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The interaction of manganese nanoparticles with PC-12 cells induces dopamine depletion.  


This investigation was designed to determine whether nano-sized manganese oxide (Mn-40 nm) particles would induce dopamine (DA) depletion in a cultured neuronal phenotype, PC-12 cells, similar to free ionic manganese (Mn(2+)). Cells were exposed to Mn-40 nm, Mn(2+) (acetate), or known cytotoxic silver nanoparticles (Ag-15 nm) for 24 h. Phase-contrast microscopy studies show that Mn-40 nm or Mn(2+) exposure did not greatly change morphology of PC-12 cells. However, Ag-15 nm and AgNO(3) produce cell shrinkage and irregular membrane borders compared to control cells. Further microscopic studies at higher resolution demonstrated that Mn-40 nm nanoparticles and agglomerates were effectively internalized by PC-12 cells. Mitochondrial reduction activity, a sensitive measure of particle and metal cytotoxicity, showed only moderate toxicity for Mn-40 nm compared to similar Ag-15 nm and Mn(2+) doses. Mn-40 nm and Mn(2+) dose dependently depleted DA and its metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), while Ag-15 nm only significantly reduced DA and DOPAC at concentrations of 50 mug/ml. Therefore, the DA depletion of Mn-40 nm was most similar to Mn(2+), which is known to induce concentration-dependent DA depletion. There was a significant increase (> 10-fold) in reactive oxygen species (ROS) with Mn-40 nm exposure, suggesting that increased ROS levels may participate in DA depletion. These results clearly demonstrate that nanoscale manganese can deplete DA, DOPAC, and HVA in a dose-dependent manner. Further study is required to evaluate the specific intracellular distribution of Mn-40 nm nanoparticles, metal dissolution rates in cells and cellular matrices, if DA depletion is induced in vivo, and the propensity of Mn nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier or be selectively uptaken by nasal epithelium. PMID:16714391

Hussain, Saber M; Javorina, Amanda K; Schrand, Amanda M; Duhart, Helen M; Ali, Syed F; Schlager, John J




EPA Science Inventory

In male hooded rats, depletion of norepinephrine and dopamine by a-methyl-paratyrosine (AMT) significantly increased the latencies of early peaks in flash-evoked potentials recorded from the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic tract. These effects were not produc...



PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been demonstrated to be toxic to the dopamine (DA) systems of the central nervous system. One proposed mechanism for PCB-induced DA neurotoxicity is inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT); such inhibition results in increased levels of unsequestered DA and DA metabolism leading to oxidative stress. We have used an organotypic co-culture system of developing rat striatum and ventral mesencephalon (VM) to determine whether alterations in the vesicular storage of DA, resulting from PCB exposure and consequent induction of oxidative stress, leads to GABA and DA neuronal dysfunction. 24 hr exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs reduced tissue DA and GABA concentrations, increased medium levels of DA and measures of oxidative stress in both the striatum and VM. Alterations in neurochemistry and increases in measures of oxidative stress were blocked in the presence of n-acetylcysteine (NAC). Although NAC treatment did not alter PCB-induced changes in DA neurochemistry, it did protect against reductions in GABA concentration. To determine whether alterations in the vesicular storage of DA were responsible for PCB-induced oxidative stress and consequent reductions in GABA levels, we depleted DA from the co-cultures using ?-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT). AMPT reduced striatal and VM DA levels by 90% and 70%, respectively. PCB exposure, following DA depletion, neither increased levels of oxidative stress nor resulted in GABA depletion. These results suggest that PCB-induced alterations in the vesicular storage of DA, resulting in increased levels of unsequestered DA, leads to increased oxidative stress, depletion of tissue glutathione, and consequent reductions in tissue GABA concentrations. PMID:18262273

Lyng, Gregory D.; Seegal, Richard F.



Effects of pargyline and pyrogallol on the methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) from dopamine (DA) was investigated in the striatum of male Sprague-Dawley rats\\u000a following a single administration of methamphetamine hydrochloride (100 mg\\/kg, sc). Rats were sacrificed 30, 60, and 90 min,\\u000a and 1 wk after injection, and striatal 6-OHDA, DA, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were measured by HPLC with electrochemical\\u000a detection. Methamphetamine decreased striatal DA and

Taizo Kita; George C. Wagner; Martin A. Philbert; Linda A. King; Herbert E. Lowndes



Orbitofrontal dopamine depletion upregulates caudate dopamine and alters behavior via changes in reinforcement sensitivity.  


Schizophrenia is associated with upregulation of dopamine (DA) release in the caudate nucleus. The caudate has dense connections with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) via the frontostriatal loops, and both areas exhibit pathophysiological change in schizophrenia. Despite evidence that abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and prefrontal cortex function co-occur in schizophrenia, the influence of OFC DA on caudate DA and reinforcement processing is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that OFC dopaminergic dysfunction disrupts caudate dopamine function, we selectively depleted dopamine from the OFC of marmoset monkeys and measured striatal extracellular dopamine levels (using microdialysis) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding (using positron emission tomography), while modeling reinforcement-related behavior in a discrimination learning paradigm. OFC dopamine depletion caused an increase in tonic dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus and a corresponding reduction in D2/D3 receptor binding. Computational modeling of behavior showed that the lesion increased response exploration, reducing the tendency to persist with a recently chosen response side. This effect is akin to increased response switching previously seen in schizophrenia and was correlated with striatal but not OFC D2/D3 receptor binding. These results demonstrate that OFC dopamine depletion is sufficient to induce striatal hyperdopaminergia and changes in reinforcement learning relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:24872570

Clarke, H F; Cardinal, R N; Rygula, R; Hong, Y T; Fryer, T D; Sawiak, S J; Ferrari, V; Cockcroft, G; Aigbirhio, F I; Robbins, T W; Roberts, A C



Serotonin 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces dopamine D1 receptor-mediated rotational behavior but not l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements in the unilateral dopamine-depleted rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments have demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor antagonists suppress hyperkinetic behaviors associated with dopamine (DA) D1 receptor supersensitivity in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Since l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) may be mediated by oversensitive D1-mediated signaling, the present study examined the effects of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 on LID behaviors in DA-depleted rats. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats

Jennifer L. Taylor; Christopher Bishop; Thomas Ullrich; Kenner C. Rice; Paul D. Walker



Dopamine Precursor Depletion Influences Pain Affect Rather than Pain Sensation  

PubMed Central

Pain is a multidimensional experience, which includes sensory, cognitive, and affective aspects. Converging lines of evidence indicate that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in human pain perception. However, the precise effects of dopamine on different aspects of pain perception remain to be elucidated. To address this question, we experimentally decreased dopaminergic neurotransmission in 22 healthy human subjects using Acute Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Depletion (APTD). During APTD and a control condition we applied brief painful laser stimuli to the hand, assessed different aspects of pain perception, and recorded electroencephalographic responses. APTD-induced decreases of cerebral dopaminergic activity did not influence sensory aspects of pain perception. In contrast, APTD yielded increases of pain unpleasantness. The increases of unpleasantness ratings positively correlated with effectiveness of APTD. Our finding of an influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission on affective but not sensory aspects of phasic pain suggests that analgesic effects of dopamine might be mediated by indirect effects on pain affect rather than by direct effects on ascending nociceptive signals. These findings contribute to our understanding of the complex relationship between dopamine and pain perception, which may play a role in various clinical pain states. PMID:24760082

Schulz, Enrico; Baumkötter, Jochen; Ploner, Markus



Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

Cheng, Jinglei [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ohsaki, Yuki [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Tauchi-Sato, Kumi [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Fujita, Akikazu [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Fujimoto, Toyoshi [Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail:



Dopamine and norepinephrine depletion in ring doves fed DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The levels of dopamine and norepinephrine were measured in one-half of the brain of ring doves fed a control diet or a diet containing 2, 20, or 200 ppm DDE; 1, 4, or 16 ppm dieldrin; or 1, 10, or 100 ppm Aroclor 1254. Levels of DDE, dieldrin, or Aroclor 1254 were determined in the other half of each brain. The intermediate and high levels of each chemical caused depletions in both neurotransmitters, and brain residues of each chemical were negatively correlated with levels of neurotransmitters. The highest concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254 depressed averages of dopamine to 42.4, 41.4, and 45.2% of the control level and norepinephrine to 61.6, 62.0, and 56.9% of controls, respectively. Depletions of dopamine and norepinephrine could result in abnormal behavior of contaminated birds in the wild, and the detection of such depletions could become an important tool in assessing contaminant-induced behavioral aberrations in birds.

Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Contrera, J.F.



Small effect of dopamine release and no effect of dopamine depletion on [18F]fallypride binding in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging has been used to estimate both drug-induced and tonic dopamine release in the striatum and most recently extrastriatal areas of healthy humans. However, to date, studies of drug-induced and tonic dopamine release have not been performed in the same subjects. This study performed positron emission tomography (PET) with (18F)fallypride in healthy subjects to assess (1) the reproduci- bility

Vanessa L. Cropley; Robert B. Innis; Pradeep J. Nathan; Amira K. Brown; Janet L. Sangare; Alicja Lerner; Yong Hoon Ryu; Kelly E. Sprague; Victor W. Pike; Masahiro Fujita



Sex-dependent changes in ADHD-like behaviors in juvenile rats following cortical dopamine depletion.  


Reduced cortical dopamine levels have been observed in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Global dopamine depletions by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; with noradrenergic protection) in neonatal rats produces locomotor hyperactivity, with less known about how cortical depletion modulates risky behaviors. Here, we determined the effect of a medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) 6-OHDA depletions (30-60%) or sham microinjection at postnatal day 11 on behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Separate groups were studied for delay discounting (impulsive choice), novelty-preference, and preferences for cues and environments associated with cocaine (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), their extinction, and reinstatement with place conditioning. Because PFC D1 receptors play a role in these behaviors, confocal microscopy was used to measure D1-immunoreactive projections to the nucleus accumbens core. Both 6-OHDA males and females increased delay discounting relative to sham controls, although only 6-OHDA females increased novelty preferences. Preferences for cocaine-associated environments, their extinction, and reinstatement with a priming dose of cocaine were reduced in 6-OHDA subjects overall. However, impulsive choice at 5s positively correlated with preferences for cocaine-associated environments in 6-OHDA subjects, but not sham controls. As possible compensation for low dopamine levels, D1-immunoreactivity on traced neurons increased in 6-OHDA females; dopamine levels did not remain low in adolescent 6-OHDA males and D1 did not change. We believe that these modest depletions restricted to the PFC demonstrate the role of dopamine, and not norepinephrine, in understanding these behaviors in other animal models where cortical dopamine is reduced during development. PMID:24861711

Freund, Nadja; MacGillivilray, Heather T; Thompson, Britta S; Lukkes, Jodi L; Stanis, Jessica J; Brenhouse, Heather C; Andersen, Susan L



Glutathione Deficiency in Gclm Null Mice Results in Complex I Inhibition and Dopamine Depletion Following Paraquat Administration  

PubMed Central

Depletion of glutathione has been shown to occur in autopsied brains of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in animal models of PD. The goal of this study was to determine whether chronic glutathione (GSH) deficiency per se resulted in complex I inhibition and/or dopamine depletion and whether these indices were further potentiated by aging or administration of paraquat, a redox-cycling herbicide that produces a PD-like neurodegeneration model in rodents (Brooks, A. I., Chadwick, C. A., Gelbard, H. A., Cory-Slechta, D. A., and Federoff, H. J. [1999]. Paraquat elicited neurobehavioral syndrome caused by dopaminergic neuron loss. Brain Res. 823, 1–10; McCormack, A. L., Thiruchelvam, M., Manning-Bog, A. B., Thiffault, C., Langston, J. W., Cory-Slechta, D. A., and Di Monte, D. A. [2002]. Environmental risk factors and Parkinson’s disease: Selective degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons caused by the herbicide paraquat. Neurobiol. Dis. 10, 119–127.) Deletion of the rate-limiting GSH synthesis gene, glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm), leads to significantly lower GSH concentrations in all tissues including brain. Gclm null (Gclm ?/?) mice provide a model of prolonged GSH depletion to explore the relationship between GSH, complex I inhibition, and dopamine loss in vivo. Despite ~60% depletion of brain GSH in Gclm ?/? mice of ages 3–5 or 14–16 months, striatal complex I activity, dopamine levels, 3-nitrotyroine/tyrosine ratios, aconitase activity, and CoASH remained unchanged. Administration of paraquat (10mg/kg, twice/week, 3 weeks) to 3- to 5-month-old Gclm ?/? mice resulted in significantly decreased aconitase activity, complex I activity, and dopamine levels but not in 3- to 5-month-old Gclm +/+ mice. Furthermore, paraquat-induced inhibition of complex I and aconitase activities in Gclm ?/? mice was observed in the striatum but not in the cortex. The results suggest that chronic deficiency of GSH in Gclm ?/? mice was not sufficient to result in complex I inhibition or dopamine depletion perhaps due to homeostatic mechanisms but required an additional oxidative stress insult as shown with paraquat exposure. PMID:23704229

Patel, Manisha



The presence of perforated synapses in the striatum after dopamine depletion, is this a sign of maladaptive brain plasticity?  


Synaptic plasticity is the process by which long-lasting changes take place at synaptic connections. The phenomenon itself is complex and can involve many levels of organization. Some authors separate forms into adaptations that have positive or negative consequences for the individual. It has been hypothesized that an increase in the number of synapses may represent a structural basis for the enduring expression of synaptic plasticity during some events that involve memory and learning; also, it has been suggested that perforated synapses increase in number after some diseases and experimental situations. The aim of this study was to analyze whether dopamine depletion induces changes in the synaptology of the corpus striatum of rats after the unilateral injection of 6-OHDA. The findings suggest that after the lesion, both contralateral and ipsilateral striata exhibit an increased length of the synaptic ending in ipsilateral (since third day) and contralateral striatum (since Day 20), loss of axospinous synapses in ipsilateral striatum and a significant increment in the number of perforated synapses, suggesting brain plasticity that might be deleterious for the spines, because this type of synaptic contacts are presumably excitatory, and in the absence of the modulatory effects of dopamine, the neuron could die through excitotoxic mechanisms. Thus, we can conclude that the presence of perforated synapses after striatal dopamine depletion might be a form of maladaptive synaptic plasticity. PMID:25246608

Anaya-Martínez, Verónica; Gutierrez-Valdez, Ana Luisa; Ordoñez-Librado, Jose Luis; Montiel-Flores, Enrique; Sánchez-Betancourt, Javier; Sánchez Vázquez Del Mercado, César; Reynoso-Erazo, Leonardo; Tron-Alvarez, Rocío; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa



LRRK2 R1441G mice are more liable to dopamine depletion and locomotor inactivity  

PubMed Central

Objective Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) pose a significant genetic risk in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). R1441 mutation (R1441G/C) in its GTPase domain is found in familial PD. How LRRK2 interacts with synaptic proteins, and its role in dopamine (DA) homeostasis and synaptic vesicle recycling remain unclear. Methods To explore the pathogenic effects of LRRK2R1441G mutation on nigrostriatal synaptic nerve terminals and locomotor activity, we generated C57BL/6N mice with homozygous LRRK2R1441G knockin (KI) mutation, and examined for early changes in nigrostriatal region, striatal synaptosomal [3H]-DA uptake and locomotor activity after reserpine-induced DA depletion. Results Under normal conditions, mutant mice showed no differences, (1) in amount and morphology of nigrostriatal DA neurons and neurites, (2) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), DA uptake transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) expression in striatum, (3) COX IV, LC3B, Beclin-1 expression in midbrain, (4) LRRK2 expression in total cell lysate from whole brain, (5) ?-synuclein, ubiquitin, and tau protein immunostaining in midbrain, (6) locomotor activity, compared to wild-type controls. However, after a single intraperitoneal reserpine dose, striatal synaptosomes from young 3-month-old mutant mice demonstrated significantly lower DA uptake with impaired locomotor activity and significantly slower recovery from the effects of reserpine. Interpretation Although no abnormal phenotype was observed in mutant LRRK2R1441G mice, the KI mutation increases vulnerability to reserpine-induced striatal DA depletion and perturbed DA homeostasis resulting in presynaptic dysfunction and locomotor deficits with impaired recovery from reserpine. This subtle nigrostriatal synaptic vulnerability may reflect one of the earliest pathogenic processes in LRRK2-associated PD. PMID:25356398

Liu, Hui-Fang; Lu, Song; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Tse, Ho-Man; Pang, Shirley Yin-Yu; Kung, Michelle Hiu-Wai; Ho, Jessica Wing-Man; Ramsden, David B; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Ho, Shu-Leong



Effects of asymmetric dopamine depletion on sensitivity to rewarding and aversive stimuli in Parkinson's disease.  


The onset and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms is generally asymmetric, reflecting differential extent of nigral pathology and resulting dopamine depletion in each of the hemispheres. Given the role of dopamine in processing rewarding and aversive events, and considering findings associating asymmetric neural activity with differential sensitivity to positive and negative stimuli, the current study examined the possibility that dopamine asymmetry in PD is related to differential approach and avoidance tendencies. An original task assessing and comparing sensitivity to positive and negative probabilistic feedback was administered to 29 right-handed participants with idiopathic PD, 16 with predominant right-side and 13 with predominant left-side motor symptoms, to compare the two groups. As dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) has shown different effects on reward and punishment processing, all participants were assessed in both off- and on-medication states. As predicted, when off medication, participants with relatively greater dopamine deficit in the left hemisphere minimized losses better than they increased gains, while those with a greater right hemisphere deficit showed a trend toward the opposite pattern. Medication reversed the relationship between gain and loss sensitivity in the left-hemisphere PD group, but not in the right-hemisphere group. Particularly in the left-hemisphere PD group, findings support the possibility that subcortical dopaminergic asymmetry is reflected in behaviorally-expressed approach and avoidance tendencies. Furthermore, the effects of DRT on approach and avoidance appear to interact with asymmetry, shedding light on previous conclusions regarding the role of dopamine in reinforcement processing. PMID:23422331

Maril, Sari; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Cohen, Oren S; Tomer, Rachel



Effects of haloperidol and SCH 23390 on acoustic startle in animals depleted of dopamine as neonates: implications for neuropsychiatric syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals depleted of dopamine (DA) in the neonatal period and tested in adulthood exhibit some similarities to patients with schizophrenia, including increased sensitivity to DA agonists, altered sensitivity to DA receptor antagonists, and abnormalities of the acoustic startle response (ASR). In this study, we examined the contributions of D1-like and D2-like DA receptors to ASR measures in animals depleted of

S. B. Schwarzkopf; J. R. Ison; J. P. Bruno; T. Mitra



Neural correlates of sleepiness induced by catecholamine depletion  

PubMed Central

Although extensive indirect evidence exists to suggest that the central dopaminergic system plays a significant role in the modulation of arousal, the functional effect of the dopaminergic influence on the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear. Thirteen healthy volunteers and 15 unmedicated subjects with a history of major depressive disorder underwent catecholamine depletion (CD) using oral alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. The main outcome measures in both sessions were sleepiness (Stanford-Sleepiness-Scale), cerebral glucose metabolism (positron emission tomography), and serum prolactin concentration. CD consistently induced clinically relevant sleepiness in both groups (p<0.0001). The CD-induced prolactin increase correlated with CD-induced sleepiness (r=0.71, p<0.0001) but not with CD-induced mood and anxiety symptoms (p?0.2). CD-induced sleepiness correlated with CD-induced increases in metabolism in the medial and orbital frontal cortex, bilateral superior temporal cortex, left insula, cingulate motor area and in the vicinity of the periaqueductal gray. This study suggests that the association between dopamine depletion and sleepiness is independent of the brain reward system and the risk for depression. The visceromotor system, the cingulate motor area, the periaqueductal gray and the caudal hypothalamus may mediate the impact of the dopaminergic system on regulation of wakefulness and sleep. PMID:21872452

Meyers, Noah; Fromm, Stephen; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Drevets, Wayne C.; Hasler, Gregor



Mesocortical dopamine depletion and anxiety-related behavior in the rat: sex and hemisphere differences.  


The mesocortical dopamine (DA) system of the rat plays an important role in prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulation of stress and emotion and exhibits functional hemispheric asymmetry for such processing. Since few studies examine sex differences in this context, we compared the effects of left vs. right unilateral PFC DA depletion in males and females in several behavioral situations associated with anxiety or aversion. Adult rats received unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle in the ventromedial (vm) PFC. Behavioral tests included a predator odor burying test, elevated plus maze and sucrose consumption with simple taste aversion. Tissue analysis confirmed that vmPFCs injected with 6-OHDA were depleted of DA (75-85%) compared to controls. Burying behavior and sucrose consumption were affected only by left lesions, similarly in both sexes. However, risk assessment behaviors were affected by right lesions in opposite directions in males and females. Behaviors modified preferentially by the left cortex thus showed less evidence of sex differences than those modulated by the right. While mesocortical DA depletion effects are lateralized, the nature of these effects can vary with sex and specific behavior. Such findings may be clinically significant, given the large gender differences in the incidence of mood and anxiety disorders, which also show many lateralized prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:24819821

Sullivan, R M; Dufresne, M M; Siontas, D; Chehab, S; Townsend, J; Laplante, F



Dopamine induced hypoxemia in patients with left heart failure.  


Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that dopamine produces a significant decrease in arterial PO2 and a mild increase in arterial PCO2 in patients with left heart failure. The present investigations were designed to find out dopamine-induced effects impairing gas exchange. In patients with left heart failure and pulmonary congestion the true pulmonary shunt has been determined by O2-breathing. A statistically significant increase of true shunting could be evaluated. However, from calculations of the components composing AaDO2-air it can be demonstrated that most of dopamine-dependent increase of AaDO2-air is due to an elevated diffusion-distribution gradient. This dopamine effect on arterial PO2 does not limit dopamine application because oxygen administration will outrange the side effect. As changes of ventilation did not occur dopamine is assumed to open up pulmonary vessels producing blood flow in poorly ventilated parts of the lungs and causing an increased disturbance of ventilation/perfusion ratio. The increased true pulmonary shunt can be regarded as result of perfusion of totally unventilated lung areas when dopamine is infused. Haloperidol can attenuate dopamine-dependent decrease in arterial PO2. How haloperidol abolishes this dopamine effect on arterial oxygen tension remains unknown. PMID:1002356

Huckauf, H; Ramdohr, B; Schröder, R




PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive drug that is also neurotoxic to central dopamine (DA) systems. Although striatal DA depletions induced by METH are associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments, the link between these phenomena remains poorly understood. Previous work in both METH-pretreated animals and the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson’s disease suggests that a disruption of phasic DA signaling, which is important for learning and goal-directed behavior, may be such a link. However, prior studies used electrical stimulation to elicit phasic-like DA responses and were also performed under anesthesia, which alters DA neuron activity and presynaptic function. Here we investigated the consequences of METH-induced DA terminal loss on both electrically evoked phasic-like DA signals and so-called “spontaneous” phasic DA transients measured by voltammetry in awake rats. Not ostensibly attributable to discrete stimuli, these sub-second DA changes may play a role in enhancing reward-cue associations. METH-pretreatment reduced tissue DA content in the dorsomedial striatum and nucleus accumbens by ~55%. Analysis of phasic-like DA responses elicited by reinforcing stimulation revealed that METH pretreatment decreased their amplitude and underlying mechanisms for release and uptake to a similar degree as DA content in both striatal subregions. Most importantly, characteristics of DA transients were altered by METH-induced DA terminal loss, with amplitude and frequency decreased and duration increased. These results demonstrate for the first time that denervation of DA neurons alters naturally occurring DA transients and are consistent with diminished phasic DA signaling as a plausible mechanism linking METH-induced striatal DA depletions and cognitive deficits. PMID:23574406

Howard, Christopher D.; Daberkow, David P.; Ramsson, Eric S.; Keefe, Kristen A.; Garris, Paul A.



Cognitive effects of dopamine depletion in the context of diminished acetylcholine signaling capacity in mice  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A subset of patients with Parkinson’s disease acquires a debilitating dementia characterized by severe cognitive impairments (i.e. Parkinson’s disease dementia; PDD). Brains from PDD patients show extensive cholinergic loss as well as dopamine (DA) depletion. We used a mutant mouse model to directly test whether combined cholinergic and DA depletion leads to a cognitive profile resembling PDD. Mice carrying heterozygous deletion of the high-affinity, hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter (CHTHET) show reduced levels of acetylcholine throughout the brain. We achieved bilateral DA depletion in CHTHET and wild-type (WT) littermates via intra-striatal infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), or used vehicle as control. Executive function and memory were evaluated using rodent versions of cognitive tasks commonly used with human subjects: the set-shifting task and spatial and novel-object recognition paradigms. Our studies revealed impaired acquisition of attentional set in the set-shifting paradigm in WT-6OHDA and CHTHET-vehicle mice that was exacerbated in the CHTHET-6OHDA mice. The object recognition test following a 24-hour delay was also impaired in CHTHET-6OHDA mice compared with all other groups. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors physostigmine (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) and donepezil (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) reversed the impaired object recognition of the CHTHET-6OHDA mice. Our data demonstrate an exacerbated cognitive phenotype with dual ACh and DA depletion as compared with either insult alone, with traits analogous to those observed in PDD patients. The results suggest that combined loss of DA and ACh could be sufficient for pathogenesis of specific cognitive deficits in PDD. PMID:22864020

Zurkovsky, Lilia; Bychkov, Evgeny; Tsakem, Elviche L.; Siedlecki, Carley; Blakely, Randy D.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.



Alteration of Daily and Circadian Rhythms following Dopamine Depletion in MPTP Treated Non-Human Primates  

PubMed Central

Disturbances of the daily sleep/wake cycle are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of dopamine (DA) depletion on circadian rhythms in PD patients or non-human primate (NHP) models of the disorder have not been investigated. We evaluated alterations of circadian rhythms in NHP following MPTP lesion of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal system. DA degeneration was assessed by in vivo PET ([11C]-PE2I) and post-mortem TH and DAT quantification. In a light?dark cycle, control and MPTP-treated NHP both exhibit rest-wake locomotor rhythms, although DA-depleted NHP show reduced amplitude, decreased stability and increased fragmentation. In all animals, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin peaks at night and cortisol in early morning. When the circadian system is challenged by exposure to constant light, controls retain locomotor rest-wake and hormonal rhythms that free-run with stable phase relationships whereas in the DA-depleted NHP, locomotor rhythms are severely disturbed or completely abolished. The amplitude and phase relations of hormonal rhythms nevertheless remain unaltered. Use of a light-dark masking paradigm shows that expression of daily rest-wake activity in MPTP monkeys requires the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of light and darkness. These results suggest that following DA lesion, the central clock in the SCN remains intact but, in the absence of environmental timing cues, is unable to drive downstream rhythmic processes of striatal clock gene and dopaminergic functions that control locomotor output. These findings suggest that the circadian component of the sleep-wake disturbances in PD is more profoundly affected than previously assumed. PMID:24465981

Fifel, Karim; Vezoli, Julien; Dzahini, Kwamivi; Claustrat, Bruno; Leviel, Vincent; Kennedy, Henry; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M.



Deletion of Go2? abolishes cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization by disturbing the striatal dopamine system  

PubMed Central

The ?-subunits of the trimeric Go class of GTPases, comprising the splice variants Go1? and Go2?, are abundantly expressed in brain and reside on both plasma membrane and synaptic vesicles. Go2? is involved in the vesicular storage of monoamines but its physiological relevance is still obscure. We now show that genetic depletion of Go2? reduces motor activity induced by dopamine-enhancing drugs like cocaine, as repeated injections of cocaine fail to provoke behavioral sensitization in Go2??/? mice. In Go2??/? mice, D1 receptor signaling in the striatum is attenuated due to a reduced expression of Golf? and Gs?. Following cocaine treatment, Go2??/? mice have lower D1 and higher D2 receptor amounts compared to wild-type mice. The lack of behavioral sensitization correlates with reduced dopamine levels in the striatum and decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase. One reason for the neurochemical changes may be a reduced uptake of monoamines by synaptic vesicles from Go2??/? mice as a consequence of a lowered set point for filling. We conclude that Go2? optimizes vesicular filling which is instrumental for normal dopamine functioning and for the development of drug-induced behavioral sensitization.—Brunk, I., Blex, C., Sanchis-Segura, C., Sternberg, J., Perreau-Lenz, S., Bilbao, A., Hörtnagl, H., Baron, J., Juranek, J., Laube, G., Birnbaumer, L., Spanagel, R., Ahnert-Hilger, G. Deletion of Go2? abolishes cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization by disturbing the striatal dopamine system. PMID:18606864

Brunk, Irene; Blex, Christian; Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Sternberg, Jan; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Hortnagl, Heide; Baron, Jens; Juranek, Judyta; Laube, Gregor; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Spanagel, Rainer; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun



Lack of evidence for reduced prefrontal cortical serotonin and dopamine efflux after acute tryptophan depletion  

PubMed Central

Rationale Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a widely used method to study the role of serotonin (5-HT) in affect and cognition. ATD results in a strong but transient decrease in plasma tryptophan and central 5-HT synthesis and availability. Although its use is widespread, the evidence that the numerous functional effects of ATD are caused by actual changes in 5-HT neuronal release is not very strong. Thus far, decreases in 5-HT efflux (thought to reflect synaptic release) were only reported after chronic tryptophan depletion or when ATD was combined with blockade of 5-HT reuptake. Objective With the current experiment, we aimed to study the validity of the method of ATD by measuring the extent to which it reduces the efflux of 5-HT (and dopamine) in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of reuptake blockage. Materials and methods We simultaneously measured in freely moving animals plasma tryptophan via a catheter in the jugular vein and 5-HT and DA efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex through microdialysis after ATD treatment. Results ATD reduced plasma tryptophan to less than 30% of control, without affecting 5-HT or DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex, indicating that even strong reductions of plasma tryptophan do not necessarily result in decreases in central 5-HT efflux. Conclusion The present experiment showed that reductions in plasma tryptophan, similar to values associated with behavioural effects, do not necessarily reduce 5-HT efflux and suggest that the cognitive and behavioural effects of ATD may not be (exclusively) due to alterations in 5-HT release. PMID:17713760

Meerkerk, Dorie (T). J.; Lieben, Cindy K. J.; Blokland, Arjan; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.



A single high dose of methamphetamine increases cocaine self-administration by depletion of striatal dopamine in rats.  


Psychostimulant addicts often take high doses of drugs, and high doses of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (METH) are neurotoxic to striatal dopamine (DA) terminals. Yet, the effects of high doses of METH on drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior have not been examined. In the present study, we found that single high doses of METH in rats (10-20 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased cocaine self-administration under fixed-ratio 2 (FR2) reinforcement conditions, while higher doses (40 mg/kgx1 or 10 mg/kg/2 hx4) caused high mortality among rats maintained on daily cocaine self-administration. The increased cocaine self-administration appeared to be a compensatory response to reduced cocaine reward after METH, because the same doses of METH caused a dose-dependent reduction both in "break-point" levels for cocaine self-administration under progressive-ratio reinforcement and in nucleus accumbens DA response to acute cocaine. Further, METH (10-20 mg/kg) produced large DA release (4000%-6000% over baseline), followed by a significant reduction in striatal DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) contents, but without significant changes in striatal DA transporter levels. These findings suggest that the present high doses of METH caused striatal DA depletion or hypofunction without severe damage in DA terminals, which may contribute to the increased cocaine-taking behavior observed in the present study. Provided that the present doses of METH may mimic METH overdose incidents in humans, the present findings suggest that METH-induced DA depletion or neurotoxicity may lead to an increase in subsequent drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. PMID:19336247

Xi, Z-X; Kleitz, H K; Deng, X; Ladenheim, B; Peng, X-Q; Li, X; Gardner, E L; Stein, E A; Cadet, J L



Dopamine in vivo inhibits VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, MAPK, and focal adhesion kinase in endothelial cells.  


Vascular permeability factor (VPF)/VEGF is a potent multifunctional cytokine and growth factor that has critical roles in vasculogenesis and in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Because it has been recently shown that the neurotransmitter dopamine at pharmacological dose can inhibit VEGF/VPF-mediated microvascular permeability, proliferation, and migration of endothelial cells in vitro, we therefore hypothesized that endogenous dopamine may regulate the actions of VPF/VEGF in vivo. We report that VPF/VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2, focal adhesion kinase, and MAPK in the endothelial cells is strikingly increased in both dopamine-depleted and dopamine D(2) receptor knockout mice compared with normal controls, thereby indicating that endogenous dopamine regulate these critical signaling cascades required for the in vivo endothelial functions of VPF/VEGF. Together, these observations provide new mechanistic insight into the dopamine-mediated inhibition of the activities of VPF/VEGF and suggest that endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine might be an important physiological regulator of VPF/VEGF activities in vivo. PMID:15371263

Sarkar, Chandrani; Chakroborty, Debanjan; Mitra, Rita Basu; Banerjee, Samir; Dasgupta, Partha Sarathi; Basu, Sujit



Dopamine inhibits cell swelling-induced prolactin secretion in MMQ cells by blocking Ca2+ influx.  


To evaluate the role of Ca2+ influx on hormone secretion induced by cell swelling, we have utilized a prolactin (PRL)-secreting rat tumor cell line, MMQ, which has plasmalemma dopamine receptors. Medium hyposmolarity or osmotically equivalent isotonic urea caused prompt cell swelling and a rise in both [Ca2+]i and PRL secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Dopamine inhibited the induced increase in both [Ca2+]i and PRL secretion in a dose-dependent manner but the maximum inhibition was only 50%. This effect of dopamine was prevented by haloperidol. Depletion of medium Ca2+ or blocking Ca2+ influx with nifedipine completely abolished the osmotically induced rise in both [Ca2+]i and PRL secretion. These data indicate that Ca2+ influx through nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channels is an essential component of PRL secretion induced by osmotic cell swelling in MMQ cells and that a dopaminergic receptor-linked mechanism influences the opening of these channels. PMID:1662167

Sato, N; Wang, X B; Greer, M A



Dopamine and Pain Sensitivity: Neither Sulpiride nor Acute Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Depletion Have Effects on Thermal Pain Sensations in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Based on animal studies and some indirect clinical evidence, dopamine has been suggested to have anti-nociceptive effects. Here, we investigated directly the effects of increased and decreased availability of extracellular dopamine on pain perception in healthy volunteers. In Study 1, participants ingested, in separate sessions, a placebo and a low dose of the centrally acting D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride, intended to increase synaptic dopamine via predominant pre-synaptic blockade. No effects were seen on thermal pain thresholds, tolerance, or temporal summation. Study 2 used the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) method to transiently decrease dopamine availability. In one session participants ingested a mixture that depletes the dopamine amino acid precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine. In the other session they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture. APTD led to a small mood-lowering response following aversive thermal stimulation, but had no effects on the perception of cold, warm, or pain stimuli. In both studies the experimental manipulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission was successful as indicated by manipulation checks. The results contradict proposals that dopamine has direct anti-nociceptive effects in acute experimental pain. Based on dopamine’s well-known role in reward processing, we hypothesize that also in the context of pain, dopamine acts on stimulus salience and might play a role in the initiation of avoidance behavior rather than having direct antinociceptive effects in acute experimental pain. PMID:24236199

Becker, Susanne; Ceko, Marta; Louis-Foster, Mytsumi; Elfassy, Nathaniel M.; Leyton, Marco; Shir, Yoram; Schweinhardt, Petra



Nifedipine prevents iron accumulation and reverses iron-overload-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra of rats.  


The mechanisms of iron accumulation in substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's diseases remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of nifedipine on iron-overload-induced iron accumulation and neurodegeneration in SN of rats. By high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, and iron content array, we first quantified iron content and the number of dopamine neurons in SN of experimental rats treated with iron dextran. We further assessed effects of treatment with nifedipine. Our results showed that nifedipine treatment prevents iron dextran-induced dopamine depletion in the striatum. Consistently, we found that nifedipine restores the number of TH-positive neurons reduced by iron dextran overload and prevents increase of iron content in the SN. These results suggested that nifedipine may suppress iron toxicity in dopamine neurons and prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:22259026

Ma, ZeGang; Zhou, Yu; Xie, JunXia



From anticipation to action, the role of dopamine in perceptual decision making: an fMRI-tyrosine depletion study.  


During simple sensorimotor decision making, neurons in the parietal cortex extract evidence from sensory information provided by visual areas until a decision is reached. Contextual information can bias parietal activity during the task and change the decision-making parameters. One type of contextual information is the availability of reward for correct decisions. We tested the hypothesis that the frontal lobes and basal ganglia use contextual information to bias decision making to maximize reward. Human volunteers underwent functional MRI while making decisions about the motion of dots on a computer monitor. On rewarded trials, subjects responded more slowly by increasing the threshold to decision. Rewarded trials were associated with activation in the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex in the period preceding coherent dot motion, and the degree of activation predicted the increased decision threshold. Decreasing dopamine transmission, using a tyrosine-depleting amino acid mixture, abolished the reward-related corticostriatal activation and eliminated the correlation between striatal activity and decision threshold. These observations provide direct evidence that some reward-related functional MRI signals in the striatum are the result of dopamine neuron activity and demonstrate that mesolimbic dopamine transmission can influence perceptual and decision-making neural processes engaged to maximize reward harvest. PMID:22552189

Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Cisek, Paul; Perna, Andrea S; Shirdel, Fatemeh Z; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco; Dagher, Alain



Rat globus pallidus neurons: Functional classification and effects of dopamine depletion.  


The rat globus pallidus (GP) is homologous to the primate GP externus. Studies with injectable anesthetics suggest that GP neurons can be classified into Type-I and Type-II cells based on extracellularly recorded spike shape, or positively coupled (PC), negatively coupled (NC), and uncoupled (UC) cells based on functional connectivity with the cortex. In this study, we examined the electrophysiology of rat GP neurons using the inhalational anesthetic isoflurane which offers more constant and easily regulated levels of anesthesia than injectable anesthetics. In 130 GP neurons recorded using small-tip glass electrodes (<1 ?m), all but one fired Type-II spikes (positive/negative waveform). Type-I cells were unlikely to be inhibited by isoflurane since all GP neurons also fired Type-II spikes under ketamine-induced anesthesia. When recorded with large-tip electrodes (?2 ?m), however, over 70% of GP neurons exhibited Type-I spikes (negative/positive waveform). These results suggest that the spike shape, recorded extracellularly, varies depending on the electrode used and is not reliable in distinguishing Type-I and Type-II neurons. Using dual-site recording, 40% of GP neurons were identified as PC cells, 17.5% NC cells, and 42.5% UC cells. The three subtypes also differed significantly in firing rate and pattern. Lesions of dopamine neurons increased the number of NC cells, decreased that of UC cells, and significantly shifted the phase relationship between PC cells and the cortex. These results support the presence of GP neuron subtypes and suggest that each subtype plays a different role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Synapse 69:41-51, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25196543

Karain, Brad; Xu, Dan; Bellone, John A; Hartman, Richard E; Shi, Wei-Xing



Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography Imaging of Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in Drug-Free Schizophrenic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission is associated with this illness, but direct observation of abnormalities of dopamine function in schizophrenia has remained elusive. We used a newly developed single photon emission computerized tomography method to measure amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the striatum of fifteen patients with schizophrenia and fifteen healthy controls. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release

Marc Laruelle; Anissa Abi-Dargham; Christopher H. van Dyck; Roberto Gil; Cyril D. D'Souza; Joseph Erdos; Elinore McCance; William Rosenblatt; Christine Fingado; Sami S. Zoghbi; Ronald M. Baldwin; John P. Seibyl; John H. Krystal; Dennis S. Charney; Robert B. Innis



Activation of D1 Dopamine Receptors Induces Emergence from Isoflurane General Anesthesia  

E-print Network

Background: A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the ...

Taylor, Norman E.


Subthalamotomy-induced changes in dopamine receptors in parkinsonian monkeys.  


Subthalamotomy allows a reduction of doses of l-DOPA in dyskinetic patients while its antiparkinsonian benefits are preserved. However, the mechanisms of the potentiation of this response to medication remain to be elucidated. Hence, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors as well as the dopamine transporter were investigated using receptor binding autoradiography. D1 and D2 receptors as well as preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin mRNA levels were measured by in situ hybridization. Four dyskinetic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) parkinsonian monkeys that underwent unilateral subthalamotomy were compared to four controls, four saline-treated and four l-DOPA-treated MPTP monkeys. Dopamine, its metabolites and its transporter were extensively and similarly decreased in all parkinsonian monkeys. D1 receptor specific binding was decreased in the striatum of all MPTP monkeys. The l-DOPA-induced decrease in D1 receptor specific binding was reversed in the striatum ipsilateral to subthalamotomy. D1 receptor mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. D2 receptor specific binding and mRNA levels remained unchanged in all groups. Striatal preproenkephalin mRNA levels were overall increased in MPTP monkeys; the STN-lesioned parkinsonian group had significantly lower values than the saline-treated and l-DOPA-treated parkinsonian monkeys in the dorsolateral putamen. Striatal preprodynorphin mRNA levels remained unchanged in MPTP monkeys compared to controls whereas it increased in all monkeys treated with l-DOPA compared to controls; subthalamotomy induced a decrease in the dorsolateral putamen ipsilateral to surgery. The improved motor response to l-DOPA after subthalamotomy in the parkinsonian monkeys investigated may be associated with an increased synthesis and expression of D1 receptors ipsilateral to STN lesion of the direct pathway. PMID:25172808

Jourdain, Vincent A; Morin, Nicolas; Morissette, Marc; Grégoire, Laurent; Di Paolo, Thérèse



Phosphodiesterase 10A controls D1-mediated facilitation of GABA release from striato-nigral projections under normal and dopamine-depleted conditions.  


In the present study, we found that PDE10A inhibitor papaverine, alone or in combination with the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393, did not change spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) frequency or amplitude in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr). An increase in frequency, but not in amplitude, of sIPSCs was only observed when SKF38393 and PDE10A inhibitors were associated to perfusion with higher extracellular K(+). On the other hand, the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) of the striato-nigral projection to SNpr, was increased in response to co-administration of SKF38393 and papaverine in normal extracellular potassium. Of note, both an increase in sIPSCs frequency and eIPSC amplitude could be obtained either by a robust stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) with forskolin (10 ?M) or by a lower dose of forskolin (1 ?M) associated to PDE inhibition. We next investigated the effects produced by dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum. Under this condition, SKF38393 alone increased either sIPSCs frequency and eIPSC amplitude. In addition, in the striatum of DA-depleted mice we found reduced PDE10A levels and higher cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation. In accordance with these biochemical data, perfusion with papaverine had no effect on the SKF38393-induced changes of IPSCs in slices of DA-depleted mice. These findings reveal a dynamic interplay between PDE10A activity, level of neuronal network depolarization and degree of dopaminergic tone in the ability of D1 receptors to facilitate the GABAergic transmission to SNpr neurons from the direct nigro-striatal pathway. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'. PMID:23973317

Mango, Dalila; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Ledonne, Ada; Nisticò, Robert; Castelli, Valentina; Giorgi, Mauro; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Fisone, Gilberto; Berretta, Nicola; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio



Testosterone Induces Molecular Changes in Dopamine Signaling Pathway Molecules in the Adolescent Male Rat Nigrostriatal Pathway  

PubMed Central

Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase), transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), dopamine transporter (DAT)] and receptors (DRD1-D5)] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17?-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen receptor-driven events as estradiol had minimal effect. We conclude that nigrostriatal responsivity to dopamine may be modulated by testosterone acting via androgen receptors to alter gene expression of molecules involved in dopamine signaling during adolescence. PMID:24618531

Purves-Tyson, Tertia D.; Owens, Samantha J.; Double, Kay L.; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon



Dopamine D1 receptors mediate dopamine-induced duodenal epithelial ion transport in rats.  


Dopamine (DA) is synthesized in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and performs important regulatory effects on the duodenal mucosa. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study investigated the effect of DA on the duodenal epithelial ion transport in rats by means of short-circuit current (ISC), real-time pH titration, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that basolateral, but not apical, application of DA induced a concentration-dependent ISC downward deflection with an apparent IC50 of 5.34 ?mol/L. Basolateral application of dopaminergic receptor D1 (D1) antagonist, SCH-23390, inhibited DA-induced change in ISC (?ISC) in a dose-dependent manner. D1 agonist, SKF38393, mimicked the effect of DA on the ISC. The clear immunoreactivity of D1 subtype D5 (D1b) was at the both apical and basolatoral sides of Brunner's glands and intestinal crypts. Basolateral pretreatment with adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL12330A, significantly inhibited DA- and forskolin-induced ?ISC. DA and SKF38393 increased the level of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from 1.55 ± 0.11 to 2.07 ± 0.11 and 5.91 ± 0.25 pmol/L·mg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the serosal DA-induced ?ISC was remarkably inhibited by apical administration of K(+) channel blockers, Ba(2+) and tetraethylammonium, but not by Cl(-) channel blockers. Serosal DA and D1 agonist did not affect duodenal HCO3(-) secretion. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that serosal DA is able to promote rat duodenal epithelial K(+) secretion, not HCO3(-) secretion through D1-mediated and cAMP-dependent pathway. The study provides a new insight in the modulation of DA on the ion transport of duodenal epithelia in rats. PMID:23276732

Feng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yun; Li, Li-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Li-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Fan, Rui-Fang; Song, Jin; Hong, Feng; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jin-Xia



Loss of mitochondrial fission depletes axonal mitochondria in midbrain dopamine neurons.  


Disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the selective degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the normal functions of mitochondrial dynamics in these neurons, especially in axons where degeneration begins, and this makes it difficult to understand the disease process. To study one aspect of mitochondrial dynamics-mitochondrial fission-in mouse DA neurons, we deleted the central fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Drp1 loss rapidly eliminates the DA terminals in the caudate-putamen and causes cell bodies in the midbrain to degenerate and lose ?-synuclein. Without Drp1, mitochondrial mass dramatically decreases, especially in axons, where the mitochondrial movement becomes uncoordinated. However, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subset of midbrain DA neurons characterized by small hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) is spared, despite near complete loss of their axonal mitochondria. Drp1 is thus critical for targeting mitochondria to the nerve terminal, and a disruption in mitochondrial fission can contribute to the preferential death of nigrostriatal DA neurons. PMID:25339743

Berthet, Amandine; Margolis, Elyssa B; Zhang, Jue; Hsieh, Ivy; Zhang, Jiasheng; Hnasko, Thomas S; Ahmad, Jawad; Edwards, Robert H; Sesaki, Hiromi; Huang, Eric J; Nakamura, Ken



Nicotine Decreases Ethanol-induced Dopamine Signaling and Increases Self-administration via Stress Hormones  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases alcohol-induced dopamine responses. The blunted dopamine response was due to increased inhibitory synaptic transmission onto dopamine neurons. Blocking stress hormone receptors prior to nicotine exposure prevented all interactions with alcohol that we measured, including the increased inhibition onto dopamine neurons, the decreased dopamine responses, and the increased alcohol self-administration. These results indicate that nicotine recruits neuroendocrine systems to influence neurotransmission and behavior associated with alcohol reinforcement. PMID:23871233

Doyon, William M.; Dong, Yu; Ostroumov, Alexey; Thomas, Alyse M.; Zhang, Tao A.; Dani, John A.



Imaging of Alcohol-Induced Dopamine Release in Rats: Preliminary Findings With  

E-print Network

Imaging of Alcohol-Induced Dopamine Release in Rats: Preliminary Findings With [11 C]Raclopride PET Microdialysis studies report that systemic alcohol increases extracel- lular dopamine (DA) in the rat striatum positron emission tomography (PET). PET images were acquired in 44 alcohol-nai¨ve male Wistar and alcohol

Morris, Evan D,


Relationship between cocaine-induced subjective effects and dopamine transporter occupancy  

SciTech Connect

The ability of cocaine to occupy the dopamine transporter has been linked to its reinforcing properties. However, such a relationship has not been demonstrated in humans. Methods: Positron Emission Tomography and [C-11]cocaine were used to estimate dopamine transporter occupancies after different doses of cocaine in 18 active cocaine abusers. The ratio of the distribution volume of [C-11]cocaine in striatum to that in cerebellum, which corresponds to Bmax/Kd +1 and is insensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow, was our measure of dopamine transporter availability. In parallel subjective effects were measured to assess the relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and cocaines behavioral effects. Intravenous cocaine produced a significant dose,-dependent blockade of dopamine transporters: 73 % for 0.6 mg/kg; 601/6 for 0.3 mg/kg; 48 % for 0.1 mg/kg iv and 40 % for 0.05 mg/kg. In addition, dopamine transporter occupancies were significantly correlated with cocaine plasma concentration (r = 0.55 p < 0.001). Cocaine also produced dose-dependent increases in self-reported ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} which were significantly correlated with the levels of dopamine transporter blockade. Discussion: These results provide the first documentation in humans that dopamine transporter occupancy is associated with cocaine induced subjective effects. They also suggest that dopamine transporter occupancies equal to or greater than 60% are required to produce significant effects on ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others



Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others



Ethanol- and cocaine-induced locomotion are genetically related to increases in accumbal dopamine  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomical research suggests that interactions between dopamine and glutamate within the mesolimbic dopamine system are involved in both drug-induced locomotor stimulation and addiction. Therefore, genetically determined differences in the locomotor responses to ethanol and cocaine may be related to differences in the effects of these drugs on this system. To test this, we measured drug-induced changes in dopamine and glutamate within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a major target of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, using in-vivo microdialysis in selectively bred FAST and SLOW mouse lines, which were bred for extreme sensitivity (FAST) and insensitivity (SLOW) to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol. These mice also show a genetically correlated difference in stimulant response to cocaine (FAST > SLOW). Single injections of ethanol (2 g/kg) or cocaine (40 mg/kg) resulted in larger increases in dopamine within the NAcc in FAST compared to SLOW mice. There was no effect of either drug on NAcc glutamate levels. These experiments indicate that response of the mesolimbic dopamine system is genetically correlated with sensitivity to ethanol- and cocaine- induced locomotion. Because increased sensitivity to the stimulating effects of ethanol appears to be associated with greater risk for alcohol abuse, genetically determined differences in the mesolimbic dopamine response to ethanol may represent a critical underlying mechanism for increased genetic risk for alcoholism. PMID:19220481

Meyer, Paul J.; Meshul, Charles K.; Phillips, Tamara J.



Cytosolic sulfotransferase 1A3 is induced by dopamine and protects neuronal cells from dopamine toxicity: role of D1 receptor-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coupling.  


Dopamine neurotoxicity is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, and neurons utilize several mechanisms, including uptake and metabolism, to protect them from injury. Metabolism of dopamine involves three enzymes: monoamine oxidase, catechol O-methyltransferase, and sulfotransferase. In primates but not lower order animals, a sulfotransferase (SULT1A3) is present that can rapidly metabolize dopamine to dopamine sulfate. Here, we show that SULT1A3 and a closely related protein SULT1A1 are highly inducible by dopamine. This involves activation of the D1 and NMDA receptors. Both ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcineurin activation are required for induction. Pharmacological agents that inhibited induction or siRNA targeting SULT1A3 significantly increased the susceptibility of cells to dopamine toxicity. Taken together, these results show that dopamine can induce its own metabolism and protect neuron-like cells from damage, suggesting that SULT1A3 activity may be a risk factor for dopamine-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24136195

Sidharthan, Neelima P; Minchin, Rodney F; Butcher, Neville J



Stimulant-induced dopamine increases are markedly blunted in active cocaine abusers.  


Dopamine signaling in nucleus accumbens is essential for cocaine reward. Interestingly, imaging studies have reported blunted dopamine increases in striatum (assessed as reduced binding of [(11)C]raclopride to D2/D3 receptors) in detoxified cocaine abusers. Here, we evaluate whether the blunted dopamine response reflected the effects of detoxification and the lack of cocaine-cues during stimulant exposure. For this purpose we studied 62 participants (43 non-detoxified cocaine abusers and 19 controls) using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (radioligand sensitive to endogenous dopamine) to measure dopamine increases induced by intravenous methylphenidate and in 24 of the cocaine abusers, we also compared dopamine increases when methylphenidate was administered concomitantly with a cocaine cue-video versus a neutral-video. In controls, methylphenidate increased dopamine in dorsal (effect size 1.4; P<0.001) and ventral striatum (location of accumbens) (effect size 0.89; P<0.001), but in cocaine abusers methylphenidate's effects did not differ from placebo and were similar whether cocaine-cues were present or not. In cocaine abusers despite the markedly attenuated dopaminergic effects, the methylphenidate-induced changes in ventral striatum were associated with intense drug craving. Our findings are consistent with markedly reduced signaling through D2 receptors during intoxication in active cocaine abusers regardless of cues exposure, which might contribute to compulsive drug use. PMID:24912491

Volkow, N D; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alexoff, D L; Jayne, M; Fowler, J S; Wong, C; Yin, P; Du, C



The Roles of Dopamine Transport Inhibition and Dopamine Release Facilitation in Wake Enhancement and Rebound Hypersomnolence Induced by Dopaminergic Agents  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Rebound hypersomnolence (RHS: increased sleep following increased wake) is a limiting side-effect of many wake-promoting agents. In particular, RHS in the first few hours following wake appears to be associated with dopamine (DA)-releasing agents, e.g., amphetamine, but whether it can also be produced by DA transporter (DAT) inhibition alone is unknown. In these studies, DA-releasing and DAT-inhibiting agents and their interaction were systematically examined for their ability to increase wake and induce RHS. Design: Chronically implanted rats were evaluated in a blinded, pseudo-randomized design. Participants: 237 rats were used in these studies with 1 week between repeat tests. Interventions: Animals were habituated overnight and dosed the next day, 5 h after lights on, with test agents. Measurements and Results: Sleep/wake activity and RHS were evaluated using EEG/EMG recording up to 22 h post dosing. In vitro dopamine release was evaluated in rat synaptosomes. At doses that produced equal increases in wake, DA-releasing (amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine) and several DAT-inhibiting agents (cocaine, bupropion, and methylphenidate) produced RHS during the first few hours after the onset of sleep recovery. However, other DAT-inhibiting agents (mazindol, nomifensine, GBR-12909, and GBR-12935) did not produce RHS. Combination treatment with amphetamine and nomifensine produced waking activity greater than the sum of their individual activities alone while ameliorating the amphetamine-like RHS. In rat synaptosomes, nomifensine reduced the potency of amphetamine to induce DA release ?270-fold, potentially explaining its action in ameliorating amphetamine-induced RHS. Conclusions: All DA releasing agents tested, and some DAT-inhibiting agents, produced RHS at equal wake-promoting doses. Thus amphetamine-like DA release appears sufficient for inducing RHS, but additional properties (pharmacologic and/or pharmacokinetic) evidently underlie RHS of other DAT inhibitors. Enhancing wake while mitigating RHS can be achieved by combining DAT-inhibiting and DA-releasing agents. Citation: Gruner JA; Marcy VR; LinYG; Bozyczko-Coyne D; Marino MJ; Gasior M. The roles of dopamine transport inhibition and dopamine release facilitation in wake enhancement and rebound hypersomnolence induced by dopaminergic agents. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1425-1438. PMID:19928382

Gruner, John A.; Marcy, Val R.; Lin, Yin-Guo; Bozyczko-Coyne, Donna; Marino, Michael J.; Gasior, Maciej



Selective Effects of Dopamine Depletion and L-DOPA Therapy on Learning-Related Firing Dynamics of Striatal Neurons  

E-print Network

Despite evidence that dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum is critical for learning as well as for movement control, little is yet known about how the learning-related dynamics of striatal activity are affected by ...

Hernandez, Ledia F.


Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function  

SciTech Connect

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 {mu}M) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 {mu}M) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 {mu}M) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD.

Elwan, Mohamed A. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Richardson, Jason R. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Guillot, Thomas S. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Caudle, W. Michael [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Miller, Gary W. [Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States) and Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail:



Quantification of Depletion-Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. The formation of rouleaux can also be induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC suspension. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly originate from indirect measurements such as flow chamber experiments, but data is lacking at the single cell level. Here, we present measurements on the dextran-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy. The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs were determined. The results on adhesion energy are in excellent agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and previous experimental studies. Furthermore, our method allowed to determine the adhesion force, a quantity that is needed in theoretical investigations on blood flow.

Steffen, P.; Verdier, C.; Wagner, C.



Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a depressed level of desire for action, associated with decreased blood flow in prefrontal, cerebellar and subcortical regions, structures thought to

Troels W Kjaer; Camilla Bertelsen; Paola Piccini; David Brooks; Jørgen Alving; Hans C Lou



?9Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Dopamine Release in the Human Striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of cannabis on mental health receives growing scientific and political attention. An increasing demand for treatment of cannabis dependence has refueled the discussion about the addictive potential of cannabis. A key feature of all addictive drugs is the ability to increase synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum, a mechanism involved in their rewarding and motivating effects. However, it

Matthijs G Bossong; Bart NM van Berckel; Ronald Boellaard; Lineke Zuurman; Robert C Schuit; Albert D Windhorst; Joop M A van Gerven; Nick F Ramsey; Adriaan A Lammertsma; René S Kahn



Effects of pharmacologic dopamine ?-hydroxylase inhibition on cocaine-induced reinstatement and dopamine neurochemistry in squirrel monkeys.  


Disulfiram has shown promise as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence in clinical settings, although it has many targets, and the behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying its efficacy are unclear. One of many biochemical actions of disulfiram is inhibition of dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons. Thus, disulfiram simultaneously reduces NE and elevates DA tissue levels in the brain. In rats, both disulfiram and the selective DBH inhibitor nepicastat block cocaine-primed reinstatement, a paradigm which is thought to model some aspects of drug relapse. This is consistent with some clinical results and supports the use of DBH inhibitors for the treatment of cocaine dependence. The present study was conducted to confirm and extend these results in nonhuman primates. Squirrel monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine were pretreated with disulfiram or nepicastat prior to cocaine-induced reinstatement sessions. Neither DBH inhibitor altered cocaine-induced reinstatement. Unexpectedly, nepicastat administered alone induced a modest reinstatement effect in squirrel monkeys, but not in rats. To investigate the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the behavioral results, the effects of DBH inhibition on extracellular DA were analyzed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) using in vivo microdialysis in squirrel monkeys. Both DBH inhibitors attenuated cocaine-induced DA overflow in the NAc. Hence, the attenuation of cocaine-induced changes in accumbal DA neurochemistry was not associated with altered cocaine-seeking behavior. Overall, the reported behavioral effects of DBH inhibition in rodent models of relapse did not extend to nonhuman primates under the conditions used in the current studies. PMID:24817036

Cooper, Debra A; Kimmel, Heather L; Manvich, Daniel F; Schmidt, Karl T; Weinshenker, David; Howell, Leonard L



Effects of adolescent social defeat on adult amphetamine-induced locomotion and corticoaccumbal dopamine release in male rats  

PubMed Central

Maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress during this period results in behavioral dysfunction including substance abuse disorders. Adult male rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit reduced basal dopamine tissue content in the medial prefrontal cortex, altered dopamine tissue content in corticoaccumbal dopamine regions following acute amphetamine, and increased amphetamine conditioned place preference following repeated amphetamine treatment. Such changes may reflect altered amphetamine-induced extracellular dopamine release in the corticoaccumbal regions. Therefore, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure extracellular dopamine simultaneously within the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core of previously defeated rats and controls, in response to either acute or repeated (7 daily injections) of amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg). Locomotion responses to acute / repeated amphetamine were also assessed the day prior to taking dopamine measurements. Adolescent defeat potentiated adult locomotion responses to acute amphetamine, which was negatively correlated with attenuated amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex, but there was no difference in amphetamine-induced accumbal dopamine release. However, both locomotion and corticoaccumbal dopamine responses to repeated amphetamine were equivalent between previously defeated rats and controls. These data suggest adolescent defeat enhances behavioral responses to initial amphetamine exposure as a function of diminished prefrontal cortex dopamine activity, which may be sufficient to promote subsequently enhanced seeking of drug-associated cues. Interestingly, repeated amphetamine treatment appears to normalize amphetamine-elicited locomotion and cortical dopamine responses observed in adult rats exposed to adolescent social defeat, providing implications for treating stress-induced dopamine dysfunction. PMID:23220295

Burke, Andrew R.; Forster, Gina L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Roberts, Christina L.; Watt, Michael J.



Title : Involvement of D1 dopamine receptor in MDMA-induced locomotor activity and striatal gene expression in mice.  

E-print Network

Title : Involvement of D1 dopamine receptor in MDMA-induced locomotor activity and striatal gene, France Abstract 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a widely used recreational drug with psychoactive properties, induces both serotonin and dopamine release in the brain. In rats and mice MDMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Evidence for a Role of Transporter-Mediated Currents in the Depletion of Brain Serotonin Induced by Serotonin Transporter Substrates  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) substrates like fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine cause long-term depletion of brain 5-HT, while certain other substrates do not. The 5-HT deficits produced by SERT substrates are dependent upon transporter proteins, but the exact mechanisms responsible are unclear. Here, we compared the pharmacology of several SERT substrates: fenfluramine, d-fenfluramine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperainze (TFMPP), to establish relationships between acute drug mechanisms and the propensity for long-term 5-HT depletions. In vivo microdialysis was carried out in rat nucleus accumbens to examine acute 5-HT release and long-term depletion in the same subjects. In vitro assays were performed to measure efflux of [3H]5-HT in rat brain synaptosomes and transporter-mediated ionic currents in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. When administered repeatedly to rats (6?mg/kg, i.p., four doses), all drugs produce large sustained elevations in extracellular 5-HT (>5-fold) with minimal effects on dopamine. Importantly, 2 weeks after dosing, only rats exposed to fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine display depletion of brain 5-HT. All test drugs evoke fluoxetine-sensitive efflux of [3H]5-HT from synaptosomes, but d-fenfluramine and its bioactive metabolite d-norfenfluramine induce significantly greater SERT-mediated currents than phenylpiperazines. Our data confirm that drug-induced 5-HT release probably does not mediate 5-HT depletion. However, the magnitude of transporter-mediated inward current may be a critical factor in the cascade of events leading to 5-HT deficits. This hypothesis warrants further study, especially given the growing popularity of designer drugs that target SERT. PMID:24287719

Baumann, Michael H; Bulling, Simon; Benaderet, Tova S; Saha, Kusumika; Ayestas, Mario A; Partilla, John S; Ali, Syed F; Stockner, Thomas; Rothman, Richard B; Sandtner, Walter; Sitte, Harald H



MDMA induced dopamine release in vivo: role of endogenous serotonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acting as a substrate at the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, (+)-MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), is a potent releaser of 5-HT and causes toxicity to 5-HT neurons after repeated exposure. (+)-MDMA also releases dopamine (DA), although with less potency. Since we have shown previously that the intrastriatal application of 5-HT facilitates DA release, it was hypothesized that increased release of striatal 5-HT after

S. Koch; M. P. Galloway



Dopamine-induced nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.  


Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease. PMID:21603184

Park, Ariane; Stacy, Mark



Dopamine-Induced Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease. PMID:21603184

Park, Ariane; Stacy, Mark



Catalponol enhances dopamine biosynthesis and protects against L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.  


The effects of catalponol (1) on dopamine biosynthesis and L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells were investigated. Catalponol at concentration ranges of 1-5 microM increased the intracellular levels of dopamine at 12-48 h. Catalponol at concentrations of up to 10 microM did not alter cell viability. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity was enhanced by 1 at 3 microM in a time-dependent manner, but aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity was not. Catalponol also increased the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and TH phosphorylation. In addition, catalponol at 3 microM associated with L-DOPA (20-50 microM) further enhanced the increases in dopamine levels induced by L-DOPA (50-100 microM) at 24 h. Catalponol at 2-5 microM inhibited L-DOPA (100-200 microM)-induced cytotoxicity at 48 h. These results suggest that 1 enhanced dopamine biosynthesis by inducing TH activity and protected against L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells, which was mediated by the increased levels of cyclic AMP. PMID:20183248

Huang, Hai-Shan; Han, Xiang-Hua; Hwang, Bang-Yeon; Park, Jae-In; Yoo, Se-Kuel; Choi, Hyun-Sook; Lim, Sung-Cil; Lee, Myung-Koo



Inhibitory effects of ginseng total saponins on behavioral sensitization and dopamine release induced by cocaine.  


Many studies have suggested that the behavioral and reinforcing effects of cocaine can be mediated by the central dopaminergic systems. It has been shown that repeated injections of cocaine produce an increase in locomotor activity, the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos, and the release of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which is one of the main dopaminergic terminal areas. Several studies have shown that behavioral activation and changes in extracellular dopamine levels in the central nervous system induced by psychomotor stimulants are prevented by ginseng total saponins (GTS). In order to investigate the effects of GTS on the repeated cocaine-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations, we examined the influence of GTS on the cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and on c-Fos expression in the brain using immunohistochemistry in rats repeatedly treated with cocaine. We also examined the effect of GTS on cocaine-induced dopamine release in the NAc of freely moving rats repeatedly treated with cocaine using an in vivo microdialysis technique. Pretreatment with GTS (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited the repeated cocaine-induced increase in locomotor activity as well as the c-Fos expression in the core and shell in a dose-dependent manner. Also, pretreatment with GTS significantly decreased the repeated cocaine-induced increase in dopamine release in the NAc. Our data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of GTS on the repeated cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization were closely associated with the reduction of dopamine release and the postsynaptic neuronal activity. The results of the present study suggest that GTS may be effective for inhibiting the behavioral effects of cocaine by possibly modulating the central dopaminergic system. These results also suggest that GTS may prove to be a useful therapeutic agent for cocaine addiction. PMID:18310906

Lee, BomBi; Yang, Chae Ha; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hye-Jung; Han, Seung-Moo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Insop



Fas Signaling Induces Raft Coalescence That Is Blocked by Cholesterol Depletion in Human RPE Cells  

E-print Network

Fas Signaling Induces Raft Coalescence That Is Blocked by Cholesterol Depletion in Human RPE Cells resulted in cellular cholesterol depletion and markedly reduced the incidence of Fas-receptor localization vesicles, which can be assayed by flow cytometry. Cholesterol depletion, after Fas ligand activation

Parikh, Atul N.


Dopamine signaling is required for depolarization-induced slow current in cerebellar Purkinje cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Brief strong depolarization of cerebellar Purkinje cells produces a slow inward cation current. This current, called DISC (depolarization-induced slow current) is triggered by Ca influx in the Purkinje cell and is attenuated by a blocker of vesicular fusion. Previous work in other brain regions such as the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area has shown that dopamine can be released from dendrites to produce paracrine and autocrine signaling. Here, we test the hypothesis that postsynaptic release of dopamine and autocrine activation of dopamine receptors is involved in DISC. Light immunohistochemistry showed that D3 dopamine receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine plasma membrane transporters (DAT) were all expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. However, their expression was strongest in the gyrus region of cerebellar lobules IX and X. Comparison of DISC across lobules revealed that it was weak in the anterior portions of the cerebellum (lobules II, V and VI) and strong in lobules IX and X. DISC was blocked by dopamine receptor antagonists (haloperidol, clozapine, eticlopride, SCH23390). Likewise, DISC was strongly attenuated by inhibitors of VMAT (reserpine, tetrabenazine) and DAT (GBR12909, rimcazole). These drugs did not produce DISC attenuation through blockade of depolarization-evoked Purkinje cell Ca transients. Purkinje cells in cerebellar slices derived from DAT null mice expressed DISC, but this DISC ran down at a significantly higher rate than littermate controls. Taken together, these results suggest that strong Purkinje cell depolarization produces Ca-dependent release of vesicular postsynaptic dopamine that then excites Purkinje cells in an autocrine fashion. PMID:19571144

Kim, Yu Shin; Shin, Jung Hoon; Hall, F. Scott; Linden, David J.



Methamphetamine-Induced Dopamine-Independent Alterations in Striatal Gene Expression in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Hemiparkinsonian Rats  

PubMed Central

Unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle are used extensively as a model of Parkinson's disease. The present experiments sought to identify genes that were affected in the dopamine (DA)–denervated striatum after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced destruction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the rat. We also examined whether a single injection of methamphetamine (METH) (2.5 mg/kg) known to cause changes in gene expression in the normally DA-innervated striatum could still influence striatal gene expression in the absence of DA. Unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle resulted in METH-induced rotational behaviors ipsilateral to the lesioned side and total striatal DA depletion on the lesioned side. This injection also caused decrease in striatal serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels. DA depletion was associated with increases in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios that were potentiated by the METH injection. Microarray analyses revealed changes (± 1.7-fold, p<0.025) in the expression of 67 genes on the lesioned side in comparison to the intact side of the saline-treated hemiparkinsonian animals. These include follistatin, neuromedin U, and tachykinin 2 which were up-regulated. METH administration caused increases in the expression of c-fos, Egr1, and Nor-1 on the intact side. On the DA-depleted side, METH administration also increased the expression of 61 genes including Pdgf-d and Cox-2. There were METH-induced changes in 16 genes that were common in the DA-innervated and DA-depleted sides. These include c-fos and Nor-1 which show greater changes on the normal DA side. Thus, the present study documents, for the first time, that METH mediated DA-independent changes in the levels of transcripts of several genes in the DA-denervated striatum. Our results also implicate 5-HT as a potential player in these METH-induced alterations in gene expression because the METH injection also caused significant increases in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios on the DA-depleted side. PMID:21179447

Cadet, Jean Lud; Brannock, Christie; Krasnova, Irina N.; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Chou, Jenny; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun



Dopamine and paraquat enhance ?-synuclein-induced alterations in membrane conductance  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that ?-synuclein overexpression increases the membrane conductance of dopaminergic-like cells. Although ?-synuclein is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and diffuse Lewy body disease the mechanism of action is not completely understood. In this study we sought to determine whether multiple factors act together with ?-synuclein to engender cell vulnerability through an augmentation of membrane conductance. Here we employed a cell model that mimics dopaminergic neurons coupled with ?-synuclein overexpression and oxidative stressors. We demonstrate an enhancement of ?-synuclein-induced toxicity in the presence of combined treatment with dopamine and paraquat, two molecules known to incite oxidative stress. In addition we show that combined dopamine and paraquat treatment increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1, an antioxidant response protein. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that combined treatment of dopaminergic cells with paraquat and dopamine enhances ?-synuclein-induced leak channel properties resulting in increased membrane conductance. Importantly, these increases are most robust when both paraquat and dopamine are present suggesting the need for multiple oxidative insults to augment ?-synuclein-induced disruption of membrane integrity. PMID:21735318

Feng, Li Rebekah; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.



Antipsychotic drugs rapidly induce dopamine neuron depolarization block in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Repeated administration of antipsychotic drugs to normal rats has been shown to induce a state of dopamine neuron inactivation known as depolarization block, which correlates with the ability of the drugs to exhibit antipsychotic efficacy and extrapyramidal side-effects in schizophrenia patients. Nonetheless, in normal rats depolarization block requires weeks of antipsychotic drug administration, whereas schizophrenia patients exhibit initial effects soon after initiating antipsychotic drug treatment. We now report that, in a developmental disruption rat model of schizophrenia (methyl-azoxymethanol acetate (20 mg/kg i.p.) injected into G17 pregnant female rats, with offspring tested as adults), the extant hyperdopaminergic state combines with the excitatory actions of a first (haloperidol; 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.)- and second (sertindole; 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-generation antipsychotic drug to rapidly induce depolarization block in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Acute injection of either antipsychotic drug induced an immediate reduction in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons (cells per electrode track; termed population activity). Repeated administration of either antipsychotic drug for 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 21 days continued to reduce dopamine neuron population activity. Both acute and repeated effects on population activity were reversed by acute apomorphine injections, which is consistent with the reversal of dopamine neuron depolarization block. Although this action may account for the effects of D2 antagonist drugs on alleviating psychosis and the lack of development of tolerance in humans, the drugs appear to do so by inducing an offsetting deficit rather than attacking the primary pathology present in schizophrenia. PMID:21865475

Valenti, Ornella; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Gill, Kathryn M.; Grace, Anthony A.



Antipsychotic drugs rapidly induce dopamine neuron depolarization block in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia.  


Repeated administration of antipsychotic drugs to normal rats has been shown to induce a state of dopamine neuron inactivation known as depolarization block, which correlates with the ability of the drugs to exhibit antipsychotic efficacy and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenia patients. Nonetheless, in normal rats depolarization block requires weeks of antipsychotic drug administration, whereas schizophrenia patients exhibit initial effects soon after initiating antipsychotic drug treatment. We now report that, in a developmental disruption rat model of schizophrenia [methyl-azoxymethanol acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.) injected into G17 pregnant female rats, with offspring tested as adults], the extant hyperdopaminergic state combines with the excitatory actions of a first- (haloperidol; 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and a second- (sertindole; 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) generation antipsychotic drug to rapidly induce depolarization block in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Acute injection of either antipsychotic drug induced an immediate reduction in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons (cells per electrode track; termed population activity). Repeated administration of either antipsychotic drug for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 21 d continued to reduce dopamine neuron population activity. Both acute and repeated effects on population activity were reversed by acute apomorphine injections, which is consistent with the reversal of dopamine neuron depolarization block. Although this action may account for the effects of D2 antagonist drugs on alleviating psychosis and the lack of development of tolerance in humans, the drugs appear to do so by inducing an offsetting deficit rather than attacking the primary pathology present in schizophrenia. PMID:21865475

Valenti, Ornella; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Gill, Kathryn M; Grace, Anthony A



Dopamine-Induced Apoptosis of Lactotropes Is Mediated by the Short Isoform of D2 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Dopamine, through D2 receptor (D2R), is the major regulator of lactotrope function in the anterior pituitary gland. Both D2R isoforms, long (D2L) and short (D2S), are expressed in lactotropes. Although both isoforms can transduce dopamine signal, they differ in the mechanism that leads to cell response. The administration of D2R agonists, such as cabergoline, is the main pharmacological treatment for prolactinomas, but resistance to these drugs exists, which has been associated with alterations in D2R expression. We previously reported that dopamine and cabergoline induce apoptosis of lactotropes in primary culture in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study we used an in vivo model to confirm the permissive action of estradiol in the apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells induced by D2R agonists. Administration of cabergoline to female rats induced apoptosis, measured by Annexin-V staining, in anterior pituitary gland from estradiol-treated rats but not from ovariectomized rats. To evaluate the participation of D2R isoforms in the apoptosis induced by dopamine we used lactotrope-derived PR1 cells stably transfected with expression vectors encoding D2L or D2S receptors. In the presence of estradiol, dopamine induced apoptosis, determined by ELISA and TUNEL assay, only in PR1-D2S cells. To study the role of p38 MAPK in apoptosis induced by D2R activation, anterior pituitary cells from primary culture or PR1-D2S were incubated with an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway (SB203850). SB203580 blocked the apoptotic effect of D2R activation in lactotropes from primary cultures and PR1-D2S cells. Dopamine also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, determined by western blot, in PR1-D2S cells and estradiol enhanced this effect. These data suggest that, in the presence of estradiol, D2R agonists induce apoptosis of lactotropes by their interaction with D2S receptors and that p38 MAPK is involved in this process. PMID:21464994

Radl, Daniela Betiana; Ferraris, Jimena; Boti, Valeria; Seilicovich, Adriana; Sarkar, Dipak Kumar; Pisera, Daniel



Effects of subchronic methamphetamine exposure on basal dopamine and stress-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Subchronic administration of stimulants reduces basal dopamine (DA) concentrations and blocks stress-induced DA release in\\u000a the nucleus accumbens (NA) of rats during withdrawal. However, no studies have attempted to relate early withdrawal from chronic\\u000a drug exposure to stress reactivity and changes in DA transmission.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The effects of subchronic low-dose methamphetamine (METH) administration on regional changes in dopamine transporter (DAT)\\u000a and

Susan L. Broom; Bryan K. Yamamoto



Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Depletion-Induced Interactions for Soft Matter Systems  

E-print Network

Given the ubiquity of depletion effects in biological and other soft matter systems, it is desirable to have coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation approaches appropriate for the study of complex systems. This paper examines the use of two common truncated Lennard-Jones (WCA) potentials to describe a pair of colloidal particles in a thermal bath of depletants. The shifted-WCA model is the steeper of the two repulsive potentials considered, while the combinatorial-WCA model is the softer. It is found that the depletion-induced well depth for the combinatorial-WCA model is significantly deeper than the shifted-WCA model because the resulting overlap of the colloids yields extra accessible volume for depletants. For both shifted- and combinatorial-WCA simulations, the second virial coefficients and pair potentials between colloids are demonstrated to be well approximated by the Morphometric Thermodynamics (MT) model. This agreement suggests that the presence of depletants can be accurately modelled in MD simulations by implicitly including them through simple, analytical MT forms for depletion-induced interactions. Although both WCA potentials are found to be effective generic coarse-grained simulation approaches for studying depletion effects in complicated soft matter systems, combinatorial-WCA is the more efficient approach as depletion effects are enhanced at lower depletant densities. The findings indicate that for soft matter systems that are better modelled by potentials with some compressibility, predictions from hard-sphere systems could greatly underestimate the magnitude of depletion effects at a given depletant density.

Tyler N. Shendruk; Martin Bertrand; James L. Harden; Gary W. Slater; Hendrick W. de Haan



Dopamine agonist-induced dyskinesias are correlated to both firing pattern and frequency alterations of pallidal neurones in the MPTP-treated monkey.  


Despite the importance and frequency of levodopa-induced dyskinesias, little is known about their causal mechanisms. In this study, electrophysiological single-unit recordings of the neuronal activity of the globus pallidus internalis (GPi), the main basal ganglia output structure, and the globus pallidus externalis (GPe) were recorded continuously in both normal and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine treated subhuman primates before and after the administration of three dopamine agonists--apomorphine (a dopaminergic mixed agonist), SKF-38393 (a D1 partial agonist) and piribedil (a D2/D3 agonist)--at doses known to induce dyskinesias in the parkinsonian monkey. Changes in both the firing frequency and the firing pattern were analysed in relation to behavioural modifications. In both the normal and the parkinsonian monkey, the three agonists induced a decrease in the mean firing frequency of GPi neurones, although dyskinesias were induced only in the parkinsonian animals. In this situation, the improvement of parkinsonian motor abnormalities was correlated with the decrease in GPi firing frequency, whereas firing pattern changes were concomitant with the onset of dyskinesias. Moreover, firing frequency seemed to be decreased excessively during dyskinesias. The results indicate that the electrophysiological mechanism of dyskinesia involves an excessive decrease in GPi firing frequency and a modification of the firing pattern. However, the similarity between the induced decrease in firing frequency in normal and parkinsonian animals underlines the need for dopamine depletion in the induction of dyskinesias. PMID:11222455

Boraud, T; Bezard, E; Bioulac, B; Gross, C E



Gastric mucosal lesions induced by complete dopamine system failure in rats. The effects of dopamine agents, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole and pentadecapeptide BPC 157  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, for gastric lesions potentiation or induction, as well as determination of endogenous dopamine significance, dopamine antagonist or dopamine vesicle depletor were given separately. Therefore, without combination studies, the evidence for dopamine significance remains split on either blockade of dopamine post-synaptic receptor or inhibition of dopamine storage, essentially contrasting with endogenous circumstances, where both functions could be simultaneously

Pedrag Sikiric; Jadranka Šeparovic; Gojko Buljat; Tomislav Anic; Dinko Stancic-Rokotov; Darko Mikus; Bozidar Duplancic; Anton Marovic; Ivan Zoricic; Ingrid Prkacin; Martina Lovric-Bencic; Gorana Aralica; Tihomil Ziger; Darko Perovic; Nikola Jelovac; Goran Dodig; Ivo Rotkvic; Stjepan Mise; Sven Seiwerth; Branko Turkovic; Zeljko Grabarevic; Marijan Petek; Rudolf Rucman



Prior Morphine Exposure Enhances Ibogaine Antagonism of Morphine-induced Dopamine Release in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the effect of prior morphine exposure on ibogaine antagonism of morphine-induced dopamine release. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated once a day for 2 days with morphine (20 mg\\/kg, i.p.) or saline and given a low dose of ibogaine (10 mg\\/kg, i.p.) or saline 5 hr after the last morphine or saline injection. Nineteen hours later, rats




Differential effects of dopamine melanin on norharman-induced toxicity in PC12 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The food contaminant norharman structurally resembles MPTP a compound that selectively damages pigmented brain areas. Both\\u000a compounds are sequestered and retained in melanin-containing neurons. The aim of the study was to examine whether intracellular\\u000a melanin can modulate the toxicity of norharman in melanin-loaded PC12 cells. Dopamine melanin protected against norharman-induced\\u000a upregulation of grp78, activation of caspase 3 and necrosis at

A. Östergren; N. G. Lindquist; E. B. Brittebo



Activation of dopamine D3 receptors inhibits reward-related learning induced by cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memories of learned associations between the rewarding properties of drugs and environmental cues contribute to craving and relapse in humans. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in reward-related learning induced by drugs of abuse. DA D3 receptors are preferentially expressed in mesocorticolimbic DA projection areas. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that DA D3 receptors suppress locomotor-stimulant effects of

H. Kong; W. Kuang; S. Li; M. Xu



PET Measures of Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in Ventral versus Dorsal Striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional differences in dextroamphetamine (AMPH)-induced dopamine (DA) release in the baboon striatum were assessed using positron emission tomographic (PET) measures of [11C]raclopride specific binding to DA D2\\/D3 receptors acquired before and after AMPH administration. The magnitude of the reduction in [11C]raclopride binding, following AMPH administration, was two-fold greater in the anteroventral striatum (comprised of ventral caudate, anteroventral putamen, and nucleus

Wayne C Drevets; Julie C Price; David J Kupfer; Paul E Kinahan; Brian Lopresti; Daniel Holt; Chester Mathis



Polo-Like Kinase 1 Depletion Induces DNA Damage in Early S Prior to Caspase Activation? †  

PubMed Central

Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) plays several roles in mitosis, and it has been suggested to have a role in tumorigenesis. We have previously reported that Plk1 depletion results in cell death in cancer cells, whereas normal cells survive similar depletion. However, Plk1 depletion together with p53 depletion induces cell death in normal cells as well. This communication presents evidence on the sequence of events that leads to cell death in cancer cells. DNA damage is detected at the first S phase following Plk1 depletion and is more severe in Plk1-depleted p53-null cancer cells. As a consequence of Plk1 depletion using lentivirus-based small interfering RNA techniques, prereplicative complex (pre-RC) formation is disrupted at the G1/S transition, and DNA synthesis is reduced during S phase of the first cycle after depletion. The levels of geminin, an inhibitor of DNA pre-RC, and Emi1, an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, are elevated in Plk1-depleted cells. The rate of cell cycling is slower in Plk1-depleted cells than in control cells when synchronized by serum starvation. Plk1 depletion results in disrupted DNA pre-RC formation, reduced DNA synthesis, and DNA damage before cells display severe mitotic catastrophe or apoptosis. Our data suggest that Plk1 is required for cell cycle progression not only in mitosis but also for DNA synthesis, maintenance of DNA integrity, and prevention of cell death. PMID:19289504

Yim, Hyungshin; Erikson, Raymond L.



Effect of dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonists on fencamfamine-induced abolition of latent inhibition.  


The purpose of this investigation was to verify the role of dopamine and serotonin receptors in the effect of fencamfamine (FCF) on latent inhibition. FCF is a psychomotor stimulant with an indirect dopaminergic action. Latent inhibition is a model of attention. Latent inhibition is blocked by dopaminergic agents and facilitated by dopamine receptor agonists. FCF has been shown to abolish latent inhibition. The serotonergic system may also participate in the neurochemical mediation of latent inhibition. The selective dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol), D(2) receptor antagonists pimozide (PIM) and methoclopramide (METH), and serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist ritanserin (RIT) were used in the present study. Latent inhibition was evaluated using a conditioned emotional response procedure. Male Wistar rats that were water-restricted were subjected to a three-phase procedure: preexposure to a tone, tone-shock conditioning, and a test of the effect of the tone on licking frequency. All of the drugs were administered before the preexposure and conditioning phases. The results showed that FCF abolished latent inhibition, and this effect was clearly antagonized by PIM and METH and moderately attenuated by SCH 23390. At the doses used in the present study, RIT pretreatment did not affect latent inhibition and did not eliminate the effect of FCF, suggesting that the FCF-induced abolition of latent inhibition is not mediated by serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. These results suggest that the effect of FCF on latent inhibition is predominantly related to dopamine D(2) receptors and that dopamine D(2) receptors participate in attention processes. PMID:23123352

de Aguiar, Cilene Rejane Ramos Alves; de Aguiar, Marlison José Lima; DeLucia, Roberto; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo



Intracellular Thiol Depletion Causes Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Ebselen-Induced Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, has recently been shown to display a novel property of inducing apoptosis through rapid depletion of intracellular thiols in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. The present study was thus designed to explore the mechanism of how ebselen triggers apoptosis upon depletion of intracellular thiols. The results demonstrated that ebselen treatment triggered mitochondrial permeability transition rather rapidly as

Cheng Feng Yang; Han Ming Shen; Choon Nam Ong



Mode of action of dopamine in inducing hyperglycemia in the fresh water edible crab, Oziothelphusa senex senex.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the mode of action of dopamine in regulating hemolymph sugar level in the fresh water edible crab, Oziothelphusa senex senex. Injection of dopamine produced hyperglycemia in a dose-dependent manner in intact crabs but not in eyestalkless crabs. Administration of dopamine resulted in a significant decrease in total carbohydrates and glycogen levels with a significant increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity levels in hepatopancreas and muscle of intact crabs, indicating dopamine-induced glycogenolysis resulting in hyperglycemia. Bilateral eyestalk ablation resulted in significant increase in the total carbohydrates and glycogen levels with a significant decrease in the activity levels of phosphorylase in the hepatopancreas and muscle of the crabs. Eyestalk ablation resulted in significant decrease in hemolymph hyperglycemic hormone levels. The levels of hyperglycemic hormone in the hemolymph of dopamine injected crabs were significantly higher than in control crabs. However, no significant changes in the levels of hemolymph hyperglycemic hormone and sugar and tissue carbohydrate and phosphorylase activity were observed in dopamine injected eyestalk ablated crabs when compared with eyestalk ablated crabs. These results support an earlier hypothesis in crustaceans that dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter and induces hyperglycemia by triggering the release of hyperglycemic hormone in the crab, O. senex senex. J. Exp. Zool. 321A: 531-539, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25074819

Swetha, Ch; Sainath, S B; Reddy, P Sreenivasula



Pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in the rat is associated with increased dopamine neuron activity.  


Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous seizures that involve the limbic system, with the hippocampal formation and associated structures being central to the most prevalent refractory form of adult focal epilepsy. TLE is often associated with psychotic features resembling the hallucinations and delusions that occur with schizophrenia. Given evidence that the ventral hippocampus plays an important role in the maintenance of temporal lobe seizures, we investigated whether an animal model of TLE using intrahippocampal injection of pilocarpine induces alterations in mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity. We found that in 60% of rats in which pilocarpine induced seizure activity, there was a significant increase in the number of dopamine neurons firing per electrode track. Furthermore, this occurred in concert with an increase in amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. Both observations are similar to those observed in a rodent developmental model of psychosis. Therefore, as in animal models of schizophrenia, TLE-associated psychosis is probably due to abnormal hippocampal overdrive of dopamine neuron activity. PMID:21745437

Cifelli, Pierangelo; Grace, Anthony A



Pilocarpine Induced Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in the Rat is Associated with Increased Dopamine Neuron Activity  

PubMed Central

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous seizures that involve the limbic system, with the hippocampal formation and associated structures being central to the most prevalent refractory form of adult focal epilepsy. TLE is often associated with psychotic features resembling the hallucinations and delusions that occur with schizophrenia. Given evidence that the ventral hippocampus (vHipp) plays an important role in the maintenance of temporal lobe seizures, we investigated whether an animal model of TLE using intrahippocampal injection of pilocarpine induces alterations in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neuron activity. We found that in 60% of rats in which pilocarpine induced seizure activity, there was a significant increase in the number of dopamine neurons firing per electrode track. Furthermore, this occurred in concert with an increase in amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. Both observations are similar to those observed in a rodent developmental model of psychosis. Therefore, as in animal models of schizophrenia, TLE-associated psychosis is likely due to abnormal hippocampal overdrive of dopamine neuron activity. PMID:21745437

Cifelli, Pierangelo; Grace, Anthony A.



The decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion induced by suckling: comparison of voltammetric and radioisotopic methods of measurement. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

Previous in situ voltammetric microelectrode measurements of median eminence dopamine release during mammary nerve stimulation of anesthetized lactating rats revealed a transient (1-3 min) 70% decline of dopamine concentrations. This dopamine was believed to be destined for secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation, but direct experimental support for this supposition was lacking. Thus, in the present study, (3H)dopamine release into brief sequential samples of hypophysial portal blood was compared with dopamine release in the median eminence measured by voltammetry. Lactating female rats were urethane anesthetized, and the median eminence pituitary region was exposed. (3H)Tyrosine was injected into a jugular cannula (100 microCi) followed by continuous infusion (5 microCi/min). In a preliminary experiment, this regimen produced a steady state level of (3H)dopamine in the portal blood within 45 min. In subsequent experiments, portal blood was collected as sequential 3-min samples, and electrochemical sampling from a microelectrode placed in the median eminence occurred at 1-min intervals. Electrochemical current resulting from the oxidation of dopamine in the medial median eminence was unvarying throughout the 75-min experiment in control rats (n . 4) and during the 30-min control period preceding mammary nerve stimulation in the other group (n . 4). These results were paralled by (3H) dopamine levels in portal blood during the same periods of time. All animals showed simultaneous decreases in oxidation current and (3H)dopamine levels within 1-4 min after initiation of mammary nerve stimulation. These and earlier results demonstrate that mammary nerve stimulation (and by extension, suckling) induces a momentary, but profound, decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion which precedes or accompanies the rise in PRL secretion evoked by the same stimulus.

Plotsky, P.M.; Neill, J.D.



Parkin Controls Dopamine Utilization in Human Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is defined by the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and can be caused by monogenic mutations of genes such as parkin. The lack of phenotype in parkin knockout mice suggests that human nigral DA neurons have unique vulnerabilities. Through the generation and analyses of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from normal subjects and PD patients with parkin mutations, we show here that loss of parkin in human midbrain DA neurons greatly increased the transcription of monoamine oxidases and oxidative stress, significantly reduced DA uptake and increased spontaneous DA release. Lentiviral expression of parkin, but not its PD-linked mutant, rescued all the phenotypes. The results suggest that parkin controls dopamine utilization in human midbrain DA neurons by enhancing the precision of dopaminergic neurotransmission and suppressing dopamine oxidation. Thus, the study provides novel targets and a physiologically relevant screening platform for disease-modifying therapies of PD. PMID:22314364

Jiang, Houbo; Ren, Yong; Yuen, Eunice Y; Zhong, Ping; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Hu, Zhixing; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Yan, Zhen; Feng, Jian



Increased dopamine and norepinephrine release in medial prefrontal cortex induced by acute and chronic stress: Effects of diazepam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the effects of diazepam on the stress-induced increase in extracellular dopamine and norepinephrine in the medial prefrontal cortex using in vivo microdialysis. In naive rats, acute tail pressure (30 min) elicited an increase in the concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine in extracellular fluid of medial prefrontal cortex (+54 and +50%, respectively). Diazepam (2.5 mg\\/kg, i.p.) decreased the

J. M. Finlay; M. J. Zigmond; E. D. Abercrombie



Amphetamine and Dopamine-Induced Immediate Early Gene Expression in Striatal Neurons Depends on Postsynaptic NMDA Receptors and Calcium  

PubMed Central

Amphetamine and cocaine induce the expression of both immediate early genes (IEGs) and neuropeptide genes in rat striatum. Despite the demonstrated dependence of these effects on D1 dopamine receptors, which activate the cyclic AMP pathway, there are several reports that amphetamine and cocaine-induced IEG expression can be inhibited in striatum in vivo by NMDA receptor antagonists. We find that in vivo, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 inhibits amphetamine induction of c-fos acutely and also prevents downregulation of IEG expression with chronic amphetamine administration. Such observations raise the question of whether dopamine/glutamate interactions occur at the level of corticostriatal and mesostriatal circuitry or within striatal neurons. Therefore, we studied dissociated striatal cultures in which midbrain and cortical presynaptic inputs are removed. In these cultures, we find that dopamine- or forskolin-mediated IEG induction requires Ca2+ entry via NMDA receptors but not via L-type Ca2+ channels. Moreover, blockade of NMDA receptors diminishes the ability of dopamine to induce phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein CREB. Although these results do not rule out a role for circuit-level dopamine/glutamate interactions, they demonstrate a requirement at the cellular level for interactions between the cyclic AMP and NMDA receptor pathways in dopamine-regulated gene expression in striatal neurons. PMID:8753884

Konradi, Christine; Leveque, Jean-Christophe; Hyman, Steven E.



A search for relativistic electron induced stratospheric ozone depletion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possible ozone changes at 1 mb associated with the time variation and precipitation of relativistic electrons are investigated by examining the NIMBUS 7 SBUV ozone data set and corresponding temperatures derived from NMC data. No ozone depletion was observed in high-latitude summer when temperature fluctuations are small. In winter more variation in ozone occurs, but large temperature changes make it difficult to identify specific ozone decreases as being the result of relativistic electron precipitation.

Aikin, Arthur C.



Self-Administration of Cocaine Induces Dopamine-Independent Self-Administration of Sigma Agonists  

PubMed Central

Sigma1 receptors (?1Rs) are intracellularly mobile chaperone proteins implicated in several disease processes, as well as psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Here we report that although selective ?1R agonists (PRE-084, (+)-pentazocine) lacked reinforcing effects in drug-naive rats, over the course of 28 experimental sessions, which was more than sufficient for acquisition of cocaine self-administration, responding was not maintained by either ?1R agonist. In contrast, after subjects self-administered cocaine ?1R agonists were readily self-administered. The induced reinforcing effects were long lasting; a response for which subjects had no history of reinforcement was newly conditioned with both ?1R agonists, extinguished when injections were discontinued, and reconditioned when ?1R agonists again followed responses. Experience with food reinforcement was ineffective as an inducer of ?1R agonist reinforcement. Although a variety of dopamine receptor antagonists blocked cocaine self-administration, consistent with its dopaminergic mechanism, PRE-084 self-administration was entirely insensitive to these drugs. Conversely, the ?R antagonist, BD1063, blocked PRE-084 self-administration but was inactive against cocaine. In microdialysis studies i.v. PRE-084 did not significantly stimulate dopamine at doses that were self-administered in rats either with or without a cocaine self-administration experience. The results indicate that cocaine experience induces reinforcing effects of previously inactive ?1R agonists, and that the mechanism underlying these reinforcing effects is dopamine independent. It is further suggested that induced ?1R mechanisms may have an essential role in treatment-resistant stimulant abuse, suggesting new approaches for the development of effective medications for stimulant abuse. PMID:23187725

Hiranita, Takato; Mereu, Maddalena; Soto, Paul L; Tanda, Gianluigi; Katz, Jonathan L



Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Brain dopamine is implicated in the regulation of move- ment, attention, reward and learning. Dysfunction of dopamine plays a role in Parkinson's disease, schizo- phrenia and drug addiction. It is released in the stria- tum when dopamine neurons in the midbrain undergo burst firing. Several animal studies have shown that dopamine can also be released under direct control of

Antonio P. Strafella; Maria Fraraccio; Alain Dagher



Demon voltammetry and analysis software: analysis of cocaine-induced alterations in dopamine signaling using multiple kinetic measures.  


The fast sampling rates of fast scan cyclic voltammetry make it a favorable method for measuring changes in brain monoamine release and uptake kinetics in slice, anesthetized, and freely moving preparations. The most common analysis technique for evaluating changes in dopamine signaling uses well-established Michaelis-Menten kinetic methods that can accurately model dopamine release and uptake parameters across multiple experimental conditions. Nevertheless, over the years, many researchers have turned to other measures to estimate changes in dopamine release and uptake, yet to our knowledge no systematic comparison amongst these measures has been conducted. To address this lack of uniformity in kinetic analyses, we have created the Demon Voltammetry and Analysis software suite, which is freely available to academic and non-profit institutions. Here we present an explanation of the Demon Voltammetry acquisition and analysis features, and demonstrate its utility for acquiring voltammetric data under in vitro, in vivo anesthetized, and freely moving conditions. Additionally, the software was used to compare the sensitivity of multiple kinetic measures of release and uptake to cocaine-induced changes in electrically evoked dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens core slices. Specifically, we examined and compared tau, full width at half height, half-life, T??, T??, slope, peak height, calibrated peak dopamine concentration, and area under the curve to the well-characterized Michaelis-Menten parameters, dopamine per pulse, maximal uptake rate, and apparent affinity. Based on observed results we recommend tau for measuring dopamine uptake and calibrated peak dopamine concentration for measuring dopamine release. PMID:21392532

Yorgason, Jordan T; España, Rodrigo A; Jones, Sara R



Stimulants as Specific Inducers of Dopamine-Independent ? Agonist Self-Administration in Rats  

PubMed Central

A previous study showed that cocaine self-administration induced dopamine-independent reinforcing effects of ? agonists mediated by their selective actions at ?1 receptors (?1Rs), which are intracellularly mobile chaperone proteins implicated in abuse-related effects of stimulants. The present study assessed whether the induction was specific to self-administration of cocaine. Rats were trained to self-administer the dopamine releaser, d-methamphetamine (0.01–0.32 mg/kg per injection), the ?-opioid receptor agonist, heroin (0.001–0.032 mg/kg per injection), and the noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor/channel antagonist ketamine (0.032–1.0 mg/kg per injection). As with cocaine, self-administration of d-methamphetamine induced reinforcing effects of the selective ?1R agonists PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride] and (+)-pentazocine (0.032–1.0 mg/kg per injection, each). In contrast, neither self-administration of heroin nor ketamine induced PRE-084 or (+)-pentazocine (0.032–10 mg/kg per injection, each) self-administration. Although the ?1R agonists did not maintain responding in subjects with histories of heroin or ketamine self-administration, substitution for those drugs was obtained with appropriate agonists (e.g., remifentanil, 0.1–3.2 µg/kg per injection, for heroin and (5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ((+)-MK 801; dizocilpine), 0.32–10.0 µg/kg per injection, for ketamine). The ?R antagonist N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine dihydrobromide (BD 1008; 1.0–10 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked PRE-084 self-administration but was inactive against d-methamphetamine, heroin, and ketamine. In contrast, PRE-084 self-administration was affected neither by the dopamine receptor antagonist (+)-butaclamol (10–100 ?g/kg) nor by the opioid antagonist (?)-naltrexone (1.0–10 mg/kg), whereas these antagonists were active against d-methamphetamine and heroin self-administration, respectively. The results indicate that experience specifically with indirect-acting dopamine agonists induces reinforcing effects of previously inactive ?1R agonists. It is further suggested that induced ?1R reinforcing mechanisms may play an essential role in treatment-resistant stimulant abuse, suggesting new approaches for the development of effective medications for its treatment. PMID:23908387

Hiranita, Takato; Soto, Paul L.; Tanda, Gianluigi; Kopajtic, Theresa A.



Single photon emission computerized tomography imaging of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in drug-free schizophrenic subjects.  

PubMed Central

The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission is associated with this illness, but direct observation of abnormalities of dopamine function in schizophrenia has remained elusive. We used a newly developed single photon emission computerized tomography method to measure amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the striatum of fifteen patients with schizophrenia and fifteen healthy controls. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release was estimated by the amphetamine-induced reduction in dopamine D2 receptor availability, measured as the binding potential of the specific D2 receptor radiotracer [123I] (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]benzamide ([123I]IBZM). The amphetamine-induced decrease in [123I]IBZM binding potential was significantly greater in the schizophrenic group (-19.5 +/- 4.1%) compared with the control group (-7.6 +/- 2.1%). In the schizophrenic group, elevated amphetamine effect on [123I]IBZM binding potential was associated with emergence or worsening of positive psychotic symptoms. This result suggests that psychotic symptoms elicited in this experimental setting in schizophrenic patients are associated with exaggerated stimulation of dopaminergic transmission. Such an observation would be compatible with an abnormal responsiveness of dopaminergic neurons in schizophrenia. PMID:8799184

Laruelle, M; Abi-Dargham, A; van Dyck, C H; Gil, R; D'Souza, C D; Erdos, J; McCance, E; Rosenblatt, W; Fingado, C; Zoghbi, S S; Baldwin, R M; Seibyl, J P; Krystal, J H; Charney, D S; Innis, R B



Behavioral pattern analysis and dopamine release in quinpirole-induced repetitive behavior in rats.  


Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disease with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. People with OCD suffer from intrusive, unwanted and recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive ritualistic behaviors (compulsions). The aim of this study is to quantify the dimensions of ritualistic 'compulsive-like' behavior in quinpirole-induced behavior in rats by using T-pattern behavioral analysis. In addition, we investigated whether the behavioral effects elicited by quinpirole sensitization remained after 2 weeks of cessation of treatment. Finally, to study the neurobiological underpinnings of this 'compulsive-like' behavior, we investigated the effect of quinpirole treatment on the extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Once established, 'compulsive-like' behavior is dependent upon quinpirole administration, as this behavior rapidly normalized after cessation of treatment. After a single dose of quinpirole the dopamine level decreased more in saline pre-treated animals as compared with animals given quinpirole treatment continuously. Furthermore, T-pattern analysis revealed that quinpirole-induced behavior consists, unlike OCD rituals, of a smaller behavioral repertoire. As seen in patients with OCD, quinpirole-treated animals performed these behaviors with a high rate of repetition. These findings suggest that quinpirole-induced behavior mimics only part of the compulsive behavior as shown in OCD patients. PMID:21148023

de Haas, Ria; Nijdam, Annelies; Westra, Tjalke A; Kas, Martien J H; Westenberg, Herman G M



Maturation-Dependent Vulnerability of Oligodendrocytes to Oxidative Stress-Induced Death Caused by Glutathione Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death of oligodendrocyte (OL) precursors can be triggered in vitro by cystine deprivation, a form of oxidative stress that involves depletion of intracellular glutathione. We report here that OLs demonstrate maturation-dependent differences in sur- vival when subjected to free radical-mediated injury induced by glutathione depletion. Using immunopanning to isolate rat preoligodendrocytes (preOLs), we generated highly enriched populations of preOLs and

Stephen A. Back; Xiaodong Gan; Ya Li; Paul A. Rosenberg; Joseph J. Volpe



Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia aerial parts against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: T. cordifolia ethanol extract (TCEE) was standardized with high performance thin layer chromatography using berberine. Experimental PD was induced by intracerebral injection of 6-OHDA (8 ?g). Animals were divided into five groups: sham operated, negative control, positive control (levodopa 6 mg/kg) and two experimental groups (n = 6/group). Experimental groups received 200 and 400 mg/kg of TCEE once daily for 30 days by oral gavage. Biochemical parameters including dopamine level, oxidative stress, complex I activity and brain iron asymmetry ratio and locomotor activity including skeletal muscle co-ordination and degree of catatonia were assessed. Results: TCEE exhibited significant neuroprotection by increasing the dopamine levels (1.96 ± 0.20 and 2.45 ± 0.40 ng/mg of protein) and complex I activity (77.14 ± 0.89 and 78.50 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mg of protein) at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively when compared with negative control group. Iron asymmetry ratio was also significantly attenuated by TCEE at 200 (1.57 ± 0.18) and 400 mg/kg (1.11 ± 0.15) when compared with negative control group. Neuroprotection by TCEE was further supported by reduced oxidative stress and restored locomotor activity in treatment groups. Conclusion: Results show that TCEE possess significant neuroprotection in 6-OHDA induced PD by protecting dopaminergic neurons and reducing the iron accumulation. PMID:24741189

Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Roy, Partha Deb; Kannan, Elango; Antony, A. Shanish; Kumar, M. N. Satish



Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Induced Reduction of Dopamine Transporter Expression as a Precursor to Parkinson's Disease-Associated Dopamine Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential mechanisms by which PCBs may disrupt normal functioning of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We utilized an environmentally relevant exposure of PCBs (7.5 or 15 mg\\/kg\\/day Aroclor 1254:1260 for 30

W. Michael Caudle; Jason R. Richardson; Kristin C. Delea; Thomas S. Guillot; Minzheng Wang; Kurt D. Pennell; Gary W. Miller



Clozapine ameliorates epigenetic and behavioral abnormalities induced by phencyclidine through activation of dopamine D1 receptor.  


Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of histone modification is involved in the pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. However, the abnormalities in histone modification in the animal model of schizophrenia and the efficacy of antipsychotics for such abnormalities remain unclear. Here, we investigated the involvement of histone modification in phencyclidine-induced behavioral abnormalities and the effects of antipsychotics on these abnormalities. After repeated phencyclidine (10 mg/kg) treatment for 14 consecutive days, mice were treated with antipsychotics (clozapine or haloperidol) or the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for 7 d. Repeated phencyclidine treatments induced memory impairment and social deficit in the mice. The acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 residues decreased in the prefrontal cortex with phencyclidine treatment, whereas the expression level of histone deacetylase 5 increased. In addition, the phosphorylation of Ca²?/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus decreased in the prefrontal cortex of phencyclidine-treated mice. These behavioral and epigenetic changes in phencyclidine-treated mice were attenuated by clozapine and sodium butyrate but not by haloperidol. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked the ameliorating effects of clozapine but not of sodium butyrate. Furthermore, clozapine and sodium butyrate attenuated the decrease in expression level of GABAergic system-related genes in the prefrontal cortex of phencyclidine-treated mice. These findings suggest that the antipsychotic effect of clozapine develops, at least in part, through epigenetic modification by activation of the dopamine D1 receptor in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:24345457

Aoyama, Yuki; Mouri, Akihiro; Toriumi, Kazuya; Koseki, Takenao; Narusawa, Shiho; Ikawa, Natsumi; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka



Role of neurokinin-1 and dopamine receptors on the striatal methamphetamine-induced proliferation of new cells in mice.  


A neurotoxic dose of methamphetamine (METH) induces the loss of some striatal neurons. Interestingly, the METH-induced apoptosis in the striatum is immediately followed by the generation of new cells (cytogenesis). In the present study, we investigated the role of the neurokinin-1, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors on the METH-induced cytogenesis. To that end, male mice were given a single injection (30 mg/kg, ip) or a binge of METH (10mg/kg, 4× at two-hour intervals, ip). BrdU (100mg/kg, ip) was given 36 h after the last injection of METH. Newly generated cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and cell counts were performed using unbiased computerized stereology. Either single or binge exposure to METH resulted in the generation of new cells. The single optimized dose was used for subsequent mechanistic studies. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.1mg/kg, ip) 30 min prior to METH abrogated the METH-induced striatal cytogenesis. Pretreatment with the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (1mg/kg, ip) failed to affect this phenomenon. Finally, pretreatment with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist WIN 51,708 (5mg/kg, ip) 30 min prior to METH abrogated the METH-induced cytogenesis. In conclusion, neurokinin-1 and dopamine D1 receptors are required for the METH-induced striatal cytogenesis while the D2 receptor is without effect. PMID:21652034

Tulloch, Ingrid; Ghazaryan, Nane; Mexhitaj, Ina; Ordonez, Dalila; Angulo, Jesus A



Measuring cohesion between macromolecular filaments, one pair at a time: Depletion-induced microtubule binding  

E-print Network

In presence of non-adsorbing polymers, colloidal particles experience a ubiquitous attractive interactions induced by the depletion mechanism. We measure the depletion interaction between a pair of microtubule filaments by a method that combines optical trapping, single molecule imaging and umbrella sampling. By quantifying the dependence of filament cohesion on both polymer concentration and solution ionic strength, we demonstrate that the minimal model of depletion based, on the Asakura-Oosawa theory, fails to describe the experimental data. By measuring the cohesion strength in two- and three- filament bundles we verify pairwise additivity of the depletion interaction for the specific experimental conditions. The described experimental technique can be used to measure pairwise interactions between various biological or synthetic filaments, thus complementing information extracted from bulk osmotic stress experiments.

Hilitski, Feodor; Cajamarca, Luis; Hagan, Michael F; Grason, Gregory M; Dogic, Zvonimir



Insulin induces long-term depression of VTA dopamine neurons via an endocannabinoid-mediated mechanism  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity has drastically increased over the last few decades. Exploration into how hunger and satiety signals influence the reward system can help us to understand non-homeostatic mechanisms of feeding. Evidence suggests that insulin may act in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a critical site for reward-seeking behavior, to suppress feeding. However, the neural mechanisms underlying insulin effects in the VTA remain unknown. We demonstrate that insulin, a circulating catabolic peptide that inhibits feeding, can induce a long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons. This effect requires endocannabinoid-mediated presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release. Furthermore, after a sweetened high fat meal, which elevates endogenous insulin levels, insulin-induced LTD is occluded. Finally, insulin in the VTA reduces food anticipatory behavior and conditioned place preference for food. Taken together, these results suggest that insulin in the VTA suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission and reduces salience of food-related cues. PMID:23354329

Labouebe, Gwenael; Liu, Shuai; Dias, Carine; Zou, Haiyan; Wong, Jovi C.Y.; Karunakaran, Subashini; Clee, Susanne M.; Phillips, Anthony; Boutrel, Benjamin; Borgland, Stephanie L.



Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.



Is there a role for nitric oxide in methamphetamine-induced dopamine terminal degeneration?  


Methamphetamine (METH) abuse results in long-term damage to the dopaminergic system, manifesting as decreases in dopamine (DA) tissue content, DA transporter binding, as well as tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter immunostaining. However, the exact cascade of events that ultimately result in this damage has not been clearly elucidated. One factor that has been heavily implicated in METH-induced DA terminal degeneration is the production of nitric oxide (NO). Unfortunately, many of the studies attempting to clarify the role of NO in METH-induced neurotoxicity have been confounded by issues such as the disruption of METH-induced hyperthermia, preventing the formation of strong conclusions. As a result, there is a body of work suggesting that NO is sufficient for METH-induced neurotoxicity, while other studies suggest that NO does not play a role in METH-induced degeneration of DA nerve terminals. This review summarizes the existing studies investigating the role of NO in METH-induced neurotoxicity, and argues that while NO may be necessary for METH-induced neurotoxicity, it is not sufficient. Finally, important areas of future investigation are highlighted and discussed. PMID:23918001

Friend, Danielle M; Fricks-Gleason, Ashley N; Keefe, Kristen A



Inhibition by dizocilpine (MK-801) of striatal dopamine release induced by MPTP and MPP+: possible action at the dopamine transporter.  

PubMed Central

1. The NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801) can protect against neurotoxicity associated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its principal metabolite, the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). It has been suggested that these neurotoxic effects may be mediated by release of excitatory amino acids, but possible alternative mechanisms have been little investigated. 2. MPTP and MPP+ (0.1-1000 microM) were tested in superfused rat striatal synaptosomes preloaded with [3H]-dopamine. Both MPTP (10 microM and higher) and MPP+ (1 microM and higher) evoked an immediate and concentration-dependent release of [3H]-dopamine. The maximal effect exceeded that achievable with nicotine. For subsequent experiments, submaximal concentrations of MPTP (50 microM) and MPP+ (10 microM) were tested. 3. MK-801 (0.1-100 microM) inhibited responses to MPTP (50 microM) and MPP+ (10 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, further tests of NMDA-type glutamate receptor involvement proved negative. Responses to MPTP or MPP+ were unaffected by the omission of Mg2+ or Ca2+ and were not reduced by the NMDA receptor antagonists, AP-7 (200 microM) and kynurenic acid (300 microM). In this assay, N-methyl-D-aspartate (even in the absence of Mg2+ and with added glycine and strychnine) did not evoked [3H]-dopamine release. 4. In crude membrane preparations of rat cerebral cortex, MPTP and MPP+ inhibited high-affinity [3H]-nicotine binding to nicotinic cholinoceptors (IC50 1.8 microM and 26 microM, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7881731

Clarke, P B; Reuben, M




EPA Science Inventory

As previously reported, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions to the region of the nucleus accumbens blocked the locomotor activation induced by low doses of d-amphetamine, and produced a supersensitive locomotor response to the dopamine (DA) agonist, apomorphine. This same lesion, ...


Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah




EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Systemic Neutrophil Depletion on LPS-induced Airway Disease Jordan D. Savov, Stephen H. Gavett*, David M. Brass, Daniel L. Costa*, David A. Schwartz Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Dept of Medicine ? Duke University Medical Center * National Health and E...


Cyanide enhancement of dopamine-induced apoptosis in mesencephalic cells involves mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.  


Dopamine (DA)-induced neurotoxicity is potentiated when cellular metabolism is compromised. Since cyanide is a neurotoxin that produces mitochondrial dysfunction and stimulates intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), KCN was used to study DA-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mesencephalon cells. Treatment of neurons with DA (300 microM) for 24h produced apoptosis as determined by TUNEL staining, DNA fragmentation and increased caspase activity. Pretreatment with KCN (100 microM) 30min prior to DA increased the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. When added to the cells alone, this concentration of KCN did not induce apoptosis. DA stimulated intracellular generation of ROS, and treatment with KCN enhanced ROS generation. Treatment of cells with glutathione or uric acid (antioxidants/scavengers) attenuated both the increase in ROS generation and the apoptosis, demonstrating that ROS are initiators of the cytotoxicity. Studies on the sequence of events mediating the response showed that DA-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane was dependent on ROS generation and KCN enhanced this action of DA. Following changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and eventually cell death. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are initiators of DA-induced apoptosis. Subsequent cytochrome c release activates the caspase effector component of apoptosis. Cyanide potentiates the neurotoxicity of DA by enhancing the generation of ROS and impairing mitochondrial function. PMID:12782099

Jones, Douglas C; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Li, Li; Gunasekar, Palur G; Shou, Yan; Borowitz, Joseph L; Isom, Gary E



Confinement-Induced Solidification of Colloid-Polymer Depletion Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a model colloid-polymer suspension, we show that confinement induces solidification in attractive colloidal suspensions via a fundamentally different route from that active in hard sphere colloidal suspensions. For a range of polymer concentrations, the suspensions undergo a phase transition from a colloidal fluid of clusters to a colloidal gel as confinement increases while polymer and particle concentration are held constant. In both fluid- and solidlike attractive suspensions, effects of confinement on the structure and dynamics appear at much larger thicknesses than for hard-sphere suspensions. The solidification does not originate from structuring of the colloids by the walls. Instead, by analyzing cluster size distributions in the fluid phase and particle dynamics in the gel phase as a function of confinement, we find that the strength of the effective interparticle attraction increases as the samples are confined. We show that the increase in the effective attraction can be understood as a consequence of the increasing importance of excluded volume due to the walls to the free energy of the polymer as confinement is increased.

Spannuth, Melissa; Conrad, Jacinta C.



Reactive oxygen species mediate dopamine-induced signaling in renal proximal tubule cells.  


Intrarenally-produced dopamine (DA) induces a large increase in urinary sodium excretion mainly due to the inhibition of tubular sodium reabsorption. We aimed to study the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DA signaling pathway in proximal tubule cells. Our results show that DA increased ROS production in OK cells and indicate the mitochondria as the main source of ROS. DA also increased ERK1/2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and transcription factor ?B (NF-?B) activity. These findings suggest that DA generates mitochondria-derived ROS that activate ERK1/2 and subsequently NF-?B and SOD activity at concentrations that exert a physiological regulation of renal function. PMID:23994527

Acquier, Andrea B; Mori Sequeiros García, Mercedes; Gorostizaga, Alejandra B; Paz, Cristina; Mendez, Carlos F



Imaging of Dopamine in PD and Implications for Motor and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of PD  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopamine depletion in the putamen, which leads to motor dysfunction. As the disease progresses, a substantial degree of dopamine depletion also occurs in caudate and nucleus accumbens. This may explain a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, including depression, apathy, and cognitive decline. Dopamine replacement therapy partially restores motor function but long-term treatment is often associated with motor complications (motor fluctuations and dyskinesias). Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest that the dopamine release rate is substantially higher in PD subjects with motor complications compared to stable responders. Notably, this differential pattern of dopamine release is already present in the early stages of the disease, before motor complications become clinically apparent. Converging evidence suggests that striatal dopamine depletion in PD leads to reduced plasticity in the primary motor cortex and, presumably, in non-motor cortical areas as well. Although dopamine replacement therapy tends to restore physiological plasticity, treatment-induced motor, and neuropsychiatric complications could be related to abnormalities in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:23847589

de la Fuente-Fernandez, Raul



On the mechanism of levosimendan-induced dopamine release in the striatum of freely moving rats.  


The Ca(2+) sensitizer levosimendan (LEV) improves myocardial contractility by enhancing the sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca(2+). In addition, LEV promotes Ca(2+) entry through L-type channels in human cardiac myocytes. In this study, which was performed using microdialysis, infusion of LEV at 0.25 microM for 160 min increased dopamine (DA) concentrations (up to fivefold baseline) in dialysates from the striatum of freely moving rats. Ca(2+) omission from the perfusion fluid abolished baseline DA release and greatly decreased LEV-induced DA release. Reintroduction of Ca(2+) in the perfusion fluid restored LEV-induced DA release. Chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) by co-infusing 1,2-bis (o-amino-phenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA-AM, 0.2 mM) did not affect basal DA release and scarcely affected LEV-induced increases in dialysate DA. In addition, co-infusion of the L-type (Ca(v) 1.1-1.3) voltage-sensitive Ca(2+)-channel inhibitor nifedipine failed to inhibit LEV-induced increases in dialysate DA, which, in contrast, was inhibited by co-infusion of the N-type (Ca(v) 2.2) voltage-sensitive Ca(2+)-channel inhibitor omega-conotoxin GVIA. We conclude that LEV promotes striatal extracellular Ca(2+) entry through N-type Ca(2+) channels with a consequent increase in DA release. PMID:15272204

Rocchitta, Gaia; Delogu, Rosaria M; Migheli, Rossana; Solinas, Luigi; Susini, Giuseppe; Desole, Maria S; Miele, Egidio; Miele, Maddalena; Serra, Pier Andrea



Nucleus accumbens dopamine mediates amphetamine-induced impairment of social bonding in a monogamous rodent species.  


The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating, a behavior in which central dopamine (DA) has been implicated. Here, we used male prairie voles to examine the effects of drug exposure on pair bonding and related neural circuitry. In our first experiment, amphetamine (AMPH) motivated behavior was examined using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and was shown to be mediated by activation of D1-like DA receptors. Next, we examined the effects of repeated AMPH exposure on pair bonding. Intact and saline pretreated control males displayed mating-induced partner preferences, whereas males pretreated with AMPH at the doses effective to induce CPP failed to show mating-induced partner preferences. Such AMPH treatment also enhanced D1, but not D2, DA receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of D1-like DA receptors in the NAcc rescued mating-induced partner preferences in AMPH-treated males. Together, our data indicate that repeated AMPH exposure may narrow the behavioral repertoire of male prairie voles via a DA receptor-specific mechanism in the NAcc, resulting in the impairment of pair bond formation. PMID:20080553

Liu, Yan; Aragona, Brandon J; Young, Kimberly A; Dietz, David M; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Nestler, Eric J; Wang, Zuoxin



The Role of Dopamine in Reinforcement: Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity Induced by D[subscript 1]-Type, D[subscript 2]-Type, and Nonselective Dopamine Receptor Agonists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dose-dependent changes in sensitivity to reinforcement were found when rats were treated with low, moderate, and high doses of the partial dopamine D[subscript 1]-type receptor agonist SKF38393 and with the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine, but did not change when rats were treated with similar doses of the selective dopamine D[subscript…

Bratcher, Natalie A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri; Dougan, James D.; Heidenreich, Byron A.; Garris, Paul A.



Dopamine receptors and the persistent neurovascular dysregulation induced by methamphetamine self-administration in rats.  


Recently abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) abusers showed neurovascular dysregulation within the striatum. The factors that contribute to this dysregulation and the persistence of these effects are unclear. The current study addressed these knowledge gaps. First, we evaluated the brains of rats with a history of Meth self-administration following various periods of forced abstinence. Micro-computed tomography revealed a marked reduction in vessel diameter and vascular volume uniquely within the striatum between 1 and 28 days after Meth self-administration. Microvessels showed a greater impairment than larger vessels. Subsequently, we determined that dopamine (DA) D2 receptors regulated Meth-induced striatal vasoconstriction via acute noncontingent administration of Meth. These receptors likely regulated the response to striatal hypoxia, as hypoxia inducible factor 1? was elevated. Acute Meth exposure also increased striatal levels of endothelin receptor A and decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Collectively, the data provide novel evidence that Meth-induced striatal neurovascular dysregulation involves DA receptor signaling that results in vasoconstriction via endothelin receptor A and nitric oxide signaling. As these effects can lead to hypoxia and trigger neuronal damage, these findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the selective striatal toxicity observed in the brains of Meth-abusing humans. PMID:25185214

Kousik, Sharanya M; Napier, T Celeste; Ross, Ryan D; Sumner, D Rick; Carvey, Paul M



Amphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine transporter surface expression are protein kinase C-independent  

PubMed Central

Amphetamine (AMPH) is a potent dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) inhibitor that markedly increases extracellular DA levels. In addition to its actions as a DAT antagonist, acute AMPH exposure induces DAT losses from the plasma membrane, implicating transporter-specific membrane trafficking in amphetamine’s actions. Despite reports that AMPH modulates DAT surface expression, the trafficking mechanisms leading to this effect are currently not defined. We recently reported that DAT residues 587–596 play an integral role in constitutive and protein kinase C (PKC)-accelerated DAT internalization. In the current study, we tested whether the structural determinants required for PKC-stimulated DAT internalization are necessary for AMPH-induced DAT sequestration. Acute amphetamine exposure increased DAT endocytic rates, but DAT carboxy terminal residues 587–590, which are required for PKC-stimulated internalization, were not required for AMPH-accelerated DAT endocytosis. AMPH decreased DAT endocytic recycling, but did not modulate transferrin receptor recycling, suggesting that AMPH does not globally diminish endocytic recycling. Finally, treatment with a PKC inhibitor demonstrated that AMPH-induced DAT losses from the plasma membrane were not dependent upon PKC activity. These results suggest that the mechanisms responsible for AMPH-mediated DAT internalization are independent from those governing PKC-sensitive DAT endocytosis. PMID:18164041

Boudanova, Ekaterina; Navaroli, Deanna M.; Melikian, Haley E.



Serotonin-GABA interactions modulate MDMA-induced mesolimbic dopamine release.  


3,4,-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') acts at monoamine nerve terminals to alter the release and re-uptake of dopamine and 5-HT. The present study used microdialysis in awake rats to measure MDMA-induced changes in extracellular GABA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), simultaneous with measures of extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell. (+)-MDMA (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) increased GABA efflux in the VTA with a bell-shaped dose-response. This increase was blocked by application of TTX through the VTA probe. MDMA (5 mg/kg) increased 5-HT efflux in VTA by 1037% (p < 0.05). The local perfusion of the 5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist SB 206553 into the VTA reduced VTA GABA efflux after MDMA from a maximum of 229% to a maximum of 126% of basal values (p < 0.05), while having no effect on basal extracellular GABA concentrations. DA concentrations measured simultaneously in the NAC shell were increased from a maximum of 486% to 1320% (p < 0.05). The selective DA releaser d-amphetamine (AMPH) (4 mg/kg) also increased VTA GABA efflux (180%), did not alter 5-HT and increased NAC DA (875%) (p < 0.05), but the perfusion of SB 206553 into the VTA failed to alter these effects. These results suggest that MDMA-mediated increases in DA within the NAC shell are dampened by increases in VTA GABA subsequent to activation of 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors in the VTA. PMID:15525339

Bankson, Michael G; Yamamoto, Bryan K



The Rat With Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy Is Myopic With Low Retinal Dopamine  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter implicated both in modulating neural retinal signals and in eye growth. Therefore, it may participate in the pathogenesis of the most common clinical sequelae of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual dysfunction and myopia. Paradoxically, in ROP myopia the eye is usually small. The eye of the rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is characterized by retinal dysfunction and short axial length. There have been several investigations of the early maturation of DA in rat retina, but little at older ages, and not in the OIR rat. Therefore, DA, retinal function, and refractive state were investigated in the OIR rat. Methods. In one set of rats, the development of dopaminergic (DAergic) networks was evaluated in retinal cross-sections from rats aged 14 to 120 days using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of DA). In another set of rats, retinoscopy was used to evaluate spherical equivalent (SE), electoretinography (ERG) was used to evaluate retinal function, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate retinal contents of DA, its precursor levodopamine (DOPA), and its primary metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Results. The normally rapid postnatal ramification of DAergic neurons was disrupted in OIR rats. Retinoscopy revealed that OIR rats were relatively myopic. In the same eyes, ERG confirmed retinal dysfunction in OIR. HPLC of those eyes' retinae confirmed low DA. Regression analysis indicated that DA metabolism (evaluated by the ratio of DOPAC to DA) was an important additional predictor of myopia beyond OIR. Conclusions. The OIR rat is the first known animal model of myopia in which the eye is smaller than normal. Dopamine may modulate, or fail to modulate, neural activity in the OIR eye, and thus contribute to this peculiar myopia. PMID:24168993

Zhang, Nan; Favazza, Tara L.; Baglieri, Anna Maria; Benador, Ilan Y.; Noonan, Emily R.; Fulton, Anne B.; Hansen, Ronald M.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Akula, James D.



Intrinsic vascular dopamine - a key modulator of hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in splanchnic vessels.  


Dopamine not only is a precursor of the catecholamines noradrenaline and adrenaline but also serves as an independent neurotransmitter and paracrine hormone. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and is a potent vasodilator in many mammalian systemic arteries, strongly suggesting an endogenous source of dopamine in the vascular wall. Here we demonstrated dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in rat aorta and superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) by radioimmunoassay. Chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine showed a significant reduction of noradrenaline and adrenaline, while dopamine levels remained unaffected. Isolated endothelial cells were able to synthesize and release dopamine upon cAMP stimulation. Consistent with these data, mRNAs coding for catecholamine synthesizing enzymes, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, and dopamine-?-hydroxylase were detected by RT-PCR in cultured endothelial cells from SMA. TH protein was detected by immunohistochemisty and Western blot. Exposure of endothelial cells to hypoxia (1% O2) increased TH mRNA. Vascular smooth muscle cells partially expressed catecholaminergic traits. A physiological role of endogenous vascular dopamine was shown in SMA, where D1 dopamine receptor blockade abrogated hypoxic vasodilatation. Experiments on SMA with endothelial denudation revealed a significant contribution of the endothelium, although subendothelial dopamine release dominated. From these results we conclude that endothelial cells and cells of the underlying vascular wall synthesize and release dopamine in an oxygen-regulated manner. In the splanchnic vasculature, this intrinsic non-neuronal dopamine is the dominating vasodilator released upon lowering of oxygen tension. PMID:24535440

Pfeil, Uwe; Kuncova, Jitka; Brüggmann, Doerthe; Paddenberg, Renate; Rafiq, Amir; Henrich, Michael; Weigand, Markus A; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Mewe, Marco; Middendorff, Ralf; Slavikova, Jana; Kummer, Wolfgang



Progression of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in a Carnitine-Depleted Rat Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study has been initiated to investigate whether endogenous carnitine depletion and\\/or carnitine deficiency is an additional risk factor and\\/or a mechanism in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to gain insights into the possibility of a mechanism-based protection by L-carnitine against this toxicity. Methods: 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of 10 animals each and received one of

Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed; Maha A. Eissa; Sanaa A. Kenawy; Nadia Mostafa; Menotti Calvani; Abdel-Moneim M. Osman




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The present work deals with the study of the deuterium depleted water (DDW) effect on female ratsantioxidant system, in cadmium (20 ppm Cd\\/ b.w. in single dose administration) induced oxidative stress. The deuterium concentration in surface water is about 150 ppm (over 16 mM) and more than 10 mM in living organisms. After 61 days of DDW treatment the

Lucia Olariu; Mihaela Petcu; Iuliana Chi; Camelia Tulcan; Mihaela Pup; Ileana Brudiu


Renal dysfunction induced by long-term exposure to depleted uranium in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depleted uranium (DU) is a kind of radioactive heavy metal which can enter into the body via inhalation (aerosols), ingestion\\u000a (drinking and eating) and wounds (embedded), and causes chemical and\\/or radiation-induced toxicities. In this study, male\\u000a Sprague Dawley rats were surgically implanted in gastrocnemius muscle with DU fragments at three dose levels (low-dose, medium-dose\\u000a and high-dose), with biologically inert tantalum

Guoying Zhu; Xiqiao Xiang; Xiao Chen; Lihua Wang; Heping Hu; Shifang Weng



Dopamine D3 Receptor Inactivation Attenuates Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice  

PubMed Central

The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has received much attention in medication development for treatment of addiction. However, the functional role of the D3R in drug reward and addiction has been a matter of debate. We recently reported that D3 receptor-knockout (D3?/?) mice display increased vulnerability to cocaine self-administration, which we interpret as a compensatory response to attenuated cocaine reward after D3R deletion. Here we report that D3?/? mice displayed attenuated cocaine-induced conditioned place response (CPP) compared to wild-type mice. Similarly, blockade of brain D3Rs by YQA-14, a novel DA D3 receptor antagonist, significantly and dose-dependently inhibits acquisition and expression of cocaine-induced CPP in WT mice, but not in D3?/? mice. These findings suggest that: 1) D3Rs play an important role in mediating cocaine’s rewarding effects; and 2) YQA-14 is a highly potent and selective D3R antagonist in vivo, which deserves further study as a candidate for treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:23643749

Song, Rui; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Peng, Xiao-Qing; Su, Rui-Bin; Yang, Ri-Fang; Li, Jin; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L.



Fulfenamic acid sensitive, Ca(2+)-dependent inward current induced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in dopamine neurons.  


Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) exhibit high Ca(2+) permeabilities and the Ca(2+)-influx through the nAChRs may be involved in regulation of a variety of signal processing in the postsynaptic neurons. The mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons receive cholinergic inputs from the brainstem and express abundant nAChRs. Here we report that the Ca(2+)-influx induced by a transient pressure application of ACh activates an inward current mediated by nAChRs and subsequently an inward current component that is sensitive to fulfenamic acid (FFA) and phenytoin, presumably a Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation current in the DA neurons in the midbrain slices of the rat. The FFA- and phenytoin-sensitive current exhibits a negative slope conductance below -40 mV, suggesting its role in significant enhancement of depolarizing responses. In the current clamp recordings with perforated patch clamp configuration, bath application of carbachol markedly enhanced the glutamate-induced depolarization, which led to a long-lasting depolarizing hump. Activation of nAChRs is involved in this process, in cooperation with muscarinic receptors that suppress afterhyperpolarization caused by Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channels. The long-lasting depolarizing hump was suppressed by FFA. All these results suggested a potential role of the FFA-sensitive current triggered by nAChR activation in marked enhancement of the excitatory synaptic response in DA neurons. PMID:12871768

Yamashita, Tetsuji; Isa, Tadashi



Individual differences in frontal cortical thickness correlate with the d-amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine response in humans.  


The meso-striatal dopamine system influences responses to rewards and the motivation to seek them out. Marked individual differences in these responses are seen in laboratory animals, related in part to input from the prefrontal cortex. Here we measured the relation between cortical morphology and drug-induced striatal dopamine release in healthy young people. Participants were 24 (17 male, 7 female; age 23.0 ± 6.2 years) stimulant drug-naive subjects who underwent PET [(11)C]raclopride scans with 0.3 mg/kg d-amphetamine orally and placebo, and an anatomical MRI scan for measuring cortical thickness. As expected, d-amphetamine produced significant reductions in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential in the striatum as a percentage of the value in the placebo condition. There was substantial individual variability in this response, which was correlated with cortical thickness in the frontal lobe as a whole. The association was strongest in the anterior part of the right lateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral supplementary motor area. A thicker cortex was correlated with a smaller dopamine response. Together, this work demonstrates in humans an association between cortical thickness and the striatal dopamine response to drugs of abuse. Although prefrontal regulation of striatal function has been well studied, it was unclear whether the thickness of the prefrontal cortex was an acceptable proxy to the function of that region. These results suggest it is. PMID:24048857

Casey, Kevin F; Cherkasova, Mariya V; Larcher, Kevin; Evans, Alan C; Baker, Glen B; Dagher, Alain; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco



Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Ameliorates Virus-Induced Disease following a Pulmonary Coronavirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses cause respiratory disease in humans that can range from mild to severe. However, the pathogenesis of pulmonary coronavirus infections is poorly understood. Mouse hepatitis virus type 1 (MHV-1) is a group 2 coronavirus capable of causing severe morbidity and mortality in highly susceptible C3H/HeJ mice. We have previously shown that both CD4 and CD8 T cells play a critical role in mediating MHV-1-induced disease. Here we evaluated the role of alveolar macrophages (AM) in modulating the adaptive immune response and subsequent disease. Depletion of AM using clodronate liposomes administered prior to MHV-1 infection was associated with a significant amelioration of MHV-1-induced morbidity and mortality. AM depletion resulted in a decreased number of virus-specific CD4 T cells in the lung airways. In addition, a significant increase in the frequency and total number of Tregs in the lung tissue and lung airways was observed following MHV-1 infection in mice depleted of AM. Our results indicate that AM play a critical role in modulating MHV-1-induced morbidity and mortality. PMID:24608125

Hartwig, Stacey M.; Holman, Kaitlyn M.; Varga, Steven M.



Molecular and cellular bases for the protective effects of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, against methamphetamine-induced  

E-print Network

.4 Patterns of abuse and clinical effects including addiction 4 1.5 Mechanism of action of METH 6 1.6 Dopamine ganglia 13 1.7 METH-induced neurotoxicity 15 1.7.1 Human data 15 1.7.2 Animal studies 17 Patterns in the brains of METH abusers. One approach for developing therapies for METH abuse is to understand

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Schizophrenia is Associated with Elevated Amphetamine-Induced Synaptic Dopamine Concentrations: Evidence from a Novel Positron Emission Tomography Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major line of evidence that supports the hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is the psychomimetic potential of agents such as amphetamine that stimulate dopamine outflow. A novel brain imaging method provides an indirect measure of in vivo synaptic dopamine concentration by quantifying the change in dopamine receptor radiotracer binding produced by agents that alter dopamine release but do

A. Breier; T.-P. Su; R. Saunders; R. E. Carson; B. S. Kolachana; A. de Bartolomeis; D. R. Weinberger; N. Weisenfeld; A. K. Malhotra; W. C. Eckelman; D. Pickar



PX-12-induced HeLa cell death is associated with oxidative stress and GSH depletion  

PubMed Central

PX-12, as an inhibitor of thioredoxin (Trx), has antitumor activity. However, little is known about the toxicological effect of PX-12 on cervical cancer cells. In the present study, the growth inhibitory effects of PX-12 on HeLa cervical cancer cells in association with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels were investigated. Based on MTT assays, PX-12 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with an IC50 value of ~7 ?M at 72 h. DNA flow cytometry analysis indicated that 5 and 10 ?M PX-12 significantly induced a G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. PX-12 also increased the number of dead cells and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate-positive cells, which was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. All the investigated caspase inhibitors significantly rescued certain cells from PX-12-induced HeLa cell death. With respect to ROS and GSH levels, PX-12 increased ROS levels (including O2•?) in HeLa cells and induced GSH depletion. N-acetyl cysteine markedly reduced the levels of O2•? in PX-12-treated HeLa cells, and prevented apoptotic cell death and GSH depletion in these cells. By contrast, L-buthionine sulfoximine intensified cell death and GSH depletion in PX-12-treated HeLa cells. To conclude, this is the first study to demonstrate that PX-12 inhibits the growth of HeLa cells via G2/M phase arrest, as well as inhibiting apoptosis; the effect was associated with intracellular increases in ROS levels and GSH depletion. PMID:24260080




Micropuncture Studies of the Basis for Protection of Renin Depleted Rats from Glycerol Induced Acute Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rats depleted of renin by chronic saline loading are largely protected from glycerol induced acute renal failure. For some 4 h after glycerol injection, these animals showed the same apparent renal ischemia, cessation of filtration and tubule collapse seen in rats that are not renin depleted. Despite this ischemia, renal function returned rapidly, individual nephron GFR reaching 75 %

G. Thiel; F. D. McDonald; D. E. Oken



Amphetamine Paradoxically Augments Exocytotic Dopamine Release and Phasic Dopamine Signals  

PubMed Central

Drugs of abuse hijack brain reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting non-exocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties - which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to two hours. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, non-electrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sucrose reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sucrose-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify up-regulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

Daberkow, DP; Brown, HD; Bunner, KD; Kraniotis, SA; Doellman, MA; Ragozzino, ME; Garris, PA; Roitman, MF



Amphetamine paradoxically augments exocytotic dopamine release and phasic dopamine signals.  


Drugs of abuse hijack brain-reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting nonexocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties, which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to 2 h. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration, and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, nonelectrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sugar reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sugar-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify upregulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

Daberkow, D P; Brown, H D; Bunner, K D; Kraniotis, S A; Doellman, M A; Ragozzino, M E; Garris, P A; Roitman, M F



Tamoxifen counteracts estradiol induced effects on striatal and hypophyseal dopamine receptors  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the ability of Tamoxifen (TAM), an antiestrogen drug, to counteract the modification induced by estrogens on dopamine (DA) receptors on striatum and on adenohypophysis of ovex female rats. Subacute treatment with 17..beta..-estradiol (E/sub 2/) at both low (0.1 and high (20 doses confirmed its ability to increase the number of striatal /sup 3/H-Spiperone (/sup 3/H-SPI) binding sites in a dose dependent manner. By contrast in the pituitary, only high doses of estrogen were effective in reducing the number of DA receptors. We treated ovex female rats for 15 days with TAM alone or associated with E/sub 2/, to see if these estrogenic effects could be suppressed by an antiestrogenic drug. TAM did not affect the number of striatal DA receptors, but significantly increased the adenohypophy-seal DA binding sites, without varying their affinity. No changes were observed in pituitary and striatal DA receptor density, even when TAM was injected in association with estradiol. In conclusions: TAM is able to counteract the effects estrogens have on DA receptors. However there is some evidence that it could influence the pituitary DA systems independently of it antiestrogenic activity.

Ferretti, C.; Blengio, M.; Ghi, P.; Racca, S.; Genazzani, E.; Portaleone, P.



PET measures of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in ventral versus dorsal striatum.  


Regional differences in dextroamphetamine (AMPH)-induced dopamine (DA) release in the baboon striatum were assessed using positron emission tomographic (PET) measures of [11C]raclopride specific binding to DA D2/D3 receptors acquired before and after AMPH administration. The magnitude of the reduction in [11C]raclopride binding, following AMPH administration, was two-fold greater in the anteroventral striatum (comprised of ventral caudate, anteroventral putamen, and nucleus accumbens) than the dorsal striatum (dorsal caudate). A simulation study demonstrated that any potential biases due to resolution (partial volume) and alignment effects were significantly smaller than the magnitude of the observed results. These regional differences in the sensitivity of AMPH are compatible with microdialysis evidence in rats indicating that the magnitude of DA release in response to AMPH concentrations in the range tested is greater in ventral than dorsal striatal regions. Post hoc tests involving measures in other striatal regions showed that the baseline DA D2/D3 binding was highest and the correlation between AMPH dose and change in [11C]raclopride binding most significant in the putamen. PMID:10633475

Drevets, W C; Price, J C; Kupfer, D J; Kinahan, P E; Lopresti, B; Holt, D; Mathis, C



N-Terminal Phosphorylation of the Dopamine Transporter Is Required for Amphetamine-Induced Efflux  

PubMed Central

Amphetamine (AMPH) elicits its behavioral effects by acting on the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) to induce DA efflux into the synaptic cleft. We previously demonstrated that a human DAT construct in which the first 22 amino acids were truncated was not phosphorylated by activation of protein kinase C, in contrast to wild-type (WT) DAT, which was phosphorylated. Nonetheless, in all functions tested to date, which include uptake, inhibitor binding, oligomerization, and redistribution away from the cell surface in response to protein kinase C activation, the truncated DAT was indistinguishable from the full-length WT DAT. Here, however, we show that in HEK-293 cells stably expressing an N-terminal-truncated DAT (del-22 DAT), AMPH-induced DA efflux is reduced by approximately 80%, whether measured by superfusion of a population of cells or by amperometry combined with the patch-clamp technique in the whole cell configuration. We further demonstrate in a full-length DAT construct that simultaneous mutation of the five N-terminal serine residues to alanine (S/A) produces the same phenotype as del-22—normal uptake but dramatically impaired efflux. In contrast, simultaneous mutation of these same five serines to aspartate (S/D) to simulate phosphorylation results in normal AMPH-induced DA efflux and uptake. In the S/A background, the single mutation to Asp of residue 7 or residue 12 restored a significant fraction of WT efflux, whereas mutation to Asp of residues 2, 4, or 13 was without significant effect on efflux. We propose that phosphorylation of one or more serines in the N-terminus of human DAT, most likely Ser7 or Ser12, is essential for AMPH-induced DAT-mediated DA efflux. Quite surprisingly, N-terminal phosphorylation shifts DAT from a “reluctant” state to a “willing” state for AMPH-induced DA efflux, without affecting inward transport. These data raise the therapeutic possibility of interfering selectively with AMPH-induced DA efflux without altering physiological DA uptake. PMID:15024426



Polymer-Induced Depletion Interaction and Its Effect on Colloidal Sedimentation in Colloid-Polymer Mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we focus on the polymer-induced depletion attraction and its effect on colloidal sedimentation in colloid-polymer mixtures. We first report a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of the depletion effect in a mixture of hard-sphere-like colloid and non-adsorbing polymer. Then we present results of our recent sedimentation measurements in the same colloid-polymer mixture. A key parameter in controlling the sedimentation of heavy colloidal particles is the interparticle potential U(tau), which is the work required to bring two colloidal particles from infinity to a distance tau under a give solvent condition. This potential is known to affect the average settling velocity of the particles and experimentally one needs to have a way to continuously vary U(tau) in order to test the theory. The interaction potential U(tau) can be altered by adding polymer molecules into the colloidal suspension. In a mixture of colloid and non-adsorbing polymer, the potential U(tau) can develop an attractive well because of the depletion effect, in that the polymer chains are expelled from the region between two colloidal particles when their surface separation becomes smaller than the size of the polymer chains. The exclusion of polymer molecules from the space between the colloidal particles leads to an unbalanced osmotic pressure difference pushing the colloidal particles together, which results in an effective attraction between the two colloidal particles. The polymer-induced depletion attraction controls the phase stability of many colloid-polymer mixtures, which are directly of interest to industry.

Tong, Penger



Ca 2+ channel blockade prevents lysergic acid diethylamide-induced changes in dopamine and serotonin metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of a single and multiple administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on cerebral metabolism of dopamine and serotonin, male Wistar rats were treated with low and high doses (0.1 and 2.0 mg\\/kg i.p.) of LSD and the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were assayed by HPLC in the nucleus

Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk; Irena Roma?ska; Jerzy Vetulani



Role of 6-monoacetylmorphine in the acute release of striatal dopamine induced by intravenous heroin.  


After injection, heroin is rapidly metabolized to 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and further to morphine. As morphine has been shown to increase striatal dopamine, whereas 6-MAM has not been studied in this respect, we gave i.v. injections of 3 ?mol 6-MAM, morphine or heroin to rats. Opioids were measured in blood, and dopamine and opioids in microdialysate from brain striatal extracellular fluid (ECF), by UPLC-MS/MS. After 6-MAM injection, 6-MAM ECF concentrations increased rapidly, and reached Cmax of 4.4 ?M after 8 min. After heroin injection, 6-MAM increased rapidly in blood and reached Cmax of 6.4 ?M in ECF after 8 min, while ECF Cmax for heroin was 1.2 ?M after 2 min. T max for morphine in ECF was 29 and 24 min following 6-MAM and heroin administration, respectively, with corresponding Cmax levels of 1 and 2 ?M. Dopamine levels peaked after 8 and 14 min following 6-MAM and heroin administration, respectively. The dopamine responses were equal, indicating no dopamine release by heroin per se. Furthermore, 6-MAM, and not morphine, appeared to mediate the early dopamine response, whereas morphine administration, giving rise to morphine ECF concentrations similar to those observed shortly after 6-MAM injection, did not increase ECF dopamine. 6-MAM appeared accordingly to be the substance responsible for the early increase in dopamine observed after heroin injection. As 6-MAM was formed rapidly from heroin in blood, and was the major substance reaching the brain after heroin administration, this also indicates that factors influencing blood 6-MAM concentrations might change the behavioural effects of heroin. PMID:24576415

Gottås, A; Boix, F; Øiestad, E L; Vindenes, V; Mørland, J



Measurement of Beta Particles Induced Electron-Hole Pairs Recombination in Depletion Region of GaAs PN Junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

PN junctions and schottky diodes are widely employed as electron-hole pair collectors in electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques and betavoltaic batteries, in which the recombination in depletion regions is ignored. We measured the beta particles induced electron-hole pairs recombination in the depletion region of a GaAs P+PN+ junction, based on comparisons between measured short currents and ideal values. The

Hai-Yang Chen; Lan Jiang; Da-Rang Li



The effect of experimentally induced bronchopneumonia on the pharmacokinetics and tissue depletion of gentamicin in healthy and pneumonic calves  

E-print Network


Hunter, Robert Paul



Imaging Human Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission With Positron Emission Tomography. Part II: Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in the Functional Subdivisions of the Striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human striatum is functionally organized into limbic, associative, and sensorimotor subdivisions, which process information related to emotional, cognitive, and motor function. Dopamine projections ascending from the midbrain provide important modulatory input to these striatal subregions. The aim of this study was to compare activation of dopamine D2 receptors after amphetamine administration in the functional subdivisions of the human striatum.

Diana Martinez; Mark Slifstein; Allegra Broft; Osama Mawlawi; Dah-Ren Hwang; Yiyun Huang; Thomas Cooper; Lawrence Kegeles; Eric Zarahn; Anissa Abi-Dargham; Suzanne N. Haber; Marc Laruelle



Neuropharmacology of theophylline induced stuttering: the role of dopamine, adenosine and GABA.  


Developmental stuttering is a poorly understood speech disorder that starts out in childhood and some individuals continue to stutter throughout their lives. Stuttering is a disruption in smooth and fluent speech. Some stuttering primarily involves vocal blocks, which are spasms of the laryngeal musculature while prolongations, and repetitions of sound occur in other cases. Acquired stuttering, on the other hand, can occur at all ages and can be caused by brain injury and by pharmacological agents. Theophylline-induced stuttering is form of acquired stuttering. It is a rare side effect of theophylline therapy, but it provides interesting clues to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in stuttering. Theophylline-induced stuttering may involve the disrupt the optimal balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the brain by inhibiting GABA receptors. The disruption of the optimal balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission can also cause dysfunction in white matter fiber tracts such as those that connect the Broca's area to the motor cortex. This leads to a hyperexitation of the motor cortex which may mimic the motor cortex hyperexitability that exists in developmental stuttering. Theophylline also enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of adenosine receptors and this may mimic the hyperdopaminergic state that exists in the brain of developmental stutterers. Theophylline causes the greatest release of dopamine in the basal ganglia through the inhibition of adenosine and GABA receptors. This may also cause dysfunction in the basal ganglia similar in some ways to the dysfunction that exits in developmental stuttering. Pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission by other drugs been reported to cause stuttering in fluent individuals and to aggrevate dysfluency in stutterers. PMID:15607558

Movsessian, Patrick



CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects  

PubMed Central

It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schutz, Gunther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.



Progression of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic carcinogenesis in carnitine-depleted rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether carnitine deficiency is a risk factor during the development of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic carcinogenesis. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups with 10 animals in each group. Rats in group 1 (control group) received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline. Animals in group 2 (carnitine-supplemented group) were given L-carnitine (200 mg/kg per day) in drinking water for 8 wk. Animals in group 3 (carnitine-depleted group) were given D-carnitine (200 mg/kg per day) and mildronate (200 mg/kg per day) in drinking water for 8 wk. Rats in group 4 (DENA group) were injected with a single dose of DENA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) and 2 wk later received a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (2 mL/kg) by gavage as 1:1 dilution in corn oil. Animals in group 5 (DENA-carnitine depleted group) received the same treatment as group 3 and group 4. Rats in group 6 (DENA-carnitine supplemented group) received the same treatment as group 2 and group 4. RESULTS: Administration of DENA resulted in a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (G-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase (CAT) and total carnitine content in liver tissues. In the carnitine-depleted rat model, DENA induced a dramatic increase in serum ALT, G-GT, ALP and total bilirubin, as well as a progressive reduction in total carnitine content in liver tissues. Interestingly, L-carnitine supplementation resulted in a complete reversal of the increase in liver enzymes, TBARS and NOx, and a decrease in total carnitine, GSH, GSHPx, and CAT induced by DENA, compared with the control values. Histopathological examination of liver tissues confirmed the biochemical data, where L-carnitine prevented DENA-induced hepatic carcinogenesis while D-carnitine-mildronate aggravated DENA-induced hepatic damage. CONCLUSION: Data from this study suggest for the first time that: (1) carnitine deficiency is a risk factor and should be viewed as a mechanism in DENA-induced hepatic carcinogenesis; (2) oxidative stress plays an important role but is not the only cause of DENA-induced hepatic carcinogenesis; and (3) long-term L-carnitine supplementation prevents the development of DENA-induced liver cancer. PMID:19294768

Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Bakheet, Saleh A; Alsheikh, Abdulmalik; Fatani, Amal G; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M



Role of serotonin 2A receptors in the D-amphetamine-induced release of dopamine: comparison with previous data on alpha1b-adrenergic receptors.  


D-amphetamine is known to induce an increase in dopamine release in subcortical structures, thus inducing locomotor hyperactivity in rodents. Previous data have indicated that only 15% of the D-amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is related to locomotor activity and that this 'functional' dopamine release is controlled by alpha1b-adrenergic receptors located in the prefrontal cortex. We show here that SR46349B (0.5 mg/kg, 30 min before D-amphetamine), a specific serotonin2A (5-HT(2A)) antagonist, can completely block 0.75 mg/kg D-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity without decreasing D-amphetamine-induced extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Using the same experimental paradigm as before, i.e. a systemic injection of D-amphetamine accompanied by a continuous local perfusion of 3 microM D-amphetamine, we find that SR46349B (0.5 mg/kg) blocks completely the systemic (0.75 mg/kg) D-amphetamine-induced functional dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Finally, the bilateral injection of SR46349B (500 pmol/side) into the ventral tegmental area blocked both the D-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and functional dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, whereas bilateral injection of SR46349B into the medial prefrontal cortex was ineffective. We propose that 5-HT(2A) and alpha1b-adrenergic receptors control a common neural pathway responsible for the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens by psychostimulants. PMID:15447665

Auclair, Agnès; Blanc, Gérard; Glowinski, Jacques; Tassin, Jean-Pol



ARMS depletion facilitates UV irradiation induced apoptotic cell death in melanoma.  


Tumor cells often aberrantly reexpress molecules that mediate proper embryonic development for advantageous growth or survival. Here, we report that ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), a transmembrane protein abundant in the developing and adult neural tissues, is overexpressed in melanoma, a tumor ontogenetically originating from neural crest. Immunohistochemical study of 79 melanocytic lesions showed significantly increased expression of ARMS in primary malignant melanomas (92.9%) and metastatic melanoma (60.0%) in comparison with benign nevocellular nevi (26.7%). To investigate the role of ARMS in melanoma formation, murine B16F0 melanoma cells with stable knockdown of ARMS were established by RNA interference. Down-regulation of ARMS resulted in significant inhibition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and restrictive growth of melanoma in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Importantly, depletion of ARMS facilitated UVB-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells through inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK. Addition of MEK inhibitor PD98059 further sensitized ARMS-depleted melanoma cells to UVB-induced apoptosis, whereas constitutively active MEK rescued ARMS-depleted cells from apoptosis. We further showed that BRAF, a downstream signaling molecule of ARMS in ERK pathway, is not mutated as a constitutively active form in acral lentiginous melanoma; in contrast, BRAF(T1799A) mutation, which leads to constitutive activation of ERK signaling, was detected in 57.1% of superficial spreading melanoma. Our study suggests that overexpression of ARMS per se serves as one mechanism to promote melanoma formation by preventing stress-induced apoptotic death mediated by the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, especially in acral lentiginous melanoma, most of which does not harbor BRAF mutation. PMID:18089783

Liao, Yi-Hua; Hsu, Su-Ming; Huang, Pei-Hsin



Sedimentation rapidly induces an immune response and depletes energy stores in a hard coral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High sedimentation rates have been linked to reduced coral health within multiple systems; however, whether this is a direct result of compromised coral immunity has not been previously investigated. The potential effects of sedimentation on immunity of the hard coral Montipora patula were examined by comparing physiological responses of coral fragments inoculated with sterilized marine sediments and those under control conditions. Sediments were collected from terrestrial runoff-affected reefs in SW Madagascar and applied cyclically for a total of 24 h at a rate observed during precipitation-induced sedimentation events. Coral health was determined 24 h after the onset of the sedimentation stress through measuring metabolic proxies of O2 budget and lipid ratios. Immune response of the melanin synthesis pathway was measured by quantifying phenoloxidase activity and melanin deposits. Sedimentation induced both immune and metabolic responses in M. patula. Both phenoloxidase activity and melanin deposition were significantly higher in the sediment treatment compared to controls, indicating an induced immune response. Sediment-treated corals also showed a tendency towards increased respiration (during the night) and decreased photosynthesis (during the day) and a significant depletion of energy reserves as compared to controls. These data highlight that short-term (24 h) sedimentation, free of live microorganisms, compromises the health of M. patula. The energetically costly immune response, potentially elicited by residual endotoxins and other inflammatory particles associated with the sterile sediments, likely contributes to the energy depletion. Overall, exposure to sedimentation adversely affects coral health and continued exposure may lead to resource depletion and an increased susceptibility to disease.

Sheridan, C.; Grosjean, Ph.; Leblud, J.; Palmer, C. V.; Kushmaro, A.; Eeckhaut, I.



Characterization of in vitro dopamine synthesis in the median eminence of rats with haloperidol-induced hyperprolactinemia and bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactinemia.  


In order to investigate the mechanism of PRL action on dopamine synthesis in tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, in vitro dopamine synthesis in the median eminence of hypothalamic slices was compared between hyperprolactinemic and hypoprolactinemic rats, Hyper- and hypoprolactinemia were induced in ovariectomized rats by repetitive injections of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (Halo) and the dopamine agonist bromocriptine (Bromo), respectively. In vitro dopamine synthesis in TIDA neurons was estimated by measuring 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulated in the median eminence after incubation of hypothalamic slices with a DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor. Treatment with Halo or Bromo produced increases or decreases, respectively, in the concentration of PRL in serum and in in vivo DOPA accumulation in the median eminence, as compared with vehicle treatment. The basal rate of in vitro DOPA accumulation in the median eminence was increased in Halo-treated rats and was decreased in Bromo-treated rats. The increase in basal DOPA accumulation after Halo treatment was inhibited by Ca2+ removal from medium or tetrodotoxin addition. A CA2+ -dependent increase in DOPA accumulation in the median eminence by depolarization was greater in Halo-treated rats than in Bromo-treated rats. This difference in DOPA accumulation was due to the changes in PRL secretion after Halo and Bromo treatments, since hypophysectomy abolished it. Incubation of hypothalamic slices in Na+-free media to increase the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ through inhibition of Na+-Ca2+ exchange caused an increase in DOPA accumulation. The rate of DOPA accumulation in Na+-free media was increased in Halo-treated rats and was decreased in Bromo-treated rats. On the other hand, neither Halo nor Bromo treatment altered the increase in DOPA accumulation induced by (Bu)2cAMP or forskolin. These results support the view that PRL stimulates dopamine synthesis in TIDA neurons by mechanisms which include an increase in the firing rate of TIDA neurons and increased depolarization-induced synthesis due to an enhanced response of the component that regulates dopamine synthesis to intracellular Ca2+. PMID:3019639

Arita, J; Kimura, F



Gastric mucosal lesions induced by complete dopamine system failure in rats. The effects of dopamine agents, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.  


Up to now, for gastric lesions potentiation or induction, as well as determination of endogenous dopamine significance, dopamine antagonist or dopamine vesicle depletor were given separately. Therefore, without combination studies, the evidence for dopamine significance remains split on either blockade of dopamine post-synaptic receptor or inhibition of dopamine storage, essentially contrasting with endogenous circumstances, where both functions could be simultaneously disturbed. For this purpose, a co-administration of reserpine and haloperidol, a dopamine granule depletor combined with a dopamine antagonist with pronounced ulcerogenic effect, was tested, and the rats were sacrificed 24 h after injurious agent(s) administration. Haloperidol (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given alone, produced the lesions in all rats. Reserpine (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given separately, also produced lesions. When these agents were given together, the lesions were apparently larger than in the groups injured with separate administration of either haloperidol or reserpine alone. Along with our previous results, when beneficial agents were co-administered, all dopaminomimetics (bromocriptine 10 mg, apomophine 1 mg, amphetamine 20 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) apparently attenuated the otherwise consistent haloperidol-gastric lesions. Likewise, an apparent inhibition of the reserpine-lesions was noted as well. However, if they were given in rats injured with combination of haloperidol and reserpine, their otherwise prominent beneficial effects were absent. Ranitidine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (Gly-Glu-Pro-Pro-Pro-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ala-Asp-Asp-Ala-Gly-Leu-Val) (10 microg or 10 ng x kg(-1) i.p.) evidently prevented both haloperidol-gastric lesions and reserpine-gastric lesions. Confronted with potentiated lesions following a combination of haloperidol and reserpine, these agents maintained their beneficial effects, noted in the rats treated with either haloperidol or reserpine alone. The failure of dopaminomimetics could be most likely due to more extensive inhibition of endogenous dopamine system activity, and need for remained endogenous dopamine for their salutary effect, whereas the beneficial activities of ranitidine, omeprazole, atropine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 following dopamine system inhibition by haloperidol+reserpine suggest their corresponding systems parallel those of dopamine system, and they may function despite extensive inhibition of endogenous dopamine system activity. PMID:10791690

Sikiric, P; Separovic, J; Buljat, G; Anic, T; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Duplancic, B; Marovic, A; Zoricic, I; Prkacin, I; Lovric-Bencic, M; Aralica, G; Ziger, T; Perovic, D; Jelovac, N; Dodig, G; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Seiwerth, S; Turkovic, B; Grabarevic, Z; Petek, M; Rucman, R



Satellite cell depletion does not inhibit adult skeletal muscle regrowth following unloading-induced atrophy  

PubMed Central

Resident muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, are thought to be the main mediators of skeletal muscle plasticity. Satellite cells are activated, replicate, and fuse into existing muscle fibers in response to both muscle injury and mechanical load. It is generally well-accepted that satellite cells participate in postnatal growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration following injury; however, their role in muscle regrowth following an atrophic stimulus remains equivocal. The current study employed a genetic mouse model (Pax7-DTA) that allowed for the effective depletion of >90% of satellite cells in adult muscle upon the administration of tamoxifen. Vehicle and tamoxifen-treated young adult female mice were either hindlimb suspended for 14 days to induce muscle atrophy or hindlimb suspended for 14 days followed by 14 days of reloading to allow regrowth, or they remained ambulatory for the duration of the experimental protocol. Additionally, 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was added to the drinking water to track cell proliferation. Soleus muscle atrophy, as measured by whole muscle wet weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and single-fiber width, occurred in response to suspension and did not differ between satellite cell-depleted and control muscles. Furthermore, the depletion of satellite cells did not attenuate muscle mass or force recovery during the 14-day reloading period, suggesting that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth. Myonuclear number was not altered during either the suspension or the reloading period in soleus muscle fibers from vehicle-treated or satellite cell-depleted animals. Thus, myonuclear domain size was reduced following suspension due to decreased cytoplasmic volume and was completely restored following reloading, independent of the presence of satellite cells. These results provide convincing evidence that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth following atrophy and that, instead, the myonuclear domain size changes as myofibers adapt. PMID:22895262

Jackson, Janna R.; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J.; Fry, Christopher S.; Lee, Jonah D.; Ubele, Margo F.; Campbell, Kenneth S.; McCarthy, John J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.



Satellite cell depletion does not inhibit adult skeletal muscle regrowth following unloading-induced atrophy.  


Resident muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, are thought to be the main mediators of skeletal muscle plasticity. Satellite cells are activated, replicate, and fuse into existing muscle fibers in response to both muscle injury and mechanical load. It is generally well-accepted that satellite cells participate in postnatal growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration following injury; however, their role in muscle regrowth following an atrophic stimulus remains equivocal. The current study employed a genetic mouse model (Pax7-DTA) that allowed for the effective depletion of >90% of satellite cells in adult muscle upon the administration of tamoxifen. Vehicle and tamoxifen-treated young adult female mice were either hindlimb suspended for 14 days to induce muscle atrophy or hindlimb suspended for 14 days followed by 14 days of reloading to allow regrowth, or they remained ambulatory for the duration of the experimental protocol. Additionally, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was added to the drinking water to track cell proliferation. Soleus muscle atrophy, as measured by whole muscle wet weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and single-fiber width, occurred in response to suspension and did not differ between satellite cell-depleted and control muscles. Furthermore, the depletion of satellite cells did not attenuate muscle mass or force recovery during the 14-day reloading period, suggesting that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth. Myonuclear number was not altered during either the suspension or the reloading period in soleus muscle fibers from vehicle-treated or satellite cell-depleted animals. Thus, myonuclear domain size was reduced following suspension due to decreased cytoplasmic volume and was completely restored following reloading, independent of the presence of satellite cells. These results provide convincing evidence that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth following atrophy and that, instead, the myonuclear domain size changes as myofibers adapt. PMID:22895262

Jackson, Janna R; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J; Fry, Christopher S; Lee, Jonah D; Ubele, Margo F; Campbell, Kenneth S; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E



The membrane-raft protein Flotillin-1 is essential in dopamine neurons for amphetamine-induced behavior in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the primary molecular target responsible for the rewarding properties of the psychostimulants amphetamine (AMPH) and cocaine. AMPH increases extracellular dopamine (DA) by promoting its nonexocytotic release via DAT-mediated efflux. Previous studies in heterologous cells have shown that phosphorylation of the amino terminus of DAT is required for AMPH-induced DA efflux but not for DA uptake. However, the identity of many of the modulatory proteins and the molecular mechanisms that coordinate efflux and the ensuing behavioral effects remain poorly defined. Here we establish a robust assay for AMPH-induced hyperlocomotion in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Using a variety of genetic and pharmacological approaches we demonstrate that this behavioral response is dependent on DA and on DAT and its phosphorylation. We also show that methylphenidate (MPH), which competitively inhibits DA uptake but does not induce DAT-mediated DA efflux, also leads to DAT-dependent hyperlocomotion, but this response is independent of DAT phosphorylation. Moreover, we demonstrate that the membrane raft protein Flotillin1 is required for AMPH-induced but not MPH-induced hyperlocomotion. These results are the first evidence of a role for a raft protein in an AMPH-mediated behavior. Thus, using our assay we are able to translate molecular and cellular findings to a behavioral level and to differentiate in vivo the distinct mechanisms of two psychostimulants. PMID:22710269

Pizzo, Andrea B.; Karam, Caline S.; Zhang, Yuchao; Yano, Hideaki; Freyberg, Robin J.; Karam, David S.; Freyberg, Zachary; Yamamoto, Ai; McCabe, Brian D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.



A receptor-based model for dopamine-induced fMRI signal  

PubMed Central

This report describes a multi-receptor physiological model of the fMRI temporal response and signal magnitude evoked by drugs that elevate synaptic dopamine in basal ganglia. The model is formulated as a summation of dopamine’s effects at D1-like and D2-like receptor families, which produce functional excitation and inhibition, respectively, as measured by molecular indicators like adenylate cyclase or neuroimaging techniques like fMRI. Functional effects within the model are described in terms of relative changes in receptor occupancies scaled by receptor densities and neuro-vascular coupling constants. Using literature parameters, the model reconciles many discrepant observations and interpretations of pre-clinical data. Additionally, we present data showing that amphetamine stimulation produces fMRI inhibition at low doses and a biphasic response at higher doses in the basal ganglia of non-human primates (NHP), in agreement with model predictions based upon the respective levels of evoked dopamine. Because information about dopamine release is required to inform the fMRI model, we simultaneously acquired PET 11C-raclopride data in several studies to evaluate the relationship between raclopride displacement and assumptions about dopamine release. At high levels of dopamine release, results suggest that refinements of the model will be required to consistently describe the PET and fMRI data. Overall, the remarkable success of the model in describing a wide range of preclinical fMRI data indicate that this approach will be useful for guiding the design and analysis of basic science and clinical investigations and for interpreting the functional consequences of dopaminergic stimulation in normal subjects and in populations with dopaminergic neuroadaptations. PMID:23466936

Mandeville, Joseph. B.; Sander, Christin Y. M.; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian; Vanduffel, Wim; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Normandin, Marc D.



Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study  

PubMed Central

Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry



D-2 dopamine receptor activation reduces free ( sup 3 H)arachidonate release induced by hypophysiotropic peptides in anterior pituitary cells  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine reduces the stimulation of intracellular ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release produced by the two PRL-stimulating peptides angiotensin-II and TRH. This effect is concentration dependent and is mediated by stimulation of D-2 dopamine receptors. D-2 receptor agonists (bromocriptine, dihydroergocryptine, and dihydroergocristine) inhibit the release of fatty acid induced by angiotensin-II with a potency that parallels their ability to inhibit PRL release in vitro. Conversely, the selective D-2 receptor antagonist L-sulpiride completely prevents dopamine's effect, whereas SCH 23390 (a D-1 receptor antagonist) is ineffective. The inhibitory action of dopamine does not seem to be consequent to an action on the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, as 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM) does not affect either basal or dopamine-inhibited ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release. However, a 24-h pertussis toxin pretreatment significantly reduces the action of dopamine on fatty acid release. Collectively, these results suggest that D-2 dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of intracellular ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release requires the action of a GTP-binding protein, but is not a consequence of an inhibitory action on cAMP levels.

Canonico, P.L. (Univ. of Catania School of Medicine (Italy))



Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats  

PubMed Central

Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction. PMID:25076877

Palm, Sara; Momeni, Shima; Lundberg, Stina; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika



Neurosteroid Agonist at GABAA receptor induces persistent neuroplasticity in VTA dopamine neurons.  


The main fast-acting inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain are ?-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptors for which neurosteroids, a subclass of steroids synthesized de novo in the brain, constitute a group of endogenous ligands with the most potent positive modulatory actions known. Neurosteroids can act on all subtypes of GABAA receptors, with a preference for ?-subunit-containing receptors that mediate extrasynaptic tonic inhibition. Pathological conditions characterized by emotional and motivational disturbances are often associated with perturbation in the levels of endogenous neurosteroids. We studied the effects of ganaxolone (GAN)-a synthetic analog of endogenous allopregnanolone that lacks activity on nuclear steroid receptors-on the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system involved in emotions and motivation. A single dose of GAN in young mice induced a dose-dependent, long-lasting neuroplasticity of glutamate synapses of DA neurons ex vivo in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Increased ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)/N-methyl-D-aspartate ratio and rectification of AMPA receptor responses even at 6 days after GAN administration suggested persistent synaptic targeting of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. This glutamate neuroplasticity was not observed in GABAA receptor ?-subunit-knockout (?-KO) mice. GAN (500?nM) applied locally to VTA selectively increased tonic inhibition of GABA interneurons and triggered potentiation of DA neurons within 4?h in vitro. Place-conditioning experiments in adult wild-type C57BL/6J and ?-KO mice revealed aversive properties of repeated GAN administration that were dependent on the ?-subunits. Prolonged neuroadaptation to neurosteroids in the VTA might contribute to both the physiology and pathophysiology underlying processes and changes in motivation, mood, cognition, and drug addiction. PMID:24077066

Vashchinkina, Elena; Manner, Aino K; Vekovischeva, Olga; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Aitta-Aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R



Retrodialysis of N/OFQ into the nucleus accumbens shell blocks cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity.  


Nociceptin (N/OFQ) has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, most notably in reward processes and drug abuse. N/OFQ suppresses extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after intracerebroventricular injection. This study sought to examine the effects of retrodialyzed N/OFQ on the cocaine-induced increase in extracellular dopamine levels in the NAc, as well as locomotor activity, in freely moving rats. 1.0?M, 10?M, and 1mM N/OFQ, in the NAc shell, significantly suppressed the cocaine-induced dopamine increase in the NAc, while N/OFQ alone had no significant effect on dopamine levels. Co-delivery of the selective NOP receptor antagonist SB612111 ([(-)-cis-1-Methyl-7-[[4-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl]methyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-5-ol] reversed the N/OFQ suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine in the NAc, suggesting that this is an NOP receptor-mediated effect. Using a novel system to assess locomotion, we measured various motor activities of the animals with simultaneous microdialysis from the home cage. Cocaine produced an expected increase in total activity, including horizontal movement and rearing behavior. Retrodialysis of N/OFQ with cocaine administration affected all motor activities, initially showing no effect on behavior, but over time inhibiting cocaine-induced motor behaviors. These results suggest that N/OFQ can act directly in the NAc shell to block cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels. Extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity can be dissociated within the NAc and may reflect motor output differences in shell versus core regions of the NAc. These studies confirm the widespread involvement of NOP receptors in drug addiction and further validate the utility of an NOP receptor agonist as a medication for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:23219985

Vazquez-DeRose, Jacqueline; Stauber, Gregory; Khroyan, Taline V; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Toll, Lawrence



Effects of 18-methoxycoronaridine on ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose intake and accumbal dopamine overflow in female rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a selective antagonist of ?3?4 nicotinic receptors, has been previously shown, in rats, to reduce the self-administration of several drugs of abuse, reduce operant responding for sucrose, and prevent the development of sucrose-induced obesity. It has become increasingly apparent that there is a significant overlap between the systems regulating drug reward and food intake, therefore, we investigated whether 18-MC might modulate the effects of ghrelin, one of several orexigenic peptides recently implicated in both feeding and drug reward. Objectives In female Sprague–Dawley rats, we determined whether acute 18-MC treatment would reduce both ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose intake and ghrelin-elicited increases in accumbal dopamine levels. Results Pretreatment with 18-MC (20 mg/kg, i.p.), given prior to the administration of ghrelin (1 µg, lateral ventricle), blocked ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose (5%) intake in a two-bottle open access paradigm. Using in vivo microdialysis, 18-MC (both 20 and 40 mg/kg) prevented ghrelin (2 µg, intraventral tegmental area)-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. 18-MC had no effect on deposition of fat or on serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol in ghrelin-treated rats. Conclusions The present results suggest that one potential mechanism by which 18-MC exerts its effects on palatable food consumption is via modulation of ghrelin’s effects. PMID:21210086

Taraschenko, Olga D.; Hathaway, Ethan R.; Vincent, Melanie Y.; Glick, Stanley D.



Norcantharidin induced DU145 cell apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion.  


Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated analog of cantharidin derived from blister beetles, has attracted considerable attentions in recent years due to their definitely toxic properties and the noteworthy advantages in stimulating bone marrow and increasing the peripheral leukocytes. Hence, it is worth studying the anti-tumor effect of NCTD on human prostate cancer cells DU145. It was found that after the treatment of NCTD with different concentrations (25-100 ?M), the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, which led to the appearance of micronucleus (MN). Moreover, the cells could be killed in a dose-/time-dependent manner along with the reduction of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression, destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), down-regulation of MnSOD, induction of ROS, depletion of ATP, and activation of AMPK (Adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase) . In addition, a remarkable release of cytochrome c was found in the cells exposed to 100 ?M NCTD and exogenous SOD-PEG could eliminate the generation of NCTD-induced MN. In conclusion, our studies indicated that NCTD could induce the collapse of MMP and mitochondria dysfunction. Accumulation of intercellular ROS could eventually switch on the apoptotic pathway by causing DNA damage and depleting ATP. PMID:24367681

Shen, Bo; He, Pei-Jie; Shao, Chun-Lin



Norcantharidin Induced DU145 Cell Apoptosis through ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Energy Depletion  

PubMed Central

Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated analog of cantharidin derived from blister beetles, has attracted considerable attentions in recent years due to their definitely toxic properties and the noteworthy advantages in stimulating bone marrow and increasing the peripheral leukocytes. Hence, it is worth studying the anti-tumor effect of NCTD on human prostate cancer cells DU145. It was found that after the treatment of NCTD with different concentrations (25-100 ?M), the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, which led to the appearance of micronucleus (MN). Moreover, the cells could be killed in a dose-/ time-dependent manner along with the reduction of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression, destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), down-regulation of MnSOD, induction of ROS, depletion of ATP, and activation of AMPK (Adenosine 5‘-monophosphate -activated protein kinase) . In addition, a remarkable release of cytochrome c was found in the cells exposed to 100 ?M NCTD and exogenous SOD-PEG could eliminate the generation of NCTD-induced MN. In conclusion, our studies indicated that NCTD could induce the collapse of MMP and mitochondria dysfunction. Accumulation of intercellular ROS could eventually switch on the apoptotic pathway by causing DNA damage and depleting ATP. PMID:24367681

Shao, Chun-Lin



p53 induces skin aging by depleting Blimp1+ sebaceous gland cells.  


p53 is an important inducer of organismal aging. However, its roles in the aging of skin remain unclear. Here we show that mice with chronic activation of p53 develop an aging phenotype in the skin associated with a reduction of subcutaneous fat and loss of sebaceous gland (SG). The reduction in the fat layer may result from the decrease of mammalian TOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity accompanied by elevated expression of energy expenditure genes, and possibly as compensatory effects, leading to the elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, an inducer of sebocyte differentiation. In addition, Blimp1(+) sebocytes become depleted concomitantly with an increase in cellular senescence, which can be reversed by PPAR? antagonist (BADGE) treatment. Therefore, our results indicate that p53-mediated aging of the skin involves not only thinning through the loss of subdermal fat, but also xerosis or drying of the skin through declining sebaceous gland activity. PMID:24675459

Kim, J; Nakasaki, M; Todorova, D; Lake, B; Yuan, C-Y; Jamora, C; Xu, Y



p53 induces skin aging by depleting Blimp1+ sebaceous gland cells  

PubMed Central

p53 is an important inducer of organismal aging. However, its roles in the aging of skin remain unclear. Here we show that mice with chronic activation of p53 develop an aging phenotype in the skin associated with a reduction of subcutaneous fat and loss of sebaceous gland (SG). The reduction in the fat layer may result from the decrease of mammalian TOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity accompanied by elevated expression of energy expenditure genes, and possibly as compensatory effects, leading to the elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, an inducer of sebocyte differentiation. In addition, Blimp1+ sebocytes become depleted concomitantly with an increase in cellular senescence, which can be reversed by PPAR? antagonist (BADGE) treatment. Therefore, our results indicate that p53-mediated aging of the skin involves not only thinning through the loss of subdermal fat, but also xerosis or drying of the skin through declining sebaceous gland activity. PMID:24675459

Kim, J; Nakasaki, M; Todorova, D; Lake, B; Yuan, C-Y; Jamora, C; Xu, Y



Administration of the D2 Dopamine Receptor Antagonist Sulpiride into the Shell, but not the Core, of the Nucleus Accumbens Attenuates Cocaine Priming-Induced Reinstatement of Drug Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the contribution of each dopamine receptor subtype to this behavior remains unclear. The present experiments were designed to assess the role of D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell subregions in cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Rats

Sharon M Anderson; Heath D Schmidt; R Christopher Pierce



Cocaine-induced locomotor activity and cocaine discrimination in dopamine D 4 receptor mutant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Previous studies have found a role for dopamine D2-like receptors in many of the behavioral effects of cocaine, including its stimulation of locomotor activity and interoceptive\\u000a discriminative-stimulus effects. However, given the lack of selectivity of most of the available pharmacological tools among\\u000a D2, D3 and D4 dopamine receptors, the roles of these specific receptors remain unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The roles of specific

Jonathan L. Katz; Allison L. Chausmer; Gregory I. Elmer; Marcelo Rubinstein; Malcolm J. Low; David K. Grandy



Involvement of Dopamine Receptors in Binge Methamphetamine-Induced Activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrial Stress Pathways  

PubMed Central

Single large doses of methamphetamine (METH) cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in rodent striata. The dopamine D1 receptor appears to be involved in these METH-mediated stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate if dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in ER and mitochondrial stresses caused by single-day METH binges in the rat striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 injections of 10 mg/kg of METH alone or in combination with a putative D1 or D2 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 or raclopride, respectively, given 30 min prior to each METH injection. Rats were euthanized at various timepoints afterwards. Striatal tissues were used in quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses. We found that binge METH injections caused increased expression of the pro-survival genes, BiP/GRP-78 and P58IPK, in a SCH23390-sensitive manner. METH also caused up-regulation of ER-stress genes, Atf2, Atf3, Atf4, CHOP/Gadd153 and Gadd34. The expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was increased after METH injections. SCH23390 completely blocked induction in all analyzed ER stress-related proteins that included ATF3, ATF4, CHOP/Gadd153, HSPs and caspase-12. The dopamine D2-like antagonist, raclopride, exerted small to moderate inhibitory influence on some METH-induced changes in ER stress proteins. Importantly, METH caused decreases in the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but increases in the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Bad and cytochrome c, in a SCH23390-sensitive fashion. In contrast, raclopride provided only small inhibition of METH-induced changes in mitochondrial proteins. These findings indicate that METH-induced activation of striatal ER and mitochondrial stress pathways might be more related to activation of SCH23390-sensitive receptors. PMID:22174933

Beauvais, Genevieve; Atwell, Kenisha; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud



Measurement of Beta Particles Induced Electron-Hole Pairs Recombination in Depletion Region of GaAs PN Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PN junctions and schottky diodes are widely employed as electron-hole pair collectors in electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques and betavoltaic batteries, in which the recombination in depletion regions is ignored. We measured the beta particles induced electron-hole pairs recombination in the depletion region of a GaAs P+PN+ junction, based on comparisons between measured short currents and ideal values. The results show that only 20% electron-hole pairs in the depletion can be collected, causing the short current. This indicates an electron-hole pair diffusion length of 0.2?m in the depletion region. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the recombination in the EBIC techniques and betavoltaic design.

Chen, Hai-Yang; Jiang, Lan; Li, Da-Rang



Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and sensitization in dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 double mutant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) play pivotal roles in the action of methamphetamine\\u000a (MAP), including acute locomotor effects and behavioral sensitization. However, the relative impact of heterozygous DAT and\\u000a VMAT2 knockouts (KOs) on the behavioral effects of MAP remains unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To evaluate the roles of DAT and VMAT2 in MAP-induced locomotor behavior, we examined

Setsu Fukushima; Haowei Shen; Harumi Hata; Arihisa Ohara; Kayo Ohmi; Kazutaka Ikeda; Yohtaro Numachi; Hideaki Kobayashi; F. Scott Hall; George R. Uhl; Ichiro Sora



Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. Methods sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (?CT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced ?CT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. Results All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Conclusions Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage damage, but also resulted in pronounced subchondral sclerosis, synovial macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. PMID:24472689



Role of Dopamine in d-Amphetamine-Induced Euphoria in Normal, Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the role of dopamine in the euphorigenic effects of d-amphetamine in normal volunteers. d-Amphetamine (20 mg) was administered alone and after pretreatment with pimozide (4 mg), fluphenazine (3 or 6 mg), or prazosin (1 or 2 mg) in 3 separate groups of participants. Subjective effects were measured at regular intervals. It was hypothesized that pimozide and

Lisa H. Brauer; Harriet de Wit



Dopamine, Working Memory, and Training Induced Plasticity: Implications for Developmental Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive deficits and particularly deficits in working memory (WM) capacity are common features in neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the underlying mechanisms through which WM capacity can be improved is therefore of great importance. Several lines of research indicate that dopamine plays an important role not only in WM function but also…

Soderqvist, Stina; Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Humphreys, Keith; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel



A small molecule that induces reactive oxygen species via cellular glutathione depletion.  


Induction of excessive levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by small-molecule compounds has been considered a potentially effective therapeutic strategy against cancer cells, which are often subjected to chronic oxidative stress. However, to elucidate the mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds is generally a time-consuming process. We have recently identified NPD926, a small molecule that induces rapid cell death in cancer cells. Using a combination of two comprehensive and complementary approaches, proteomic profiling and affinity purification, together with the subsequent biochemical assays, we have elucidated the mechanism of action underlying NPD926-induced cell death: conjugation with glutathione mediated by GST, depletion of cellular glutathione and subsequent ROS generation. NPD926 preferentially induced effects in KRAS-transformed fibroblast cells, compared with their untransformed counterparts. Furthermore, NPD926 sensitized cells to inhibitors of system x(c)?, a cystine-glutamate antiporter considered to be a potential therapeutic target in cancers including cancer stem cells. These data show the effectiveness of a newly identified ROS inducer, which targets glutathione metabolism, in cancer treatment. PMID:25011393

Kawamura, Tatsuro; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Muroi, Makoto; Kawatani, Makoto; Osada, Hiroyuki



Creaming of emulsions: the role of depletion forces induced by surfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that excess surfactant, or salt, in the bulk phase of an oil in water ionic emulsion has strong consequences on the thermodynamical behavior of the dispersion. Static light scattering experiments have been performed to investigate the attractive interaction induced by micelles according to a depletion mechanism. This interaction can be largely reduced by adding salt. This depletion interaction leads to a phase transition which is characterized as a fluid-solid transition. The long range ordering of the droplets dense phase is characterized by visible light diffraction. The experimental phase diagram is quantitatively analysed as a transition between a perfect gaz and a harmonic solid. An analytical model is worked out from which we analyze the general phase diagram in terms of the volume fraction of the droplets, of the depth of their interaction potential and of the ratio (?/?), where ? is the range of the interaction and ? the droplet diameter. Cuts of the phase diagram at constant (?/?) feature a liquid-gas or a liquid-solid transition.

Bibette, J.; Roux, D.; Pouligny, B.



Relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and methylphenidate induced high in humans  

SciTech Connect

The inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by cocaine has been shown to be indispensable for its reinforcing properties. The development of drugs that inibit the DAT has become a major target to prevent cocaine`s effects. However prevention of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by DAT inhibitors has never been demonstrated. This study evaluates the ability to block methylphenidate (MP), a DAT inhibitor drug with similar reinforcing properties to cocaine, induced {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by prior DAT inhibition. It uses PET and [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate to measure the relationship between DAT occupancy prior to administration of MP and the intensity of the subjective perception of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} in 8 controls. MP (0.375 mg/kg iv) which was administered as a single injection and also as two sequential doses given 60 minutes apart significantly reduced the ratio of the distribution volume for [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate in striatum to that in cerebellum from a baseline of 2.83 {plus_minus} 0.2 to 1.29 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes and to 1.37 {plus_minus} 0.2 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and to 1.14 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes after the second of two sequential MP doses. This corresponds to a DAT occupancy by MP of 84% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 minutes and of 77% {plus_minus} 6 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and of 93% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 after the second of two sequential MP doses. The subjective perception of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} experienced after the second injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection, in spite of the very different starting DAT occupancies (0 and 77%, respectively). DAT occupancy was not correlated with the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}; and one subject with 100% DAT occupancy did not perceive the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY-Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others



Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Dopamine Release as a Function of Psychosis Risk: 18F-Fallypride Positron Emission Tomography Study  

PubMed Central

Cannabis use is associated with psychosis, particularly in those with expression of, or vulnerability for, psychotic illness. The biological underpinnings of these differential associations, however, remain largely unknown. We used Positron Emission Tomography and 18F-fallypride to test the hypothesis that genetic risk for psychosis is expressed by differential induction of dopamine release by ?9-THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis). In a single dynamic PET scanning session, striatal dopamine release after pulmonary administration of ?9-THC was measured in 9 healthy cannabis users (average risk psychotic disorder), 8 patients with psychotic disorder (high risk psychotic disorder) and 7 un-related first-degree relatives (intermediate risk psychotic disorder). PET data were analyzed applying the linear extension of the simplified reference region model (LSRRM), which accounts for time-dependent changes in 18F-fallypride displacement. Voxel-based statistical maps, representing specific D2/3 binding changes, were computed to localize areas with increased ligand displacement after ?9-THC administration, reflecting dopamine release. While ?9-THC was not associated with dopamine release in the control group, significant ligand displacement induced by ?9-THC in striatal subregions, indicative of dopamine release, was detected in both patients and relatives. This was most pronounced in caudate nucleus. This is the first study to demonstrate differential sensitivity to ?9-THC in terms of increased endogenous dopamine release in individuals at risk for psychosis. PMID:23936196

Kuepper, Rebecca; Ceccarini, Jenny; Lataster, Johan; van Os, Jim; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Gerven, Joop M. A.; Marcelis, Machteld; Van Laere, Koen; Henquet, Cecile



L-DOPA-induced dyregulation of extrastriatal dopamine and serotonin and affective symptoms in a bilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Convergent evidence indicates that raphestriatal serotonin (5-HT) neurons can convert and release dopamine (DA) derived from exogenous administration of the pharmacotherapeutic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine(L-DOPA) as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD). While aspects of such neuroplasticity may be beneficial, chronic L-DOPA may also modify native 5-HT function, precipitating the appearance prevalent non-motor PD symptoms such as anxiety and depression. To examine this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered parkinsonian with bilateral medial forebrain bundle 6-OHDA infusions and treated for at least 28 days with vehicle or L-DOPA. In the first experiment, striatal, hippocampal, amygdalar, and prefrontal cortex DA and 5-HT levels were examined at various post-treatment time-points. In experiment 2, L-DOPA’s effects on DA and 5-HT cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta and dorsal raphe, respectively, were examined. Finally, the effects of L-DOPA on affective behaviors were assessed in locomotor chambers, social interaction, forced swim, and elevated plus maze behavioral tests. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion induced approximately 80% DA and 30% 5-HT depletion in the striatum compared to sham-lesioned controls, while monoamine levels remained largely unchanged in extrastriatal regions. Tissue levels of DA were increased at the expense of 5-HT levels in parkinsonian rats subjected to chronic L-DOPA injections in all regions sampled, though DA or 5-HT cell bodies were unaffected. Behaviorally, rats could only be tested 24 hours after their last L-DOPA injection due to severe dyskinesia. Despite this, prior exposure to chronic L-DOPA treatment exerted a pronounced anxiogenic phenotype. Collectively, these results suggest that chronic L-DOPA treatment may interfere with the balance of DA and 5-HT function in affect-related brain regions and could induce and/or exacerbate non-motor symptoms in PD. PMID:22659568

Jaunarajs, Karen L. Eskow; George, Jessica A.; Bishop, Christopher



Glutamine depletion potentiates leucocyte-dependent inflammatory events induced by carrageenan or Clostridium difficile toxin A in rats  

PubMed Central

This research investigated the effect of glutamine (Gln) depletion on leucocyte-dependent inflammatory events. Rats were treated intraperitoneally, 16 hr prior to the peak of every parameter evaluated, with either 0·9% NaCl, methionine-sulphoximine (MSO, an inhibitor of endogenous Gln synthesis, 25 mg/kg) or with MSO + Gln (MSO as above plus Gln 3 g/kg in three doses). MSO-induced Gln depletion increased paw oedema induced both by carrageenan (Cg) and by Clostridium difficile toxin A (TxA) (66·2% and 45·5%, respectively; P < 0·05). In dextran-injected animals, oedema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were not modified by Gln depletion. In Cg-treated paws, Gln depletion increased MPO activity by 44% (P < 0·05), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) concentrations by 47% and 52%, respectively (P < 0·05), and immunostaining for TNF-? in paw tissue. In TxA-injected paws, Gln depletion increased MPO activity (46%; P < 0·05). Gln depletion increased Cg- and TxA-induced neutrophil migration to subcutaneous air pouches by 56% and 77% (P < 0·05), respectively, but did not affect migration induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Gln infusions reversed all the effects of MSO. Leucocyte counts did not differ between groups. Gln depletion potentiates acute inflammation, possibly by increasing neutrophil migration through resident cell activation and production of IL-1? and TNF-?. Gln supplementation reverses these effects and may be useful during inflammatory catabolic stress. PMID:16236122

Nascimento, Silvia B; Sousa, Romualdo B; Martins, Marcos Jullian B; Souza Gomes, Antoniella; Souza, Marcellus Henrique L P; Guerrant, Richard L; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Brito, Gerly A C



Limited cholesterol depletion causes aggregation of plasma membrane lipid rafts inducing T cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute cholesterol depletion is generally associated with decreased or abolished T cell signalling but it can also cause T cell activation. This anomaly has been addressed in Jurkat T cells using progressive cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD). At depletion levels higher than 50% there is substantial cell death, which explains reports of signalling inhibition. At 10–20% depletion levels, tyrosine phosphorylation

Saleemulla Mahammad; Jelena Dinic; Jeremy Adler; Ingela Parmryd



Interleukin2—Induced renal dysfunction in cancer patients is reversed by low-dose dopamine infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is widely used in patients with advanced cancer to enhance killer cell functions. However, the main drawback of rIL-2 therapy is the frequent development of oliguric acute renal failure (ARF), presumably due to a vascular leak syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose dopamine infusion on this form of ARF. Nine

Bruno Memoli; Luca De Nicola; Carmelo Libetta; Antonella Scialò; Giulia Pacchiano; Paolo Romano; Giovanna Palmieri; Alessandro Morabito; Rossella Lauria; Giuseppe Conte; Vittorio E. Andreucci



Pharmacology of Signaling Induced by Dopamine D1-Like Receptor Activation  

PubMed Central

Dopamine D1-like receptors consisting of D1 and D5 subtypes are intimately implicated in dopaminergic regulation of fundamental neurophysiologic processes such as mood, motivation, cognitive function, and motor activity. Upon stimulation, D1-like receptors initiate signal transduction cascades that are mediated through adenylyl cyclase or phosphoinositide metabolism, with subsequent enhancement of multiple downstream kinase cascades. The latter actions propagate and further amplify the receptor signals, thus predisposing D1-like receptors to multifaceted interactions with various other mediators and receptor systems. The adenylyl cyclase response to dopamine or selective D1-like receptor agonists is reliably associated with the D1 subtype, while emerging evidence indicates that the phosphoinositide responses in native brain tissues may be preferentially mediated through stimulation of the D5 receptor. Besides classic coupling of each receptor subtype to specific G proteins, additional biophysical models are advanced in attempts to account for differential subcellular distribution, heteromolecular oligomerization, and activity-dependent selectivity of the receptors. It is expected that significant advances in understanding of dopamine neurobiology will emerge from current and anticipated studies directed at uncovering the molecular mechanisms of D5 coupling to phosphoinositide signaling, the structural features that might enhance pharmacological selectivity for D5 versus D1 subtypes, the mechanism by which dopamine may modulate phosphoinositide synthesis, the contributions of the various responsive signal mediators to D1 or D5 interactions with D2-like receptors, and the spectrum of dopaminergic functions that may be attributed to each receptor subtype and signaling pathway. PMID:20547182

Undieh, Ashiwel S.



Adrenalectomy attenuates nicotine-induced dopamine release and locomotor activity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenalectomy (ADX) in mice can potentiate several physiological and behavioural responses to nicotine. The present experiments\\u000a sought to examine this issue in the rat by characterising the influence of ADX upon the locomotor depressant, activating and\\u000a dopamine-releasing properties of nicotine. Nicotine (0.8–1.2?mg\\/kg SC) dose-dependently depressed locomotor activity, an effect\\u000a that was potentiated by ADX, while the locomotor activating effects of

Mohammed Shoaib; Toni S. Shippenberg



Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.

Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lonce, S.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.



Effects of Acute Dopamine Precusor Depletion on Immediate Reward Selection Bias and Working Memory Depend on Catechol-O-methyltransferase Genotype  

PubMed Central

Little agreement exists as to acute dopamine (DA) manipulation effects on intertemporal choice in humans. We previously found that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype predicts individual differences in immediate reward selection bias among adults. Moreover, we and others have shown that the relationship between COMT genotype and immediate reward bias is inverted in adolescents. No previous pharmacology studies testing DA manipulation effects on intertemporal choice have accounted for COMT genotype, and many have included participants in the adolescent age range (18–21) as adults. Moreover, many studies have included female subjects without strict cycle phase control, although recent evidence demonstrates that cyclic estradiol elevations interact with COMT genotype to affect DA-dependent cognition. These factors may have interacted with DA manipulations in past studies, potentially occluding detection of effects. Therefore, we predicted that among healthy adult males (ages 22–40), frontal DA tone, as indexed by COMT genotype, would interact with acute changes in DA signaling to affect intertemporal choice. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we decreased central DA via administration of an amino acid beverage deficient in the DA precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine (P/T[?]), and tested effects on immediate reward bias in a delay-discounting (DD) task and working memory (WM) in an n-back task. We found no main effect of beverage on DD or WM performance, but did find significant beverage*genotype effects. These results suggest that the effect of DA manipulations on DD depends on individual differences in frontal DA tone, which may have impeded some past efforts to characterize DA’s role in immediate reward bias in humans. PMID:23937688

Kelm, Mary Katherine; Boettiger, Charlotte A.



Depletion of Kupffer cells modulates ethanol-induced hepatocyte DNA synthesis in C57Bl/6 mice.  


Kupffer cells (KCs) are important in hepatic homeostasis and responses to xenobiotics. KCs are activated on interaction with endotoxin, releasing cytokines, and reactive oxygen species normally associated with increased gene expression, cellular growth, or hepatic injury. Ethanol-induced endotoxemia is one means of KC activation. We propose that KC depletion attenuates the effect of EtOH-induced endotoxemia to impact the hepatic growth response. Hepatic DNA synthesis was examined in KC competent (KC+) or KC-depleted (KC-) C57BL/6 mice fed EtOH-containing diet in the presence or absence of polyphenol-60 antioxidant. KC depletion was assessed by F4/80 antigen, and DNA synthesis was assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) messenger RNA released was quantified by RT-PCR/electrophoresis. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting, and Nrf2 and CYP2E1protein were also assayed. Apoptosis and hepatic injury were examined by the Tunnel assay and hepatic transaminases in serum, respectively. Hepatic transaminases in serum (AST and ALT) were within normal range. Over 90% of KC was depleted by clodronate treatment. KC depletion decreased TNF-? mRNA release, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and hepatocyte DNA synthesis. KC depletion is associated with increased numbers of apoptotic cells bodies in KC- mice. Antioxidant treatment decreased DNA synthesis, Nrf2, and CYP2E1 protein expression in EtOH-consuming mice. Our data indicate that upon ethanol exposure, KC participates in hepatic DNA synthesis and growth responses. Collectively, these observations suggest that KC depletion attenuates the downstream effect of ethanol-induced endotoxemia by reduced cytokine and reactive oxygen species production with its concomitant effect on MAPK-signaling pathway on hepatocyte DNA synthesis. PMID:22996800

Owumi, Solomon E; Corthals, Stacy M; Uwaifo, Anthony O; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Klaunig, James E



Taste Reactivity Analysis of 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Aphagia: Implications for Arousal and Anhedonia Hypotheses of Dopamine Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deficits in feeding and drinking that result from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the mesostriatal dopamine system are often explained using either sensorimotor arousal or anhedonia hypotheses. Sensorimotor arousal hypotheses posit that dopamine systems facilitate the capacity of sensory stimuli to activate any motor output. The anhedonia hypothesis suggests that dopamine systems amplify the hedonic impact of positive reinforcers. Natural

Kent C. Berridge; Isabel L. Venier; Terry E. Robinson



The Dopamine Metabolite 3-Methoxytyramine Is a Neuromodulator  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) is a well-known catecholamine neurotransmitter involved in multiple physiological functions including movement control. Here we report that the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), can induce behavioral effects in a dopamine-independent manner and these effects are partially mediated by the trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Unbiased in vivo screening of putative trace amine receptor ligands for potential effects on the movement control revealed that 3-MT infused in the brain is able to induce a complex set of abnormal involuntary movements in mice acutely depleted of dopamine. In normal mice, the central administration of 3-MT caused a temporary mild hyperactivity with a concomitant set of abnormal movements. Furthermore, 3-MT induced significant ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the mouse striatum, signaling events generally related to PKA-mediated cAMP accumulation. In mice lacking TAAR1, both behavioral and signaling effects of 3-MT were partially attenuated, consistent with the ability of 3-MT to activate TAAR1 receptors and cause cAMP accumulation as well as ERK and CREB phosphorylation in cellular assays. Thus, 3-MT is not just an inactive metabolite of DA, but a novel neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control. Further characterization of the physiological functions mediated by 3-MT may advance understanding of the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain disorders involving abnormal dopaminergic transmission, such as Parkinson's disease, dyskinesia and schizophrenia. PMID:20976142

Sotnikova, Tatyana D.; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Masri, Bernard; Zhang, Xiaodong; Salahpour, Ali; Barak, Larry S.; Caron, Marc G.; Gainetdinov, Raul R.



PNU-96391A (OSU6162) antagonizes the development of behavioral sensitization induced by dopamine agonists in a rat model for Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PNU-96391A is a weak dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonist with behavioral stabilizing properties. Previous experiments revealed that PNU-96391A antagonizes the expression of L-DOPA induced behavioral sensitization (dyskinesias) in lesioned primates without inducing akinesia or reducing the anti-Parkinsonian efficacy of L-DOPA. This study evaluated the ability of PNU-96391A to block the development of DA agonist-induced behavioral sensitization in rats with unilateral

N. F Nichols; M. G Cimini; J. V Haas; B. A Staton; J Tedroff; K. A Svensson



Dopamine D-2 antagonists reverse apomorphine-induced decreased water intake in the rat: prediction of antipsychotic drugs with few extrapyramidal side-effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Water intake in water deprived rats was decreased by administration of a low dose of apomorphine (0.1 mg\\/kg s.c.). This dose is too low to induce hyperactivity and stereotypies. Four different dopamine (DA) D-2 antagonists were used to counteract this effect of apomorphine; haloperidol [an antipsychotic inducing extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS)], sulpiride (an antipsychotic inducing less EPS than haloperidol), metoclopramide

T. Ljungberg



Parvovirus-Induced Depletion of Cyclin B1 Prevents Mitotic Entry of Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

Parvoviruses halt cell cycle progression following initiation of their replication during S-phase and continue to replicate their genomes for extended periods of time in arrested cells. The parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a DNA damage response that is required for viral replication and induction of the S/G2 cell cycle block. However, p21 and Chk1, major effectors typically associated with S-phase and G2-phase cell cycle arrest in response to diverse DNA damage stimuli, are either down-regulated, or inactivated, respectively, during MVM infection. This suggested that parvoviruses can modulate cell cycle progression by another mechanism. In this work we show that the MVM-induced, p21- and Chk1-independent, cell cycle block proceeds via a two-step process unlike that seen in response to other DNA-damaging agents or virus infections. MVM infection induced Chk2 activation early in infection which led to a transient S-phase block associated with proteasome-mediated CDC25A degradation. This step was necessary for efficient viral replication; however, Chk2 activation and CDC25A loss were not sufficient to keep infected cells in the sustained G2-arrested state which characterizes this infection. Rather, although the phosphorylation of CDK1 that normally inhibits entry into mitosis was lost, the MVM induced DDR resulted first in a targeted mis-localization and then significant depletion of cyclin B1, thus directly inhibiting cyclin B1-CDK1 complex function and preventing mitotic entry. MVM infection thus uses a novel strategy to ensure a pseudo S-phase, pre-mitotic, nuclear environment for sustained viral replication. PMID:24415942

Adeyemi, Richard O.; Pintel, David J.



Epinephrine depletion exacerbates the fasting-induced protein breakdown in fast-twitch skeletal muscles.  


The physiological role of epinephrine in the regulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism under fasting is unknown. We examined the effects of plasma epinephrine depletion, induced by adrenodemedullation (ADMX), on muscle protein metabolism in fed and 2-day-fasted rats. In fed rats, ADMX for 10 days reduced muscle mass, the cross-sectional area of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, and the phosphorylation levels of Akt. In addition, ADMX led to a compensatory increase in muscle sympathetic activity, as estimated by the rate of norepinephrine turnover; this increase was accompanied by high rates of muscle protein synthesis. In fasted rats, ADMX exacerbated fasting-induced proteolysis in EDL but did not affect the low rates of protein synthesis. Accordingly, ADMX activated lysosomal proteolysis and further increased the activity of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS). Moreover, expression of the atrophy-related Ub ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 and the autophagy-related genes LC3b and GABARAPl1 were upregulated in EDL muscles from ADMX-fasted rats compared with sham-fasted rats, and ADMX reduced cAMP levels and increased fasting-induced Akt dephosphorylation. Unlike that observed for EDL muscles, soleus muscle proteolysis and Akt phosphorylation levels were not affected by ADMX. In isolated EDL, epinephrine reduced the basal UPS activity and suppressed overall proteolysis and atrogin-1 and MuRF1 induction following fasting. These data suggest that epinephrine released from the adrenal medulla inhibits fasting-induced protein breakdown in fast-twitch skeletal muscles, and these antiproteolytic effects on the UPS and lysosomal system are apparently mediated through a cAMP-Akt-dependent pathway, which suppresses ubiquitination and autophagy. PMID:24169047

Graça, Flávia A; Gonçalves, Dawit A P; Silveira, Wilian A; Lira, Eduardo C; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Zanon, Neusa M; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C C



Amphetamine potency varies with dopamine uptake rate across striatal subregions.  


Amphetamine is a central nervous system psychostimulant with a high potential for abuse. Recent literature has shown that genetic and drug-induced elevations in dopamine transporter (DAT) expression augment the neurochemical and behavioral potency of psychostimulant releasers. However, it remains to be determined if the well-documented differences in DAT levels across striatal regions drive regionally distinct amphetamine effects within individuals. DAT levels and dopamine uptake rates have been shown to follow a gradient in the striatum, with the highest levels in the dorsal regions and lowest levels in the nucleus accumbens shell; thus, we hypothesized that amphetamine potency would follow this gradient. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices, we examined DAT inhibition and changes in exocytotic dopamine release by amphetamine across four striatal regions (dorsal and ventral caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell). Consistent with our hypothesis, amphetamine effects at the DAT and on release decreased across regions from dorsal to ventral, and both measures of potency were highly correlated with dopamine uptake rates. Separate striatal subregions are involved in different aspects of motivated behaviors, such as goal-directed and habitual behaviors, that become dysregulated by drug abuse, making it critically important to understand regional differences in drug potencies. Amphetamine is a central nervous system psychostimulant with a high potential for abuse, which may be augmented by increased dopamine transporter (DAT) expression. We here show that the ability of amphetamine to inhibit dopamine (DA) transport and deplete dopamine vesicles increases in a graded manner across striatal subregions from ventral to dorsal with the greatest effects on DA neurotransmission in the dorsal caudate-putamen. Additionally, DA uptake rate and amphetamine potency positively correlated, suggesting that differences across regions result from disparate DA transporter levels. PMID:24988947

Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Jones, Sara R



Depletion of ERK2 but not ERK1 abrogates oncogenic Ras-induced senescence.  


In response to oncogenic activation, cells initially undergo proliferation followed by an irreversible growth arrest called oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), an endogenous defense mechanism against tumorigenesis. Oncogenic activation of ERK1/2 is essential for both the initial phase of cellular proliferation as well as subsequent premature senescence, but little is known about the specific contribution of ERK1 versus 2 to OIS. Here we show that depletion of ERK2 but not ERK1 by shRNA knockdown in MEFs leads to continuous proliferation bypassing senescence even in the presence of oncogenic HRAS(V12). Upon depletion of ERK2, induction of both p19(Arf) and p16(Ink4a) was significantly compromised after oncogenic HRAS(V12) expression, attenuating activation of the key tumor suppressors p53 and pRb. Here we demonstrate that ERK2 but not ERK1 indirectly regulates p19(Arf) and p16(Ink4a) both at the transcriptional and translational level. Oncogenic Ras expression after ERK2 knockdown downregulates Fra-1 and c-Jun, components of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) heterodimer essential for transactivation of p19(Arf). Similarly we show a significant decrease in the activation of p38 MAPK and ETS family members which are involved in the induction of p16(Ink4a). The role of ERK2 in translational regulation is observed by the lack of tuberin (TSC2) and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) phosphorylation, components of the mTOR pathway, which enhances p19(Arf) mRNA translation during oncogenic Ras-induced senescence. These observations suggest that ERK2 but not ERK1 contributes to upregulation of p19(Arf) and p16(Ink4a) in a transcription- and translation-dependent manner during oncogenic Ras-induced senescence. Taken together, our data indicate that ERK2 is the key ERK isoform mediating the senescence signaling pathway downstream of oncogenic Ras. PMID:23993963

Shin, Jimin; Yang, Jiwon; Lee, Jang Choon; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck



Androgen Depletion Induces Senescence in Prostate Cancer Cells through Down-regulation of Skp212  

PubMed Central

Although the induction of senescence in cancer cells is a potent mechanism of tumor suppression, senescent cells remain metabolically active and may secrete a broad spectrum of factors that promote tumorigenicity in neighboring malignant cells. Here we show that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a widely used treatment for advanced prostate cancer, induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype in prostate cancer epithelial cells, indicated by increases in senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity, heterochromatin protein 1? foci, and expression of cathepsin B and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Interestingly, ADT also induced high levels of vimentin expression in prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in human prostate tumors in vivo. The induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype by androgen depletion was mediated, at least in part, by down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, whereas the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells was under separate control. These data demonstrate a previously unrecognized link between inhibition of androgen receptor signaling, down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, and the appearance of secretory, tumor-promoting senescent cells in prostate tumors. We propose that ADT may contribute to the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer through modulation of the tissue microenvironment by senescent cells. PMID:21677876

Pernicova, Zuzana; Slabakova, Eva; Kharaishvili, Gvantsa; Bouchal, Jan; Kral, Milan; Kunicka, Zuzana; Machala, Miroslav; Kozubik, Alois; Souccek, Karel



Differential Dopamine Receptor Occupancy Underlies L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Dyskinesia is a major side effect of an otherwise effective L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's patients. The prevailing view for the underlying presynaptic mechanism of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) suggests that surges in dopamine (DA) via uncontrolled release from serotonergic terminals results in abnormally high level of extracellular striatal dopamine. Here we used high-sensitivity online microdialysis and PET imaging techniques to directly investigate DA release properties from serotonergic terminals both in the parkinsonian striatum and after neuronal transplantation in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Although L-DOPA administration resulted in a drift in extracellular DA levels, we found no evidence for abnormally high striatal DA release from serotonin neurons. The extracellular concentration of DA remained at or below levels detected in the intact striatum. Instead, our results showed that an inefficient release pool of DA associated with low D2 receptor binding remained unchanged. Taken together, these findings suggest that differential DA receptor activation rather than excessive release could be the underlying mechanism explaining LID seen in this model. Our data have important implications for development of drugs targeting the serotonergic system to reduce DA release to manage dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:24614598

Sahin, Gurdal; Thompson, Lachlan H.; Lavisse, Sonia; Ozgur, Merve; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Dolle, Frederic



The fight and flight responses of crickets depleted of biogenic amines.  


Aggressive and escape behaviors were analysed in crickets (Orthoptera) treated with either reserpine, a nonspecific depleter of biogenic amines, or the synthesis inhibitors alpha-methyltryptophan (AMTP) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMT) to specifically deplete serotonin, respectively dopamine and octopamine. Standard immunocytochemical techniques were used to verify depletion from central nervous tissue, and determine the effective dosages. Reserpinized crickets became exceedingly lethargic and had severely depressed escape responses. However, they were still able to express all the major elements of the escalating sequences of stereotype motor performances that typifies normal aggressive behavior in the cricket. AMT and AMTP treatment had opposing influences on escape behavior, being enhanced by serotonin depletion, but depressed by dopamine/octopamine depletion. AMTP-induced serotonin depletion had no influence on aggressive or submissive behaviors. AMT-treated crickets could normally only be brought to fight by coaxing. Though capable of expressing aggressive behavior per se, agonistic encounters between AMT-treated crickets were shorter, and rarely involved actual physical interactions. Hence, although amines seem to have similar actions on escape behavior in insects and crustaceans, the aminergic control of aggression seems to be fundamentally different in these arthropods groups. We conclude that amines are not in principle required for the initiation and operation of the motor circuits underlying aggression in the cricket. However, octopamine and/or dopamine seem necessary for establishing a level of excitability sufficient for aggressive behavior to become overt in response to appropriate natural releasing stimuli. PMID:10770840

Stevenson, P A; Hofmann, H A; Schoch, K; Schildberger, K



Calcium Inhibits Promotion by Hot Dog of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci in Rat Colon  

E-print Network

1 Calcium Inhibits Promotion by Hot Dog of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci in Running Title: Promotion of colon carcinogenesis by hot dog is inhibited by calcium Keywords: Processed-bought cured meat can promote colon carcinogenesis, and that dietary prevention is possible. Hot dog increased

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Dopamine triggers Heterosynaptic Plasticity  

PubMed Central

As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically-located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the VTA-to-NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal. PMID:23595734

Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua; Neumann, Peter A.; Winters, Bradley D.; Grace, Anthony A.; Schluter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan



Depletion of neutrophils reduces neuronal degeneration and inflammatory responses induced by quinolinic acid in vivo.  


The use of anti-neutrophil serum (anti-PMN) to induce neutropenia has been assessed for neuroprotection, modulation of microgliosis and astrogliosis, effects on oxidative stress, and intactness of blood-brain barrier (BBB) following injection of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) into rat striatum. At 1 day following QUIN injection, considerable striatal neurodegeneration was measured (Fluoro-Jade B marker). At this time, marked microgliosis (OX-42 marker) and astrogliosis (GFAP marker) were evident in QUIN-injected striatum. Treatment of QUIN-injected animals with anti-PMN protected neurons (48% reduction of striatal neuron loss) and inhibited microgliosis (61% reduction) and astrogliosis (43% reduction) compared with QUIN injection alone. Anti-PMN treatment was effective in decreasing levels of superoxide anions (by 42%) compared with QUIN alone; in addition, expressions of the neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase and the neutrophil oxidant 3-chlorotyrosine were markedly reduced (by 79 and 72%, respectively) with neutrophil depletion. QUIN-induced leakiness in BBB was indicated by elevated striatal levels of the blood protein fibrinogen, a result confirmed using Evans blue dye; anti-PMN was effective in reducing BBB permeability. Measurements from QUIN-injected animals directly confirmed anti-PMN efficacy in diminishing numbers of circulating neutrophils. Longer term neuroprotection and reduced microgliosis were also observed at 7 days post-injection of anti-PMN; at this time, anti-PMN-treated rats also demonstrated an improved apomorphine-induced rotational performance. We conclude that anti-PMN treatment could serve as a novel strategy to prevent leakiness to BBB, reduce gliosis, and protect striatal neurons in excitotoxin-injected brain. PMID:17203474

Ryu, Jae K; Tran, Karen C; McLarnon, James G



Vitamin D attenuates nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor induced human skeletal muscle mitochondria DNA depletion  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the impact of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1?,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D3), on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. Design mtDNA was quantified in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes following 1,25D3 and NRTI treatment using real-time PCR. Methods Human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes were treated with didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC) and abacavir (ABC) alone or in combination either in the presence or absence of 1,25D3 for 5 days. Cells were harvested, DNA extracted and mtDNA quantified. Results ddI and ddI-d4T significantly decreased both myoblast and myotube mtDNA in the absence of 1,25D3 compared with untreated controls (P ? 0.029). In addition, the ZDV-3TC combination resulted in a 47% decrease in myotube mtDNA (P = 0.005). 1,25D3 increased myotube mtDNA levels in ddI, ZDV, 3TC, ABC, ddI-d4T, d4T-3TC, ZDV-3TC, ZDV-ABC and ZDV-3TC-ABC-containing regimens and myoblast mtDNA levels in ddI, d4T, ZDV, 3TC, ddI-d4T, ZDV-3TC and ZDV-ABC-containing regimens. Of note, 1,25D3 protected against myotube mtDNA depletion following ZDV-3TC treatment, rendering them similar to 1,25D3 untreated controls (P = 0.62), and increased both myotube and myoblast mtDNA two to three-fold in ddI-containing regimens (P < 0.05). Conclusion 1,25D3 confers a protective effect against NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity in skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. These findings support a protective role for vitamin D in preventing mitochondrial toxicity and suggest that supplemental vitamin D may protect against NRTI-associated mitochondrial toxicity. PMID:23435299

Campbell, Grant R.; Pallack, Zachary T.; Spector, Stephen A.



Protective effects of flavonol isoquercitrin, against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) - induced toxicity in PC12 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Free radicals-induced neurodegeneration is one of the many causes of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of flavonol isoquercitrin against toxicity induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Methods PC12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of isoquercitrin for 4, 8 and 12 hours and incubated with 6-OHDA for 24 hours to induce oxidative cell damage. Results A significant cytoprotective activity was observed in isoquercitrin pre-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione in isoquercitrin pretreated cells compared to cells incubated with 6-OHDA alone. Isoquercitrin significantly reduced (P < 0.01) lipid peroxidation in 6-OHDA treated cells. These results suggested that isoquercitrin protects PC 12 cells against 6-OHDA–induced oxidative stress. Conclusions The present study suggests the protective role of isoquercitrin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced toxicity by virtue of its antioxidant potential. Isoquercitrin could be a potential therapeutic agent against neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24443837



Optogenetics reveals a role for accumbal medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D2 receptors in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization  

PubMed Central

Long-lasting, drug-induced adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been proposed to contribute to drug-mediated addictive behaviors. Here we have used an optogenetic approach to examine the role of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) were delivered into the NAc of D2R-Cre transgenic mice. This allowed us to selectively photostimulate D2R-MSNs in NAc. D2R-MSNs form local inhibitory circuits, because photostimulation of D2R-MSN evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neighboring MSNs. Photostimulation of NAc D2R-MSN in vivo affected neither the initiation nor the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. However, photostimulation during the drug withdrawal period attenuated expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results show that D2R-MSNs of NAc play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity and may contribute to relapse after cessation of drug abuse.

Song, Shelly Sooyun; Kang, Byeong Jun; Wen, Lei; Lee, Hyo Jin; Sim, Hye-ri; Kim, Tae Hyong; Yoon, Sehyoun; Yoon, Bong-June; Augustine, George J.; Baik, Ja-Hyun



Kappa opioid receptor activation potentiates the cocaine-induced increase in evoked dopamine release recorded in vivo in the mouse nucleus accumbens.  


Behavioral stressors increase addiction risk in humans and increase the rewarding valence of drugs of abuse including cocaine, nicotine and ethanol in animal models. Prior studies have established that this potentiation of drug reward was mediated by stress-induced release of the endogenous dynorphin opioids and subsequent kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation. In this study, we used in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry to test the hypothesis that KOR activation before cocaine administration might potentiate the evoked release of dopamine from ventral tegmental (VTA) synaptic inputs to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and thereby increase the rewarding valence of cocaine. The KOR agonist U50488 inhibited dopamine release evoked by either medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) activation of VTA inputs to the shell or core of the mouse NAc. Cocaine administration increased the dopamine response recorded in either the shell or core evoked by either MFB or PPTg stimulation. Administration of U50488 15?min before cocaine blocked the conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine, but only significantly reduced the effect of cocaine on the dopamine response evoked by PPTg stimulation to NAc core. In contrast, administration of U50488 60?min before cocaine significantly potentiated cocaine CPP and significantly increased the effects of cocaine on the dopamine response evoked by either MFB or PPTg stimulation, recorded in either NAc shell or core. Results of this study support the concept that stress-induced activation of KOR by endogenous dynorphin opioids may enhance the rewarding valence of drugs of abuse by potentiating the evoked dopamine response. PMID:24971603

Ehrich, Jonathan M; Phillips, Paul E M; Chavkin, Charles



Depleted uranium induces disruption of energy homeostasis and oxidative stress in isolated rat brain mitochondria.  


Depleted uranium (DU) is emerging as an environmental pollutant primarily due to its military applications. Gulf War veterans with embedded DU showed cognitive disorders that suggest that the central nervous system is a target of DU. Recent evidence has suggested that DU could induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain tissue. However, the underlying mechanisms of DU toxicity in brain mitochondria are not yet well understood. Brain mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation and were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 ?M) of uranyl acetate (UA) as a soluble salt of U(238) for 1 h. In this research, mitochondrial ROS production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were examined by flow cytometry following the addition of UA. Meanwhile, mitochondrial sources of ROS formation were determined using specific substrates and inhibitors. Complex II and IV activity and also the extent of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) oxidation were detected via spectroscopy. Furthermore, we investigated the concentration of ATP and ATP/ADP ratio using luciferase enzyme and cytochrome c release from mitochondria which was detected by ELISA kit. UA caused concentration-dependent elevation of succinate-linked mitochondrial ROS production, lipid peroxidation, GSH oxidation and inhibition of mitochondrial complex II. UA also induced mitochondrial permeability transition, ATP production decrease and increase in cytochrome c release. Pre-treatment with antioxidants significantly inhibited all the above mentioned toxic effects of UA. This study suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in brain mitochondria may play a key role in DU neurotoxicity as reported in Gulf War Syndrome. PMID:23629690

Shaki, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Pourahmad, Jalal



L-stepholidine, a natural dopamine receptor D1 agonist and D2 antagonist, inhibits heroin-induced reinstatement.  


L-Stepholidine (l-SPD), an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia, is the first compound known to exhibit mixed dopamine D1 receptor agonist/D2 antagonist properties and is a potential medication for the treatment of opiate addiction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with L-SPD on heroin-seeking behavior induced by heroin priming. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer heroin (0.05mg/kg per infusion) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule for 12 consecutive days and nose-poke responding was extinguished for 12 days, after which reinstatement of drug seeking was induced by heroin priming. Pretreatment with L-SPD (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior. Importantly, L-SPD did not affect locomotion, indicating that the observed effects of L-SPD on reinstatement are not the result of motor impairments. The present data suggested that l-SPD inhibits heroin-induced reinstatement and its potential for the treatment of heroin relapse. PMID:24269875

Ma, Baomiao; Yue, Kai; Chen, Lin; Tian, Xiang; Ru, Qin; Gan, Yongping; Wang, Daisong; Jin, Guozhang; Li, Chaoying



Effects of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and transporter (SLC6A3) polymorphisms on smoking cue-induced cigarette craving among African-American smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cue-induced craving for addictive substances has long been known to contribute to the problem of persistent addiction in humans. Research in animals over the past decade has solidly established the central role of dopamine in cue-induced craving for addictive substances, including nicotine. Analogous studies in humans, however, are lacking, especially among African-American smokers, who have lower quit rates than Caucasian

J Erblich; C Lerman; D W Self; G A Diaz; D H Bovbjerg; Erblich



Amphetamine induced dopamine release increases anxiety in individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Genetic, pharmacologic, and physiological data suggest that individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have altered striatal dopamine (DA) function. Method We used an amphetamine challenge and positron emission tomography [11C]raclopride paradigm to explore DA striatal transmission in 10 recovered (REC) AN compared to 9 control women (CW). Results REC AN and CW were similar for baseline, post-amphetamine [11C]raclopride binding potential (BPND) and change (?) in BPND for all regions. In CW, ventral striatum ? BPND was associated with euphoria (r = ? .76; p = .03), which was not found for REC AN. Instead, REC AN showed a significant relationship between anxiety and ? BPND in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate (r = ?.62, p = .05). Discussion REC AN have a positive association between endogenous DA release and anxiety in the dorsal caudate. This finding could explain why food-related DA release produces anxiety in AN, whereas feeding is pleasurable in healthy participants. PMID:21541980

Bailer, Ursula F.; Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, W. Gordon; Himes, Michael L; Duvvuri, Vikas; Mathis, Chester A; Kaye, W.H.



Dopamine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B (Tyr1472) is essential for ERK1/2 activation and processing of novel taste information  

PubMed Central

Understanding the heterosynaptic interaction between glutamatergic and neuromodulatory synapses is highly important for revealing brain function in health and disease. For instance, the interaction between dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission is vital for memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation, and it is known to converge on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-MAPK signaling in neurons. Previous studies suggest that dopamine induces N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor phosphorylation at the NR2B Y1472 subunit, influencing receptor internalization at the synaptic plasma membrane. However, it is unclear whether this phosphorylation is upstream to and/or necessary for ERK1/2 activation, which is known to be crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B at Y1472 is correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine and necessary for it as well. We find that dopamine receptor D1, but not D2, activates ERK1/2 and leads to NR2BY1472 phosphorylation in the mature hippocampus and cortex. Moreover, our results indicate that NR2B Y1472 phosphorylation is necessary for ERK1/2 activation. Importantly, application of dopamine or the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 to hippocampal slices from NR2B F1472 mutant mice did not result in ERK1/2 activation, suggesting this site is not only correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine stimulation, but also necessary for it. In addition, NR2B F1472 mice show impairment in learning of attenuation of taste neophobia but not associative taste learning. Our study shows that the dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission converge on the NMDA receptor itself, at the Y1472 site of the NR2B subunit, and that this convergence is essential for ERK1/2 activation in the mature brain and for processing new sensory information in the cortex. PMID:25100942

David, Orit; Barrera, Iliana; Chinnakkaruppan, Adaikkan; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Rosenblum, Kobi



Differential involvement of the norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter proteins in cocaine-induced taste aversion  

PubMed Central

Despite the impact of cocaine's aversive effects on its abuse potential, the neurochemical basis of these aversive effects remains poorly understood. By blocking the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic terminal, cocaine acts as a potent indirect agonist of each of these systems. The following studies attempted to assess the extent of monoaminergic mediation of cocaine's aversive effects using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning (Garcia, 1955). Specifically, Experiment 1 assessed the ability of selective monoamine transporter inhibitors, e.g., DAT (vanoxerine), NET (nisoxetine) and SERT (fluoxetine), to induce taste aversions (relative to cocaine). Only the NET inhibitor approximated the aversive strength of cocaine. Experiment 2 compared the effects of pretreatment of each of these transport inhibitors on the development of a cocaine-induced CTA. Pretreatment with nisoxetine and fluoxetine both attenuated cocaine-induced aversions in a manner comparable to that produced by cocaine itself. The DAT inhibitor was without effect. Combined, the results of these investigations indicate little or no involvement of dopaminergic systems in cocaine's aversive effects while NE appears to contribute most substantially, with a possible modulatory involvement by serotonin. PMID:19376154

Jones, Jermaine D.; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Rice, Kenner; Riley, Anthony L.



Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.



PTEN deletion enhances survival, neurite outgrowth and function of dopamine neuron grafts to MitoPark mice.  


Clinical trials in Parkinson's disease have shown that transplants of embryonic mesencephalic dopamine neurons form new functional connections within the host striatum, but the therapeutic benefits have been highly variable. One obstacle has been poor survival and integration of grafted dopamine neurons. Activation of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase that promotes cell survival and growth, increases the ability of neurons to survive after injury and to regenerate lost neuronal connections. Because the lipid phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) inhibits Akt, we generated a mouse with conditional knock-out of PTEN in dopamine neurons, leading to constitutive expression of Akt in these neurons. Ventral mesencephalic tissue from dopamine phosphatase and tensin homologue knock-out or control animals was then transplanted bilaterally into the dopamine depleted striata of MitoPark mice that express a parkinsonian phenotype because of severe respiratory chain dysfunction in dopamine neurons. After transplantation into MitoPark mice, PTEN-deficient dopamine neurons were less susceptible to cell death, and exhibited a more extensive pattern of fibre outgrowth compared to control grafts. Voltammetric measurements demonstrated that dopamine release and reuptake were significantly increased in the striata of animals receiving dopamine PTEN knock-out transplants. These animals also displayed enhanced spontaneous and drug-induced locomotor activity, relative to control transplanted MitoPark mice. Our results suggest that disinhibition of the Akt-signalling pathway may provide a valuable strategy to enhance survival, function and integration of grafted dopamine neurons within the host striatum and, more generally, to improve survival and integration of different forms of neural grafts. PMID:22961549

Zhang, YaJun; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Huh, Kyounghee; Shan, Lufei; Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Malik, Nasir; Olson, Lars; Hoffer, Barry J; Lupica, Carl R; Hoffman, Alexander F; Bäckman, Cristina M



Dopamine d3 receptors in the basolateral amygdala and the lateral habenula modulate cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking.  


Dopamine D3 receptors are implicated in cue-induced relapse to drug seeking. We have previously shown that systemic administration of a selective D3 antagonist reduces cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rats. The current study sought to investigate potential neural substrates mediating this effect. The D3 antagonist SB-277011-A (0.01-1??g/0.5??l/side) infused into the basolateral amygdala or the lateral habenula, but not the nucleus accumbens, significantly attenuated cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Moreover, infusion of SB-277011-A (1??g/0.5??l/side) into the basolateral amygdala or lateral habenula had no effect on food self-administration. Together with the finding that systemic SB-277011-A had no effect on extinction responding, this suggests that the effects observed here were on reinstatement and cue seeking, and not due to nonspecific motor activation or contextual-modified residual responding. The further finding of binding of [(125)I]7-OH-PIPAT to D3 receptors in the lateral habenula and in the basolateral amygdala is consistent with an important role of D3 receptors in these areas in nicotine seeking. It was also found that systemic administration of the selective D2 antagonist L741626 decreased cue-induced reinstatement, consistent with a role of D2 and D3 receptors in modulating this behavior. The current study supports an important role for D3 receptors in the basolateral amygdala and lateral habenula in cue-induced reinstatement. PMID:24998621

Khaled, Maram Atm; Pushparaj, Abhiram; Di Ciano, Patricia; Diaz, Jorge; Le Foll, Bernard



Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System  

PubMed Central

Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05?g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50?g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD. PMID:24799940

Liu, Jia; Gao, Jinlong; Xu, Shasha; Liu, Ying; Shang, Weihu; Gu, Chenxin; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei



Exogenous ?-synuclein decreases raft partitioning of Cav2.2 channels inducing dopamine release.  


?-Synuclein is thought to regulate neurotransmitter release through multiple interactions with presynaptic proteins, cytoskeletal elements, ion channels, and synaptic vesicles membrane. ?-Synuclein is abundant in the presynaptic compartment, and its release from neurons and glia has been described as responsible for spreading of ?-synuclein-derived pathology. ?-Synuclein-dependent dysregulation of neurotransmitter release might occur via its action on surface-exposed calcium channels. Here, we provide electrophysiological and biochemical evidence to show that ?-synuclein, applied to rat neurons in culture or striatal slices, selectively activates Cav2.2 channels, and said activation correlates with increased neurotransmitter release. Furthermore, in vivo perfusion of ?-synuclein into the striatum also leads to acute dopamine release. We further demonstrate that ?-synuclein reduces the amount of plasma membrane cholesterol and alters the partitioning of Cav2.2 channels, which move from raft to cholesterol-poor areas of the plasma membrane. We provide evidence for a novel mechanism through which ?-synuclein acts from the extracellular milieu to modulate neurotransmitter release and propose a unifying hypothesis for the mechanism of ?-synuclein action on multiple targets: the reorganization of plasma membrane microdomains. PMID:25100594

Ronzitti, Giuseppe; Bucci, Giovanna; Emanuele, Marco; Leo, Damiana; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Mus, Liudmila V; Soubrane, Camille H; Dallas, Mark L; Thalhammer, Agnes; Cingolani, Lorenzo A; Mochida, Sumiko; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Stephens, Gary J; Chieregatti, Evelina



K-ATP channels in dopamine substantia nigra neurons control bursting and novelty-induced exploration  

PubMed Central

Phasic activation of the dopamine (DA) midbrain system in response to unexpected reward or novelty is critical for adaptive behavioral strategies. This activation of DA midbrain neurons occurs via a synaptically triggered switch from low-frequency background spiking to transient high-frequency burst firing. We found that, in medial DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels enabled NMDA-mediated bursting in vitro as well as spontaneous in vivo burst firing in anesthetized mice. Cell-selective silencing of K-ATP channel activity in medial SN DA neurons revealed that their K-ATP channel-gated burst firing was crucial for novelty-dependent exploratory behavior. We also detected a transcriptional upregulation of K-ATP channel and NMDA receptor subunits, as well as high in vivo burst firing, in surviving SN DA neurons from Parkinson’s disease patients, suggesting that burst-gating K-ATP channel function in DA neurons affects phenotypes in both disease and health. PMID:22902720

Schiemann, Julia; Schlaudraff, Falk; Klose, Verena; Bingmer, Markus; Seino, Susumu; Magill, Peter J; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Schneider, Gaby; Liss, Birgit; Roeper, Jochen



?-Lipoic Acid Induced Elevated S-adenosylhomocysteine and Depleted S-adenosylmethionine  

PubMed Central

Lipoic Acid is a disulfhydryl-containing compound used in clinical medicine and in experimental models as an antioxidant. We developed a stable isotope dilution capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry assay for lipoic acid. We assayed a panel of the metabolites of transmethylation and transsulfuration 30 minutes after injecting lipoic acid 100 mg/kg in a rat model. Lipoic acid values rose 1000-fold in serum and 10-fold in liver. A methylated metabolite of lipoic acid was also detected but not quantitated. Lipoic acid injection caused a massive increase in serum S-adenosylhomocysteine and marked depletion of liver S-adenosylmethionine. Serum total cysteine was depleted but liver cysteine and glutathione were maintained. Serum total homocysteine doubled with increases also in cystathionine, N, N-dimethylglycine and alpha-aminobutyric acid. In contrast, after injection of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA), serum total cysteine and homocysteine were markedly depleted and there were no effects on serum S-adenosylmethionine or S-adenosylhomocysteine. We conclude that large doses of lipoic acid both displace sulfhydryls from binding sites resulting in depletion of serum cysteine but also pose a methylation burden with severe depletion of liver S-adenosylmethionine and massive release of S-adenosylhomocysteine. These changes may have previously unrecognized deleterious effects that should be investigated in both human disease and experimental models. PMID:19616616

Stabler, Sally P.; Sekhar, Jeevan; Allen, Robert H.; O'Neill, Heidi C.; White, Carl W.



Noradrenaline-induced release of newly-synthesized accumbal dopamine: differential role of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that intra-accumbens infusion of isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenoceptor-agonist, and phenylephrine (PE), an alpha-adrenoceptor-agonist, increase the release of accumbal dopamine (DA). In the present study we analyzed whether the ISO-induced release of DA is sensitive to pretreatment with the DA synthesis inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT). Earlier studies have shown that the PE-induced release of DA is derived from DA pools that are resistant to AMPT. In addition to PE, the alpha-adrenoceptor-antagonist phentolamine (PA) was also found to increase accumbal DA release. Therefore, we investigated whether similar to the DA-increasing effect of PE, the DA increase induced by PA is resistant to AMPT. Pretreatment with AMPT prevented the ISO-induced increase of accumbal DA. The accumbal DA increase after PA was not reduced by the DA synthesis inhibitor, independently of the amount of DA released. These results show that mesolimbic beta-, but not alpha-adrenoceptors, control the release of accumbal newly-synthesized DA pools. The DA-increasing effects of PE have previously been ascribed to stimulation of presynaptic receptors located on noradrenergic terminals, whereas the DA-increasing effects of PA and ISO have been ascribed to an action of these drugs at postsynaptic receptors on dopaminergic terminals. The fact that AMPT did not affect the accumbal DA response to PE and PA, whereas it did prevent the accumbal DA increase to ISO, supports our previously reported hypothesis that the noradrenergic neurons of the nucleus accumbens containing presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors impinge upon the dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens containing postsynaptic adrenoceptors of the alpha but not of the beta type. The putative therapeutic effects of noradrenergic agents in the treatment of DA-related disorders are shortly discussed. PMID:25309315

Meyer, Francisca; Latour, Judith; Cools, Alexander R.; Verheij, Michel M. M.



Depletion of HDAC6 Enhances Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising therapeutic agents which are currently used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in clinical trials for cancer treatment including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanisms underlying their anti-tumor activities remain elusive. Previous studies showed that inhibition of HDAC6 induces DNA damage and sensitizes transformed cells to anti-tumor agents such as etoposide and doxorubicin. Here, we showed that depletion of HDAC6 in two NSCLC cell lines, H292 and A549, sensitized cells to cisplatin, one of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents used to treat NSCLC. We suggested that depletion of HDAC6 increased cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was due to the enhancement of apoptosis via activating ATR/Chk1 pathway. Furthermore, we showed that HDAC6 protein levels were positively correlated with cisplatin IC50 in 15 NSCLC cell lines. Lastly, depletion of HDAC6 in H292 xenografts rendered decreased tumor weight and volume and exhibited increased basal apoptosis compared with the controls in a xenograft mouse model. In summary, our findings suggest that HDAC6 is positively associated with cisplatin resistance in NSCLC and reveal HDAC6 as a potential novel therapeutic target for platinum refractory NSCLC. PMID:22957056

Williams, Kendra A.; Dong, Huiqin; Bai, Wenlong; Nicosia, Santo V.; Khochbin, Saadi; Bepler, Gerold; Zhang, Xiaohong



Reduced dopamine transporter functioning induces high-reward risk-preference consistent with bipolar disorder.  


Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit deleterious decision making, negatively impacting their lives. Such aberrant decision making can be quantified using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which requires choosing between advantageous and disadvantageous options based on different reward/punishment schedules. The mechanisms underlying this behavioral deficit are unknown, but may include the reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) functioning reported in BD patients. Using both human and mouse IGTs, we tested whether reduced DAT functioning would recreate patterns of deficient decision making of BD patients. We assessed the IGT performance of 16 BD subjects (7 female) and 17 healthy control (HC) subjects (12 female). We recorded standard IGT performance measures and novel post-reward and post-punishment decision-making strategies. We characterized a novel single-session mouse IGT using C57BL/6J mice (n=44). The BD and HC IGT performances were compared with the effects of chronic (genetic knockdown (KD; n=31) and wild-type (n=28) mice) and acute (C57BL/6J mice (n=89) treated with the DAT inhibitor GBR12909) reductions of DAT functioning in mice performing this novel IGT. BD patients exhibited impaired decision making compared with HC subjects. Both the good-performing DAT KD and GBR12909-treated mice exhibited poor decision making in the mouse IGT. The deficit of each population was driven by high-reward sensitivity. The single-session mouse IGT measures dynamic risk-based decision making similar to humans. Chronic and acute reductions of DAT functioning in mice impaired decision-making consistent with poor IGT performance of BD patients. Hyperdopaminergia caused by reduced DAT may impact poor decision making in BD patients, which should be confirmed in future studies. PMID:25005251

van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Higa, Kerin K; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W



FTT:Power : A global model of the power sector with induced technological change and natural resource depletion  

E-print Network

This work introduces a model of Future Technology Transformations for the power sector (FTT:Power), a representation of global power systems based on market competition, induced technological change (ITC) and natural resource use and depletion. It is the first component of a family of sectoral bottom-up models of technology, designed for integration into the global macroeconometric model E3MG. ITC occurs as a result of technological learning produced by cumulative investment and leads to highly nonlinear, irreversible and path dependent technological transitions. The model uses a dynamic coupled set of logistic differential equations. As opposed to traditional bottom-up energy models based on systems optimisation, such differential equations offer an appropriate treatment of the times and structure of change involved in sectoral technology transformations, as well as a much reduced computational load. Resource use and depletion are represented by local cost-supply curves, which give rise to different regional...

Mercure, J -F



Band to Band Tunneling (BBT) Induced Leakage Current Enhancement in Irradiated Fully Depleted SOI Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a model, validated with simulations, describing how band-to-band tunneling (BBT) affects the leakage current degradation in some irradiated fully-depleted SOI devices. The dependence of drain current on gate voltage, including the apparent transition to a high current regime is explained.

Adell, Phillipe C.; Barnaby, H. J.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Vermeire, B.



Role of calcium and cyclophilin D in the regulation of mitochondrial permeabilization induced by glutathione depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a calcium and oxidative stress sensitive transition in the permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane that plays a crucial role in cell death. However, the mechanism regulating the MPT remains controversial. To study the role of oxidative stress in the regulation of the MPT, we used diethyl maleate (DEM) to deplete glutathione (GSH) in

C. Lu; J. S. Armstrong



Activation of D1/D5 Dopamine Receptors Protects Neurons from Synapse Dysfunction Induced by Amyloid-? Oligomers*  

PubMed Central

Soluble oligomers of the amyloid-? peptide (A?Os) accumulate in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and are implicated in synapse failure and early memory loss in AD. A?Os have been shown to impact synapse function by inhibiting long term potentiation, facilitating the induction of long term depression and inducing internalization of both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors, critical players in plasticity mechanisms. Because activation of dopamine D1/D5 receptors plays important roles in memory circuits by increasing the insertion of AMPA and NMDA receptors at synapses, we hypothesized that selective activation of D1/D5 receptors could protect synapses from the deleterious action of A?Os. We show that SKF81297, a selective D1/D5 receptor agonist, prevented the reduction in surface levels of AMPA and NMDA receptors induced by A?Os in hippocampal neurons in culture. Protection by SKF81297 was abrogated by the specific D1/D5 antagonist, SCH23390. Levels of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 phosphorylated at Ser845, which regulates AMPA receptor association with the plasma membrane, were reduced in a calcineurin-dependent manner in the presence of A?Os, and treatment with SKF81297 prevented this reduction. Establishing the functional relevance of these findings, SKF81297 blocked the impairment of long term potentiation induced by A?Os in hippocampal slices. Results suggest that D1/D5 receptors may be relevant targets for development of novel pharmacological approaches to prevent synapse failure in AD. PMID:21115476

Jurgensen, Sofia; Antonio, Leandro L.; Mussi, Gabriela E. A.; Brito-Moreira, Jordano; Bomfim, Theresa R.; De Felice, Fernanda G.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Ferreira, Sergio T.



Ethanol inhibition of m-current and ethanol-induced direct excitation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.  


Ethanol-induced excitation of ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA VTA) neurons is thought to be critical for the reinforcing effects of ethanol. Although ligand-gated ion channels are known to be the targets of ethanol, ethanol modulation of voltage-dependent ion channels of central neurons has not been well studied. We have demonstrated that ethanol excites DA VTA neurons by the reduction of sustained K(+) currents and recently reported that M-current (I(M)) regulates action potential generation through fast and slow afterhyperpolarization phases. In the present study we thus examined whether ethanol inhibition of I(M) contributes to the excitation of DA VTA neurons using nystatin-perforated patch current- and voltage-clamp recordings. Ethanol (20-120 mM) reduced I(M) in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the spontaneous firing frequency of DA VTA neurons. Ethanol-induced increase in spontaneous firing frequency correlated positively with ethanol inhibition of I(M) with a slope value of 1.3. Specific I(M) inhibition by XE991 (0.3-10 microM) increased spontaneous firing frequency which correlated positively with I(M) inhibition with a slope value of 0.5. In the presence of 10 muM XE991, a concentration that produced maximal inhibition of I(M), ethanol still increased the spontaneous firing frequency of DA VTA neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus we conclude that, although ethanol causes inhibition of I(M) and this results in some increase in the firing frequency of DA VTA neurons, another effect of ethanol is primarily responsible for the ethanol-induced increase in firing rate in these neurons. PMID:16956995

Koyama, Susumu; Brodie, Mark S; Appel, Sarah B



?-Synuclein selectively increases manganese-induced viability loss in SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells expressing the human dopamine transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The established or potentially toxic agents implicated in the nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease, dopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), iron, and manganese, were examined as to their effects on the viability of cells overexpressing ?-synuclein. SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells stably expressing the human dopamine transporter were transfected with human ?-synuclein and cell clones with and without ?-synuclein immunoreactivity were obtained. Cells were

Christian Pifl; Maya Khorchide; Alexandra Kattinger; Harald Reither; John Hardy; Oleh Hornykiewicz



Overexpression of NQO1 protects human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells against dopamine-induced cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) can metabolize dopamine-derived quinones (DAQ) and absence of NQO1 due to the NQO1*2 polymorphism has been suggested to be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. In order to define whether NQO1 plays a protective role in dopamine toxicity, we have examined the potential role of NQO1 in the SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cell line. SK-N-MC cells

K. S. Zafar; S. H. Inayat-Hussain; D. Siegel; A. Bao; B. Shieh; D. Ross



Reversal of methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization by repeated administration of a dopamine D 1 receptor agonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated intermittent administration of methamphetamine (MAP) produces an enduring hypersensitivity to the motor stimulant effect of MAP, termed behavioral sensitization. Dopamine plays a critical role in the development and expression of behavioral sensitization. Here, we investigated whether a dopamine D1 receptor agonist could reverse behavioral sensitization to MAP. Administration of MAP (1.0mg\\/kg, i.p.) to rats once every 3days for a

Takahide Shuto; Mahomi Kuroiwa; Mitsuko Hamamura; Kenichi Yabuuchi; Takao Shimazoe; Shigenori Watanabe; Akinori Nishi; Tsuneyuki Yamamoto



High-fat diet induced adiposity in mice with targeted disruption of the dopamine-3 receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine (DA) signaling has been implicated in the control of energy balance and ingestive behavior. In the present study, we sought to characterize body weight, body fat and food intake regulation in a mouse with a targeted disruption of the dopamine-3 receptor gene (Drd3). In the first set of experiments male and female wild-type and mutant (Drd3?\\/?) mice were given

John-Andrews McQuade; Stephen C. Benoit; Ming Xu; Stephen C. Woods; Randy J. Seeley



Signalling pathways in the nitric oxide donor-induced dopamine release in the striatum of freely moving rats: evidence that exogenous nitric oxide promotes Ca2+ entry through store-operated channels.  


We showed previously, using in vitro microdialysis, that the activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic GMP pathway was the underlying mechanism of the extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent effects of exogenous NO on dopamine (DA) secretion from PC12 cells. In this study, the co-infusion of the sGC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) failed to affect the NO donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1, 5.0 mM)-induced DA increase (sevenfold baseline) in dialysates from the striatum of freely moving rats. Ca(2+) omission from the perfusion fluid abolished baseline DA release but did not affect SIN-1-induced DA increases. The reintroduction of Ca(2+) in the perfusion fluid restored the baseline dialysate DA; however, when Ca(2+) reintroduction was associated with the infusion of either SIN-1 or the NO-donor S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG), a sustained DA overflow was observed. DA overflow was selectively inhibited by the co-infusion of the store-operated channel blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. The chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) by co-infusing 1,2-bis (o-amino-phenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA-AM, 0.2 mM) greatly potentiated both SIN-1- and SNOG-induced increases in dialysate DA. BAPTA-AM-induced potentiation was inhibited by Ca(2+) omission. We conclude that the sGC/cyclic GMP pathway is not involved in the extracellular Ca(2+)-independent exogenous NO-induced striatal DA release; however, when intracellular Ca(2+) is either depleted (by Ca(2+) omission) or chelated (by BAPTA-AM co-infusion), exogenous NO does promote Ca(2+) entry, most likely through store-operated channels, with a consequent further increase in DA release. PMID:15374750

Rocchitta, Gaia; Migheli, Rossana; Mura, Maria P; Esposito, Giovanni; Desole, Maria S; Miele, Egidio; Miele, Maddalena; Serra, Pier Andrea



[Tolerance to rat parathyroid allograft induced by depletion of Ia+ donor cells plus short course cyclosporine].  


In this study, Ia+ donor cells of rat parathyroid allografts were depleted by anti-Ia monoclonal antibody plus complement. The secreting function of treated glands as well preserved. Then we transplanted the treated glands into subcapsular of the recipient kindey, and the median survival time (MST) of the allografts were 60 days, compared with 14 days in the fresh PTG group (P < 0.01). If the recipients received 25 mg/kg cyclosponine for three days before transplantation, the MST of about 60% PTG allografts was more than 150 days, with P < 0.01 in comparison with the control group (short course CyA alone, MST: 70 days). These results indicate that long-term survival of rat parathyroid allografts can be achieved by depletion of Ia+ donor cells and short course pretreatment of the recipient with CyA. PMID:9388953

Zhang, T P; Zhu, Y; Wang, S; Guan, H; Tang, W



Gender segregation in gene expression and vulnerability to oxidative stress induced injury in ventral mesencephalic cultures of dopamine neurons.  


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). Most epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that PD has a higher prevalence in males than in females. Both hormones and genetic factors have been considered to be contributors to this phenomenon. In the present study, we used primary cultures of ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons from E13.5 Balb/C mice to investigate whether there were any gender differences in gene expression and cell sensitivity to oxidative stress in sex segregated cultures. We also investigated the role of SRY, the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome, and the female hormone estrogen in the gender dimorphism. We measured the expression levels of genes that previously were thought to be related to PD or DA neuron development and functions by real-time PCR, and found six of them, ATP13A2, ER?, MAO-A, D2, DAT, and Pitx3, showing significantly differential expression between males and females in the normal physiological state or under stress conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that male VM neurons are more vulnerable than female neurons to rotenone-induced cytotoxicity and that 17?-estrogen has a moderate protective effect in both male and female VM neurons. Moreover, we document that SRY can upregulate monoamine oxidase A and downregulate estrogen receptor-?, and SRY-overexpressing N2A cells enhance the resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell injury. Our results suggest that gender indeed influences several PD-related gene expressions in VM neurons, and SRY and estrogen are involved in the different responses to oxidative stress in culture. PMID:21919034

Tao, Qingqing; Fan, Xiaolan; Li, Ting; Tang, Yu; Yang, Dehua; Le, Weidong



Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor is preferentially expressed in the mesolimbic system. We have previously shown that selective D3 receptor blockade by the novel D3 antagonist SB-277011A inhibits cocaine’s reinforcing action and cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Objective In the present study, we investigated whether SB-277011A similarly inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods Rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.5 mg/kg per infusion, 3 h per session) for 10–14 days, followed by a once-daily extinction session for 7–14 days during which saline was substituted for cocaine. Extinction criteria were fewer than ten lever-presses per 3-h session for at least 3 consecutive days. After cocaine-seeking behavior was extinguished, each animal was tested twice for footshock-stress-induced reinstatement, once with vehicle (25% hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin) and once with one of three doses of SB-277011A in counterbalanced fashion. Results During the last 3 days of cocaine self-administration (SA), active lever-presses were approximately 100 per session under fixed-ratio 2 reinforcement (~25 mg/kg cocaine per session). After extinction, intermittent footshock (10 min, 0.5 mA, 0.5 s on with a mean inter-shock interval of 40 s) robustly reinstated the cocaine-seeking behavior (8.4±3.6 active lever-presses in last extinction session to 35.3±5.2 in animals after footshock stress). Intraperitoneal (IP) injections of SB-277011A (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Reinstatement was also blocked by microinjections of SB-277011A (1.5 ?g/0.5 ?l per side) bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens, but not into the dorsal striatum. Conclusions The mesolimic DA D3 receptor plays an important role in mediating stress-induced reinstatement. PMID:15083257

Gilbert, Jeremy; Campos, Arlene C.; Kline, Nicole; Ashby, Charles R.; Hagan, Jim J.; Heidbreder, Christian A.; Gardner, Eliot L.



Evidence of depleted uranium?induced hormesis and differential plant response in three grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

General plant response to depleted uranium (DU) was tested using three widespread range?grass species, Aristida purpurea Nutt. (purple threeawn), Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. (buffalograss), and Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash (little bluestem). Aboveground, belowground, and total biomass measures of these grasses were analyzed over the five different DU soil concentrations of 0, 50, 500, 5,000, and 25,000 mg kg. Differential plant

Michael C. Meyer; Terry McLendon; David Price



Enzymatic depletion of tumor hyaluronan induces antitumor responses in preclinical animal models.  


Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan polymer that often accumulates in malignancy. Megadalton complexes of HA with proteoglycans create a hydrated connective tissue matrix, which may play an important role in tumor stroma formation. Through its colloid osmotic effects, HA complexes contribute to tumor interstitial fluid pressure, limiting the effect of therapeutic molecules on malignant cells. The therapeutic potential of enzymatic remodeling of the tumor microenvironment through HA depletion was initially investigated using a recombinant human HA-degrading enzyme, rHuPH20, which removed HA-dependent tumor cell extracellular matrices in vitro. However, rHuPH20 showed a short serum half-life (t(1/2) < 3 minutes), making depletion of tumor HA in vivo impractical. A pegylated variant of rHuPH20, PEGPH20, was therefore evaluated. Pegylation improved serum half-life (t(1/2) = 10.3 hours), making it feasible to probe the effects of sustained HA depletion on tumor physiology. In high-HA prostate PC3 tumors, i.v. administration of PEGPH20 depleted tumor HA, decreased tumor interstitial fluid pressure by 84%, decreased water content by 7%, decompressed tumor vessels, and increased tumor vascular area >3-fold. Following repeat PEGPH20 administration, tumor growth was significantly inhibited (tumor growth inhibition, 70%). Furthermore, PEGPH20 enhanced both docetaxel and liposomal doxorubicin activity in PC3 tumors (P < 0.05) but did not significantly improve the activity of docetaxel in low-HA prostate DU145 tumors. The ability of PEGPH20 to enhance chemotherapy efficacy is likely due to increased drug perfusion combined with other tumor structural changes. These results support enzymatic remodeling of the tumor stroma with PEGPH20 to treat tumors characterized by the accumulation of HA. PMID:20978165

Thompson, Curtis B; Shepard, H Michael; O'Connor, Patrick M; Kadhim, Salam; Jiang, Ping; Osgood, Ryan J; Bookbinder, Louis H; Li, Xiaoming; Sugarman, Barry J; Connor, Robert J; Nadjsombati, Sinisa; Frost, Gregory I



Potential involvement of oxygen intermediates and glutathione depletion in UV-induced epidermal cell injury in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione (GSH) are suggested as the cytotoxic mechanisms for UVB-induced cellular damage. Primary monolayer cultures of epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) prepared from the skin of neonatal rats were irradiated with UVB at levels of 0.25-3.0 J/cm{sup 2}. Cytotoxicity was measured at 3, 6, and 12 hr after UVB radiation. Exposure of KCs to UVB resulted in time- and dose-related toxic responses as determined by plasma membrane integrity, lysosomal function and mitochondrial metabolic activity. Irradiated KCs generated superoxide in a dose-dependent manner when compared to sham-irradiated cells. Superoxide formation, which occurred before and concomitant with cell injury, was decreased by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Cell injury was also significantly prevented by ROS scavengers, SOD and catalase. Pretreatment of cells with endocytosis inhibitors, cytochalasin B and methylamine, suppressed the ability of SOD and catalase to protect keratinocytes from UVB-induced toxicity. Irradiation of cells with UVB caused rapid depletion of GSH to about 30% of unirradiated levels within 15 min. UVB-irradiation led to a rapid transient increase in GSH peroxidase activity, concomitant with a marked decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio. After 1 hr., while the GSH/GSSG ratio remained low, the GSH peroxidase activity declined below the control levels in UVB-treated epidermal cells. Following extensive GSH depletion in cells preincubated with 0.1 mM buthiomine sulfoximine, KCs became strongly sensitized to the cytotoxic action of UVB. These results indicate that UVB-induced cell injury in cultured KCs may be mediated by ROs and that endogenous GSH may play an important protective role against the cytotoxic action of UVB.

Hsieh, G.C.; Acosta, D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))



Diffraction barrier breakthrough in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy by additional probe-beam-induced phonon depletion  

SciTech Connect

We provide an approach to significantly break the diffraction limit in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy via an additional probe-beam-induced photon depletion (APIPD). The additional probe beam, whose profile is doughnut shaped and whose wavelength is different from the Gaussian probe beam, depletes the phonons to yield an unwanted anti-Stokes signal within a certain bandwidth at the rim of the diffraction-limited spot. When the Gaussian probe beam that follows immediately arrives, no anti-Stokes signal is generated in this region, resembling stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, and the spot-generating useful anti-Stokes signals by this beam are substantially suppressed to a much smaller dimension. Scanning the spot renders three-dimensional, label-free, and chemically selective CARS images with subdiffraction resolution. Also, resolution-enhanced images of the molecule, specified by its broadband even-total CARS spectral signals not only by one anti-Stokes signal for its special chemical bond, can be obtained by employing a supercontinuum source.

Liu Wei [College of Precison Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Institute of Optoelectronics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Deviced and Systems of Education Ministry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Niu Hanben [Institute of Optoelectronics, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Deviced and Systems of Education Ministry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)



Dopamine- and L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine hydrochloride (L-Dopa)-induced cytotoxicity towards catecholaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Effects of oxidative stress and antioxidative factors.  


Enhanced oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. The high turnover rate of dopamine and/or unsequestered dopamine may cause an increase of formation of hydrogen peroxide via either oxidative deamination of dopamine by monoamine oxidase or autoxidation. Hydrogen peroxide would be converted to more toxic hydroxyl free radicals. L-beta-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine hydrochloride (L-DOPA), the most useful drug in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease, has been considered to possess deteriorating degenerative side-effects. The catecholaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were chosen to investigate the cytotoxic effect of dopamine and L-DOPA. Both dopamine and L-DOPA were found to be cytotoxic towards SH-SY5Y cells. Such toxic effects were accompanied by an increase of oxidative stress in the cell cultures and could be reversed effectively by catalase and to a lesser extent by superoxide dismutase. The non-enzymatic antioxidants L-ascorbic acid, glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, but not (+)-alpha-tocopherol, also completely protected SH-SY5Y cells against the cytotoxic effects induced by dopamine and L-DOPA. Antioxidative factors, namely free radical scavengers (including N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone, salicylic acid, and D-mannitol) and a strong iron chelator, deferoxamine, however, did not protect the SH-SY5Y cells against dopamine and L-DOPA. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the resulting enhanced oxidative stress was clearly involved in the dopamine- and L-DOPA-induced cytotoxic effects. Hydrogen peroxide played the most important role related to cytotoxicity of dopamine and L-DOPA. PMID:9065740

Lai, C T; Yu, P H



Tyrosine hydroxylase-negative, dopaminergic neurons are targets for transmitter-depleting action of haloperidol in the snail brain.  


1. The effects of long term administration of micromolar concentrations of the D2 antagonist haloperidol upon monoaminergic neurons in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated. 2. Treatment by bath application with 0.5-2.0 micromolar haloperidol, caused a significant, continuous depletion of dopamine levels in the nervous system as revealed by high performance liquid chromatography. 3. A transient depletion of serotonin was also observed, but DOPA and norepinephrine levels were unaffected. Similar depletion of dopamine was observed after the land snail, Achatina fulica, was injected with haloperidol on each of 4 consecutive days. 4. The depletion of dopamine as revealed with glyoxylate-induced fluorescence in Lymnaea appears to be restricted to a subpopulation of catecholaminergic neurons which are immuno-negative for tyrosine hydroxylase, the synthetic enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyrosine to DOPA. 5. The results thus demonstrate a depleting action of low micromolar doses of chronic haloperidol on specific subsets of dopaminergic neurons and a novel preparation for studying catecholaminergic mechanisms operating across the animal kingdom. PMID:8879748

Sakharov, D A; Voronezhskaya, E E; Nezlin, L; Baker, M W; Elekes, K; Croll, R P



L-dopa-induced dyskinesia: beyond an excessive dopamine tone in the striatum  

E-print Network

Parkinson, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, France, 8 Department of Medical Sciences, Section Bordeaux, France. L-dopa remains the mainstay treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), although in later-dopa remains the mainstay treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) have

Boyer, Edmond


What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What roles do mesolimbic and neostriatal dopamine systems play in reward? Do they mediate the hedonic impact of rewarding stimuli? Do they mediate hedonic reward learning and associative prediction? Our review of the literature, together with results of a new study of residual reward capacity after dopamine depletion, indicates the answer to both questions is `no'. Rather, dopamine systems may

Kent C. Berridge; Terry E. Robinson



Norepinephrine Transporter Inhibition with Desipramine Exacerbates L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia: Role for Synaptic Dopamine Regulation in Denervated Nigrostriatal Terminals.  


Pharmacological dopamine (DA) replacement with Levodopa [L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)] is the gold standard treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term L-DOPA treatment is complicated by eventual debilitating abnormal involuntary movements termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a clinically significant obstacle for the majority of patients who rely on L-DOPA to alleviate PD-related motor symptoms. The manifestation of LID may in part be driven by excessive extracellular DA derived from L-DOPA, but potential involvement of DA reuptake in LID severity or expression is unknown. We recently reported that in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned striatum, norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression increases and may play a significant role in DA transport. Furthermore, L-DOPA preferentially inhibits DA uptake in lesioned striatum. Therefore, we hypothesized that desipramine (DMI), a NET antagonist, could affect the severity of LID in an established LID model. Whereas DMI alone elicited no dyskinetic effects in lesioned rats, DMI + L-DOPA-treated rats gradually expressed more severe dyskinesia compared with L-DOPA alone over time. At the conclusion of the study, we observed reduced NET expression and norepinephrine-mediated inhibition of DA uptake in the DMI + L-DOPA group compared with L-DOPA-alone group in lesioned striatum. LID severity positively correlated with striatal extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation among the three treatment groups, with increased ppERK1/2 in DMI + L-DOPA group compared with the L-DOPA- and DMI-alone groups. Taken together, these results indicate that the combination of chronic L-DOPA and NET-mediated DA reuptake in lesioned nigrostriatal terminals may have a role in LID severity in experimental Parkinsonism. PMID:25208966

Chotibut, Tanya; Fields, Victoria; Salvatore, Michael F



Local Suppression of T Cell Responses by Arginase-Induced L-Arginine Depletion in Nonhealing Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The balance between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell responses is a major determinant of the outcome of experimental leishmaniasis, but polarized Th1 or Th2 responses are not sufficient to account for healing or nonhealing. Here we show that high arginase activity, a hallmark of nonhealing disease, is primarily expressed locally at the site of pathology. The high arginase activity causes local depletion of L-arginine, which impairs the capacity of T cells in the lesion to proliferate and to produce interferon-?, while T cells in the local draining lymph nodes respond normally. Healing, induced by chemotherapy, resulted in control of arginase activity and reversal of local immunosuppression. Moreover, competitive inhibition of arginase as well as supplementation with L-arginine restored T cell effector functions and reduced pathology and parasite growth at the site of lesions. These results demonstrate that in nonhealing leishmaniasis, arginase-induced L-arginine depletion results in impaired T cell responses. Our results identify a novel mechanism in leishmaniasis that contributes to the failure to heal persistent lesions and suggest new approaches to therapy. PMID:19597544

Modolell, Manuel; Choi, Beak-San; Ryan, Robert O.; Hancock, Maggie; Titus, Richard G.; Abebe, Tamrat; Hailu, Asrat; Muller, Ingrid; Rogers, Matthew E.; Bangham, Charles R. M.; Munder, Markus; Kropf, Pascale



Observations of VLF transmitter-induced depletions of inner zone electrons  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation spikes of electrons, in which the energy spread of the peak is narrow (less than 50 keV) and the peak energy is a strong function of the location in L, have been observed in the region 1.5 < L < 2.0 and have been ascribed to interactions between waves from high power VLF transmitters on the ground and the precipitated electrons (Vampola and Kuck, 1978; Imhof et al., 1981). On numerous occasions when these spikes were observed at low altitude by instrumentation on the S3-2 satellite, a significant depletion of electrons at the same energies was observed high on the field line. These depletions indicate that the loss rate of electrons due to VLF transmitters is significant and usually exceeds the rate at which radial diffusion is refilling those field lines. Electrons with energies between 36 keV and 317 keV in the region 1.9 < L < 1.6 were observed to have lifetimes limited to a few days by interactions with waves from VLF transmitters. Thus the outer edge of the inner zone is defined by this wave-particle process.

Vampola, A.L.



Ethanol induces stronger dopamine release in nucleus accumbens (shell) of alcohol-preferring (bibulous) than in alcohol-avoiding (abstainer) rats  

PubMed Central

Several studies on the differences between ethanol-preferring versus non-preferring rat lines suggest an innate deficit in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system as an underlying factor for ethanol volition. Rats would try to overcome such deficit by engaging in a drug-seeking behaviour, when available, to drink an ethanol solution over water. Thus, in the present study we compared the effect of a single dose of ethanol (1g /kg, i.p.) on the extracellular levels of monoamines measured by microdialysis in the shell of nucleus accumbens of University of Chile bibulous (UChB) and University of Chile Abstainer (UChA) rats, bred for 79 and 88 generations to prefer or reject ethanol, respectively. It is reported that under basal conditions extracellular dopamine levels are lower in the bibulous than in the abstainer rats, while ethanol induced a 2-fold greater increase of dopamine release in bibulous than in abstainer rats. The greater effect of ethanol in bibulous rats was not associated to differences in blood ethanol levels, since the concentration and elimination of ethanol were virtually identical in both rat lines, indicating that bibulous rats are more sensitive to the stimulation of dopamine release by ethanol than abstainer rats. No differences were observed in 5-hydroxytryptamine or metabolites measured simultaneously under basal or ethanol-stimulating conditions in bibulous and abstainer rats. Overall, the present results suggest that a low dopaminergic tone and a strong mesolimbic dopamine response to ethanol are concerted neurochemical features associated to an ethanol-seeking behaviour in rats. PMID:18611399

Bustamante, Diego; Quintanilla, Maria Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Gonzalez, Victor; Israel, Yedy; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario



Differences in the time course of haloperidol-induced up-regulation of rat striatal and mesolimbic dopamine receptors  

SciTech Connect

Regional differences in the onset and persistence of increased dopamine D2 receptor density in rat brain were studied following daily injections of haloperidol for 3, 7, 14, or 28 days. Striatal (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol Bmax values were significantly increased following 3 - 28 days of haloperidol treatment, as compared to saline controls. Olfactory tubercle Bmax values were significantly increased only after 14 or 28 days of haloperidol treatment. Nucleus accumbens Bmax values were significantly increased only in the 14-day drug treatment group, suggesting that dopamine D2 receptor up-regulation in nucleus accumbens may reverse during ongoing neuroleptic treatment. These findings suggest that important differences in adaptive responses to chronic dopamine blockade may exist between dopaminergic synapses located in various rat brain regions.

Prosser, E.S.; Csernansky, J.G.; Hollister, L.E.



Temperature dependence of the radiation induced change of depletion voltage in silicon PIN detectors  

SciTech Connect

The silicon microstrip detectors that will be used in the SDC experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will be exposed to very large fluences of charged particles, neutrons, and gammas. The authors present a study of how temperature affects the change in the depletion voltage of silicon PIN detectors damaged by radiation. They study the initial radiation damage and the short-term and long-term annealing of that damage as a function of temperature in the range from {minus}10{degrees}C to +50{degrees}C, and as a function of 800 MeV proton fluence up to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2}. They express the pronounced temperature dependencies in a simple model in terms of two annealing time constants which depend exponentially on the temperature.

Ziock, H.J.; Holzscheiter, K.; Morgan, A.; Palounek, A.P.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ellison, J.; Heinson, A.P.; Mason, M.; Wimpenny, S.J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Grillo, A.; O`Shaughnessy, K.; Rahn, J.; Rinaldi, P.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Webster, A.; Wichmann, R.; Wilder, M. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics; Frautschi, M.A.; Matthews, J.A.J.; McDonald, D.; Skinner, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coupal, D.; Pal, T. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)



Considerations for evaluating ultraviolet radiation-induced genetic damage relative to Antarctic ozone depletion  

SciTech Connect

Springtime ozone depletion over the Antarctic results in increased UVB in local marine environments. It has been established that decreases in primary productivity occur with decreases in ozone concentrations, but the impact of increased UVB on the functioning and stability of the ecosystem has not yet been determined. Very little has been done to evaluate the potential for genetic damage caused by the increase in UVB, and this type of damage is most significant relative to the fitness and maintenance of populations. An essential problem in evaluating genotoxic effects is the lack of appropriate techniques to sample and quantify genetic damage in field populations under ambient UVB levels. In addition, it is currently not feasible to estimate exposure levels for organisms in their natural habitats. 36 refs.

Karentz, D. [Univ. of San Francisco, CA (United States)



Considerations for evaluating ultraviolet radiation-induced genetic damage relative to Antarctic ozone depletion.  

PubMed Central

Springtime ozone depletion over the Antarctic results in increased UVB in local marine environments. It has been established that decreases in primary productivity occur with decreases in ozone concentrations, but the impact of increased UVB on the functioning and stability of the ecosystem has not yet been determined. Very little has been done to evaluate the potential for genetic damage caused by the increase in UVB, and this type of damage is most significant relative to the fitness and maintenance of populations. An essential problem in evaluating genotoxic effects is the lack of appropriate techniques to sample and quantify genetic damage in field populations under ambient UVB levels. In addition, it is currently not feasible to estimate exposure levels for organisms in their natural habitats. PMID:7713036

Karentz, D



Intracellular Metabolite Pool Changes in Response to Nutrient Depletion Induced Metabolic Switching in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

A metabolite profiling study of the antibiotic producing bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) has been performed. The aim of this study was to monitor intracellular metabolite pool changes occurring as strains of S. coelicolor react to nutrient depletion with metabolic re-modeling, so-called metabolic switching, and transition from growth to secondary metabolite production phase. Two different culture media were applied, providing depletion of the key nutrients phosphate and L-glutamate, respectively, as the triggers for metabolic switching. Targeted GC-MS and LC-MS methods were employed to quantify important primary metabolite groups like amino acids, organic acids, sugar phosphates and other phosphorylated metabolites, and nucleotides in time-course samples withdrawn from fully-controlled batch fermentations. A general decline, starting already in the early growth phase, was observed for nucleotide pools and phosphorylated metabolite pools for both the phosphate and glutamate limited cultures. The change in amino acid and organic acid pools were more scattered, especially in the phosphate limited situation while a general decrease in amino acid and non-amino organic acid pools was observed in the L-glutamate limited situation. A phoP deletion mutant showed basically the same metabolite pool changes as the wild-type strain M145 when cultivated on phosphate limited medium. This implies that the inactivation of the phoP gene has only little effect on the detected metabolite levels in the cell. The energy charge was found to be relatively constant during growth, transition and secondary metabolite production phase. The results of this study and the employed targeted metabolite profiling methodology are directly relevant for the evaluation of precursor metabolite and energy supply for both natural and heterologous production of secondary metabolites in S. coelicolor. PMID:24957373

Wentzel, Alexander; Sletta, Havard; Consortium, Stream; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Bruheim, Per



Spirafolide from bay leaf ( Laurus nobilis ) prevents dopamine-induced apoptosis by decreasing reactive oxygen species production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and\\u000a Parkinson’s disease. This study tested the neuroprotective effects of spirafolide, a compound purified from the leaves of\\u000a Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), against dopamine (DA)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Following a 24-h exposure of\\u000a cells to DA (final conc., 0.6 mM), we observed a

Ahrom Ham; Bora Kim; Uk Koo; Kung-Woo Nam; Sung-Jin Lee; Kyeong Ho Kim; Jongheon Shin; Woongchon Mar



Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vila, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumi, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc



Depletion of Securin Induces Senescence After Irradiation and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Cancer Cells Regardless of Functional p53 Expression  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy is one of the best choices for cancer treatment. However, various tumor cells exhibit resistance to irradiation-induced apoptosis. The development of new strategies to trigger cancer cell death besides apoptosis is necessary. This study investigated the role of securin in radiation-induced apoptosis and senescence in human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays. Western blot analysis was used to analyze levels of securin, caspase-3, PARP, p53, p21, Rb, gamma-H2AX, and phospho-Chk2. Senescent cells were analyzed using a beta-galactosidase staining assay. A securin-expressed vector (pcDNA-securin) was stably transfected into securin-null HCT116 cells. Securin gene knockdown was performed by small interfering RNA and small hairpin RNA in HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Results: Radiation was found to induce apoptosis in securin wild type HCT116 cells but induced senescence in securin-null cells. Restoration of securin reduced senescence and increased cell survival in securin-null HCT116 cells after irradiation. Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX and Chk2 phosphorylation were induced transiently in securin-wild-type cells but exhibited sustained activation in securin-null cells. Securin gene knockdown switches irradiation-induced apoptosis to senescence in both HCT116 p53-null and MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of securin expression plays a determining role in the radiosensitivity and fate of cells. Depletion of securin impairs DNA repair after irradiation, increasing DNA damage and promoting senescence in the residual surviving cells regardless of functional p53 expression. The knockdown of securin may contribute to a novel radiotherapy protocol for the treatment of human cancer cells that are resistant to irradiation.

Chen Wenshu; Yu Yichu [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lee Yijang [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-H. [Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H.-Y. [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiu, S.-J., E-mail: [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Radiation Sciences, Tzu Chi Technology College, Hualien, Taiwan (China)



Antioxidant depletion, lipid peroxidation, and impairment of calcium transport induced by air-blast overpressure in rat lungs.  


Exposure to blast overpressure, or the sudden rise in atmospheric pressure after explosive detonation, results in damage mainly of the gas-filled organs. In addition to the physical damage, in the lung, injury may proceed via a hemorrhage-dependent mechanism initiating oxidative stress and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products. Massive rupture of capillaries and red blood cells, release of hemoglobin, its oxidation to met-hemoglobin and degradation sets the stage for heme-catalyzed oxidations. The authors hypothesized that lipid hydroperoxides interact with met-hemoglobin in the lungs of exposed animals to produce ferryl-hemoglobin, an extremely potent oxidant that induces oxidative damage by depleting antioxidants and initiating peroxidation reactions. Oxidation-induced disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis facilitates further amplification of the damage. To test this hypothesis, groups of anesthetized rats (6 rats/group) were exposed to blast at 3 peak pressures: low (61.2 kPa), medium (95.2 kPa), high (136 kPa). One group served as an unexposed control. Immediately after exposure, the rats were euthanized and the lungs were analyzed for biochemical parameters. Blast overpressure caused: (1) depletion of total and water-soluble pulmonary antioxidant reserves and individual antioxidants (ascorbate, vitamin E, GSH), (2) accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBARS), and (3) inhibition of ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport. The magnitude of these changes in the lungs was proportional to the peak blast overpressure. Inhibition of Ca2+ transport strongly correlated with both depletion of antioxidants and enhancement of lipid peroxidation. In model experiments, met-hemoglobin/H2O2 produced damage to Ca2+ transport in the lungs from control animals similar to that observed in the lungs from blast overpressure-exposed animals. Ascorbate, which is known to reduce ferryl-hemoglobin, protected against met-hemoglobin/H2O2-induced damage of Ca2+ transport. If ferryl-hemoglobin is the major reactive oxygen species released by hemorrhage, then its specific reductants (e.g., nitric oxide) along with other antioxidants may be beneficial protectants against pulmonary barotrauma. PMID:8706635

Elsayed, N M; Tyurina, Y Y; Tyurin, V A; Menshikova, E V; Kisin, E R; Kagan, V E



Electroacupuncture-Induced Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats: Role of the Dopamine D2 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Background. Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioural deficits, including memory deficits and motor disorders. Evidence shows that EA significantly promotes recovery of neurological function and thus improves quality of life. Objective. Evidence exists for the involvement of catecholamines in human neuroplasticity. A better understanding of dopaminergic (DAergic) modulation in this process will be important. Methods. A total of 72 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups: normal, model, EA, spiperone group, EA + spiperone group, and pergolide. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used in all 6 groups except the normal group. A behavioural assessment was conducted at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after MCAO. The percent of brain infarct area was also determined 7 days after MCAO. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) fluorescence double labeling was performed in the striatum. Results. In this study, we found that EA at Fengchi (GB20) acupoints resulted in marked improvements based on a behavioural assessment. Both TTC staining and GAP-43 immunofluorescence labeling results showed that EA treatment reduced ischemia injury and promoted neuroplasticity compared with the model group. The D2R-selective agonist, pergolide, showed similar results, but these results were reversed by the D2R-selective antagonist, spiperone. We also found that there were more colocalization and expression of GAP-43 and TH in the EA and pergolide groups than those in the other groups. Conclusion. These results suggest that the neuroplasticity induced by EA was mediated by D2 autoreceptors in DAergic neurons. PMID:24348687

Xu, Ming-Shu; Zhang, Shu-Jing; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Chang-Zhi; Chen, Chun-Yan; Li, Li-Hui; Li, Ming-Zhe; Xu, Jia; Ge, Lin-Bao



Age- and location-dependent differences in store depletion-induced h-channel plasticity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.  


Disruptions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) homeostasis are heavily linked to neuronal pathology. Depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores can result in cellular dysfunction and potentially cell death, although adaptive processes exist to aid in survival. We examined the age and region dependence of one postulated, adaptive response to ER store-depletion (SD), hyperpolarization-activated cation-nonspecific (h)-channel plasticity in neurons of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (DHC and VHC, respectively) from adolescent and adult rats. With the use of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the soma and dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, we observed a change in h-sensitive measurements in response to SD, induced by treatment with cyclopiazonic acid, a sarcoplasmic reticulum/ER Ca(2+)-ATPase blocker. We found that whereas DHC and VHC neurons in adolescent animals respond to SD with a perisomatic expression of SD h plasticity, adult animals express SD h plasticity with a dendritic and somatodendritic locus of plasticity in DHC and VHC neurons, respectively. Furthermore, SD h plasticity in adults was dependent on membrane potential and on the activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. These results suggest that cellular responses to the impairment of ER function, or ER stress, are dependent on brain region and age and that the differential expression of SD h plasticity could provide a neural basis for region- and age-dependent disease vulnerabilities. PMID:24381027

Clemens, Ann M; Johnston, Daniel



Clonal evolution following chemotherapy-induced stem cell depletion in cats heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

The number of hematopoietic stem cells necessary to support normal hematopoiesis is not known but may be small. If so, the depletion or damage of such cells could result in apparent clonal dominance. To test this hypothesis, dimethylbusulfan (2 to 4 mg/kg intravenously (IV) x 3) was given to cats heterozygous for the X-linked enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). These cats were the daughters of domestic X Geoffroy parents. After the initial drug-induced cytopenias (2 to 4 weeks), peripheral blood counts and the numbers of marrow progenitors detected in culture remained normal, although the percentages of erythroid burst-forming cells (BFU-E) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) in DNA synthesis increased, as determined by the tritiated thymidine suicide technique. In three of six cats treated, a dominance of Geoffroy-type G-6-PD emerged among the progenitor cells, granulocytes, and RBCs. These skewed ratios of domestic to Geoffroy-type G-6-PD have persisted greater than 3 years. No changes in cell cycle kinetics or G-6-PD phenotypes were noted in similar studies in six control cats. These data suggest that clonal evolution may reflect the depletion or damage of normal stem cells and not only the preferential growth and dominance of neoplastic cells.

Abkowitz, J.L.; Ott, R.M.; Holly, R.D.; Adamson, J.W.



?-Endorphin-induced locomotor stimulation and reinforcement are associated with an increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo microdialysis was used to compare the effects of ?-endorphin upon dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of anesthetized versus freely moving rats, and to examine the role of the the mesolimbic DA system in mediating both the motoric and secondary reinforcing effects of this peptide. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the NAC and perfusates were analyzed

Rainer Spanagel; Albert Herz; Regine Bals-Kubik; Toni S. Shippenberg



Acute and prolonged effects of ibogaine on brain dopamine metabolism and morphine-induced locomotor activity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

lbogaine, an indolalkylamine. proposed for use in treating opiate and stimulant addiction, has been shown to modulate the dopaminergic iystem acutely and one day later. In the present study we sought to systematically determine the effects of ibogaine on the levels of dopa- nine (DA) and the dopamine metabolites 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in tissue at

I. M. Maisonneuve; K. L. Rossman; R. W. Keller Jr; S. D. Glick



GBR12909 attenuates amphetamine?induced striatal dopamine release as measured by [11C]raclopride continuous infusion PET scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major neurochemical effects of methamphetamine include release of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) via a carrier-mediated exchange mechanism. Preclinical research supports the hypothesis that elevations of mesolimbic DA mediate the addictive and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine and amphetamine. This hypothesis has not been adequately tested in humans. Previous in vivo rodent microdialysis demonstrated that the high affinity DA

Victor L. Villemagne; Dean F. Wong; Fuji Yokoi; Massoud Stephane; Kenner C. Rice; Dorota Matecka; David J. Clough; Robert F. Dannals; Richard B. Rothman



Glucose concentrations in brain and blood: regulation by dopamine receptor subtypes.  


The stimulation of D1 and D2 dopamine (DA) receptors by selective agonists produced large increases in brain glucose concentrations. D2 receptor stimulation also produced large increases in blood glucose. The D1-induced increases were somewhat variable in normal animals, but were more reliably observed and greatly increased in animals with brain DA depletions. Blockade of D1 receptors prevented these increases. Likewise, centrally acting D2 antagonists, but not the peripheral D2 antagonist domperidone, prevented D2 agonist-induced increases in brain and blood glucose. These observations point to an important role for DA in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. PMID:1829974

Saller, C F; Kreamer, L D



Administration of the D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 into the medial nucleus accumbens shell attenuates cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale.  \\u000a A growing literature indicates that increased dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens contributes to priming-induced\\u000a reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives.  \\u000a The present experiments were designed to assess the role of D1-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell subregions in cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug\\u000a seeking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods.  \\u000a Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine using a

Sharon M. Anderson; Ausaf A. Bari; R. Christopher Pierce



Ebselen Induces Apoptosis in HepG 2 Cells through Rapid Depletion of Intracellular Thiols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebselen, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one, is a synthetic seleno-organic compound with antioxidant capability. In the present study, we systematically examined the ability of ebselen to induce apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Ebselen-induced apoptosis was evaluated by (i) TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay; (ii) analysis of sub-G1 cells; (iii) cell morphology, including cell size and granularity examination; and (iv) DNA

Cheng-Feng Yang; Han-Ming Shen; Choon-Nam Ong



Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by mouse, but not rat, antigens.  


A key question in the field of autoimmunity concerns the fact that experimental disease is generally induced more easily with closely related, but not completely identical, tissue-restricted antigens. Here, the possibility that naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs) for self-antigens are more potent than those for related antigens was investigated. The self-antigen specificity of naturally occurring Tregs was tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with mouse (self) or closely related (rat) myelin oligodendrocyte glycoproteins (MOGs). Surprisingly, Treg depletion increased EAE severity in mice immunized with mouse, but not rat, MOG. This increase was associated with increased T-cell activation and infiltration of the central nervous system, as well as increased interleukin (IL)-17 production and a higher ratio of interferon-gamma- to IL-10-producing cells. These data suggest that Tregs are specific for self-antigen and do not "cross-protect" against autoimmunity even when disease is induced with closely related foreign antigens. PMID:19125411

Akirav, Eitan M; Bergman, Cheryl M; Hill, Myriam; Ruddle, Nancy H



Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE) has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts) as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde) in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg) diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. PMID:24644381

Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Zal, Fatemeh; Jafarian, Aida; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh



Mechanism of cell death of rat cardiac fibroblasts induced by serum depletion.  


Serum starvation has recently been shown to cause cell death of cardiac fibroblasts and increased synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in the surviving cells. In the present study, events occurring in the dying cells were investigated. Cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts were exposed to serum-free medium. Cell number was measured using a Coulter Counter Channelyzer. The activity of the extracellular signal-regulated or mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2, p42/p44(MAPK)), the p38 kinase (p38(MAPK)), the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p46/p54(JNK)), and Akt kinase was assessed by Western blotting and phospho-specific antibodies. Caspase 7-cleavage was investigated by Western blotting and specific antibodies. Caspase 3 activity was measured by detection of its cleaved substrate. The appearance of necrosis was studied by inclusion of trypan blue. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA ladder formation. The mRNA expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Serum withdrawal led to the death of 26% of cultured isolated cardiac fibroblasts during the first 5 h. The activity of the p42/ p44(MAPK) as well as of Akt kinase was partially reduced. For p46/p54(JNK) and p38(MAPK), elevated phosphorylation was measured. Inhibition of p46/p54(JNK) and p38(MAPK) activity by SB202190 did not affect the decrease in cell number. Cleavage of caspase 7 was detected after 90 min. However, no activation of caspase 3 was measured. DNA fragmentation was not found after serum depletion. Trypan blue staining, however, was observed in 16% of the cells after 5 h. The mRNA levels of both Bax and Bcl-2 were increased after 30 min. These results indicate the appearance of necrosis during serum starvation in cardiac fibroblasts. However, some processes typical of apoptosis were also detected. PMID:14575313

Leicht, Monika; Marx, Grit; Karbach, Doris; Gekle, Michael; Köhler, Thomas; Zimmer, Heinz-Gerd



Viscoelasticity of Depletion-Induced Gels in Emulsion-Polymer Systems  

E-print Network

have used an isopycnic solvent. At constant osmotic pressure (set by the polymer concentration of the osmotic pressure which leads to an effective attraction between the particles-induced gels are, due to their relatively small cohesive energies, rather fragile and prone to collapse under


Myeloid depletion of SOCS3 enhances LPS-induced acute lung injury through CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? pathway  

PubMed Central

Although uncontrolled inflammatory response plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI), the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the development of this disorder remain poorly understood. SOCS3 is an important negative regulator of IL-6-type cytokine signaling. SOCS3 is induced in lung during LPS-induced lung injury, suggesting that generation of SOCS3 may represent a regulatory product during ALI. In the current study, we created mice lacking SOCS3 expression in macrophages and neutrophils (LysM-cre SOCS3fl/fl). We evaluated the lung inflammatory response to LPS in both LysM-cre SOCS3fl/fl mice and the wild-type (WT) mice (SOCS3fl/fl). LysM-cre SOCS3fl/fl mice displayed significant increase of the lung permeability index (lung vascular leak of albumin), neutrophils, lung neutrophil accumulation (myeloperoxidase activity), and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids compared to WT mice. These phenotypes were consistent with morphological evaluation of lung, which showed enhanced inflammatory cell influx and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. We further identify the transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? as a critical downstream target of SOCS3 in LPS-induced ALI. These results indicate that SOCS3 has a protective role in LPS-induced ALI by suppressing C/EBP? activity in the lung. Elucidating the function of SOCS3 would represent prospective targets for a new generation of drugs needed to treat ALI.—Yan, C., Ward, P. A., Wang, X., Gao, H. Myeloid depletion of SOCS3 enhances LPS-induced acute lung injury through CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? pathway. PMID:23585399

Yan, Chunguang; Ward, Peter A.; Wang, Ximo; Gao, Hongwei



Critical depletion.  


Depletion interactions and the critical Casimir effect are usually regarded as distinct phenomena in colloidal suspensions. By experimentally investigating how the Asakura-Oosawa picture, appropriate for a weakly correlated depletant, is modified when critical correlations develop within the depletion agent, we conversely show that the former merges continuously into the latter, leading to a distinctive scaling behavior solely dictated by the depletant correlation length. A model based on density functional theory provides a microscopic understanding of the phenomenon and properly accounts for the observed trends. PMID:21231200

Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Colombo, Jader; Parola, Alberto; Piazza, Roberto



Depleted Uranium  


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Pregnenolone sulfate induces NMDA receptor dependent release of dopamIne from synaptIc termInals in the striatum  

PubMed Central

Neuromodulators that alter the balance between lower-frequency glutamate-mediated excitatory and higher-frequency GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission are likely to participate in core mechanisms for CNS function and may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Pregnenolone sulfate (PS) modulates both ionotropic glutamate and GABAA receptor mediated synaptic transmission. The enzymes necessary for PS synthesis and degradation are found in brain tissue of several species including human and rat, and up to 5 nM PS has been detected in extracts of postmortem human brain. Here, we ask whether PS could modulate transmitter release from nerve terminals located in the striatum. Superfusion of a preparation of striatal nerve terminals comprised of mixed synaptosomes and synaptoneurosomes with brief-duration (2 min) pulses of 25 nM PS demonstrates that PS increases the release of newly accumulated [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA), but not [14C]glutamate or [3H]GABA, whereas pregnenolone is without effect. PS does not affect dopamine transporter (DAT) mediated uptake of [3H]DA, demonstrating that it specifically affects the transmitter release mechanism. The PS-induced [3H]DA release occurs via an NMDA receptor (NMDAR) dependent mechanism as it is blocked by D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. PS modulates DA release with very high potency, significantly increasing [3H]DA release at PS concentrations as low as 25 pM. This first report of a selective direct enhancement of synaptosomal dopamine release by PS at picomolar concentrations via an NMDAR dependent mechanism raises the possibility that dopaminergic axon terminals may be a site of action for this neurosteroid. PMID:18710414

Whittaker, Matthew T.; Gibbs, Terrell T.; Farb, David H.



A haplotype at the DBH locus, associated with low plasma dopamine ?-hydroxylase activity, also associates with cocaine-induced paranoia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of dopamine ?-hydroxylase (D?H) protein in the plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with greater vulnerability to positive psychotic symptoms in several psychiatric disorders. D?H level is a stable, genetically controlled trait. DBH, the locus encoding D?H protein, is the major quantitative trait locus controlling plasma and CSF D?H levels. We therefore hypothesized that DBH variants or

J F Cubells; H R Kranzler; E McCance-Katz; G M Anderson; R T Malison; L H Price; J Gelernter



Depletion of the transcriptional coactivators megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 and 2 abolishes hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft growth by inducing oncogene-induced senescence  

PubMed Central

Megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 and 2 (MKL1/2) are coactivators of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF). Here, we provide evidence that depletion of MKL1 and 2 abolishes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft growth. Loss of the tumour suppressor deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) and the subsequent activation of RhoA were prerequisites for MKL1/2 knockdown-mediated growth arrest. We identified oncogene-induced senescence as the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of MKL1/2 knockdown. MKL1/2 depletion resulted in Ras activation, elevated p16 expression and hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein in DLC1-deficient HCC cells. Interestingly, reconstitution of HuH7 HCC cells with DLC1 also induced senescence. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of MKL1/2 knockdown in vivo revealed that systemic treatment of nude mice bearing HuH7 tumour xenografts with MKL1/2 siRNAs complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) completely abolished tumour growth. The regression of the xenografts was associated with senescence. Importantly, PEI-complexed MKL1 siRNA alone was sufficient for complete abrogation of HCC xenograft growth. Thus, MKL1/2 represent promising novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of HCCs characterized by DLC1 loss. PMID:23853104

Hampl, Veronika; Martin, Claudia; Aigner, Achim; Hoebel, Sabrina; Singer, Stephan; Frank, Natalie; Sarikas, Antonio; Ebert, Oliver; Prywes, Ron; Gudermann, Thomas; Muehlich, Susanne



Search for low-energy induced depletion of 178Hf m2 at the SPring-8 synchrotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic transitions within nuclei reflect specific aspects of nuclear structure. This is particularly true for metastable excited states, or isomers, like 178Hf m2 ( T=31 years, excitation energy 2446 keV). The interaction of external radiation with isomers can be used to study atomic and nuclear properties and, perhaps, to induce a release of the stored energy. Some experiments indicated that low-energy photons near the L 3 edge (9.561 keV) of hafnium could cause this to occur for 178Hf m2 , but the lack of a viable physical model and null experiments by other groups have left these claims in doubt. The present work describes a new experiment to examine this process by closely duplicating the irradiation conditions in positive studies, but using a more advanced multi-detector ? array. No support for an induced depletion of 178Hf m2 by low-energy photons was obtained, with an upper limit for the integral cross section that is eight orders-of-magnitude below the reported value.

Carroll, J. J.; Karamian, S. A.; Propri, R.; Gohlke, D.; Caldwell, N.; Ugorowski, P.; Drummond, T.; Lazich, J.; Roberts, H.; Helba, M.; Zhong, Z.; Tang, M.-T.; Lee, J.-J.; Liang, K.



Role of Dorsal Medial Prefrontal Cortex Dopamine D1-Family Receptors in Relapse to High-Fat Food Seeking Induced by the Anxiogenic Drug Yohimbine  

PubMed Central

In humans, relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. In rats, the anxiogenic drug yohimbine, which causes stress-like responses in both humans and nonhumans, reinstates food seeking in a relapse model. In this study, we examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine D1-family receptors, previously implicated in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, in yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking. We trained food-restricted rats to lever press for 35% high-fat pellets every other day (9–15 sessions, 3?h each); pellet delivery was accompanied by a discrete tone-light cue. We then extinguished operant responding for 10–16 days by removing the pellets. Subsequently, we examined the effect of yohimbine (2?mg/kg, i.p.) on reinstatement of food seeking and Fos (a neuronal activity marker) induction in mPFC. We then examined the effect of systemic injections of the D1-family receptor antagonist SCH23390 (10??g/kg, s.c.) on yohimbine-induced reinstatement and Fos induction, and that of mPFC SCH23390 (0.5 and 1.0??g/side) injections on this reinstatement. Yohimbine-induced reinstatement was associated with strong Fos induction in the dorsal mPFC and with weaker Fos induction in the ventral mPFC. Systemic SCH23390 injections blocked both yohimbine-induced reinstatement and mPFC Fos induction. Dorsal, but not ventral, mPFC injections of SCH23390 decreased yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking. In addition, dorsal mPFC SCH23390 injections decreased pellet-priming-induced reinstatement, but had no effect on ongoing high-fat pellet self-administration or discrete-cue-induced reinstatement. Results indicate a critical role of dorsal mPFC dopamine D1-family receptors in stress-induced relapse to palatable food seeking, as well as relapse induced by acute re-exposure to food taste, texture, and smell. PMID:20962767

Nair, Sunila G; Navarre, Brittany M; Cifani, Carlo; Pickens, Charles L; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin



Depletion of Arginine by Recombinant Arginine Deiminase Induces nNOS-Activated Neurotoxicity in Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The abnormal regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. However, the effect of rADI on nNOS remains unknown. Addressing this issue is important for evaluating the potential application of rADI in neurodegenerative diseases. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to activate nNOS. NMDA increased NO production by 39.7 ± 3.9% via nNOS under arginine-containing conditions, but there was no significant increase in both arginine-free and rADI pretreated arginine-containing (citrulline) buffer. Subsequently, neither NMDA nor rADI alone caused cytotoxicity, whereas cotreatment with NMDA and rADI resulted in dissipation of the cell mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cell viability. The mechanism of rADI cytotoxicity in the presence of NMDA is caused by the inhibition of NO production via nNOS mediated by the NMDA receptor, which was abolished when extracellular arginine was absent, even in the presence of citrulline. rADI not only reduced NO production but also caused cellular toxicity in nNOS-activated SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a dual role for rADI in NOS-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:25126568

Lin, Shan-Erh; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Wei, Ming-Feng; Shen, Li-Jiuan



600ns pulse electric field-induced phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate depletion.  


The interaction between nsPEF-induced Ca(2+) release and nsPEF-induced phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis is not well understood. To better understand this interrelation we monitored intracellular calcium changes, in cells loaded with Calcium Green-1 AM, and generation of PIP2 hydrolysis byproducts (inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG)) in cells transfected with one of two fluorescent reporter genes: PLC?-PH-EGFP or GFP-C1-PKC?-C1a. The percentage fluorescence differences (?F %) after exposures were determined. Upon nsPEF impact, we found that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) the population of IP3 liberated during nsPEF exposure (?F 6%±3, n=22), is diminished compared to the response in the presence of calcium (?F 84%±15, n=20). The production of DAG in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) (?F 29%±5, n=25), as well as in cells exposed to thapsigargin (?F 40%±12, n=15), was not statistically different from cells exposed in the presence of extracellular calcium (?F 22±6%, n=18). This finding suggests that the change in intracellular calcium concentration is not solely driving the observed response. Interestingly, the DAG produced in the absence of Ca(2+) is the strongest near the membrane regions facing the electrodes, whereas the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) leads to a whole cell response. The reported observations of Ca(2+) dynamics combined with IP3 and DAG production suggest that nsPEF may cause a direct effect on the phospholipids within the plasma membrane. PMID:24530104

Tolstykh, Gleb P; Beier, Hope T; Roth, Caleb C; Thompson, Gary L; Ibey, Bennett L



Impairment of nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission by manganese is mediated by pre-synaptic mechanism(s): Implications to manganese-induced parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

The long-term consequences of chronic manganese (Mn) exposure on neurological health is a topic of great concern to occupationally-exposed workers and in populations exposed to moderate levels of Mn. We have performed a comprehensive assessment of Mn effects on dopamine (DA) synapse markers using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the non-human primate brain. Young male Cynomolgus macaques were given weekly i.v. injections of 3.3-5.0 mg Mn/kg (n=4), 5.0-6.7 mg Mn/kg (n=5), or 8.3-10.0 mg Mn/kg (n=3) for 7-59 weeks and received PET studies of various DA synapse markers before (baseline) and at one or two time points during the course of Mn exposure. We report that amphetamine-induced DA release measured by PET is markedly impaired in the striatum of Mn-exposed animals. The effect of Mn on DA release was present in the absence of changes in markers of dopamine terminal integrity determined in post-mortem brain tissue from the same animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that the effects of Mn on DA synapses in the striatum are mediated by inhibition of DA neurotransmission and are responsible for the motor deficits documented in these animals. PMID:18808452

Guilarte, Tomas R.; Burton, Neal C.; McGlothan, Jennifer L.; Verina, Tatyana; Zhou, Yun; Alexander, Mohab; Pham, Luu; Griswold, Michael; Wong, Dean F.; Syversen, Tore; Schneider, Jay S.



Chronic Treatment with Novel Small Molecule Hsp90 Inhibitors Rescues Striatal Dopamine Levels but Not ?-Synuclein-Induced Neuronal Cell Loss  

PubMed Central

Hsp90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin potently induce Hsp70 and reduce cytotoxicity due to ?-synuclein expression, although their use has been limited due to toxicity, brain permeability, and drug design. We recently described the effects of a novel class of potent, small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors in cells overexpressing ?-synuclein. Screening yielded several candidate compounds that significantly reduced ?-synuclein oligomer formation and cytotoxicity associated with Hsp70 induction. In this study we examined whether chronic treatment with candidate Hsp90 inhibitors could protect against ?-synuclein toxicity in a rat model of parkinsonism. Rats were injected unilaterally in the substantia nigra with AAV8 expressing human ?-synuclein and then treated with drug for approximately 8 weeks by oral gavage. Chronic treatment with SNX-0723 or the more potent, SNX-9114 failed to reduce dopaminergic toxicity in the substantia nigra compared to vehicle. However, SNX-9114 significantly increased striatal dopamine content suggesting a positive neuromodulatory effect on striatal terminals. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but higher dose SNX-0723 (6–10 mg/kg) resulted in systemic toxicity, weight loss, and early death. Although still limited by potential toxicity, Hsp90 inhibitors tested herein demonstrate oral efficacy and possible beneficial effects on dopamine production in a vertebrate model of parkinsonism that warrant further study. PMID:24465863

Kibuuka, Laura; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Desjardins, Cody A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Danzer, Michael; Fan, Zhanyun; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Hirst, Warren; McLean, Pamela J.



Suppression of Induced microRNA-15b Prevents Rapid Loss of Cardiac Function in a Dicer Depleted Model of Cardiac Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Dicer endonuclease, critical for maturation of miRNAs, is depleted in certain forms of cardiomyopathy which results in differential expression of certain microRNAs. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the rapid loss of cardiac function following cardiac-specific Dicer depletion in adult mice. Results Conditional Dicer deletion in the adult murine myocardium demonstrated compromised heart function, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Elevated miR-15b was observed as an early response to Dicer depletion and was found to silence Pim-1 kinase, a protein responsible for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Anti-miRNA based suppression of induced miRNA-15b rescued the function of Dicer-depleted adult heart and attenuated hypertrophy. Conclusions Anti-miRNA based suppression of inducible miRNA-15b can prevent rapid loss of cardiac function in a Dicer-depleted adult heart and can be a key approach worthy of therapeutic consideration. PMID:23840532

Gnyawali, Surya C.; Khanna, Savita; He, Guanglong; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Zweier, Jay L.; Sen, Chandan K.



Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))



Possible role of mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects in aristolochic acid I-induced acute nephrotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an investigation of the pathological mechanism of acute renal failure caused by toxic tubular necrosis after treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were gavaged with AAI at 0, 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The pathologic examination of the kidneys showed severe acute tubular degenerative changes primarily affecting the proximal tubules. Supporting these results, we detected significantly increased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in the rats treated with AAI, indicating damage to the kidneys. Ultrastructural examination showed that proximal tubular mitochondria were extremely enlarged and dysmorphic with loss and disorientation of their cristae. Mitochondrial function analysis revealed that the two indicators for mitochondrial energy metabolism, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ATP content, were reduced in a dose-dependent manner after AAI treatment. The RCR in the presence of substrates for complex I was reduced more significantly than in the presence of substrates for complex II. In additional experiments, the activity of respiratory complex I, which is partly encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), was more significantly impaired than that of respiratory complex II, which is completely encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). A real-time PCR assay revealed a marked reduction of mtDNA in the kidneys treated with AAI. Taken together, these results suggested that mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects play critical roles in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by AAI, and that the same processes might contribute to aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ? AAI-induced acute renal failure in rats and the proximal tubule was the target. ? Tubular mitochondria were morphologically aberrant in ultrastructural examination. ? AAI impair mitochondrial bioenergetic function and mtDNA replication.

Jiang, Zhenzhou, E-mail:; Bao, Qingli, E-mail:; Sun, Lixin, E-mail:; Huang, Xin, E-mail:; Wang, Tao, E-mail:; Zhang, Shuang, E-mail:; Li, Han, E-mail:; Zhang, Luyong, E-mail:



FAS-based cell depletion facilitates the selective isolation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.  


Cellular reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) opens up new avenues for basic research and regenerative medicine. However, the low efficiency of the procedure remains a major limitation. To identify iPSC, many studies to date relied on the activation of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Such strategies are either retrospective or depend on genetically modified reporter cells. We aimed at identifying naturally occurring surface proteins in a systematic approach, focusing on antibody-targeted markers to enable live-cell identification and selective isolation. We tested 170 antibodies for differential expression between mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and mouse pluripotent stem cells (PSC). Differentially expressed markers were evaluated for their ability to identify and isolate iPSC in reprogramming cultures. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1) were upregulated early during reprogramming and enabled enrichment of OCT4 expressing cells by magnetic cell sorting. Downregulation of somatic marker FAS was equally suitable to enrich OCT4 expressing cells, which has not been described so far. Furthermore, FAS downregulation correlated with viral transgene silencing. Finally, using the marker SSEA-1 we exemplified that magnetic separation enables the establishment of bona fide iPSC and propose strategies to enrich iPSC from a variety of human source tissues. PMID:25029550

Warlich, Eva; Schambach, Axel; Lock, Dominik; Wedekind, Dirk; Glage, Silke; Eckardt, Dominik; Bosio, Andreas; Knöbel, Sebastian



Temporally Dependent Changes in Cocaine-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell are Reversed by D1-Like Dopamine Receptor Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs to the nucleus accumbens shell have a central role in reward processing. Non-contingent cocaine administration generates a number of long-term AMPA receptor-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. However, the synaptic consequences of cocaine self-administration and the potential role of dopamine in these processes remain unclear. Here, we examined the influence of D1 dopamine receptor (D1DR) activation on excitatory synaptic plasticity in the accumbens shell of adult rats following cocaine self-administration. Our results indicated that during the first 2 days following cocaine exposure both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms contribute to a net decrease in AMPA receptor-mediated signaling. This is reflected by decreased frequency of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) attributable to enhanced cannabinoid receptor activity, decreased mEPSC amplitude, and increased paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs. In contrast, the only changes observed in the shell 3–4 weeks following cocaine self-administration were increased mEPSCs amplitudes and AMPA/NMDA ratios. We further found that although these cocaine-induced neuroadaptations during early and late abstinence have different synaptic expression mechanisms, they were normalized by stimulation of D1DRs. Thus, pre-exposure to the D1DR agonist, SKF38393, during the initial period of abstinence increased excitatory synaptic strength, but reduced excitatory signaling after weeks of abstinence. Taken together, these results indicate that the direction of changes in excitatory transmission induced by cocaine self-administration switches over the first few weeks of abstinence. Moreover, D1DRs gate the stability of these cocaine-induced changes at glutamatergic synapses in the accumbens shell by utilizing multiple temporally distinct mechanisms, which has implications for the treatment of cocaine craving and addiction. PMID:22414814

Ortinski, Pavel I; Vassoler, Fair M; Carlson, Gregory C; Pierce, R Christopher



Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program 'Base to Overcome Fatigue', Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program 'Base to Overcome Fatigue', Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan) [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program 'Base to Overcome Fatigue', Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)



Transient B-Cell Depletion Combined With Apoptotic Donor Splenocytes Induces Xeno-Specific T- and B-Cell Tolerance to Islet Xenografts  

PubMed Central

Peritransplant infusion of apoptotic donor splenocytes cross-linked with ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI-SPs) has been demonstrated to effectively induce allogeneic donor-specific tolerance. The objective of the current study is to determine the effectiveness and additional requirements for tolerance induction for xenogeneic islet transplantation using donor ECDI-SPs. In a rat-to-mouse xenogeneic islet transplant model, we show that rat ECDI-SPs alone significantly prolonged islet xenograft survival but failed to induce tolerance. In contrast to allogeneic donor ECDI-SPs, xenogeneic donor ECDI-SPs induced production of xenodonor-specific antibodies partially responsible for the eventual islet xenograft rejection. Consequently, depletion of B cells prior to infusions of rat ECDI-SPs effectively prevented such antibody production and led to the indefinite survival of rat islet xenografts. In addition to controlling antibody responses, transient B-cell depletion combined with ECDI-SPs synergistically suppressed xenodonor-specific T-cell priming as well as memory T-cell generation. Reciprocally, after initial depletion, the recovered B cells in long-term tolerized mice exhibited xenodonor-specific hyporesponsiveness. We conclude that transient B-cell depletion combined with donor ECDI-SPs is a robust strategy for induction of xenodonor-specific T- and B-cell tolerance. This combinatorial therapy may be a promising strategy for tolerance induction for clinical xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:23852699

Wang, Shusen; Tasch, James; Kheradmand, Taba; Ulaszek, Jodie; Ely, Sora; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hering, Bernhard J.; Miller, Stephen D.; Luo, Xunrong



Transient B-cell depletion combined with apoptotic donor splenocytes induces xeno-specific T- and B-cell tolerance to islet xenografts.  


Peritransplant infusion of apoptotic donor splenocytes cross-linked with ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI-SPs) has been demonstrated to effectively induce allogeneic donor-specific tolerance. The objective of the current study is to determine the effectiveness and additional requirements for tolerance induction for xenogeneic islet transplantation using donor ECDI-SPs. In a rat-to-mouse xenogeneic islet transplant model, we show that rat ECDI-SPs alone significantly prolonged islet xenograft survival but failed to induce tolerance. In contrast to allogeneic donor ECDI-SPs, xenogeneic donor ECDI-SPs induced production of xenodonor-specific antibodies partially responsible for the eventual islet xenograft rejection. Consequently, depletion of B cells prior to infusions of rat ECDI-SPs effectively prevented such antibody production and led to the indefinite survival of rat islet xenografts. In addition to controlling antibody responses, transient B-cell depletion combined with ECDI-SPs synergistically suppressed xenodonor-specific T-cell priming as well as memory T-cell generation. Reciprocally, after initial depletion, the recovered B cells in long-term tolerized mice exhibited xenodonor-specific hyporesponsiveness. We conclude that transient B-cell depletion combined with donor ECDI-SPs is a robust strategy for induction of xenodonor-specific T- and B-cell tolerance. This combinatorial therapy may be a promising strategy for tolerance induction for clinical xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:23852699

Wang, Shusen; Tasch, James; Kheradmand, Taba; Ulaszek, Jodie; Ely, Sora; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hering, Bernhard J; Miller, Stephen D; Luo, Xunrong



Dopamine Uptake Changes Associated with Cocaine Self-Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to reveal the relationship between cocaine-induced dopamine uptake changes and patterns of cocaine self-administration observed under a fixed-ratio schedule. Cocaine was intravenously infused into anesthetized rats, according to inter-infusion intervals obtained from self-administering animals, and dopamine uptake changes (apparent Km) were assessed in the nucleus accumbens using voltammetry. The data demonstrate that cocaine-induced dopamine transporter

Erik B Oleson; Sanjay Talluri; Steven R Childers; James E Smith; David C S Roberts; Keith D Bonin; Evgeny A Budygin



Prevention of immunodeficiency virus induced CD4+ T-cell depletion by prior infection with a non-pathogenic virus  

SciTech Connect

Immune dysregulation initiated by a profound loss of CD4+ T-cells is fundamental to HIV-induced pathogenesis. Infection of domestic cats with a non-pathogenic lentivirus prevalent in the puma (puma lentivirus, PLV or FIV{sub PCO}) prevented peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion caused by subsequent virulent FIV infection. Maintenance of this critical population was not associated with a significant decrease in FIV viremia, lending support to the hypothesis that direct viral cytopathic effect is not the primary cause of immunodeficiency. Although this approach was analogous to immunization with a modified live vaccine, correlates of immunity such as a serum-neutralizing antibody or virus-specific T-cell proliferative response were not found in protected animals. Differences in cytokine transcription profile, most notably in interferon gamma, were observed between the protected and unprotected groups. These data provide support for the importance of non-adaptive enhancement of the immune response in the prevention of CD4+ T-cell loss.

TerWee, Julie A.; Carlson, Jennifer K.; Sprague, Wendy S.; Sondgeroth, Kerry S.; Shropshire, Sarah B.; Troyer, Jennifer L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); VandeWoude, Sue [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States)], E-mail:



Depletion of 4E-BP1 and regulation of autophagy lead to YXM110-induced anticancer effects.  


Natural products have always been a profuse database for developing new chemotherapeutics. YXM110 is a newly synthesized phenanthroquinolizidines that exhibits excellent anticancer activity in numerous cancer cells. In this study, we examined the anticancer mechanisms of YXM110 both in vitro and in vivo. Protein level of 4E-binding protein 1, which is crucial in cap-independent translation, was decreased significantly after YXM110 treatment via c-Jun N-terminal kinases-mediated proteasomal degradation. Moreover, the effects of YXM110 were associated with several characteristics of autophagy, including accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, elevation of Atg12-Atg5 and light chain 3 (LC3)-II, and levels of GFP-LC3 puncta. The results suggested that depletion of Mcl-1 contributes to YXM110-triggered autophagy, whereas downregulation of lysosomal-related genes could cause autophagy impairment. Furthermore, YXM110-induced cell death was prevented by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and Atg5 silencing, indicating that YXM110-mediated autophagy impairment leads to cancer cell death. These data reveal key mechanisms that support the further development of YXM110 as a promising anticancer agent. PMID:23633518

Lai, Chin-Yu; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Ya-Ling; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Teng, Che-Ming



Ozone Depletion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ozone layer forms a thin shield in the upper atmosphere, protecting life onEarth from the suns ultraviolet (UV) rays. In the 1980s, scientists began accumulating evidence that the ozone layer was being depleted. Depletion of the ozone layer results in increased UV radiation reaching the Earths surface, which in turn can lead to a greater chance of overexposure to UV radiation and the related health effects of skin cancer, cataracts, and immune suppression.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA;Office of Air and Radiation)



Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion  

SciTech Connect

Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Spirafolide from bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) prevents dopamine-induced apoptosis by decreasing reactive oxygen species production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.  


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This study tested the neuroprotective effects of spirafolide, a compound purified from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), against dopamine (DA)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Following a 24-h exposure of cells to DA (final conc., 0.6 mM), we observed a marked increase in apoptosis, increased generation of ROS and decreased cell viability. Pretreatment of the cells for 24 h with spirafolide (0.4, 2, and 10 ?M) before exposure to DA notably increased cell survival (p < 0.01) and lowered intracellular ROS levels (p < 0.01). These results indicate that spirafolide has neuroprotective effects against DA toxicity. These effects may contribute to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21191760

Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Bora; Koo, Uk; Nam, Kung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Shin, Jongheon; Mar, Woongchon



Effects of Enzyme Induction and/or Glutathione Depletion on Methimazole-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice and the Protective Role of N-Acetylcysteine  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Methimazole is the most convenient drug used in the management of hyperthyroid patients. However, associated with its clinical use is hepatotoxicity as a life threatening adverse effect. The exact mechanism of methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity is still far from clear and no protective agent has been developed for this toxicity. Methods: This study attempts to evaluate the hepatotoxicity induced by methimazole at different experimental conditions in a mice model. Methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in different situations such as enzyme induced and/or glutathione depleted animals. Results: Methimazole (100 mg/kg, i.p) administration caused hepatotoxicity as revealed by increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity as well as pathological changes of the liver. Furthermore, a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione content and an elevation in lipid peroxidation were observed in methimazole-treated mice. Combined administration of L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), as a glutathione depletory agent, caused a dramatic change in methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity characterized by hepatic necrosis and a severe elevation of serum ALT activity. Enzyme induction using phenobarbital and/or ?-naphtoflavone beforehand, deteriorated methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. N-acetyl cysteine (300 mg/kg, i.p) administration effectively alleviated hepatotoxic effects of methimazole in both glutathione-depleted and/or enzyme induced animals. Conclusion: The severe hepatotoxic effects of methimazole in glutathione-depleted animals, reveals the crucial role of glutathione as a cellular defense mechanism against methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, the more hepatotoxic properties of methimazole in enzyme-induced mice, indicates the role of reactive intermediates in the hepatotoxicity induced by this drug. The protective effects of N-acetylcysteine could be attributed to its radical/reactive metabolite scavenging, and/or antioxidant properties as well as glutathione replenishment activities. PMID:24409405

Heidari, Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Roshangar, Leila; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali



Deletion of the NMDA-NR1 receptor subunit gene in the mouse nucleus accumbens attenuates apomorphine-induced dopamine D1 receptor trafficking and acoustic startle behavior  

PubMed Central

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) contains subpopulations of neurons defined by their receptor content and potential involvement in sensorimotor gating and other behaviors that are dysfunctional in schizophrenia. In Acb neurons, the NMDA NR1 (NR1) subunit is co-expressed not only with the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R), but also with the ?-opioid receptor (?-OR), which mediates certain behaviors that are adversely impacted by schizophrenia. The NMDA-NR1 subunit has been suggested to play a role in the D1R trafficking and behavioral dysfunctions resulting from systemic administration of apomorphine, a D1R and dopamine D2 receptor agonist that impacts prepulse inhibition (PPI) to auditory-evoked startle (AS). Together, this evidence suggests that the NMDA receptor may regulate D1R trafficking in Acb neurons, including those expressing ?-OR, in animals exposed to auditory startle and apomorphine. We tested this hypothesis by combining spatial-temporal gene deletion technology, dual labeling immunocytochemistry, and behavioral analysis. Deleting NR1 in Acb neurons prevented the increase in the dendritic density of plasma membrane D1Rs in single D1R and dual (D1R and ?-OR) labeled dendrites in the Acb in response to apomorphine and AS. Deleting NR1 also attenuated the decrease in AS induced by apomorphine. In the absence of apomorphine and startle, deletion of Acb NR1 diminished social interaction, without affecting novel object recognition, or open field activity. These results suggest that NR1 expression in the Acb is essential for apomorphine-induced D1R surface trafficking and reduction in AS, but also plays an independent role in controling social behaviors that are impaired in multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:23345061

Glass, Michael J.; Robinson, Danielle C.; Waters, Elizabeth; Pickel, Virginia M.



Selective action of (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268), a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, on basal and phencyclidine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell.  


The effect of the group II metabotropic receptor agonist (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268), on basal and phencyclidine-induced dopamine efflux were measured in the shell and core subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens--regions which are associated with limbic and motor functions, respectively. Extracellular levels of dopamine were measured using microdialysis in conscious animals, and LY379268 was delivered locally by inclusion in the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) flowing through the microdialysis probe. Local administration of LY379268 in the concentration range 10 nM-10 microM reduced basal levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens shell, whilst having no effect in the nucleus accumbens core. In the nucleus accumbens shell, basal levels were reduced to approximately 60% compared to the pre-injection control, with a maximal reduction occurring at concentrations of LY379268 > or =100 nM. The response to LY379268 (100 nM) was reversible, with levels returning to baseline following its removal from the aCSF. In a separate experiment, local perfusion of the nucleus accumbens shell with LY379268 (at both 1 and 10 microM) reduced the magnitude of the response to a subsequent systemic administration of phencyclidine (5 mg/kg i.p.). The reduction in the peak dopamine response was only evident with doses of LY379268 that also reduced basal dopamine efflux--LY379268 being ineffective against PCP at 10 nM. However, in animals pre-treated with LY379268 at 1 or 10 microM, PCP still evoked a dopamine response, and in these animals the relative extent of the response was not significantly different between the respective treatment groups. In contrast, in the nucleus accumbens core the magnitude of the dopamine response to PCP was unaffected by local application of LY379268 (at 1 or 10 microM). Our data suggest that within the nucleus accumbens, there exists a distinct regional difference in the control of dopamine release by group II mGluRs, with the nucleus accumbens shell being preferentially affected. Moreover, the selective action of LY379268 on dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell may have implications for the potential antipsychotic activity of group II mGluR agonists. PMID:15165829

Greenslade, Robert G; Mitchell, Stephen N



Amphetamine elicits opposing actions on readily releasable and reserve pools for dopamine.  


Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

Covey, Dan P; Juliano, Steven A; Garris, Paul A



Dopamine denervation of the prefrontal cortex increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1.  


Both dopamine and glutamate are critically involved in cognitive processes such as working memory. Astrocytes, which express dopamine receptors, are essential elements in the termination of glutamatergic signaling: the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 is responsible for > 90% of cortical glutamate uptake. The effect of dopamine depletion on glutamate transporters in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unknown. In an effort to determine if astrocytes are a locus of cortical dopamine-glutamate interactions, we examined the effects of chronic dopamine denervation on PFC protein and mRNA levels of glutamate transporters. PFC dopamine denervation elicited a marked increase in GLT-1 protein levels, but had no effect on levels of other glutamate transporters; high-affinity glutamate transport was positively correlated with the extent of dopamine depletion. GLT-1 gene expression was not altered. Our data suggest that dopamine depletion may lead to post-translational modifications that result in increased expression and activity of GLT-1 in PFC astrocytes. The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is expressed by astrocytes, which also express dopamine receptors. Regulation of prefrontal cortical (PFC) GLT-1 potentially offers a novel treatment approach to the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Partial PFC dopamine deafferentation increased membrane expression of GLT-1 protein and glutamate uptake, but did not alter levels of the other two neocortical glutamate transporters, GLAST and EAAC1. PMID:24611756

Vollbrecht, Peter J; Simmler, Linda D; Blakely, Randy D; Deutch, Ariel Y



Dopamine, learning and motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that dopamine is important for reward has been proposed in a number of forms, each of which has been challenged. Normally, rewarding stimuli such as food, water, lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation and several drugs of abuse become ineffective as rewards in animals given performance-sparing doses of dopamine antagonists. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens has been linked to

Roy A. Wise



Dopamine deficiency in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is the principal neurotransmitter that mediates a wide range of brain functions, including locomotion, emotion, learning, and neuroendocrine modulation. To clarify the role of dopamine during postnatal development, it is useful to have mutant mice genetically deleting dopamine. In this paper, we describe the mice lacking expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthetic

Kazuto Kobayashi; Hiromi Sano



Kinetics of carotenoid distribution in human skin in vivo after exogenous stress: disinfectant and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion recovers from outside to inside.  


The human organism has developed a protection system against the destructive effect of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of exogenous stress factors such as disinfectant and IR-A radiation on the skin, and their influence on the kinetics of carotenoids distribution during the recovery process. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with resonance spectroscopy using an Argon-laser at 488 nm to excite the carotenoids in vivo. Additionally, Raman-confocal-micro-spectroscopy measurements were performed using a model 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer with spatially resolved measurements down to 30 ?m. The measurements were performed at a baseline of 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after an external stressor consisting either of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) with 150 mW?cm(2) or 1 ml?cm(2) of an alcoholic disinfectant. Both Raman methods were capable to detect the infrared-induced depletion of carotenoids. Only Raman-microspectroscopy could reveal the carotenoids decrease after topical disinfectant application. The carotenoid-depletion started at the surface. After 60 min, recovery starts at the surface while deeper parts were still depleted. The disinfectant- and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion in the epidermis recovers from outside to inside and probably delivered by sweat and sebaceous glands. We could show that the Raman microscopic spectroscopy is suited to analyze the carotenoid kinetic of stress effects and recovery. PMID:21456863

Fluhr, Joachim W; Caspers, Peter; van der Pol, J Andre; Richter, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E



Dopamine receptor dysregulation in hippocampus of aged rats underlies chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment induced cognitive and emotional alterations.  


L-Dopa is the major symptomatic therapy for Parkinson's disease, which commonly occurs in elderly patients. However, the effects of chronic use on mood and cognition in old subjects remain elusive. In order to compare the effects of a chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment on emotional and cognitive functions in young (3 months) and old (18 months) intact rats, an L-Dopa/carbidopa treatment was administered every 12 h over 4 weeks. Rats were assessed for behavioural despair (repeated forced swimming test, RFST), anhedonia (sucrose preference test, SPT) and spatial learning (Morris water maze, MWM) in the late phase of treatment (T). Neuronal expression of Fos in the hippocampus at the early and late phases of T, as well as after MWM was studied. The density and ratio of dopamine D5r, D3r and D2r receptors were also evaluated in the hippocampus using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Young rats showed similar patterns during behavioural tests, whereas aged treated rats showed increased immobility counts in RFST, diminished sucrose liquid intake in SPT, and spatial learning impairment during MWM. Fos expression was significantly blunted in the aged treated group after MWM. The density of D5r, D3r and D2r was increased in both aged groups. The treatment reduced the ratio of D5r/D3r and D5r/D2r in both groups. Moreover, aged treated subjects had significant lower values of D5r/D3r and higher values of D5r/D2r when compared with young treated subjects. These results indicate that chronic L-Dopa treatment in itself could trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in elderly subjects through dopamine receptor dysregulation. PMID:24291463

Hernández, Vito S; Luquín, Sonia; Jáuregui-Huerta, Fernando; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Medina, Mauricio P; Ruíz-Velasco, Silvia; Zhang, Limei



Dopamine D1 receptor activation induces dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

Aim: Dopamine receptors are present in the nervous system and also widely distributed in the periphery. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of D1 subtype dopamine receptors (DRD1) in the regulation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) in HepG2 cells. Methods: HepG2 cells were treated with DRD1 agonists with or without DRD1 antagonist for 9 d. DRD1 and SULT2A1 mRNA expression, protein expression, and SULT2A1 activity were detected using RT-PCR, Western blotting and HPLC, respectively. The level of cAMP was measured using a commercial kit. Results: All the 5 DR subtypes (DRD1–DRD5) were found to be expressed in HepG2 cells. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the specific DRD1 agonists SKF82958 (2.5 ?mol/L) or SKF38393 (5 and 50 ?mol/L) significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of both DRD1 and SULT2A1, and increased SULT2A1 activity and cAMP levels. These effects were partially blocked by co-treatment with the specific DRD1 antagonist SCH23390 (2.5 ?mol/L). In addition, transfection of HepG2 cells with DRD1-specific siRNAs decreased DRD1 mRNA expression by 40%, which resulted in the reduction of SULT2A1 mRNA expression by 60%, protein expression by 40%, and enzyme activity by 20%. Conclusion: DRD1 activation upregulates DRD1 and SULT2A1 expression and SULT2A1 activity in HepG2 cells, suggesting that the DRD1 subtype may be involved in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics through regulating SULT2A1. PMID:24909515

Xu, Jiao-jiao; Wang, Si-yuan; Chen, Ye; Chen, Guang-ping; Li, Zai-quan; Shao, Xue-yan; Li, Liang; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Tian-yan



Ephedrine induced thioredoxin-1 expression through ?-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A/dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein signaling pathway.  


Ephedrine (Eph) is one of alkaloids that has been isolated from the ancient herb ephedra (ma huang) and is used as the treatment of asthma, hypotension and fatigue. However, its molecular mechanism remains unknown. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein, which has various biological activities, including regulating transcription factor DNA binding activity and neuroprotection. In this study, we found that Eph induced Trx-1 expression, which was inhibited by propranolol (?-adrenergic receptor inhibitor), but not by phenoxybenzamine (?-adrenergic receptor inhibitor) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Moreover, the increase of Trx-1 expression was inhibited by SQ22536 (adenylyl cyclase inhibitor) and H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor). Interestingly, the effect of Eph on dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) was similar to Trx-1. Thus, the relationship between Trx-1 and DARPP-32 was further studied. The DARPP-32 siRNA significantly reduced Trx-1 expression, but Trx-1 siRNA did not exchange DARPP-32. These results suggested that Eph induced the Trx-1 expression through ?-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Eph induced PKA-mediated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Down-regulation of DARPP-32 expression decreased phosphorylated CREB. In addition, Eph had a significant effect on the viability of the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells through ?-adrenergic receptors. Trx-1 may play an important role in the actions of Eph. PMID:23416460

Jia, Jin-Jing; Zeng, Xian-Si; Li, Ye; Ma, Sha; Bai, Jie



The mechanism of prevention of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity by 3,5-dialkyl substitution. The roles of glutathione depletion and oxidative stress.  


Recently, we have reported that 3,5-dialkyl substitution of paracetamol, in contrast to 3-monoalkyl substitution, prevented the paracetamol-induced toxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes without having any effect on its cytochrome P-450 mediated bioactivation to reactive N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imines (NAPQI). In the present study the mechanism of this prevention of toxicity, with special emphasis on oxidative stress, was studied in more detail in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, using paracetamol, 3-methyl-, 3,5-dimethyl-paracetamol, synthetic NAPQI and 3,5-dimethyl-NAPQI. 3-Methyl-paracetamol was found to induce glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid-peroxidation and cytotoxicity in hepatocytes to the same extent as paracetamol. 3,5-Dimethyl-paracetamol, however, even when added in a ten-fold higher concentration when compared to paracetamol, did not induce any of these effects. Similar differences of toxicity were observed between NAPQI and 3,5-dimethyl-NAPQI; 3,5-dimethyl-NAPQI, in contrast to NAPQI, did not reduce protein thiol levels, did not induce GSH depletion, lipid-peroxidation nor cytotoxicity. Only after artificial depletion of GSH levels in the hepatocytes by DEM or BCNU, 3,5-dimethyl-NAPQI was cytotoxic. This effect was accompanied by depletion of protein thiol levels, but not by lipid-peroxidation. Addition of the disulfide reducing agent, dithiothreitol, prevented the artificially created cytotoxicity of 3,5-dimethyl-NAPQI. It is concluded that prevention of paracetamol-induced toxicity by 3,5-dialkyl substitution is primarily due to prevention of irreversible GSH-depletion, presumably caused by the inability of 3,5-dialkyl-NAPQI to conjugate with thiols. As a result, the GSH-dependent cellular defense mechanism against potential oxidative cellular injury by 3,5-dialkyl-NAPQI is left unimpaired. Our observations indicate that a compound, not capable of covalent binding to thiol groups of proteins, can induce toxicity solely as a result of protein thiol oxidation without inducing lipid-peroxidation. PMID:3606627

van de Straat, R; de Vries, J; Debets, A J; Vermeulen, N P



Depletion of CD25? T cells from hematopoietic stem cell grafts increases posttransplantation vaccine-induced immunity to neuroblastoma.  


A multifaceted immunotherapeutic strategy that includes hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, T-cell adoptive transfer, and tumor vaccination can effectively eliminate established neuroblastoma tumors in mice. In vivo depletion of CD4? T cells in HSC transplantation recipients results in increased antitumor immunity when adoptively transferred T cells are presensitized, but development of T-cell memory is severely compromised. Because increased percentages of regulatory T (Treg) cells are seen in HSC transplantation recipients, here we hypothesized that the inhibitory effect of CD4? T cells is primarily because of the presence of expanded Treg cells. Remarkably, adoptive transfer of presensitized CD25-depleted T cells increased tumor vaccine efficacy. The enhanced antitumor effect achieved by ex vivo depletion of CD25? Treg cells was similar to that achieved by in vivo depletion of all CD4? T cells. Depletion of CD25? Treg cells resulted in elevated frequencies of tumor-reactive CD8 and CD4? T cells and increased CD8-to-Treg cell ratios inside tumor masses. All mice given presensitized CD25-depleted T cells survived a tumor rechallenge, indicating the development of long-term CD8? T-cell memory to tumor antigens. These observations should aid in the future design of immunotherapeutic approaches that promote the generation of both acute and long-term antitumor immunity. PMID:21521781

Jing, Weiqing; Yan, Xiaocai; Hallett, William H D; Gershan, Jill A; Johnson, Bryon D



Neuroprotection induced by N-acetylcysteine against cytosolic glutathione depletion-induced Ca2+ influx in dorsal root ganglion neurons of mice: role of TRPV1 channels.  


Glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are thiol-containing antioxidants, and also act through a direct reaction with free radicals. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is the principal transduction channel serving as a polymodal detector. Despite the importance of oxidative stress in pain sensitivity, its role in TRPV1 modulation is poorly understood. NAC may also have a regulator role on TRPV1 channel activity in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron. Therefore, we tested the effects of GSH and NAC on TRPV1 channel current, Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and caspase activity in the DRG of mice. DRG neurons were freshly isolated from mice and the neurons were incubated for 6 and 24h with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Pretreatment of cultured DRG neurons with NAC, results in a protection against oxidative damages. This neuroprotection is associated with the attenuation of a Ca(2+) influx triggered by oxidative agents such as H2O2, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and GSH depletion via BSO. Here, we demonstrate the contribution of cytosolic factors (related to thiol group depletion) on the activation of TRPV1 channels in this mechanism. TRPV1 channels are activated by various agents including capsaicin (CAP), the pungent component of hot chili peppers, and are blocked by capsazepine. An oxidative environment also increased CAP-evoked TRPV1 currents in the neurons. When NAC and GSH were included in the patch pipette as well as extracellularly in the chamber, TRPV1 channels were not activated by CAP and H2O2. TRPV1 inhibitors, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid strongly reduced BSO-induced oxidative toxicity and Ca(2+) influx, in a manner similar to pretreatment with NAC and GSH. Caspase-3 and -9 activities of all groups were not changed by the agonists or antagonists. In conclusion, in our experimental model, TRPV1 channels are involved in the oxidative stress-induced neuronal death, and negative modulation of this channel activity by GSH and NAC pretreatment may account for their neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress. PMID:23545271

Naz?ro?lu, M; Ci?, B; Ozgül, C



Pharmacological modulation of abnormal involuntary DOI-induced head twitch response in male DBA/2J mice: I. Effects of D2/D3 and D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds.  


Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of human neuropsychiatric disorders, it has been difficult to identify animal models that mimic the symptoms of these neuropathologies and can be used to screen for antipsychotic agents. For this study we selected the murine 5HT2A/2C receptor agonist-induced head twitch response (HTR) induced by the administration of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), which has been proposed as an animal model of symptoms associated with a variety of behavioral and psychiatric conditions. We investigated the DOI-induced HTR in male DBA/2J mice using a panel of D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) and D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds. When DBA/2J mice were administered a daily dose of DOI (5 mg/kg), tolerance to the DOI occurs. However, administrations of the same dose of DOI every other day (48 h) or on a weekly basis did not lead to tolerance and the ability to induce tolerance after daily administration of DOI remains intact after repeated weekly administration of DOI. Subsequently, a panel of D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists was found to effectively inhibit the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. However, the benzamide eticlopride, which is a high affinity D2-like antagonist, was a notable exception. SV 293, SV-III-130s and N-methylbenperidol, which exhibit a high affinity for D2 versus the D3 dopamine receptor subtypes (60- to 100-fold binding selectivity), were also found to inhibit the HTR in DBA/2J mice. This observation suggests a functional interaction between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems through D2 dopamine receptors and the 5-HT2A serotonin receptors in vivo. PMID:24680675

Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Malik, Maninder; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R



Striatal action-learning based on dopamine concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reinforcement learning hypothesis of dopamine function predicts that dopamine acts as a teaching signal by governing synaptic\\u000a plasticity in the striatum. Induced changes in synaptic strength enable the cortico-striatal network to learn a mapping between\\u000a situations and actions that lead to a reward. A review of the relevant neurophysiology of dopamine function in the cortico-striatal\\u000a network and the machine

Genela Morris; Robert Schmidt; Hagai Bergman



Dopamine D4 Receptor Counteracts Morphine-Induced Changes in ? Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Striosomes of the Rat Caudate Putamen  

PubMed Central

The mu opioid receptor (MOR) is critical in mediating morphine analgesia. However, prolonged exposure to morphine induces adaptive changes in this receptor leading to the development of tolerance and addiction. In the present work we have studied whether the continuous administration of morphine induces changes in MOR protein levels, its pharmacological profile, and MOR-mediated G-protein activation in the striosomal compartment of the rat CPu, by using immunohistochemistry and receptor and DAMGO-stimulated [35S]GTP?S autoradiography. MOR immunoreactivity, agonist binding density and its coupling to G proteins are up-regulated in the striosomes by continuous morphine treatment in the absence of changes in enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA levels. In addition, co-treatment of morphine with the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) agonist PD168,077 fully counteracts these adaptive changes in MOR, in spite of the fact that continuous PD168,077 treatment increases the [3H]DAMGO Bmax values to the same degree as seen after continuous morphine treatment. Thus, in spite of the fact that both receptors can be coupled to Gi/0 protein, the present results give support for the existence of antagonistic functional D4R-MOR receptor-receptor interactions in the adaptive changes occurring in MOR of striosomes on continuous administration of morphine. PMID:24451133

Suarez-Boomgaard, Diana; Gago, Belen; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Roales-Bujan, Ruth; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Duchou, Jolien; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Medina-Luque, Jose; de la Calle, Adelaida; Fuxe, Kjell; Rivera, Alicia



Dopamine: the rewarding years  

PubMed Central

Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

Marsden, Charles A



Dissociation of the role of the prelimbic cortex in interval timing and resource allocation: beneficial effect of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine on anxiety-inducing distraction  

PubMed Central

Emotional distracters impair cognitive function. Emotional processing is dysregulated in affective disorders such as depression, phobias, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among the processes impaired by emotional distracters, and whose dysregulation is documented in affective disorders, is the ability to time in the seconds-to-minutes range, i.e., interval timing. Presentation of task-irrelevant distracters during a timing task results in a delay in responding suggesting a failure to maintain subjective time in working memory, possibly due to attentional and working memory resources being diverted away from timing, as proposed by the Relative Time-Sharing (RTS) model. We investigated the role of the prelimbic cortex in the detrimental effect of anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distracters on the cognitive ability to keep track of time, using local infusions of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) nomifensine in a modified peak-interval procedure with neutral and anxiety-inducing distracters. Given that some anti-depressants have beneficial effects on attention and working memory, e.g., decreasing emotional response to negative events, we hypothesized that nomifensine would improve maintenance of information in working memory in trials with distracters, resulting in a decrease of the disruptive effect of emotional events on the timekeeping abilities. Our results revealed a dissociation of the effects of nomifensine infusion in prelimbic cortex between interval timing and resource allocation, and between neutral and anxiety-inducing distraction. Nomifensine was effective only during trials with distracters, but not during trials without distracters. Nomifensine reduced the detrimental effect of the distracters only when the distracters were anxiety-inducing, but not when they were neutral. Results are discussed in relation to the brain circuits involved in RTS of resources, and the pharmacological management of affective disorders. PMID:23227004

Matthews, Alexander R.; He, Olivia H.; Buhusi, Mona; Buhusi, Catalin V.



Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats  

PubMed Central

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a synapse-enriched kinase in mammalian brains. This kinase interacts with various synaptic proteins to regulate expression and function of interacting proteins and thereby modulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII and its interacting partners are also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we found that CaMKII? binds to dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in vitro. A distal region in the D2R third intracellular loop harbors CaMKII? binding. Endogenous CaMKII? was also found to interact with native D2Rs in rat striatal neurons in which D2Rs are expressed at a high level. In addition, in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned model of PD, chronic levodopa administration induced characteristic dyskinesia. In parallel, levodopa induced an increase in CaMKII?-D2R interactions in striatal neurons. Intrastriatal injection of a Tat-fusion and CaMKII?-D2R interaction-dead peptide (Tat-D2Ri) reversed this increase in the interaction between two proteins. Tat-D2Ri also alleviated dyskinetic behaviors induced by levodopa. These results reveal a new interaction between CaMKII? and D2Rs in striatal neurons which is sensitive to long-term administration of levodopa in PD rats. Prevention of the response of CaMKII?-D2R interactions to levodopa can alleviate levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:25351365

Zhang, SuFang; Xie, ChengLong; Wang, Qiang; Liu, ZhenGuo



Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)



Radiation and Depleted Uranium-Induced Carcinogenesis Studies: Characterization of the Carcinogenic Process and Development of Medical Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

External or internal contamination from radioactive elements during military operations or a terrorist attack is a serious threat to military and civilian populations. External radiation exposure could result from conven- tional military scenarios including nuclear weapons use and low-dose exposures during radiation accidents or terrorist attacks. Alternatively, internal radiation exposure could result from depleted uranium exposure via DU shrapnel wounds

A. C. Miller; D. Beltran; R. Rivas; M. Stewart; R. J. Merlot; P. B. Lison



Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.



Optical suppression of drug-evoked phasic dopamine release  

PubMed Central

Brief fluctuations in dopamine concentration (dopamine transients) play a key role in behavior towards rewards, including drugs of abuse. Drug-evoked dopamine transients may result from actions at both dopamine cell bodies and dopamine terminals. Inhibitory opsins can be targeted to dopamine neurons permitting their firing activity to be suppressed. However, as dopamine transients can become uncoupled from firing, it is unknown whether optogenetic hyperpolarization at the level of the soma is able to suppress dopamine transients. Here, we used in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to record transients evoked by cocaine and raclopride in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of urethane-anesthetized rats. We targeted halorhodopsin (NpHR) specifically to dopamine cells by injecting Cre-inducible virus into ventral tegmental area (VTA) of transgenic rats that expressed Cre recombinase under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre+ rats). Consistent with previous work, co-administration of cocaine and raclopride led to the generation of dopamine transients in NAc shell. Illumination of VTA with laser strongly suppressed the frequency of transients in NpHR-expressing rats, but not in control rats. Laser did not have any effect on amplitude of transients. Thus, optogenetics can effectively reduce the occurrence of drug-evoked transients and is therefore a suitable approach for studying the functional role of such transients in drug-associated behavior.

McCutcheon, James E.; Cone, Jackson J.; Sinon, Christopher G.; Fortin, Samantha M.; Kantak, Pranish A.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl; Stuber, Garret D.; Roitman, Mitchell F.



Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages.  


Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

Gaskill, Peter J; Yano, Hideaki H; Kalpana, Ganjam V; Javitch, Jonathan A; Berman, Joan W



Chronic ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure Induces a Sensitization of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in the Mesoaccumbens and Nigrostriatal Systems  

PubMed Central

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), through its action on cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R), is known to activate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Functional evidence of a direct antagonistic interaction between CB1R and DA D2-receptors (D2R) suggests that D2R may be an important target for the modulation of DA neurotransmission by THC. The current study evaluated, in rodents, the effects of chronic exposure to THC (1?mg/kg/day; 21 days) on D2R and D3R availabilities using the D2R-prefering antagonist and the D3R-preferring agonist radiotracers [18F]fallypride and [3H]-(+)-PHNO, respectively. At 24?h after the last THC dose, D2R and D3R densities were significantly increased in midbrain. In caudate/putamen (CPu), THC exposure was associated with increased densities of D2R with no change in D2R mRNA expression, whereas in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) both D3R binding and mRNA levels were upregulated. These receptor changes, which were completely reversed in CPu but only partially reversed in NAcc and midbrain at 1 week after THC cessation, correlated with an increased functionality of D2/3R in vivo, based on findings of increased locomotor suppressive effect of a presynaptic dose and enhanced locomotor activation produced by a postsynaptic dose of quinpirole. Concomitantly, the observations of a decreased gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in midbrain together with a blunted psychomotor response to amphetamine concurred to indicate a diminished presynaptic DA function following THC. These findings indicate that the early period following THC treatment cessation is associated with altered presynaptic D2/3R controlling DA synthesis and release in midbrain, with the concurrent development of postsynaptic D2/3R supersensitivity in NAcc and CPu. Such D2/3R neuroadaptations may contribute to the reinforcing and habit-forming properties of THC. PMID:22692568

Ginovart, Nathalie; Tournier, Benjamin B; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Steimer, Thierry; Ibanez, Vicente; Millet, Philippe



Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort  

PubMed Central

There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta



Dopamine dysregulation syndrome: an overview of its epidemiology, mechanisms and management.  


Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a relatively recently described iatrogenic disturbance that may complicate long-term symptomatic therapy of Parkinson's disease. Patients with DDS develop an addictive pattern of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) use, administering doses in excess of those required to control their motor symptoms. The prevalence of DDS in patients attending specialist Parkinson's disease centres is 3-4%. Amongst the behavioural disturbances associated with DDS are punding, which is a complex stereotyped behaviour, and impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping and compulsive eating. We review the risk factors and potential mechanisms for the development of DDS, including personality traits, potential genetic influences and Parkinson's disease-related cognitive deficits. Impulsive personality traits are prominent in patients developing DDS, and have been previously associated with the development of substance dependence. Candidate genes affecting the dopamine 'D(2)-like' receptor family have been associated with impulsive personality traits in addition to drug and nondrug addictions. Impaired decision making is implicated in addictive behaviours, and decision-making abilities can be influenced by dopaminergic medications. In Parkinson's disease, disruption of the reciprocal loops between the striatum and structures in the prefrontal cortex following dopamine depletion may predispose to DDS. The role of DRT in DDS is discussed, with particular reference to models of addiction, suggesting that compulsive drug use is due to progressive neuroadaptations in dopamine projections to the accumbens-related circuitry. Evidence for neuroadaptations and sensitization occurring in DDS include enhanced levodopa-induced ventral striatal dopamine release. Levodopa is still considered the most potent trigger for DDS in Parkinson's disease, but subcutaneous apomorphine and oral dopamine agonists may also be responsible. In the management of DDS, further research is needed to identify at-risk groups, thereby facilitating more effective early intervention. Therefore, an increased awareness of the syndrome amongst treating physicians is vital. Medication reduction strategies are employed, particularly with regard to avoiding rapidly acting 'booster' DRT formulations. Psychosocial treatments, including cognitive-behavioural therapy, have been beneficial in treating substance use disorders and ICDs in non-Parkinson's disease patients, but there are currently no published trials of psychological interventions in DDS. Further studies are also required to identify factors that can predict those patients with DDS or ICDs who will derive benefit from surgical interventions such as deep brain stimulation. PMID:19173374

O'Sullivan, Sean S; Evans, Andrew H; Lees, Andrew J



Induction of Striatal Pre- and Postsynaptic Damage by Methamphetamine Requires the Dopamine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that induces excessive release of dopamine (DA) in the striatum. In this study we have assessed the role of DA D1 and D2 receptors (D1R and D2R) on striatal METH-induced apoptosis and depletion of DA-terminal markers. Male mice were given one i.p. injection of METH (30 mg/kg). Apoptosis was assessed at 24 h, and DA-terminal marker depletion 3 days, after METH. A single toxic dose of METH induced apoptosis in approximately 10–13% of striatal neurons. This was completely prevented by pretreatment (30 min before METH) with either the D1R antagonist SCH-23390 (0.1 mg/kg) or the D2R antagonist raclopride (1 mg/kg). The same dose of METH induced depletion of DA transporter sites up to 61, 56, 71, and 69% in dorsal-medial, ventral-medial, dorsal-lateral, and ventral-lateral striatum, respectively, relative to vehicle-injected controls. Similarly, METH induced depletion of TH protein levels up to 80, 72, 87, and 90% in those respective quadrants. METH induced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein throughout the striatum. All these neurochemical changes were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SCH-23390 (0.1 mg/kg) or raclopride (1 mg/kg). However, pretreatment with either raclopride or SCH-23390 did not prevent METH-induced hyperthermia in mice. These data demonstrate that the induction by METH of both striatal apoptosis and DA-terminal damage requires the activity of the postsynaptic DA receptors in the mouse brain. Moreover, since blockade of either receptor subtype protected from METH, the activity of both DA receptor subtypes is required for the induction of toxicity by METH in the striatum. PMID:16088948

Xu, Wenjing; Zhu, Judy P.Q.; Angulo, Jesus A.



AMPT-induced monoamine depletion in humans: evaluation of two alternative [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Acute monoamine depletion paradigms using alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) combined with single photon emission computed\\u000a tomography (SPECT) have been used successfully to evaluate disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission. However,\\u000a severe side effects due to relatively high doses (4,500 to 8,000 mg) of AMPT have been reasons for study withdrawal. Thus,\\u000a we assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of two alternative procedures, using lower doses

Erik Boot; Jan Booij; Gregor Hasler; Janneke R. Zinkstok; Lieuwe de Haan; Don H. Linszen; Thérèse A. van Amelsvoort



Depletion of regulatory T cells augments a vaccine-induced T effector cell response against the liver-stage of malaria but fails to increase memory.  


Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) have been shown to restrict vaccine-induced T cell responses in different experimental models. In these studies CD4(+)CD25(+) T(reg) were depleted using monoclonal antibodies against CD25, which might also interfere with CD25 on non-regulatory T cell populations and would have no effect on Foxp3(+)CD25(-) T(reg). To obtain more insights in the specific function of T(reg) during vaccination we used mice that are transgenic for a bacterial artificial chromosome expressing a diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor-eGFP fusion protein under the control of the foxp3 gene locus (depletion of regulatory T cell mice; DEREG). As an experimental vaccine-carrier recombinant Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid fused with a MHC-class I-restricted epitope of the circumsporozoite protein (ACT-CSP) of Plasmodium berghei (Pb) was used. ACT-CSP was shown by us previously to introduce the CD8+ epitope of Pb-CSP into the MHC class I presentation pathway of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). Using this system we demonstrate here that the number of CSP-specific T cells increases when T(reg) are depleted during prime but also during boost immunization. Importantly, despite this increase of T effector cells no difference in the number of antigen-specific memory cells was observed. PMID:25115805

Espinoza Mora, Maria del Rosario; Steeg, Christiane; Tartz, Susanne; Heussler, Volker; Sparwasser, Tim; Link, Andreas; Fleischer, Bernhard; Jacobs, Thomas



Estimating Endogenous Dopamine Levels at D2 and D3 Receptors in Humans using the Agonist Radiotracer [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO.  


Using positron emission tomography (PET) and an acute dopamine depletion challenge it is possible to estimate endogenous dopamine levels occupying dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) in humans in vivo. Our group has developed [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO, the first agonist radiotracer with preferential in vivo affinity for D3R. Thus, the use of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO offers the novel possibility of (i) estimating in vivo endogenous dopamine levels at D2/3R using an agonist radiotracer, and (ii) estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D3R in extrastriatal regions such as the substantia nigra, hypothalamus, and ventral pallidum. Ten healthy participants underwent a [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO PET scan under baseline conditions and another under acute endogenous dopamine depletion achieved via oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (64?mg/kg). [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding was sensitive to acute dopamine depletion, allowing in vivo estimates of endogenous dopamine in D2R-rich regions (caudate and putamen), mixed D2/3R-rich regions (ventral striatum and globus pallidus), and extrastriatal D3R-rich regions (hypothalamus and ventral pallidum). Dopamine depletion decreased self-reported vigor, which was correlated with the reduction in dopamine levels in the globus pallidus. [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO is a suitable radiotracer for use in estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D2R and D3R in neuropsychiatric populations. PMID:24874713

Caravaggio, Fernando; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Borlido, Carol; Remington, Gary; Gerretsen, Philip; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel



Inhibition of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt Signaling Attenuates Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Artery Remodeling and Suppresses CREB Depletion in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension is characterized by progressive remodeling of the pulmonary artery (PA) system and loss of the transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in PA smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Previous in vitro studies suggested that platelet-derived growth factor, a mitogen produced in the hypoxic arterial wall, elicits loss of CREB in medial SMCs via the PI3K/Akt pathway. These events trigger switching of SMCs from a quiescent, contractile phenotype to a proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, and synthetic phenotype, which contributes to PA thickening. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of PI3K or Akt could attenuate arterial remodeling in the lung and prevent CREB loss in PA medial SMCs in rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. Inhibition of either enzyme-blunted hypoxia-induced PA remodeling and SMC CREB depletion and diminished SMC proliferation and collagen deposition. Inhibition of Akt, but not PI3K, suppressed muscularization of distal arterioles and blunted right ventricular hypertrophy. Interestingly, mean PA pressure was elevated equally by hypoxia in untreated and inhibitor-treated groups but was normalized acutely by the Rho kinase inhibitor, Fasudil. We conclude that PI3K and Akt inhibitors can attenuate hypoxia-induced PA remodeling and SMC CREB depletion but fail to block the development of pulmonary hypertension because of their inability to repress Rho kinase–mediated vasoconstriction. PMID:24084215

Garat, Chrystelle V.; Crossno, Joseph T.; Sullivan, Timothy M.; Reusch, Jane E. B.; Klemm, Dwight J.



Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery remodeling and suppresses CREB depletion in arterial smooth muscle cells.  


Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension is characterized by progressive remodeling of the pulmonary artery (PA) system and loss of the transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in PA smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Previous in vitro studies suggested that platelet-derived growth factor, a mitogen produced in the hypoxic arterial wall, elicits loss of CREB in medial SMCs via the PI3K/Akt pathway. These events trigger switching of SMCs from a quiescent, contractile phenotype to a proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, and synthetic phenotype, which contributes to PA thickening. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of PI3K or Akt could attenuate arterial remodeling in the lung and prevent CREB loss in PA medial SMCs in rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. Inhibition of either enzyme-blunted hypoxia-induced PA remodeling and SMC CREB depletion and diminished SMC proliferation and collagen deposition. Inhibition of Akt, but not PI3K, suppressed muscularization of distal arterioles and blunted right ventricular hypertrophy. Interestingly, mean PA pressure was elevated equally by hypoxia in untreated and inhibitor-treated groups but was normalized acutely by the Rho kinase inhibitor, Fasudil. We conclude that PI3K and Akt inhibitors can attenuate hypoxia-induced PA remodeling and SMC CREB depletion but fail to block the development of pulmonary hypertension because of their inability to repress Rho kinase-mediated vasoconstriction. PMID:24084215

Garat, Chrystelle V; Crossno, Joseph T; Sullivan, Timothy M; Reusch, Jane E B; Klemm, Dwight J



Dopamine in gastrointestinal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is an important enteric neuromodulator. Herein we review the data that support a role for dopaminergic involvement in experimental duodenal and gastric ulceration; gastric, pancreatic, and duodenal secretion; gastrointestinal motility; and gastric and intestinal submucosal blood flow regulation. There also is support for a role for dopamine and dopamimetic agents in the treatment of certain experimental gastrointestinal diseases because

Gary B. Glavin; Sandor Szabo



CyPPA, a Positive SK3/SK2 Modulator, Reduces Activity of Dopaminergic Neurons, Inhibits Dopamine Release, and Counteracts Hyperdopaminergic Behaviors Induced by Methylphenidate1  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (DA) containing midbrain neurons play critical roles in several psychiatric and neurological diseases, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the substantia nigra pars compacta neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Pharmacological modulation of DA receptors and transporters are well established approaches for treatment of DA-related disorders. Direct modulation of the DA system by influencing the discharge pattern of these autonomously firing neurons has yet to be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels), in particular the SK3 subtype, are important in the physiology of DA neurons, and agents modifying SK channel activity could potentially affect DA signaling and DA-related behaviors. Here we show that cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amine (CyPPA), a subtype-selective positive modulator of SK channels (SK3?>?SK2?>?>?>?SK1, IK), decreased spontaneous firing rate, increased the duration of the apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization, and caused an activity-dependent inhibition of current-evoked action potentials in DA neurons from both mouse and rat midbrain slices. Using an immunocytochemically and pharmacologically validated DA release assay employing cultured DA neurons from rats, we show that CyPPA repressed DA release in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximal effect equal to the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole. In vivo studies revealed that systemic administration of CyPPA attenuated methylphenidate-induced hyperactivity and stereotypic behaviors in mice. Taken together, the data accentuate the important role played by SK3 channels in the physiology of DA neurons, and indicate that their facilitation by CyPPA profoundly influences physiological as well as pharmacologically induced hyperdopaminergic behavior. PMID:22347859

Herrik, Kjartan F.; Redrobe, John P.; Holst, Dorte; Hougaard, Charlotte; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Nielsen, Alexander N.; Ji, Huifang; Holst, Nina M.; Rasmussen, Hanne B.; Nielsen, Elsebet ?.; Str?baek, Dorte; Shepard, Paul D.; Christophersen, Palle



The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng



Mutual enhancement of central neurotoxicity induced by ketamine followed by methamphetamine  

SciTech Connect

We hereby report that repeated administration of ketamine (350 mg/kg in total) and methamphetamine (30 mg/kg in total) causes specific glutamatergic and dopaminergic neuron deficits, respectively, in adult mouse brain. Acute ketamine did not affect basal body temperature or the later methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. However, pretreatment with repeated doses of ketamine aggravated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic terminal loss as evidenced by a drastic decrease in the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and dopamine transporter density as well as poor gait balance performance. In contrast, methamphetamine-induced serotonergic depletion was not altered by ketamine pretreatment. Likewise, the subsequent treatment with methamphetamine exacerbated the ketamine-induced glutamatergic damage as indicated by reduced levels of the vesicular glutamate transporter in hippocampus and striatum and poor memory performance in the Morris water maze. Finally, since activation of the D1 and AMPA/kainate receptors has been known to be involved in the release of glutamate and dopamine, we examined the effects of co-administration of SCH23390, a D1 antagonist, and CNQX, an AMPA/kainate antagonist. Intraventricular CNQX infusion abolished ketamine's potentiation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity, while systemic SCH23390 mitigated methamphetamine's potentiation of ketamine-induced glutamatergic toxicity. We conclude that repeated doses of ketamine potentiate methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity via AMPA/kainate activation and that conjunctive use of methamphetamine aggravates ketamine-induced glutamatergic neurotoxicity possibly via D1 receptor activation.

Ke, J.-J.; Chen, H.-I.; Jen, C.J. [Department of Physiology, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Cherng, C.G. [Institute of Medical Research and Department of Clinical Psychology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-P.N.; Ho, M.-C.; Tsai, C.-W. [Institute of Behavioral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lung Yu [Department of Physiology, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Behavioral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:



Acetylcholine-induced Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Depletion Does Not Cause Short-term Desensitization of G Protein-  

E-print Network

) induced by phenylephrine or endothelin causes the inhibition of acetylcholine-activated K current (IKACh that in wild type (46.8 2.1%). Phenylephrine-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and phenylephrine

Kim, Daesoo



PubMed Central

In Parkinson’s disease, subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons burst fire with increased periodicity and synchrony. This may entail abnormal release of glutamate, the major source of which in STN is cortical afferents. Indeed, the cortico-subthalamic pathway is implicated in the emergence of excessive oscillations, which are reduced, as are symptoms, by dopamine-replacement therapy or deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeted to STN. Here we hypothesize that glutamatergic synapses in the STN may be differentially modulated by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and high-frequency stimulation (HFS), the latter mimicking deep brain stimulation. Recordings of evoked and spontaneous excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSCs) were made from STN neurons in brain slices obtained from dopamine-intact and chronically dopamine-depleted adult rats. HFS had no significant effect on evoked (e) EPSC amplitude in dopamine-intact slices (104.4±8.0%) but depressed eEPSCs in dopamine-depleted slices (67.8±6.2%). Conversely, LFS potentiated eEPSCs in dopamine-intact slices (126.4±8.1%) but not in dopamine-depleted slices (106.7±10.0%). Analyses of paired-pulse ratio, coefficient of variation, and spontaneous EPSCs suggest that the depression and potentiation have a presynaptic locus of expression. These results indicate that the synaptic efficacy in dopamine-intact tissue is enhanced by LFS. Furthermore, the synaptic efficacy in dopamine-depleted tissue is depressed by HFS. Therefore the therapeutic effects of DBS in Parkinson’s disease appear mediated, in part, by glutamatergic cortico-subthalamic synaptic depression and implicate dopamine-dependent increases in the weight of glutamate synapses, which would facilitate the transfer of pathological oscillations from the cortex. PMID:22209920




Genetic damage, but limited evidence of oxidative stress markers in diethyl maleate-induced glutathione depleted mouse lymphoma L5178Y (TK(+/-)) cell cultures.  


Depletion of glutathione (GSH) in cells exposed to certain xenobiotics has been proposed to result in oxidative stress, which could lead to damage of cellular macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and DNA. Diethyl maleate (DEM) is known to conjugate with GSH and rapidly lower cellular GSH levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of DEM-induced GSH depletion on various genotoxicity and gene expression end points in mouse lymphoma L5178Y (TK(+/-)) cell cultures. Cells were exposed to DEM for 4 h at concentrations of 0, 6.7, 13.5, 26.9, 53.8, 107.6, 215.3, and 430.6 µg/mL (0.039-2.5 mM). Genotoxicity was evaluated by examining the induction of in vitro micronuclei (20 h post-treatment) and DNA strand breaks as measured by comet (immediately following treatment), and correlating these observations to cellular GSH levels. In the current study, GSH was decreased more than 50% at the lowest test concentration (6.7 µg/mL) and more than 95% at ? 107.6 µg/mL. A significant increase in micronuclei and DNA strand breaks was observed at concentrations of ? 26.9 µg/mL. Gene expression of seven apoptosis and oxidative-stress related genes showed significant alterations in only three genes only at the highest test concentration. Quantifiable levels of 8-OH-dG (? 2 adducts per 1 × 10(8) NT) were not detected at any treatment concentration. These results demonstrate an association between DEM-induced genotoxicity and GSH depletion in mouse lymphoma L5178Y (TK(+/-)) cells, but not with other oxidative markers. PMID:22564015

Geter, David R; Zhang, Fagen; Schisler, Melissa R; Wood, Amanda J; Kan, H Lynn; Jeong, Yo-Chan; Bartels, Michael J; McFadden, Lisa; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar



Role of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors in CRF-Induced Disruption of Sensorimotor Gating  

PubMed Central

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide released during stress, has been reported to modulate startle behavior, including reducing the threshold for acoustic startle responding and reducing prepulse inhibition (PPI). The central mechanisms mediating CRF system regulation of startle and PPI are still unclear. Some antipsychotic drugs attenuate CRF-induced deficits in PPI in rats and mice. Here we tested the hypothesis that indirect activation of DA1-receptors (D1) and DA2-receptors (D2) contributes to the effects of CRF on PPI. We compared the effect of central administration of h/r-CRF (0.2-0.6 nmol) on PPI in mice with either a D1 or D2 receptor null mutation (knockout, KO) or in mice pretreated with D1 or D2 receptor antagonists SCH23390 (1 mg/kg) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg). D1 and D2 KO mice exhibited no significant differences in their sensitivity to CRF-induced disruptions of PPI. Similarly, neither SCH23390 nor haloperidol pretreatment altered the CRF-induced disruption in PPI, although both increased PPI at baseline. CRF-induced increases in startle also remained unchanged by any of the DA receptor manipulations. These results indicate that neither D1- nor D2-receptor activation is necessary for CRF to exert its effects on acoustic startle and PPI in mice. PMID:17324452

Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Geyer, Mark A.; Caldwell, Sorana; Low, Malcolm J.; Hauger, Richard L.



A dopamine D4 receptor antagonist attenuates ischemia-induced neuronal cell damage via upregulation of neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP\\/BIRC1), the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, suppresses neuronal cell death induced by a variety of insults, including cell death from ischemia and stroke. The goal of the present study was to develop an efficient method for identification of compounds with the ability to upregulate endogenous NAIP and to determine the effects on these

Yoshinori Okada; Harumi Sakai; Eri Kohiki; Etsuko Suga; Yoshiko Yanagisawa; Kazunori Tanaka; Shinji Hadano; Hitoshi Osuga; Joh-E Ikeda; J-E Ikeda



Re-replication induced by geminin depletion occurs from G2 and is enhanced by checkpoint activation  

PubMed Central

Summary To prevent re-replication of DNA in a single cell cycle, the licensing of replication origins by Mcm2-7 is prevented during S and G2 phases. Animal cells achieve this by cell cycle regulated proteolysis of the essential licensing factor Cdt1 and inhibition of Cdt1 by geminin. Here we investigate the consequences of ablating geminin in synchronised human U2OS cells. Following geminin loss, cells complete an apparently normal S phase, but a proportion arrest at the G2/M boundary. When Cdt1 accumulates in these cells, DNA re-replicates, suggesting that the key role of geminin is to prevent re-licensing in G2. If cell cycle checkpoints are inhibited in cells lacking geminin, cells progress through mitosis and less re-replication occurs. Checkpoint kinases thereby amplify re-replication into an all-or-nothing response by delaying geminin-depleted cells in G2. Deep DNA sequencing revealed no preferential re-replication of specific genomic regions after geminin depletion. This is consistent with the observation that cells in G2 have lost their replication timing information. In contrast, when Cdt1 is overexpressed or is stabilised by the Neddylation inhibitor MLN4924, re-replication can occur throughout S phase. PMID:22366459

Klotz-Noack, Kathleen; McIntosh, Debbie; Schurch, Nicholas; Pratt, Norman; Blow, J. Julian



Effects of 18-methoxycoronaridine on ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose intake and accumbal dopamine overflow in female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a selective antagonist of ?3?4 nicotinic receptors, has been previously shown, in rats, to\\u000a reduce the self-administration of several drugs of abuse, reduce operant responding for sucrose, and prevent the development\\u000a of sucrose-induced obesity. It has become increasingly apparent that there is a significant overlap between the systems regulating\\u000a drug reward and food intake, therefore, we investigated whether

Sarah E. McCallum; Olga D. Taraschenko; Ethan R. Hathaway; Melanie Y. Vincent; Stanley D. Glick



Activity of a new hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin (ACS14) on pathological cardiovascular alterations induced by glutathione depletion in rats.  


We investigated the effects of the hydrogen sulfide (H?S)-releasing derivatives of aspirin (ACS14) and salicylic acid (ACS21) in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by glutathione (GSH) depletion, causing hypertension and other pathological cardiovascular alterations. GSH depletion was induced in normal rats by the GSH-synthase inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 30 mmol/L day for seven days in the drinking water). Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured daily by the tail-cuff method, and plasma thromboxane B?, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(2?), 8-isoprostane, GSH, insulin and glucose were determined at the end of the seven-day BSO schedule. In addition, ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction were assayed on isolated heart and aortic rings, respectively. Unlike aspirin and salicylic acid, ACS14 and ACS21 reduced BSO-induced hypertension, also lowering plasma levels of thromboxane B?, 8-isoprostane and insulin, while GSH remained in the control range. Neither ACS14 nor ACS21 caused gastric lesions. Both restored the endothelial dysfunction observed in aortic rings from BSO-treated rats, and in ischemia/reperfusion experiments they lowered left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, consequently improving the developed pressure and the maximum rise and fall of left ventricular pressure. Together with this improvement of heart mechanics there were reductions in the activity of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in the cardiac perfusate. This implies that H?S released by both ACS14 and ACS21 was involved in protecting the heart from ischemia/reperfusion, and significantly limited vascular endothelial dysfunction in aortic tissue and the related hypertension. PMID:20826133

Rossoni, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Barbara; Tazzari, Valerio; Sparatore, Anna; Trivulzio, Silvio; Del Soldato, Piero; Berti, Ferruccio



Edaravone mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes while estrogen restores antioxidant enzymes in the rat ovary in F1 offspring.  


Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E2) (10 ?g in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E2 treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E2 restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K



Phenotypic, ethologically based resolution of spontaneous and D(2)-like vs D(1)-like agonist-induced behavioural topography in mice with congenic D(3) dopamine receptor "knockout".  


Uncertainty as to the functional role of the D(3) dopamine receptor, due primarily to a paucity of selective agonists or antagonists, is being addressed in mice with targeted gene deletion ("knockout") thereof. This study describes, for the first time, the phenotype of congenic D(3)-null mice. Initially, 129/Sv x C57BL/6 D(3)-null mice were backcrossed 14 times onto C57BL/6; they were then assessed using an ethologically based approach which resolves all topographies of behaviour within the mouse repertoire. The ethogram of D(3)-null mice, on comparison with wildtypes, was characterised by no alteration in any topography of behaviour over an initial period of exploration; subsequent assessment over several hours revealed only increased rearing among females due to delayed habituation. Low doses of the selective D(2)-like agonist RU 24213 (0.016-0.25 mg/kg) inhibited topographies of exploratory behaviour; this effect was diminished in D(3)-null mice only when investigated following prolonged habituation, and then only for certain topographies of behaviour, primarily sniffing and rearing. High doses of RU 24213 (0.1-12.5 mg/kg) induced stereotyped sniffing and "ponderous" locomotion, while the selective D(1)-like agonist SK&F 83959 (0.016-2.0 mg/kg) promoted characteristic grooming syntax; these effects did not differ materially between the genotypes. When examined topographically on an essentially congenic C57BL/6 background (<0.005% 129/Sv), the resultant phenotype indicated essential conservation of the mouse ethogram, high-dose D(2)-like stimulatory effects, and D(1)-like stimulatory effects in the absence of D(3) receptors. A role for D(3) receptors in inhibitory processes appeared topographically circumscribed and only when baseline levels of behaviour were low. PMID:12211095

McNamara, Fergal N; Clifford, Jeremiah J; Tighe, Orna; Kinsella, Anthony; Drago, John; Fuchs, Sara; Croke, David T; Waddington, John L



The effects of additional treatment with terguride, a partial dopamine agonist, on hyperprolactinemia induced by antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Hyperprolactinemia is a frequent consequence of treatment with antipsychotics. Earlier studies have indicated that terguride, which is a partial dopamine agonist, reduces the prolactin levels that are induced by prolactinemia. Thus, we examined the dose effects of adjunctive treatment with terguride on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in patients with elevated prolactin levels resulting from antipsychotic treatment. Terguride was concomitantly administered to 20 schizophrenic patients (10 males and 10 females) receiving paliperidone and risperidone. The dose of terguride was 1.0 mg/day. Sample collections for prolactin were conducted before terguride (baseline) and 2–4 weeks after administration. The samples were obtained after the morning dose of terguride. The average (± standard deviation) plasma prolactin concentration during terguride coadministration was significantly lower than the baseline concentration in females (82.3±37.1 ng/mL versus 56.5±28.5 ng/mL, P<0.01) but not in males (28.8±18.0 ng/mL versus 26.2±13.1 ng/mL, not significant). Additionally, a significant correlation between the ratio of prolactin reduction and the baseline prolactin concentration was identified in males (rs=?0.638, P<0.05) but not in females (rs=?0.152, not significant). Many patients complained of various adverse events following terguride administration, such as insomnia, agitation, and/or the aggravation of hallucinations. This study suggests that additional treatment with terguride decreases the prolactin concentrations in females experiencing high prolactin levels as a result of antipsychotic treatment. However, its utility for schizophrenia may be diminished because of its low tolerability. PMID:25187719

Hashimoto, Kojiro; Sugawara, Norio; Ishioka, Masamichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio



Sestrin2 decreases renal oxidative stress, lowers blood pressure, and mediates dopamine D2 receptor-induced inhibition of reactive oxygen species production.  


The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) decreases renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates blood pressure, in part, via positive regulation of paraoxonase 2. Sestrin2, a highly conserved antioxidant protein, regulates intracellular ROS level by regenerating hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins. We hypothesized that sestrin2 may be involved in preventing excessive renal ROS production and thus contribute to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. Moreover, the D2R may decrease ROS production, in part, through the regulation of sestrin2. Renal sestrin2 expression was lower (-62±13%) in D2R(-/-) than in D2R(+/+) mice. Silencing D2R in human renal proximal tubule cells decreased sestrin2 expression (-53±3%) and increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.9-fold). Stimulation of D2R in renal proximal tubule cells increased sestrin2 expression (1.6-fold), decreased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (-61±3%), and reduced ROS production (-31±4%). Silencing sestrin2 in renal proximal tubule cells increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.1-fold) and ROS production (1.3-fold). Silencing sestrin2 also abolished D2R-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation and partially prevented the inhibitory effect of D2R stimulation on ROS production. Silencing paraoxonase 2 increased sestrin2 ubiquitinylation (2.8-fold), decreased sestrin2 expression (-30±3%), and increased ROS production (1.3-fold), peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation (2.9-fold), and lipid peroxidation (2.3-fold), and blocked the increase in sestrin2 that occurs with D2R stimulation. In vivo renal selective silencing of sestrin2 by the renal subcapsular infusion of sestrin2 small interfering RNA (3 ?g/day; 7 days) in mice increased renal oxidative stress (1.3-fold) and blood pressure. These results suggest that the D2R, via paraoxonase 2 and sestrin2, keeps normal renal redox balance, which contributes to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. PMID:25024286

Yang, Yu; Cuevas, Santiago; Yang, Sufei; Villar, Van Anthony; Escano, Crisanto; Asico, Laureano; Yu, Peiying; Jiang, Xiaoliang; Weinman, Edward J; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A



Vasopressin induces dopamine release and cyclic AMP efflux from the brain of water-deprived rats: inhibitory effect of vasopressin V2 receptor-mediated phosphorylation.  


The neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin (AVP) is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. It acts as an excitatory transmitter in the CNS and plays an important physiological role in water and electrolyte homeostasis. However, water deprivation has been shown to induce changes in the levels of monoamines, but there is little knowledge about the influence of AVP on monoamine levels after water deprivation. In this study, we investigated the effect of AVP and its receptor antagonists on alterations in dopamine (DA) release and cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) efflux from rat brain slices following water deprivation. Striatal brain slices (500 microm thick) were incubated in a medium with or without AVP (0. 1-1.0 microM) for 30 min. After 2 h of washout in normal medium, high KCl (40 mM)-evoked DA release and cAMP efflux from the rat brain slices were examined. In the brain slices of euhydrated animals, treatment with AVP slightly altered DA release and cAMP efflux from the brain. This increase in DA release and cAMP efflux was not significantly affected by the addition of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin (20 microM), to the incubation medium or either by a V1 or V2 AVP receptor antagonist. In contrast, AVP significantly increased the DA release and enhanced the cAMP efflux from the brain slices of water-deprived animals. The AVP-induced increase of brain response in the water-deprived animals was significantly attenuated by a V2 receptor antagonist, partially by calcineurin, but not by a V1 receptor antagonist. The present results suggest that AVP may play a role in water-deprivation-induced DA release and cAMP efflux, which is possibly mediated through the activation of the V2 receptor. The V2 receptor action is attenuated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent dephosphorlyation of some cellular proteins critical for signal transduction. PMID:9873154

Tyagi, M G; Handa, R K; Stephen, P M; Bapna, J S



Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model  

PubMed Central

Background Dopamine is a catecholamine that is used as a neurotransmitter both in the periphery and in the central nervous system. Dysfunction in various dopaminergic systems is known to be associated with various disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Tourette's syndrome. Furthermore, microdialysis studies have shown that addictive drugs increase extracellular dopamine and brain imaging has shown a correlation between euphoria and psycho-stimulant-induced increases in extracellular dopamine [1]. These consequences of dopamine dysfunction indicate the importance of maintaining dopamine functionality through homeostatic mechanisms that have been attributed to the delicate balance between synthesis, storage, release, metabolism, and reuptake. Methods We construct a mathematical model of dopamine synthesis, release, and reuptake and use it to study homeostasis in single dopaminergic neuron terminals. We investigate the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine, the consequences of the rapid uptake of extracellular dopamine by the dopamine transporters, and the effects of the autoreceoptors on dopaminergic function. The main focus is to understand the regulation and control of synthesis and release and to explicate and interpret experimental findings. Results We show that the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine stabilizes cytosolic and vesicular dopamine against changes in tyrosine availability due to meals. We find that the autoreceptors dampen the fluctuations in extracellular dopamine caused by changes in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and changes in the rate of firing. We show that short bursts of action potentials create significant dopamine signals against the background of tonic firing. We explain the observed time courses of extracellular dopamine responses to stimulation in wild type mice and mice that have genetically altered dopamine transporter densities and the observed half-lives of extracellular dopamine under various treatment protocols. Conclusion Dopaminergic systems must respond robustly to important biological signals such as bursts, while at the same time maintaining homeostasis in the face of normal biological fluctuations in inputs, expression levels, and firing rates. This is accomplished through the cooperative effect of many different homeostatic mechanisms including special properties of tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine transporters, and the dopamine autoreceptors. PMID:19740446

Best, Janet A; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C



Microglial Cells Are Involved in the Susceptibility of NADPH Oxidase Knockout Mice to 6-Hydroxy-Dopamine-Induced Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

We explored the impact of Nox-2 in modulating inflammatory-mediated microglial responses in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) model. Nox1 and Nox2 gene expression were found to increase in striatum, whereas a marked increase of Nox2 expression was observed in substantia nigra (SN) of wild-type (wt) mice after PD induction. Gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice exhibited a significant reduction in the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, when compared to wt mice. Immunolabeling assays indicated that striatal 6-OHDA injections reduced the number of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the SN of wt mice. In gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice the DA degeneration was negligible, suggesting an involvement of Nox in 6-OHDA-mediated SN degeneration. Gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice treated with minocycline, a tetracycline derivative that exerts multiple anti-inflammatory effects, including microglial inhibition, exhibited increased apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and degeneration of DA neurons after 6-OHDA injections. The same treatment also increased TNF-? release and potentiated NF-?B activation in the SN of gp91phox-/--lesioned mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of microglial cells increases the susceptibility of gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice to develop PD. Blockade of microglia leads to NF-?B activation and TNF-? release into the SN of gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice, a likely mechanism whereby gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice may be more susceptible to develop PD after microglial cell inhibition. Nox2 adds an essential level of regulation to signaling pathways underlying the inflammatory response after PD induction. PMID:24086556

Hernandes, Marina S.; Santos, Graziella D. R.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Lima, Larissa S.; Scavone, Cristoforo; Munhoz, Carolina D.; Britto, Luiz R. G.



Significant enhancement in energy density of polymer composites induced by dopamine-modified Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) nanofibers prepared via electrospinning and modified by dopamine are used as dielectric fillers in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based composites. With 4.4 vol. % of BST nanofibers, the extractable energy density of the BST/PVDF composites is more than doubled as compared with pure PVDF matrix. Such significant enhancement is attributed to the combined effect of both surface modification by dopamine and large aspect ratio of the BST nanofibers. Paraelectric or anti-ferroelectric fillers of large aspect ratio may serve as a general strategy for enhanced electric energy density in polymer composites.

Song, Yu; Shen, Yang; Hu, Penghao; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Ming; Nan, C. W.



Depletion of Kupffer cell function by gadolinium chloride attenuates thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Expression of metallothionein and HSP70.  


Kupffer cell function plays an important role in drug-induced liver injury. Thus, gadolinium chloride (GD), by selectively inactivating Kupffer cells, can alleviate drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The effect of GD was studied in reference to metallothionein and heat shock proteins expression in an in vivo model of liver necrosis induced by thioacetamide. Rats, pre-treated or not with GD (0.1 mmol/kg), were intraperitoneally injected with thioacetamide (6.6 mmol/kg), and samples of blood and liver were obtained at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. Parameters related to liver damage, Kupffer cell function, microsomal FAD monooxygenase activity, oxidative stress, and the expression of metallothionein and HSP70 were determined. GD significantly reduced serum myeloperoxidase activity and serum concentration of TNF alpha and IL-6, increased by thioacetamide. The extent of necrosis, the degree of oxidative stress and lipoperoxidation and microsomal FAD monooxygenase activity were significantly diminished by GD. The effect of GD induced noticeable changes in the expression of both metallothionein and HSP70, compared to those induced by thioacetamide. We conclude that GD pre-treatment reduces thioacetamide-induced liver injury and enhances the expression of metallothionein and HSP70. This effect, parallel to reduced levels of serum cytokines and myeloperoxidase activity, demonstrates that Kupffer cells are involved in thioacetamide-induced liver injury, the degree of contribution being approximately 50%. PMID:12963478

Andrés, David; Sánchez-Reus, Isabel; Bautista, Mirandeli; Cascales, María



A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.  

PubMed Central

A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversion and female-biased sex ratios, changing genetic males into functional neo-females. Although sex ratio distortion is a powerful means for parasites to increase in frequency in host populations, it also has potential consequences on host biology, which may, in turn, have consequences for parasite prevalence. We used the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare to test whether the interaction between Wolbachia infection and the resulting excess of females would limit female fertility through the reduction in sperm number that they receive from males. We showed that multiple male mating induces sperm depletion, and that this sperm depletion affects fertility only in infected females. This decrease in fertility, associated with male mate choice, may limit the spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. PMID:15347518

Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jerome



A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.  


A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversion and female-biased sex ratios, changing genetic males into functional neo-females. Although sex ratio distortion is a powerful means for parasites to increase in frequency in host populations, it also has potential consequences on host biology, which may, in turn, have consequences for parasite prevalence. We used the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare to test whether the interaction between Wolbachia infection and the resulting excess of females would limit female fertility through the reduction in sperm number that they receive from males. We showed that multiple male mating induces sperm depletion, and that this sperm depletion affects fertility only in infected females. This decrease in fertility, associated with male mate choice, may limit the spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. PMID:15347518

Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jérôme



Impulse activity of midbrain dopamine neurons modulates drug-seeking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Withdrawal from non-contingent exposure to psychostimulants increases the activity of midbrain dopamine cells and impairs\\u000a the function of impulse-regulating dopamine autoreceptors. It is unclear whether these neuroadaptations play an important\\u000a role in withdrawal-associated drug seeking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We determined whether cocaine self-administration modifies the impulse activity of midbrain dopamine neurons and dopamine\\u000a autoreceptor function, and whether experimentally induced reduction in dopamine cell

Michela Marinelli; Donald C. Cooper; Lorinda K. Baker; Francis J. White



Comparison of phenethyl and 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate-induced toxicity in rat esophageal cell lines with and without glutathione depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and its synthetic homolog, 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHITC), are both potent inhibitors of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung mice tumorigenesis. However, unlike PEITC, PHITC enhanced N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced rat esophageal tumorigenesis. These findings imply that due to its unique chemical properties, PHITC's effects on esophageal cells are procarcinogenic rather than chemopreventive. Relative to PEITC, PHITC is more lipophilic and less reactive,

Tamaro S. Hudson; Gary D. Stoner; Mark A. Morse; Heather Young; Susan R. Mallery



Medical research and evaluation facility and studies supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program. Time and dose response characterization of the prevention of HD-induced NAD+ depletion and HD-induced cytotoxicity by niacinamide and niacin. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted under this task to Assess the time and concentration dependent nature of niacinamide (NM) protection against HD-induced NAD+ depletion and cytotoxicity. The HD concentrations used assess the time dependent nature of cytotoxicity and NAD+ depletion, and the impact of NM and niacin (NI) treatment were 13,62, 101, and 171 mu-M HD. Three concentrations of NM and NI were (0.01,0.1 and 1 mM) selected by USAMRICD for evaluation at 2, 4,8, 12, 16,20,24,48, and 72 hours after exposure to HD. Cytotoxicity and total culture NAD+ content were assessed. NAD+ concentrations following the addition of 1 mM NM frequently were significantly greater than those observed for the HD-exposed controls especially at 171mu-M HD. Multiple addition of NM had little protective effect relative to that by provided by pretreatment alone. At the 171mu-M HD concentration, the single addition of NM provided marginal but statistically significant (p<=0.05) protection. Comparisons of the different NM addition modes yielded mixed results, but usually the number of viable cells was greater with multiple additions of NM. NI did not provide protection against HD-induced NAD+ depletion or cytotoxicity.

Olson, C.T.; Johnson, J.B.; Blank, J.A.; Menton, R.G.; Starner, R.A.



Catecholamines up Integrates Dopamine Synthesis and Synaptic Trafficking  

PubMed Central

The highly reactive nature of dopamine renders dopaminergic neurons vulnerable to oxidative damage. We recently demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila gene Catecholamines up (Catsup) elevate dopamine pools but, paradoxically, also confer resistance to paraquat, an herbicide that induces oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. We now report a novel association of the membrane protein, Catsup, with GTP cyclohydrolase rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase, rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis, which requires BH4 as a cofactor. Loss-of-function Catsup mutations cause dominant hyperactivation of both enzymes. Elevated dopamine levels in Catsup mutants coincide with several distinct characteristics, including hypermobility, minimal basal levels of 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid, an oxidative metabolite of dopamine, and resistance to the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter inhibitor, reserpine, suggesting that excess dopamine is synaptically active and that Catsup functions in the regulation of synaptic vesicle loading and release of dopamine. We conclude that Catsup regulates and links the dopamine synthesis and transport networks. PMID:21985068

Wang, Zhe; Ferdousy, Faiza; Lawal, Hakeem; Huang, Zhinong; Daigle, J. Gavin; Izevbaye, Iyare; Doherty, Olugbenga; Thomas, Jerrad; Stathakis, Dean G; O'Donnell, Janis M.



Effect of ibogaine on cocaine-induced efflux of [ 3H]dopamine and [ 3H]serotonin from mouse striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibogaine, an indole alkaloid with proposed antiaddictive properties, has structural similarity to serotonin and has been shown to have affinity to the k-opioid binding site. In addition to the dopamine system, the serotonin system is a major target for cocaine action and the opioid system can affect the serotonin system. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of ibogaine on

Sershen Henry; Hashim Audrey; Lajtha Abel



Depleted uranium ({sub 92}U{sup 238}) induced preionization for enhanced and reproducible x-ray emission from plasma focus  

SciTech Connect

The effect of preionization induced by depleted uranium ({sub 92}U{sup 238}) around the insulator sleeve on the x-ray emission of (2.3-3.9 kJ) plasma focus device is investigated by employing Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes and a multipinhole camera. X-ray emission in 4{pi} geometry is measured as a function of charging voltage with and without preionization. It is found that the preionization enhances Cu K{alpha} and total x-ray yield about 100%, broadens the x-ray emission pressure range and x-ray pulse width, and improves shot to shot reproducibility of plasma focus operation. The pinhole images of x-ray emitting zones indicate that dominant x-ray emission is from the anode tip.

Ahmad, S.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.; Waheed, A. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); PINSTECH, P.O. Box 1331, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)



Protective and toxic roles of dopamine in Parkinson's disease.  


The molecular mechanisms causing the loss of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in the substantia nigra and responsible for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are still unknown. The discovery of genes associated with Parkinson's disease (such as alpha synuclein (SNCA), E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (parkin), DJ-1 (PARK7), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL-1), serine/threonine-protein kinase (PINK-1), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), cation-transporting ATPase 13A1 (ATP13A), etc.) contributed enormously to basic research towards understanding the role of these proteins in the sporadic form of the disease. However, it is generally accepted by the scientific community that mitochondria dysfunction, alpha synuclein aggregation, dysfunction of protein degradation, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are involved in neurodegeneration. Dopamine oxidation seems to be a complex pathway in which dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone are formed. However, both dopamine o-quinone and 5,6-indolequinone are so unstable that is difficult to study and separate their roles in the degenerative process occurring in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine oxidation to dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone seems to play an important role in the neurodegenerative processes of Parkinson's disease as aminochrome induces: (i) mitochondria dysfunction, (ii) formation and stabilization of neurotoxic protofibrils of alpha synuclein, (iii) protein degradation dysfunction of both proteasomal and lysosomal systems and (iv) oxidative stress. The neurotoxic effects of aminochrome in dopaminergic neurons can be inhibited by: (i) preventing dopamine oxidation of the transporter that takes up dopamine into monoaminergic vesicles with low pH and dopamine oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamino oxidase (ii) dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone polymerization to neuromelanin and (iii) two-electron reduction of aminochrome catalyzed by DT-diaphorase. Furthermore, dopamine conversion to NM seems to have a dual role, protective and toxic, depending mostly on the cellular context. Dopamine oxidation to dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone plays an important role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease since they induce mitochondria and protein degradation dysfunction; formation of neurotoxic alpha synuclein protofibrils and oxidative stress. However, the cells have a protective system against dopamine oxidation composed by dopamine uptake mediated by Vesicular monoaminergic transporter-2 (VMAT-2), neuromelanin formation, two-electron reduction and GSH-conjugation mediated by Glutathione S-transferase M2-2 (GSTM2). PMID:24548101

Segura-Aguilar, Juan; Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Ferrari, Emanuele; Zecca, Luigi; Zucca, Fabio A



D1R/GluN1 complexes in the striatum integrate dopamine and glutamate signalling to control synaptic plasticity and cocaine-induced responses.  


Convergent dopamine and glutamate signalling onto the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum controls psychostimulant-initiated adaptive processes underlying long-lasting behavioural changes. We hypothesised that the physical proximity of dopamine D1 (D1R) and glutamate NMDA (NMDAR) receptors, achieved through the formation of D1R/NMDAR complexes, may act as a molecular bridge that controls the synergistic action of dopamine and glutamate on striatal plasticity and behavioural responses to drugs of abuse. We found that concomitant stimulation of D1R and NMDAR drove complex formation between endogenous D1R and the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR. Conversely, preventing D1R/GluN1 association with a cell-permeable peptide (TAT-GluN1C1) left individual D1R and NMDAR-dependent signalling intact, but prevented D1R-mediated facilitation of NMDAR-calcium influx and subsequent ERK activation. Electrophysiological recordings in striatal slices from mice revealed that D1R/GluN1 complexes control the D1R-dependent enhancement of NMDAR currents and long-term potentiation in D1R-MSN. Finally, intra-striatal delivery of TAT-GluN1C1 did not affect acute responses to cocaine but reduced behavioural sensitization. Our findings uncover D1R/GluN1 complexes as a major substrate for the dopamine-glutamate interaction in MSN that is usurped by addictive drugs to elicit persistent behavioural alterations. They also identify D1R/GluN1 complexes as molecular targets with a therapeutic potential for the vast spectrum of psychiatric diseases associated with an imbalance between dopamine and glutamate transmission. PMID:25070539

Cahill, E; Pascoli, V; Trifilieff, P; Savoldi, D; Kappès, V; Lüscher, C; Caboche, J; Vanhoutte, P



Carnosol, rosemary ingredient, induces apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells via glutathione depletion: proteomic approach using fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis.  


Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a fatal malignancy caused by infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 and there is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. We searched for biological active substances for the prevention and treatment of ATL from several species of herbs. The ATL cell growth-inhibitory activity and apoptosis assay showed that carnosol, which is an ingredient contained in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), induced apoptosis in ATL cells. Next, to investigate the apoptosis-inducing mechanism of carnosol, we applied proteomic analysis using fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteomic analysis showed that the expression of reductases, enzymes in glycolytic pathway, and enzymes in pentose phosphate pathway was increased in carnosol-treated cells, compared with untreated cells. These results suggested that carnosol affected the redox status in the cells. Further, the quantitative analysis of glutathione, which plays the central role for the maintenance of intracellular redox status, indicated that carnosol caused the decrease of glutathione in the cells. Further, N-acetyl-L-cystein, which is precursor of glutathione, canceled the efficiency of carnosol. From these results, it was suggested that the apoptosis-inducing activity of carnosol in ATL cells was caused by the depletion of glutathione. PMID:24323765

Ishida, Yo-ichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Okayama, Akihiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki



Membrane-permeable C-terminal Dopamine Transporter Peptides Attenuate Amphetamine-evoked Dopamine Release* ?  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate the role of the DAT C terminus in AMPH-evoked DA efflux using cell-permeant dominant-negative peptides. A peptide, which corresponded to the last 24 C-terminal residues of DAT (TAT-C24 DAT) and thereby contained the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (CaMKII?) binding domain and the PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding sequence of DAT, was made membrane-permeable by fusing it to the cell membrane transduction domain of the HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT-C24WT). The ability of TAT-C24WT but not a scrambled peptide (TAT-C24Scr) to block the CaMKII?-DAT interaction was supported by co-immunoprecipitation experiments in heterologous cells. In heterologous cells, we also found that TAT-C24WT, but not TAT-C24Scr, decreased AMPH-evoked 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium efflux. Moreover, chronoamperometric recordings in striatum revealed diminished AMPH-evoked DA efflux in mice preinjected with TAT-C24WT. Both in heterologous cells and in striatum, the peptide did not further inhibit efflux upon KN-93-mediated inhibition of CaMKII? activity, consistent with a dominant-negative action preventing binding of CaMKII? to the DAT C terminus. This was further supported by the ability of a peptide with perturbed PDZ-binding sequence, but preserved CaMKII? binding (TAT-C24AAA), to diminish AMPH-evoked DA efflux in vivo to the same extent as TAT-C24WT. Finally, AMPH-induced locomotor hyperactivity was attenuated following systemic administration of TAT-C24WT but not TAT-C24Scr. Summarized, our findings substantiate that DAT C-terminal protein-protein interactions are critical for AMPH-evoked DA efflux and suggest that it may be possible to target protein-protein interactions to modulate transporter function and interfere with psychostimulant effects. PMID:23884410

Rickhag, Mattias; Owens, William A.; Winkler, Marie-Therese; Strandfelt, Kristine N?rgaard; Rathje, Mette; S?rensen, Gunnar; Andresen, Bj?rn; Madsen, Kenneth L.; J?rgensen, Trine Nygaard; Wortwein, Gitta; Woldbye, David P. D.; Sitte, Harald; Daws, Lynette C.; Gether, Ulrik



Glutamine deprivation facilitates tumour necrosis factor induced bacterial translocation in Caco-2 cells by depletion of enterocyte fuel substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Factors that induce luminal bacteria to cross the intestinal epithelium following injury remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between glutamine metabolism, energy supply, and inflammatory mediators in determining the translocation of non-pathogenic bacteria across cultured enterocytes.Methods: The effect of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) on translocation of Escherichia coli C25

E C Clark; S D Patel; P R Chadwick; G Warhurst; A Curry; G L Carlson



Depletion of STAT5 blocks TEL–SYK-induced APMF-type leukemia with myelofibrosis and myelodysplasia in mice  

PubMed Central

The spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) was identified as an oncogenic driver in a broad spectrum of hematologic malignancies. The in vivo comparison of three SYK containing oncogenes, SYKwt, TEL–SYK and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK)-SYK revealed a general myeloexpansion and the establishment of three different hematologic (pre)diseases. SYKwt enhanced the myeloid and T-cell compartment, without leukemia/lymphoma development. ITK–SYK caused lethal T-cell lymphomas and the cytoplasmic TEL–SYK fusion induced an acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis-type acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with up to 50% immature megakaryoblasts infiltrating bone marrow, spleen and liver, additional MPN features (myelofibrosis and granulocyte expansion) and MDS stigmata with megakaryocytic and erythroid dysplasia. LKS cells were reduced and all subsets (LT/ST/MPP) showed reduced proliferation rates. SYK inhibitor treatment (R788) of diseased TEL–SYK mice reduced leukocytosis, spleen and liver infiltration, enhanced the hematocrit and prolonged survival time, but could not significantly reduce myelofibrosis. Stat5 was identified as a major downstream mediator of TEL–SYK in vitro as well as in vivo. Consequently, targeted deletion of Stat5 in vivo completely abrogated TEL–SYK-induced AML and myelofibrosis development, proving Stat5 as a major driver of SYK-induced transformation. Our experiments highlight the important role of SYK in AML and myelofibrosis and prove SYK and STAT5 inhibitors as potent treatment options for those diseases. PMID:25148222

Sprissler, C; Belenki, D; Maurer, H; Aumann, K; Pfeifer, D; Klein, C; Müller, T A; Kissel, S; Hülsdünker, J; Alexandrovski, J; Brummer, T; Jumaa, H; Duyster, J; Dierks, C



The Subjective and Cognitive Effects of Acute Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Depletion in Patients Recovered from Depression  

PubMed Central

Although there is evidence for the involvement of dopamine (DA) in unipolar depression, no published study has yet used the technique of acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD), a dietary intervention that selectively lowers DA synthesis, in order to investigate the role of DA in mood disturbance. Tyrosine and phenylalanine depleted and placebo amino acid drinks were administered to 20 patients recovered from depression in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Measures included subjective effects, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, and a comprehensive battery of well-validated computerized cognitive tests. APTD induced a substantial reduction in the ratio of plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine to large neutral amino acids. However, relapse of depressive symptoms was not seen. Although performance on most cognitive tests was unaffected, there was a selective effect on decision-making, with APTD causing participants to bet significantly less. In conclusion, These results suggest a specific role for the involvement of DA in reward/punishment processing in humans. While APTD did not induce relapse in any participant, it did cause patients recovered from depression to show lowered sensitivity to reward in a gambling game. It is hypothesized that tests involving reward/punishment processing are preferentially affected by DA depletion, and that a more complete account of depression is likely to result from considering the roles played by serotonin, noradrenaline, and DA in mediating the various cognitive and clinical symptoms, including anhedonia. PMID:15688090

Roiser, Jonathan P; McLean, Andrew; Ogilvie, Alan D; Blackwell, Andrew D; Bamber, Diane J; Goodyer, Ian; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J



Are monoaminergic systems involved in the lethargy induced by a parasitoid wasp in the cockroach prey?  


The venom of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces long-lasting hypokinesia in the cockroach prey. Previous work indicates that the venom acts in the subesophageal ganglion to indirectly affect modulation of thoracic circuits for locomotion. However, the target of the venom in the subesophageal ganglion, and the mechanism by which the venom achieves its effects are as yet unknown. While the stung cockroaches appear generally lethargic, not all behaviors were affected, indicating that the venom targets specific motor systems and not behavior in general. Stung cockroaches were observed "freezing" in abnormal positions. Reserpine, which depletes monoamines, mimics the behavioral effects of the venom. We treated cockroaches with antagonists to dopamine and octopamine receptors, and found that the dopamine system is required for normal escape response. Dopamine injection induces prolonged grooming in normal cockroaches, but not in stung, suggesting that the venom is affecting dopamine receptors, or targets downstream of these receptors, in the subesophageal ganglion. This dopamine blocking effect fades slowly over the course of several weeks, similar to the time course of recovery from hypokinesia. The similarity in the time courses suggests that the mechanism underlying the hypokinesia may be the block of the dopamine receptors. PMID:12012102

Weisel-Eichler, A; Libersat, F