DA receptors, but significantly increased the adenohypophy-seal DA binding sites, without varying their affinity. No changes were observed in pituitary and striatal DA receptor density, even when TAM was injected in association with estradiol. In conclusions: TAM is able to counteract the effects estrogens have on DA receptors. However there is some evidence that it could influence the pituitary DA systems independently of it antiestrogenic activity.

Ferretti, C.; Blengio, M.; Ghi, P.; Racca, S.; Genazzani, E.; Portaleone, P.

1988-01-01

141

Repeated Exposure to Methamphetamine, Cocaine or Morphine Induces Augmentation of Dopamine Release in Rat Mesocorticolimbic Slice Co-Cultures  

PubMed Central

Repeated intermittent exposure to psychostimulants and morphine leads to progressive augmentation of its locomotor activating effects in rodents. Accumulating evidence suggests the critical involvement of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurons, which project from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, in the behavioral sensitization. Here, we examined the acute and chronic effects of psychostimulants and morphine on dopamine release in a reconstructed mesocorticolimbic system comprised of a rat triple organotypic slice co-culture of the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex regions. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell bodies were localized in the ventral tegmental area, and their neurites projected to the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex regions. Acute treatment with methamphetamine (0.1–1000 µM), cocaine (0.1–300 µM) or morphine (0.1–100 µM) for 30 min increased extracellular dopamine levels in a concentration-dependent manner, while 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (0.1–1000 µM) had little effect. Following repeated exposure to methamphetamine (10 µM) for 30 min every day for 6 days, the dopamine release gradually increased during the 30-min treatment. The augmentation of dopamine release was maintained even after the withdrawal of methamphetamine for 7 days. Similar augmentation was observed by repeated exposure to cocaine (1–300 µM) or morphine (10 and 100 µM). Furthermore, methamphetamine-induced augmentation of dopamine release was prevented by an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (10 µM), and was not observed in double slice co-cultures that excluded the medial prefrontal cortex slice. These results suggest that repeated psychostimulant- or morphine-induced augmentation of dopamine release, i.e. dopaminergic sensitization, was reproduced in a rat triple organotypic slice co-cultures. In addition, the slice co-culture system revealed that the NMDA receptors and the medial prefrontal cortex play an essential role in the dopaminergic sensitization. This in vitro sensitization model provides a unique approach for studying mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse. PMID:21980362

Nakagawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuichi; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Kitaichi, Maiko; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Kaneko, Shuji

2011-01-01

142

L-theanine inhibits nicotine-induced dependence via regulation of the nicotine acetylcholine receptor-dopamine reward pathway.  

PubMed

In this study, the inhibitory effect of L-theanine, an amino acid derivative of tea, on the rewarding effects of nicotine and its underlying mechanisms of action were studied. We found that L-theanine inhibited the rewarding effects of nicotine in a conditioned place preference (CPP) model of the mouse and reduced the excitatory status induced by nicotine in SH-SY5Y cells to the same extent as the nicotine receptor inhibitor dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DH?E). Further studies using high performance liquid chromatography, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses showed that L-theanine significantly inhibited nicotine-induced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine production in the midbrain of mice. L-theanine treatment also reduced the upregulation of the ?(4), ?(2) and ?(7) nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits induced by nicotine in mouse brain regions that related to the dopamine reward pathway, thus decreasing the number of cells that could react to nicotine. In addition, L-theanine treatment inhibited nicotine-induced c-Fos expression in the reward circuit related areas of the mouse brain. Knockdown of c-Fos by siRNA inhibited the excitatory status of cells but not the upregulation of TH induced by nicotine in SH-SY5Y cells. Overall, the present study showed that L-theanine reduced the nicotine-induced reward effects via inhibition of the nAChR-dopamine reward pathway. These results may offer new therapeutic strategies for treatment of tobacco addiction. PMID:23233221

Di, Xiaojing; Yan, Jingqi; Zhao, Yan; Chang, Yanzhong; Zhao, Baolu

2012-12-01

143

Induced depletion of ^108mAg with 6 MeV bremsstrahlung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclide ^108Ag possesses an interesting combination of a long-lived isomer (T1/2 = 418 years, I^? = 6^+, E = 109 keV) and a short-lived ground state (T1/2 = 2.37 minutes, I^? = 1^+). The ground state decays primarily by ?^- emission with Q?- = 1,649 keV. A search of the available nuclear data (e. g., ENSDF and Phys. Rev. C 52, 104 (1995)) suggests two possible transitions at energies below 500 keV from the isomer to higher-lying levels, whose subsequent decay can branch to the ground state. This process would lead to a partial depletion of any population trapped within the isomeric state, ^108mAg. Currently, the cross section for induced isomer depletion via these transitions cannot be accurately deduced due to unknown branching ratios, and level widths and spins. Other ``depletion'' levels requiring excitation > 500 keV are also likely. An experimental test of ^108mAg depletion has been performed using 6 MeV bremsstrahlung at the US Army Research Laboratory, with isomeric targets and a computer-controlled repetitive measurement system. The design of the system and experimental results will be discussed.

Carroll, J.; Litz, M.; Netherton, K.; Henriquez, S.; Pereira, N.; Karamian, S.

2012-03-01

144

Width Effect on Hot-Carrier-Induced Degradation for 90 nm Partially Depleted SOI CMOSFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot-carrier-induced degradation of partially depleted silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOSFETs) at various applied voltages was investigated using 90 nm body-contact silicon-on-insulator (BC-SOI) devices with 1.6 nm gate oxides and various gate widths. In this work, a small gate-width device with a large drain current density was observed to suffer from serious hot-carrier-induced degradation. By inspecting the gate current

Chieh-Ming Lai; Yean-Kuen Fang; Shing-Tai Pan; Wen-Kuan Yeh

2005-01-01

145

Imaging Human Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission With Positron Emission Tomography. Part II: Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in the Functional Subdivisions of the Striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human striatum is functionally organized into limbic, associative, and sensorimotor subdivisions, which process information related to emotional, cognitive, and motor function. Dopamine projections ascending from the midbrain provide important modulatory input to these striatal subregions. The aim of this study was to compare activation of dopamine D2 receptors after amphetamine administration in the functional subdivisions of the human striatum.

Diana Martinez; Mark Slifstein; Allegra Broft; Osama Mawlawi; Dah-Ren Hwang; Yiyun Huang; Thomas Cooper; Lawrence Kegeles; Eric Zarahn; Anissa Abi-Dargham; Suzanne N. Haber; Marc Laruelle

2003-01-01

146

DOPAMINE MEDIATES COCAINE-INDUCED CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSIONS AS DEMONSTRATED WITH CROSS-DRUG PREEXPOSURE TO GBR 12909  

PubMed Central

Although cocaine readily induces taste aversions, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. It has been suggested that its inhibitory effects at one of the monoamine transporters may be mediating this suppression. Using the cross-drug preexposure preparation, the present series of studies examined a possible role of dopamine (DA) in this effect. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to cocaine (18 mg/kg; Experiment 1) or the selective DA transporter (DAT) inhibitor GBR 12909 (50 mg/kg; Experiment 2) prior to the pairing of a novel saccharin solution with injections of GBR 12909 (32 mg/kg), cocaine (18 mg/kg) or vehicle in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure. Preexposure to cocaine attenuated aversions induced by itself but not aversions induced by GBR 12909 (Experiment 1). Conversely, preexposure to GBR 12909 attenuated aversions induced by itself and cocaine (Experiment 2). This asymmetry suggests that cocaine and GBR 12909 induce CTAs via similar, but non-identical, mechanisms. These data are discussed in the context of previous work demonstrating roles for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in cocaine-induced CTAs. PMID:22579912

Serafine, Katherine M.; Briscione, Maria A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

2013-01-01

147

Role of 6-monoacetylmorphine in the acute release of striatal dopamine induced by intravenous heroin.  

PubMed

After injection, heroin is rapidly metabolized to 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and further to morphine. As morphine has been shown to increase striatal dopamine, whereas 6-MAM has not been studied in this respect, we gave i.v. injections of 3 ?mol 6-MAM, morphine or heroin to rats. Opioids were measured in blood, and dopamine and opioids in microdialysate from brain striatal extracellular fluid (ECF), by UPLC-MS/MS. After 6-MAM injection, 6-MAM ECF concentrations increased rapidly, and reached Cmax of 4.4 ?M after 8 min. After heroin injection, 6-MAM increased rapidly in blood and reached Cmax of 6.4 ?M in ECF after 8 min, while ECF Cmax for heroin was 1.2 ?M after 2 min. T max for morphine in ECF was 29 and 24 min following 6-MAM and heroin administration, respectively, with corresponding Cmax levels of 1 and 2 ?M. Dopamine levels peaked after 8 and 14 min following 6-MAM and heroin administration, respectively. The dopamine responses were equal, indicating no dopamine release by heroin per se. Furthermore, 6-MAM, and not morphine, appeared to mediate the early dopamine response, whereas morphine administration, giving rise to morphine ECF concentrations similar to those observed shortly after 6-MAM injection, did not increase ECF dopamine. 6-MAM appeared accordingly to be the substance responsible for the early increase in dopamine observed after heroin injection. As 6-MAM was formed rapidly from heroin in blood, and was the major substance reaching the brain after heroin administration, this also indicates that factors influencing blood 6-MAM concentrations might change the behavioural effects of heroin. PMID:24576415

Gottås, A; Boix, F; Øiestad, E L; Vindenes, V; Mørland, J

2014-09-01

148

Desensitization of the nicotine-induced mesolimbic dopamine - responses during constant infusion with nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The effects of constant nicotine infusions (0.25, 1.0 and 4.0mg kg-' day-') on extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens WAC) and on locomotor activity have been compared with the changes evoked by repeated daily injections (0.4 mg kg-' day-' for 5 days) of the drug. 2 The extracellular dopamine concentration in the NAc was significantly increased (P< 0.05)

Maureen E. M. Benwell; David J. K. Balfour; Claire E. Birrell

1995-01-01

149

Serotonin depletion can enhance the cerebrovascular responses induced by cortical spreading depression via the nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter involved in the control of neural and vascular responses. 5-HT depletion can induce several neurological disorders, including migraines. Studies on a cortical spreading depression (CSD) migraine animal model showed that the cortical neurons sensitivity, vascular responses, and nitric oxide (NO) production were significantly increased in 5-HT depletion. However, the involvement of NO in the cerebrovascular responses in 5-HT depletion remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of NO in the CSD-induced alterations of cerebral microvessels in 5-HT depletion. Rats were divided into four groups: control, control with L-NAME treatment, 5-HT depleted, and 5-HT depleted with L-NAME treatment. 5-HT depletion was induced by intraperitoneal injection with para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) 3 days before the experiment. The CSD was triggered by KCl application. After the second wave of CSD, N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or saline was intravenously injected into the rats with or without L-NAME treatment groups, respectively. The intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1), and the ultrastructural changes of the cerebral microvessels were examined. The results showed that 5-HT depletion significantly increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in the cerebral cortex. The number of endothelial pinocytic vesicles and microvilli was higher in the 5-HT depleted group when compared to the control. Interestingly, L-NAME treatment significantly reduced the abnormalities observed in the 5-HT depleted group. The results of this study demonstrated that an increase of NO production is one of the mechanisms involved in the CSD-induced alterations of the cerebrovascular responses in 5-HT depletion. PMID:24670256

Saengjaroentham, Chonlawan; Supornsilpchai, Weera; Ji-Au, Wilawan; Srikiatkhachorn, Anan; Maneesri-le Grand, Supang

2015-02-01

150

Protective effects of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems in dopamine-induced cell death.  

PubMed

Although the etiology of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) is unknown, it is well established that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenic mechanism. The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutaredoxin (Grx) systems are two central systems upholding the sulfhydryl homeostasis by reducing disulfides and mixed disulfides within the cell and thereby protecting against oxidative stress. By examining the expression of redox proteins in human postmortem PD brains, we found the levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) to be significantly decreased. The human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were used as model systems to explore the potential protective effects of the redox proteins against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity. 6-OHDA is highly prone to oxidation, resulting in the formation of the quinone of 6-OHDA, a highly reactive species and powerful neurotoxin. Treatment of human cells with 6-OHDA resulted in an increased expression of Trx1, TrxR1, Grx1, and Grx2, and small interfering RNA for these genes significantly increased the cytotoxic effects exerted by the 6-OHDA neurotoxin. Evaluation of the dopaminergic neurons in C. elegans revealed that nematodes lacking trxr-1 were significantly more sensitive to 6-OHDA, with significantly increased neuronal degradation. Importantly, both the Trx and the Grx systems were also found to directly mediate reduction of the 6-OHDA-quinone in vitro and thus render its cytotoxic effects. In conclusion, our results suggest that the two redox systems are important for neuronal survival in dopamine-induced cell death. PMID:24863694

Arodin, Lisa; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter; Fernandes, Aristi P

2014-08-01

151

CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects  

PubMed Central

It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.

2014-01-01

152

Inactivation of creatine kinase induced by dopa and dopamine in the presence of ferrylmyoglobin.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of dopa and dopamine on creatine kinase (CK) activity in the presence of ferrylmyoglobin (ferrylMb). CK was sharply inhibited by dopa and dopamine in the presence of ferrylMb. Dopa and dopamine markedly promoted the reduction of ferrylMb to metmyoglobin (metMb). The semiquinone from dopa and dopamine may be involved in CK inactivation. During inactivation of the enzyme, both kinetic parameters Vmax and Km changed. In addition, reduced glutathione restored the activity of CK at an early stage. These results suggest that inactivation of CK is dominantly due to oxidation of sulfhydryl (SH) groups of the enzyme. Other catechols, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, little inactivated CK activity, whereas they promoted the reduction of ferrylMb to metMb. Other SH enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were inactivated to a lesser extent by dopa and dopamine in the presence of ferrylMb. Adrenaline and noradrenaline did not significantly prevent the inactivation of ADH and very slightly inhibited GAPDH. These results suggest that dopa and dopamine act as prooxidants to inactivate SH enzymes in the presence of ferrylMb. PMID:10597901

Miura, T; Muraoka, S; Fujimoto, Y

1999-11-15

153

Dynorphin A(1-13) preferentially inhibits behaviors induced by the D2 dopamine agonist RU 24213 but not by the D1 dopamine agonist SK&F 38393.  

PubMed

The effects of dynorphin A(1-13) on the D1 dopamine agonist SK&F 38393- and the D2 dopamine agonist RU 24213-induced behavioral alterations in the mouse were determined by using multidimensional behavioral analyses based upon a capacitance system. Although dynorphin A(1-13) (3.0 or 12.5 micrograms) alone did not produce any significant effects on behaviors, the peptide (12.5 micrograms) caused an inhibitory effect on the RU 24213 (3.0 mg/kg)-induced increase in behavioral patterns such as linear locomotion and circling except rearing and grooming behaviors. The antagonistic effects of dynorphin A(1-313) (12.5 micrograms) were fully reversed by the opioid antagonist M(r) 2266 (10.0 mg/kg). However, dynorphin A(1-13) (3.0 or 12.5 micrograms) failed to affect behaviors elicited by SK&F 38393 (10.0 mg/kg). These results suggest that dynorphin A(1-13) plays an inhibitory role in behaviors induced by the D2 dopamine agonist but not by the D1 dopamine agonist, possibly through the mediation of kappa-opioid receptors. PMID:1355296

Ukai, M; Toyoshi, T; Kameyama, T

1992-08-01

154

The membrane-raft protein Flotillin-1 is essential in dopamine neurons for amphetamine-induced behavior in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the primary molecular target responsible for the rewarding properties of the psychostimulants amphetamine (AMPH) and cocaine. AMPH increases extracellular dopamine (DA) by promoting its nonexocytotic release via DAT-mediated efflux. Previous studies in heterologous cells have shown that phosphorylation of the amino terminus of DAT is required for AMPH-induced DA efflux but not for DA uptake. However, the identity of many of the modulatory proteins and the molecular mechanisms that coordinate efflux and the ensuing behavioral effects remain poorly defined. Here we establish a robust assay for AMPH-induced hyperlocomotion in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Using a variety of genetic and pharmacological approaches we demonstrate that this behavioral response is dependent on DA and on DAT and its phosphorylation. We also show that methylphenidate (MPH), which competitively inhibits DA uptake but does not induce DAT-mediated DA efflux, also leads to DAT-dependent hyperlocomotion, but this response is independent of DAT phosphorylation. Moreover, we demonstrate that the membrane raft protein Flotillin1 is required for AMPH-induced but not MPH-induced hyperlocomotion. These results are the first evidence of a role for a raft protein in an AMPH-mediated behavior. Thus, using our assay we are able to translate molecular and cellular findings to a behavioral level and to differentiate in vivo the distinct mechanisms of two psychostimulants. PMID:22710269

Pizzo, Andrea B.; Karam, Caline S.; Zhang, Yuchao; Yano, Hideaki; Freyberg, Robin J.; Karam, David S.; Freyberg, Zachary; Yamamoto, Ai; McCabe, Brian D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

155

The Expression of the Calcium Binding Protein Calretinin in the Rat Striatum: Effects of Dopamine Depletion and L-DOPA Treatment  

E-print Network

Depletion and L-DOPA Treatment Anna Mura,*,1 Joram Feldon,* and Matti Mintz *Behavioral Neurobiology; calretinin. INTRODUCTION In Parkinson's disease (PD), the nigrostriatal system degenerates and the striatum

Verschure, Paul

156

Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats  

PubMed Central

Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction. PMID:25076877

Palm, Sara; Momeni, Shima; Lundberg, Stina; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

2014-01-01

157

Mechanisms of deformation-induced grain boundary chromium depletion (sensitization) development in type 316 stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation accelerates the development of grain boundary chromium depletion (GBCD), or sensitization, in type 316 austenitic stainless steels (SS). Quantitative assessment of the degree of sensitization (DOS) using the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test indicates that the acceleration in GBCD is a function of the amount of strain in the material and temperature of isothermal sensitization treatment. A systematic increase in strain from 0 to 20 pct yields a continuous increase in EPRDOS values below 700°C, while at higher temperatures, a threshold strain of 6 to 10 pct is required to cause accelerated GBCD development. Straining SS above 20 pct also produces higher amounts of chromium depletion, though the (intergranular) sensitization susceptibility of the material could not be quantitatively evaluated due to the presence of grain matrix or transgranular corrosion. Classical C-curve precipitation-sensitization behavior was also noted for strained and unstrained materials, though strain moved the C-curves to the left. Microstructural evaluation of sensitization revealed a systematic increase in grain boundary and twin boundary corrosion on EPR attack surfaces with strain, which corroborated the deformation-induced acceleration of EPRDOS. A time-temperature-strain dependence of transgranular corrosion was also identified on EPR-etched samples strained above 20 pct. These were also reflected in transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations of higher grain boundary carbide precipitation on strained vs unstrained specimens and site-specific carbide precipitation on deformation sites in the material. Kinetic and thermodynamic modeling of deformation effects on carbide precipitation and depletion development in type 316 SS indicated that strain induces a reduction in the activation barrier to diffusion ( Q) a and thermodynamic barrier to nucleation (? G *) during the precipitation-depletion process. The lowering of Q a with strain caused chromium diffusivity and depletion development to be accelerated in strained vs unstrained materials and appears to be due to increased dislocation pipe diffusion with strain. Reduction of ? G * with strain was related to an increase in the free energy change of the grain boundary (? G) gb and accelerated carbide precipitate nucleation in deformed SS. The effect of strain on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the precipitation-depletion process decreases with increasing temperature.

Advani, A. H.; Murr, L. E.; Atteridge, D. G.; Chelakara, R.

1991-12-01

158

Polymer-Induced Depletion Interaction and Its Effect on Colloidal Sedimentation in Colloid-Polymer Mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we focus on the polymer-induced depletion attraction and its effect on colloidal sedimentation in colloid-polymer mixtures. We first report a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of the depletion effect in a mixture of hard-sphere-like colloid and non-adsorbing polymer. Then we present results of our recent sedimentation measurements in the same colloid-polymer mixture. A key parameter in controlling the sedimentation of heavy colloidal particles is the interparticle potential U(tau), which is the work required to bring two colloidal particles from infinity to a distance tau under a give solvent condition. This potential is known to affect the average settling velocity of the particles and experimentally one needs to have a way to continuously vary U(tau) in order to test the theory. The interaction potential U(tau) can be altered by adding polymer molecules into the colloidal suspension. In a mixture of colloid and non-adsorbing polymer, the potential U(tau) can develop an attractive well because of the depletion effect, in that the polymer chains are expelled from the region between two colloidal particles when their surface separation becomes smaller than the size of the polymer chains. The exclusion of polymer molecules from the space between the colloidal particles leads to an unbalanced osmotic pressure difference pushing the colloidal particles together, which results in an effective attraction between the two colloidal particles. The polymer-induced depletion attraction controls the phase stability of many colloid-polymer mixtures, which are directly of interest to industry.

Tong, Penger

1996-01-01

159

Effect of sex chromosome complement on sodium appetite and Fos-immunoreactivity induced by sodium depletion.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate a sex chromosome complement (SCC) effect on the angiotensin II-sexually dimorphic hypertensive and bradycardic baroreflex responses. We sought to evaluate whether SCC may differentially modulate sexually dimorphic-induced sodium appetite and specific brain activity due to physiological stimulation of the rennin angiotensin system. For this purpose, we used the "four core genotype" mouse model, in which the effect of gonadal sex and SCC is dissociated, allowing comparisons of sexually dimorphic traits between XX and XY females as well as in XX and XY males. Gonadectomized mice were sodium depleted by furosemide (50 mg/kg) and low-sodium diet treatment; control groups were administered with vehicle and maintained on normal sodium diet. Twenty-one hours later, the mice were divided into two groups: one group was submitted to the water-2% NaCl choice intake test, while the other group was perfused and their brains subjected to the Fos-immunoreactivity (FOS-ir) procedure. Sodium depletion, regardless of SCC (XX or XY), induced a significantly lower sodium and water intake in females than in males, confirming the existence in mice of sexual dimorphism in sodium appetite and the organizational involvement of gonadal steroids. Moreover, our results demonstrate a SCC effect on induced brain FOS-ir, showing increased brain activity in XX-SCC mice at the paraventricular nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and lateral parabrachial nucleus, as well as an XX-SCC augmented effect on sodium depletion-induced brain activity at two circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ and area postrema, nuclei closely involved in fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:24259464

Dadam, Florencia M; Caeiro, Ximena E; Cisternas, Carla D; Macchione, Ana F; Cambiasso, María J; Vivas, Laura

2014-02-01

160

Polycystin deficiency induces dopamine-reversible alterations in flow-mediated dilatation and vascular nitric oxide release in humans.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a renal hereditary disorder associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, due to mutations in polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 genes. Endothelial polycystin-deficient cells have an altered mechanosensitivity to fluid shear stress and subsequent deficit in calcium-induced nitric oxide release, prevented by dopamine receptor stimulation. However, the impact of polycystin deficiency on endothelial function in ADPKD patients is still largely unknown. Here we assessed endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation in 21 normotensive ADPKD patients and 21 healthy control subjects, during sustained (hand skin heating) and transient (postischemic hyperemia) flow stimulation. Flow-mediated dilatation was less marked in ADPKD patients than in controls during heating, but it was similar during postischemic hyperemia. There was no difference in endothelium-independent dilatation in response to glyceryl trinitrate. Local plasma nitrite, an indicator of nitric oxide availability, increased during heating in controls but not in patients. Brachial infusion of dopamine in a subset of ADPKD patients stimulated plasma nitrite increase during heating and improved flow-mediated dilatation. Thus, ADPKD patients display a loss of nitric oxide release and an associated reduction in endothelium-dependent dilatation of conduit arteries during sustained blood flow increase. The correction of these anomalies by dopamine suggests future therapeutic strategies that could reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events in ADPKD.Kidney International advance online publication, 16 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.241. PMID:25029430

Lorthioir, Aurélien; Joannidès, Robinson; Rémy-Jouet, Isabelle; Fréguin-Bouilland, Caroline; Iacob, Michèle; Roche, Clothilde; Monteil, Christelle; Lucas, Danièle; Renet, Sylvanie; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Godin, Michel; Richard, Vincent; Thuillez, Christian; Guerrot, Dominique; Bellien, Jérémy

2014-07-16

161

Retrodialysis of N/OFQ into the nucleus accumbens shell blocks cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity.  

PubMed

Nociceptin (N/OFQ) has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, most notably in reward processes and drug abuse. N/OFQ suppresses extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after intracerebroventricular injection. This study sought to examine the effects of retrodialyzed N/OFQ on the cocaine-induced increase in extracellular dopamine levels in the NAc, as well as locomotor activity, in freely moving rats. 1.0?M, 10?M, and 1mM N/OFQ, in the NAc shell, significantly suppressed the cocaine-induced dopamine increase in the NAc, while N/OFQ alone had no significant effect on dopamine levels. Co-delivery of the selective NOP receptor antagonist SB612111 ([(-)-cis-1-Methyl-7-[[4-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl]methyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-5-ol] reversed the N/OFQ suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine in the NAc, suggesting that this is an NOP receptor-mediated effect. Using a novel system to assess locomotion, we measured various motor activities of the animals with simultaneous microdialysis from the home cage. Cocaine produced an expected increase in total activity, including horizontal movement and rearing behavior. Retrodialysis of N/OFQ with cocaine administration affected all motor activities, initially showing no effect on behavior, but over time inhibiting cocaine-induced motor behaviors. These results suggest that N/OFQ can act directly in the NAc shell to block cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels. Extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity can be dissociated within the NAc and may reflect motor output differences in shell versus core regions of the NAc. These studies confirm the widespread involvement of NOP receptors in drug addiction and further validate the utility of an NOP receptor agonist as a medication for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:23219985

Vazquez-DeRose, Jacqueline; Stauber, Gregory; Khroyan, Taline V; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Toll, Lawrence

2013-01-15

162

Retrodialysis of N/OFQ into the nucleus accumbens shell blocks cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity  

PubMed Central

Nociceptin (N/OFQ) has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, most notably in reward processes and drug abuse. N/OFQ suppresses extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after intracerebroventricular injection. This study sought to examine the effects of retrodialyzed N/OFQ on the cocaine-induced increase in extracellular dopamine levels in the NAc, as well as locomotor activity, in freely moving rats. 1.0µM, 10µM, and 1mM N/OFQ, in the NAc shell, significantly suppressed the cocaine-induced dopamine increase in the NAc, while N/OFQ alone had no significant effect on dopamine levels. Co-delivery of the selective NOP receptor antagonist SB612111 ([(?)-cis-1-Methyl-7-[[4-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl]methyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-5-ol] reversed the N/OFQ suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine in the NAc, suggesting that this is an NOP receptor-mediated effect. Using a novel system to assess locomotion, we measured various motor activities of the animals with simultaneous microdialysis from the home cage. Cocaine produced an expected increase in total activity, including horizontal movement and rearing behavior. Retrodialysis of N/OFQ with cocaine administration affected all motor activities, initially showing no effect on behavior, but over time inhibiting cocaine-induced motor behaviors. These results suggest that N/OFQ can act directly in the NAc shell to block cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels. Extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity can be dissociated within the NAc and may reflect motor output differences in shell versus core regions of the NAc. These studies confirm the widespread involvement of NOP receptors in drug addiction and further validate the utility of an NOP receptor agonist as a medication for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:23219985

Vazquez-DeRose, Jacqueline; Stauber, Gregory; Khroyan, Taline V.; Xie, Xinmin (Simon); Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Toll, Lawrence

2012-01-01

163

Molecular and cellular bases for the protective effects of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, against methamphetamine-induced  

E-print Network

.4 Patterns of abuse and clinical effects including addiction 4 1.5 Mechanism of action of METH 6 1.6 Dopamine hypothesis of addiction 6 1.6.1 Dopamine synthesis 6 1.6.2 Dopamine release and stimulation of dopamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant known to cause cognitive abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

THE METAL TRANSPORTER SMF-3/DMT-1 MEDIATES ALUMINUM-INDUCED DOPAMINE NEURON DEGENERATION  

PubMed Central

Aluminum (Al3+) is the most prevalent metal in the earth's crust, and is a known human neurotoxicant. Al3+ has been shown to accumulate in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and epidemiological studies suggest correlations between Al3+ exposure and the propensity to develop both PD and the amyloid plaque-associated disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although Al3+ exposures have been associated with the development of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, the molecular mechanism involved in Al3+ transport in neurons and subsequent cellular death has remained elusive. In this study we show that a brief exposure to Al3+ decreases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, and confers dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in the genetically tractable nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Al3+ exposure also exacerbates DA neuronal death conferred by the human PD-associated protein ?-synuclein. DA neurodegeneration is dependent on SMF-3, a homologue to the human divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), as a functional null mutation partially inhibits the cell death. We also show that SMF-3 is expressed in DA neurons, Al3+ exposure results in a significant decrease in protein levels, and the neurodegeneration is partially dependent on the PD-associated transcription factor Nrf2/SKN-1 and caspase Apaf1/CED-4. Furthermore we provide evidence that the deletion of SMF-3 confers Al3+-resistance due to sequestration of Al3+ into an intracellular compartment. This study describes a novel model for Al3+-induced DA neurodegeneration and provides the first molecular evidence of an animal Al3+ transporter. PMID:23106139

VanDuyn, Natalia; Settivari, Raja; LeVora, Jennifer; Zhou, Shaoyu; Unrine, Jason; Nass, Richard

2012-01-01

165

Neurosteroid Agonist at GABAA Receptor Induces Persistent Neuroplasticity in VTA Dopamine Neurons  

PubMed Central

The main fast-acting inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain are ?-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptors for which neurosteroids, a subclass of steroids synthesized de novo in the brain, constitute a group of endogenous ligands with the most potent positive modulatory actions known. Neurosteroids can act on all subtypes of GABAA receptors, with a preference for ?-subunit-containing receptors that mediate extrasynaptic tonic inhibition. Pathological conditions characterized by emotional and motivational disturbances are often associated with perturbation in the levels of endogenous neurosteroids. We studied the effects of ganaxolone (GAN)—a synthetic analog of endogenous allopregnanolone that lacks activity on nuclear steroid receptors—on the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system involved in emotions and motivation. A single dose of GAN in young mice induced a dose-dependent, long-lasting neuroplasticity of glutamate synapses of DA neurons ex vivo in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Increased ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)/N-methyl-D-aspartate ratio and rectification of AMPA receptor responses even at 6 days after GAN administration suggested persistent synaptic targeting of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. This glutamate neuroplasticity was not observed in GABAA receptor ?-subunit-knockout (?-KO) mice. GAN (500?nM) applied locally to VTA selectively increased tonic inhibition of GABA interneurons and triggered potentiation of DA neurons within 4?h in vitro. Place-conditioning experiments in adult wild-type C57BL/6J and ?-KO mice revealed aversive properties of repeated GAN administration that were dependent on the ?-subunits. Prolonged neuroadaptation to neurosteroids in the VTA might contribute to both the physiology and pathophysiology underlying processes and changes in motivation, mood, cognition, and drug addiction. PMID:24077066

Vashchinkina, Elena; Manner, Aino K; Vekovischeva, Olga; Hollander, Bjørnar den; Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R

2014-01-01

166

Zinc Protects Human Kidney Cells from Depleted Uranium-induced Apoptosis.  

PubMed

Depleted uranium (DU) is a weak radioactive heavy metal, and zinc (Zn) is an effective antidote to heavy metal poisoning. However, the effect of Zn on DU-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Zn on DU-induced cell apoptosis in human kidney cells (HK-2) and explore its molecular mechanism. Pre-treatment with Zn significantly inhibited DU-induced apoptosis. It reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species in the cells, increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, suppressed the DU-induced soluble Fas receptor (sFasR) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) overexpression, suppressed the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inhibitor factor (AIF) from mitochondria to cytoplasm, inhibited the activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induced metallothionein (MT) expression. Furthermore, exogenous MT effectively inhibited DU-induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, mitochondrial and FasR-mediated apoptosis pathways contribute to DU-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Through independent mechanisms, such as indirect antioxidant effects, inhibition of the activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induction of MT expression, Zn inhibits DU-induced apoptosis. PMID:24330236

Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhangyou; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

2014-03-01

167

Reduced cocaine-induced serotonin, but not dopamine and noradrenaline, release in rats with a genetic deletion of serotonin transporters.  

PubMed

It has recently been proposed that the increased reinforcing properties of cocaine and ecstasy observed in rats with a genetic deletion of serotonin transporters are the result of a reduction in the psychostimulant-induced release of serotonin. Here we provide the neurochemical evidence in favor of this hypothesis and show that changes in synaptic levels of dopamine or noradrenaline are not very likely to play an important role in the previously reported enhanced psychostimulant intake of these serotonin transporter knockout rats. The results may very well explain why human subjects displaying a reduced expression of serotonin transporters have an increased risk to develop addiction. PMID:25261262

Verheij, Michel M M; Karel, Peter; Cools, Alexander R; Homberg, Judith R

2014-11-01

168

Nicotine- and methamphetamine-induced dopamine release evaluated with in-vivo binding of radiolabelled raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors: comparison with in-vivo microdialysis data.  

PubMed

The effect of substances which alter extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration has been studied by measuring changes in the binding of radiolabelled raclopride, a DA D2 receptor ligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. To better characterize the relationship between extracellular DA concentration and DA D2 receptor binding of raclopride, we compared the changes of extracellular DA concentration (measured using in-vivo microdialysis) and in-vivo [3H]raclopride binding induced by different doses of methamphetamine (Meth) and nicotine, drugs that enhance DA release with and without blocking DA transporters (DATs), respectively, in rat striatum. Nicotine elicited a modest increase of striatal extrasynaptic extracellular DA, while Meth produced a marked increase of striatal extrasynaptic DA in a dose-dependent manner. There was a close correlation between the decrease in [3H]raclopride in-vivo binding and the increase in extrasynaptic DA concentration induced by both nicotine (r2=0.95, p<0.001) and Meth (r2=0.98, p=0.001), supporting the usefulness of the radiolabelled raclopride-binding measurement for the non-invasive assessment of DA release following interventions in the living brain. However, the linear regression analysis revealed that the ratio of percent DA increase to percent [3H]raclopride binding reduction was 25-fold higher for Meth (34.8:1) than for nicotine (1.4:1). The apparent discrepancy in the extrasynaptic DA-[3H]raclopride binding relationship between the DA-enhancing drugs with and without DAT-blocking property indicates that the competition between endogenous DA and radiolabelled raclopride takes place at the intrasynaptic rather than extrasynaptic DA D2 receptors and reflects synaptic concentration of DA. PMID:19154629

Kim, Sang Eun; Han, Seung-Moo

2009-07-01

169

Dopamine, Working Memory, and Training Induced Plasticity: Implications for Developmental Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive deficits and particularly deficits in working memory (WM) capacity are common features in neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the underlying mechanisms through which WM capacity can be improved is therefore of great importance. Several lines of research indicate that dopamine plays an important role not only in WM function but also…

Soderqvist, Stina; Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Humphreys, Keith; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

2012-01-01

170

Caffeine Induces Dopamine and Glutamate Release in the Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the extracellular concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is believed to be one of the main mechanisms involved in the rewarding and motor-activating properties of psychostimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine. Using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats, we demonstrate that systemic administration of behaviorally rele- vant doses of caffeine can preferentially increase extracellular

Marcello Solinas; Sergi Ferre; Zhi-Bing You; Marzena Karcz-Kubicha; Patrizia Popoli; Steven R. Goldberg

2002-01-01

171

Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer.

Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

1987-03-01

172

Norcantharidin induced DU145 cell apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion.  

PubMed

Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated analog of cantharidin derived from blister beetles, has attracted considerable attentions in recent years due to their definitely toxic properties and the noteworthy advantages in stimulating bone marrow and increasing the peripheral leukocytes. Hence, it is worth studying the anti-tumor effect of NCTD on human prostate cancer cells DU145. It was found that after the treatment of NCTD with different concentrations (25-100 ?M), the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, which led to the appearance of micronucleus (MN). Moreover, the cells could be killed in a dose-/time-dependent manner along with the reduction of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression, destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), down-regulation of MnSOD, induction of ROS, depletion of ATP, and activation of AMPK (Adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase) . In addition, a remarkable release of cytochrome c was found in the cells exposed to 100 ?M NCTD and exogenous SOD-PEG could eliminate the generation of NCTD-induced MN. In conclusion, our studies indicated that NCTD could induce the collapse of MMP and mitochondria dysfunction. Accumulation of intercellular ROS could eventually switch on the apoptotic pathway by causing DNA damage and depleting ATP. PMID:24367681

Shen, Bo; He, Pei-Jie; Shao, Chun-Lin

2013-01-01

173

Norcantharidin Induced DU145 Cell Apoptosis through ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Energy Depletion  

PubMed Central

Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated analog of cantharidin derived from blister beetles, has attracted considerable attentions in recent years due to their definitely toxic properties and the noteworthy advantages in stimulating bone marrow and increasing the peripheral leukocytes. Hence, it is worth studying the anti-tumor effect of NCTD on human prostate cancer cells DU145. It was found that after the treatment of NCTD with different concentrations (25-100 ?M), the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, which led to the appearance of micronucleus (MN). Moreover, the cells could be killed in a dose-/ time-dependent manner along with the reduction of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression, destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), down-regulation of MnSOD, induction of ROS, depletion of ATP, and activation of AMPK (Adenosine 5‘-monophosphate -activated protein kinase) . In addition, a remarkable release of cytochrome c was found in the cells exposed to 100 ?M NCTD and exogenous SOD-PEG could eliminate the generation of NCTD-induced MN. In conclusion, our studies indicated that NCTD could induce the collapse of MMP and mitochondria dysfunction. Accumulation of intercellular ROS could eventually switch on the apoptotic pathway by causing DNA damage and depleting ATP. PMID:24367681

Shao, Chun-Lin

2013-01-01

174

p53 induces skin aging by depleting Blimp1+ sebaceous gland cells  

PubMed Central

p53 is an important inducer of organismal aging. However, its roles in the aging of skin remain unclear. Here we show that mice with chronic activation of p53 develop an aging phenotype in the skin associated with a reduction of subcutaneous fat and loss of sebaceous gland (SG). The reduction in the fat layer may result from the decrease of mammalian TOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity accompanied by elevated expression of energy expenditure genes, and possibly as compensatory effects, leading to the elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, an inducer of sebocyte differentiation. In addition, Blimp1+ sebocytes become depleted concomitantly with an increase in cellular senescence, which can be reversed by PPAR? antagonist (BADGE) treatment. Therefore, our results indicate that p53-mediated aging of the skin involves not only thinning through the loss of subdermal fat, but also xerosis or drying of the skin through declining sebaceous gland activity. PMID:24675459

Kim, J; Nakasaki, M; Todorova, D; Lake, B; Yuan, C-Y; Jamora, C; Xu, Y

2014-01-01

175

Light-induced dopamine release from teleost retinas acts as a light-adaptive signal to the retinal pigment epithelium.  

PubMed

In the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of lower vertebrates, melanin pigment granules migrate in and out of the cells' long apical projections in response to changes in light condition. When the RPE is in its normal association with the retina, light onset induces pigment granules to disperse into the apical projections; dark onset induces pigment granules to aggregate into the cell bodies. However, when the RPE is separated from the retina, pigment granule movement in the isolated RPE is insensitive to light onset. It thus seems likely that a signal from the retina communicates light onset to the RPE to initiate pigment dispersion. We have examined the nature of this retina-to-RPE signal in green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. In isolated retinas with adherent RPE, light-induced pigment dispersion in the RPE is blocked by treatments known to block Ca2+-dependent transmitter release in the retina. In addition, the medium obtained from incubating previously dark-adapted retinas in the light induces light-adaptive pigment dispersion when added to isolated RPE. In contrast, the medium obtained from incubating dark-adapted retinas in constant darkness does not affect pigment distribution when added to isolated RPE. These results are consistent with the idea that RPE pigment dispersion is triggered by a substance that diffuses from the retina at light onset. The capacity of the conditioned medium from light-incubated retinas to induce pigment dispersion in isolated RPE is inhibited by a D2 dopamine antagonist, but not by D1 or alpha-adrenergic antagonists. Light-induced pigment dispersion in whole RPE-retinas is also blocked by a D2 dopamine antagonist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2547905

Dearry, A; Burnside, B

1989-09-01

176

Maitotoxin-induced myocardial cell injury: Calcium accumulation followed by ATP depletion precedes cell death  

SciTech Connect

Maitotoxin, the most potent marine toxin, is known to increase the uptake and the accumulation of Ca2+ into cells, and was used in the present study to investigate the mechanisms of myocardial cell damage induced by Ca2+ overload. In cultured cardiomyocytes, isolated from 2-day-old rats, maitotoxin affected cell viability, as indicated by the leakage of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and of radiolabeled adenine nucleotides into the extracellular medium. Maitotoxin-induced leakage of LDH steadily increased between 30 min and 24 hr, and was preceded by a marked depletion of intracellular ATP. Addition of maitotoxin resulted in a rapid influx of extracellular Ca2+, as detected by preincubating the cells in the presence of 45Ca; this effect evolved in a few minutes, thus preceding the signs of cell death. Cytosolic levels of free Ca2+ ((Ca2+)i) were monitored by loading freshly isolated, suspended cardiomyocytes with the intracellular fluorescent probe fura-2; in these cells, maitotoxin induced a dose-dependent increase in (Ca2+)i, with a lag phase of less than a minute. All these effects of maitotoxin were inhibited by reducing Ca2+ concentration in the culture medium or by incubating the cells with the calcium-channel blocking drug verapamil. It is thus demonstrated that maitotoxin-induced cardiotoxicity is secondary to an inordinate influx of Ca2+ into the cells. It is also suggested that, in those conditions that lead to an inordinate accumulation of Ca2+ into myocardial cells, the unmatched demands of energy and the depletion of ATP play a primary role in the irreversible stage of cell damage.

Santostasi, G.; Kutty, R.K.; Bartorelli, A.L.; Yasumoto, T.; Krishna, G. (National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

177

Block-copolymer-induced long-range depletion interaction and clustering of silica nanoparticles in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been carried out to examine the block-copolymer-induced depletion interaction of charged silica nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The measurements have been performed on fixed concentrations (1 and 10 wt. %) of anionic Ludox silica nanoparticles having sizes of 8 and 16 nm in the presence of 0.1M NaCl and varying concentration of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide P85 [(EO)(26)(PO)(39)(EO)(26)] block copolymer. The presence of the block copolymer induces an attractive depletion interaction between charge-stabilized nanoparticles. The effective interaction of silica nanoparticles is modeled by a combination of two Yukawa potentials accounting for attractive depletion and repulsive electrostatic forces. The depletion interaction is found to be a long-range attraction whose magnitude and range increase with block-copolymer concentration. The depletion interaction is further enhanced by tuning the self-assembly of the block copolymer through the variation of temperature. The increase of the depletion interaction ultimately leads to clustering of nanoparticles and is confirmed by the presence of a Bragg peak in the SANS data. The positioning of the Bragg peak suggests simple-cubic-type packing of particles within the clusters. The scattering from the clusters in the low-Q region is governed by the Porod scattering, indicating that clusters are quite large (order of microns). The depletion interaction is also found to be strongly dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. PMID:23679422

Kumar, Sugam; Lee, M-J; Aswal, V K; Choi, S-M

2013-04-01

178

Block-copolymer-induced long-range depletion interaction and clustering of silica nanoparticles in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been carried out to examine the block-copolymer-induced depletion interaction of charged silica nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The measurements have been performed on fixed concentrations (1 and 10 wt. %) of anionic Ludox silica nanoparticles having sizes of 8 and 16 nm in the presence of 0.1M NaCl and varying concentration of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide P85 [(EO)26(PO)39(EO)26] block copolymer. The presence of the block copolymer induces an attractive depletion interaction between charge-stabilized nanoparticles. The effective interaction of silica nanoparticles is modeled by a combination of two Yukawa potentials accounting for attractive depletion and repulsive electrostatic forces. The depletion interaction is found to be a long-range attraction whose magnitude and range increase with block-copolymer concentration. The depletion interaction is further enhanced by tuning the self-assembly of the block copolymer through the variation of temperature. The increase of the depletion interaction ultimately leads to clustering of nanoparticles and is confirmed by the presence of a Bragg peak in the SANS data. The positioning of the Bragg peak suggests simple-cubic-type packing of particles within the clusters. The scattering from the clusters in the low-Q region is governed by the Porod scattering, indicating that clusters are quite large (order of microns). The depletion interaction is also found to be strongly dependent on the size of the nanoparticles.

Kumar, Sugam; Lee, M.-J.; Aswal, V. K.; Choi, S.-M.

2013-04-01

179

Alterations in ethanol-induced accumbal transmission after acute and long-term zinc depletion.  

PubMed

Alcoholism is subject to extensive research, but the role of changes in metabolism caused by alcohol consumption has been poorly investigated. Zinc (Zn(2+) ) deficiency is a common metabolic aberration among alcoholics and Zn(2+) influences the function of ligand-gated ion channels, known pharmacological targets of ethanol (EtOH). Here, we investigate whether manipulation of extracellular levels of Zn(2+) modulates EtOH-induced increases of dopamine (DA) output, as measured by in vivo microdialysis in the rat, and whether voluntary EtOH consumption is altered by Zn(2+) deficiency. Our findings show that the Zn(2+) -chelating agent tricine slowly raises DA levels when perfused in the nucleus accumbens (nAc), whereas the more potent Zn(2+) chelator TPEN reduces DA levels. We also show that pre-treatment with either tricine or TPEN blocks the EtOH-induced DA elevation. Chronic Zn(2+) deficiency induced by a Zn(2+) -free diet did not affect EtOH consumption, but excitatory transmission, assessed by striatal field-potential recordings in the nAc shell, was significantly modulated both by Zn(2+) -free diet and by EtOH consumption, as compared with the EtOH naïve controls. The present study indicates that Zn(2+) influences EtOH's interaction with the brain reward system, possibly by interfering with glycine receptor and GABAA receptor function. This also implies that Zn(2+) deficiency among alcoholics may be important to correct in order to normalize important aspects of brain function. PMID:24102995

Morud, Julia; Adermark, Louise; Ericson, Mia; Söderpalm, Bo

2015-01-01

180

Relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and methylphenidate induced high in humans  

SciTech Connect

The inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by cocaine has been shown to be indispensable for its reinforcing properties. The development of drugs that inibit the DAT has become a major target to prevent cocaine`s effects. However prevention of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by DAT inhibitors has never been demonstrated. This study evaluates the ability to block methylphenidate (MP), a DAT inhibitor drug with similar reinforcing properties to cocaine, induced {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by prior DAT inhibition. It uses PET and [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate to measure the relationship between DAT occupancy prior to administration of MP and the intensity of the subjective perception of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} in 8 controls. MP (0.375 mg/kg iv) which was administered as a single injection and also as two sequential doses given 60 minutes apart significantly reduced the ratio of the distribution volume for [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate in striatum to that in cerebellum from a baseline of 2.83 {plus_minus} 0.2 to 1.29 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes and to 1.37 {plus_minus} 0.2 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and to 1.14 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes after the second of two sequential MP doses. This corresponds to a DAT occupancy by MP of 84% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 minutes and of 77% {plus_minus} 6 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and of 93% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 after the second of two sequential MP doses. The subjective perception of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} experienced after the second injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection, in spite of the very different starting DAT occupancies (0 and 77%, respectively). DAT occupancy was not correlated with the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}; and one subject with 100% DAT occupancy did not perceive the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY-Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

181

Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. Methods sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (?CT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced ?CT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. Results All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Conclusions Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage damage, but also resulted in pronounced subchondral sclerosis, synovial macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. PMID:24472689

2014-01-01

182

Imaging dopamine’s role in drug abuse and addiction  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is involved in drug reinforcement but its role in addiction is less clear. Here we describe PET imaging studies that investigate dopamine’s involvement in drug abuse in the human brain. In humans the reinforcing effects of drugs are associated with large and fast increases in extracellular dopamine, which mimic those induced by physiological dopamine cell firing but are more intense and protracted. Since dopamine cells fire in response to salient stimuli, supraphysiological activation by drugs is experienced as highly salient (driving attention, arousal, conditioned learning and motivation) and with repeated drug use may raise the thresholds required for dopamine cell activation and signaling. Indeed, imaging studies show that drug abusers have marked decreases in dopamine D2 receptors and in dopamine release. This decrease in dopamine function is associated with reduced regional activity in orbitofrontal cortex (involved in salience attribution; its disruption results in compulsive behaviors), cingulate gyrus (involved in inhibitory control; its disruption results in impulsivity) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (involved in executive function; its disruption results in impaired regulation of intentional actions). In parallel, conditioning triggered by drugs leads to enhanced dopamine signaling when exposed to conditioned cues, which then drives the motivation to procure the drug in part by activation of prefrontal and striatal regions. These findings implicate deficits in dopamine activity—inked with prefrontal and striatal deregulation—in the loss of control and compulsive drug intake that results when the addicted person takes the drugs or is exposed to conditioned cues. The decreased dopamine function in addicted individuals also reduces their sensitivity to natural reinforcers. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring brain dopaminergic tone and activity of cortical projection regions could improve prefrontal function, enhance inhibitory control and interfere with impulsivity and compulsive drug administration while helping to motivate the addicted person to engage in non-drug related behaviors. PMID:18617195

Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.J.; Baler, R.; Telang, F.

2009-01-01

183

Amphetamine potency varies with dopamine uptake rate across striatal subregions.  

PubMed

Amphetamine is a central nervous system psychostimulant with a high potential for abuse. Recent literature has shown that genetic and drug-induced elevations in dopamine transporter (DAT) expression augment the neurochemical and behavioral potency of psychostimulant releasers. However, it remains to be determined if the well-documented differences in DAT levels across striatal regions drive regionally distinct amphetamine effects within individuals. DAT levels and dopamine uptake rates have been shown to follow a gradient in the striatum, with the highest levels in the dorsal regions and lowest levels in the nucleus accumbens shell; thus, we hypothesized that amphetamine potency would follow this gradient. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices, we examined DAT inhibition and changes in exocytotic dopamine release by amphetamine across four striatal regions (dorsal and ventral caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell). Consistent with our hypothesis, amphetamine effects at the DAT and on release decreased across regions from dorsal to ventral, and both measures of potency were highly correlated with dopamine uptake rates. Separate striatal subregions are involved in different aspects of motivated behaviors, such as goal-directed and habitual behaviors, that become dysregulated by drug abuse, making it critically important to understand regional differences in drug potencies. Amphetamine is a central nervous system psychostimulant with a high potential for abuse, which may be augmented by increased dopamine transporter (DAT) expression. We here show that the ability of amphetamine to inhibit dopamine (DA) transport and deplete dopamine vesicles increases in a graded manner across striatal subregions from ventral to dorsal with the greatest effects on DA neurotransmission in the dorsal caudate-putamen. Additionally, DA uptake rate and amphetamine potency positively correlated, suggesting that differences across regions result from disparate DA transporter levels. PMID:24988947

Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Jones, Sara R

2014-11-01

184

Effect of morphine and lacosamide on levels of dopamine and 5-HIAA in brain regions of rats with induced hypoglycemia.  

PubMed

The study aimed to determine the effect of morphine and lacosamide on levels of dopamine and 5-HIAA in a hypoglycemic model. Female Wistar rats (n = 30), mean weight of 180 g were treated as follow: Group 1 (control) received 0.9% NaCl, Group II; morphine (10 mg kg(-1)), Group III; lacosamide (10 mg kg(-1)), Group IV; insulin (10 U.I. per rat), Group V; morphine (10 mg kg(-1))+insulin, Group VI; lacosamide (10 mg kg(-1))+ insulin. All administrations were made intraperitoneally every 24 h, for 5 days. Animals were sacrificed after the last dose to measure the levels of glucose in blood; dopamine and 5-HIAA in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum/medulla oblongata regions. Levels of glucose decreased significantly in animals treated with morphine, lacosamide and all groups that received insulin alone or combined with respect to control group. Levels of Dopamine diminished significantly in cortex and increased significantly in hemispheres of animals that received morphine. In cortex, 5-HIAA increase significantly in the groups treated with morphine, morphine+insulin and lacosamide+insulin, however a significant decrease of the same substance was witnessed in cerebellum and medulla oblongata of animals that received morphine or lacosamide plus insulin. GSH increased significantly in cortex and cerebellum/medulla oblongata of animals treated with morphine and lacosamide alone or combined with insulin. Lipid peroxidation decreased significantly in cortex and cerebellum/medulla oblongata of groups that received lacosamide alone or combined with insulin. These results indicate that hypoglycemia induced changes in cellular regulation while morphine and lacosamide are accompanied by biochemical responses. PMID:24783817

Guzman, D Calderon; Garcia, E Hernandez; Mejia, G Barragan; Olguin, H Juarez; Gonzalez, J A Saldivar; Labra Ruiz, N A

2014-01-15

185

Individual variability of dopamine release from nucleus accumbens induced by nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of subcutaneous administration of vehicle, amphetamine (1 mg\\/kg) or nicotine (0.4 mg\\/kg, injected twice, 90 min apart) on extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration in the nucleus accumbens (ACC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the Sprague–Dawley rat were studied using microdialysis. Experiments were conducted at least 10 days following implantation of guide cannulae, and at least 2 h following insertion

James H Johnson; Chonghao Zhao; J. Randy James; John A Rosecrans

2000-01-01

186

Differences in Nicotine-Induced Dopamine Release and Nicotine Pharmacokinetics Between Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown a greater preference for the self-administration of drugs such as nicotine and cocaine in the Lewis rat strain than in the Fischer 344 strain. We examined some factors that could contribute to such a difference. The baseline level of extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens shell was about 3-times higher in Fischer rats than in Lewis rats (3.18

I. Sziraki; M. N. Lipovac; A. Hashim; H. Sershen; D. Allen; T. Cooper; P. Czobor; A. Lajtha

2001-01-01

187

Pharmacology of Signaling Induced by Dopamine D1-Like Receptor Activation  

PubMed Central

Dopamine D1-like receptors consisting of D1 and D5 subtypes are intimately implicated in dopaminergic regulation of fundamental neurophysiologic processes such as mood, motivation, cognitive function, and motor activity. Upon stimulation, D1-like receptors initiate signal transduction cascades that are mediated through adenylyl cyclase or phosphoinositide metabolism, with subsequent enhancement of multiple downstream kinase cascades. The latter actions propagate and further amplify the receptor signals, thus predisposing D1-like receptors to multifaceted interactions with various other mediators and receptor systems. The adenylyl cyclase response to dopamine or selective D1-like receptor agonists is reliably associated with the D1 subtype, while emerging evidence indicates that the phosphoinositide responses in native brain tissues may be preferentially mediated through stimulation of the D5 receptor. Besides classic coupling of each receptor subtype to specific G proteins, additional biophysical models are advanced in attempts to account for differential subcellular distribution, heteromolecular oligomerization, and activity-dependent selectivity of the receptors. It is expected that significant advances in understanding of dopamine neurobiology will emerge from current and anticipated studies directed at uncovering the molecular mechanisms of D5 coupling to phosphoinositide signaling, the structural features that might enhance pharmacological selectivity for D5 versus D1 subtypes, the mechanism by which dopamine may modulate phosphoinositide synthesis, the contributions of the various responsive signal mediators to D1 or D5 interactions with D2-like receptors, and the spectrum of dopaminergic functions that may be attributed to each receptor subtype and signaling pathway. PMID:20547182

Undieh, Ashiwel S.

2010-01-01

188

Depletion of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Slows the Growth of Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for lung cancer, and low-dose aspirin intake reduces lung cancer risk. However, the roles that specific inflammatory cells and their products play in lung carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. In mice, alveolar macrophage numbers increase as lung tumors progress, and pulmonary macrophage programing changes within 2?weeks of carcinogen exposure. To examine how macrophages specifically affect lung tumor progression, they were depleted in mice bearing urethane-induced lung tumors using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. Alveolar macrophage populations decreased to ?50% of control levels after 4–6?weeks of liposomal clodronate treatment. Tumor burden decreased by 50% compared to vehicle treated mice, and tumor cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67 staining, was also attenuated. Pulmonary fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, CXCL1, IL-6, and CCL2 diminished with clodronate liposome treatment. Tumor-associated macrophages expressed markers of both M1 and M2 programing in vehicle and clodronate liposome-treated mice. Mice lacking CCR2 (the receptor for macrophage chemotactic factor CCL2) had comparable numbers of alveolar macrophages and showed no difference in tumor growth rates when compared to similarly treated wild-type mice suggesting that while CCL2 may recruit macrophages to lung tumor microenvironments, redundant pathways can compensate when CCL2/CCR2 signaling is inactivated. Depletion of pulmonary macrophages rather than inhibition of their recruitment may be an advantageous strategy for attenuating lung cancer progression. PMID:25505466

Fritz, Jason M.; Tennis, Meredith A.; Orlicky, David J.; Lin, Hao; Ju, Cynthia; Redente, Elizabeth F.; Choo, Kevin S.; Staab, Taylor A.; Bouchard, Ronald J.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Malkinson, Alvin M.; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D.

2014-01-01

189

Phagocyte depletion inhibits AA amyloid accumulation in AEF-induced huIL-6 transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Determine the role of phagocytosis in the deposition of acute phase SAA protein in peripheral organs as AA amyloid. METHODS AA amyloidosis was induced by injection of amyloid enhancing factor (AEF) in huIL-6 transgenic mice. Clodronate liposomes were injected at different times, and the amyloid load evaluated by Congo red birefringence staining and monitoring with the amyloid specific probe 125I-labeled peptide p5R. RESULTS Injection of clodronate containing liposomes depleted Iba-1 positive and F4/80 positive phagocytic cells in liver and spleen for up to 5 days. Treatment prior to administration of intravenous AEF did not alter the pattern of deposition of the AEF in spleen, but inhibited the catabolism of the 125I-labeled AEF. Clodronate treatment 1 day before or 1 day after AEF administration had little effect on AA amyloid accumulation at 2 weeks; however, mice treated with clodronate liposomes 5 days after AEF induction and evaluated at 2 weeks post AEF induction showed reduced amyloid load relative to controls. At 6 weeks post-AEF there was no significant effect on amyloid load following a single clodronate treatment. CONCLUSION Macrophages have been shown to be instrumental in both accumulation and clearance of AA amyloid after cessation of inflammation. Our data indicate that when SAA protein is continuously present, depletion of phagocytic cells during the early course of the disease progression temporarily reduces amyloid load. PMID:24446872

Kennel, Stephen J.; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Huang, Ying; Richey, Tina; Heidel, Eric; Wall, Jonathan S.

2014-01-01

190

Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.

Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lonce, S.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

1995-01-01

191

Amantadine preserves dopamine level and attenuates depression-like behavior induced by traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in multiple neuropsychiatric sequelae, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. Among them, depression is a common psychiatric symptom, and links to poorer recovery. Amantadine, as an antiparkinsonian, increases dopamine release, and blocks dopamine reuptake, but has recently received attention for its effectiveness as an antidepressant. In the present study, we first induced a post-TBI depression rat model to probe the efficacy of amantadine therapy in reducing post-TBI depression. The DA concentration in the striatum of the injured rats, as well as the degeneration and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), were checked along with the depression-like behavior. The results showed that amantadine therapy could significantly ameliorate the depression-like behavior, improving the DA level in the striatum and decreasing the degeneration and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the SN. The results indicated that the anti-depression effect may result from the increase of extracellular DA concentration in the striatum and/or the indirect neuroprotection on the dopaminergic neurons in the SN. We conclude that DA plays a critical role in post-TBI depression, and that amantadine shows its potential value in anti-depression treatment for TBI. PMID:25447294

Tan, Liang; Ge, Hongfei; Tang, Jun; Fu, Chuhua; Duanmu, Wangsheng; Chen, Yujie; Hu, Rong; Sui, Jianfeng; Liu, Xin; Feng, Hua

2015-02-15

192

Methamphetamine Induces Striatal Neurokinin-1 Receptor Endocytosis Primarily in Somatostatin/NPY/NOS Interneurons and the Role of Dopamine Receptors in Mice  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that induces long-term deficits of dopamine terminal markers and apoptotic cell death in the striatum. Our laboratory demonstrated that pharmacological blockade of the neurokinin-1 receptor attenuated the METH-induced damage to the striatal dopamine terminals and the apoptotic cell death of some striatal neurons. Here we employed histological methods to assess the effect of METH on neurokinin-1 receptor trafficking in the striatum as an indirect index of signaling by the neuropeptide substance P (natural ligand for this receptor). Male mice received a single injection of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and were sacrificed 30 minutes later. Immunohistofluorescence confocal microscopy confirmed that the neurokinin-1 receptor is located on cholinergic and somatostatin interneurons of the striatum. METH induced the trafficking of the neurokinin-1 receptor from the membrane into cytoplasmic endosomes primarily in the somatostatin/NPY/NOS interneurons and this phenomenon was attenuated by antagonists of the dopamine D1 (SCH-23390), D2 (raclopride) or neurokinin-1 (WIN-51,708) receptors. These data demonstrate that METH induces the trafficking of the striatal neurokinin-1 receptors principally in the somatostatin/NPY/NOS interneurons and that this phenomenon is dependent on the activity of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. PMID:20730802

Wang, Jing; Angulo, Jesus A.

2010-01-01

193

Pharmacological ascorbate induces cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells through ATP depletion and induction of autophagy.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed the scientific basis for the use of intravenous (i.v.) vitamin C or ascorbic acid (ascorbate) in treating cancers, and raised the possibility of using i.v. ascorbate as a prooxidant anticancer therapy. Through the production of H2O2, pharmacologic ascorbate can induce some cancer cell death in vitro and inhibit a number of types of tumor growth in animal models. However, the mechanism of cell death triggered by ascorbate is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of pharmacological concentrations of ascorbate to human prostate cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. The results showed that ascorbate in the millimolar range induced cytotoxicity in five of the six tested prostate cancer cell lines. The IC50 values in the sensitive prostate cancer cells ranged from 1.9 to 3.5 mmol/l, concentrations clinically achievable with i.v. ascorbate use. All tested androgen-independent cells were sensitive to ascorbate treatment. The ascorbate-insensitive cell line LaPC4 is hormonally dependent. Whereas the reasons for sensitivity/resistance to ascorbate treatment need to be investigated further, cell death in sensitive cells was dependent on H2O2. Ascorbate treatment depleted ATP and induced autophagy in sensitive prostate cancer cells, resulting in cell death. Taken together with previous studies, high-dose ascorbate has the potential to be a novel treatment option to hormone-refractory prostate cancer. PMID:22205155

Chen, Ping; Yu, Jun; Chalmers, Brain; Drisko, Jeanne; Yang, Jun; Li, Benyi; Chen, Qi

2012-04-01

194

Parthenolide induces autophagy via the depletion of 4E-BP1.  

PubMed

Parthenolide (PTL) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from feverfew and exhibits potent antitumor activity against various cancers. Many studies indicate that PTL treatment leads to apoptosis, however, the mechanism has not been defined. Here, we observed that cells underwent autophagy shortly after PTL treatment. Inhibition of autophagy by knocking out autophagy associated gene atg5 blocked PTL-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, PTL decreased the level of translation initiation factor eIF4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in correlation with autophagy. Ectopic expression or shRNA knockdown of 4E-BP1 further verified the effect of 4E-BP1 on PTL-induced autophagy. Meanwhile, PTL elevated the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which located upstream of the depletion of 4E-BP1, and contributed to the consequent autophagy. This study revealed 4E-BP1 as a trigger for PTL-induced autophagy and may lead to therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of anticancer drugs. PMID:25482447

Lan, Bei; Wan, Ya-Juan; Pan, Shuang; Wang, Yu; Yang, Yin; Leng, Qian-Li; Jia, Huiyan; Liu, Yao-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Zhu; Cao, Youjia

2015-01-01

195

Positron Emission Tomography Measurement of Cerebral Metabolic Correlates of Tryptophan Depletion-Induced Depressive Relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract SUBJECTS AND METHODS SUBJECTS PROCEDURES BIOCHEMICAL METHODS PET SCANNING METHODS PET IMAGE PROCESSING MEASUREMENT OF ROIs DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS EFFECTS OF TRYPTOPHAN DEPLETION ON REGIONAL CEREBRAL METABOLISM ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES Ham-D Scores and Brain Metabolic Response to Tryptophan Depletion Plasma Tryptophan Levels With Tryptophan Depletion, Behavior, and Regional Brain Metabolism Clinical Variables, Relapse Status, and Regional Brain Metabolism COMMENT

J. Douglas; Robert B. Innis; Lawrence Staib; Richard A. Bronen; John H. Krystal; James Duncan; Robert Malison; Holley Dey; Robert Soufer; Dennis S. Charney; Innis Bremner

2006-01-01

196

Depleted uranium–uranyl chloride induces apoptosis in mouse J774 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depleted uranium entering the body as a result of inhalation or embedded fragments becomes associated to a great extent with macrophages. As part of our continuing studies on the health effects of internalized depleted uranium, we investigated the effect of soluble depleted uranium–uranyl chloride on the mouse macrophage cell line, J774. Using a cytochemical staining protocol specific for uranium, we

John F Kalinich; Narayani Ramakrishnan; Vilmar Villa; David E McClain

2002-01-01

197

Effects of Acute Dopamine Precusor Depletion on Immediate Reward Selection Bias and Working Memory Depend on Catechol-O-methyltransferase Genotype  

PubMed Central

Little agreement exists as to acute dopamine (DA) manipulation effects on intertemporal choice in humans. We previously found that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype predicts individual differences in immediate reward selection bias among adults. Moreover, we and others have shown that the relationship between COMT genotype and immediate reward bias is inverted in adolescents. No previous pharmacology studies testing DA manipulation effects on intertemporal choice have accounted for COMT genotype, and many have included participants in the adolescent age range (18–21) as adults. Moreover, many studies have included female subjects without strict cycle phase control, although recent evidence demonstrates that cyclic estradiol elevations interact with COMT genotype to affect DA-dependent cognition. These factors may have interacted with DA manipulations in past studies, potentially occluding detection of effects. Therefore, we predicted that among healthy adult males (ages 22–40), frontal DA tone, as indexed by COMT genotype, would interact with acute changes in DA signaling to affect intertemporal choice. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we decreased central DA via administration of an amino acid beverage deficient in the DA precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine (P/T[?]), and tested effects on immediate reward bias in a delay-discounting (DD) task and working memory (WM) in an n-back task. We found no main effect of beverage on DD or WM performance, but did find significant beverage*genotype effects. These results suggest that the effect of DA manipulations on DD depends on individual differences in frontal DA tone, which may have impeded some past efforts to characterize DA’s role in immediate reward bias in humans. PMID:23937688

Kelm, Mary Katherine; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

2013-01-01

198

Depletion of Kupffer cells modulates ethanol-induced hepatocyte DNA synthesis in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

Kupffer cells (KCs) are important in hepatic homeostasis and responses to xenobiotics. KCs are activated on interaction with endotoxin, releasing cytokines, and reactive oxygen species normally associated with increased gene expression, cellular growth, or hepatic injury. Ethanol-induced endotoxemia is one means of KC activation. We propose that KC depletion attenuates the effect of EtOH-induced endotoxemia to impact the hepatic growth response. Hepatic DNA synthesis was examined in KC competent (KC+) or KC-depleted (KC-) C57BL/6 mice fed EtOH-containing diet in the presence or absence of polyphenol-60 antioxidant. KC depletion was assessed by F4/80 antigen, and DNA synthesis was assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) messenger RNA released was quantified by RT-PCR/electrophoresis. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting, and Nrf2 and CYP2E1protein were also assayed. Apoptosis and hepatic injury were examined by the Tunnel assay and hepatic transaminases in serum, respectively. Hepatic transaminases in serum (AST and ALT) were within normal range. Over 90% of KC was depleted by clodronate treatment. KC depletion decreased TNF-? mRNA release, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and hepatocyte DNA synthesis. KC depletion is associated with increased numbers of apoptotic cells bodies in KC- mice. Antioxidant treatment decreased DNA synthesis, Nrf2, and CYP2E1 protein expression in EtOH-consuming mice. Our data indicate that upon ethanol exposure, KC participates in hepatic DNA synthesis and growth responses. Collectively, these observations suggest that KC depletion attenuates the downstream effect of ethanol-induced endotoxemia by reduced cytokine and reactive oxygen species production with its concomitant effect on MAPK-signaling pathway on hepatocyte DNA synthesis. PMID:22996800

Owumi, Solomon E; Corthals, Stacy M; Uwaifo, Anthony O; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Klaunig, James E

2014-08-01

199

Optogenetics reveals a role for accumbal medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D2 receptors in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization  

PubMed Central

Long-lasting, drug-induced adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been proposed to contribute to drug-mediated addictive behaviors. Here we have used an optogenetic approach to examine the role of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) were delivered into the NAc of D2R-Cre transgenic mice. This allowed us to selectively photostimulate D2R-MSNs in NAc. D2R-MSNs form local inhibitory circuits, because photostimulation of D2R-MSN evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neighboring MSNs. Photostimulation of NAc D2R-MSN in vivo affected neither the initiation nor the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. However, photostimulation during the drug withdrawal period attenuated expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results show that D2R-MSNs of NAc play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity and may contribute to relapse after cessation of drug abuse. PMID:25352792

Song, Shelly Sooyun; Kang, Byeong Jun; Wen, Lei; Lee, Hyo Jin; Sim, Hye-ri; Kim, Tae Hyong; Yoon, Sehyoun; Yoon, Bong-June; Augustine, George J.; Baik, Ja-Hyun

2014-01-01

200

Optogenetics reveals a role for accumbal medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D2 receptors in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization.  

PubMed

Long-lasting, drug-induced adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been proposed to contribute to drug-mediated addictive behaviors. Here we have used an optogenetic approach to examine the role of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) were delivered into the NAc of D2R-Cre transgenic mice. This allowed us to selectively photostimulate D2R-MSNs in NAc. D2R-MSNs form local inhibitory circuits, because photostimulation of D2R-MSN evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neighboring MSNs. Photostimulation of NAc D2R-MSN in vivo affected neither the initiation nor the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. However, photostimulation during the drug withdrawal period attenuated expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results show that D2R-MSNs of NAc play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity and may contribute to relapse after cessation of drug abuse. PMID:25352792

Song, Shelly Sooyun; Kang, Byeong Jun; Wen, Lei; Lee, Hyo Jin; Sim, Hye-Ri; Kim, Tae Hyong; Yoon, Sehyoun; Yoon, Bong-June; Augustine, George J; Baik, Ja-Hyun

2014-01-01

201

Imaging dopamine's role in drug abuse and addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is involved in drug reinforcement but its role in addiction is less clear. Here we describe PET imaging studies that investigate dopamine's involvement in drug abuse in the human brain. In humans the reinforcing effects of drugs are associated with large and fast increases in extracellular dopamine, which mimic those induced by physiological dopamine cell firing but are more

N. D. Volkow; J. S. Fowler; G. J. Wang; R. Baler; F. Telang

2009-01-01

202

Cue-induced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson's disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours.  

PubMed

Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are a significant source of morbidity for patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminergic therapy. The development of these behaviours may reflect sensitization of the neural response to non-drug rewards, similar to that proposed for sensitization to drug rewards in addiction. Here, by using (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated the effects of reward-related cues and L-dopa challenge in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulsive-compulsive behaviours on striatal levels of synaptic dopamine. Eighteen patients (11 with and seven without impulsive-compulsive behaviours) underwent three (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography scans. The impulsive-compulsive behaviours included hypersexuality, binge eating, punding, compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, compulsive buying and pathological gambling, with eight patients exhibiting more than one impulsive-compulsive behaviour. There were no significant differences in baseline dopamine D2 receptor availability between the Parkinson's disease groups. No differences were found when comparing the percentage change of raclopride binding potential between the two Parkinson's disease groups following L-dopa challenge with neutral cues. The group with Parkinson's disease with impulsive-compulsive behaviours had a greater reduction of ventral striatum (11)C-raclopride binding potential following reward-related cue exposure, relative to neutral cue exposure, following L-dopa challenge (16.3% compared with 5.8% in Parkinson's disease controls, P?=?0.016). The heightened response of striatal reward circuitry to heterogeneous reward-related visual cues among a group of patients with different impulsive-compulsive behaviours is consistent with a global sensitization to appetitive behaviours with dopaminergic therapy in vulnerable individuals. Our findings are relevant for the broader debate on the relation between impulsive-compulsive behaviours and addictions and may have important implications with regards to advertisement legislation in an effort to prevent the onset of behavioural addictions. PMID:21349901

O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; Lawrence, Andrew D; Evans, Andrew H; Bose, Subrata K; Djamshidian, Atbin; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola

2011-04-01

203

Dependence receptor UNC5D mediates nerve growth factor depletion–induced neuroblastoma regression  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous regression of neuroblastoma (NB) resembles the developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD) of sympathetic neurons. Regressing tumor cells express high levels of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TRKA and p75NTR and are dependent on NGF for survival; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that UNC5D, a dependence receptor that is directly targeted by p53 family members, is highly expressed in favorable NBs. NGF withdrawal strongly upregulated UNC5D, E2F1, and p53 in human primary favorable NBs. The induced UNC5D was cleaved by caspases 2/3, and the released intracellular fragment translocated into the nucleus and interacted with E2F1 to selectively transactivate the proapoptotic target gene. The cleavage of UNC5D and its induction of apoptosis were strongly inhibited by addition of netrin-1. Unc5d–/– mice consistently exhibited a significant increase in dorsal root ganglia neurons and resistance to NGF depletion–induced apoptosis in sympathetic neurons compared with wild-type cells. Our data suggest that UNC5D forms a positive feedback loop with p53 and E2F1 to promote NGF dependence–mediated PCD during NB regression. PMID:23778138

Zhu, Yuyan; Li, Yuanyuan; Haraguchi, Seiki; Yu, Meng; Ohira, Miki; Ozaki, Toshinori; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Isogai, Eriko; Koseki, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Yohko; Kong, Cuize; Mehlen, Patrick; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Nakagawara, Akira

2013-01-01

204

Exercise-induced heart mitochondrial cholesterol depletion influences the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling.  

PubMed

The significance of the reduction of the cholesterol pool in heart mitochondria after exercise is still unknown. Recently, published data have suggested that cholesterol may influence the components of mitochondrial contact site and affect mitochondrial swelling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased cholesterol content in heart mitochondria caused by prolonged swimming may provoke changes in their bioenergetics and result in an increased resistance to calcium chloride-induced mitochondrial swelling. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sedentary control group and an exercise group. The rats exercised for 3 h, burdened with an additional 3% of their body weight. Their hearts were removed immediately after completing the exercise. The left ventricle was divided and used for experiments. Mitochondrial cholesterol content, membrane fluidity and mitochondrial bioenergetics were measured in the control and exercised rat heart mitochondria. To assess whether mitochondrial modifications are linked to disruption of lipid microdomains, methyl-?-cyclodextrin, a well-known lipid microdomain-disrupting agent and cholesterol chelator, was applied to the mitochondria of the control group. Cholesterol depletion, increased membrane fluidity and increased resistance to calcium chloride-induced swelling were observed in postexercise heart crude mitochondrial fraction. Similar results were achieved in control mitochondria treated with 2% methyl-?-cyclodextrin. All of the mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters were similar between the groups. Therefore, the disruption of raft-like microdomains appears to be an adaptive change in the rat heart following exercise. PMID:23733522

Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Vadhana M S, Dhivya; Kaczor, Jan Jacek; Olek, Robert Antoni; Flis, Damian Jozef; Halon, Malgorzata; Wozniak, Michal; Fedeli, Donatella; Carloni, Manuel; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Gabbianelli, Rosita

2013-10-01

205

Concomitant changes in formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of dopamine interneurones and in slow inhibitory post-synaptic potentials of the rabbit superior cervical ganglion, induced by stimulation of the preganglionic nerve or by a muscarinic agent  

PubMed Central

1. Dopamine was identified by formaldehyde histochemistry and cytospectrofluorometry in the rabbit's superior cervical ganglion. Dopamine was localized to the intraganglionic `small intensely fluorescent' cells, and also to the characteristically beaded fibres forming a network in close contact with virtually all ganglion cell bodies. The extensive beaded fibres are therefore presumed to be processes of the small intensely fluorescent cells. 2. Changes in the dopamine content of these interneurones were studied by recording alterations in their relative fluorescence intensity in conjunction with changes in the slow inhibitory post-synaptic potential (s.-i.p.s.p.) response of the ganglion to orthodromic nerve input. 3. Dopamine content was lower after several hours in vitro even without special stimulation; this was in accord with a regularly observed spontaneous reduction of the s.-i.p.s.p. response. 4. After a period of conditioning stimulation of the preganglionic nerve, in the presence of an anticholinesterase agent (eserine) and an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis (?-methyl-p-tyrosine), the s.-i.p.s.p. was selectively and markedly reduced. The dopamine fluorescence in the small intensely fluorescent cell interneurones was also significantly reduced, to a mean value of about 55 or 60% of the fluorescence in the dopamine interneurones of the paired but unstimulated control ganglion. A significant reduction in dopamine fluorescence was always accompanied by a marked loss of s.-i.p.s.p. response; the reverse was not always true. 5. Treatment with the muscarinic agent bethanechol for 30 min, with no ?-methyl-p-tyrosine or eserine present, similarly resulted in reductions in the s.-i.p.s.p. response of the ganglia and in the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of the dopamine interneurones. 6. A functional uptake of extrinsic dopamine by the dopamine interneurones was also demonstrated: temporary exposure to dopamine restored a large fraction of both the s.-i.p.s.p. response and the dopamine fluorescence of the small intensely fluorescent cells, in ganglia already subjected either to the conditioning stimulation of the preganglionic nerve or to the action of bethanechol. 7. It is concluded that (a) preganglionic impulses, by a cholinergic muscarinic synaptic action, can induce a release of dopamine from dopamine interneurones (small intensely fluorescent cells) in the superior cervical ganglion, (b) the ability of the ganglion to respond with a s.-i.p.s.p. to orthodromic input may be viewed as being dependent on the supply of functionally releasable dopamine in these interneurones, (c) the functionally releasable transmitter in vitro appears to comprise roughly 50% of the total dopamine content of the interneurones, and (d) the results fulfil some of the requirements of the hypothesis that a dopamine interneurone is activated muscarinically by preganglionic nerve impulses and mediates the production of s.-i.p.s.p. in sympathetic ganglion cells. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:4825476

Libet, B.; Owman, Ch.

1974-01-01

206

Calcium Inhibits Promotion by Hot Dog of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci in Rat Colon  

E-print Network

1 Calcium Inhibits Promotion by Hot Dog of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci in Rat.corpet@envt.fr Running Title: Promotion of colon carcinogenesis by hot dog is inhibited by calcium Keywords: Processed-bought cured meat can promote colon carcinogenesis, and that dietary prevention is possible. Hot dog increased

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

Music and methamphetamine: conditioned cue-induced increases in locomotor activity and dopamine release in rats.  

PubMed

Associations between drugs of abuse and cues facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Although significant research has been done to elucidate the role that simple discriminative or discrete conditioned stimuli (e.g., a tone or a light) play in addiction, less is known about complex environmental cues. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of a musical conditioned stimulus by assessing locomotor activity and in vivo microdialysis. Two groups of rats were given non-contingent injections of methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) or vehicle and placed in standard conditioning chambers. During these conditioning sessions both groups were exposed to a continuous conditioned stimulus, in the form of a musical selection ("Four" by Miles Davis) played repeatedly for 90 min. After seven consecutive conditioning days subjects were given one day of rest, and subsequently tested for locomotor activity or dopamine release in the absence of drugs while the musical conditioned stimulus was continually present. The brain regions examined included the basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex. The results show that music is an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing locomotor activity after repeated association with methamphetamine. Furthermore, this musical conditioned stimulus significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. These findings support other evidence showing the importance of these brain regions in conditioned learning paradigms, and demonstrate that music is an effective conditioned stimulus warranting further investigation. PMID:21145911

Polston, J E; Rubbinaccio, H Y; Morra, J T; Sell, E M; Glick, S D

2011-03-01

208

Radiation hardening and radiation-induced chromium depletion effects on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Available data on neutron-irradiated materials have been analyzed and correlations developed between fluence, yield strength, grain boundary chromium concentration and cracking susceptibility in high-temperature water environments. Large heat-to-heat differences in critical fluence (0.2 to 2.5 n/cm{sup 2}) for IGSCC are documented.In many cases, this variability is consistent with yield strength differences among irradiated materials. IGSCC correlated better to yield strength than to fluence for most heats suggesting a possible role of the radiation-induced hardening (and microstructure) on cracking. However, isolatedheats reveal a wide range of yield strengths from 450 to 800 MPa necessary to promote IGSCC which cannot be understood by strength effects alone. Grain boundary Cr depletion explain differences in IGSCC susceptibility for irradiated stainless steels. Cr contents versus SCC shows that all materials showing IG cracking have some grain boundary depletion ({ge}2%). Grain boundary Cr concentrations for cracking (below {approximately}16 wt %) are in good agreement with similar SCC tests on unirradiated 304 SS with controlled depletion profiles. Heats that prompt variability in the yield strength correlation, are accounted for bydifferences in their interfacial Cr contents. Certain stainless steels are more resistant to cracking even though they have significant radiation-induced Cr depletion. It is proposed that Cr depletion is required for IASCC, but observed susceptibility is modified by other microchemical and microstructural components.

Bruemmer, S.M.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-03-01

209

Radiation hardening and radiation-induced chromium depletion effects on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Available data on neutron-irradiated materials have been analyzed and correlations developed between fluence, yield strength, grain boundary chromium concentration and cracking susceptibility in high-temperature water environments. Large heat-to-heat differences in critical fluence (0.2 to 2.5 n/cm[sup 2]) for IGSCC are documented.In many cases, this variability is consistent with yield strength differences among irradiated materials. IGSCC correlated better to yield strength than to fluence for most heats suggesting a possible role of the radiation-induced hardening (and microstructure) on cracking. However, isolatedheats reveal a wide range of yield strengths from 450 to 800 MPa necessary to promote IGSCC which cannot be understood by strength effects alone. Grain boundary Cr depletion explain differences in IGSCC susceptibility for irradiated stainless steels. Cr contents versus SCC shows that all materials showing IG cracking have some grain boundary depletion ([ge]2%). Grain boundary Cr concentrations for cracking (below [approximately]16 wt %) are in good agreement with similar SCC tests on unirradiated 304 SS with controlled depletion profiles. Heats that prompt variability in the yield strength correlation, are accounted for bydifferences in their interfacial Cr contents. Certain stainless steels are more resistant to cracking even though they have significant radiation-induced Cr depletion. It is proposed that Cr depletion is required for IASCC, but observed susceptibility is modified by other microchemical and microstructural components.

Bruemmer, S.M.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-03-01

210

Amphetamine induced dopamine release increases anxiety in individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Genetic, pharmacologic, and physiological data suggest that individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have altered striatal dopamine (DA) function. Method We used an amphetamine challenge and positron emission tomography [11C]raclopride paradigm to explore DA striatal transmission in 10 recovered (REC) AN compared to 9 control women (CW). Results REC AN and CW were similar for baseline, post-amphetamine [11C]raclopride binding potential (BPND) and change (?) in BPND for all regions. In CW, ventral striatum ? BPND was associated with euphoria (r = ? .76; p = .03), which was not found for REC AN. Instead, REC AN showed a significant relationship between anxiety and ? BPND in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate (r = ?.62, p = .05). Discussion REC AN have a positive association between endogenous DA release and anxiety in the dorsal caudate. This finding could explain why food-related DA release produces anxiety in AN, whereas feeding is pleasurable in healthy participants. PMID:21541980

Bailer, Ursula F.; Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, W. Gordon; Himes, Michael L; Duvvuri, Vikas; Mathis, Chester A; Kaye, W.H.

2011-01-01

211

Depleted uranium induces disruption of energy homeostasis and oxidative stress in isolated rat brain mitochondria.  

PubMed

Depleted uranium (DU) is emerging as an environmental pollutant primarily due to its military applications. Gulf War veterans with embedded DU showed cognitive disorders that suggest that the central nervous system is a target of DU. Recent evidence has suggested that DU could induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain tissue. However, the underlying mechanisms of DU toxicity in brain mitochondria are not yet well understood. Brain mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation and were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 ?M) of uranyl acetate (UA) as a soluble salt of U(238) for 1 h. In this research, mitochondrial ROS production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were examined by flow cytometry following the addition of UA. Meanwhile, mitochondrial sources of ROS formation were determined using specific substrates and inhibitors. Complex II and IV activity and also the extent of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) oxidation were detected via spectroscopy. Furthermore, we investigated the concentration of ATP and ATP/ADP ratio using luciferase enzyme and cytochrome c release from mitochondria which was detected by ELISA kit. UA caused concentration-dependent elevation of succinate-linked mitochondrial ROS production, lipid peroxidation, GSH oxidation and inhibition of mitochondrial complex II. UA also induced mitochondrial permeability transition, ATP production decrease and increase in cytochrome c release. Pre-treatment with antioxidants significantly inhibited all the above mentioned toxic effects of UA. This study suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in brain mitochondria may play a key role in DU neurotoxicity as reported in Gulf War Syndrome. PMID:23629690

Shaki, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Pourahmad, Jalal

2013-06-01

212

Salsolinol modulation of dopamine neurons  

PubMed Central

Salsolinol, a tetrahydroisoquinoline present in the human and rat brains, is the condensation product of dopamine and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol. Previous evidence obtained in vivo links salsolinol with the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) system: salsolinol is self-administered into the posterior of the ventral tegmental area (pVTA) of rats; intra-VTA administration of salsolinol induces a strong conditional place preference and increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are unclear. Here we present an overview of some of the recent research on this topic. Electrophysiological studies reveal that DA neurons in the pVTA are a target of salsolinol. In acute brain slices from rats, salsolinol increases the excitability and accelerates the ongoing firing of dopamine neurons in the pVTA. Intriguingly, this action of salsolinol involves multiple pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms, including: (1) depolarizing dopamine neurons; (2) by activating ? opioid receptors on the GABAergic inputs to dopamine neurons – which decreases GABAergic activity – dopamine neurons are disinhibited; and (3) enhancing presynaptic glutamatergic transmission onto dopamine neurons via activation of dopamine type 1 receptors, probably situated on the glutamatergic terminals. These novel mechanisms may contribute to the rewarding/reinforcing properties of salsolinol observed in vivo. PMID:23745110

Xie, Guiqin; Krnjevi?, Krešimir; Ye, Jiang-Hong

2013-01-01

213

Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System.  

PubMed

Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05?g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50?g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD. PMID:24799940

Liu, Jia; Gao, Jinlong; Tu, Shaoang; Xu, Shasha; Liu, Ying; Shang, Weihu; Gu, Chenxin; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei

2014-01-01

214

Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System  

PubMed Central

Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05?g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50?g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD. PMID:24799940

Liu, Jia; Gao, Jinlong; Xu, Shasha; Liu, Ying; Shang, Weihu; Gu, Chenxin; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei

2014-01-01

215

Depletion of L-arginine induces autophagy as a cytoprotective response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in human T lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

L-arginine (L-Arg) deficiency results in decreased T-cell proliferation and impaired T-cell function. Here we have found that L-Arg depletion inhibited expression of different membrane antigens, including CD247 (CD3?), and led to an ER stress response, as well as cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in both human Jurkat and peripheral blood mitogen-activated T cells, without undergoing apoptosis. By genetic and biochemical approaches, we found that L-Arg depletion also induced autophagy. Deprivation of L-Arg induced EIF2S1 (eIF2?), MAPK8 (JNK), BCL2 (Bcl-2) phosphorylation, and displacement of BECN1 (Beclin 1) binding to BCL2, leading to autophagosome formation. Silencing of ERN1 (IRE1?) prevented the induction of autophagy as well as MAPK8 activation, BCL2 phosphorylation and XBP1 splicing, whereas led T lymphocytes to apoptosis under L-Arg starvation, suggesting that the ERN1-MAPK8 pathway plays a major role in the activation of autophagy following L-Arg depletion. Autophagy was required for survival of T lymphocytes in the absence of L-Arg, and resulted in a reversible process. Replenishment of L-Arg made T lymphocytes to regain the normal cell cycle profile and proliferate, whereas autophagy was inhibited. Inhibition of autophagy by ERN1, BECN1 and ATG7 silencing, or by pharmacological inhibitors, promoted cell death of T lymphocytes incubated in the absence of L-Arg. Our data indicate for the first time that depletion of L-Arg in T lymphocytes leads to a reversible response that preserves T lymphocytes through ER stress and autophagy, while remaining arrested at G0/G1. Our data also show that the L-Arg depletion-induced ER stress response could lead to apoptosis when autophagy is blocked. PMID:22874569

García-Navas, Rósula; Munder, Markus; Mollinedo, Faustino

2012-01-01

216

Disruption of dopamine D1 receptor phosphorylation at serine 421 attenuates cocaine-induced behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) play a key role in cocaine addiction, and multiple protein kinases such as GRKs, PKA, and PKC are involved in their phosphorylation. Recently, we reported that protein kinase D1 phosphorylates the D1R at S421 and promotes its membrane localization. Moreover, this phosphorylation of S421 is required for cocaineinduced behaviors in rats. In the present study, we generated transgenic mice over-expressing S421A-D1R in the forebrain. These transgenic mice showed reduced phospho-D1R (S421) and its membrane localization, and reduced downstream ERK1/2 activation in the striatum. Importantly, acute and chronic cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and conditioned place preference were significantly attenuated in these mice. These findings provide in vivo evidence for the critical role of S421 phosphorylation of the D1R in its membrane localization and in cocaine-induced behaviors. Thus, S421 on the D1R represents a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for cocaine addiction and other drug-abuse disorders. PMID:25304015

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ning; Su, Ping; Lu, Jie; Wang, Yun

2014-12-01

217

Renal dysfunction induced by long-term exposure to depleted uranium in rats.  

PubMed

Depleted uranium (DU) is a kind of radioactive heavy metal which can enter into the body via inhalation (aerosols), ingestion (drinking and eating) and wounds (embedded), and causes chemical and/or radiation-induced toxicities. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were surgically implanted in gastrocnemius muscle with DU fragments at three dose levels (low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose), with biologically inert tantalum (Ta) fragments served as controls. At 1 day, 7 days, and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation, the rats were euthanized and tissue samples were collected, and uranium levels were measured in a variety of tissues by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to analyze the dynamic changes and distribution of uranium in rats. Thereafter, at 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, the rats were euthanized after the collection of 24 h urine, blood and kidney samples were collected for analysis of DU-induced renal histopathologic changes and renal dysfunction. It was observed that DU concentrations in all the DU implanted groups were higher than that in Ta control group, and DU concentrations in the kidney increased with the implanted times, peaked at the 90 days after implantation, with a high correlation to the implanted DU doses, and then began to decrease gradually and slowly, and the DU concentrations in kidney still maintained at a relatively high level even at the 360 days after implantation. Otherwise, chronic DU contamination could induce the pathological changes of renal glomeruli, tubules and mesenchyme, such as interstitial fibrosis, enlarged interstice of renal tubular epithelial cells, tumefactions and necrosis of epithelial cells, shrinkage and disappearance of cavity of Bowman's capsule. By TEM, it was shown that the basement membrane of glomerulus was incrassated, mitochondrial of kidney proximal tubule had visible tumefaction and became bigger, and the mitochondrial cristae became shorter and disorderly in alignment. Compared to the control group, it was found that there was significant increase in the DU implantation group in terms of their blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine, urinary beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) and albumin, with a high correlation to the implanted DU dosage and periods. It was concluded that DU could accumulate in kidneys for a long period, and causes kidney injury by the toxic chemical/radioactive action such as renal dysfunction and structural damage. PMID:18594794

Zhu, Guoying; Xiang, Xiqiao; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Lihua; Hu, Heping; Weng, Shifang

2009-01-01

218

The release of dopamine from nerve terminals and dendrites of nigrostriatal neurons induced by excitatory amino acids in the conscious rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible localization of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors on dopaminergic neurons was studied by microdialysis in conscious male rats. Varying concentrations of 3 specific EAA agonists, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), were infused into the striatum or into the substantia nigra, and the extracellular dopamine (DA) was recorded by the same probe. All 3 compounds induced

B. H. C. Westerink; M. Santiago; J. B. Vries

1992-01-01

219

Perinatal Taurine Depletion Increases Susceptibility to Adult Sugar-Induced Hypertension in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine depletion produces autonomic nervous system dysregulation and increases\\u000a arterial pressure in young male rats maintained on a high sugar diet. Sprague-Dawley dams were either taurine depleted (beta-alanine\\u000a 3% in water) or left untreated from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow with or without 5%\\u000a glucose. At 7–8

Sanya Roysommuti; Atchariya Suwanich; Dusit Jirakulsomchok; J. Michael Wyss

220

Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKM?), dopamine, and glutamate receptors  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKM?) and protein kinase C zeta (PKC?). Within the hippocampus, PKM? and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKM? and PKC? within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKM?/PKC? in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA.

Braren, Stephen H.; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K.; Serrano, Peter A.

2014-01-01

221

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not prevent 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-induced depletion of serotonin in rat brain.  

PubMed

Although the selective toxicity of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) is thought to depend on the drug's transport into serotonin (5HT) neurons via the 5HT transporter, few studies have critically examined this postulation. We therefore evaluated if 5,7-DHT-induced reductions in 5HT concentrations and synthesis rate in rat brain are blocked by pretreatment with 5HT-selective reuptake inhibitors. Rats pretreated with desipramine (DMI) (to prevent norepinephrine depletion) received intracerebroventricular injections of 5,7-DHT (5, 50, 100, 200 microg/rat) 30 min after fluoxetine (20 mg/kg ip). Forty-eight hours later, they received m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine 30 min before sacrifice. The concentrations of 5HT and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP, an index of 5HT synthesis) were measured in hypothalamus, cortex and brainstem. Each 5,7-DHT dose produced significant reductions in 5HT and 5HTP concentrations in all regions examined (5 microg reduced 5HT but not 5HTP), effects that were not blocked by fluoxetine. Two other 5HT reuptake blockers (chlorimipramine, alaproclate) also failed to block the 5HT and 5HTP depleting actions of 5,7-DHT. Desipramine blocked 5,7-DHT-induced norepinephrine (NE) depletion. Pretreatment with the 5HT receptor antagonist metergoline, or the 5HT(1A) agonist 8-hydroxy-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (to slow 5HT neuronal firing rate) also failed to antagonize the 5HT depleting action of 5,7-DHT. Together, the data strongly suggest that the mechanism by which 5,7-DHT depletes the brain of serotonin does not involve 5HT-transporter-mediated concentration of neurotoxin in 5HT neurons, may not involve 5HT receptor interaction, and does not depend on the firing rate of the 5HT neuron. PMID:15064132

Choi, SuJean; Jonak, Elizabeth; Fernstrom, John D

2004-05-01

222

Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid [creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group]. Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens [normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups]. After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC distribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC transitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of animals to be used. PMID:7713838

Adams, G R; Baldwin, K M

1995-01-01

223

Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

1995-01-01

224

Effect of environmental enrichment on methylphenidate-induced locomotion and dopamine transporter dynamics  

PubMed Central

Rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) are less sensitive to the locomotor effects of stimulant drugs than rats raised in an impoverished condition (IC). Methylphenidate (MPD), a primary pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, has abuse potential. This study determined whether environmental enrichment differentially altered the effects of MPD on locomotor activity and dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function. Acute and repeated MPD (3 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.) increased locomotion in EC, IC and social condition (SC) rats; however, EC rats showed a blunted response to repeated MPD (3 mg/kg). The maximal velocity (Vmax) of [3H]DA uptake in the presence of the combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator and okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor was decreased in EC and IC rats by 68% and 40%, respectively, indicating that DAT in prefrontal cortex (PFC) is more sensitive to PKC-mediated down-regulation in EC rats. Acute MPD (10 mg/kg) administration decreased the Vmax of [3H]DA uptake in PFC and striatum in EC rats, but not in IC rats. Furthermore, [3H]WIN 35,428 binding density was decreased in PFC of EC and IC rats, and in striatum of EC rats given repeated MPD (10 mg/kg). These results demonstrate that environmental enrichment modulates DAT dynamics in PFC. However, since the change in DAT function was observed only following the high dose of MPH (10 mg/kg), the attenuated locomotor response to repeated MPD (3 mg/kg) in EC rats is not likely due to a specific DAT alteration in the brain regions examined. PMID:21219939

Wooters, Thomas E.; Bardo, Michael T.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Midde, Narasimha M.; Gomez, Adrian M.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Zhu, Jun

2011-01-01

225

Antagonist-induced conformational changes in dopamine transporter extracellular loop two involve residues in a potential salt bridge.  

PubMed

Ligand-induced changes in the conformation of extracellular loop (EL) 2 in the rat (r) dopamine transporter (DAT) were examined using limited proteolysis with endoproteinase Asp-N and detection of cleavage products by epitope-specific immunoblotting. The principle N-terminal fragment produced by Asp-N was a 19kDa peptide likely derived by proteolysis of EL2 residue D174, which is present just past the extracellular end of TM3. Production of this fragment was significantly decreased by binding of cocaine and other uptake blockers, but was not affected by substrates or Zn(2+), indicating the presence of a conformational change at D174 that may be related to the mechanism of transport inhibition. DA transport activity and cocaine analog binding were decreased by Asp-N treatment, suggesting a requirement for EL2 integrity in these DAT functions. In a previous study we demonstrated that ligand-induced protease resistance also occurred at R218 on the C-terminal side of rDAT EL2. Here using substituted cysteine accessibility analysis of human (h) DAT we confirm cocaine-induced alterations in reactivity of the homologous R219 and identify conformational sensitivity of V221. Focused molecular modeling of D174 and R218 based on currently available Aquifex aeolicus leucine transporter crystal structures places these residues within 2.9Å of one another, suggesting their proximity as a structural basis for their similar conformational sensitivities and indicating their potential to form a salt bridge. These findings extend our understanding of DAT EL2 and its role in transport and binding functions. PMID:24269640

Gaffaney, Jon D; Shetty, Madhur; Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula-Bala; Foster, James D; Henry, L Keith; Vaughan, Roxanne A

2014-07-01

226

Naloxone-blocked depriming effect of anxiolytic selank on apomorphine-induced behavioral manifestations of hyperfunction of dopamine system.  

PubMed

Peptide anxiolytic selank (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro) applied intraperitoneally in doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg to mice reduces behavioral manifestations of dopaminergic system induced by apomorphine in the verticalization test. This effect was comparable to that of atypical antipsychotic olanzapine in near-therapeutic doses (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and was blocked with nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Radioreceptor assay showed that selank did not displace nonselective D2-dopamine receptor antagonist (3)H-spiperone (EC50>100 microM) and delta- and micro-opioid receptor ligand 3H-DADLE (EC50>40 microM) from specific binding sites on rat brain membranes. It is hypothesized that the revealed behavioral effect of selank is mediated by its modulating effect on the endogenous opioid system and specifically, by its effect on activity of enkephalin-degrading enzymes. PMID:17415472

Meshavkin, V K; Kost, N V; Sokolov, O Yu; Zolotarev, Yu A; Myasoedov, N F; Zozulya, A A

2006-11-01

227

Oxytocin Reverses Amphetamine-Induced Deficits in Social Bonding: Evidence for an Interaction with Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine  

PubMed Central

Drug addiction has devastating consequences on social behaviors and can lead to the impairment of social bonding. Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in oxytocin (OT) and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within brain reward circuitry may be involved. We investigated this possibility, as well as the therapeutic potential of OT for drug-induced social deficits, using the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)—a socially monogamous rodent that forms enduring pair bonds between adult mates. We demonstrate that repeated exposure to the commonly abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) inhibits the formation of partner preferences (an index of pair bonding) in female prairie voles. AMPH exposure also altered OT and DA neurotransmission in regions that mediate partner preference formation: it decreased OT and DA D2 receptor immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively, and increased NAcc DA levels. Administration of OT directly into the mPFC of AMPH-exposed voles restored partner preferences, and altered NAcc DA levels, and this effect was dependent on OT receptor activation. Together, these data suggest that repeated AMPH exposure impairs pair bonding through an OT-mediated mechanism, and that OT and DA systems within brain reward circuitry may interact to mediate the complex relationship between drug abuse and social bonding. Further, these results provide empirical support for the idea that the central OT system may represent an important target for the treatment of social deficits in addiction. PMID:24948805

Liu, Yan; Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Hui

2014-01-01

228

Oxytocin reverses amphetamine-induced deficits in social bonding: evidence for an interaction with nucleus accumbens dopamine.  

PubMed

Drug addiction has devastating consequences on social behaviors and can lead to the impairment of social bonding. Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in oxytocin (OT) and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within brain reward circuitry may be involved. We investigated this possibility, as well as the therapeutic potential of OT for drug-induced social deficits, using the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)-a socially monogamous rodent that forms enduring pair bonds between adult mates. We demonstrate that repeated exposure to the commonly abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) inhibits the formation of partner preferences (an index of pair bonding) in female prairie voles. AMPH exposure also altered OT and DA neurotransmission in regions that mediate partner preference formation: it decreased OT and DA D2 receptor immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively, and increased NAcc DA levels. Administration of OT directly into the mPFC of AMPH-exposed voles restored partner preferences, and altered NAcc DA levels, and this effect was dependent on OT receptor activation. Together, these data suggest that repeated AMPH exposure impairs pair bonding through an OT-mediated mechanism, and that OT and DA systems within brain reward circuitry may interact to mediate the complex relationship between drug abuse and social bonding. Further, these results provide empirical support for the idea that the central OT system may represent an important target for the treatment of social deficits in addiction. PMID:24948805

Young, Kimberly A; Liu, Yan; Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Hui; Wang, Zuoxin

2014-06-18

229

Inhibitory effect of D1-like and D3 dopamine receptors on norepinephrine-induced proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells  

PubMed Central

The sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. There is increasing evidence for positive and negative interactions between dopamine and adrenergic receptors; the activation of the ?-adrenergic receptor induces vasoconstriction, whereas the activation of dopamine receptor induces vasorelaxation. We hypothesize that the D1-like receptor and/or D3 receptor also inhibit ?1-adrenergic receptor-mediated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, VSMC proliferation was determined by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation, cell number, and uptake of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Norepinephrine increased VSMC number and MTT uptake, as well as [3H]thymidine incorporation via the ?1-adrenergic receptor in aortic VSMCs from Sprague-Dawley rats. The proliferative effects of norepinephrine were attenuated by the activation of D1-like receptors or D3 receptors, although a D1-like receptor agonist, fenoldopam, and a D3 receptor agonist, PD-128907, by themselves, at low concentrations, had no effect on VSMC proliferation. Simultaneous stimulation of both D1-like and D3 receptors had an additive inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of D3 receptor was via protein kinase A, whereas the D1-like receptor effect was via protein kinase C-?. The interaction between ?1-adrenergic and dopamine receptors, especially D1-like and D3 receptors in VSMCs, could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:18441198

Li, Zhen; Yu, Changqing; Han, Yu; Ren, Hongmei; Shi, Weibin; Fu, Chunjiang; He, Duofen; Huang, Lan; Yang, Chengming; Wang, Xukai; Zhou, Lin; Asico, Laureano D.; Zeng, Chunyu; Jose, Pedro A.

2009-01-01

230

Thiourea-induced thyroid hormone depletion impairs testicular recrudescence in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.  

PubMed

We used thiourea-induced thyroid hormone depletion as a strategy to understand the influence of thyroid hormones on testicular recrudescence of the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Treatment with 0.03% thiourea via immersion for 21 days induced hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone depletion) as evidenced by significantly reduced serum T(3) levels. Thiourea-treated males had narrowed seminiferous lobules with fewer spermatozoa in testis, very little or no secretory fluid, reduced protein and sialic acid levels in seminal vesicles when compared to controls. The histological changes were accompanied by reduction in serum and tissue levels of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), a potent male specific androgen in fish. Qualitative changes in the localization of catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH, heterologous system) revealed a reduction in the distribution of immunoreactive neuronal cells and fibers in thyroid depleted fish. Interestingly, thiourea-withdrawal group showed physiological and histological signs of recovery after 21 days such as reappearance of spermatozoa and partial restoration of 11-KT and T levels. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormones play a significant role in testicular function of catfish. The mechanism of action includes modulating sex steroids either directly or through the hypothalamo (GnRH)-hypophyseal (LH) axis. PMID:16564715

Swapna, I; Rajasekhar, M; Supriya, A; Raghuveer, K; Sreenivasulu, G; Rasheeda, M K; Majumdar, K C; Kagawa, H; Tanaka, H; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

2006-05-01

231

Depletion of HDAC6 Enhances Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising therapeutic agents which are currently used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in clinical trials for cancer treatment including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanisms underlying their anti-tumor activities remain elusive. Previous studies showed that inhibition of HDAC6 induces DNA damage and sensitizes transformed cells to anti-tumor agents such as etoposide and doxorubicin. Here, we showed that depletion of HDAC6 in two NSCLC cell lines, H292 and A549, sensitized cells to cisplatin, one of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents used to treat NSCLC. We suggested that depletion of HDAC6 increased cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was due to the enhancement of apoptosis via activating ATR/Chk1 pathway. Furthermore, we showed that HDAC6 protein levels were positively correlated with cisplatin IC50 in 15 NSCLC cell lines. Lastly, depletion of HDAC6 in H292 xenografts rendered decreased tumor weight and volume and exhibited increased basal apoptosis compared with the controls in a xenograft mouse model. In summary, our findings suggest that HDAC6 is positively associated with cisplatin resistance in NSCLC and reveal HDAC6 as a potential novel therapeutic target for platinum refractory NSCLC. PMID:22957056

Williams, Kendra A.; Dong, Huiqin; Bai, Wenlong; Nicosia, Santo V.; Khochbin, Saadi; Bepler, Gerold; Zhang, Xiaohong

2012-01-01

232

Hypersensitivity of mtDNA-depleted cells to staurosporine-induced apoptosis: roles of Bcl-2 downregulation and cathepsin B.  

PubMed

We show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted 143B cells are hypersensitive to staurosporine-induced cell death as evidenced by a more pronounced DNA fragmentation, a stronger activation of caspase-3, an enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage, and a more dramatic cytosolic release of cytochrome c. We also show that B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-X(L)), and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) are constitutively less abundant in mtDNA-depleted cells, that the inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) can sensitize the parental cell line to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, and that overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L) can prevent the activation of caspase-3 in ?(0)143B cells treated with staurosporine. Moreover, the inactivation of cathepsin B with CA074-Me significantly reduced cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in mtDNA-depleted cells, whereas the pan-caspase inhibitor failed to completely prevent PARP-1 cleavage and DNA fragmentation in these cells, suggesting that caspase-independent mechanisms are responsible for cell death even if caspases are activated. Finally, we show that cathepsin B is released in the cytosol of ?(0) cells in response to staurosporine, suggesting that the absence of mitochondrial activity leads to a facilitated permeabilization of lysosomal membranes in response to staurosporine. PMID:21068357

Rommelaere, Guillaume; Michel, Sébastien; Mercy, Ludovic; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Demazy, Catherine; Ninane, Noelle; Houbion, Andrée; Renard, Patricia; Arnould, Thierry

2011-05-01

233

Differential effects of prolonged high frequency stimulation and of excitotoxic lesion of the subthalamic nucleus on dopamine denervation-induced cellular defects in the rat striatum and globus pallidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of prolonged (4 days) high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), in comparison with those of STN lesion, on the dopamine denervation-mediated cellular changes in the basal ganglia in a Wistar rat model of Parkinson's disease. STN HFS counteracted the dopamine lesion-induced increase in GAD67 mRNA expression in the output structures of the

Jean-Jacques Bacci; El Hadi Absi; Christine Manrique; Christelle Baunez; Pascal Salin; Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff

2004-01-01

234

An animal model with relevance to schizophrenia: sex-dependent cognitive deficits in osteogenic disorder-Shionogi rats induced by glutathione synthesis and dopamine uptake inhibition during development.  

PubMed

Low glutathione levels have been observed in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients, possibly enhancing the cerebral susceptibility to oxidative stress. We used osteogenic disorder Shionogi mutant rats, which constitute an adequate model of the human redox regulation because both are unable to synthesize ascorbic acid. To study the long-term consequences of a glutathione deficit, we treated developing rats with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, and later investigated their behavior until adulthood. Moreover, some rats were treated with the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 in order to elevate dopamine extracellular levels, thereby mimicking the dopamine hyperactivity proposed to be involved in schizophrenia. BSO and GBR 12909 alone or in combination minimally affected the development of spontaneous alternation or basic sensory and motor skills. A major effect of BSO alone or in combination with GBR 12909 was the induction of cataracts in both sexes, whereas GBR 12909 induced an elevation of body weight in females only. Sex and age-dependent effects of the treatments were observed in a test of object recognition. At postnatal day 65, whereas male rats treated with both BSO and GBR 12909 failed to discriminate between familiar and novel objects, females were not affected. At postnatal day 94, male object recognition capacity was diminished by BSO and GBR 12909 alone or in combination, whereas females were only affected by the combination of both drugs. Inhibition of brain glutathione synthesis and dopamine uptake in developing rats induce long-term cognitive deficits occurring in adulthood. Males are affected earlier and more intensively than females, at least concerning object recognition. The present study suggests that the low glutathione levels observed in schizophrenic patients may participate in the development of some of their cognitive deficits. PMID:14751276

Castagné, V; Cuénod, M; Do, K Q

2004-01-01

235

Depletion of calcium stores contributes to progesterone-induced attenuation of calcium signaling of G protein-coupled receptors.  

PubMed

Progesterone non-genomically attenuates the calcium signaling of the human oxytocin receptor and several other Galpha(q) protein-coupled receptors. High progesterone concentrations are found in the endometrium during pregnancy opposing the responsiveness of the underlying myometrium to labor-inducing hormones. Here, we demonstrate that within minutes, progesterone inhibits oxytocin- and bradykinin-induced contractions of rat uteri, calcium responses induced by platelet-activating factor in the human endometrial cell line MFE-280, and oxytocin-induced calcium signals in PHM1-31 immortalized pregnant human myometrial cells. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells as model system, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data indicate that progesterone rapidly depletes intracellular calcium stores. The resulting desensitization of the cells might contribute to the quiescence of the uterus during pregnancy. PMID:20376529

Gehrig-Burger, Katja; Slaninova, Jirina; Gimpl, Gerald

2010-08-01

236

Depletion of CSN5 inhibits Ras-mediated tumorigenesis by inducing premature senescence in p53-null cells.  

PubMed

The mammalian COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex is involved in cell transformation, but its molecular mechanism remains undetermined. Here we show that disruption of the fifth component (CSN5) prevented the formation of tumors by p53-null cells transformed with an active form of Ras in subcutaneously injected mice. Depletion of CSN5 suppressed cell proliferation, and induced premature senescence characterized by upregulation of senescence-associated-?-galactosidase activity and increased expression of CDK inhibitors. CSN5-depleted cells exhibited enhanced activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt pathway, and chemical inhibition of this pathway reduced the level of senescence. Thus, CSN5 is suggested to be a novel target in cancer therapy and for drugs against tumor cells harboring mutated p53. PMID:23127558

Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Yoshida, Akihiro; Yoneda-Kato, Noriko; Kato, Jun-ya

2012-12-14

237

What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What roles do mesolimbic and neostriatal dopamine systems play in reward? Do they mediate the hedonic impact of rewarding stimuli? Do they mediate hedonic reward learning and associative prediction? Our review of the literature, together with results of a new study of residual reward capacity after dopamine depletion, indicates the answer to both questions is `no'. Rather, dopamine systems may

Kent C. Berridge; Terry E. Robinson

1998-01-01

238

Depletion of human stratum corneum vitamin E: an early and sensitive in vivo marker of UV induced photo-oxidation.  

PubMed

As the outermost barrier of the body, the stratum corneum (SC) is frequently and directly exposed to a pro-oxidative environment, including ultraviolet solar radiation (UVR). Therefore, we hypothesized that the SC is susceptible to UVR induced depletion of vitamin E, the major lipophilic antioxidant. To test this, we investigated (i) the susceptibility of SC tocopherols to solar simulated UVR in hairless mice, (ii) the baseline levels and distribution patterns of tocopherols in human SC, and (iii) the impact of a suberythemogenic dose of solar simulated UVR on human SC tocopherols. SC tocopherol levels were measured by high performance liquid chromotography analysis of SC extracts from tape strippings. In murine SC, overall tocopherol concentrations were determined, whereas in human SC, 10 consecutive layers were analyzed for each individual. The results on SC tocopherols demonstrated (i) their concentration dependent depletion by solar simulated UVR in hairless mice; (ii) a gradient distribution within untreated human SC, with the lowest levels at the surface (alpha-tocopherol 6.5 +/- 1.4 pmol per mg, and gamma-tocopherol 2.2 +/- 1.3 pmol per mg) and the highest levels in the deepest layers (alpha-tocopherol 76 +/- 12 pmol per mg, and gamma-tocopherol 7.9 +/- 3.7 pmol per mg, n = 10; p < 0.0001); and (iii) the depletion of tocopherols in human SC by a single suberythemogenic dose of solar simulated UVR (alpha-tocopherol by 45%, and gamma-tocopherol by 35% as compared with controls; n = 6; both p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that the SC is a remarkably susceptible site for UVR induced depletion of vitamin E. PMID:9579541

Thiele, J J; Traber, M G; Packer, L

1998-05-01

239

On the possible fault activation induced by UGS in depleted reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground gas storage (UGS) represents an increasingly used approach to cope with the growing energy demand and occurs in many countries worldwide. Gas is injected in previously depleted deep reservoirs during summer when consumption is limited and removed in cold season mainly for heating. As a major consequence the pore pressure p within a UGS reservoir fluctuates yearly between a maximum close to the value pi prior to the field development and a minimum usually larger than the lowest pressure experienced by the reservoir at the end of its production life. The high frequency pressure fluctuations generally confine the pressure change volume to the reservoir volume without significantly involving the aquifers hydraulically connected to the hydrocarbon field (lateral and/or bottom waterdrive). The risk of UGS-induced seismicity is therefore restricted to those cases where existing faults cross or bound the reservoir. The possible risk of anthropogenic seismicity due to UGS operations is preliminary investigated by an advanced Finite Element (FE) - Interface Element (IE) 3-D elasto-plastic geomechanical model in a representative 1500 m deep reservoir bounded by a regional sealing fault and compartimentalized by an internal non-sealing thrust. Gas storage/production is ongoing with p ranging between pi in October/November and 60%pi in April/May. The yearly pressure fluctuation is assumed to be on the order of 50 bar. The overall geomechanical response of the porous medium has been calibrated by reproducing the vertical and horizontal cyclic displacements measured above the reservoir by advanced persistent scatterer interferometry. The FE-IE model shows that the stress variations remain basically confined within the gas field and negligibly propagate within the caprock and the waterdrive. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, IEs allow for the prediction of the fault activated area A, located at the reservoir depth as expected, and slip displacement d. A number of parametric scenarios are investigated to address the major uncertainties on the geomechanical fault properties, i.e., cohesion c and friction angle ? of the fault materials, and the initial stress regime (passive or compressive basin). The magnitude M of potential seismic events induced by the fault reactivation is evaluated by an empirical relation derived from seismological theories. M turns out to be correlated to the activated volume A × d and the shear modulus G of the host rock. With G = 3.9 × 104 bar, as provided by the calibration of the geomechanical model, the results point out that M may peak up to around 1 in the most conservative scenario, i.e. c = 0 bar, ? = 30°, entirely instantaneous slip and a passive stress basin. With c = 10 bar, a plausible value for the investigated reservoir, the fault does not activate. Under the above conditions fault activation by UGS does not appear to be a matter of concern.

Feronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Janna, Carlo; Teatini, Pietro; Tosattto, Omar

2014-05-01

240

Mechanisms of deformation-induced grain boundary chromium depletion (sensitization) development in type 316 stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation accelerates the development of grain boundary chromium depletion (GBCD), or sensitization, in type 316 austenitic stainless steels (SS). Quantitative assessment of the degree of sensitization (DOS) using the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test indicates that the acceleration in GBCD is a function of the amount of strain in the material and temperature of isothermal sensitization treatment. A systematic increase

A. H. Advani; L. E. Murr; D. G. Atteridge; R. Chelakara

1991-01-01

241

Band to Band Tunneling (BBT) Induced Leakage Current Enhancement in Irradiated Fully Depleted SOI Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a model, validated with simulations, describing how band-to-band tunneling (BBT) affects the leakage current degradation in some irradiated fully-depleted SOI devices. The dependence of drain current on gate voltage, including the apparent transition to a high current regime is explained.

Adell, Phillipe C.; Barnaby, H. J.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Vermeire, B.

2007-01-01

242

L-dopa-induced dyskinesia: beyond an excessive dopamine tone in the striatum  

E-print Network

Bordeaux, France. L-dopa remains the mainstay treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), although in later-dopa remains the mainstay treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) have Parkinson, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, France, 8 Department of Medical Sciences, Section

Boyer, Edmond

243

Parkin controls dopamine utilization in human midbrain dopaminergic neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and can be caused by monogenic mutations of genes such as parkin. The lack of phenotype in parkin knockout mice suggests that human nigral DA neurons have unique vulnerabilities. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from normal subjects and PD patients with parkin mutations. We demonstrate

Houbo Jiang; Yong Ren; Eunice Y. Yuen; Ping Zhong; Mahboobe Ghaedi; Zhixing Hu; Gissou Azabdaftari; Kazuhiro Nakaso; Zhen Yan; Jian Feng

2012-01-01

244

Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment Induces Adaptations in Adult Midbrain Dopamine Neurons, which Underpin Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Resilience  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16–19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of striatal DA fiber density paralleled AGT-induced increases in the numbers of midbrain DA neurons, which retained normal basal electrophysiological properties. This was co-incident with changes in (i) striatal D2-type receptor levels (increased, both sexes); (ii) D1-type receptor levels (males decreased; females increased); (iii) DA transporter levels (males increased; females decreased) in striatal regions; and (iv) amphetamine-induced mesolimbic DA release (males increased; females decreased). However, despite these profound, sexually dimorphic changes in markers of DA neurotransmission, in-utero glucocorticoid overexposure had a modest or no effect on a range of conditioned and unconditioned appetitive behaviors known to depend on mesolimbic DA activity. These findings provide empirical evidence for enduring AGT-induced adaptive mechanisms within the midbrain DA circuitry, which preserve some, but not all, functions, thereby casting further light on the vulnerability of these systems to environmental perturbations. Furthermore, they demonstrate these effects are achieved by different, often opponent, adaptive mechanisms in males and females, with translational implications for sex biases commonly found in midbrain DA-associated disorders. PMID:23929547

Virdee, Kanwar; McArthur, Simon; Brischoux, Frédéric; Caprioli, Daniele; Ungless, Mark A; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Gillies, Glenda E

2014-01-01

245

N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor antagonism in the ventral tegmental area diminishes the systemic nicotine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic nicotine enhances burst firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, mainly via stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area. Given that both the neuronal activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons and terminal dopamine release are regulated by excitatory amino acid inputs to the ventral tegmental area and that

B Schilström; G. G Nomikos; M Nisell; P Hertel; T. H Svensson

1997-01-01

246

Norepinephrine transporter inhibition with desipramine exacerbates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: role for synaptic dopamine regulation in denervated nigrostriatal terminals.  

PubMed

Pharmacological dopamine (DA) replacement with Levodopa [L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)] is the gold standard treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term L-DOPA treatment is complicated by eventual debilitating abnormal involuntary movements termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a clinically significant obstacle for the majority of patients who rely on L-DOPA to alleviate PD-related motor symptoms. The manifestation of LID may in part be driven by excessive extracellular DA derived from L-DOPA, but potential involvement of DA reuptake in LID severity or expression is unknown. We recently reported that in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned striatum, norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression increases and may play a significant role in DA transport. Furthermore, L-DOPA preferentially inhibits DA uptake in lesioned striatum. Therefore, we hypothesized that desipramine (DMI), a NET antagonist, could affect the severity of LID in an established LID model. Whereas DMI alone elicited no dyskinetic effects in lesioned rats, DMI + L-DOPA-treated rats gradually expressed more severe dyskinesia compared with L-DOPA alone over time. At the conclusion of the study, we observed reduced NET expression and norepinephrine-mediated inhibition of DA uptake in the DMI + L-DOPA group compared with L-DOPA-alone group in lesioned striatum. LID severity positively correlated with striatal extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation among the three treatment groups, with increased ppERK1/2 in DMI + L-DOPA group compared with the L-DOPA- and DMI-alone groups. Taken together, these results indicate that the combination of chronic L-DOPA and NET-mediated DA reuptake in lesioned nigrostriatal terminals may have a role in LID severity in experimental Parkinsonism. PMID:25208966

Chotibut, Tanya; Fields, Victoria; Salvatore, Michael F

2014-12-01

247

Diffraction barrier breakthrough in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy by additional probe-beam-induced phonon depletion  

SciTech Connect

We provide an approach to significantly break the diffraction limit in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy via an additional probe-beam-induced photon depletion (APIPD). The additional probe beam, whose profile is doughnut shaped and whose wavelength is different from the Gaussian probe beam, depletes the phonons to yield an unwanted anti-Stokes signal within a certain bandwidth at the rim of the diffraction-limited spot. When the Gaussian probe beam that follows immediately arrives, no anti-Stokes signal is generated in this region, resembling stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, and the spot-generating useful anti-Stokes signals by this beam are substantially suppressed to a much smaller dimension. Scanning the spot renders three-dimensional, label-free, and chemically selective CARS images with subdiffraction resolution. Also, resolution-enhanced images of the molecule, specified by its broadband even-total CARS spectral signals not only by one anti-Stokes signal for its special chemical bond, can be obtained by employing a supercontinuum source.

Liu Wei [College of Precison Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Institute of Optoelectronics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Deviced and Systems of Education Ministry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Niu Hanben [Institute of Optoelectronics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Deviced and Systems of Education Ministry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

2011-02-15

248

Effect of Adrenalectomy on Distal Nephron Lithium Reabsorption Induced by Potassium Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In potassium-depleted rats lithium is reabsorbed by an amiloride-sensitive transport mechanism in the distal nephron segments, and the urinary fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) is reduced by almost 50% compared to that of potassium-replete rats. We have used renal clearance techniques to study the effects of adrenalectomy (Adx) or sham operation on amiloride-sensitive lithium reabsorption in conscious potassium-deprived (K5) and

Klaus Thomsen; Michael Shalmi

1997-01-01

249

Comparative study of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

We present spectra of depleted uranium metal from laser plasmas generated by nanosecond Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and femtosecond Ti:sapphire (800 nm) laser pulses. The latter pulses produce short-lived and relatively cool plasmas in comparison to the longer pulses, and the spectra of neutral uranium atoms appear immediately after excitation. Evidence for nonequilibrium excitation with femtosecond pulses is found in the dependence of spectral line intensities on the pulse chirp.

Emmert, Luke A.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.; Cremers, David A.; Jones, C. Randy; Rudolph, Wolfgang

2011-01-20

250

Mechanisms of deformation-induced grain boundary chromium depletion (sensitization) development in type 316 stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation accelerates the development of grain boundary chromium depletion (GBCD), or sensitization, in type 316 austenitic\\u000a stainless steels (SS). Quantitative assessment of the degree of sensitization (DOS) using the electrochemical potentiokinetic\\u000a reactivation (EPR) test indicates that the acceleration in GBCD is a function of the amount of strain in the material and\\u000a temperature of isothermal sensitization treatment. A systematic increase

A. H. Advani; L. E. Murr; D. G. Atteridge; R. Chelakara

1991-01-01

251

Sphingomyelin Depletion Impairs Anionic Phospholipid Inward Translocation and Induces Cholesterol Efflux*  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidylserine (PS) floppase activity (outward translocation) of ABCA1 leads to plasma membrane remodeling that plays a role in lipid efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) generating nascent high density lipoprotein. The Tangier disease W590S ABCA1 mutation has defective PS floppase activity and diminished cholesterol efflux activity. Here, we report that depletion of sphingomyelin by inhibitors or sphingomyelinase caused plasma membrane remodeling, leading to defective flip (inward translocation) of PS, higher PS exposure, and higher cholesterol efflux from cells by both ABCA1-dependent and ABCA1-independent mechanisms. Mechanistically, sphingomyelin was connected to PS translocation in cell-free liposome studies that showed that sphingomyelin increased the rate of spontaneous PS flipping. Depletion of sphingomyelin in stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing the Tangier disease W590S mutant ABCA1 isoform rescued the defect in PS exposure and restored cholesterol efflux to apoAI. Liposome studies showed that PS directly increased cholesterol accessibility to extraction by cyclodextrin, providing the mechanistic link between cell surface PS and cholesterol efflux. We conclude that altered plasma membrane environment conferred by depleting sphingomyelin impairs PS flip and promotes cholesterol efflux in ABCA1-dependent and -independent manners. PMID:24220029

Gulshan, Kailash; Brubaker, Gregory; Wang, Shuhui; Hazen, Stanley L.; Smith, Jonathan D.

2013-01-01

252

9-Cis retinoic acid protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in nigrostriatal dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine (MA) is a drug of abuse as well as a dopaminergic neurotoxin. 9-Cis retinoic acid (9cRA), a biologically active derivative of vitamin A, has protective effects against damage caused by H(2)O(2) and oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro as well as infarction and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dNTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) labeling in ischemic brain. The purpose of this study was to examine if there was a protective role for 9cRA against MA toxicity in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Primary dopaminergic neurons, prepared from rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic tissue, were treated with MA. High doses of MA decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity while increasing TUNEL labeling. These toxicities were significantly reduced by 9cRA. 9cRA also inhibited the export of Nur77 from nucleus to cytosol, a response that activates apoptosis. The interaction of 9cRA and MA in vivo was next examined in adult rats. 9cRA was delivered intracerebroventricularly; MA was given (5 mg/kg, 4×) one day later. Locomotor behavior was measured 2 days after surgery for a period of 48 h. High doses of MA significantly reduced locomotor activity and TH immunoreactivity in striatum. Administration of 9cRA antagonized these changes. Previous studies have shown that 9cRA can induce bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) expression and that administration of BMP7 attenuates MA toxicity. We demonstrated that MA treatment significantly reduced BMP7 mRNA expression in nigra. Noggin (a BMP antagonist) antagonized 9cRA-induced behavioral recovery and 9cRA-induced normalization of striatal TH levels. Our data suggest that 9cRA has a protective effect against MA-mediated neurodegeneration in dopaminergic neurons via upregulation of BMP. PMID:23884514

Reiner, David J; Yu, Seong-Jin; Shen, Hui; He, Yi; Bae, Eunkyung; Wang, Yun

2014-04-01

253

Dopamine released from nerve terminals activates prejunctional dopamine receptors in dog mesenteric arterial vessels.  

PubMed Central

The fractional release of dopamine and noradrenaline (NA) from the main trunk of the dog mesenteric artery and its proximal branches, when elicited by K+ (52 mM), was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. K+-induced depolarization released both dopamine and NA. For the main trunk of the mesenteric artery, the fractional release of dopamine and NA were of the same order of magnitude, whereas for the proximal branches dopamine fractional release was significantly lower than that of NA. Phentolamine (0.2 microM) significantly increased dopamine and NA release in both segments of the mesenteric artery. However, for the proximal branches the effect of phentolamine on dopamine and NA release was greater than that observed in the main trunk. Sulpiride (1 microM) significantly increased dopamine and NA release in the proximal branches of the mesenteric artery, whereas in the main trunk sulpiride did not increase amine release. In the proximal branches of the mesenteric artery, sulpiride significantly enhanced dopamine and NA fractional release even after it had been augmented by phentolamine. Apomorphine (0.3 microM) significantly reduced dopamine and NA release in both segments of the mesenteric artery under study; this effect was abolished by sulpiride but not by phentolamine. These results suggest that dopamine and NA released during depolarization by K+ activate prejunctional dopamine and alpha-adrenoceptors, respectively, thereby playing a role in the control of transmitter release. PMID:3607368

Soares-da-Silva, P.

1987-01-01

254

N-Octanoyl Dopamine Treatment of Endothelial Cells Induces the Unfolded Protein Response and Results in Hypometabolism and Tolerance to Hypothermia  

PubMed Central

Aim N-acyl dopamines (NADD) are gaining attention in the field of inflammatory and neurological disorders. Due to their hydrophobicity, NADD may have access to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We therefore investigated if NADD induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and if this in turn influences cell behaviour. Methods Genome wide gene expression profiling, confirmatory qPCR and reporter assays were employed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to validate induction of UPR target genes and UPR sensor activation by N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD). Intracellular ATP, apoptosis and induction of thermotolerance were used as functional parameters to assess adaptation of HUVEC. Results NOD, but not dopamine dose dependently induces the UPR. This was also found for other synthetic NADD. Induction of the UPR was dependent on the redox activity of NADD and was not caused by selective activation of a particular UPR sensor. UPR induction did not result in cell apoptosis, yet NOD strongly impaired cell proliferation by attenuation of cells in the S-G2/M phase. Long-term treatment of HUVEC with low NOD concentration showed decreased intracellular ATP concentration paralleled with activation of AMPK. These cells were significantly more resistant to cold inflicted injury. Conclusions We provide for the first time evidence that NADD induce the UPR in vitro. It remains to be assessed if UPR induction is causally associated with hypometabolism and thermotolerance. Further pharmacokinetic studies are warranted to address if the NADD concentrations used in vitro can be obtained in vivo and if this in turn shows therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24926788

Stamellou, Eleni; Fontana, Johann; Wedel, Johannes; Ntasis, Emmanouil; Sticht, Carsten; Becker, Anja; Pallavi, Prama; Wolf, Kerstin; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Hafner, Mathias; van Son, Willem J.; Yard, Benito A.

2014-01-01

255

Immunotherapy of Murine Retrovirus-Induced Acquired Immunodeficiency by CD4 T Regulatory Cell Depletion and PD-1 Blockade ?  

PubMed Central

LP-BM5 retrovirus induces a complex disease featuring an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome termed murine AIDS (MAIDS) in susceptible strains of mice, such as C57BL/6 (B6). CD4 T helper effector cells are required for MAIDS induction and progression of viral pathogenesis. CD8 T cells are not needed for viral pathogenesis, but rather, are essential for protection from disease in resistant strains, such as BALB/c. We have discovered an immunodominant cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope encoded in a previously unrecognized LP-BM5 retroviral alternative (+1 nucleotide [nt]) gag translational open reading frame. CTLs specific for this cryptic gag epitope are the basis of protection from LP-BM5-induced immunodeficiency in BALB/c mice, and the inability of B6 mice to mount an anti-gag CTL response appears critical to the initiation and progression of LP-BM5-induced MAIDS. However, uninfected B6 mice primed by LP-BM5-induced tumors can generate CTL responses to an LP-BM5 retrovirus infection-associated epitope(s) that is especially prevalent on such MAIDS tumor cells, indicating the potential to mount a protective CD8 T-cell response. Here, we utilized this LP-BM5 retrovirus-induced disease system to test whether modulation of normal immune down-regulatory mechanisms can alter retroviral pathogenesis. Thus, following in vivo depletion of CD4 T regulatory (Treg) cells and/or selective interruption of PD-1 negative signaling in the CD8 T-cell compartment, retroviral pathogenesis was significantly decreased, with the combined treatment of CD4 Treg cell depletion and PD-1 blockade working in a synergistic fashion to substantially reduce the induction of MAIDS. PMID:21917983

Li, Wen; Green, William R.

2011-01-01

256

Dopamine targets cycling B cells independent of receptors/transporter for oxidative attack: Implications for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Human B lymphocytes and derived lines from a spectrum of B cell malignancy were studied for expression of dopaminergic pathway components and for their cytostatic response to the catecholamine and related, potentially therapeutic compounds. Proliferating normal lymphocytes and dividing malignant clones rapidly arrested on exposure to dopamine in the low (?10 ?M) micromolar range. The antiparkinsonian drugs l-DOPA and apomorphine (particularly) were similarly antiproliferative. With the exception of D4, dopamine receptors D1–D5 were variably expressed among normal and neoplastic B cell populations, as was the dopamine transporter. Transcripts for D1 and D2 were frequently found, whereas D3 and D5 revealed restricted expression; dopamine transporter was detected in most cases. Nevertheless, pharmacological analysis disclosed that dopamine targeted cycling B cells independent of these structures. Rather, oxidative stress constituted the primary mechanism: the catecholamine’s actions being mimicked by hydrogen peroxide and reversed by exogenous catalase, and evidence for the intracellular redox protein thioredoxin contributing protection. Among proliferating clones, growth arrest was accompanied by cell death in populations deplete in antiapoptotic Bcl-2: resting lymphocytes escaping low micromolar dopamine toxicity. Dysregulated bcl-2 expression, although preventing oxidative-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, by itself conferred only minor protection against dopamine cytostasis. The selective impact of dopamine on lymphocytes that are in active cycle indicates an axis for therapeutic intervention not only in B cell neoplasia but also in lymphoproliferative disturbances generally. Rational tailoring of drug delivery systems already in development for Parkinson’s disease could provide ideal vehicles for carrying the oxidative hit directly to the target populations. PMID:16938864

Meredith, Elizabeth J.; Holder, Michelle J.; Rosén, Anders; Lee, Adrian Drake; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Barnes, Nicholas M.; Gordon, John

2006-01-01

257

Nicotine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is inhibited by the novel AMPA antagonist ZK200775 and the NMDA antagonist CGP39551  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale Accumulated data suggest that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in the reinforcing properties of nicotine. However, less is known about the role of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionate (AMPA) receptors in this context. Objectives To study the effect of the novel systemically administered AMPA receptor antagonist ZK200775 ([1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-7-morpholinyl-2,3-dioxo-6-(fluoromethyl) quinoxalin-1-yl] methylphosphonate) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and nicotine-stimulated locomotor

Alexander R. Kosowski; Gvido Cebers; Aleta Cebere; Ann-Charlott Swanhagen; Sture Liljequist

2004-01-01

258

The novel nicotinic receptor antagonist N,N?-dodecane-1,12-diyl- bis-3-picolinium dibromide decreases nicotine-induced dopamine metabolism in rat nucleus accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the effect of the novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, N,N?-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB), on nicotine-induced dopamine metabolism in rat nucleus accumbens, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Acute nicotine (0.5 mg\\/kg, s.c.) produced an increase in the content of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in nucleus accumbens, but not in striatum or medial prefrontal cortex. Pretreatment with bPiDDB (1 or 3 mg\\/kg,

Shafiqur Rahman; Nichole M. Neugebauer; Zhenfa Zhang; Peter A. Crooks; Linda P. Dwoskin; Michael T. Bardo

2008-01-01

259

Kinetics of acute inflammation induced by Escherichia coli in rabbits. II. The effect of hyperimmunization, complement depletion, and depletion of leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response to Escherichia coli was quantitated in the skin of normal rabbits and the kinetics established as described previously. Hyperemia, measured with radiolabeled microspheres; vascular permeability, estimated with 125 I-albumin; and leukocyte infiltration, quantitated with 51Cr-labeled autologous leukocytes, reached maximal values 3 hours after the injection of bacteria and subsided almost completely by 6 hours. Hemorrhage, measured with homologous 59Fe-erythrocytes, continued to increase between 1 and 6 hours after injection and then reached plateau levels. The lesions were studied up to 8 hours, since in the previous study no changes were observed beyond that time. In the study described in this paper, the host mediation systems were manipulated in various groups of rabbits in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of the inflammatory reaction. One group of animals was hyperimmunized with the E coli organisms, another was partially depleted of hemolytic complement with cobra venom factor, and yet another was rendered leukopenic with nitrogen mustard. In hyperimmunized animals hyperemia in the dermal lesions induced by the microorganisms was significantly more intense than in normal rabbits. Vascular permeability increase occurred earlier in hyperimmunized rabbits and at 1 hour was significantly greater than in normals. Decomplemented rabbits had significantly less vascular permeability than normal animals, whereas in leukopenic rabbits no increase in vascular permeability could be elicited. Leukocyte accumulation was increased over the normal animals in the lesions of hyperimmunized rabbits. Hemorrhage was significantly decreased in leukopenic rabbits. Histologic examination of the lesions revealed that whereas in normal animals the infiltrating neutrophils ingested most of the bacteria and formed definite abscesses by 6-8 hours, these abscesses were absent in leukopenic animals, and free-lying bacteria were demonstrable in lesions. Histologically more neutrophils were present in the hyperimmunized than in the normal rabbits, but this difference was striking when normal animals were compared with leukopenic animals, in some of which only very occasional small accumulations of neutrophils were present. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6336905

Kopaniak, M. M.; Movat, H. Z.

1983-01-01

260

Effects of a short-course MDMA binge on dopamine transporter binding and on levels of dopamine and its metabolites in adult male rats  

PubMed Central

Although the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is often described as a selective serotonergic neurotoxin, some research has challenged this view. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of MDMA on subsequent levels of two different markers of dopaminergic function, the dopamine transporter (DAT) as well as dopamine and its major metabolites. In experiment I, adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were administered either a low or moderate dose MDMA binge (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg × 4 with an inter-dose interval of 1 h) or saline, and were killed 1 week later. The moderate dose dramatically reduced [3H]WIN 35,428 binding to striatal DAT by 73.7% (P ? 0.001). In experiment II, animals were binged with a higher dose of MDMA (10 mg/kg × 4) to determine the drug’s effects on concentrations of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine, and their respective major metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum and frontal cortex 1 week later. As expected, MDMA significantly reduced 5-HT and 5-HIAA (? 50%) in these structures, while only a marginal decrease in dopamine was noted in the striatum. In contrast, levels of DOPAC (34.3%, P < 0.01) and HVA (33.5%, P < 0.001) were reduced by MDMA treatment, suggesting a decrease in dopamine turnover. Overall, these findings indicate that while serotonergic markers are particularly vulnerable to MDMA-induced depletion, significant dopaminergic deficits may also occur under some conditions. Importantly, DAT expression may be more vulnerable to perturbation by MDMA than dopamine itself. PMID:23276666

Biezonski, Dominik K.; Piper, Brian J.; Shinday, Nina M.; Kim, Peter J.; Ali, Syed F.; Meyer, Jerrold S.

2013-01-01

261

Acute tryptophan depletion potentiates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced cerebrovascular hyperperfusion in adult male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) dysfunction found in depression may affect not only brain function (mood) but also cerebrovascular control. Similar, but possibly occult, disturbances may also be induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity (MDMA, or "ecstasy"). Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is widely used to identify vulnerability to depression, and we hypothesized that repeated MDMA administration would increase the sensitivity of rats to this acute serotonergic challenge. In this study, male Wistar rats were injected with MDMA (20 mg kg(-1), twice daily for 4 days) and challenged 3 weeks later with ATD, induced by intragastric administration of a nutritional mixture with tryptophan (TRP) removed. Cerebral metabolism (CMRG) and blood flow (CBF) were measured in parallel groups of animals following ATD by using quantitative [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose and [(14)C]iodoantipyrine autoradiographic techniques, respectively. A significant reduction in paroxetine binding to 5-HT transporter sites in MDMA-treated rats indicated 5HT terminal depletion, whereas the plasma TRP/sum large neutral amino acids ratio was reduced by 40% following ATD. Under all experimental conditions, the normal close correlation between CBF and metabolic demand was maintained. However, a global analysis of all brain regions revealed a significant decrease in the overall ratio of CBF to CMRG after ATD in control animals, whereas a higher ratio was observed after ATD in the MDMA-treated group. This increase in blood flow relative to cerebral metabolism suggests an ATD-induced loss of cerebrovascular tone in MDMA-treated animals that could have pathophysiological consequences and might conceivably contribute to the behavioral dysfunction of depression. PMID:19998482

van Donkelaar, Eva L; Kelly, Paul A T; Dawson, Neil; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Ferrington, Linda

2010-05-15

262

Dopamine’s Role in Social Modulation of Infant Isolation-Induced Vocalization: II. Maternally Modulated Infant Separation Responses are Regulated by D1- and D2-Family Dopamine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Mammalian infant behavior directed toward caregivers is critical to survival and may play a role in establishing social bonds. Most mammalian infants vocalize when isolated. Rat pups vocalize at a higher rate when isolated following an interaction with an adult female than after an interaction with littermates, a phenomenon termed maternal potentiation. We previously reported that the D2 receptor family agonist quinpirole disrupts maternal potentiation at a dose that does not alter vocalization rate following contact with littermates. Here we further examine the role of dopamine in maternal potentiation by testing effects of both D1 and D2 receptor family ligands, alone and in combination, on maternal potentiation. We tested the drugs’ effects on isolation vocalization subsequent to littermate contact and then another isolation preceded by a brief “reunion” period of exposure either to the anesthetized dam or a handling-only “pickup” condition. D2 receptor stimulation blocked the increase in vocalizations following reunion with the dam. The D2 agonist effect in the dam-reunion condition was much larger than its small effect in the pickup condition, providing further evidence that D2 receptors exert a selective modulation of maternal potentiation. On the other hand, systemic administration of the D1 agonist SKF81297 reduced isolation vocalizations nonspecifically, across all the experimental conditions. Finally, the D1 and D2 receptor dual antagonist, alpha-flupenthixol, increased isolation vocalizations and disrupted potentiation, but at doses that also inhibited locomotion. We conclude that D2 receptor family activation has a more selective effect of disrupting maternal potentiation than D1 receptor family activation. PMID:19031490

Moore, Holly; Myers, Michael M.; Shair, Harry N.

2010-01-01

263

Dopamine’s Role in Social Modulation of Infant Isolation-Induced Vocalization: II. Maternally Modulated Infant Separation Responses are Regulated by D1- and D2-Family Dopamine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Mammalian infant behavior directed toward caregivers is critical to survival and may play a role in establishing social bonds. Most mammalian infants vocalize when isolated. Rat pups vocalize at a higher rate when isolated following an interaction with an adult female than after an interaction with littermates, a phenomenon termed maternal potentiation. We previously reported that the D2 receptor family agonist quinpirole disrupts maternal potentiation at a dose that does not alter vocalization rate following contact with littermates. Here we further examine the role of dopamine in maternal potentiation by testing effects of both D1 and D2 receptor family ligands, alone and in combination, on maternal potentiation. We tested the drugs’ effects on isolation vocalization subsequent to littermate contact and then another isolation preceded by a brief “reunion” period of exposure either to the anesthetized dam or a handling-only “pickup” condition. D2 receptor stimulation blocked the increase in vocalizations following reunion with the dam. The D2 agonist effect in the dam-reunion condition was much larger than its small effect in the pickup condition, providing further evidence that D2 receptors exert a selective modulation of maternal potentiation. On the other hand, systemic administration of the D1 agonist SKF81297 reduced isolation vocalizations nonspecifically, across all the experimental conditions. Finally, the D1 and D2 receptor dual antagonist, alpha-flupenthixol, increased isolation vocalizations and disrupted potentiation, but at doses that also inhibited locomotion. We conclude that D2 receptor family activation has a more selective effect of disrupting maternal potentiation than D1 receptor family activation. PMID:19006095

Moore, Holly; Myers, Michael M.; Shair, Harry N.

2010-01-01

264

Nicotinic and dopamine D 2 receptors mediate nicotine-induced changes in ventral tegmental area neurotensin system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropeptides have been implicated in the psychopathology of stimulants of abuse. Neurotensin is a neuropeptide associated with the regulation of the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine pathways. In addition, the ventral tegmental area, a midbrain region implicated in the rewarding effects of most, if not all, addictive drugs, appears to be a particularly critical target for nicotine action. Because neurotensin has

Mario E. Alburges; Amanda J. Hoonakker; Glen R. Hanson

2007-01-01

265

Extended-access, but not limited-access, methamphetamine self-administration induces behavioral and nucleus accumbens dopamine response changes in rats  

PubMed Central

To better understand the neurobiology of methamphetamine (METH) dependence and the cognitive impairments induced by METH use, we compared the effects of extended (12 h) and limited (1 h) access to METH self-administration on locomotor activity and object place recognition, and on extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous METH (0.05 mg/kg). One group had progressively extended access up to 12-h sessions. The other group had limited-access 1-h sessions. Microdialysis experiments were conducted during a 12-h and 1-h session, in which the effects of a single METH injection (self-administered, 0.05 mg/kg, i.v.) on extracellular dopamine levels were assessed in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen compared with a drug-naive group. The day after the last 12-h session and the following day experimental groups were assessed for their locomotor activities and in a place recognition procedure, respectively. The microdialysis results revealed tolerance to the METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine only in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate-putamen in the extended-access group compared with the control and limited-access groups. These effects may be associated with the increased lever-pressing and drug-seeking observed during the first hour of drug exposure in the extended-access group. This increase in drug-seeking leads to higher METH intake and may result in more severe consequences in other structures responsible for the behavioral deficits (memory and locomotor activity) observed in the extended-access group, but not in the limited-access group. PMID:24112125

Cozannet, Romain Le; Markou, Athina; Kuczenski, Ronald

2013-01-01

266

Electroacupuncture-Induced Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats: Role of the Dopamine D2 Receptor.  

PubMed

Background. Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioural deficits, including memory deficits and motor disorders. Evidence shows that EA significantly promotes recovery of neurological function and thus improves quality of life. Objective. Evidence exists for the involvement of catecholamines in human neuroplasticity. A better understanding of dopaminergic (DAergic) modulation in this process will be important. Methods. A total of 72 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups: normal, model, EA, spiperone group, EA + spiperone group, and pergolide. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used in all 6 groups except the normal group. A behavioural assessment was conducted at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after MCAO. The percent of brain infarct area was also determined 7 days after MCAO. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) fluorescence double labeling was performed in the striatum. Results. In this study, we found that EA at Fengchi (GB20) acupoints resulted in marked improvements based on a behavioural assessment. Both TTC staining and GAP-43 immunofluorescence labeling results showed that EA treatment reduced ischemia injury and promoted neuroplasticity compared with the model group. The D2R-selective agonist, pergolide, showed similar results, but these results were reversed by the D2R-selective antagonist, spiperone. We also found that there were more colocalization and expression of GAP-43 and TH in the EA and pergolide groups than those in the other groups. Conclusion. These results suggest that the neuroplasticity induced by EA was mediated by D2 autoreceptors in DAergic neurons. PMID:24348687

Xu, Ming-Shu; Zhang, Shu-Jing; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Chang-Zhi; Chen, Chun-Yan; Li, Li-Hui; Li, Ming-Zhe; Xu, Jia; Ge, Lin-Bao

2013-01-01

267

Effect of adrenalectomy on distal nephron lithium reabsorption induced by potassium depletion.  

PubMed

In potassium-depleted rats lithium is reabsorbed by an amiloride-sensitive transport mechanism in the distal nephron segments, and the urinary fractional excretion of lithium (FE[Li]) is reduced by almost 50% compared to that of potassium-replete rats. We have used renal clearance techniques to study the effects of adrenalectomy (Adx) or sham operation on amiloride-sensitive lithium reabsorption in conscious potassium-deprived (K5) and control (K200) rats. In the sham-operated rats, administration of a low potassium diet led to a significant reduction in FE(Li) from 27.0 to 16.6% (p < 0.01), whereas in the Adx rats the reduction in FE(Li) was smaller (from 27.0 to 22.6) and not statistically significant. Urinary sodium excretion was similar (1,100 nmol/min/100 g body weight) in all groups. During subsequent amiloride infusion in order to block the distal nephron reabsorption of lithium, urinary sodium excretion increased nearly twofold in the sham-operated groups whereas no change was evident in the Adx rats. Similarly, amiloride led to an increase in FE(Li) in the sham-K5 group but failed to increase FE(Li) in the Adx-K5 group. The results suggest that amiloride-sensitive lithium transport seen during potassium depletion is influenced by the presence of the adrenal glands, most likely due to their production of aldosterone. PMID:9192908

Thomsen, K; Shalmi, M

1997-01-01

268

LAMTOR1 depletion induces p53-dependent apoptosis via aberrant lysosomal activation  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal regulation is a poorly understood mechanism that is central to degradation and recycling processes. Here we report that LAMTOR1 (late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and mTOR activator 1) downregulation affects lysosomal activation, through mechanisms that are not solely due to mTORC1 inhibition. LAMTOR1 depletion strongly increases lysosomal structures that display a scattered intracellular positioning. Despite their altered positioning, those dispersed structures remain overall functional: (i) the trafficking and maturation of the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B is not altered; (ii) the autophagic flux, ending up in the degradation of autophagic substrate inside lysosomes, is stimulated. Consequently, LAMTOR1-depleted cells face an aberrant lysosomal catabolism that produces excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS accumulation in turn triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Both mTORC1 activity and the stimulated autophagy are not necessary to this lysosomal cell death pathway. Thus, LAMTOR1 expression affects the tuning of lysosomal activation that can lead to p53-dependent apoptosis through excessive catabolism. PMID:22513874

Malek, M; Guillaumot, P; Huber, A-L; Lebeau, J; Pétrilli, V; Kfoury, A; Mikaelian, I; Renno, T; Manié, S N

2012-01-01

269

LAMTOR1 depletion induces p53-dependent apoptosis via aberrant lysosomal activation.  

PubMed

Lysosomal regulation is a poorly understood mechanism that is central to degradation and recycling processes. Here we report that LAMTOR1 (late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and mTOR activator 1) downregulation affects lysosomal activation, through mechanisms that are not solely due to mTORC1 inhibition. LAMTOR1 depletion strongly increases lysosomal structures that display a scattered intracellular positioning. Despite their altered positioning, those dispersed structures remain overall functional: (i) the trafficking and maturation of the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B is not altered; (ii) the autophagic flux, ending up in the degradation of autophagic substrate inside lysosomes, is stimulated. Consequently, LAMTOR1-depleted cells face an aberrant lysosomal catabolism that produces excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS accumulation in turn triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Both mTORC1 activity and the stimulated autophagy are not necessary to this lysosomal cell death pathway. Thus, LAMTOR1 expression affects the tuning of lysosomal activation that can lead to p53-dependent apoptosis through excessive catabolism. PMID:22513874

Malek, M; Guillaumot, P; Huber, A-L; Lebeau, J; Pétrilli, V; Kfoury, A; Mikaelian, I; Renno, T; Manié, S N

2012-01-01

270

Lipid dynamics in yeast under haem-induced unsaturated fatty acid and/or sterol depletion.  

PubMed Central

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, UFA (unsaturated fatty acids) and ergosterol syntheses are aerobic processes that require haem. We took advantage of a strain affected in haem synthesis ( hem1 Delta) to starve specifically for one or the other of these essential lipids in order to examine the consequences on the overall lipid composition. Our results demonstrate that reserve lipids (i.e. triacylglycerols and steryl esters) are depleted independently of haem availability and that their UFA and sterol content is not crucial to sustain residual growth under lipid depletion. In parallel to UFA starvation, a net accumulation of SFA (saturated fatty acids) is observed as a consequence of haem biosynthesis preclusion. Interestingly, the excess SFA are not mainly stored within triacylglycerols and steryl esters but rather within specific phospholipid species, with a marked preference for PtdIns. This results in an increase in the cellular PtdIns content. However, neutral lipid homoeostasis is perturbed under haem starvation. The contribution of two lipid particle-associated proteins (namely Tgl1p and Dga1p) to this process is described. PMID:14640980

Ferreira, Thierry; Régnacq, Matthieu; Alimardani, Parissa; Moreau-Vauzelle, Carole; Bergès, Thierry

2004-01-01

271

Lipid dynamics in yeast under haem-induced unsaturated fatty acid and/or sterol depletion.  

PubMed

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, UFA (unsaturated fatty acids) and ergosterol syntheses are aerobic processes that require haem. We took advantage of a strain affected in haem synthesis ( hem1 Delta) to starve specifically for one or the other of these essential lipids in order to examine the consequences on the overall lipid composition. Our results demonstrate that reserve lipids (i.e. triacylglycerols and steryl esters) are depleted independently of haem availability and that their UFA and sterol content is not crucial to sustain residual growth under lipid depletion. In parallel to UFA starvation, a net accumulation of SFA (saturated fatty acids) is observed as a consequence of haem biosynthesis preclusion. Interestingly, the excess SFA are not mainly stored within triacylglycerols and steryl esters but rather within specific phospholipid species, with a marked preference for PtdIns. This results in an increase in the cellular PtdIns content. However, neutral lipid homoeostasis is perturbed under haem starvation. The contribution of two lipid particle-associated proteins (namely Tgl1p and Dga1p) to this process is described. PMID:14640980

Ferreira, Thierry; Régnacq, Matthieu; Alimardani, Parissa; Moreau-Vauzelle, Carole; Bergès, Thierry

2004-03-15

272

Numerical modeling of self-limiting and self-enhancing caprock alteration induced by CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents numerical simulations of reactive transport which may be induced in the caprock of an on-shore depleted gas reservoir by the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The objective is to verify that CO geological disposal activities currently being planned for the study area are safe and do not induce any undesired environmental impact. In our model, fluid flow

Tianfu Xu; Fabrizio Gherardi; Karsten Pruess

2007-01-01

273

Temperature dependence of the radiation induced change of depletion voltage in silicon PIN detectors  

SciTech Connect

The silicon microstrip detectors that will be used in the SDC experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will be exposed to very large fluences of charged particles, neutrons, and gammas. The authors present a study of how temperature affects the change in the depletion voltage of silicon PIN detectors damaged by radiation. They study the initial radiation damage and the short-term and long-term annealing of that damage as a function of temperature in the range from {minus}10{degrees}C to +50{degrees}C, and as a function of 800 MeV proton fluence up to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2}. They express the pronounced temperature dependencies in a simple model in terms of two annealing time constants which depend exponentially on the temperature.

Ziock, H.J.; Holzscheiter, K.; Morgan, A.; Palounek, A.P.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ellison, J.; Heinson, A.P.; Mason, M.; Wimpenny, S.J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Grillo, A.; O`Shaughnessy, K.; Rahn, J.; Rinaldi, P.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Webster, A.; Wichmann, R.; Wilder, M. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics; Frautschi, M.A.; Matthews, J.A.J.; McDonald, D.; Skinner, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coupal, D.; Pal, T. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

1993-11-01

274

Considerations for evaluating ultraviolet radiation-induced genetic damage relative to Antarctic ozone depletion.  

PubMed Central

Springtime ozone depletion over the Antarctic results in increased UVB in local marine environments. It has been established that decreases in primary productivity occur with decreases in ozone concentrations, but the impact of increased UVB on the functioning and stability of the ecosystem has not yet been determined. Very little has been done to evaluate the potential for genetic damage caused by the increase in UVB, and this type of damage is most significant relative to the fitness and maintenance of populations. An essential problem in evaluating genotoxic effects is the lack of appropriate techniques to sample and quantify genetic damage in field populations under ambient UVB levels. In addition, it is currently not feasible to estimate exposure levels for organisms in their natural habitats. PMID:7713036

Karentz, D

1994-01-01

275

Depletion of Securin Induces Senescence After Irradiation and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Cancer Cells Regardless of Functional p53 Expression  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy is one of the best choices for cancer treatment. However, various tumor cells exhibit resistance to irradiation-induced apoptosis. The development of new strategies to trigger cancer cell death besides apoptosis is necessary. This study investigated the role of securin in radiation-induced apoptosis and senescence in human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays. Western blot analysis was used to analyze levels of securin, caspase-3, PARP, p53, p21, Rb, gamma-H2AX, and phospho-Chk2. Senescent cells were analyzed using a beta-galactosidase staining assay. A securin-expressed vector (pcDNA-securin) was stably transfected into securin-null HCT116 cells. Securin gene knockdown was performed by small interfering RNA and small hairpin RNA in HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Results: Radiation was found to induce apoptosis in securin wild type HCT116 cells but induced senescence in securin-null cells. Restoration of securin reduced senescence and increased cell survival in securin-null HCT116 cells after irradiation. Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX and Chk2 phosphorylation were induced transiently in securin-wild-type cells but exhibited sustained activation in securin-null cells. Securin gene knockdown switches irradiation-induced apoptosis to senescence in both HCT116 p53-null and MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of securin expression plays a determining role in the radiosensitivity and fate of cells. Depletion of securin impairs DNA repair after irradiation, increasing DNA damage and promoting senescence in the residual surviving cells regardless of functional p53 expression. The knockdown of securin may contribute to a novel radiotherapy protocol for the treatment of human cancer cells that are resistant to irradiation.

Chen Wenshu; Yu Yichu [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lee Yijang [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-H. [Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H.-Y. [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiu, S.-J., E-mail: chiusj@mail.tcu.edu.t [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Radiation Sciences, Tzu Chi Technology College, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

2010-06-01

276

Clonal evolution following chemotherapy-induced stem cell depletion in cats heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The number of hematopoietic stem cells necessary to support normal hematopoiesis is not known but may be small. If so, the depletion or damage of such cells could result in apparent clonal dominance. To test this hypothesis, dimethylbusulfan (2 to 4 mg/kg intravenously (IV) x 3) was given to cats heterozygous for the X-linked enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). These cats were the daughters of domestic X Geoffroy parents. After the initial drug-induced cytopenias (2 to 4 weeks), peripheral blood counts and the numbers of marrow progenitors detected in culture remained normal, although the percentages of erythroid burst-forming cells (BFU-E) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) in DNA synthesis increased, as determined by the tritiated thymidine suicide technique. In three of six cats treated, a dominance of Geoffroy-type G-6-PD emerged among the progenitor cells, granulocytes, and RBCs. These skewed ratios of domestic to Geoffroy-type G-6-PD have persisted greater than 3 years. No changes in cell cycle kinetics or G-6-PD phenotypes were noted in similar studies in six control cats. These data suggest that clonal evolution may reflect the depletion or damage of normal stem cells and not only the preferential growth and dominance of neoplastic cells.

Abkowitz, J.L.; Ott, R.M.; Holly, R.D.; Adamson, J.W.

1988-06-01

277

Effects of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine-induced catecholamine depletion in patients with seasonal affective disorder in summer remission.  

PubMed

Noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms have been proposed for the pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). We investigated the effects of catecholamine depletion using alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, in patients with SAD in natural summer remission. Nine drug-free patients with SAD by DSM-IV criteria, in summer remission for at least eight weeks, completed a double-blind, crossover study. Behavioral ratings and serum HVA and MHPG levels were obtained for 3-day sessions during which patients took AMPT or an active control drug, diphenhydramine. The active AMPT session significantly reduced serum levels of HVA and MHPG compared with the control diphenhydramine session. The AMPT session resulted in higher depression ratings with all nine patients having significant clinical relapse, compared with two patients during the diphenhydramine session. All patients returned to baseline scores after drug discontinuation. Catecholamine depletion results in significant clinical relapse in patients with SAD in the untreated, summer-remitted state. AMPT-induced depressive relapse may be a trait marker for SAD, and/or brain catecholamines may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of SAD. PMID:11682283

Lam, R W; Tam, E M; Grewal, A; Yatham, L N

2001-11-01

278

Rotation and immediate-early gene expression in rats treated with the atypical D1 dopamine agonist SKF 83822  

PubMed Central

Classical agonists of the dopamine D1 receptor activate both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. As a result, the extent to which these two pathways are essentially involved in various effects produced by D1 receptor agonists is currently uncertain. In the present report we examined the effects of SKF 83822, a dopamine D1 agonist which has been reported to activate adenylyl cyclase, but not PLC, on behavior and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. SKF 83822 (25-100 ug/kg) induced dose dependent contralateral rotation in these subjects, and, additionally, stimulated strong expression of the IEG products c-Fos, Fra2, Zif/268 and Arc in the deinnervated striatum. All of these effects could be antagonized by pretreatment with the selective D1 dopamine antagonist SCH 23390 (0.5 mg/kg). Although PLC may be involved in many effects mediated through dopamine D1 receptors, these results suggest that direct activation of PLC is not necessary for the induction of either rotation or IEG expression in dopamine depleted rats. PMID:17306871

Wirtshafter, David

2007-01-01

279

Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in primate prefrontal cortex and striatum: striking differences in magnitude and timecourse.  

PubMed

The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is frequently used to increase catecholamine levels in attention disorders and positron emission tomography imaging studies. Despite the fact that most radiotracers for positron emission tomography studies are characterized in non-human primates (NHPs), data on regional differences of the effect of AMPH in NHPs are very limited. This study examined the impact of AMPH on extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex and the caudate of NHPs using microdialysis. In addition to differences in magnitude, we observed striking differences in the temporal profile of extracellular DA levels between these regions that can likely be attributed to differences in the regulation of dopamine uptake and biosynthesis. The present data suggest that cortical DA levels may remain elevated longer than in the caudate which may contribute to the clinical profile of the actions of AMPH. Using microdialysis probes implanted in the cortex and caudate region of non-human primate brains, we observed in vivo differences in the magnitude and temporal profile of extracellular dopamine levels in response to intravenous amphetamine administration. PMID:24749782

Jedema, Hank P; Narendran, Rajesh; Bradberry, Charles W

2014-08-01

280

Reversible depletion of synaptic vesicles induced by application of high external potassium to the frog neuromuscular junction  

PubMed Central

1. Reversible depletion of synaptic vesicles from frog cutaneous pectoris neuromuscular junctions was studied by application of a Ringer solution containing 115 mM-K propionate. 2. During the release of transmitter, the synaptic vesicle membrane is added to the axolemmal membrane. Under the conditions of high K+-induced release, the synaptic vesicle membrane accumulates as folds formed in the region of the axolemmal membrane between the active zones. In depleted terminals, large vesicular structures appear and the evidence shows that some of them (possibly all) are formed as axolemmal infoldings. During formation of such infoldings the active zones remain fixed in position with respect to the post-junctional membrane. 3. During recovery in normal Ringer solution, which followed 30 min depolarization in high K+ Ringer solution, spontaneous m.e.p.p.s were detected as early as 9 min after the start of the recovery period and the average time for their reappearance was 17 min. 4. At the end of a 20 min recovery period which followed K+ depolarization, small accumulations of synaptic vesicles were again found within the terminal close to the active zones. At this time coated vesicles and coated pits were seen associated with the prejunctional axolemma and its infoldings. It appears that synaptic vesicles are re-formed directly from these coated vesicles. 5. After 60 min recovery from K+ depolarization, at which time stimulation of the motor nerve induced a muscle twitch, the structure of the terminals closely resembled that of control preparations. 6. The entire synaptic vesicle recycling process can take place in the absence of the neurone soma. ImagesPlate 3Plate 1Plate 2 PMID:308538

Gennaro, Joseph F.; Nastuk, William L.; Rutherford, Dorothy T.

1978-01-01

281

Nucleostemin Depletion Induces Post-G1 Arrest Apoptosis in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia K562 Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Despite significant improvements in treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), the emergence of leukemic stem cell (LSC) concept questioned efficacy of current therapeutical protocols. Remaining issue on CML includes finding and targeting of the key genes responsible for self-renewal and proliferation of LSCs. Nucleostemin (NS) is a new protein localized in the nucleolus of most stem cells and tumor cells which regulates their self-renewal and cell cycle progression. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of NS knocking down in K562 cell line as an in vitro model of CML. Methods: NS gene silencing was performed using a specific small interfering RNA (NS-siRNA). The gene expression level of NS was evaluated by RT-PCR. The viability and growth rate of K562 cells were determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Cell cycle distribution of the cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results showed that NS knocking down inhibited proliferation and viability of K562 cells in a time-dependent manner. Cell cycle studies revealed that NS depletion resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest at short times of transfection (24 h) followed with apoptosis at longer times (48 and 72 h), suggest that post-G1 arrest apoptosis is occurred in K562 cells. Conclusion: Overall, these results point to essential role of NS in K562 cells, thus, this gene might be considered as a promising target for treatment of CML. PMID:24409410

Seyed-Gogani, Negin; Rahmati, Marveh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Asvadi-Kermani, Iraj; Hoseinpour-Feyzi, Mohammad Ali; Moosavi, Mohammad Amin

2014-01-01

282

Inducible depletion of satellite cells in adult, sedentary mice impairs muscle regenerative capacity without affecting sarcopenia.  

PubMed

A key determinant of geriatric frailty is sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Although the etiology of sarcopenia is unknown, the correlation during aging between the loss of activity of satellite cells, which are endogenous muscle stem cells, and impaired muscle regenerative capacity has led to the hypothesis that the loss of satellite cell activity is also a cause of sarcopenia. We tested this hypothesis in male sedentary mice by experimentally depleting satellite cells in young adult animals to a degree sufficient to impair regeneration throughout the rest of their lives. A detailed analysis of multiple muscles harvested at various time points during aging in different cohorts of these mice showed that the muscles were of normal size, despite low regenerative capacity, but did have increased fibrosis. These results suggest that lifelong reduction of satellite cells neither accelerated nor exacerbated sarcopenia and that satellite cells did not contribute to the maintenance of muscle size or fiber type composition during aging, but that their loss may contribute to age-related muscle fibrosis. PMID:25501907

Fry, Christopher S; Lee, Jonah D; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J; Jackson, Janna R; Liu, Fujun; Yang, Lin; Mendias, Christopher L; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

2015-01-01

283

Impairment of nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission by manganese is mediated by pre-synaptic mechanism(s): Implications to manganese-induced parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

The long-term consequences of chronic manganese (Mn) exposure on neurological health is a topic of great concern to occupationally-exposed workers and in populations exposed to moderate levels of Mn. We have performed a comprehensive assessment of Mn effects on dopamine (DA) synapse markers using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the non-human primate brain. Young male Cynomolgus macaques were given weekly i.v. injections of 3.3-5.0 mg Mn/kg (n=4), 5.0-6.7 mg Mn/kg (n=5), or 8.3-10.0 mg Mn/kg (n=3) for 7-59 weeks and received PET studies of various DA synapse markers before (baseline) and at one or two time points during the course of Mn exposure. We report that amphetamine-induced DA release measured by PET is markedly impaired in the striatum of Mn-exposed animals. The effect of Mn on DA release was present in the absence of changes in markers of dopamine terminal integrity determined in post-mortem brain tissue from the same animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that the effects of Mn on DA synapses in the striatum are mediated by inhibition of DA neurotransmission and are responsible for the motor deficits documented in these animals. PMID:18808452

Guilarte, Tomás R.; Burton, Neal C.; McGlothan, Jennifer L.; Verina, Tatyana; Zhou, Yun; Alexander, Mohab; Pham, Luu; Griswold, Michael; Wong, Dean F.; Syversen, Tore; Schneider, Jay S.

2010-01-01

284

Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE) has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts) as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde) in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg) diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. PMID:24644381

Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Zal, Fatemeh; Jafarian, Aida; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

2014-01-01

285

Nutr Cancer . Author manuscript Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin-depleted foci  

E-print Network

Nutr Cancer . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin. The promoting effect of a freeze-dried, cooked, cured ham diet was looked for in a 100-day study. Colon) was designed 1) to compare the effect of ham, hemoglobin, and hemin; and 2) to test the effect of sodium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/PKB signalling: initiation by the D2S receptor and role in quinpirole-induced behavioural activation  

PubMed Central

The short and long isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S and D2L respectively) are highly expressed in the striatum. Functional D2 receptors activate an intracellular signalling pathway that includes a cAMP-independent route involving Akt/GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3). To investigate the Akt/GSK3 response to the seldom-studied D2S receptor, we established a rat D2S receptor-expressing cell line [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293/rD2S]. We found that in HEK-293/rD2S cells, the D2/D3 agonists bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly induced Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation, as well as ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation. The D2S receptor-induced Akt signals were profoundly inhibited by the internalization blockers monodansyl cadaverine and concanavalin A. Activation of the D2S receptor in HEK-293/rD2S cells appeared to trigger Akt/phospho-Akt translocation to the cell membrane. In addition to our cell culture experiments, we studied D2 receptor-dependent Akt in vivo by systemic administration of the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole. The results show that quinpirole evoked Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in the ventral striatum. Furthermore, intra-accumbens administration of wortmannin, a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor, significantly suppressed the quinpirole-evoked behavioural activation. Overall, we demonstrate that activation of the dopamine D2S receptor stimulates Akt/GSK3 signalling. In addition, in vivo Akt activity in the ventral striatum appears to play an important role in systemic D2/D3 agonist-induced behavioural activation. PMID:22909302

Chen, Han-Ting; Ruan, Nan-Yu; Chen, Jin-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Yung

2012-01-01

287

Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program 'Base to Overcome Fatigue', Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program 'Base to Overcome Fatigue', Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program 'Base to Overcome Fatigue', Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

2011-04-01

288

Depletion of the transcriptional coactivators megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 and 2 abolishes hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft growth by inducing oncogene-induced senescence  

PubMed Central

Megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 and 2 (MKL1/2) are coactivators of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF). Here, we provide evidence that depletion of MKL1 and 2 abolishes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft growth. Loss of the tumour suppressor deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) and the subsequent activation of RhoA were prerequisites for MKL1/2 knockdown-mediated growth arrest. We identified oncogene-induced senescence as the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of MKL1/2 knockdown. MKL1/2 depletion resulted in Ras activation, elevated p16 expression and hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein in DLC1-deficient HCC cells. Interestingly, reconstitution of HuH7 HCC cells with DLC1 also induced senescence. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of MKL1/2 knockdown in vivo revealed that systemic treatment of nude mice bearing HuH7 tumour xenografts with MKL1/2 siRNAs complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) completely abolished tumour growth. The regression of the xenografts was associated with senescence. Importantly, PEI-complexed MKL1 siRNA alone was sufficient for complete abrogation of HCC xenograft growth. Thus, MKL1/2 represent promising novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of HCCs characterized by DLC1 loss. PMID:23853104

Hampl, Veronika; Martin, Claudia; Aigner, Achim; Hoebel, Sabrina; Singer, Stephan; Frank, Natalie; Sarikas, Antonio; Ebert, Oliver; Prywes, Ron; Gudermann, Thomas; Muehlich, Susanne

2013-01-01

289

Securin depletion sensitizes human colon cancer cells to fisetin-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Securin is highly-expressed in various tumors including those of the colon. In this study, the role of securin in the anticancer effects of fisetin on human colon cancer cells was investigated. Fisetin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells as indicated by TUNEL assay, Annexin V-FITC\\/PI double staining, Ser15-phosphorylation of p53, and cleavages of procaspase-3 and PARP. These effects were enhanced in HCT116

Sz-Hsien Yu; Pei-Ming Yang; Chih-Wen Peng; Yi-Chu Yu; Shu-Jun Chiu

2011-01-01

290

Acute myeloid leukemia does not deplete normal hematopoietic stem cells but induces cytopenias by impeding their differentiation.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induces bone marrow (BM) failure in patients, predisposing them to life-threatening infections and bleeding. The mechanism by which AML mediates this complication is unknown but one widely accepted explanation is that AML depletes the BM of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through displacement. We sought to investigate how AML affects hematopoiesis by quantifying residual normal hematopoietic subpopulations in the BM of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human AML cells with a range of genetic lesions. The numbers of normal mouse HSCs were preserved whereas normal progenitors and other downstream hematopoietic cells were reduced following transplantation of primary AMLs, findings consistent with a differentiation block at the HSC-progenitor transition, rather than displacement. Once removed from the leukemic environment, residual normal hematopoietic cells differentiated normally and outcompeted steady-state hematopoietic cells, indicating that this effect is reversible. We confirmed the clinical significance of this by ex vivo analysis of normal hematopoietic subpopulations from BM of 16 patients with AML. This analysis demonstrated that the numbers of normal CD34(+)CD38(-) stem-progenitor cells were similar in the BM of AML patients and controls, whereas normal CD34(+)CD38(+) progenitors were reduced. Residual normal CD34(+) cells from patients with AML were enriched in long-term culture, initiating cells and repopulating cells compared with controls. In conclusion the data do not support the idea that BM failure in AML is due to HSC depletion. Rather, AML inhibits production of downstream hematopoietic cells by impeding differentiation at the HSC-progenitor transition. PMID:23901108

Miraki-Moud, Farideh; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Hodby, Katharine A; Griessinger, Emmanuel; Rosignoli, Guglielmo; Lillington, Debra; Jia, Li; Davies, Jeff K; Cavenagh, Jamie; Smith, Matthew; Oakervee, Heather; Agrawal, Samir; Gribben, John G; Bonnet, Dominique; Taussig, David C

2013-08-13

291

l-Arginine Depletion Blunts Antitumor T-cell Responses by Inducing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.  

PubMed

Enzymatic depletion of the nonessential amino acid l-Arginine (l-Arg) in patients with cancer by the administration of a pegylated form of the catabolic enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) has shown some promise as a therapeutic approach. However, l-Arg deprivation also suppresses T-cell responses in tumors. In this study, we sought to reconcile these observations by conducting a detailed analysis of the effects of peg-Arg I on normal T cells. Strikingly, we found that peg-Arg I blocked proliferation and cell-cycle progression in normal activated T cells without triggering apoptosis or blunting T-cell activation. These effects were associated with an inhibition of aerobic glycolysis in activated T cells, but not with significant alterations in mitochondrial oxidative respiration, which thereby regulated survival of T cells exposed to peg-Arg I. Further mechanistic investigations showed that the addition of citrulline, a metabolic precursor for l-Arg, rescued the antiproliferative effects of peg-Arg I on T cells in vitro. Moreover, serum levels of citrulline increased after in vivo administration of peg-Arg I. In support of the hypothesis that peg-Arg I acted indirectly to block T-cell responses in vivo, peg-Arg I inhibited T-cell proliferation in mice by inducing accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC induction by peg-Arg I occurred through the general control nonrepressed-2 eIF2? kinase. Moreover, we found that peg-Arg I enhanced the growth of tumors in mice in a manner that correlated with higher MDSC numbers. Taken together, our results highlight the risks of the l-Arg-depleting therapy for cancer treatment and suggest a need for cotargeting MDSC in such therapeutic settings. Cancer Res; 75(2); 275-83. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25406192

Fletcher, Matthew; Ramirez, Maria E; Sierra, Rosa A; Raber, Patrick; Thevenot, Paul; Al-Khami, Amir A; Sanchez-Pino, Dulfary; Hernandez, Claudia; Wyczechowska, Dorota D; Ochoa, Augusto C; Rodriguez, Paulo C

2015-01-15

292

Beef meat and blood sausage promote azoxymethane-induced1 mucin-depleted foci and aberrant crypt foci in rat colons1  

E-print Network

1 Beef meat and blood sausage promote azoxymethane-induced1 mucin-depleted foci and aberrant crypt: Red meat promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats10 Foot notes:11 1- The study was supported by the INRA 24 Red meat is associated with colon cancer risk. Puzzlingly, meat does not promote25 carcinogenesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Neonatal exposure to epidermal growth factor induces dopamine D 2 -like receptor supersensitivity in adult sensorimotor gating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational  Abnormality in the neurotrophic factor for dopamine neurons, epidermal growth factor (EGF), is associated with schizophrenia.\\u000a Thus, rats treated with EGF as neonates are used as a putative animal model for schizophrenia showing impaired prepulse inhibition\\u000a (PPI) and other cognitive deficits in the adult stage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To elucidate the abnormal behavioral traits of this animal model, the EGF effects on the

Hidekazu Sotoyama; Hisaaki Namba; Nobuyuki Takei; Hiroyuki Nawa

2007-01-01

294

Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))

1992-06-01

295

Suppression of Induced microRNA-15b Prevents Rapid Loss of Cardiac Function in a Dicer Depleted Model of Cardiac Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Dicer endonuclease, critical for maturation of miRNAs, is depleted in certain forms of cardiomyopathy which results in differential expression of certain microRNAs. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the rapid loss of cardiac function following cardiac-specific Dicer depletion in adult mice. Results Conditional Dicer deletion in the adult murine myocardium demonstrated compromised heart function, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Elevated miR-15b was observed as an early response to Dicer depletion and was found to silence Pim-1 kinase, a protein responsible for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Anti-miRNA based suppression of induced miRNA-15b rescued the function of Dicer-depleted adult heart and attenuated hypertrophy. Conclusions Anti-miRNA based suppression of inducible miRNA-15b can prevent rapid loss of cardiac function in a Dicer-depleted adult heart and can be a key approach worthy of therapeutic consideration. PMID:23840532

Gnyawali, Surya C.; Khanna, Savita; He, Guanglong; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Zweier, Jay L.; Sen, Chandan K.

2013-01-01

296

Selective action of (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268), a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, on basal and phencyclidine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell.  

PubMed

The effect of the group II metabotropic receptor agonist (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268), on basal and phencyclidine-induced dopamine efflux were measured in the shell and core subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens--regions which are associated with limbic and motor functions, respectively. Extracellular levels of dopamine were measured using microdialysis in conscious animals, and LY379268 was delivered locally by inclusion in the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) flowing through the microdialysis probe. Local administration of LY379268 in the concentration range 10 nM-10 microM reduced basal levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens shell, whilst having no effect in the nucleus accumbens core. In the nucleus accumbens shell, basal levels were reduced to approximately 60% compared to the pre-injection control, with a maximal reduction occurring at concentrations of LY379268 > or =100 nM. The response to LY379268 (100 nM) was reversible, with levels returning to baseline following its removal from the aCSF. In a separate experiment, local perfusion of the nucleus accumbens shell with LY379268 (at both 1 and 10 microM) reduced the magnitude of the response to a subsequent systemic administration of phencyclidine (5 mg/kg i.p.). The reduction in the peak dopamine response was only evident with doses of LY379268 that also reduced basal dopamine efflux--LY379268 being ineffective against PCP at 10 nM. However, in animals pre-treated with LY379268 at 1 or 10 microM, PCP still evoked a dopamine response, and in these animals the relative extent of the response was not significantly different between the respective treatment groups. In contrast, in the nucleus accumbens core the magnitude of the dopamine response to PCP was unaffected by local application of LY379268 (at 1 or 10 microM). Our data suggest that within the nucleus accumbens, there exists a distinct regional difference in the control of dopamine release by group II mGluRs, with the nucleus accumbens shell being preferentially affected. Moreover, the selective action of LY379268 on dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell may have implications for the potential antipsychotic activity of group II mGluR agonists. PMID:15165829

Greenslade, Robert G; Mitchell, Stephen N

2004-07-01

297

Numerical modeling of self-limiting and self-enhancing caprock alteration induced by CO 2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents numerical simulations of reactive transport which may be induced in the caprock of an on-shore depleted gas reservoir by the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The objective is to verify that CO2 geological disposal activities currently being planned for the study area are safe and do not induce any undesired environmental impact.In our model, fluid flow, mass

Fabrizio Gherardi; Tianfu Xu; Karsten Pruess

2007-01-01

298

Improvement of neurological deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats after transplantation with allogeneic simian virus 40 large tumor antigen gene-induced immortalized dopamine cells.  

PubMed

The replacement of dopamine (DA) by DA neuron transplants in the treatment of advanced Parkinson disease (PD) is a rational approach. Because of limitations associated with fetal tissue transplants, a clone (1RB3AN27) of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (LTa) gene-induced immortalized DA neurons were used in this study. These allogeneic immortalized dopamine neurons, when grafted into striata of normal rats, did not divide, did not form tumors, did not produce LTa, did not extend neurites to host neurons, and were not rejected, for as long as 13 months after transplantation. Grafted cells when recultured in vitro resumed cell proliferation and LTa production, suggesting the presence of a LTa gene-inhibiting factor in the brain. The grafting of undifferentiated and differentiated 1RB3AN27 cells or differentiated murine neuroblastoma (NBP2) cells into striata of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats (an animal model of PD) caused a time-dependent improvement in neurological deficits (reduction in the methamphetamine-induced turning rate). At 3 months after transplantation, 100% of the animals receiving differentiated 1RB3AN27 cells, 63% of the animals receiving undifferentiated 1RB3AN27 cells, 56% of the animals receiving differentiated NBP2 cells, and 0% of the sham-transplanted animals showed improvements in neurological deficits. At 6 months after transplantation, there was a progressive increase in spontaneous recovery in sham-transplanted animals. These results suggest that immortalized DA neurons should be further studied for their potential use in transplant therapy in advanced PD patients. PMID:9448320

Clarkson, E D; Rosa, F G; Edwards-Prasad, J; Weiland, D A; Witta, S E; Freed, C R; Prasad, K N

1998-02-01

299

Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also suggest that wheel running may be preventing certain allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems contributing to the negative reinforcement and perpetuation of the addiction cycle. PMID:25273280

Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

2014-10-01

300

Block of rapid depolarization induced by in vitro energy depletion of rat dorsal vagal motoneurones  

PubMed Central

The ionic mechanisms contributing to the rapid depolarization (RD) induced by in vitro ischaemia have been studied in dorsal vagal motoneurones (DVMs) of brainstem slices. Compared with CA1 hippocampal neurones, RD of DVMs was slower, generally occurred from a more depolarized membrane potential and was accompanied by smaller increases in [K+]o. RD was not induced by elevation of [K+]o to values measured around DVMs during in vitro ischaemia or by a combination of raised [K+]o and 2–5 ?M ouabain. Neither TTX (5–10 ?M) nor TTX combined with bepridil (10–30 ?M), a Na+-Ca2+ exchange inhibitor, slowed RD. Block of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels with Cd2+ (0.2 mM) and Ni2+ (0.3 mM) led to an earlier onset of RD, possibly because [K+]o was higher than that measured during in vitro ischaemia in the absence of divalent ions. When [Na+]o was reduced to 11.25–25 mM, RD did not occur, although a slow depolarization was observed. RD was slowed (i) by 10 mM Mg2+ and 0.5 mM Ca2+, (ii) by a combination of TTX (1.5–5 ?M), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10 ?M) and D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5, 50 ?M) and (iii) by TTX (1.5–5 ?M) and AP5 (50 ?M). Ni2+ at concentrations of 0.6 or 1.33 mM blocked RD whereas 0.6 mM Cd2+ did not. A combination of Cd2+ (0.2 mM), Ni2+ (0.3 mM), AP5 (50 ?M) and bepridil (10 ?M) was largely able to mimic the effects of high concentrations of Ni2+. It is concluded that RD is due to Na+ entry, predominantly through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ionophores, and to Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. These results are consistent with known changes in the concentrations of extracellular ions when ischaemia-induced rapid depolarization occurs. PMID:10432344

Martin, R L

1999-01-01

301

CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Depletion May Attenuate the Development of Silica-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of silica dust characterized by lung inflammation and fibrosis. Previous study showed that Th1 and Th2 cytokines are involved in silicosis, but Th1/Th2 polarization during the development of silicosis is still a matter of debate. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) represent a crucial role in modulation of immune homeostasis by regulating Th1/Th2 polarization, but their possible implication in silicosis remains to be explored. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the implication of Treg cells in the development of silicosis, we generated the Treg-depleted mice model by administration of anti-CD25 mAbs and mice were exposed to silica by intratracheal instillation to establish experimental model of silica-induced lung fibrosis. The pathologic examinations show that the Treg-depleted mice are susceptive to severer inflammation in the early stage, with enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Also, depletion of Treg cells causes a delay of the progress of silica-induced lung fibrosis in mice model. Further study of mRNA expression of cytokines reveals that depletion of Tregs leads to the increased production of Th1-cytokines and decreased production of Th2-cytokine. The Flow Cytometry and realtime PCR study show that Treg cells exert the modulation function both directly by expressing CTLA-4 at the inflammatory stage, and indirectly by secreting increasing amount of IL-10 and TGF-? during the fibrotic stage in silica-induced lung fibrosis. Conclusion/Significance Our study suggests that depletion of Tregs may attenuate the progress of silica-induced lung fibrosis and enhance Th1 response and decelerate Th1/Th2 balance toward a Th2 phenotype in silica-induced lung fibrosis. The regulatory function of Treg cells may depend on direct mechanism and indirect mechanism during the inflammatory stage of silicosis. PMID:21072213

Chen, Ying; Song, Laiyu; He, Qincheng; Chen, Jie

2010-01-01

302

600 ns pulse electric field-induced phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate depletion.  

PubMed

The interaction between nsPEF-induced Ca(2+) release and nsPEF-induced phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis is not well understood. To better understand this interrelation we monitored intracellular calcium changes, in cells loaded with Calcium Green-1 AM, and generation of PIP2 hydrolysis byproducts (inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG)) in cells transfected with one of two fluorescent reporter genes: PLC?-PH-EGFP or GFP-C1-PKC?-C1a. The percentage fluorescence differences (?F %) after exposures were determined. Upon nsPEF impact, we found that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) the population of IP3 liberated during nsPEF exposure (?F 6%±3, n=22), is diminished compared to the response in the presence of calcium (?F 84%±15, n=20). The production of DAG in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) (?F 29%±5, n=25), as well as in cells exposed to thapsigargin (?F 40%±12, n=15), was not statistically different from cells exposed in the presence of extracellular calcium (?F 22±6%, n=18). This finding suggests that the change in intracellular calcium concentration is not solely driving the observed response. Interestingly, the DAG produced in the absence of Ca(2+) is the strongest near the membrane regions facing the electrodes, whereas the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) leads to a whole cell response. The reported observations of Ca(2+) dynamics combined with IP3 and DAG production suggest that nsPEF may cause a direct effect on the phospholipids within the plasma membrane. PMID:24530104

Tolstykh, Gleb P; Beier, Hope T; Roth, Caleb C; Thompson, Gary L; Ibey, Bennett L

2014-12-01

303

Dopamine, learning and motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that dopamine is important for reward has been proposed in a number of forms, each of which has been challenged. Normally, rewarding stimuli such as food, water, lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation and several drugs of abuse become ineffective as rewards in animals given performance-sparing doses of dopamine antagonists. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens has been linked to

Roy A. Wise

2004-01-01

304

Propylthiouracil-induced congenital hypothyroidism upregulates vimentin phosphorylation and depletes antioxidant defenses in immature rat testis.  

PubMed

Congenital hypothyroidism was induced in rats by adding 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in the drinking water from day 9 of gestation, and continually up to postnatal day 15. Structural alterations observed by light microscopy of seminiferous tubules and by transmission electron microscopy of Sertoli cells of treated animals were consistent with hypothyroid condition. Hypothyroidism was also associated with high phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 levels. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and the immunoreactivity of cytoskeletal-associated vimentin were increased without altering vimentin expression, suggesting an accumulation of insoluble and phosphorylated vimentin. These alterations in intermediate filament dynamics could result in loss of Sertoli cell cytoskeletal integrity and be somewhat related to the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism in testis. In addition, the mitochondrial alterations observed could also be related to defective cytoskeletal dynamics implying in cell damage. Moreover, we observed decreased oxygen consumption and unaltered lipid peroxidation in hypothyroid testis. However, we demonstrated decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, supporting an increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, contributing to biochemical changes in hypothyroid testis. In addition, the changes in the testis histoarchitecture could be ascribed to cytoskeletal alterations, decreased antioxidant defenses, and increased ROS generation, leading to oxidative stress in the organ. PMID:18316471

Zamoner, Ariane; Barreto, Kátia Padilha; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Sell, Fabíola; Woehl, Viviane Mara; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

2008-03-01

305

Gastrointestinal serotonin: depletion due to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency induced by 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine administration.  

PubMed

To study the role of serotonin in gastrointestinal function in mice, a peripheral deficiency was induced by administration of 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine, an inhibitor of tetrahydrobiopterin (6-[dihydroxypropyl-(L-erthro)-5,6,7,8,-tetrahydropterin) (BH4) biosynthesis. BH4 is an essential cofactor for tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. When 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) was administered for 4 days at the dose of 3 g/kg/day, serotonin decreased in the duodenum and colon to approximately 46 and 40% of the control levels, respectively. These mice showed visual signs of gastrointestinal dysfunction in addition to a remarkable decrease in uptake of a p.o. glucose load. The decrease in serotonin was prevented and prevention of the apparent dysfunction of digestive tract was observed by simultaneous administration of (6R)BH4. Serotonin levels in the brain and blood were also decreased by treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, an irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase. In contrast, DAHP had no effect on brain serotonin levels, presumably due to poor brain penetration. DAHP caused a rapid decrease (T1/2 of less than 12 hr) in the BH4 levels in all tissues examined, except in the brain. The BH4 level returned to within the normal range less than 24 hr after cessation of the administration of DAHP, a finding which suggests that the BH4 level is in a dynamic steady state maintained by rapid local biosynthesis. Thus, the local biosynthesis of BH4 supports normal digestive functions, presumably by controlling normal serotonin biosynthesis. PMID:1825228

Kobayashi, T; Hasegawa, H; Kaneko, E; Ichiyama, A

1991-02-01

306

Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.  

PubMed

The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25447236

Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

2015-02-01

307

Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion  

SciTech Connect

Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

308

Prevention of immunodeficiency virus induced CD4+ T-cell depletion by prior infection with a non-pathogenic virus  

SciTech Connect

Immune dysregulation initiated by a profound loss of CD4+ T-cells is fundamental to HIV-induced pathogenesis. Infection of domestic cats with a non-pathogenic lentivirus prevalent in the puma (puma lentivirus, PLV or FIV{sub PCO}) prevented peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion caused by subsequent virulent FIV infection. Maintenance of this critical population was not associated with a significant decrease in FIV viremia, lending support to the hypothesis that direct viral cytopathic effect is not the primary cause of immunodeficiency. Although this approach was analogous to immunization with a modified live vaccine, correlates of immunity such as a serum-neutralizing antibody or virus-specific T-cell proliferative response were not found in protected animals. Differences in cytokine transcription profile, most notably in interferon gamma, were observed between the protected and unprotected groups. These data provide support for the importance of non-adaptive enhancement of the immune response in the prevention of CD4+ T-cell loss.

TerWee, Julie A.; Carlson, Jennifer K.; Sprague, Wendy S.; Sondgeroth, Kerry S.; Shropshire, Sarah B.; Troyer, Jennifer L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); VandeWoude, Sue [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States)], E-mail: suev@lamar.colostate.edu

2008-07-20

309

Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin-depleted foci and aberrant crypt foci in rat colon  

PubMed Central

Processed and red meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Meta-analyses have suggested that the risk associated with processed meat is higher. Most processed meats are cured and cooked, which leads to formation of free nitrosyl heme. We speculated that free nitrosyl heme is more toxic than native myoglobin. The promoting effect of a freeze-dried, cooked, cured ham diet was looked for in a 100-day study. Colon carcinogenesis endpoints were aberrant crypt foci and mucin depleted foci (MDF). A second study (14 days) was designed 1) to compare the effect of ham, hemoglobin, and hemin; and 2) to test the effect of sodium chloride, nitrite, and phosphate in diet on early biomarkers associated with heme-induced promotion. In the 100-day study, control and ham-fed rats had 3.5 and 8.5 MDF/colon, respectively (P < 0.0001). Promotion was associated with cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. In the short-term study, cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation of fecal water, and the urinary marker of lipid peroxidation, increased dramatically in ham- and hemin-fed rat. In contrast, the hemoglobin diet, sodium chloride, nitrite, phosphate diet had no effect. Freeze-dried cooked ham can promote colon carcinogenesis in a rodent model. Hemin, but not hemoglobin, mimicked ham effect on early biochemical markers associated with carcinogenesis. PMID:20574917

Pierre, Fabrice; Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Chartron, Mickael; Allam, Ossama; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Francoise; Corpet, Denis E

2010-01-01

310

UV-Triggered Dopamine Polymerization: Control of Polymerization, Surface Coating, and Photopatterning.  

PubMed

UV irradiation is demonstrated to initiate dopamine polymerization and deposition on different surfaces under both acidic and basic pH. The observed acceleration of the dopamine polymerization is explained by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species that trigger dopamine polymerization. The UV-induced dopamine polymerization leads to a better control over polydopamine deposition and formation of functional polydopamine micropatterns. PMID:25381870

Du, Xin; Li, Linxian; Li, Junsheng; Yang, Chengwu; Frenkel, Nataliya; Welle, Alexander; Heissler, Stefan; Nefedov, Alexei; Grunze, Michael; Levkin, Pavel A

2014-12-01

311

Role of dopamine in the behavioural actions of nicotine related to addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental impairment of dopamine function by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions or by dopamine receptor antagonists shows that dopamine is involved in nicotine's discriminative stimulus properties, nicotine-induced facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation, intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine conditioned place-preference and nicotine-induced disruption of latent inhibition. Therefore, nicotine depends on dopamine for those behavioural effects that are most relevant for its reinforcing properties and are likely

Gaetano Di Chiara

2000-01-01

312

Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient ?-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation.  

PubMed

Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2?kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M(2) seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion, are necessary to induce the transcription of sulfate assimilation genes during early cadmium stress. PMID:22283708

Jobe, Timothy O; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I

2012-06-01

313

Calcium inhibits promotion by hot dog of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced mucin-depleted foci in rat colon.  

PubMed

Epidemiology suggests that processed meat is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but few experimental studies support this association. We have shown that a model of cured meat made in a pilot workshop promotes preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the colon of rats. This study had two aims: to check if real store-bought processed meats also promote MDF, and to test if calcium carbonate, which suppresses heme-induced promotion, can suppress promotion by processed meat. A 14-day study was done to test the effect of nine purchased cured meats on fecal and urinary biomarkers associated with heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. Fecal water from rats given hot dog or fermented raw dry sausage was particularly cytotoxic. These two cured meats were thus given to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, to evaluate their effect on colorectal carcinogenesis. After a 100-days feeding period, fecal apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) were assayed and colons were scored for MDF. Hot dog diet increased fecal ATNC and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (3.0 ± 1.7 vs. 1.2 ± 1.4, p < 0.05). In a third study, addition of calcium carbonate (150 µmol/g) to the hot dog diet decreased the number of MDF/colon and fecal ATNC compared with the hot dog diet without calcium carbonate (1.2 ± 1.1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.4, respectively, p < 0.05). This is the first experimental evidence that a widely consumed processed meat promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. It also shows that dietary prevention of this detrimental effect is possible. PMID:23712585

Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M; Mirvish, Sidney S; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

2013-12-01

314

Calcium Inhibits Promotion by Hot Dog of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci in Rat Colon  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology suggests that processed meat is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but few experimental studies support this association. We have shown that a model of cured meat made in a pilot workshop promotes preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the colon of rats. This study had two aims: to check if real store-bought processed meats also promote MDF, and to test if calcium carbonate, which suppresses heme-induced promotion, can suppress promotion by processed meat. A 14-day study was done to test the effect of nine purchased cured meats on fecal and urinary biomarkers associated with heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. Fecal water from rats given hot dog or fermented raw dry sausage was particularly cytotoxic. These two cured meats were thus given to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, to evaluate their effect on colorectal carcinogenesis. After a 100-d feeding period, fecal apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) were assayed and colons were scored for MDF. Hot dog diet increased fecal ATNC and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (3.0±1.7 vs. 1.2±1.4, P<0.05). In a third study, addition of calcium carbonate (150 ?mol/g) to the hot dog diet decreased the number of MDF/colon and fecal ATNC compared with the hot dog diet without calcium carbonate (1.2 ± 1.1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.4, respectively, P<0.05). This is the first experimental evidence that a widely consumed processed meat promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. It also shows that dietary prevention of this detrimental effect is possible. PMID:23712585

Santarelli, Raphaelle L.; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M.; Mirvish, Sidney S.; Corpet, Denis E.; Pierre, Fabrice H.F.

2013-01-01

315

Na+ appetite induced by depleting extracellular fluid volume activates the enkephalin/mu-opioid receptor system in the rat forebrain.  

PubMed

In Na(+) appetite neurobiology, it is essential to investigate whether endogenous opioids modulate the output of the neural substrates that are involved in both the detection and integration of Na(+) deficiency and the motivational aspect of Na(+) intake. Thus, evaluating the recruitment dynamics of enkephalin (ENK)-containing and/or mu-opioid receptor (?-OR)-expressing neurons in close correlation with the hydromineral state of the rat might provide useful information regarding the role of the opioid system in regulating the central network that controls water and Na(+) intake. Furosemide was used to deplete both fluid volume and the Na(+) content of the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment when combined with water repletion and a short-term Na(+)-free diet. Na(+) restoration in the ECF compartment was achieved by providing unrestricted access to both saline (0.3 M NaCl) and water. Combining in situ hybridization (against ENK and ?-OR mRNA) and immunohistochemistry (against Fos) revealed a specific pattern of hypovolemia-induced Fos expression in the enkephalinergic subpopulations of the central amygdala, in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the nucleus accumbens shell. Hypovolemia also induced transient Fos expression in ?-OR-expressing neurons in the same nuclei and in the median preoptic nucleus and subfornical organ. However, this specific hydromineral state did not activate the ENK and/or ?-OR-expressing neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus or in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract. These results implicate the ENK/?-OR system as a putative facilitator of Na(+) intake in discrete regions of the forebrain, possibly by modulating the hedonic and reward value of Na(+) by increasing ENK release in these regions. PMID:21745545

Grondin, M-E; Gobeil-Simard, A; Drolet, G; Mouginot, D

2011-09-29

316

Protective effects of fungal ?-(1?3)-D-glucan against oxidative stress cytotoxicity induced by depleted uranium in isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Previous reports suggested that certain carbohydrate polymers, such as ?-(1?3)-D-glucan, may possess free radical scavenging activity. The present study examined the free radical scavenging activity of a carbohydrate polymer, ?-(1?3)-D-glucan against oxidative stress induced by depleted uranium in isolated rat hepatocytes. Addition of U (VI) (uranyl acetate) to isolated rat hepatocytes results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, rapid glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and lysosomal membrane rupture before hepatocyte lysis occurred. Our results showed that quite similar to silymarin, which is a known antioxidant and radical scavenger, tiny concentration of ?-glucan (138 nM) very successfully protected the hepatocytes against cell lysis and all oxidative stress cytotoxicity endpoints caused by depleted uranium including ROS formation, glutathione depletion, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane rupture and caspase 3 activity increase. In conclusion, our results confirmed the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of ?-(1?3)-D-glucan and suggested this compound and silymarin as possible drug candidates for prophylaxis and treatment against depleted uranium toxic effects. PMID:20522489

Pourahmad, Jalal; Shaki, Fatemeh; Tanbakosazan, Farahnaz; Ghalandari, Ruhollah; Ettehadi, Hossein Ali; Dahaghin, Ezzat

2011-03-01

317

Dopamine receptor dysregulation in hippocampus of aged rats underlies chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment induced cognitive and emotional alterations.  

PubMed

L-Dopa is the major symptomatic therapy for Parkinson's disease, which commonly occurs in elderly patients. However, the effects of chronic use on mood and cognition in old subjects remain elusive. In order to compare the effects of a chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment on emotional and cognitive functions in young (3 months) and old (18 months) intact rats, an L-Dopa/carbidopa treatment was administered every 12 h over 4 weeks. Rats were assessed for behavioural despair (repeated forced swimming test, RFST), anhedonia (sucrose preference test, SPT) and spatial learning (Morris water maze, MWM) in the late phase of treatment (T). Neuronal expression of Fos in the hippocampus at the early and late phases of T, as well as after MWM was studied. The density and ratio of dopamine D5r, D3r and D2r receptors were also evaluated in the hippocampus using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Young rats showed similar patterns during behavioural tests, whereas aged treated rats showed increased immobility counts in RFST, diminished sucrose liquid intake in SPT, and spatial learning impairment during MWM. Fos expression was significantly blunted in the aged treated group after MWM. The density of D5r, D3r and D2r was increased in both aged groups. The treatment reduced the ratio of D5r/D3r and D5r/D2r in both groups. Moreover, aged treated subjects had significant lower values of D5r/D3r and higher values of D5r/D2r when compared with young treated subjects. These results indicate that chronic L-Dopa treatment in itself could trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in elderly subjects through dopamine receptor dysregulation. PMID:24291463

Hernández, Vito S; Luquín, Sonia; Jáuregui-Huerta, Fernando; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Medina, Mauricio P; Ruíz-Velasco, Silvia; Zhang, Limei

2014-07-01

318

Penile erection and yawning induced by dopamine D2-like receptor agonists in rats: influence of strain and contribution of dopamine D2, but not D3 and D4 receptors.  

PubMed

Dopamine (DA) is implicated in penile erection (PE) and yawning (YA) in rats through activation of D2-like receptors. However, the exact role of each subtype (D2, D3 and D4) of this receptor family in PE/YA is still not clearly elucidated. We recorded concomitantly PE and YA after treatment with agonists with various levels of selectivity for the different subtypes of D2-like receptors. In addition, we investigated the efficacy of antagonists with selective or preferential affinity for each of the three receptor subtypes to prevent apomorphine-induced PE and YA. Wistar rats were more sensitive than Long-Evans rats to the erectogenic activity of the nonselective DA agonist apomorphine (0.01-0.08 mg/kg), whereas Sprague-Dawley rats were insensitive. However, all the three strains were equally sensitive to apomorphine-induced YA. In Wistar rats, apomorphine (0.01-0.63 mg/kg), the D2/D3 agonists quinelorane and (+)7-OH-DPAT (0.000625-10 mg/kg) or PD 128,907 (0.01-10 mg/kg), but not the D4 agonists PD-168,077, RO-10-5824 and ABT-724 (0.04-0.63 mg/kg), produced PE and YA with bell-shaped dose-response curves. Similarly, ABT-724 and CP226-269 (another D4 agonist) failed to elicit PE and YA in Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, in Wistar rats, PE and YA elicited by apomorphine (0.08 mg/kg) were not modified by selective D3 (S33084 and SB-277011, 0.63-10 mg/kg) or D4 (L-745,870 and RBI-257, 0.63-2.5 mg/kg) antagonists, but were prevented by the preferential D2 blocker L-741,626 (near-full antagonism at 2.5 mg/kg). The present data do not support a major implication of either DA D3 or D4 receptors in the control of PE and YA in rats, but indicate a preponderant role of DA D2 receptors. PMID:19584712

Depoortère, Ronan; Bardin, Laurent; Rodrigues, Michael; Abrial, Erika; Aliaga, Monique; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

2009-07-01

319

Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on renal dysfunction induced by moderate potassium depletion in healthy women.  

PubMed

The role of the renin-angiotensin system in renal hypokalaemic dysfunction has been investigated by evaluating the effects of the angiotensin (AT)-converting enzyme inhibition by enalapril. Healthy women were studied either in normal potassium balance (N3, n = 6) or moderate potassium depletion (KD3, n = 6). Potassium depletion (KD) was induced by low potassium dietary intake (greater than or equal to 10 mmol per day) and natriuretic treatment associated with replacement of net NaCl and water losses; the cumulative potassium deficit achieved was 214 +/- 54 mmol. The renal function and the urinary excretions of some prostanoids (PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TxB2) were evaluated during hypotonic polyuria (oral water load) and subsequent moderate antidiuresis (lysine-8-vasopressin (LVP) low-dose infusion). Paired studies were performed in absence (control) and presence of enalapril. Basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and urinary aldosterone excretion were determined before the water load of control studies. Renal dysfunction typical of chronic KD occurred in the KD3 group, i.e. increase in PRA, decrease in creatinine clearance, depression of the diuretic response to water load, inhibition of distal fractional chloride reabsorption, and blunted efficacy of LVP in increasing the urinary solute concentration. The urinary prostanoid excretions were reduced. Basal urinary aldosterone excretion was not changed significantly. In KD3 group enalapril decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased the plasma potassium concentration, improved the diuretic response to water load and corrected the impairment of the distal fractional chloride reabsorption. Despite the decrease in MAP enalapril did not affect significantly the creatinine clearance. Neither urinary prostanoid excretions nor the renal response to LVP were affected by the drug. The data suggest that in KD the increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system affected the renal function both through direct effects and through effects dependent on the angiotensin-supported secretions of aldosterone and probably of vasopressin. Finally, by comparing the effects of enalapril and indomethacin in experimental groups with an equivalent degree of KD, evidence is provided in favour of the interaction between renin-angiotensin and prostanoid systems in controlling the glomerular filtration rate and the salt and water handling by renal tubules. PMID:8205752

Agnoli, G C; Borgatti, R; Cacciari, M; Ikonomu, E; Lenzi, P; Marinelli, M

1994-03-01

320

Ozone Depletion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ozone layer forms a thin shield in the upper atmosphere, protecting life onEarth from the suns ultraviolet (UV) rays. In the 1980s, scientists began accumulating evidence that the ozone layer was being depleted. Depletion of the ozone layer results in increased UV radiation reaching the Earths surface, which in turn can lead to a greater chance of overexposure to UV radiation and the related health effects of skin cancer, cataracts, and immune suppression.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA;Office of Air and Radiation)

2008-04-25

321

The action of dopamine and vascular dopamine (DA1) receptor agonists on human isolated subcutaneous and omental small arteries.  

PubMed Central

1. Human small arteries were obtained from surgical specimens and studied in vitro by use of a myograph technique. Following induction of tone with a potassium depolarizing solution, dopamine in the presence of beta-adrenoceptor and catecholamine uptake blockade relaxed isolated omental and subcutaneous arteries. Preincubation of tissues with phentolamine increased the maximum relaxation in response to dopamine. 2. The selective vascular dopamine receptor agonists, fenoldopam and SKF 38393 also relaxed isolated subcutaneous and omental arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of potency for agonists was dopamine greater than fenoldopam greater than SKF 38393. 3. Dopamine-induced relaxation was competitively antagonized by SCH 23390, (R)- and (S)-sulpiride, and fenoldopam induced relaxation by SCH 23390 and (+)- but not (-)-butaclamol. 4. These results indicate the presence of vascular dopamine receptors (DA1 subtype) on human isolated resistance arteries from omental and subcutaneous sites. PMID:2474354

Hughes, A. D.; Sever, P. S.

1989-01-01

322

Kinetics of carotenoid distribution in human skin in vivo after exogenous stress: disinfectant and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion recovers from outside to inside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human organism has developed a protection system against the destructive effect of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of exogenous stress factors such as disinfectant and IR-A radiation on the skin, and their influence on the kinetics of carotenoids distribution during the recovery process. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with resonance spectroscopy using an Argon-laser at 488 nm to excite the carotenoids in vivo. Additionally, Raman-confocal-micro-spectroscopy measurements were performed using a model 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer with spatially resolved measurements down to 30 ?m. The measurements were performed at a baseline of 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after an external stressor consisting either of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) with 150 mW/cm2 or 1 ml/cm2 of an alcoholic disinfectant. Both Raman methods were capable to detect the infrared-induced depletion of carotenoids. Only Raman-microspectroscopy could reveal the carotenoids decrease after topical disinfectant application. The carotenoid-depletion started at the surface. After 60 min, recovery starts at the surface while deeper parts were still depleted. The disinfectant- and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion in the epidermis recovers from outside to inside and probably delivered by sweat and sebaceous glands. We could show that the Raman microscopic spectroscopy is suited to analyze the carotenoid kinetic of stress effects and recovery.

Fluhr, Joachim W.; Caspers, Peter; van der Pol, J. Andre; Richter, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E.

2011-03-01

323

Potential Role of HPA Axis and Sympathetic Nervous Responses in Depletion of B Cells Induced by H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Except severe pulmonary disease caused by influenza virus infection, an impaired immune system is also a clinic characteristic. However, the mechanism(s) of influenza virus infection-induced depletion of B cells was unknown. Here, we compared the effect of two variant virulence H9N2 virus infections on mouse B cells. Our study found that the infection with highly pathogenic virus (V) of led to depletion of spleen B cells and bone marrow (BM) early B cells, compared to lowly pathogenic virus (Ts). Moreover, high apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in spleen and BM were detected, suggesting important factors for the reduction of B cells in both organs. Further, this effect was not caused by virus replication in spleen and BM. Compared to Ts virus infection, V virus resulted in higher glucocorticoids (GCs) and lower leptin level in plasma. Intraperitoneal GCs receptor antagonist RU486 injection was sufficient to prevent the loss of spleen B cell and BM pro- and immature B cells, but similar result was not observed in leptin-treated mice. Depletion of spleen B cells and BM pro-B cells was also reversed by chemical sympathectomy mediated by the norepinephrine (NE) analog 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), but the treatment didn't affect the GCs level. This study demonstrated that depletion of B cells induced by H9N2 AIV was dependent on HPA axis and sympathetic response. PMID:23251416

Zhang, Changhui; He, Jun; Ning, Zhangyong; Jiao, Peirong; Liao, Ming

2012-01-01

324

Incomplete nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and partial reductions in striatal dopamine produce akinesia, rigidity, tremor and cognitive deficits in middle-aged rats.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to determine if the full array of parkinsonian symptoms could be detected in rats with nigrostriatal cell loss and striatal dopamine depletions similar to levels reported in the clinical setting, and to determine if older rats exhibit more robust parkinsonian deficits than younger rats. Young (2 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) rats received bilateral striatal infusions of 6-OHDA, over the next 3 months they were assessed with a battery of behavioral tests, and then dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells and striatal dopamine and DOPAC levels were quantified. The results of the present study suggest that: (1) the full array of parkinsonian symptoms (i.e. akinesia, rigidity, tremor and visuospatial cognitive deficits) can be quantified in rats with incomplete nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and partial reductions in striatal dopamine levels (2) parkinsonian symptoms were more evident in middle-aged rats with 6-OHDA infusions, and (3) there was evidence of substantial neuroplasticity in the older rats, but regardless of the age of the animal, endogenous compensatory mechanisms were unable to maintain striatal dopamine levels after rapid, lesion-induced nigrostriatal cell loss. These results suggest that using older rats with nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and reductions in striatal dopamine levels similar to those in the clinical condition, and measuring behavioral deficits analogous to parkinsonian symptoms, might increase the predictive validity of pre-clinical rodent models. PMID:10403011

Lindner, M D; Cain, C K; Plone, M A; Frydel, B R; Blaney, T J; Emerich, D F; Hoane, M R

1999-07-01

325

Serotonin2C receptor stimulation inhibits cocaine-induced Fos expression and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the rat striatum independently of dopamine outflow.  

PubMed

The serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2CR) is known to control dopamine (DA) neuron function by modulating DA neuronal firing and DA exocytosis at terminals. Recent studies assessing the influence of 5-HT2CRs on cocaine-induced neurochemical and behavioral responses have shown that 5-HT2CRs can also modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), independently of DA release itself. A similar mechanism has been proposed to occur at the level of the nigrostriatal DA system. Here, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats and molecular approaches, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT2CR agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced responses in the striatum. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 had no effect on the increase in striatal DA outflow induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine 75 residue in the striatum. Finally, the suppressant effect of Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation was reversed by the selective 5-HT2CR antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). In keeping with the key role of DARPP-32 in DA neurotransmission, our results demonstrate that 5-HT2CRs are capable of modulating nigrostriatal DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by specifically controlling DA signaling in the striatum. PMID:25446572

Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

2014-11-01

326

Dopamine D4 Receptor Counteracts Morphine-Induced Changes in ? Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Striosomes of the Rat Caudate Putamen  

PubMed Central

The mu opioid receptor (MOR) is critical in mediating morphine analgesia. However, prolonged exposure to morphine induces adaptive changes in this receptor leading to the development of tolerance and addiction. In the present work we have studied whether the continuous administration of morphine induces changes in MOR protein levels, its pharmacological profile, and MOR-mediated G-protein activation in the striosomal compartment of the rat CPu, by using immunohistochemistry and receptor and DAMGO-stimulated [35S]GTP?S autoradiography. MOR immunoreactivity, agonist binding density and its coupling to G proteins are up-regulated in the striosomes by continuous morphine treatment in the absence of changes in enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA levels. In addition, co-treatment of morphine with the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) agonist PD168,077 fully counteracts these adaptive changes in MOR, in spite of the fact that continuous PD168,077 treatment increases the [3H]DAMGO Bmax values to the same degree as seen after continuous morphine treatment. Thus, in spite of the fact that both receptors can be coupled to Gi/0 protein, the present results give support for the existence of antagonistic functional D4R-MOR receptor-receptor interactions in the adaptive changes occurring in MOR of striosomes on continuous administration of morphine. PMID:24451133

Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Gago, Belén; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Duchou, Jolien; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Medina-Luque, José; de la Calle, Adelaida; Fuxe, Kjell; Rivera, Alicia

2014-01-01

327

Optical suppression of drug-evoked phasic dopamine release  

PubMed Central

Brief fluctuations in dopamine concentration (dopamine transients) play a key role in behavior towards rewards, including drugs of abuse. Drug-evoked dopamine transients may result from actions at both dopamine cell bodies and dopamine terminals. Inhibitory opsins can be targeted to dopamine neurons permitting their firing activity to be suppressed. However, as dopamine transients can become uncoupled from firing, it is unknown whether optogenetic hyperpolarization at the level of the soma is able to suppress dopamine transients. Here, we used in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to record transients evoked by cocaine and raclopride in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of urethane-anesthetized rats. We targeted halorhodopsin (NpHR) specifically to dopamine cells by injecting Cre-inducible virus into ventral tegmental area (VTA) of transgenic rats that expressed Cre recombinase under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre+ rats). Consistent with previous work, co-administration of cocaine and raclopride led to the generation of dopamine transients in NAc shell. Illumination of VTA with laser strongly suppressed the frequency of transients in NpHR-expressing rats, but not in control rats. Laser did not have any effect on amplitude of transients. Thus, optogenetics can effectively reduce the occurrence of drug-evoked transients and is therefore a suitable approach for studying the functional role of such transients in drug-associated behavior. PMID:25278845

McCutcheon, James E.; Cone, Jackson J.; Sinon, Christopher G.; Fortin, Samantha M.; Kantak, Pranish A.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl; Stuber, Garret D.; Roitman, Mitchell F.

2014-01-01

328

Protective roles of ascorbic acid in oxidative stress induced by depletion of superoxide dismutase in vertebrate cells.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are antioxidant proteins that convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. In vertebrate cells, SOD1 is mainly present in the cytoplasm, with small levels also found in the nucleus and mitochondrial intermembrane space, and SOD2 is present in the mitochondrial matrix. Previously, the authors conditionally disrupted the SOD1 or SOD2 gene in DT40 cells and found that depletion of SOD1 caused lethality, while depletion of SOD2 led to growth retardation. The observations from previous work showed that the lethality observed in SOD1-depleted cells was completely rescued by ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble antioxidant present in biological fluids; however, the exact target for its antioxidant effects is not known. In this study, the authors demonstrated that ascorbic acid offset growth defects observed in SOD2-depleted cells and also lowered mitochondrial superoxide to physiological levels in both SOD1- or SOD2-depleted cells. Moreover, depletion of SOD1 or SOD2 resulted in the accumulation of intracellular oxidative stress, and this increased oxidative stress was reduced by ascorbic acid. Taken together, this study suggests that ascorbic acid can be applied as a nontoxic antioxidant that mimics the functions of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial SODs. PMID:23016763

Tamari, Yuki; Nawata, Hisakatsu; Inoue, Eri; Yoshimura, Akari; Yoshii, Hanako; Kashino, Genro; Seki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takemi; Watanabe, Masami; Tano, Keizo

2013-01-01

329

Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats  

PubMed Central

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a synapse-enriched kinase in mammalian brains. This kinase interacts with various synaptic proteins to regulate expression and function of interacting proteins and thereby modulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII and its interacting partners are also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we found that CaMKII? binds to dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in vitro. A distal region in the D2R third intracellular loop harbors CaMKII? binding. Endogenous CaMKII? was also found to interact with native D2Rs in rat striatal neurons in which D2Rs are expressed at a high level. In addition, in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned model of PD, chronic levodopa administration induced characteristic dyskinesia. In parallel, levodopa induced an increase in CaMKII?-D2R interactions in striatal neurons. Intrastriatal injection of a Tat-fusion and CaMKII?-D2R interaction-dead peptide (Tat-D2Ri) reversed this increase in the interaction between two proteins. Tat-D2Ri also alleviated dyskinetic behaviors induced by levodopa. These results reveal a new interaction between CaMKII? and D2Rs in striatal neurons which is sensitive to long-term administration of levodopa in PD rats. Prevention of the response of CaMKII?-D2R interactions to levodopa can alleviate levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:25351365

Zhang, SuFang; Xie, ChengLong; Wang, Qiang; Liu, ZhenGuo

2014-01-01

330

PKA and ERK1/2 are involved in dopamine D1 receptor-induced heterologous desensitization of the ? opioid receptor  

PubMed Central

Aims Chronic administration of cocaine attenuates delta opioid receptor (DOPR) signaling in the striatum and the desensitization is mediated by the indirect actions of cocaine on dopamine D1 receptors (D1R). In addition, DOPR and D1R co-exist in some rat striatal neurons. In the present study, we examined the underlying mechanism of DOPR desensitization by D1R activation. Main methods NG 108-15 cells stably expressing HA-rat D1 receptor (HA-D1R) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing both FLAG-mouse DOPR (FLAG-DOPR) and HA-D1R were used as the cell models. Receptor binding, [35S]GTP?S binding, receptor phosphorylation and western blot were conducted to examine DOPR affinity, expression, internalization, downregulation, desensitization, phosphorylation and phosphorylated ERK1/2. Key findings Pretreatment with either the DOPR agonist DPDPE or the D1R agonist SKF-82958 for 30 min attenuated DPDPE-stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding to G proteins, demonstrating homologous and heterologous desensitization of the DOPR, respectively. SKF-82958 pretreatment did not affect the level of DOPR or affinity of DOPR antagonist or agonists, nor did it induce phosphorylation, internalization or down-regulation of the DOPR in the CHO-FLAG-DOPR/HA-D1R cells. Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of PKA, MEK1 and PI3K, but not PKC, attenuated SKF-82958-induced desensitization of the DOPR. The D1R agonist SKF-82958 enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and pretreatment with inhibitors of MEK1 and PI3K, but not PKA and PKC reduced the effect. These results indicate that activation of ERK1/2 and/or PKA, but not PKC, is involved in D1 receptor-induced heterologous desensitization of the DOPR. Significance This study provides possible mechanisms underlying D1R activation-induced DOPR desensitization. PMID:23624231

Xu, Wei; Chen, Chongguang; Li, Jian-Guo; DiMattio, Kelly; Wang, Yujun; Unterwald, Ellen; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

2013-01-01

331

Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats.  

PubMed

Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a synapse-enriched kinase in mammalian brains. This kinase interacts with various synaptic proteins to regulate expression and function of interacting proteins and thereby modulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII and its interacting partners are also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we found that CaMKII? binds to dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in vitro. A distal region in the D2R third intracellular loop harbors CaMKII? binding. Endogenous CaMKII? was also found to interact with native D2Rs in rat striatal neurons in which D2Rs are expressed at a high level. In addition, in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned model of PD, chronic levodopa administration induced characteristic dyskinesia. In parallel, levodopa induced an increase in CaMKII?-D2R interactions in striatal neurons. Intrastriatal injection of a Tat-fusion and CaMKII?-D2R interaction-dead peptide (Tat-D2Ri) reversed this increase in the interaction between two proteins. Tat-D2Ri also alleviated dyskinetic behaviors induced by levodopa. These results reveal a new interaction between CaMKII? and D2Rs in striatal neurons which is sensitive to long-term administration of levodopa in PD rats. Prevention of the response of CaMKII?-D2R interactions to levodopa can alleviate levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:25351365

Zhang, SuFang; Xie, ChengLong; Wang, Qiang; Liu, ZhenGuo

2014-01-01

332

A53T Human ?-Synuclein Overexpression in Transgenic Mice Induces Pervasive Mitochondria Macroautophagy Defects Preceding Dopamine Neuron Degeneration.  

PubMed

In vitro evidence suggests that the inefficient removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a tissue-specific gene amplification strategy, we generated a transgenic mouse line with human ?-synuclein A53T overexpression specifically in dopamine (DA) neurons. Transgenic mice showed profound early-onset mitochondria abnormalities, characterized by macroautophagy marker-positive cytoplasmic inclusions containing mainly mitochondrial remnants, which preceded the degeneration of DA neurons. Genetic deletion of either parkin or PINK1 in these transgenic mice significantly worsened mitochondrial pathologies, including drastically enlarged inclusions and loss of total mitochondria contents. These data suggest that mitochondria are the main targets of ?-synuclein and their defective autophagic clearance plays a significant role during pathogenesis. Moreover, endogenous PINK1 or parkin is indispensable for the proper autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria. Our data for the first time establish an essential link between mitochondria macroautophagy impairments and DA neuron degeneration in an in vivo model based on known PD genetics. The model, its well-defined pathologies, and the demonstration of a main pathogenesis pathway in the present study have set the stage and direction of emphasis for future studies. PMID:25609609

Chen, Linan; Xie, Zhiguo; Turkson, Susie; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

2015-01-21

333

Dopamine D2R Agonist-Induced Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Male Subjects: Potential Implications in Clinical Settings  

PubMed Central

Dopamine D2 receptor agonists represent a first line treatment option in young patients with signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. An association between the use of D2 receptor agonists in Parkinson's disease patients and heart failure has been reported. The identification of the underlying mechanism is needed to minimize the resultant cardiovascular morbidity. In a phase I clinical trial, a D2 receptor agonist (pramipexole) was administered to 52 healthy male subjects following a dose escalation scheme. Serial measurements of resting blood pressure, heart rate, and derived parameters including pulse pressure, pulsatile stress, and rate pressure product were analysed. Statistically significant and clinically relevant increases in most of the assessed parameters were found. Ten subjects were removed prematurely from the trial because of clinically significant increases in blood pressure and/or heart rate requiring immediate intervention with IV rescue medications including a selective ?-1 blocker. The observed drug-related changes in vital signs were of clinical relevance and might explain some of the cardiovascular morbidity reported in patients receiving D2 receptor agonist in clinical settings. We suggest that the additional use of a ?-1 blocking agent might mitigate the risk of cardiovascular morbidity among patients receiving long-term D2 receptor agonists. PMID:24587918

Baljé-Volkers, Corine; Tamminga, Wim; den Daas, Izaak; van Os, Sandra

2014-01-01

334

Dopamine D2R Agonist-Induced Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Male Subjects: Potential Implications in Clinical Settings.  

PubMed

Dopamine D2 receptor agonists represent a first line treatment option in young patients with signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. An association between the use of D2 receptor agonists in Parkinson's disease patients and heart failure has been reported. The identification of the underlying mechanism is needed to minimize the resultant cardiovascular morbidity. In a phase I clinical trial, a D2 receptor agonist (pramipexole) was administered to 52 healthy male subjects following a dose escalation scheme. Serial measurements of resting blood pressure, heart rate, and derived parameters including pulse pressure, pulsatile stress, and rate pressure product were analysed. Statistically significant and clinically relevant increases in most of the assessed parameters were found. Ten subjects were removed prematurely from the trial because of clinically significant increases in blood pressure and/or heart rate requiring immediate intervention with IV rescue medications including a selective ? -1 blocker. The observed drug-related changes in vital signs were of clinical relevance and might explain some of the cardiovascular morbidity reported in patients receiving D2 receptor agonist in clinical settings. We suggest that the additional use of a ? -1 blocking agent might mitigate the risk of cardiovascular morbidity among patients receiving long-term D2 receptor agonists. PMID:24587918

Abou Farha, Khalid; Baljé-Volkers, Corine; Tamminga, Wim; den Daas, Izaak; van Os, Sandra

2014-01-01

335

Cadmium specifically induces MKP-1 expression via the glutathione depletion-mediated p38 MAPK activation in C6 glioma cells.  

PubMed

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal and an environmental pollutant. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a negative regulator of the family of MAPK. In this study, we investigated the effect of heavy metals on MKP-1 expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Cadmium treatment induced MKP-1 at both protein and mRNA levels while cobalt or manganese treatment did not, suggesting the specificity. Cadmium treatment also depleted intracellular GSH and activated p38 MAPK, JNKs, and AKT. Profoundly, pretreatment with thiol-containing compounds NAC or GSH, but not vitamin E, blocked GSH depletion, 38 MAPK activation and MKP-1 expression by cadmium. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 suppressed the cadmium-induced MKP-1. Collectively, these results demonstrate that cadmium specifically induces MKP-1 by transcriptional up-regulation in C6 cells in a mechanism associated with the glutathione depletion-dependent p38 MAPK activation. PMID:18573614

Kim, Sang-Mi; Park, Jong-Gu; Baek, Won-Ki; Suh, Min-Ho; Lee, Hyung; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Suh, Seong-Il; Jang, Byeong-Churl

2008-08-01

336

Predominance of D2 Receptors in Mediating Dopamine’s Effects in Brain Metabolism: Effects of Alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Dopamine signals through D1-like and D2-like receptors, which can stimulate or inhibit, respectively, neuronal activity. Here we assessed the balance between D1 or D2 receptor signaling in the human brain and how it is affected in alcoholism. Using PET, we measured the relationship between changes in dopamine and brain glucose metabolism induced by methylphenidate in controls and alcoholics. We show that methylphenidate induced significant DA increases in striatum, amygdala, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, whereas it decreased metabolism in these brain regions. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases were greater in controls than in alcoholics, whereas methylphenidate-induced metabolic decreases were greater in alcoholics. For both groups, methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases were associated with decreases in regional brain metabolism, and the correlations were strongest in subthalamic nuclei, anterior cingulate, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. These correlations were more extensive and robust and the slopes steeper in alcoholics than in controls despite their attenuated dopamine responses to methylphenidate, which suggests an impaired modulation of dopamine signals in the brain of alcoholic subjects. These findings are consistent with a predominant inhibitory effect of dopamine in the human brain that is likely mediated by the prominence of dopamine D2/D3 receptors. PMID:23467368

Volkow, Nora D.; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Maynard, L. Jayne; Wong, Christopher T.

2013-01-01

337

TEGDMA-induced toxicity in human fibroblasts is associated with early and drastic glutathione depletion with subsequent production of oxygen reactive species.  

PubMed

Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is a dentin-bonding agent and a major component of various dental restorative biomaterials. TEGDMA monomers are released from dental resins and induce dental pulp inflammation and necrosis. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of TEGDMA-induced cytotoxicity of fibroblasts. Treatment of cultured human gingival and pulpal fibroblasts with 0.1-3 mM of TEGDMA for 24 h induced a concentration-dependent and variable cytotoxic effect. Fifty percent of toxicity (TC(50)) was obtained with 1.2 +/- 0.9 and 2.6 +/- 1.1 mM of TEGDMA for gingival and pulpal fibroblasts, respectively. Moreover, TEGDMA-induced cytotoxicity was associated with an early and drastic depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH), which started at 15-30 min and was almost complete at 4-6 h. Antioxidants, such as Trolox (0.01 mM), ascorbate (0.2 mM), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (5 mM) prevented the TEGDMA-induced cytotoxicity while GSH depletion was partially inhibited. Finally, a late production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred in fibroblasts treated with TEGDMA for 3-4 h, as determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, and was completely inhibited by Trolox (5 microM). The data show that TEGDMA induced a drastic GSH depletion followed by production of ROS, which may contribute to the toxicity of gingival and pulpal fibroblasts. Antioxidants, such as NAC, ascorbate, and particularly Trolox, appear useful in preventing cell damage mediated by resin-containing dental restorative materials. PMID:12918029

Stanislawski, Lena; Lefeuvre, Mathieu; Bourd, Katia; Soheili-Majd, Esmat; Goldberg, Michel; Périanin, Axel

2003-09-01

338

Dopamine uptake inhibitor-induced rotation in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats involves both D1 and D2 receptors but is modulated through 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline receptors.  

PubMed

Dopamine uptake inhibitors may provide a means of sustaining endogenous and exogenous striatal dopamine levels in Parkinson's disease, but most are not selective and also inhibit the noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporters. To determine the involvement of the individual monoamine transporters in the production of motor activity, the effect of the nonselective monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 1-([1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-2-(3-diaminethylaminopropylthio) ethanone monocitrate) and the selective dopamine, GBR 12909 [1-(2-(bis-(4-fluorphenyl)-methyl)ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine) dihydrochloride], noradrenaline (nisoxetine), and 5-HT (fluvoxamine) reuptake inhibitors on circling in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat was investigated. GBR 12909 induced ipsilateral circling, but fluvoxamine and nisoxetine were without effect. However, when administered with GBR 12909, fluvoxamine enhanced rotation, whereas nisoxetine had no effect. The results suggest that 5-HT, but not noradrenaline, reuptake inhibition facilitates dopamine-mediated motor activity. To test this hypothesis, BTS 74 398 was administered in combination with selective dopamine, 5-HT, and noradrenaline receptor antagonists. Both D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists, SCH 23390 [R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine] and raclopride, inhibited BTS 74 398-induced circling. In contrast, the 5-HT(1A) 5-HT(1A/B) antagonists, WAY 100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinyl-cyclohexane-carboxamide maleate) and pindolol, and the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, ketanserin, had no effect. The nonspecific 5-HT((1/2)) antagonists, methysergide and metergoline, and the specific 5-HT(2C) antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine, enhanced BTS 74 398-induced circling, as did the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. Overall, the data suggest that inhibition of the 5-HT and noradrenaline transporters modulate dopamine uptake inhibitor-mediated motor activity. However, the mechanism of this interaction is complex, involving opposing effects of noradrenaline and 5-HT agonism and antagonism. PMID:15542624

Lane, E L; Cheetham, S; Jenner, P

2005-03-01

339

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome: an overview of its epidemiology, mechanisms and management.  

PubMed

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a relatively recently described iatrogenic disturbance that may complicate long-term symptomatic therapy of Parkinson's disease. Patients with DDS develop an addictive pattern of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) use, administering doses in excess of those required to control their motor symptoms. The prevalence of DDS in patients attending specialist Parkinson's disease centres is 3-4%. Amongst the behavioural disturbances associated with DDS are punding, which is a complex stereotyped behaviour, and impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping and compulsive eating. We review the risk factors and potential mechanisms for the development of DDS, including personality traits, potential genetic influences and Parkinson's disease-related cognitive deficits. Impulsive personality traits are prominent in patients developing DDS, and have been previously associated with the development of substance dependence. Candidate genes affecting the dopamine 'D(2)-like' receptor family have been associated with impulsive personality traits in addition to drug and nondrug addictions. Impaired decision making is implicated in addictive behaviours, and decision-making abilities can be influenced by dopaminergic medications. In Parkinson's disease, disruption of the reciprocal loops between the striatum and structures in the prefrontal cortex following dopamine depletion may predispose to DDS. The role of DRT in DDS is discussed, with particular reference to models of addiction, suggesting that compulsive drug use is due to progressive neuroadaptations in dopamine projections to the accumbens-related circuitry. Evidence for neuroadaptations and sensitization occurring in DDS include enhanced levodopa-induced ventral striatal dopamine release. Levodopa is still considered the most potent trigger for DDS in Parkinson's disease, but subcutaneous apomorphine and oral dopamine agonists may also be responsible. In the management of DDS, further research is needed to identify at-risk groups, thereby facilitating more effective early intervention. Therefore, an increased awareness of the syndrome amongst treating physicians is vital. Medication reduction strategies are employed, particularly with regard to avoiding rapidly acting 'booster' DRT formulations. Psychosocial treatments, including cognitive-behavioural therapy, have been beneficial in treating substance use disorders and ICDs in non-Parkinson's disease patients, but there are currently no published trials of psychological interventions in DDS. Further studies are also required to identify factors that can predict those patients with DDS or ICDs who will derive benefit from surgical interventions such as deep brain stimulation. PMID:19173374

O'Sullivan, Sean S; Evans, Andrew H; Lees, Andrew J

2009-01-01

340

Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: results from imaging studies and treatment implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of dopamine in drug reinforcement is well recognized but its role in drug addiction is much less clear. Imaging studies have shown that the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse in humans are contingent upon large and fast increases in dopamine that mimic but exceed in the intensity and duration those induced by dopamine cell firing to environmental

N D Volkow; J S Fowler; G-J Wang; J M Swanson

2004-01-01

341

Identification of Piccolo as a regulator of behavioral plasticity and dopamine transporter internalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine transporter (DAT) internalization is a mechanism underlying the decreased dopamine reuptake caused by addictive drugs like methamphetamine (METH). We found that Piccolo, a presynaptic scaffolding protein, was overexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the mice repeatedly administrated with METH. Piccolo downexpression by antisense technique augmented METH-induced behavioral sensitization, conditioned reward and synaptic dopamine accumulation in NAc. Expression of

X Cen; A Nitta; D Ibi; Y Zhao; M Niwa; K Taguchi; M Hamada; Y Ito; L Wang; T Nabeshima

2008-01-01

342

Retinal melatonin and dopamine in seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The author describes how phototherapy may treat seasonal affective disorder (SAD) by stimulating the production of retinal dopamine and suppressing the production of retinal melatonin. This hypothesis offers a framework in which winter-induced retinal dopamine deficiency or retinal melatonin overactivity may cause SAD and by which light reverses this syndrome. This hypothesis is consistent with recent data indicating that

D. A. Oren

1991-01-01

343

Mu (?) Opioid Receptor Regulation of Ethanol-Induced Dopamine Response in the Ventral Striatum: Evidence of Genotype Specific Sexual Dimorphic Epistasis  

PubMed Central

Background Ethanol stimulates the dopaminergic mesoaccumbal pathway, which is thought to play a role in ethanol reinforcement. Mu (?)-opioid (MOP) receptors modulate accumbal dopamine activity, but it is not clear whether MOP receptors are involved in the mechanism of ethanol-stimulated accumbal dopamine release. Methods We investigated the role that MOP receptors play in ethanol (2.0 g/kg)-stimulated accumbal dopamine release by using MOP receptor knockout mice (C57BL/6J-129SvEv and congenic C57BL/6J genotypes) along with blockade of MOP receptors with a ?1 selective antagonist (naloxonazine). Results Both gene deletion and pharmacological antagonism of the MOP receptor decreased ethanol-stimulated accumbal dopamine release compared with controls with female mice showing a larger effect in the C57BL/6J-129SvEv genotype. However, both male and female mice showed reduced ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the congenic MOP receptor knockout mice (C57BL/6J). No differences in the time course of dialysate ethanol concentration were found in any of the experiments. Conclusions The data demonstrate the existence of a novel interaction between genotype and sex in the regulation of ethanol-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release by the MOP receptor. This implies that a more complete understanding of the epistatic influences on the MOP receptor and mesolimbic dopamine function may provide more effective pharmacotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:17336938

Job, Martin O.; Tang, Amanda; Hall, F. Scott; Sora, Ichiro; Uhl, George R.; Bergeson, Susan E.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

2011-01-01

344

Antipsychotic drug-induced increases in ventral tegmental area dopamine neuron population activity via activation of the nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidum pathway.  

PubMed

Acute administration of antipsychotic drugs increases dopamine (DA) neuron activity and DA release via D2 receptor blockade. However, it is unclear whether the DA neuron activation produced by antipsychotic drugs is due to feedback from post-synaptic blockade or is due to an action on DA neuron autoreceptors. This was evaluated using two drugs: the first-generation antipsychotic drug haloperidol that has potent D2 blocking properties, and the second-generation drug sertindole, which is unique in that it is reported to fail to reverse the apomorphine-induced decrease in firing rate typically associated with DA neuron autoreceptor stimulation. Using single-unit extracellular recordings from ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons in anaesthetized rats, both drugs were found to significantly increase the number of spontaneously active DA neurons (population activity). Apomorphine administered within 10 min either before or after sertindole reversed the sertindole-induced increase in population activity, but had no effect when administered 1 h after sertindole. Moreover, both sertindole- and haloperidol-induced increase in population activity was prevented when nucleus accumbens feedback was interrupted by local infusion of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline into the ventral pallidum. Taken together, these data suggest that antipsychotics increase DA neuron population activity via a common action on the nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidum-VTA feedback pathway and thus provide further elucidation on the mechanism by which antipsychotic drugs affect DA neuron activity. This provides an important insight into the relationship between altered DA neuron activity and potential antipsychotic efficacy. PMID:19751544

Valenti, Ornella; Grace, Anthony A

2010-08-01

345

Ultrasonic Vocalizations Induced by Sex and Amphetamine in M2, M4, M5 Muscarinic and D2 Dopamine Receptor Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Adult mice communicate by emitting ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during the appetitive phases of sexual behavior. However, little is known about the genes important in controlling call production. Here, we study the induction and regulation of USVs in muscarinic and dopaminergic receptor knockout (KO) mice as well as wild-type controls during sexual behavior. Female mouse urine, but not female rat or human urine, induced USVs in male mice, whereas male urine did not induce USVs in females. Direct contact of males with females is required for eliciting high level of USVs in males. USVs (25 to120 kHz) were emitted only by males, suggesting positive state; however human-audible squeaks were produced only by females, implying negative state during male-female pairing. USVs were divided into flat and frequency-modulated calls. Male USVs often changed from continuous to broken frequency-modulated calls after initiation of mounting. In M2 KO mice, USVs were lost in about 70–80% of the mice, correlating with a loss of sexual interaction. In M5 KO mice, mean USVs were reduced by almost 80% even though sexual interaction was vigorous. In D2 KOs, the duration of USVs was extended by 20%. In M4 KOs, no significant differences were observed. Amphetamine dose-dependently induced USVs in wild-type males (most at 0.5 mg/kg i.p.), but did not elicit USVs in M5 KO or female mice. These studies suggest that M2 and M5 muscarinic receptors are needed for male USV production during male-female interactions, likely via their roles in dopamine activation. These findings are important for the understanding of the neural substrates for positive affect. PMID:18382674

Wang, Haoran; Liang, Shuyin; Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Wess, Jurgen; Yeomans, John

2008-01-01

346

Inhibitory effects of dopamine on spinal synaptic transmission via dopamine D1-like receptors in neonatal rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dopamine released from the endings of descending dopaminergic nerve fibres in the spinal cord may be involved in modulating functions such as locomotion and nociception. Here, we examined the effects of dopamine on spinal synaptic transmissions in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Spinal reflex potentials, monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and slow ventral root potential (sVRP), were measured in the isolated spinal cord of the neonatal rat. Dopamine release was measured by HPLC. KEY RESULTS Dopamine at lower concentrations (<1 µM) depressed sVRP, which is a C fibre-evoked polysynaptic response and believed to reflect nociceptive transmission. At higher concentrations (>1 µM), in addition to a potent sVRP depression, dopamine depolarized baseline potential and slightly depressed MSR. Depression of sVRP by dopamine was partially reversed by dopamine D1-like but not by D2-like receptor antagonists. SKF83959 and SKF81297, D1-like receptor agonists, and methamphetamine, an endogenous dopamine releaser, also caused the inhibition of sVRP. Methamphetamine also depressed MSR, which was inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist. Methamphetamine induced the release of dopamine and 5-HT from spinal cords, indicating that the release of endogenous dopamine and 5-HT depresses sVRP and MSR respectively. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggested that dopamine at lower concentrations preferentially inhibited sVRP, which is mediated via dopamine D1-like and other unidentified receptors. The dopamine-evoked depression is involved in modulating the spinal functions by the descending dopaminergic pathways. PMID:22168428

Kawamoto, K; Otsuguro, K; Ishizuka, M; Ito, S

2012-01-01

347

Pre-synaptic dopamine D(3) receptor mediates cocaine-induced structural plasticity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons via ERK and Akt pathways.  

PubMed

Exposure to psychostimulants results in neuroadaptive changes of the mesencephalic dopaminergic system including morphological reorganization of dopaminergic neurons. Increased dendrite arborization and soma area were previously observed in primary cultures of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons after 3-day exposure to dopamine agonists via activation of D(3) autoreceptors (D(3) R). In this work, we showed that cocaine significantly increased dendritic arborization and soma area of dopaminergic neurons from E12.5 mouse embryos by activating phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and thymoma viral proto-oncogene (Akt). These effects were dependent on functional D(3) R expression because cocaine did not produce morphological changes or ERK/Akt phosphorylation neither in primary cultures of D(3) R mutant mice nor following pharmacologic blockade with D(3) R antagonists SB-277011-A and S-33084. Cocaine effects on morphology and ERK/Akt phosphorylation were inhibited by pre-incubation with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These observations were corroborated in vivo by morphometrical assessment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of P1 newborns exposed to cocaine from E12.5 to E16.5. Cocaine increased the soma area of wild-type but not of D(3) R mutant mice, supporting the translational value of primary culture. These findings indicate a direct involvement of D3R and ERK/Akt pathways as critical mediators of cocaine-induced structural plasticity, suggesting their involvement in psychostimulant addiction. PMID:22145570

Collo, Ginetta; Bono, Federica; Cavalleri, Laura; Plebani, Laura; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Millan, Mark J; Spano, Pier Franco; Missale, Cristina

2012-03-01

348

Extracellular Dopamine Potentiates Mn-Induced Oxidative Stress, Lifespan Reduction, and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a BLI-3–Dependent Manner in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD)-mimicking drugs and pesticides, and more recently PD-associated gene mutations, have been studied in cell cultures and mammalian models to decipher the molecular basis of PD. Thus far, a dozen of genes have been identified that are responsible for inherited PD. However they only account for about 8% of PD cases, most of the cases likely involving environmental contributions. Environmental manganese (Mn) exposure represents an established risk factor for PD occurrence, and both PD and Mn-intoxicated patients display a characteristic extrapyramidal syndrome primarily involving dopaminergic (DAergic) neurodegeneration with shared common molecular mechanisms. To better understand the specificity of DAergic neurodegeneration, we studied Mn toxicity in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. Combining genetics and biochemical assays, we established that extracellular, and not intracellular, dopamine (DA) is responsible for Mn-induced DAergic neurodegeneration and that this process (1) requires functional DA-reuptake transporter (DAT-1) and (2) is associated with oxidative stress and lifespan reduction. Overexpression of the anti-oxidant transcription factor, SKN-1, affords protection against Mn toxicity, while the DA-dependency of Mn toxicity requires the NADPH dual-oxidase BLI-3. These results suggest that in vivo BLI-3 activity promotes the conversion of extracellular DA into toxic reactive species, which, in turn, can be taken up by DAT-1 in DAergic neurons, thus leading to oxidative stress and cell degeneration. PMID:20865164

Benedetto, Alexandre; Au, Catherine; Avila, Daiana Silva; Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael

2010-01-01

349

Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: sgh63@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-27

350

Mutual enhancement of central neurotoxicity induced by ketamine followed by methamphetamine  

SciTech Connect

We hereby report that repeated administration of ketamine (350 mg/kg in total) and methamphetamine (30 mg/kg in total) causes specific glutamatergic and dopaminergic neuron deficits, respectively, in adult mouse brain. Acute ketamine did not affect basal body temperature or the later methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. However, pretreatment with repeated doses of ketamine aggravated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic terminal loss as evidenced by a drastic decrease in the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and dopamine transporter density as well as poor gait balance performance. In contrast, methamphetamine-induced serotonergic depletion was not altered by ketamine pretreatment. Likewise, the subsequent treatment with methamphetamine exacerbated the ketamine-induced glutamatergic damage as indicated by reduced levels of the vesicular glutamate transporter in hippocampus and striatum and poor memory performance in the Morris water maze. Finally, since activation of the D1 and AMPA/kainate receptors has been known to be involved in the release of glutamate and dopamine, we examined the effects of co-administration of SCH23390, a D1 antagonist, and CNQX, an AMPA/kainate antagonist. Intraventricular CNQX infusion abolished ketamine's potentiation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity, while systemic SCH23390 mitigated methamphetamine's potentiation of ketamine-induced glutamatergic toxicity. We conclude that repeated doses of ketamine potentiate methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity via AMPA/kainate activation and that conjunctive use of methamphetamine aggravates ketamine-induced glutamatergic neurotoxicity possibly via D1 receptor activation.

Ke, J.-J.; Chen, H.-I.; Jen, C.J. [Department of Physiology, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Cherng, C.G. [Institute of Medical Research and Department of Clinical Psychology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-P.N.; Ho, M.-C.; Tsai, C.-W. [Institute of Behavioral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lung Yu [Department of Physiology, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Behavioral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lungyu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-03-01

351

6R-Tetrahydrobiopterin induces dopamine synthesis in a human neuroblastoma cell line, LA-N-1. A cellular model of DOPA-responsive dystonia.  

PubMed

Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) is an extrapyramidal disorder caused by deficit of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In these patients the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons normally express TH and the cellular machinery for the dopamine uptake. LA-N-1 is a human neuroblastoma cell line expressing tyrosine hydroxylase. Here we show that LA-N-1 cells are able to take up exogenous dopamine (DA) by an high-affinity mechanism; significant amounts of serotonin and its metabolite 5HIAA, but neither DA nor its metabolites, DOPAC and HVA, could be measured in the cell culture homogenate. 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin, cofactor for both tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases, is able to activate dopamine synthesis and also decreases the content of 5HIAA by 50%, indicating that LA-N-1 might be a useful model for studying dopamine-serotonin interaction in cultured cells and the neuronal mechanism of DRD. PMID:12101048

Zuddas, Alessandro; Mancosu, Cristina; Lilliu, Vanessa; Sorrentino, Giuseppe; di Porzio, Umberto; Cianchetti, Carlo

2002-07-12

352

Long-lasting dopamine receptor up-regulation in amphetamine-treated rats following amphetamine neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Amphetamine (A) (9.2 mg/kg, IP), in combination with iprindole (I) (10.0 mg/kg, IP), caused long-lasting dopamine (DA) depletions in striatum (-49%, 4 weeks) but not in nucleus accumbens following one A/I injection. Striatal DA had recovered by 4 months. DA receptors (DAr) were up-regulated: 1) behavioral responses to a DA receptor agonist (apomorphine) were significantly elevated. These included apomorphine-induced locomotor activity (+103% and +160%, on weeks 3 and 10) and apomorphine-induced stereotypy (day 10). 2) Bmax for [3H]spiroperidol binding to striatal D2 DAr (12 weeks) increased (+53%, week 12). Injection of the DAr neuromodulator cyclo(leucyl-glycyl) (8 mg/kg/day x 4 days, SC) reversed the Bmax increase. Thus toxicity (DA depletion) following high-dose amphetamine appears to induce compensatory changes in DAr. This DAr upregulation may explain the lack of abnormal movements despite enduring DA depletion. Additionally, the A/I paradigm as an animal model of long-lasting DAr up-regulation, could be used to screen neuromodulatory agents, like CLG, that might treat disorders (e.g., tardive dyskinesia and schizophrenia) thought to involve up-regulated DAr. PMID:1816575

Fields, J Z; Wichlinski, L; Drucker, G E; Engh, K; Gordon, J H

1991-12-01

353

The Metabotropic Glutamate 2\\/3 Receptor Agonist LY379268 Blocked Nicotine-Induced Increases in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Dopamine only in the Presence of a Nicotine-Associated Context in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabotropic glutamate 2\\/3 (mGlu2\\/3) receptor agonist LY379268 ([?]-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate) attenuates both nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats. In this study, the effects of LY379268 (1 mg\\/kg) or saline pretreatment on nicotine-induced increases in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell dopamine were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis under different experimental conditions: (i) nicotine (0.4 mg\\/kg, base) was experimenter-administered subcutaneously

Manoranjan S D'Souza; Matthias E Liechti; Ana M Ramirez-Niño; Ronald Kuczenski; Athina Markou

2011-01-01

354

Breathing Pattern Response and Epithelial Labeling in Ozone-Induced Airway Injury in Neutrophil-Depleted Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that neutrophils enhance the repair of ozone (O 3 )-injured airway epithelium, we in- vestigated breathing pattern responses and airway epithelial injury and repair in rats depleted of neutro- phils using rabbit antirat neutrophil serum (ANS) and control rats treated with normal rabbit serum (NRS). Thirty-seven Wistar rats were exposed to O 3 (1 ppm) or

Keith R. Vesely; Edward S. Schelegle; Mary Y. Stovall; Jack R. Harkema; Jerry F. Green; Dallas M. Hyde

1999-01-01

355

Role for mTOR Signaling and Neuronal Activity in Morphine-Induced Adaptations in Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons  

E-print Network

While the abuse of opiate drugs continues to rise, the neuroadaptations that occur with long-term drug exposure remain poorly understood. We describe here a series of chronic morphine-induced adaptations in ventral tegmental ...

Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.

356

Imaging dopamine's role in drug abuse and addiction.  

PubMed

Dopamine is involved in drug reinforcement but its role in addiction is less clear. Here we describe PET imaging studies that investigate dopamine's involvement in drug abuse in the human brain. In humans the reinforcing effects of drugs are associated with large and fast increases in extracellular dopamine, which mimic those induced by physiological dopamine cell firing but are more intense and protracted. Since dopamine cells fire in response to salient stimuli, supraphysiological activation by drugs is experienced as highly salient (driving attention, arousal, conditioned learning and motivation) and with repeated drug use may raise the thresholds required for dopamine cell activation and signaling. Indeed, imaging studies show that drug abusers have marked decreases in dopamine D2 receptors and in dopamine release. This decrease in dopamine function is associated with reduced regional activity in orbitofrontal cortex (involved in salience attribution; its disruption results in compulsive behaviors), cingulate gyrus (involved in inhibitory control; its disruption results in impulsivity) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (involved in executive function; its disruption results in impaired regulation of intentional actions). In parallel, conditioning triggered by drugs leads to enhanced dopamine signaling when exposed to conditioned cues, which then drives the motivation to procure the drug in part by activation of prefrontal and striatal regions. These findings implicate deficits in dopamine activity-inked with prefrontal and striatal deregulation-in the loss of control and compulsive drug intake that results when the addicted person takes the drugs or is exposed to conditioned cues. The decreased dopamine function in addicted individuals also reduces their sensitivity to natural reinforcers. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring brain dopaminergic tone and activity of cortical projection regions could improve prefrontal function, enhance inhibitory control and interfere with impulsivity and compulsive drug administration while helping to motivate the addicted person to engage in non-drug related behaviors. PMID:18617195

Volkow, N D; Fowler, J S; Wang, G J; Baler, R; Telang, F

2009-01-01

357

The Effects of Volcano-Induced Ozone Depletion on Short-lived Climate Forcing in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodissociation of oxygen maintains the stratopause ~50°C warmer than the tropopause. Photodissociation of ozone warms the lower stratosphere, preventing most of this high-energy DNA-damaging solar radiation from reaching the troposphere. Ozone depletion allows more UV energy to reach the lower troposphere causing photodissociation of anthropogenic ozone and nitrogen dioxide. UV energy also penetrates the ocean >10 m where it is absorbed more efficiently than infrared radiation that barely penetrates the surface. Manmade chlorofluorocarbons caused ozone depletion from 1965 to 1994 with slow recovery predicted over the next 50+ years. But the lowest levels of ozone followed the eruptions of Pinatubo (1991 VEI=6), Eyjafjallajökull (2010 VEI=4), and Grímsvötn (2011 VEI=4). Each of the relatively small, basaltic eruptions in Iceland caused more ozone depletion than the long-term effects of chlorofluorocarbons, although total ozone appears to return to pre-eruption levels within a decade. Ozone depletion by 20% increases energy flux thru the lowermost troposphere by 0.7 W m-2 for overhead sun causing temperatures in the lower stratosphere to drop >2°C since 1958 in steps after the 3 largest volcanic eruptions: Agung 1963, El Chichón 1982, and Pinatubo. Temperatures at the surface increased primarily in the regions and at the times of the greatest observed ozone depletion. The greatest warming observed was along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (65.4°S) where minimum temperatures rose 6.7°C from 1951 to 2003 while maximum temperatures remained relatively constant. Minimum total column ozone in September-October was 40-56% lower than in 1972 almost every year since 1987, strongly anti-correlated with observed minimum temperatures. Sea ice decreased 10%, 7 ice shelves separated, 87% of the glaciers retreated and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed. Elsewhere under the ozone hole, warming of continental Antarctica was limited by the high albedo (0.86) of Antarctic snow and decreasing solar zenith angles at higher latitudes. The second largest ozone depletion was in the Arctic at the times and places of greatest winter warming. Average ozone at four stations in Canada (43-59°N) compared to the 1961-1970 mean were 6% lower in December 2010 after the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and 11% lower in December 2011 after the eruption of Grímsvötn. In 2012, ozone levels were still 10% lower in March and 7% lower in July. The regions and timing of this depletion are the regions and times of unusually warm temperatures and drought in North America during 2011-2012. The Dust Bowl droughts in 1934 and 1936 show a similar temporal relationship to a highly unusual sequence of five VEI=4-5 eruptions around the Pacific in 1931-1933. Major increases in global pollution were from 1950-1970 while ozone-destroying tropospheric chlorine rose from 1970 to 1994, along with ocean heat content and mean temperature. Pollution does not seem to cause an increase in warming until ozone depletion allows more UV into the lower troposphere. Pollutants decrease surface solar radiation but also reduce Arctic-snow albedo. Widespread observations imply that ozone depletion and associated photodissociation cause substantial warming. Several issues regarding the microphysics of absorption and radiation by greenhouse gases must be resolved before we can quantify their relative importance.

Ward, P. L.

2012-12-01

358

Biphasic Mechanisms of Amphetamine Action at the Dopamine Terminal  

PubMed Central

In light of recent studies suggesting that amphetamine (AMPH) increases electrically evoked dopamine release ([DA]o), we examined discrepancies between these findings and literature that has demonstrated AMPH-induced decreases in [DA]o. The current study has expanded the inventory of AMPH actions by defining two separate mechanisms of AMPH effects on [DA]o at high and low doses, one dopamine transporter (DAT) independent and one DAT dependent, respectively. AMPH concentrations were measured via microdialysis in rat nucleus accumbens after intraperitoneal injections of 1 and 10 mg/kg and yielded values of ?10 and 200 nm, respectively. Subsequently, voltammetry in brain slices was used to examine the effects of low (10 nm), moderate (100 nm), and high (10 ?m) concentrations of AMPH across a range of frequency stimulations (one pulse; five pulses, 20 Hz; 24 pulses, 60 Hz). We discovered biphasic, concentration-dependent effects in WT mice, in which AMPH increased [DA]o at low concentrations and decreased [DA]o at high concentrations across all stimulation types. However, in slices from DAT-KO mice, [DA]o was decreased by all concentrations of AMPH, demonstrating that AMPH-induced increases in [DA]o are DAT dependent, whereas the decreases at high concentrations are DAT independent. We propose that low AMPH concentrations are insufficient to disrupt vesicular sequestration, and therefore AMPH acts solely as a DAT inhibitor to increase [DA]o. When AMPH concentrations are high, the added mechanism of vesicular depletion leads to reduced [DA]o. The biphasic mechanisms observed here confirm and extend the traditional actions of AMPH, but do not support mechanisms involving increased exocytotic release. PMID:24741047

Siciliano, Cody A.; Calipari, Erin S.; Ferris, Mark J.

2014-01-01

359

Depletion of activated hepatic stellate cell correlates with severe liver damage and abnormal liver regeneration in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are important part of the local 'stem cell niche' for hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hepatocytes. However, it is unclear as to whether the products of activated HSCs are required to attenuate hepatocyte injury, enhance liver regeneration, or both. In this study, we performed 'loss of function' studies by depleting activated HSCs with gliotoxin. It was demonstrated that a significantly severe liver damage and declined survival rate were correlated with depletion of activated HSCs. Furthermore, diminishing HSC activation resulted in a 3-fold increase in hepatocyte apoptosis and a 66% decrease in the number of proliferating hepatocytes. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the expression levels of five genes known to be up-regulated during hepatocyte replication. In particular, it was found that depletion of activated HSCs inhibited oval cell reaction that was confirmed by decreased numbers of Pank-positive cells around the portal tracts and lowered gene expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) in gliotoxin-treated liver. These data provide clear evidence that the activated HSCs are involved in both hepatocyte death and proliferation of hepatocytes and HPCs in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury. PMID:21335335

Shen, Kuntang; Chang, Wenju; Gao, Xiaodong; Wang, Hongshan; Niu, Weixin; Song, Lujun; Qin, Xinyu

2011-04-01

360

Troxerutin protects against 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)-induced liver inflammation by attenuating oxidative stress-mediated NAD(+)-depletion.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates that 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) induces liver injury through enhanced ROS production and lymphocytic infiltration, which may promote a liver inflammatory response. Antioxidants have been reported to attenuate the cellular toxicity associated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of the natural bioflavonoid rutin, on BDE-47-induced liver inflammation and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that NAD(+)-depletion was involved in the oxidative stress-mediated liver injury in a BDE-47 treated mouse model, which was confirmed by Vitamin E treatment. Furthermore, our data revealed that troxerutin effectively alleviated liver inflammation by mitigating oxidative stress-mediated NAD(+)-depletion in BDE-47 treated mice. Consequently, troxerutin remarkably restored SirT1 protein expression and activity in the livers of BDE-47-treated mice. Mechanistically, troxerutin dramatically repressed the nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 and the acetylation of NF-?B p65 (Lys 310) and Histone H3 (Lys9) to abate the transcription of inflammatory genes in BDE-47-treated mouse livers. These inhibitory effects of troxerutin were markedly blunted by EX527 (SirT1 inhibitor) treatment. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into the toxicity of BDE-47 and indicates that troxerutin might be used in the prevention and therapy of BDE-47-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25262482

Zhang, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Qiu; Fan, Shao-Hua; Zhuang, Juan; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Shan, Qun; Hu, Bin

2015-02-11

361

Effects of Alpha-Methyl-Para-Tyrosine-Induced Catecholamine Depletion in Patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder in Summer Remission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms have been proposed for the pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). We investigated the effects of catecholamine depletion using ?-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, in patients with SAD in natural summer remission. Nine drug-free patients with SAD by DSM-IV criteria, in summer remission for at least eight weeks, completed a double-blind, crossover study. Behavioral

Raymond W Lam; Edwin M Tam; Arvinder Grewal; Lakshmi N Yatham

2001-01-01

362

Sestrin2 decreases renal oxidative stress, lowers blood pressure, and mediates dopamine D2 receptor-induced inhibition of reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) decreases renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates blood pressure, in part, via positive regulation of paraoxonase 2. Sestrin2, a highly conserved antioxidant protein, regulates intracellular ROS level by regenerating hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins. We hypothesized that sestrin2 may be involved in preventing excessive renal ROS production and thus contribute to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. Moreover, the D2R may decrease ROS production, in part, through the regulation of sestrin2. Renal sestrin2 expression was lower (-62±13%) in D2R(-/-) than in D2R(+/+) mice. Silencing D2R in human renal proximal tubule cells decreased sestrin2 expression (-53±3%) and increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.9-fold). Stimulation of D2R in renal proximal tubule cells increased sestrin2 expression (1.6-fold), decreased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (-61±3%), and reduced ROS production (-31±4%). Silencing sestrin2 in renal proximal tubule cells increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.1-fold) and ROS production (1.3-fold). Silencing sestrin2 also abolished D2R-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation and partially prevented the inhibitory effect of D2R stimulation on ROS production. Silencing paraoxonase 2 increased sestrin2 ubiquitinylation (2.8-fold), decreased sestrin2 expression (-30±3%), and increased ROS production (1.3-fold), peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation (2.9-fold), and lipid peroxidation (2.3-fold), and blocked the increase in sestrin2 that occurs with D2R stimulation. In vivo renal selective silencing of sestrin2 by the renal subcapsular infusion of sestrin2 small interfering RNA (3 ?g/day; 7 days) in mice increased renal oxidative stress (1.3-fold) and blood pressure. These results suggest that the D2R, via paraoxonase 2 and sestrin2, keeps normal renal redox balance, which contributes to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. PMID:25024286

Yang, Yu; Cuevas, Santiago; Yang, Sufei; Villar, Van Anthony; Escano, Crisanto; Asico, Laureano; Yu, Peiying; Jiang, Xiaoliang; Weinman, Edward J; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

2014-10-01

363

Repeated Ethanol Intoxication Induces Behavioral Sensitization in the Absence of a Sensitized Accumbens Dopamine Response in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J Mice  

PubMed Central

Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse results in an increased sensitivity to their behavioral effects, a phenomena referred to as behavioral sensitization. It has been suggested that the same neuroadaptations underlying behavioral sensitization contribute to the maintenance and reinstatement of addiction. Dysregulation of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesoaccumbens system is one neuroadaptation that is thought to lead to the compulsive drug-seeking that characterizes addiction. Evidence that sensitization to psychostimulants and opiates is associated with an enhancement of drug-evoked DA levels in the nucleus accumbens has also been obtained. Like other drugs of abuse, the acute administration of ethanol (ETOH) stimulates DA release in this brain region. Moreover, repeated ETOH experience results in an enhanced behavioral response to a subsequent ethanol challenge. Data regarding the influence of repeated ethanol intoxication and withdrawal upon mesoaccumbal DA neurotransmission is limited. Studies examining ETOH-evoked alterations in mesoaccumbal DA neurotransmission as a function of withdrawal duration are lacking. The present experiments quantified basal and ethanol-evoked DA levels 14 days and 24 h following the cessation of a repeated ETOH intoxication protocol, which results in sensitization to the locomotor activating effects of ethanol. Locomotor activity was assessed in parallel groups of animals. Studies were conducted in two mouse strains, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, which differ in their behavioral responses to ETOH. The results indicate the development of transient tolerance to both ETOH-induced behavioral activation and evoked accumbens DA release at early withdrawal. Moreover, no enhanced DA response to a subsequent ETOH challenge could be demonstrated in ETOH experienced animals 2 weeks after withdrawal, in spite of the observation of clear behavioral sensitization at this time point. These results suggest that, at least in the case of ethanol, sensitization of the DA mesolimbic system may not be necessary for the development of behavioral sensitization. PMID:16034441

Zapata, Agustin; Gonzales, Rueben A; Shippenberg, Toni S

2006-01-01

364

The effects of additional treatment with terguride, a partial dopamine agonist, on hyperprolactinemia induced by antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Hyperprolactinemia is a frequent consequence of treatment with antipsychotics. Earlier studies have indicated that terguride, which is a partial dopamine agonist, reduces the prolactin levels that are induced by prolactinemia. Thus, we examined the dose effects of adjunctive treatment with terguride on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in patients with elevated prolactin levels resulting from antipsychotic treatment. Terguride was concomitantly administered to 20 schizophrenic patients (10 males and 10 females) receiving paliperidone and risperidone. The dose of terguride was 1.0 mg/day. Sample collections for prolactin were conducted before terguride (baseline) and 2–4 weeks after administration. The samples were obtained after the morning dose of terguride. The average (± standard deviation) plasma prolactin concentration during terguride coadministration was significantly lower than the baseline concentration in females (82.3±37.1 ng/mL versus 56.5±28.5 ng/mL, P<0.01) but not in males (28.8±18.0 ng/mL versus 26.2±13.1 ng/mL, not significant). Additionally, a significant correlation between the ratio of prolactin reduction and the baseline prolactin concentration was identified in males (rs=?0.638, P<0.05) but not in females (rs=?0.152, not significant). Many patients complained of various adverse events following terguride administration, such as insomnia, agitation, and/or the aggravation of hallucinations. This study suggests that additional treatment with terguride decreases the prolactin concentrations in females experiencing high prolactin levels as a result of antipsychotic treatment. However, its utility for schizophrenia may be diminished because of its low tolerability. PMID:25187719

Hashimoto, Kojiro; Sugawara, Norio; Ishioka, Masamichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

2014-01-01

365

Effects of cysteamine on dopamine-mediated behaviors: evidence for dopamine-somatostatin interactions in the striatum  

SciTech Connect

The effects of prior treatment with cysteamine, a drug which appears to deplete selectively the neuropeptide somatostatin, on apomorphine-induced stereotypy and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and conditioned place preferences were investigated. Twelve hours following systemic cysteamine injections apomorphine-induced stereotypy was attenuated and striatal somatostatin levels were reduced by half. Systemic cysteamine also decreased the motor stimulant effects of amphetamine, without influencing the rewarding properties as determined by the conditioned place preference procedure. Direct injections of cysteamine into the nucleus accumbens also decreased the locomotor response to amphetamine, and produced a local reduction in somatostatin levels in the accumbens. Cysteamine did not appear to alter monoamine turnover in the striatum after either systemic or intra-accumbens injections. These results suggest that somatostatin in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen modulates the motor, but not the reinforcing properties of dopaminergic drugs, possibly via an action postsynaptic to dopamine-releasing terminals. Furthermore, it is evident from these results that cysteamine is an important tool with which to study the central actions of somatostatin.

Martin-Iverson, M.T.; Radke, J.M.; Vincent, S.R.

1986-06-01

366

MDMA (Ecstasy) and human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters: implications for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, designated as “Ecstasy” if illicitly marketed in tablet form) induces significant decrements in neuronal serotonin (5-HT) markers in humans, nonhuman primates, and rats as a function of dosing and dosing regimen. In rats, MDMA-mediated effects are attributed, in part, to selective high-affinity transport of MDMA into 5-HT neurons by the 5-HT transporter (SERT), followed by extensive 5-HT release.Objectives  To

Christopher D. Verrico; Gregory M. Miller; Bertha K. Madras

2007-01-01

367

Inhibition by oxytocin of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity related to dopamine turnover in the mesolimbic region in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulated data have shown the neuroactive properties of oxytocin (OT), a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, and its capability\\u000a of reducing the abuse potential of drugs. The present study investigated the effect of OT on methamphetamine (MAP)-induced\\u000a hyperactivity in mice and its possible mechanism of action. Locomotor activity was measured after administered with MAP using\\u000a an infrared sensor. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical

Jia Qi; Jing-Yu Yang; Ming Song; Yan Li; Fang Wang; Chun-Fu Wu

2008-01-01

368

Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise  

PubMed Central

Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.

2012-01-01

369

Chronic intermittent cold stress and serotonin depletion induce deficits of reversal learning in an attentional set-shifting test in rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Chronic stress perturbs modulatory brain neurotransmitter systems, including serotonin (5-HT), and is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders such as depression. Deficits in cognitive flexibility, reflecting prefrontal cortical dysfunction, are prominent in such disorders. Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated specifically in reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility modulated by 5-HT. Objectives Assess the effects of chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, a potent metabolic stressor, on performance of rats in an attentional set shifting test (AST). Assess a possible role for serotonin in CIC-induced deficits, and test the effects of acute serotonin reuptake blockade. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIC stress (14 days × 6 hr/day at 4 °C) before testing on the AST. In subsequent experiments, brain 5-HT was depleted in naïve rats with para-chlorophenylalanine, or 5-HT release was increased acutely in CIC-stressed rats with citalopram (5 mg/kg, s.c.) given 30 min prior to the first reversal task. Microdialysis was used to assess CIC-induced changes in 5-HT release in OFC during testing. Results CIC-stressed rats exhibited a selective impairment on the first reversal task in the AST. 5-HT depletion induced a similarly selective deficit in reversal learning. The CIC-induced impairment in reversal learning was attenuated by acute 5-HT reuptake blockade. 5-HT release was reduced in OFC of CIC-stressed rats during behavioral testing. Conclusions The CIC stress-induced impairment of cognitive flexibility may involve dysregulation of 5-HT modulatory function in OFC. Such deficits may thus model relevant symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders that respond positively to SSRI treatment. PMID:18587666

Lapiz-Bluhm, M. Danet S.; Soto-Pina, Alexandra E.; Hensler, Julie G.; Morilak, David A.

2008-01-01

370

Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone  

PubMed Central

The majority of neurotransmitter systems shows variations in state-dependent cell firing rates that are mechanistically linked to variations in extracellular levels, or tone, of their respective neurotransmitter. Diurnal variation in dopamine tone has also been demonstrated within the striatum, but this neurotransmitter is unique, in that variation in dopamine tone is likely not related to dopamine cell firing; this is largely because of the observation that midbrain dopamine neurons do not display diurnal fluctuations in firing rates. Therefore, we conducted a systematic investigation of possible mechanisms for the variation in extracellular dopamine tone. Using microdialysis and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rats, as well as wild-type and dopamine transporter (DAT) knock-out mice, we demonstrate that dopamine uptake through the DAT and the magnitude of subsecond dopamine release is inversely related to the magnitude of extracellular dopamine tone. We investigated dopamine metabolism, uptake, release, D2 autoreceptor sensitivity, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity as mechanisms for this variation. Using this approach, we have pinpointed the DAT as a critical governor of diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone and, as a consequence, influencing the magnitude of electrically stimulated dopamine release. Understanding diurnal variation in dopamine tone is critical for understanding and treating the multitude of psychiatric disorders that originate from perturbations of the dopamine system. PMID:24979798

Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

2014-01-01

371