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Sample records for dopamine type 1-like

  1. D1-like dopamine receptors selectively block P/Q-type calcium channels to reduce glutamate release onto cholinergic basal forebrain neurones of immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Momiyama, Toshihiko; Fukazawa, Yugo

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of non-NMDA glutamatergic EPSCs were made from identified cholinergic neurones in slices of basal forebrain (BF) of young rats (P13–P18), to investigate the subtypes of calcium channels involved in dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of the EPSCs. The BF cholinergic neurones were pre-labelled by intracerebroventricular injection of a fluorescent marker, Cy3-192IgG. A D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 81297 (30 μm) suppressed the EPSCs reversibly by about 30%, and this inhibition was reproducible. Calcium channel subtypes involved in the glutamatergic transmission were elucidated using selective Ca2+ channel blockers. The N-type Ca2+ channel blocker ω-conotoxin (ω-CgTX, 3 μm) suppressed the EPSCs by 57.5%, whereas the P/Q-type channel selective blocker ω-agatoxin-TK (ω-Aga-TK, 200 nm) suppressed the EPSCs by 68.9%. Simultaneous application of both blockers suppressed the EPSCs by 96.1%. The R-type Ca2+ channel blocker SNX-482 (300 nm) suppressed the EPSCs by 18.4%, whereas nifedipine, the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker (10 μm), had little effect. In the presence of ω-Aga-TK, SKF 81297, a dopamine D1-like receptor agonist, had no effect on the EPSCs. On the other hand, SKF 81297 could still inhibit the EPSCs in the presence of either ω-CgTX, SNX-482 or nifedipine. SKF 81297 had no further effect on the EPSCs when external Ca2+ concentration was raised to 7.2 mm in the presence of ω-Aga-TK, but could still inhibit the EPSCs in high Ca2+ solution after ω-CgTX application. Forskolin (FK, 10 μm), an activator of adenylyl cyclase pathway, suppressed the EPSCs, and the FK-induced effect was mostly blocked in the presence of ω-Aga-TK but not that of ω-CgTX. These results suggest that D1-like receptor activation selectively blocks P/Q-type calcium channels to reduce glutamate release onto BF cholinergic neurones. PMID:17234695

  2. Identification of D/sub 1/-like dopamine receptors on human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    De Keyser, J.; De Waele, M.; Convents, A.; Ebinger, G.; Vauquelin, G.

    1988-01-01

    Dopamine is able to inhibit the epinephrine-induced aggregation of human blood platelets, but the mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study the authors report that membranes from human blood platelets possess high affinity, saturable and stereoselective binding sites for the D/sub 1/ dopamine receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390. (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390 appeared to label a single class of binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 18.6 +- 1.6 fmolmg protein and a K/sub D/ of 0.8 nM. The potencies of different dopaminergic antagonists and agonists in displacing (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390 from blood platelet membranes were similar to those obtained for striatal membranes. Unlike the classically defined D/sub 1/ receptors, e.g. those in striatum, the D/sub 1/ receptor sites on platelets appeared no to be coupled to the adenylate cyclase system, hence the term D/sub 1/-like. The D/sub 1/ agonist SKF 38393 was more potent than dopamine in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by epinephrine, and the effects of dopamine and SKF 38393 were prevented by SCH 23390. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of dopamine on the epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through these D/sub 1/-like receptors

  3. Pharmacology of Signaling Induced by Dopamine D1-Like Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Undieh, Ashiwel S.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine D1-like receptors consisting of D1 and D5 subtypes are intimately implicated in dopaminergic regulation of fundamental neurophysiologic processes such as mood, motivation, cognitive function, and motor activity. Upon stimulation, D1-like receptors initiate signal transduction cascades that are mediated through adenylyl cyclase or phosphoinositide metabolism, with subsequent enhancement of multiple downstream kinase cascades. The latter actions propagate and further amplify the receptor signals, thus predisposing D1-like receptors to multifaceted interactions with various other mediators and receptor systems. The adenylyl cyclase response to dopamine or selective D1-like receptor agonists is reliably associated with the D1 subtype, while emerging evidence indicates that the phosphoinositide responses in native brain tissues may be preferentially mediated through stimulation of the D5 receptor. Besides classic coupling of each receptor subtype to specific G proteins, additional biophysical models are advanced in attempts to account for differential subcellular distribution, heteromolecular oligomerization, and activity-dependent selectivity of the receptors. It is expected that significant advances in understanding of dopamine neurobiology will emerge from current and anticipated studies directed at uncovering the molecular mechanisms of D5 coupling to phosphoinositide signaling, the structural features that might enhance pharmacological selectivity for D5 versus D1 subtypes, the mechanism by which dopamine may modulate phosphoinositide synthesis, the contributions of the various responsive signal mediators to D1 or D5 interactions with D2-like receptors, and the spectrum of dopaminergic functions that may be attributed to each receptor subtype and signaling pathway. PMID:20547182

  4. Invertebrate Specific D1-like Dopamine Receptor in Control of Salivary Glands in the Black-Legged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Koči, Juraj; Kim, Donghun; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The control of tick salivary secretion, which plays a crucial role in compromising the host immune system, involves complex neural mechanisms. Dopamine is known to be the most potent activator of salivary secretion, as a paracrine/autocrine factor. We describe the invertebrate specific D1-like dopamine receptor (InvD1L), which is highly expressed in tick salivary glands. The InvD1L phylogenic clade was found only in invertebrates, suggesting that this receptor was lost in the vertebrates during evolution. InvD1L expressed in CHO-K1 cells was activated by dopamine with a median effective dose (EC50) of 1.34 μM. Immunohistochemistry using the antibody raised against InvD1L revealed two different types of immunoreactivities: basally located axon terminals that are colocalized with myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide neuropeptides, and longer axon-like processes that are positive only for the InvD1L antibody and extended to the apical parts of the acini. Both structures were closely associated with the myoepithelial cell, as visualized by beta-tubulin antibody, lining the acinar lumen in a web-like fashion. Subcellular localizations of InvD1L in the salivary gland suggest that InvD1L modulates the neuronal activities including MIP/SIFamide varicosities, and leads the contraction of myoepithelial cells and/or of the acinar valve to control the efflux of the luminal content. Combining the previously described D1 receptor with its putative function for activating an influx of fluid through the epithelial cells of acini, we propose that complex control of the tick salivary glands is mediated through two different dopamine receptors, D1 and InvD1L, for different downstream responses of the acinar cells. PMID:24307522

  5. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of two D(1)-like dopamine receptors in the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jason M; Ejendal, Karin F K; Watts, Val J; Hill, Catherine A

    2011-08-01

    Advancements in tick neurobiology may impact the development of acaricides to control those species that transmit human and animal diseases. Here, we report the first cloning and pharmacological characterization of two neurotransmitter binding G protein-coupled receptors in the Lyme disease (blacklegged) tick, Ixodes scapularis. The genes IscaGPRdop1 and IscaGPRdop2 were identified in the I. scapularis genome assembly and predicted as orthologs of previously characterized D(1)-like dopamine receptors in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and honeybee Apis mellifera. Heterologous expression in HEK 293 cells demonstrated that each receptor functioned as a D(1)-like dopamine receptor because significant increases in levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were detected following dopamine treatment. Importantly, the receptors were distinct in their pharmacological properties regarding concentration-dependent response to dopamine, constitutive activity, and response to other biogenic amines. Exposure to a variety of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists further demonstrated a D(1)-like pharmacology of these dopamine receptors and highlighted their differential activities in vitro. PMID:21457782

  6. Modulation of motor behavior by dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor AmDOP2 in the honey bee

    PubMed Central

    Mustard, Julie A.; Pham, Priscilla M.; Smith, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the specific molecular pathways through which dopamine affects behavior has been complicated by the presence of multiple dopamine receptor subtypes that couple to different second messenger pathways. The observation of freely moving adult bees in an arena was used to investigate the role of dopamine signaling in regulating the behavior of the honey bee. Dopamine or the dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol was injected into the hemolymph of worker honey bees. Significant differences between treated and control bees were seen for all behaviors (walking, stopped, upside down, grooming, flying and fanning), and behavioral shifts were dependent on drug dosage and time after injection. To examine the role of dopamine signaling through a specific dopamine receptor in the brain, RNA interference was used to reduce expression levels of a D1-like receptor, AmDOP2. Injection of Amdop2 dsRNA into the mushroom bodies reduced the levels of Amdop2 mRNA and produced significant changes in the amount of time honey bees spent performing specific behaviors with reductions in time spent walking offset by increases in grooming or time spent stopped. Taken together these results establish that dopamine plays an important role in regulating motor behavior of the honey bee. PMID:19945462

  7. A Pair of Dopamine Neurons Target the D1-Like Dopamine Receptor DopR in the Central Complex to Promote Ethanol-Stimulated Locomotion in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eric C.; Woo, Katherine; Li, Haiyan; Lebestky, Tim; Mayer, Nasima; Sniffen, Melissa R.; Heberlein, Ulrike; Bainton, Roland J.; Hirsh, Jay; Wolf, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine is a mediator of the stimulant properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol, in mammals and in the fruit fly Drosophila. The neural substrates for the stimulant actions of ethanol in flies are not known. We show that a subset of dopamine neurons and their targets, through the action of the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR, promote locomotor activation in response to acute ethanol exposure. A bilateral pair of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain mediates the enhanced locomotor activity induced by ethanol exposure, and promotes locomotion when directly activated. These neurons project to the central complex ellipsoid body, a structure implicated in regulating motor behaviors. Ellipsoid body neurons are required for ethanol-induced locomotor activity and they express DopR. Elimination of DopR blunts the locomotor activating effects of ethanol, and this behavior can be restored by selective expression of DopR in the ellipsoid body. These data tie the activity of defined dopamine neurons to D1-like DopR-expressing neurons to form a neural circuit that governs acute responding to ethanol. PMID:20376353

  8. Erythropoietin ameliorates hyperglycemia in type 1-like diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ho-Shan; Chang, Chin-Hong; Niu, Chiang-Shan; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Lee, Kung-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) is widely used in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis. The role of EPO in glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of EPO on hyperglycemia in rats with type 1-like diabetes. Methods Rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1-like diabetes (STZ rats) were used to estimate the blood glucose-lowering effects of EPO, and changes in the expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and the hepatic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were identified by Western blot analysis. Results EPO attenuated the hyperglycemia in the STZ rats in a dose-dependent manner without altering the hematopoietic parameters, including the hematocrit and number of red blood cells. The involvement of the EPO receptor (EPOR) was identified using EPOR-specific antibodies. In addition, injection of EPO enhanced the glucose utilization, which was assessed using an intravenous glucose tolerance test in rats. However, blood insulin was not changed by EPO in this assay, showing the insulinotropic action of EPO. Moreover, EPO treatment increased the insulin sensitivity. Western blots indicated that the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase was enhanced by EPO to support the signaling caused by EPOR activation. Furthermore, the decrease in the GLUT4 level in skeletal muscle was reversed by EPO, and the increase in the PEPCK expression in liver was reduced by EPO, as shown in STZ rats. Conclusion Taken together, the results show that EPO injection may reduce hyperglycemia in diabetic rats through activation of EPO receptors. Therefore, EPO is useful for managing diabetic disorders, particularly hyperglycemia-associated changes. In addition, EPO receptor will be a good target for the development of antihyperglycemic agent(s) in the future. PMID:27350742

  9. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-01

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. PMID:26874213

  10. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. PMID:25080496

  11. Dopamine modulates hemocyte phagocytosis via a D1-like receptor in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dopamine (DA) is a signal moiety bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA dysregulation is linked to serious human diseases, including addiction, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. However, DA actions in the immune system remain incompletely understood. In this study, we found that DA modula...

  12. Role of dopamine D1-like receptor within the nucleus accumbens in acute food deprivation- and drug priming-induced reinstatement of morphine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghzadeh, Fatemeh; Babapour, Vahab; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is a predominant neurotransmitter in the nervous system, which plays an important role in both drug priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. Therefore, in the present study, the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of intra-accumbal administration of SCH23390 as a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist on food deprivation (FD) and drug priming-induced reinstatement. Sixty-eight adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280 g were bilaterally implanted by cannulae into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). For induction of the CPP, subcutaneous (sc) administration of morphine (5mg/kg) was used daily during a three-day conditioning phase. The conditioning score and locomotor activity were recorded by using the Ethovision software. Under extinction conditions, rats were given an 'off' period and were tested for FD-induced reinstatement following the 24-h or 48-h FD condition, and for drug priming-induced reinstatement under the sated condition following an injection of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (sc) morphine. In the next experiments, animals received different doses of intra-accumbal SCH23390 (0.25, 1 and 4 μg/0.5 μl saline) bilaterally and were subsequently tested for FD- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement. Our findings indicated that only a dose of 1mg/kg and not 0.5mg/kg of morphine induced the reinstatement of morphine. 24-h FD similar to 48-h FD induced the reinstatement of seeking behaviors facilitated by an ineffective dose of morphine (0.5mg/kg). Furthermore, the D1-like receptor antagonist attenuated FD- and drug priming-induced reinstatement dose-dependently. It is concluded that FD- and drug priming-induced reinstatement may be mediated, at least in some way, by activation of dopamine D1-like receptors in the NAc. PMID:25835321

  13. Differential Roles for Dopamine D1-Like and D2-Like Receptors in Mediating the Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine: Convergent Evidence from Pharmacological and Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Collins, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies by Drs. Barak Caine, James Woods, Gregory Collins, Jonathan Katz and Takato Hiranita demonstrated a novel and unique reinforcing effect using dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor [D2-like R: D2, D3, and D4 receptor subtypes (respectively, D2R, D3R, and D4R)] agonists in rats and genetically modified mice. In order to understand how important their findings are, a comparison was made regarding the reinforcing effects of DA D2-like R full agonists with those of DA uptake inhibitors and of a DA D1-like receptor [D1-like R, D1 and D5 receptor subtypes (D1R and D5R)] full agonist (±)-SKF 82958. PMID:27390753

  14. Spinal D1-like dopamine receptors modulate NMDA receptor-induced hyperexcitability and NR1 subunit phosphorylation at serine 889.

    PubMed

    Aira, Zigor; Barrenetxea, Teresa; Buesa, Itsaso; Martínez, Endika; Azkue, Jon Jatsu

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in dorsal horn neurons is recognized as a fundamental mechanism of central sensitization and pathologic pain. This study assessed the influence of dopaminergic, D1-like receptor-mediated input to the spinal dorsal horn on NMDAR function. PMID:26957228

  15. Dopamine modulates hemocyte phagocytosis via a D1-like receptor in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Stanley, David; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a signal moiety bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA dysregulation is linked to serious human diseases, including addiction, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. However, DA actions in the immune system remain incompletely understood. In this study, we found that DA modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis using hemocytes prepared from the rice stem borer (RSB), Chilo suppressalis. We investigated whether insect hemocytes are capable of de novo DA production. Here we show that exposing hemocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to induction of DA-generating enzymes. Exogenous DA induced rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in naïve hemocytes. Activation of ERK was inhibited by preincubating with a DOP1 receptor antagonist. Thus, DA signaling via the DOP1 receptor may contribute to early hemocyte activation. DA synthesized and released from hemocytes may act in an autocrine mechanism to stimulate or maintain phagocytic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of DA synthesis with α-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride or blockage of DOP1 receptor with antagonist SCH23390 impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Topical DA application also significantly decreased RSB mortality following challenge with the insect pathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. We infer that a DA-dependent signaling system operates in hemocytes to mediate phagocytotic functions. PMID:26179416

  16. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors interact in the rat nucleus accumbens to influence locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Abraini, Jacques H

    2002-03-01

    Evidence for functional interactions between metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is now clearly established. In the present study, we investigated interactions between group III mGlu receptors and D1- and D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Administration, into the NAcc, of the selective group III mGlu receptor agonist, AP4, resulted in an increase in locomotor activity, which was blocked by pretreatment with the group III mGlu receptor antagonist, MPPG. In addition, pretreatment with AP4 further blocked the increase in motor activity induced by the D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 38393, but potentiated the locomotor responses induced by either the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole, or coinfusion of SKF 38393 and quinpirole. MPPG reversed the effects of AP4 on the motor responses induced by D1-like and/or D2-like receptor activation. These results confirm that glutamate transmission may control DA-dependent locomotor function through mGlu receptors and further indicate that group III mGlu receptors oppose the behavioural response produced by D1-like receptor activation and favour those produced by D2-like receptor activation. PMID:11906529

  17. A “Genome-to-Lead” Approach for Insecticide Discovery: Pharmacological Characterization and Screening of Aedes aegypti D1-like Dopamine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Avramova, Larisa V.; Garland-Kuntz, Elisabeth E.; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I.; Brust, Tarsis F.; Watts, Val J.; Hill, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many neglected tropical infectious diseases affecting humans are transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. New mode-of-action chemistries are urgently sought to enhance vector management practices in countries where arthropod-borne diseases are endemic, especially where vector populations have acquired widespread resistance to insecticides. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a “genome-to-lead” approach for insecticide discovery that incorporates the first reported chemical screen of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mined from a mosquito genome. A combination of molecular and pharmacological studies was used to functionally characterize two dopamine receptors (AaDOP1 and AaDOP2) from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Sequence analyses indicated that these receptors are orthologous to arthropod D1-like (Gαs-coupled) receptors, but share less than 55% amino acid identity in conserved domains with mammalian dopamine receptors. Heterologous expression of AaDOP1 and AaDOP2 in HEK293 cells revealed dose-dependent responses to dopamine (EC50: AaDOP1 = 3.1±1.1 nM; AaDOP2 = 240±16 nM). Interestingly, only AaDOP1 exhibited sensitivity to epinephrine (EC50 = 5.8±1.5 nM) and norepinephrine (EC50 = 760±180 nM), while neither receptor was activated by other biogenic amines tested. Differential responses were observed between these receptors regarding their sensitivity to dopamine agonists and antagonists, level of maximal stimulation, and constitutive activity. Subsequently, a chemical library screen was implemented to discover lead chemistries active at AaDOP2. Fifty-one compounds were identified as “hits,” and follow-up validation assays confirmed the antagonistic effect of selected compounds at AaDOP2. In vitro comparison studies between AaDOP2 and the human D1 dopamine receptor (hD1) revealed markedly different pharmacological profiles and identified amitriptyline and doxepin as AaDOP2-selective

  18. Distinct Morphology of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, José O.; Cao, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature HTLV-1 particles by using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HTLV-1-like particles mimicked the morphology of immature authentic HTLV-1 virions. Importantly, we have observed for the first time that the morphology of these virus-like particles (VLPs) has the unique local feature of a flat Gag lattice that does not follow the curvature of the viral membrane, resulting in an enlarged distance between the Gag lattice and the viral membrane. Other morphological features that have been previously observed with other retroviruses include: (1) a Gag lattice with multiple discontinuities; (2) membrane regions associated with the Gag lattice that exhibited a string of bead-like densities at the inner leaflet; and (3) an arrangement of the Gag lattice resembling a railroad track. Measurement of the average size and mass of VLPs and authentic HTLV-1 particles suggested a consistent range of size and Gag copy numbers in these two groups of particles. The unique local flat Gag lattice morphological feature observed suggests that HTLV-1 Gag could be arranged in a lattice structure that is distinct from that of other retroviruses characterized to date. PMID:27187442

  19. Distinct Morphology of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Like Particles.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, José O; Cao, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature HTLV-1 particles by using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HTLV-1-like particles mimicked the morphology of immature authentic HTLV-1 virions. Importantly, we have observed for the first time that the morphology of these virus-like particles (VLPs) has the unique local feature of a flat Gag lattice that does not follow the curvature of the viral membrane, resulting in an enlarged distance between the Gag lattice and the viral membrane. Other morphological features that have been previously observed with other retroviruses include: (1) a Gag lattice with multiple discontinuities; (2) membrane regions associated with the Gag lattice that exhibited a string of bead-like densities at the inner leaflet; and (3) an arrangement of the Gag lattice resembling a railroad track. Measurement of the average size and mass of VLPs and authentic HTLV-1 particles suggested a consistent range of size and Gag copy numbers in these two groups of particles. The unique local flat Gag lattice morphological feature observed suggests that HTLV-1 Gag could be arranged in a lattice structure that is distinct from that of other retroviruses characterized to date. PMID:27187442

  20. Repeated stimulation of dopamine D1-like receptor and hyperactivation of mTOR signaling lead to generalized seizures, altered dentate gyrus plasticity, and memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Ceolin, Laura; Paucard, Alexia; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Perroy, Julie; Fagni, Laurent; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    The acute activation of the dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R) is involved in a plethora of functions ranging from increased locomotor activity to the facilitation of consolidation, storage, and retrieval of memories. Although much less characterized, epileptiform activities, usually triggered by disruption of the glutamate and GABA balance, have also been reported to involve the dopaminergic transmission. Using a combination of biochemical, immunohistochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches we have investigated the consequences of repeated stimulation of D1R using the selective D1R-like agonist SKF81297. Here, we report that repeated systemic administration of SKF81297 induces kindled seizures in mice. These seizure episodes parallel the hyperactivation of the mTOR signaling in the hippocampus, leading to disrupted long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and altered recognition memories. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin delays the development of SKF81297-induced kindled seizures, and rescues LTP in the DG and object recognition. Our results show that repeated stimulation of D1R is sufficient to induce generalized seizures leading to the overactivation of mTOR signaling, disrupted hippocampal plasticity, and impaired long-term recognition memories. This work highlights the interest of mTOR inhibitors as therapeutic strategies to reverse plasticity and cognitive deficits. PMID:25044816

  1. The Role of Dopamine in Reinforcement: Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity Induced by D[subscript 1]-Type, D[subscript 2]-Type, and Nonselective Dopamine Receptor Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratcher, Natalie A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri; Dougan, James D.; Heidenreich, Byron A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Dose-dependent changes in sensitivity to reinforcement were found when rats were treated with low, moderate, and high doses of the partial dopamine D[subscript 1]-type receptor agonist SKF38393 and with the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine, but did not change when rats were treated with similar doses of the selective dopamine D[subscript…

  2. The SPI-1-like Type III secretion system: more roles than you think

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Frank; Barret, Matthieu; O’Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein delivery system which is involved in a wide spectrum of interactions, from mutualism to pathogenesis, between Gram negative bacteria and various eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, protozoa and mammals. Various phylogenetic families of the T3SS have been described, including the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 family (SPI-1). The SPI-1 T3SS was initially associated with the virulence of enteric pathogens, but is actually found in a diverse array of bacterial species, where it can play roles in processes as different as symbiotic interactions with insects and colonization of plants. We review the multiple roles of the SPI-1 T3SS and discuss both how these discoveries are changing our perception of the SPI-1 family and what impacts this has on our understanding of the specialization of the T3SS in general. PMID:24575107

  3. Dopamine-prolactin pathway potentially contributes to the schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Gragnoli, C; Reeves, G M; Reazer, J; Postolache, T T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are clinically associated, and common knowledge attributes this association to side effects of antipsychotic treatment. However, even drug-naive patients with SCZ are at increased risk for T2D. Dopamine dysfunction has a central role in SCZ. It is well-known that dopamine constitutively inhibits prolactin (PRL) secretion via the dopamine receptor 2 (DR2D). If dopamine is increased or if dopamine receptors hyperfunction, PRL may be reduced. During the first SCZ episode, low PRL levels are associated with worse symptoms. PRL is essential in human and social bonding, as well as it is implicated in glucose homeostasis. Dopamine dysfunction, beyond contributing to SCZ symptoms, may lead to altered appetite and T2D. To our knowledge, there are no studies of the genetics of the SCZ-T2D comorbidity focusing jointly on the dopamine and PRL pathway in the attempt to capture molecular heterogeneity correlated to possible disease manifestation heterogeneity. In this dopamine-PRL pathway-focused-hypothesis-driven review on the association of SCZ with T2D, we report a specific revision of what it is known about PRL and dopamine in relation to what we theorize is one of the missing links between the two disorders. We suggest that new studies are necessary to establish the genetic role of PRL and dopamine pathway in SCZ-T2D comorbidity. PMID:27093067

  4. Eucommia bark (Du-Zhong) improves diabetic nephropathy without altering blood glucose in type 1-like diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ho-Shan; Liu, I-Min; Niu, Chiang-Shan; Ku, Po-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Background Eucommia bark, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver barks (Du-Zhong in Mandarin), is an herb used for renal dysfunction in Chinese traditional medicine. In an attempt to develop this herb as a treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN), we investigated the effects of Du-Zhong on renal dysfunction in type 1-like diabetic rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce type 1-like diabetes in rats (STZ-diabetic rats). In addition to hyperglycemia, STZ-diabetic rats showed significant nephropathy, including higher plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue was applied to characterize the changes in potential signals related to nephropathy. Results Oral administration of Du-Zhong (1 g/kg/day) to STZ-diabetic rats for 20 days not only decreased the plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but also improved renal fibrosis, whereas the plasma glucose level was not changed. The higher expressions of protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor in diabetic rats were markedly attenuated by Du-Zhong. The increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in STZ-diabetic rats was also reduced by Du-Zhong. However, Du-Zhong cannot reverse the hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in the diabetic kidney. Conclusion Oral administration of Du-Zhong improves STZ-induced DN in rats by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling and suppressing TGF-β/connective tissue growth factor expression. Therefore, active principle from Du-Zhong is suitable to develop as new agent for DN in the future. PMID:27041999

  5. Pumilio1 Haploinsufficiency Leads to SCA1-like Neurodegeneration by Increasing Wild-Type Ataxin1 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gennarino, Vincenzo A.; Singh, Ravi K.; White, Joshua J.; De Maio, Antonia; Han, Kihoon; Kim, Ji-Yoen; Jafar-Nejad, Paymaan; di Ronza, Alberto; Kang, Hyojin; Sayegh, Layal S.; Cooper, Thomas A.; Orr, Harry T.; Sillitoe, Roy V.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a paradigmatic neurodegenerative proteinopathy, in which a mutant protein (in this case, ATAXIN1) accumulates in neurons and exerts toxicity; in SCA1 this process causes progressive deterioration of motor coordination. Seeking to understand how post-translational modification of ATAXIN1 levels influences disease, we discovered that the RNA-binding protein PUMILIO1 (PUM1) not only directly regulates ATAXIN1 but that it also plays an unexpectedly important role in neuronal function. Loss of Pum1 caused progressive motor dysfunction and SCA1-like neurodegeneration with motor impairment, primarily by increasing Ataxin1 levels. Breeding Pum1+/− mice to SCA1 mice (Atxn1154Q/+) exacerbated disease progression, whereas breeding them to Atxn1+/− mice normalized Ataxin1 levels and largely rescued the Pum1+/− phenotype. Thus, both increased wild-type ATAXIN1 levels and PUM1 haploinsufficiency could contribute to human neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of studying post-transcriptional regulation of disease-driving proteins to reveal factors underlying neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25768905

  6. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Timothy Walsh, B

    2015-09-30

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [(11)C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance. PMID:26272038

  7. Ergopeptines bromocriptine and ergovaline and the dopamine type-2 receptor inhibitor domperidone inhibit bovine equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1-like activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forages infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum produce ergot alkaloids that alter the systemic physiology of cattle such that reproduction, lactation, and growth are decreased. Ergopeptines are one predominant class of ergot alkaloids. However, aside from their interactions with biogenic amine rece...

  8. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type VI Secretion PGAP1-like Effector Induces Host Autophagy by Activating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Wang, Xia; Wang, Bei; Chen, Lihong; Zhao, Zhendong; Waterfield, Nicholas R; Yang, Guowei; Jin, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that regularly causes nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is responsible for the secretion of numerous virulence effector proteins that can both interfere with competing microbes and manipulate host cells. Here, we report a detailed investigation of a P. aeruginosa H2-T6SS-dependent phospholipase effector, TplE, which acts as a trans-kingdom toxin. Delivery of TplE to the periplasmic space of rival bacteria leads to growth inhibition. Importantly, TplE, also contains a eukaryotic PGAP1-like domain, which targets the host ER apparatus, ultimately leading to disruption of the ER. TplE activity leads to the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) through the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, enhancing autophagic flux. These findings indicate that this T6SS-delivered phospholipase effector is active against both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular targets, highlighting the T6SS as a versatile weapon in the Pseudomonas arsenal. PMID:27477276

  9. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  10. Dopamine D1 receptor expression is bipolar cell type-specific in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Farshi, Pershang; Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena; Krolewski, David M; Walker, Paul D; Ichinose, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    In the retina, dopamine is a key molecule for daytime vision. Dopamine is released by retinal dopaminergic amacrine cells and transmits signaling either by conventional synaptic or by volume transmission. By means of volume transmission, dopamine modulates all layers of retinal neurons; however, it is not well understood how dopamine modulates visual signaling pathways in bipolar cells. Here we analyzed Drd1a-tdTomato BAC transgenic mice and found that the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is expressed in retinal bipolar cells in a type-dependent manner. Strong tdTomato fluorescence was detected in the inner nuclear layer and localized to type 1, 3b, and 4 OFF bipolar cells and type 5-2, XBC, 6, and 7 ON bipolar cells. In contrast, type 2, 3a, 5-1, 9, and rod bipolar cells did not express Drd1a-tdTomato. Other interneurons were also found to express tdTomato including horizontal cells and a subset (25%) of AII amacrine cells. Diverse visual processing pathways, such as color or motion-coded pathways, are thought to be initiated in retinal bipolar cells. Our results indicate that dopamine sculpts bipolar cell performance in a type-dependent manner to facilitate daytime vision. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2059-2079, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587737

  11. Bidirectional regulation of synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala induced by the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenchen; Rainnie, Donald G

    2014-01-01

    Competing mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are thought to underlie the acquisition and consolidation of fear memories, and their subsequent extinction. However, no study to date has examined the locus of action and/or the cellular mechanism(s) by which these processes interact. Here, we report that synaptic plasticity in the cortical pathway onto BLA principal neurons is frequency-dependent and shows a transition from LTD to LTP at stimulation frequencies of ∼10 Hz. At the crossover point from LTD to LTP induction we show that concurrent activation of D1 and group II metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2/3) receptors act to nullify any net change in synaptic strength. Significantly, blockade of either D1 or mGluR2/3 receptors unmasked 10 Hz stimulation-induced LTD and LTP, respectively. Significantly, prior activation of presynaptic D1 receptors caused a time-dependent attenuation of mGluR2/3-induced depotentiation of previously induced LTP. Furthermore, studies with cell type-specific postsynaptic transgene expression of designer receptors activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) suggest that the interaction results via bidirectional modulation of adenylate cyclase activity in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals. The results of our study raise the possibility that the temporal sequence of activation of either presynaptic D1 receptors or mGluR2/3 receptors may critically regulate the direction of synaptic plasticity in afferent pathways onto BLA principal neurons. Hence, the interaction of these two neurotransmitter systems may represent an important mechanism for bidirectional metaplasticity in BLA circuits and thus modulate the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. PMID:25107924

  12. Bidirectional regulation of synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala induced by the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenchen; Rainnie, Donald G

    2014-10-01

    Competing mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are thought to underlie the acquisition and consolidation of fear memories, and their subsequent extinction. However, no study to date has examined the locus of action and/or the cellular mechanism(s) by which these processes interact. Here, we report that synaptic plasticity in the cortical pathway onto BLA principal neurons is frequency-dependent and shows a transition from LTD to LTP at stimulation frequencies of ∼10 Hz. At the crossover point from LTD to LTP induction we show that concurrent activation of D1 and group II metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2/3) receptors act to nullify any net change in synaptic strength. Significantly, blockade of either D1 or mGluR2/3 receptors unmasked 10 Hz stimulation-induced LTD and LTP, respectively. Significantly, prior activation of presynaptic D1 receptors caused a time-dependent attenuation of mGluR2/3-induced depotentiation of previously induced LTP. Furthermore, studies with cell type-specific postsynaptic transgene expression of designer receptors activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) suggest that the interaction results via bidirectional modulation of adenylate cyclase activity in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals. The results of our study raise the possibility that the temporal sequence of activation of either presynaptic D1 receptors or mGluR2/3 receptors may critically regulate the direction of synaptic plasticity in afferent pathways onto BLA principal neurons. Hence, the interaction of these two neurotransmitter systems may represent an important mechanism for bidirectional metaplasticity in BLA circuits and thus modulate the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. PMID:25107924

  13. Dopamine D1 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone type-2α receptors assemble into functionally interacting complexes in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuenzalida, J; Galaz, P; Araya, K A; Slater, P G; Blanco, E H; Campusano, J M; Ciruela, F; Gysling, K

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dopamine and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH; also known as corticotrophin-releasing factor) are key neurotransmitters in the interaction between stress and addiction. Repeated treatment with cocaine potentiates glutamatergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala/cortex pathway through a synergistic action of D1-like dopamine receptors and CRH type-2α receptors (CRF2α receptors). We hypothesized that this observed synergism could be instrumented by heteromers containing the dopamine D1 receptor and CRF2α receptor. Experimental Approach D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization was demonstrated in HEK293T cells using co-immunoprecipitation, BRET and FRET assays, and by using the heteromer mobilization strategy. The ability of D1 receptors to signal through calcium, when singly expressed or co-expressed with CRF2α receptors, was evaluated by the calcium mobilization assay. Key Results D1/CRF2α receptor heteromers were observed in HEK293T cells. When singly expressed, D1 receptors were mostly located at the cell surface whereas CRF2α receptors accumulated intracellularly. Interestingly, co-expression of both receptors promoted D1 receptor intracellular and CRF2α receptor cell surface targeting. The heteromerization of D1/CRF2α receptors maintained the signalling through cAMP of both receptors but switched D1 receptor signalling properties, as the heteromeric D1 receptor was able to mobilize intracellular calcium upon stimulation with a D1 receptor agonist. Conclusions and Implications D1 and CRF2α receptors are capable of heterodimerization in living cells. D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization might account, at least in part, for the complex physiological interactions established between dopamine and CRH in normal and pathological conditions such as addiction, representing a new potential pharmacological target. PMID:25073922

  14. [Dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma with neurofibromatosis type 1 : a case report].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Akiyama, Kotaro; Yamanaka, Kazuaki; Hirai, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2012-10-01

    Pheochromocytoma occurs in 0.1-5.7% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), while dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma is rare. We report here a rare case of dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma in a patient with NF1. A 46-year-old woman with NF1 was referred to our hospital with epigastralgia. The patient had no history of hypertension. Abdominal sonography incidentally revealed a left adrenal tumor, while abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings showed a left adrenal tumor, sized 63×58 mm. Laboratory evaluations revealed exclusively elevated urine dopamine levels in addition to elevated serum adrenaline and noradrenaline levels. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed and the dopamine levels and other cathecolamine levels returned to normal postoperatively. PMID:23235276

  15. Francisella tularensis type B ΔdsbA mutant protects against type A strain and induces strong inflammatory cytokine and Th1-like antibody response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Straskova, Adela; Spidlova, Petra; Mou, Sherry; Worsham, Patricia; Putzova, Daniela; Pavkova, Ivona; Stulik, Jiri

    2015-11-01

    Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterial pathogen, causing the disease tularemia. However, a safe and effective vaccine for routine application against F. tularensis has not yet been developed. We have recently constructed the deletion mutants for the DsbA homolog protein (ΔdsbA/FSC200) and a hypothetical protein IglH (ΔiglH/FSC200) in the type B F. tularensis subsp. holarctica FSC200 strain, which exerted different protection capacity against parental virulent strain. In this study, we further investigated the immunological correlates for these different levels of protection provided by ΔdsbA/FSC200 and ΔiglH/FSC200 mutants. Our results show that ΔdsbA/FSC200 mutant, but not ΔiglH/FSC200 mutant, induces an early innate inflammatory response leading to strong Th1-like antibody response. Furthermore, vaccination with ΔdsbA/FSC200 mutant, but not with ΔiglH/FSC200, elicited protection against the subsequent challenge with type A SCHU S4 strain in mice. An immunoproteomic approach was used to map a spectrum of antigens targeted by Th1-like specific antibodies, and more than 80 bacterial antigens, including novel ones, were identified. Comparison of tularemic antigens recognized by the ΔdsbA/FSC200 post-vaccination and the SCHU S4 post-challenge sera then revealed the existence of 22 novel SCHU S4 specific antibody clones. PMID:26253078

  16. A Plasmid Bearing the bla(CTX-M-15) Gene and Phage P1-Like Sequences from a Sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate.

    PubMed

    Shin, Juyoun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-10-01

    Plasmid pKP12226 was extracted and analyzed from a CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 11 (ST11) isolate collected in South Korea. The plasmid represents chimeric characteristics consisting of a pIP1206-like backbone and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. It bears a resistance region that includes resistance genes to several antibiotics and is different from previously characterized plasmids from South Korea bearing blaCTX-M-15. It may have resulted from recombination between an Escherichia coli plasmid backbone, a blaCTX-M-15-bearing resistance region, and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. PMID:26195513

  17. Accumulation of M1-like macrophages in type 2 diabetic islets is followed by a systemic shift in macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Cucak, Helena; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human T2D is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation, loss of β-cells, and diminished insulin production. Local islet immunity is still poorly understood, and hence, we evaluated macrophage subpopulations in pancreatic islets in the well-established murine model of T2D, the db/db mouse. Already at 8 weeks of disease, on average, 12 macrophages were observed in the diabetic islets, whereas only two were recorded in the nondiabetic littermates. On a detailed level, the islet resident macrophages increased fourfold compared with nondiabetic littermates, whereas a pronounced recruitment (eightfold) of a novel subset of macrophages (CD68+F4/80-) was observed. The majority of the CD68+F4/80+ but only 40% of the CD68+F4/80- islet macrophages expressed CD11b. Both islet-derived macrophage subsets expressed moderate MHC-II, high galectin-3, and low CD80/CD86 levels, suggesting the cells to be macrophages rather than DCs. On a functional level, the vast majority of the macrophages in the diabetic islets was of the proinflammatory, M1-like phenotype. The systemic immunity in diabetic animals was characterized by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase of splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages. In late-stage diabetes, the cytokine signature changed toward a TGF-β-dominated profile, coinciding with a significant increase of galectin-3-positive macrophages in the spleen. In summary, our results show that proinflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86(low) macrophages invade diabetic islets. Moreover, the innate immunity matures in a diabetes-dependent manner from an initial proinflammatory toward a profibrotic phenotype, supporting the concept that T2D is an inflammatory disease. PMID:24009176

  18. Striatal dopamine D1 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Tiihonen, Jari

    2005-01-01

    A considerable number of human and animal studies have implied the importance of dopamine system and alterations in dopamine receptors in the context of alcoholism. However, it has remained unclear if the alcohol-abuse related dopaminergic deficit is specifically associated with certain receptor subtype. The aim of this study was to compare putative alterations of dopamine D(1) receptors in caudate and putamen of nine type 1 alcoholics, eight type 2 alcoholics and 10 healthy controls by using [(3)H]SCH 23390 as a radioligand in postmortem human whole hemisphere autoradiography. In addition, we compared the present results to our earlier studies on dopamine transporters and dopamine D(2) receptors in these same subjects and evaluated the putative correlations of dopamine D(1) receptor densities between the nucleus accumbens and the above-mentioned structures. Our results show that alcoholics do not have significantly different striatal dopamine D(1) receptor densities compared to controls. Neither were there any significant correlations between the dopamine D(1) receptors and the two other dopamine binding sites. However, the correlations of the dopamine D(1) receptors between nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatal structures were consistently and mostly statistically significantly positive in alcoholics, but not in controls, which may suggest some pathology related to addiction. In addition, considering the facts that dopamine D(1) receptors were more abundant in the mesolimbic nucleus accumbens than in the caudate or putamen and that there was a strong tendency towards lower binding among type 1 alcoholics may suggest the importance of dopamine D(1) receptors in reward and/or alcoholism. PMID:15621009

  19. Effects of ketamine exposure on dopamine concentrations and dopamine type 2 receptor mRNA expression in rat brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Liu, Mei-Li; Wu, Xiu-Ping; Jia, Juan; Cao, Jie; Wei, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Yu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of ketamine abuse on the concentration of dopamine (DA), a monoamine neurotransmitter, and the mRNA expression of dopamine type 2 (D2) receptors in brain tissue, we used male Wistar rats to model ketamine abuse through chronic intraperitoneal infusion of ketamine across different doses. Methods: The rats were sacrificed 45 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after initiating the administration of ketamine or normal saline, as well as 3 days following discontinuation. Brain tissue was harvested to examine the concentration of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, the primary metabolites of DA, as well as the expression of D2 receptor mRNA. In addition, behavioral changes were observed within 30 minutes of administration, and withdrawal symptoms were also documented. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate variations and correlations in the primary outcome measures across the four doses and five time points. Brain DA concentrations were significantly higher in the ketamine-treated groups compared with the saline-treated group, with 30 mg/kg > 10 mg/kg > 60 mg/kg > saline (P < 0.05). The D2 receptor mRNA expression exhibited an inverse downregulation pattern, with 30 mg/kg < 10 mg/kg < 60 mg/kg < saline (P < 0.05). In the 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg ketamine-treated groups, the DA concentration and D2 receptor mRNA level in the brain tissue correlated with the dose of ketamine (r = 0.752, r = -0.806), but no significant correlation was found in the 60 mg/kg group. Result: These findings indicated that chronic dosing with ketamine increased the concentration of DA in rat brain tissue by increasing DA release or interrupting DA degradation. D2 receptor mRNA expression likely decreased because of stimulation with excessive DA. Conclusion: High-dose (60 mg/kg) ketamine had potent paralyzing effects on the central nervous system of rats and weakened the excitatory effects of the limbic system. Brain DA and D2 receptor m

  20. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  1. Dopamine D1, D2, D3 Receptors, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Type-2 (VMAT2) and Dopamine Transporter (DAT) Densities in Aged Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianjun; Xu, Jinbin; Cairns, Nigel J.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Mach, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type-2 (VMAT2), and dopamine transporter (DAT) densities were measured in 11 aged human brains (aged 77–107.8, mean: 91 years) by quantitative autoradiography. The density of D1 receptors, VMAT2, and DAT was measured using [3H]SCH23390, [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine, and [3H]WIN35428, respectively. The density of D2 and D3 receptors was calculated using the D3-preferring radioligand, [3H]WC-10 and the D2-preferring radioligand [3H]raclopride using a mathematical model developed previously by our group. Dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors are extensively distributed throughout striatum; the highest density of D3 receptors occurred in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The density of the DAT is 10–20-fold lower than that of VMAT2 in striatal regions. Dopamine D3 receptor density exceeded D2 receptor densities in extrastriatal regions, and thalamus contained a high level of D3 receptors with negligible D2 receptors. The density of dopamine D1 linearly correlated with D3 receptor density in the thalamus. The density of the DAT was negligible in the extrastriatal regions whereas the VMAT2 was expressed in moderate density. D3 receptor and VMAT2 densities were in similar level between the aged human and aged rhesus brain samples, whereas aged human brain samples had lower range of densities of D1 and D2 receptors and DAT compared with the aged rhesus monkey brain. The differential density of D3 and D2 receptors in human brain will be useful in the interpretation of PET imaging studies in human subjects with existing radiotracers, and assist in the validation of newer PET radiotracers having a higher selectivity for dopamine D2 or D3 receptors. PMID:23185343

  2. Aging Decreases L-Type Calcium Channel Currents and Pacemaker Firing Fidelity in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Sarah Y.; Sharma, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons are involved in behavioral processes that include cognition, reward learning, and voluntary movement. Selective deterioration of these neurons is responsible for the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aging is the leading risk factor for PD, suggesting that adaptations occurring in dopamine neurons during normal aging may predispose individuals to the development of PD. Previous studies suggest that the unique set of ion conductances that drive spontaneous, rhythmic firing of action potentials could predispose substantia nigra dopamine neurons to selective neurodegeneration. Here we show, using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, that substantia nigra dopamine neurons from mice 25–30 months of age (old) have comparable membrane capacitance and input resistance to neurons from mice 2–7 months of age (young). However, neurons from old mice exhibit slower firing rates, narrower spike widths, and more variable interspike intervals compared with neurons from young mice. Dopamine neurons from old mice also exhibit smaller L-type calcium channel currents, providing a plausible mechanism that likely contributes to the changes in impulse activity. Age-related decrements in the physiological function of dopamine neurons could contribute to the decrease in voluntary movement and other dopamine-mediated behaviors observed in aging populations. Furthermore, as pharmacological antagonism of L-type calcium channels has been proposed as a potential treatment for the early stages of PD, our results could point to a limited temporal window of opportunity for this therapeutic intervention. PMID:25009264

  3. Characterization of an invertebrate-type dopamine receptor of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology. PMID:24398985

  4. A review of dopamine agonist therapy in type 2 diabetes and effects on cardio-metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Lamos, E M; Levitt, D L; Munir, K M

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine action appears to play a role in changes that are seen in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine-QR (Quick Release), a dopamine agonist, is approved for use in treatment of type 2 diabetes. It has demonstrated modest improvement in glycemic parameters, cholesterol and weight in certain cohorts. Limited data using cabergoline, a long-acting dopamine agonist, also demonstrate glycemic efficacy. Additionally, bromocriptine-QR appears to have a favorable cardiovascular risk reduction. The direct mechanism by which bromocriptine-QR, or central dopamine agonism, achieves modest glycemic control and favorable cardio-metabolic profile is unclear. This relationship appears to be more complex than the historical explanation of "resetting" the circadian clock and may further be elucidated using data in individuals with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma. PMID:26670921

  5. Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling. PMID:25232310

  6. Polymorphism of the dopamine transporter type 1 gene modifies the treatment response in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Meguig, Sayah; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Labreuche, Julien; Vasseur, Francis; Duhamel, Alain; Delval, Arnaud; Bardyn, Thomas; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; Rouaix, Nathalie; Petyt, Gregory; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Guehl, Dominique; Eusebio, Alexandre; Fraix, Valérie; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Lagha-Boukbiza, Ouhaid; Durif, Frank; Faighel, Mirela; Giordana, Caroline; Drapier, Sophie; Maltête, David; Tranchant, Christine; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Debû, Bettina; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Tison, François; Destée, Alain; Vidailhet, Marie; Rascol, Olivier; Dujardin, Kathy; Defebvre, Luc; Bordet, Régis; Sablonnière, Bernard; Devos, David

    2015-05-01

    After more than 50 years of treating Parkinson's disease with l-DOPA, there are still no guidelines on setting the optimal dose for a given patient. The dopamine transporter type 1, now known as solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 3 (SLC6A3) is the most powerful determinant of dopamine neurotransmission and might therefore influence the treatment response. We recently demonstrated that methylphenidate (a dopamine transporter inhibitor) is effective in patients with Parkinson's disease with motor and gait disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine whether genetic variants of the dopamine transporter type 1-encoding gene (SLC6A3) are associated with differences in the response to treatment of motor symptoms and gait disorders with l-DOPA and methylphenidate (with respect to the demographic, the disease and the treatment parameters and the other genes involved in the dopaminergic neurotransmission). This analysis was part of a multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate in Parkinson's disease (Protocol ID:2008-005801-20; ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00914095). We scored the motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Stand-Walk-Sit Test before and after a standardized acute l-DOPA challenge before randomization and then after 3 months of methylphenidate treatment. Patients were screened for variants of genes involved in dopamine metabolism: rs28363170 and rs3836790 polymorphisms in the SLC6A3 gene, rs921451 and rs3837091 in the DDC gene (encoding the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase involved in the synthesis of dopamine from l-DOPA), rs1799836 in the MAOB gene (coding for monoamine oxidase B) and rs4680 in the COMT gene (coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase). Investigators and patients were blinded to the genotyping data throughout the study. Eighty-one subjects were genotyped and 61 were analysed for their acute motor response to l-DOPA. The SLC6A3

  7. TgaA, a VirB1-Like Component Belonging to a Putative Type IV Secretion System of Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75

    PubMed Central

    Balzaretti, Silvia; Taverniti, Valentina; Miriani, Matteo; Milani, Christian; Scarafoni, Alessio; Corona, Silvia; Ciranna, Alessandro; Arioli, Stefania; Santala, Ville; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Ventura, Marco; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 is a human intestinal isolate demonstrated to be interactive with the host and efficacious as a probiotic. However, the molecular biology of this microorganism is yet largely unknown. For this reason, we undertook whole-genome sequencing of B. bifidum MIMBb75 to identify potential genetic factors that would explain the metabolic and probiotic attributes of this bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a 45-kb chromosomal region that comprises 19 putative genes coding for a potential type IV secretion system (T4SS). Thus, we undertook the initial characterization of this genetic region by studying the putative virB1-like gene, named tgaA. Gene tgaA encodes a peptidoglycan lytic enzyme containing two active domains: lytic murein transglycosylase (LT, cd00254.3) and cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP, pfam05257.4). By means of several in vitro assays, we experimentally confirmed that protein TgaA, consistent with its computationally assigned role, has peptidoglycan lytic activity, which is principally associated to the LT domain. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling showed that the protein TgaA is abundantly expressed on the cell surface of B. bifidum MIMBb75. According to the literature, the T4SSs, which have not been characterized before in bifidobacteria, can have important implications for bacterial cell-to-cell communication as well as cross talk with host cells, justifying the interest for further studies aimed at the investigation of this genetic region. PMID:24951779

  8. A novel tomato MYC-type ICE1-like transcription factor, SlICE1a, confers cold, osmotic and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hai-Long; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Xia; Zhang, Song; Wang, Jie-Ru; Chai, Sen; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2013-12-01

    ICE1 (inducer of CBF expression 1), a MYC-type bHLH transcription factor, is an important activator of CBF3/DREB1A for regulating cold signaling and stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the novel ICE1-like gene SlICE1a from tomato which contains the conserved bHLH domain, an S-rich motif, and ACT-domain. It is localized in the nucleus and harbors transcription-activating activity in the N-terminal. In addition, the SlICE1a transcript is slightly upregulated by cold stress, salt stress, and osmotic stress. SlICE1a overexpression in tobacco enhances the induction of CBF/DREB and their target genes, consequently increasing the levels of proline, soluble sugars, and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and enhancing tolerance to cold stress, osmotic stress, and salt stress. SlICE1a functions in abiotic stress responses by regulating the expression of stress-tolerant genes, and is thus beneficial for crop improvement. PMID:24184451

  9. [Interactions between dopamine receptor and NMDA/type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ying; Wei, Ting-Jia; Weng, Jing-Jin; Qin, Jiang-Yuan; Huang, Xi; Su, Ji-Ping

    2016-04-25

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are the major inhibitory and excitatory receptors in the central nervous system, respectively. Co-expression of the receptors in the synapse may lead to functional influence between receptors, namely receptor interaction. The interactions between GABAAR and NMDAR can be either positive or negative. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two receptors remain poorly understood, and potential mechanisms include (1) through a second messenger; (2) by receptors trafficking; (3) by direct interaction; (4) by a third receptor-mediation. Dopamine is the most abundant catecholamine neurotransmitter in the brain, and its receptors, dopamine receptors (DR) can activate multiple signaling pathways. Earlier studies on the interaction between DR and GABAAR/NMDAR have shown some underlying mechanisms, suggesting that DR could mediate the interaction between GABAAR and NMDAR. This paper summarized some recent progresses in the studies of the interaction between DR and NMDAR/GABAAR, providing a further understanding on the interaction between NMDAR and GABAAR mediated by DR. PMID:27108906

  10. Excitation of type II anterior caudate neurons by stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Piercey, M F; Hyslop, D K; Hoffmann, W E

    1997-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both direct- and indirect-acting dopamine (DA) receptor agonists excite type II neurons in the anterior caudate (CN) by stimulation of DA receptors belonging to the D2 receptor subfamily (D2, D3, D4 receptor subtypes). In the present study, pramipexole, a D3-preferring DA agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease, excited type II anterior CN neurons. As with other direct-acting agonists, excitation of the CN neurons occurred only at doses above those that silenced DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Although more potent than pramipexole in inhibiting SNPC cells, PNU-91356A, a D2-preferring agonist, did not excite type II CN cells. The D3-preferring antagonist (+)-AJ76 was weaker than haloperidol, a D2-preferring antagonist, in reversing the effects of amphetamine on firing rates in dopaminergic neurons in both the SNPC and the CN. However, in relationship to its potency in the SNPC, (+)-AJ76 was more potent than haloperidol in the CN. PNU-101387, a selective D4 antagonist, did not alter amphetamine-induced stimulation of type II CN neurons. We conclude that DA agonists may excite type II anterior CN neurons via D3 receptor activation. The stimulation of these neurons may contribute to the anti-parkinsonian effects of pramipexole. PMID:9262154

  11. Specific binding and laterality of human extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors in late onset type 1 alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Kuikka, J T; Repo, E; Bergström, K A; Tupala, E; Tiihonen, J

    2000-09-29

    Late onset type 1 alcoholism has been suggested to be associated with decreased dopaminergic transmission. Our hypothesis was that late onset type 1 alcoholics have also abnormal extrastriatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor distribution. We performed binding, heterogeneity and laterality analysis of extrastriatal and striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in nine late onset male alcoholics and in 12 age-matched healthy males. A radioligand, [(123)I]epidepride was used in high resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Specific binding of epidepride in the left temporal pole was significantly (P<0.05) lower in type 1 alcoholics (0.74+/-0.14 ml/ml) than in controls (0.89+/-0.14 ml/ml). In alcoholics, there was no normal left-to-right asymmetry of the temporal cortical heterogeneity of epidepride distribution observed in control males (0.89+/-0.19 vs. 1.10+/-0.19; P<0.05). The results suggest that the specific binding of dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in late type 1 alcoholics is decreased and its laterality in the temporal brain is altered from normal. PMID:10996449

  12. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  13. D1 dopamine receptor signaling is modulated by the R7 RGS protein EAT-16 and the R7 binding protein RSBP-1 in Caenoerhabditis elegans motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed A; Catanese, Mary; Normantowicz, Robyn; Herd, Muriel; Maher, Kathryn N; Chase, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine signaling modulates voluntary movement and reward-driven behaviors by acting through G protein-coupled receptors in striatal neurons, and defects in dopamine signaling underlie Parkinson's disease and drug addiction. Despite the importance of understanding how dopamine modifies the activity of striatal neurons to control basal ganglia output, the molecular mechanisms that control dopamine signaling remain largely unclear. Dopamine signaling also controls locomotion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. To better understand how dopamine acts in the brain we performed a large-scale dsRNA interference screen in C. elegans for genes required for endogenous dopamine signaling and identified six genes (eat-16, rsbp-1, unc-43, flp-1, grk-1, and cat-1) required for dopamine-mediated behavior. We then used a combination of mutant analysis and cell-specific transgenic rescue experiments to investigate the functional interaction between the proteins encoded by two of these genes, eat-16 and rsbp-1, within single cell types and to examine their role in the modulation of dopamine receptor signaling. We found that EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to modulate dopamine signaling and that while they are coexpressed with both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors, they do not modulate D2 receptor signaling. Instead, EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to selectively inhibit D1 dopamine receptor signaling in cholinergic motor neurons to modulate locomotion behavior. PMID:22629462

  14. Multiple functions of Na/K-ATPase in dopamine-induced salivation of the Blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghun; Urban, Joshua; Boyle, Daniel L.; Park, Yoonseong

    2016-01-01

    Control of salivary secretion in ticks involves autocrine dopamine activating two dopamine receptors: D1 and Invertebrate-specific D1-like dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated Na/K-ATPase as an important component of the secretory process. Immunoreactivity for Na/K-ATPase revealed basal infolding of lamellate cells in type-I, abluminal interstitial (epithelial) cells in type-II, and labyrinth-like infolding structures opening towards the lumen in type-III acini. Ouabain (10 μmol l−1), a specific inhibitor of Na/K-ATPase, abolished dopamine-induced salivary secretion by suppressing fluid transport in type III acini. At 1 μmol l−1, ouabain, the secreted saliva was hyperosmotic. This suggests that ouabain also inhibits an ion resorptive function of Na/K-ATPase in the type I acini. Dopamine/ouabain were not involved in activation of protein secretion, while dopamine-induced saliva contained constitutively basal level of protein. We hypothesize that the dopamine-dependent primary saliva formation, mediated by Na/K-ATPase in type III and type II acini, is followed by a dopamine-independent resorptive function of Na/K-ATPase in type I acini located in the proximal end of the salivary duct. PMID:26861075

  15. Genetic analysis of two OsLpa1-like genes in Arabidopsis reveals that only one is required for wild-type seed phytic acid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytic acid (inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6) is the primary storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds. The rice OsLpa1 encodes a novel protein required for wild-type levels of seed InsP6 and was identified from a low phytic acid (lpa) mutant exhibiting a 45-50% reduction in seed InsP...

  16. Dopamine D2-like receptors selectively block N-type Ca2+ channels to reduce GABA release onto rat striatal cholinergic interneurones

    PubMed Central

    Momiyama, Toshihiko; Koga, Eiko

    2001-01-01

    The modulatory roles of dopamine (DA) in inhibitory transmission onto striatal large cholinergic interneurones were investigated in rat brain slices using patch-clamp recording. Pharmacologically isolated GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs were recorded by focal stimulation within the striatum. Bath application of DA reversibly suppressed the amplitude of evoked IPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50, 10.0 μm). A D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (3–30 μm), also suppressed the IPSCs, whereas a D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 81297, did not affect IPSCs. Sulpiride, a D2-like receptor antagonist, blocked the DA-induced suppression of IPSCs (apparent dissociation constant (KB), 0.36 μm), while a D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (10 μm), had no effect. DA (30 μm) reduced the frequency of spontaneous miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) without changing their amplitude distribution, suggesting that GABA release was inhibited, whereas the sensitivity of postsynaptic GABAA receptors was not affected. The effect of DA on the frequency of mIPSCs was diminished when extracellular Ca2+ was replaced by Mg2+ (5 mm), indicating that DA affected the Ca2+ entry into the presynaptic terminal. An N-type Ca2+ channel selective blocker, ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX, 3 μm), suppressed IPSCs by 65.4%, whereas a P/Q-type Ca2+ channel selective blocker, ω-agatoxin IVA (ω-Aga-IVA, 200 nm), suppressed IPSCs by 78.4%. Simultaneous application of both blockers suppressed IPSCs by 95.9%. Assuming a 3rd power relationship between Ca2+ concentration and transmitter release, the contribution of N-, P/Q- and other types of Ca2+ channels to presynaptic Ca2+ entry is estimated to be, respectively, 29.8, 40.0 and 34.5% at this synapse. After the application of ω-CgTX, DA (30 μm) no longer affected IPSCs. In contrast, ω-Aga-IVA did not alter the level of suppression by DA, suggesting that the action of DA was selective for N-type Ca2+ channels. A G protein alkylating agent, N

  17. Midbrain functional connectivity and ventral striatal dopamine D2-type receptors: Link to impulsivity in methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Milky; Okita, Kyoji; Morales, Angelica M.; Robertson, Chelsea; Dean, Andy C.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Sabb, Fred; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Bilder, Robert M.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulant use disorders are associated with deficits in striatal dopamine receptor availability, abnormalities in mesocorticolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), and impulsivity. In methamphetamine-dependent research participants, impulsivity is correlated negatively with striatal D2-type receptor availability, and mesocorticolimbic RSFC is stronger than in controls. The extent to which these features of methamphetamine dependence are interrelated, however, is unknown. This question was addressed in two studies. In Study 1, 19 methamphetamine-dependent and 26 healthy control subjects underwent [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography to measure ventral striatal dopamine D2-type receptor availability, indexed by binding potential (BPND), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess mesocorticolimbic RSFC, using a midbrain seed. In Study 2, an independent sample of 20 methamphetamine-dependent and 18 control subjects completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in addition to fMRI. Study 1 showed a significant group by ventral striatal BPND interaction effect on RSFC, reflecting a negative relationship between ventral striatal BPND and RSFC between midbrain and striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula in methamphetamine-dependent participants but a positive relationship in the control group. In Study 2, an interaction of group with RSFC on impulsivity was observed. Methamphetamine-dependent participants users exhibited a positive relationship of midbrain RSFC to the left ventral striatum with cognitive impulsivity, whereas a negative relationship was observed in healthy controls. The results indicate that ventral striatal D2-type receptor signaling may affect system-level activity within the mesocorticolimbic system, providing a functional link that may help explain high impulsivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. PMID:26830141

  18. Characterization of pKP-M1144, a Novel ColE1-Like Plasmid Encoding IMP-8, GES-5, and BEL-1 β-Lactamases, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 252 Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Dobiasova, Hana; Studentova, Vendula; Esteves, Francisco J.; Derde, Lennie P. G.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Gniadkowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    IMP-8 metallo-β-lactamase was identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 252 (ST252), isolated in a Portuguese hospital in 2009. blaIMP-8 was the first gene cassette of a novel class 3 integron, In1144, also carrying the blaGES-5, blaBEL-1, and aacA4 cassettes. In1144 was located on a ColE1-like plasmid, pKP-M1144 (12,029 bp), with a replication region of limited nucleotide similarity to those of other RNA-priming plasmids, such as pJHCMW1. In1144 and pKP-M1144 represent an interesting case of evolution of resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26033721

  19. Characterization of pKP-M1144, a Novel ColE1-Like Plasmid Encoding IMP-8, GES-5, and BEL-1 β-Lactamases, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 252 Isolate.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Dobiasova, Hana; Studentova, Vendula; Esteves, Francisco J; Derde, Lennie P G; Bonten, Marc J M; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Gniadkowski, Marek

    2015-08-01

    IMP-8 metallo-β-lactamase was identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 252 (ST252), isolated in a Portuguese hospital in 2009. blaIMP-8 was the first gene cassette of a novel class 3 integron, In1144, also carrying the blaGES-5, blaBEL-1, and aacA4 cassettes. In1144 was located on a ColE1-like plasmid, pKP-M1144 (12,029 bp), with a replication region of limited nucleotide similarity to those of other RNA-priming plasmids, such as pJHCMW1. In1144 and pKP-M1144 represent an interesting case of evolution of resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26033721

  20. Cortical dopamine D2 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Halonen, Pirjo; Tiihonen, Jari

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with lower density of striatal dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, but there is much less data on cortical DA D(2) receptors. We evaluated the [(125)I]epidepride binding to DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and controls in frontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate cortices by using human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography, which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. Type 1 alcoholics had lower and type 2 alcoholics had higher DA D(2) receptor density in all cortical areas compared to controls. Although the results did not reach statistical significance, the effect sizes were high. The DA D(2) receptor density in type 2 alcoholics decreased statistically significantly with age, and after correcting for age the binding values also fell below the level of controls. A statistically non-significant tendency towards a decrease of cortical DA D(2) receptors was seen in controls, whereas in the type 1 alcoholic group no consistent correlation or even tendency towards increase with age was observed. Our results give preliminary evidence that DA D(2) receptors in cortical areas may be lower among both groups of alcoholics, but not necessarily of same magnitude as in subcortical structures. The rapid decline of cortical DA D(2) receptors among type 2 alcoholics may have some relevance to their antisociality, because this trait tends to diminish with age. The absence of correlation or even tendency towards increase of cortical DA D(2) receptors with age seen in type 1 alcoholics may give further evidence that they have a pre-existing dopaminergic deficit. However, these results especially regarding aging effect must be considered as preliminary due to the different age-range of type 2 alcoholics compared to two other groups. PMID:15452867

  1. Dopamine D2 receptors and transporters in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Bergström, Kim; Mantere, Tuija; Räsänen, Pirkko; Särkioja, Terttu; Tiihonen, Jari

    2003-10-01

    Increasing evidence implies the involvement of the dopamine (DA) system in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. We measured striatal DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics by using [(125)I]epidepride in human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography (WHA), which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. We also evaluated the correlation between transporter and receptor DA binding site densities and putative correlation of [(125)I]epidepride binding between the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. In the type 1 alcoholics, the DA D(2) receptor density was 21.4-32.6% lower in all dorsal striatal structures (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) when compared with the controls. Type 2 alcoholics had 19.6-21.4% lower binding in other dorsal striatal structures, except medial globus pallidus, where they were not significantly different from controls. The density of DA D(2) receptors and DAT had a significant positive correlation only in the putamen of type 1 alcoholics. The binding of [(125)I]epidepride showed also consistent and statistically significant positive correlation between nucleus accumbens and all dorsal striatal areas in type 1 alcoholics but not in the controls. In the type 2 alcoholics, the correlation was weaker than that observed in the type 1 alcoholics, and no correlation was observed between nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus. Our results show that these two subgroups of alcoholics have stark differences in their DA D(2) receptor binding characteristics. Type 2 alcoholics may have selective deficiency in the dorsal striatum, whereas in limbic structures they may not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, WHA provides a useful tool for detailed mapping of neuronal receptors in healthy as well as diseased brain, and can also be used in radioligand development for PET. PMID:14505335

  2. Dopamine D(2)/D(3)-receptor and transporter densities in nucleus accumbens and amygdala of type 1 and 2 alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tupala, E; Hall, H; Bergström, K; Särkioja, T; Räsänen, P; Mantere, T; Callaway, J; Hiltunen, J; Tiihonen, J

    2001-05-01

    Alcohol acts through mechanisms involving the brain neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) with the nucleus accumbens as the key zone for mediating these effects. We evaluated the densities of DA D(2)/D(3) receptors and transporters in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala of post-mortem human brains by using [(125)l]epidepride and [(125)I]PE2I as radioligands in whole hemispheric autoradiography of Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and healthy controls. When compared with controls, the mean binding of [(125)I]epidepride to DA D(2)/D(3) receptors was 20% lower in the nucleus accumbens and 41% lower in the amygdala, and [(125)I]PE2I binding to DA transporters in the nucleus accumbens was 39% lower in type 1 alcoholics. These data indicate that dopaminergic functions in these limbic areas may be impaired among type 1 alcoholics, due to the substantially lower number of receptor sites. Our results suggest that such a reduction may result in the chronic overuse of alcohol as an attempt to stimulate DA function. PMID:11326293

  3. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3380807

  4. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3357895

  5. Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Gopez, V.; Delis, F.; Michaelides, M.; Grand, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Kunos, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brain regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.

  6. Injection of a Dopamine Type 2 Receptor Antagonist into the Dorsal Striatum Disrupts Choices Driven by Previous Outcomes, But Not Perceptual Inference

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjeong; Seo, Moonsang; Dal Monte, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Decisions are often driven by a combination of immediate perception and previous experience. In this study, we investigated how these two sources of information are integrated and the neural systems that mediate this process. Specifically, we injected a dopamine type 1 antagonist (D1A; SCH23390) or a dopamine type 2 antagonist (D2A; eticlopride) into the dorsal striatum while macaques performed a task in which their choices were driven by perceptual inference and/or reinforcement of past choices. We found that the D2A affected choices based on previous outcomes. However, there were no effects of the D2A on choices driven by perceptual inference. We found that the D1A did not affect perceptual inference or reinforcement learning. Finally, a Bayesian model applied to the results suggested that the D2A may be increasing noise in the striatal representation of value, perhaps by disrupting the striatal population that normally represents value. PMID:25904783

  7. Injection of a dopamine type 2 receptor antagonist into the dorsal striatum disrupts choices driven by previous outcomes, but not perceptual inference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjeong; Seo, Moonsang; Dal Monte, Olga; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-04-22

    Decisions are often driven by a combination of immediate perception and previous experience. In this study, we investigated how these two sources of information are integrated and the neural systems that mediate this process. Specifically, we injected a dopamine type 1 antagonist (D1A; SCH23390) or a dopamine type 2 antagonist (D2A; eticlopride) into the dorsal striatum while macaques performed a task in which their choices were driven by perceptual inference and/or reinforcement of past choices. We found that the D2A affected choices based on previous outcomes. However, there were no effects of the D2A on choices driven by perceptual inference. We found that the D1A did not affect perceptual inference or reinforcement learning. Finally, a Bayesian model applied to the results suggested that the D2A may be increasing noise in the striatal representation of value, perhaps by disrupting the striatal population that normally represents value. PMID:25904783

  8. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yi-Qian; Deng, Qiao-Wen; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th)17/T-regulatory (Treg) cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII) in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2−/− C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2−/− CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1−/− CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance. PMID:26693483

  9. D2 Dopamine receptor Taq1A polymorphism, body weight, and dietary intake in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal D.; Noble, Ernest P.; Ritchie, Terry; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J.A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Certain D2 dopamine receptor Taq 1A genotypes (A1A1, A1A2) have been associated with obesity and substance abuse. We hypothesized that their presence would be associated with reduced efficacy of dietary interventions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES In the course of a randomized clinical trial in an outpatient research center in which 93 adults with type 2 diabetes were assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines for 74 weeks, Taq 1A genotype was determined. Nutrient intake, body weight, and hemoglobin A1c (A1c) were measured over 74 weeks. RESULTS The A1 allele was highly prevalent, occurring in 47% of white participants (n = 49), which was significantly higher than the 29% prevalence previously reported in nondiabetic whites (P=0.01). The A1 allele was found in 55% of black participants (n = 44). Black participants with A1+ genotypes had significantly greater mean body weight (11.2 kg heavier, P=0.05), and greater intake of fat (P=0.002), saturated fat (P=0.01) and cholesterol (P=0.02), compared with A2A2 (A1-) individuals; dietary changes during the study did not favor one genotype group. Among whites, baseline anthropometric and nutrient differences between gene groups were small. However, among whites in the vegan group, A1+ individuals reduced fat intake (P=0.04) and A1c (P=0.01) significantly less than did A1- individuals. CONCLUSIONS The A1 allele appears to be highly prevalent among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Potential influences on diet, weight, and glycemic control merit further exploration. PMID:18834717

  10. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yi-Qian; Deng, Qiao-Wen; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th)17/T-regulatory (Treg) cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII) in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2 (-/-) CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1 (-/-) CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance. PMID:26693483

  11. Role of Dopamine Type 1 Receptors and Dopamine- and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein Mr 32 kDa in Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Mediated Induction of ΔFosB in the Mouse Forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Tomarchio, Aaron J; Lichtman, Aron H; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana, produces motor and motivational effects via interactions with the dopaminergic system in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. However, the molecular events that underlie these interactions after THC treatment are not well understood. Our study shows that pretreatment with dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists before repeated administration of THC attenuated induction of Δ FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (ΔFosB) in the nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. Anatomical studies showed that repeated THC administration induced ΔFosB in D1R-containing striatal neurons. Dopamine signaling in the striatum involves phosphorylation-specific effects of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which regulates protein kinase A signaling. Genetic deletion of DARPP-32 attenuated ΔFosB expression measured after acute, but not repeated, THC administration in both the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. THC was then acutely or repeatedly administered to wild-type (WT) and DARPP-32 knockout (KO) mice, and in vivo responses were measured. DARPP-32 KO mice exhibited enhanced acute THC-mediated hypolocomotion and developed greater tolerance to this response relative to the WT mice. Agonist-stimulated guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) binding showed that cannabinoid-stimulated G-protein activity did not differ between DARPP-32 KO and WT mice treated with vehicle or repeated THC. These results indicate that D1Rs play a major role in THC-mediated ΔFosB induction in the forebrain, whereas the role of DARPP-32 in THC-mediated ΔFosB induction and modulation of motor activity appears to be more complex. PMID:26099530

  12. Cell type analysis of functional fetal dopamine cell suspension transplants in the striatum and substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Ivar; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Cooper, Oliver; Viñuela, Angel; Ferrari, Daniela; Björklund, Lars; Dagher, Alain; Isacson, Ole

    2005-07-01

    We report the first post-mortem analysis of two patients with Parkinson's disease who received fetal midbrain transplants as a cell suspension in the striatum, and in one case also in the substantia nigra. These patients had a favourable clinical evolution and positive 18F-fluorodopa PET scans and did not develop motor complications. The surviving transplanted dopamine neurons were positively identified with phenotypic markers of normal control human substantia nigra (n = 3), such as tyrosine hydroxylase, G-protein-coupled inward rectifying current potassium channel type 2 (Girk2) and calbindin. The grafts restored the cell type that provides specific dopaminergic innervation to the most affected striatal regions in the parkinsonian brain. Such transplants were able to densely reinnervate the host putamen with new dopamine fibres. The patients received only 6 months of standard immune suppression, yet by post-mortem analysis 3-4 years after surgery the transplants appeared only mildly immunogenic to the host brain, by analysis of microglial CD45 and CD68 markers. This study demonstrates that, using these methods, dopamine neuronal replacement cell therapy can be beneficial for patients with advanced disease, and that changing technical approaches could have a favourable impact on efficacy and adverse events following neural transplantation. PMID:15872020

  13. Effects of Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Antagonists on Light Responses of Ganglion Cells in Wild-Type and P23H Rat Retinas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of retinitis pigmentosa the dopaminergic system in the retina appears to be dysfunctional, which may contribute to the debilitated sight experienced by retinitis pigmentosa patients. Since dopamine D2-like receptors are known to modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, I examined the effects of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists on the light responses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. Extracellular electrical recordings were made from RGCs in isolated transgenic P23H rat retinas and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat retinas. Intensity-response curves to flashes of light were evaluated prior to and during bath application of a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists sulpiride and eticlopride and the D4 receptor antagonist L-745,870 increased light sensitivity of P23H rat RGCs but decreased light sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. In addition, L-745,870, but not sulpiride or eticlopride, reduced the maximum peak responses of Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. I describe for the first time ON-center RGCs in P23H rats that exhibit an abnormally long-latency (>200 ms) response to the onset of a small spot of light. Both sulpiride and eticlopride, but not L-745,870, reduced this ON response and brought out a short-latency OFF response, suggesting that these cells are in actuality OFF-center cells. Overall, the results show that the altered dopaminergic system in degenerate retinas contributes to the deteriorated light responses of RGCs. PMID:26717015

  14. Effects of Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Antagonists on Light Responses of Ganglion Cells in Wild-Type and P23H Rat Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of retinitis pigmentosa the dopaminergic system in the retina appears to be dysfunctional, which may contribute to the debilitated sight experienced by retinitis pigmentosa patients. Since dopamine D2-like receptors are known to modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, I examined the effects of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists on the light responses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. Extracellular electrical recordings were made from RGCs in isolated transgenic P23H rat retinas and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat retinas. Intensity-response curves to flashes of light were evaluated prior to and during bath application of a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists sulpiride and eticlopride and the D4 receptor antagonist L-745,870 increased light sensitivity of P23H rat RGCs but decreased light sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. In addition, L-745,870, but not sulpiride or eticlopride, reduced the maximum peak responses of Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. I describe for the first time ON-center RGCs in P23H rats that exhibit an abnormally long-latency (>200 ms) response to the onset of a small spot of light. Both sulpiride and eticlopride, but not L-745,870, reduced this ON response and brought out a short-latency OFF response, suggesting that these cells are in actuality OFF-center cells. Overall, the results show that the altered dopaminergic system in degenerate retinas contributes to the deteriorated light responses of RGCs. PMID:26717015

  15. Effect of chronic treatment with angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists on striatal dopamine levels in normal rats and in a rat model of Parkinson's disease treated with L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Meijide, Antonio; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Sierrra-Paredes, German; Guerra, Maria J; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effects of angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1) inhibition have been observed in a number of brain processes mediated by oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Parkinson's disease. However, important counterregulatory interactions between dopamine and angiotensin systems have recently been demonstrated in several peripheral tissues, and it is possible that a decrease in dopamine levels due to AT1 inhibition may interfere with neuroprotective strategies. The present experiments involving rats with normal dopaminergic innervation indicate that chronic treatment with the AT1 antagonist candesartan does not significantly affect striatal levels of dopamine, serotonin or metabolites, as does not significantly affect motor behavior, as evaluated by the rotarod test. Interestingly, chronic administration of candesartan to normal rats induced a marked increase in dopamine D1 and a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor expression. In a rat model of Parkinson's disease treated with L-DOPA, no differences in striatal dopamine and serotonin levels were observed between candesartan-treated rats and untreated, which suggests that chronic treatment with candesartan does not significantly affect the process of L-DOPA decarboxylation and dopamine release in Parkinson's disease patients. Candesartan did not induce any differences in the striatal expression of dopamine D1 and D2 and serotonin 5-HT1B receptors in 6ydroxydopamine-lesioned rats treated with L-DOPA. The results suggest that chronic treatment with AT1 antagonists as a neuroprotective strategy does not significantly affect striatal dopamine release or motor behavior. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'. PMID:23973568

  16. Eukaryote DIRS1-like retrotransposons: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DIRS1-like elements compose one superfamily of tyrosine recombinase-encoding retrotransposons. They have been previously reported in only a few diverse eukaryote species, describing a patchy distribution, and little is known about their origin and dynamics. Recently, we have shown that these retrotransposons are common among decapods, which calls into question the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons among eukaryotes. Results To determine the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons, we developed a new computational tool, ReDoSt, which allows us to identify well-conserved DIRS1-like elements. By screening 274 completely sequenced genomes, we identified more than 4000 DIRS1-like copies distributed among 30 diverse species which can be clustered into roughly 300 families. While the diversity in most species appears restricted to a low copy number, a few bursts of transposition are strongly suggested in certain species, such as Danio rerio and Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Conclusion In this study, we report 14 new species and 8 new higher taxa that were not previously known to harbor DIRS1-like retrotransposons. Now reported in 61 species, these elements appear widely distributed among eukaryotes, even if they remain undetected in streptophytes and mammals. Especially in unikonts, a broad range of taxa from Cnidaria to Sauropsida harbors such elements. Both the distribution and the similarities between the DIRS1-like element phylogeny and conventional phylogenies of the host species suggest that DIRS1-like retrotransposons emerged early during the radiation of eukaryotes. PMID:22185659

  17. Dopamine-deficient mice are hypersensitive to dopamine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S; Szczypka, M S; Palmiter, R D

    2000-06-15

    Dopamine-deficient (DA-/-) mice were created by targeted inactivation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in dopaminergic neurons. The locomotor activity response of these mutants to dopamine D1 or D2 receptor agonists and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) was 3- to 13-fold greater than the response elicited from wild-type mice. The enhanced sensitivity of DA-/- mice to agonists was independent of changes in steady-state levels of dopamine receptors and the presynaptic dopamine transporter as measured by ligand binding. The acute behavioral response of DA-/- mice to a dopamine D1 receptor agonist was correlated with c-fos induction in the striatum, a brain nucleus that receives dense dopaminergic input. Chronic replacement of dopamine to DA-/- mice by repeated l-DOPA administration over 4 d relieved the hypersensitivity of DA-/- mutants in terms of induction of both locomotion and striatal c-fos expression. The results suggest that the chronic presence of dopaminergic neurotransmission is required to dampen the intracellular signaling response of striatal neurons. PMID:10844009

  18. Compensatory T-type Ca2+ channel activity alters D2-autoreceptor responses of Substantia nigra dopamine neurons from Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channel KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Poetschke, Christina; Dragicevic, Elena; Duda, Johanna; Benkert, Julia; Dougalis, Antonios; DeZio, Roberta; Snutch, Terrance P.; Striessnig, Joerg; Liss, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The preferential degeneration of Substantia nigra dopamine midbrain neurons (SN DA) causes the motor-symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), especially the Cav1.3-subtype, generate an activity-related oscillatory Ca2+ burden in SN DA neurons, contributing to their degeneration and PD. While LTCC-blockers are already in clinical trials as PD-therapy, age-dependent functional roles of Cav1.3 LTCCs in SN DA neurons remain unclear. Thus, we analysed juvenile and adult Cav1.3-deficient mice with electrophysiological and molecular techniques. To unmask compensatory effects, we compared Cav1.3 KO mice with pharmacological LTCC-inhibition. LTCC-function was not necessary for SN DA pacemaker-activity at either age, but rather contributed to their pacemaker-precision. Moreover, juvenile Cav1.3 KO but not WT mice displayed adult wildtype-like, sensitised inhibitory dopamine-D2-autoreceptor (D2-AR) responses that depended upon both, interaction of the neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 with D2-ARs, and on voltage-gated T-type calcium channel (TTCC) activity. This functional KO-phenotype was accompanied by cell-specific up-regulation of NCS-1 and Cav3.1-TTCC mRNA. Furthermore, in wildtype we identified an age-dependent switch of TTCC-function from contributing to SN DA pacemaker-precision in juveniles to pacemaker-frequency in adults. This novel interplay of Cav1.3 L-type and Cav3.1 T-type channels, and their modulation of SN DA activity-pattern and D2-AR-sensitisation, provide new insights into flexible age- and calcium-dependent activity-control of SN DA neurons and its pharmacological modulation. PMID:26381090

  19. Dysregulation of dopamine-dependent mechanisms as a determinant of hypertension: studies in dopamine receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chunyu; Armando, Ines; Luo, Yingjin; Eisner, Gilbert M.; Felder, Robin A.; Jose, Pedro A.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension by regulating epithelial sodium transport and by interacting with vasoactive hormones/humoral factors, such as aldosterone, angiotensin, catecholamines, endothelin, oxytocin, prolactin pro-opiomelancortin, reactive oxygen species, renin, and vasopressin. Dopamine receptors are classified into D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) subtypes based on their structure and pharmacology. In recent years, mice deficient in one or more of the five dopamine receptor subtypes have been generated, leading to a better understanding of the physiological role of each of the dopamine receptor subtypes. This review summarizes the results from studies of various dopamine receptor mutant mice on the role of individual dopamine receptor subtypes and their interactions with other G protein-coupled receptors in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:18083900

  20. Dissociable hippocampal and amygdalar D1-like receptor contribution to discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach learning.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Ryals, Curtis

    2016-02-15

    Pavlovian conditioning is an elementary form of reward-related behavioral adaptation. The mesolimbic dopamine system is widely considered to mediate critical aspects of reward-related learning. For example, initial acquisition of positively-reinforced operant behavior requires dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) activation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the ventral subiculum (vSUB). However, the role of D1R activation in these areas on appetitive, non-drug-related, Pavlovian learning is not currently known. In separate experiments, microinfusions of the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (3.0 nmol/0.5 μL per side) into the amygdala and subiculum preceded discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach (dPCA) training sessions. D1-like antagonism in all three structures impaired the acquisition of discriminated approach, but had no effect on performance after conditioning was asymptotic. Moreover, dissociable effects of D1-like antagonism in the three structures on components of discriminated responding were obtained. Lastly, the lack of latent inhibition in drug-treated groups may elucidate the role of D1-like in reward-related Pavlovian conditioning. The present data suggest a role for the D1 receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus in learning the significance of conditional stimuli, but not in the expression of conditional responses. PMID:26632336

  1. A Dopamine Receptor D2-Type Agonist Attenuates the Ability of Stress to Alter Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, F.; Ehlen, J. C.; Williams, N. S.; Montemarano, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Although sleep disruptions that accompany stress reduce quality of life and deteriorate health, the mechanisms through which stress alters sleep remain obscure. Psychological stress can alter sleep in a variety of ways, but it has been shown to be particularly influential on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Prolactin (PRL), a sexually dimorphic, stress-sensitive hormone whose basal levels are higher in females, has somnogenic effects on REM sleep. In the current study, we examined the relationship between PRL secretion and REM sleep after restraint stress to determine whether: 1) the ability of stress to increase REM sleep is PRL-dependent, and 2) fluctuating PRL levels underlie sex differences in sleep responses to stress. Because dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland are the primary regulator of PRL secretion, D2 receptor agonist, 1-[(6-allylergolin-8β-yl)-carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylurea (cabergoline), was used to attenuate PRL levels in mice before 1 hour of restraint stress. Mice were implanted with electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording electrodes and received an ip injection of either 0.3-mg/kg cabergoline or vehicle before a control procedure of 1 hour of sleep deprivation by gentle handling during the light phase. Six days after the control procedure, mice received cabergoline or vehicle 15 minutes before 1 hour of restraint stress. Cabergoline blocked the ability of restraint stress to increase REM sleep amount in males but did not alter REM sleep amount after stress in females even though it reduced basal REM sleep amount in female controls. These data provide evidence that the ability for restraint stress to increase REM sleep is dependent on PRL and that sex differences in REM sleep amount may be driven by PRL. PMID:25157453

  2. The BEL1-like family of transcription factors in potato

    PubMed Central

    Hannapel, David J.

    2014-01-01

    BEL1-type proteins are ubiquitous plant transcription factors in the three-amino-acid-loop-extension superfamily. They interact with KNOTTED1-like proteins, and function as heterodimers in both floral and vegetative development. Using the yeast two-hybrid system with POTATO HOMEOBOX1 (POTH1) as the bait, seven BEL1-type proteins were originally identified. One of these genes, designated StBEL5, has transcripts that move long distances in the plant and enhance tuberization and root growth. Using the potato genome database, 13 active BEL1-like genes were identified that contain the conserved homeobox domain and the BELL domain, both of which are essential for the function of BEL1-type proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the StBEL family demonstrated a degree of orthology with the 13 BEL1-like genes of Arabidopsis. A profile of the gene structure of the family revealed conservation of the length and splicing patterns of internal exons that encode key functional domains. Yeast two-hybrid experiments with KNOTTED1-like proteins and the new StBELs confirmed the interactive network between these two families. Analyses of RNA abundance patterns clearly showed that three StBEL genes, BEL5, -11, and -29, make up approximately two-thirds of the total transcript values for the entire family. Among the 10 organs evaluated here, these three genes exhibited the 12 greatest transcript abundance values. Using a phloem-transport induction system and gel-shift assays, transcriptional cross-regulation within the StBEL family was confirmed. Making use of the potato genome and current experimental data, a comprehensive profile of the StBEL family is presented in this study. PMID:24474812

  3. Relationship of Alexithymia Ratings to Dopamine D2-type Receptors in Anterior Cingulate and Insula of Healthy Control Subjects but Not Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Okita, Kyoji; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Payer, Doris E.; Robertson, Chelsea L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individuals with substance-use disorders exhibit emotional problems, including deficits in emotion recognition and processing, and this class of disorders also has been linked to deficits in dopaminergic markers in the brain. Because associations between these phenomena have not been explored, we compared a group of recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals (n=23) with a healthy-control group (n=17) on dopamine D2-type receptor availability, measured using positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Methods: The anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices were selected as the brain regions of interest, because they receive dopaminergic innervation and are thought to be involved in emotion awareness and processing. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale, which includes items that assess difficulty in identifying and describing feelings as well as externally oriented thinking, was administered, and the scores were tested for association with D2-type receptor availability. Results: Relative to controls, methamphetamine-dependent individuals showed higher alexithymia scores, reporting difficulty in identifying feelings. The groups did not differ in D2-type receptor availability in the anterior cingulate or anterior insular cortices, but a significant interaction between group and D2-type receptor availability in both regions, on self-report score, reflected significant positive correlations in the control group (higher receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) but nonsignificant, negative correlations (lower receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that neurotransmission through D2-type receptors in the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices influences capacity of emotion processing in healthy people but that this association is absent in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. PMID:26657175

  4. Msi1-Like (MSIL) Proteins in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong-Hoon; Maeng, Shinae

    2013-01-01

    Msi1-like (MSIL) proteins, which are eukaryote-specific and contain a series of WD40 repeats, have pleiotropic roles in chromatin assembly, DNA damage repair, and regulation of nutrient/stress-sensing signaling pathways. In the fungal kingdom, the functions of MSIL proteins have been studied most intensively in the budding yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ascomycete. Yet their functions are largely unknown in other fungi. Recently, an MSIL protein, Msl1, was discovered and functionally characterized in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, a basidiomycete. Interestingly, MSIL proteins appear to have redundant and unique roles in both fungi, suggesting that MSIL proteins may have evolutionarily divergent roles in different parts of the fungal kingdom. In this review, we will describe the current findings regarding the role of MSIL proteins in fungi and discuss future directions for research on this topic. PMID:23610533

  5. Dopamine autoreceptors and the effects of drugs on locomotion and dopamine synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, F.; Campbell, W.; Mitchell, P. J.; Randall, K.

    1985-01-01

    Criteria for distinguishing dopamine autoreceptor agonism from other mechanisms of inhibiting locomotion were examined, together with the relationship between inhibition of locomotion and dopamine synthesis. ED50 potencies to inhibit locomotion of mice were established for drugs from a number of categories. Spiperone 0.02 mg kg-1 significantly (P less than 0.05) reversed inhibition of locomotion by known dopamine agonists but not that by the other types of drug. Idazoxan antagonized inhibition of locomotion due to alpha 2-agonists but not dopamine agonists. RU 24926 (N-propyl-N,N-di[2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine) was antagonized by both spiperone and idazoxan. Only for dopamine agonists was there good correlation (r = 0.97) between potencies to inhibit locomotion in mice and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) accumulation in the nucleus accumbens of rats treated with gamma-butyrolactone and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine. The specific dopamine D1-agonist, SK&F 38393 (2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine), was inactive in both tests at doses up to 10 mg kg-1. The mixed dopamine agonist/antagonist, (-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine, commonly known as (-)-3-PPP, acted as a dopamine agonist in both tests but inhibited locomotion more potently than L-DOPA accumulation. The inhibitory effects of dopamine agonists on locomotion were not prevented by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine pretreatment. The data suggest that spiperone-reversible inhibition of locomotion in mice is a good criterion for dopamine autoreceptor agonists. The receptors involved are affected by low doses of both dopamine agonists and antagonists and seem similar to those involved in the autoreceptor mediated inhibition of dopamine synthesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4005487

  6. Reversibility of dopamine receptor antagonist-induced hyperprolactinemia and associated histological changes in Tg RasH2 wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gopala; Ganiger, Shivaputhrappa; Kannan, Kamala; Gopalakrishnan, Gopa; Goel, Saryu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the biological effects of increased prolactin levels induced in mice by dopamine D2 receptor antagonist molindone treatment. Toxicokinetics, prolactin levels, and reproductive tissue histology were evaluated in Tg rasH2 wild-type mice treated orally with molindone at 0, 5, 15, and 50mg/kg/day for 6 months, followed by a 2-month posttreatment recovery period. A greater than dose-proportional increase in molindone exposure ([AUC]0‒24) was observed on Day 180 for both sexes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) increases in prolactin levels were observed in most treatment groups compared with controls at 0.5h postdose on Days 1 and 180. Prolactin levels returned to baseline levels during the recovery period. Microscopic changes attributable to hyperprolactinemia, including corpora lutea enlargement and interstitial cell atrophy in the ovaries, and atrophy of the uterus and vagina were observed on Day 180. These changes were reversed during the recovery period in the 5- and 15-mg/kg/day treatment groups. Mice receiving molindone at 50mg/kg/day also showed signs of reversal on histologic examination. PMID:26327279

  7. Gastrointestinal dopamine as an anti-incretin and its possible role in bypass surgery as therapy for type 2 diabetes with associated obesity.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Suleman; Bernardes, Marilia; Harris, Paul E; Maffei, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize and integrate specific clinical observations from the field of gastric bypass surgery and recent findings in beta cell biology. When considered together, these data sets suggest a previously unrecognized physiological mechanism which may explain how Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery mediates the early rapid reversal of hyperglycemia, observed before weight loss, in certain type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The novel mechanism is based on a recently recognized inhibitory circuit of glucose stimulated insulin secretion driven by DA stored in β-cell vesicles and the gut. We propose that DA and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) represent two opposing arms of a glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) regulatory system and hypothesize that dopamine represents the "anti-incretin" hypothesized to explain the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on T2DM. These new hypotheses and the research driven by them may directly impact our understanding of: 1) the mechanisms underlying improved glucose homeostasis seen before weight loss following bariatric surgery; and 2) the regulation of glucose stimulated insulin secretion within islets. On a practical level, these studies may result in the development of novels drugs to modulate insulin secretion and/or methods to quantitatively asses in real time beta cell function and mass. PMID:26505694

  8. High Affinity Dopamine D3 Receptor (D3R)-Selective Antagonists Attenuate Heroin Self-Administration in Wild-Type but not D3R Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Comfort A; Bakare, Oluyomi M; Zhan, Jia; Banala, Ashwini K; Burzynski, Caitlin; Pommier, Elie; Keck, Thomas M; Donthamsetti, Prashant; Javitch, Jonathan A; Rais, Rana; Slusher, Barbara S; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-08-13

    The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a promising target for the development of pharmacotherapeutics to treat substance use disorders. Several D3R-selective antagonists are effective in animal models of drug abuse, especially in models of relapse. Nevertheless, poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, and/or predicted toxicity have impeded success in translating these drug candidates to clinical use. Herein, we report a series of D3R-selective 4-phenylpiperazines with improved metabolic stability. A subset of these compounds was evaluated for D3R functional efficacy and off-target binding at selected 5-HT receptor subtypes, where significant overlap in SAR with D3R has been observed. Several high affinity D3R antagonists, including compounds 16 (Ki = 0.12 nM) and 32 (Ki = 0.35 nM), showed improved metabolic stability compared to the parent compound, PG648 (6). Notably, 16 and the classic D3R antagonist SB277011A (2) were effective in reducing self-administration of heroin in wild-type but not D3R knockout mice. PMID:26203768

  9. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  10. Dopamine D2-like receptor signaling suppresses human osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Kentaro; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Okada, Yosuke; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Kubo, Satoshi; Kondo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine, a major neurotransmitter, transmits signals via five different seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1 to D5. Although the relevance of neuroendocrine system to bone metabolism has been emerging, the precise effects of dopaminergic signaling upon osteoclastogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human monocyte-derived osteoclast precursor cells express all dopamine-receptor subtypes. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists such as pramipexole and quinpirole reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells, cathepsin K mRNA expression, and pit formation area in vitro. These inhibitory effects were reversed by pre-treatment with a D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol or a Gαi inhibitor pertussis toxin, but not with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists, but not a D1-like receptor agonist, suppressed intracellular cAMP concentration as well as RANKL-meditated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1 mRNA expression in human osteoclast precursor cells. Finally, the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone marrow culture ex vivo. These findings indicate that dopaminergic signaling plays an important role in bone homeostasis via direct effects upon osteoclast differentiation and further suggest that the clinical use of neuroleptics is likely to affect bone mass. PMID:23631878

  11. Analogues of doxanthrine reveal differences between the dopamine D 1 receptor binding properties of chromanoisoquinolines and hexahydrobenzo[a]phenanthridines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cueva, J.P.; Chemel, B.R.; Juncosa, J.I., Jr.; Lill, M.A.; Watts, V.J.; Nichols, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to develop selective agonists for dopamine D 1-like receptors led to the discovery of dihydrexidine and doxanthrine, two bioisosteric ??-phenyldopamine-type full agonist ligands that display selectivity and potency at D 1-like receptors. We report herein an improved methodology for the synthesis of substituted chromanoisoquinolines (doxanthrine derivatives) and the evaluation of several new compounds for their ability to bind to D 1- and D 2-like receptors. Identical pendant phenyl ring substitutions on the dihydrexidine and doxanthrine templates surprisingly led to different effects on D 1-like receptor binding, suggesting important differences between the interactions of these ligands with the D 1 receptor. We propose, based on the biological results and molecular modeling studies, that slight conformational differences between the tetralin and chroman-based compounds lead to a shift in the location of the pendant ring substituents within the receptor. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analogues of doxanthrine reveal differences between the dopamine D1 receptor binding properties of chromanoisoquinolines and hexahydrobenzo[a]phenanthridines

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Juan Pablo; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Juncosa, Jose I.; Lill, Markus A.; Watts, Val J.; Nichols, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to develop selective agonists for dopamine D1-like receptors led to the discovery of dihydrexidine and doxanthrine, two bioisosteric β-phenyldopamine-type full agonist ligands that display selectivity and potency at D1-like receptors. We report herein an improved methodology for the synthesis of substituted chromanoisoquinolines (doxanthrine derivatives) and the evaluation of several new compounds for their ability to bind to D1- and D2-like receptors. Identical pendant phenyl ring substitutions on the dihydrexidine and doxanthrine templates surprisingly led to different effects on D1-like receptor binding, suggesting important differences between the interactions of these ligands with the D1 receptor. We propose, based on the biological results and molecular modeling studies, that slight conformational differences between the tetralin and chroman-based compounds lead to a shift in the location of the pendant ring substituents within the receptor. PMID:22204903

  13. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gironacci, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and Ang-(1-7) may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7) was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7) and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7)-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7) stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide) did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7) on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7) was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7) enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  14. Dopamine: the rewarding years

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

  15. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  16. Interaction of cocaine-, benztropine-, and GBR12909-like compounds with wild-type and mutant human dopamine transporters: molecular features that differentially determine antagonist-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Kyle C; Zhen, Juan; Kharkar, Prashant; Mishra, Manoj; Chen, Nianhang; Dutta, Aloke K; Reith, Maarten E A

    2008-11-01

    The widely abused psychostimulant cocaine is thought to elicit its reinforcing effects primarily via inhibition of the neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT). However, not all DAT inhibitors share cocaine's behavioral profile, despite similar or greater affinity for the DAT. This may be due to differential molecular interactions with the DAT. Our previous work using transporter mutants with altered conformational equilibrium (W84L and D313N) indicated that benztropine and GBR12909 interact with the DAT in a different manner than cocaine. Here, we expand upon these previous findings, studying a number of structurally different DAT inhibitors for their ability to inhibit [(3)H]CFT binding to wild-type, W84L and D313N transporters. We systematically tested structural intermediates between cocaine and benztropine, structural hybrids of benztropine and GBR12909 and a number of other structurally heterologous inhibitors. Derivatives of the stimulant desoxypipradrol (2-benzhydrylpiperidine) exhibited a cocaine-like binding profile with respect to mutation, whereas compounds possessing the diphenylmethoxy moiety of benztropine and GBR12909 were dissimilar to cocaine-like compounds. In tests with specific isomers of cocaine and tropane analogues, compounds with 3alpha stereochemistry tended to exhibit benztropine-like binding, whereas those with 3beta stereochemistry were more cocaine-like. Our results point to the importance of specific molecular features--most notably the presence of a diphenylmethoxy moiety--in determining a compound's binding profile. This study furthers the concept of using DAT mutants to differentiate cocaine-like inhibitors from atypical inhibitors in vitro. Further studies of the molecular features that define inhibitor-transporter interaction could lead to the development of DAT inhibitors with differential clinical utility. PMID:18786172

  17. Mercury exposure as a model for deviation of cytokine responses in experimental Lyme arthritis: HgCl2 treatment decreases T helper cell type 1-like responses and arthritis severity but delays eradication of Borrelia burgdorferi in C3H/HeN mice

    PubMed Central

    Ekerfelt, C; Andersson, M; Olausson, A; Bergström, S; Hultman, P

    2007-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a complex infection, where some individuals develop so-called ‘chronic borreliosis’. The pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown, but the type of immune response is probably important for healing. A strong T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-like response has been suggested as crucial for eradication of Borrelia and for avoiding development of chronic disease. Many studies aimed at altering the Th1/Th2 balance in Lyme arthritis employed mice deficient in cytokine genes, but the outcome has not been clear-cut, due possibly to the high redundancy of cytokines. This study aimed at studying the importance of the Th1/Th2 balance in murine Borrelia arthritis by using the Th2-deviating effect of subtoxic doses of inorganic mercury. Ninety-eight C3H/HeN mice were divided into four groups: Borrelia-infected (Bb), Borrelia-infected exposed to HgCl2 (BbHg), controls exposed to HgCl2 alone and normal controls. Mice were killed on days 3, 16, 44 and 65 post-Borrelia inoculation. Arthritis severity was evaluated by histology, spirochaetal load determined by Borrelia culture, IgG2a- and IgE-levels analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbemt assay (ELISA) and cytokine-secreting cells detected by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT). BbHg mice showed less severe histological arthritis, but delayed eradication of spirochaetes compared to Bb mice, associated with increased levels of IgE (Th2-induced) and decreased levels of IgG2a (Th1-induced), consistent with a Th2-deviation. Both the numbers of Th1 and Th2 cytokine-secreting cells were reduced in BbHg mice, possibly explained by the fact that numbers of cytokine-secreting cells do not correlate with cytokine concentration. In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis that a Th1-like response is required for optimal eradication of Borrelia. PMID:17672870

  18. Pre- and Postsynaptic Role of Dopamine D2 Receptor DD2R in Drosophila Olfactory Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cheng; Lee, Daewoo

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila play critical roles in diverse brain functions such as motor control, arousal, learning, and memory. Using genetic and behavioral approaches, it has been firmly established that proper dopamine signaling is required for olfactory classical conditioning (e.g., aversive and appetitive learning). Dopamine mediates its functions through interaction with its receptors. There are two different types of dopamine receptors in Drosophila: D1-like (dDA1, DAMB) and D2-like receptors (DD2R). Currently, no study has attempted to characterize the role of DD2R in Drosophila learning and memory. Using a DD2R-RNAi transgenic line, we have examined the role of DD2R, expressed in dopamine neurons (i.e., the presynaptic DD2R autoreceptor), in larval olfactory learning. The function of postsynaptic DD2R expressed in mushroom body (MB) was also studied as MB is the center for Drosophila learning, with a function analogous to that of the mammalian hippocampus. Our results showed that suppression of presynaptic DD2R autoreceptors impairs both appetitive and aversive learning. Similarly, postsynaptic DD2R in MB neurons appears to be involved in both appetitive and aversive learning. The data confirm, for the first time, that DD2R plays an important role in Drosophila olfactory learning. PMID:25422852

  19. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  20. Identification and analysis of LNO1-Like and AtGLE1-Like Nucleoporins in plants

    PubMed Central

    Braud, Christopher; Zheng, Wenguang; Xiao, Wenyan

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoporins (Nups) are building blocks of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) that mediate cargo trafficking between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Although the physical structure of the NPC is well studied in yeast and vertebrates, little is known about the structure of NPCs or the function of most Nups in plants. Recently we demonstrated two Nups in Arabidopsis: LONO1 (LNO1), homolog of human NUP214 and yeast Nup159, and AtGLE1, homolog of yeast Gle1, are required for early embryogenesis and seed development. To identify LNO1 and AtGLE1 homologs in other plant species, we searched the protein databases and identified 30 LNO1-like and 35 AtGLE1-like proteins from lower plant species to higher plants. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses indicate that the evolutionary trees of these proteins follow expected plant phylogenies. High sequence homology and conserved domain structure of these nucleoporins suggest important functions of these proteins in nucleocytoplasmic transport, growth and development in plants. PMID:24384931

  1. Dopamine Regulates Aversive Contextual Learning and Associated In Vivo Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Broussard, John I; Yang, Kechun; Levine, Amber T; Tsetsenis, Theodoros; Jenson, Daniel; Cao, Fei; Garcia, Isabella; Arenkiel, Benjamin R; Zhou, Fu-Ming; De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine release during reward-driven behaviors influences synaptic plasticity. However, dopamine innervation and release in the hippocampus and its role during aversive behaviors are controversial. Here, we show that in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA3-CA1 circuit underlies contextual learning during inhibitory avoidance (IA) training. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques verified sparse dopaminergic innervation of the hippocampus from the midbrain. The long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) underlying the learning of IA was assessed with a D1-like dopamine receptor agonist or antagonist in ex vivo hippocampal slices and in vivo in freely moving mice. Inhibition of D1-like dopamine receptors impaired memory of the IA task and prevented the training-induced enhancement of both ex vivo and in vivo LTP induction. The results indicate that dopamine-receptor signaling during an aversive contextual task regulates aversive memory retention and regulates associated synaptic mechanisms in the hippocampus that likely underlie learning. PMID:26904943

  2. Differential Effects of Dopamine Receptor D1-Type and D2-Type Antagonists and Phase of the Estrous Cycle on Social Learning of Food Preferences, Feeding, and Social Interactions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Gray, Durene G; Diaz-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Welsman, Robert G

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiological bases of social learning, by which an animal can ‘exploit the expertise of others' and avoid the disadvantages of individual learning, are only partially understood. We examined the involvement of the dopaminergic system in social learning by administering a dopamine D1-type receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg), or a D2-type receptor antagonist, raclopride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg), to adult female mice prior to socially learning a food preference. We found that while SCH23390 dose-dependently inhibited social learning without affecting feeding behavior or the ability of mice to discriminate between differently flavored diets, raclopride had the opposite effects, inhibiting feeding but leaving social learning unaffected. We showed that food odor, alone or in a social context, was insufficient to induce a food preference, proving the specifically social nature of this paradigm. The estrous cycle also affected social learning, with mice in proestrus expressing the socially acquired food preference longer than estrous and diestrous mice. This suggests gonadal hormone involvement, which is consistent with known estrogenic regulation of female social behavior and estrogen receptor involvement in social learning. Furthermore, a detailed ethological analysis of the social interactions during which social learning occurs showed raclopride- and estrous phase-induced changes in agonistic behavior, which were not directly related to effects on social learning. Overall, these results suggest a differential involvement of the D1-type and D2-type receptors in the regulation of social learning, feeding, and agonistic behaviors that are likely mediated by different underlying states. PMID:21525863

  3. Tonic Dopamine Modulates Exploitation of Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Daw, Nathaniel; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this “closed economy” paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior. PMID:21120145

  4. The immune adherence receptor CR1-like existed on porcine erythrocytes membrane

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wei; Cui, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; Zhao, Junxing; Fan, Kuohai; Sun, Na; Wang, Zhiwei; Sun, Yaogui; Ma, Haili; Li, Hongquan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we obtain a mouse anti-porcine complement receptor type 1 (CR1)-like monoclonal antibody (McAb) and use this McAb to verify the existence of CR1-like protein on porcine erythrocytes. Our results confirm that CR1-like protein is localized on the surface of porcine erythrocytes. Mouse immunoglobulin G inhibited the binding of serum-opsonized green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli to porcine erythrocytes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that CR1-like McAb reacts with biochemically-purified porcine erythrocyte membrane fractions, with a clear band at 135 kDa to 140 kDa. We postulate that the 135 kDa to 140 kDa membrane protein is the equivalent of the porcine erythrocyte CR1-like protein. PMID:26268676

  5. QUANTIFICATION OF RESERVE POOL DOPAMINE IN METHIONINE SULFOXIDE REDUCTASE A NULL MICE

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Andrea N.; Oien, Derek B.; Moskovitz, Jackob; Johnson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mice, which serve as a potential model for neurodegeneration, suffer from increased oxidative stress and have previously been found to have chronically elevated brain dopamine content levels relative to control mice. Additionally, these high levels parallel increased presynaptic dopamine release. In this work, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to quantify striatal reserve pool dopamine in knockout mice and wild-type control mice. Reserve pool dopamine efflux, induced by amphetamine, was measured in brain slices from knockout and wild type mice in the presence of α-methyl-p-tyrosine, a dopamine synthesis inhibitor. Additionally, the stimulated release of reserve pool dopamine, mobilized by cocaine, was measured. Both efflux and stimulated release measurements were enhanced in slices from knockout mice, suggesting that these mice have greater reserve pool dopamine stores than wild-type and that these stores are effectively mobilized. Moreover, dopamine transporter labeling data indicate that the difference in measured dopamine efflux was likely not caused by altered dopamine transporter protein expression. Additionally, slices from MsrA−/− and wild-type mice were equally responsive to increasing extracellular calcium concentrations, suggesting that potential differences in either calcium entry or intracellular calcium handling are not responsible for increased reserve pool dopamine release. Collectively, these results demonstrate that MsrA−/− knockout mice maintain a larger dopamine reserve pool than wild-type control mice, and that this pool is readily mobilized. PMID:21219974

  6. Absence of NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons attenuates dopamine release but not conditioned approach during Pavlovian conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jones G.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Clark, Jeremy J.; Evans, Scott B.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    During Pavlovian conditioning, phasic dopamine (DA) responses emerge to reward-predictive stimuli as the subject learns to anticipate reward delivery. This observation has led to the hypothesis that phasic dopamine signaling is important for learning. To assess the ability of mice to develop anticipatory behavior and to characterize the contribution of dopamine, we used a food-reinforced Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. As mice learned the cue–reward association, they increased their head entries to the food receptacle in a pattern that was consistent with conditioned anticipatory behavior. D1-receptor knockout (D1R-KO) mice had impaired acquisition, and systemic administration of a D1R antagonist blocked both the acquisition and expression of conditioned approach in wild-type mice. To assess the specific contribution of phasic dopamine transmission, we tested mice lacking NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) exclusively in dopamine neurons (NR1-KO mice). Surprisingly, NR1-KO mice learned at the same rate as their littermate controls. To evaluate the contribution of NMDARs to phasic dopamine release in this paradigm, we performed fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens of awake mice. Despite having significantly attenuated phasic dopamine release following reward delivery, KO mice developed cue-evoked dopamine release at the same rate as controls. We conclude that NMDARs in dopamine neurons enhance but are not critical for phasic dopamine release to behaviorally relevant stimuli; furthermore, their contribution to phasic dopamine signaling is not necessary for the development of cue-evoked dopamine or anticipatory activity in a D1R-dependent Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. PMID:20616081

  7. Dopamine receptor regulating factor, DRRF: a zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C K; D'Souza, U M; Eisch, A J; Yajima, S; Lammers, C H; Yang, Y; Lee, S H; Kim, Y M; Nestler, E J; Mouradian, M M

    2001-06-19

    Dopamine receptor genes are under complex transcription control, determining their unique regional distribution in the brain. We describe here a zinc finger type transcription factor, designated dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF), which binds to GC and GT boxes in the D1A and D2 dopamine receptor promoters and effectively displaces Sp1 and Sp3 from these sequences. Consequently, DRRF can modulate the activity of these dopamine receptor promoters. Highest DRRF mRNA levels are found in brain with a specific regional distribution including olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex. Many of these brain regions also express abundant levels of various dopamine receptors. In vivo, DRRF itself can be regulated by manipulations of dopaminergic transmission. Mice treated with drugs that increase extracellular striatal dopamine levels (cocaine), block dopamine receptors (haloperidol), or destroy dopamine terminals (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) show significant alterations in DRRF mRNA. The latter observations provide a basis for dopamine receptor regulation after these manipulations. We conclude that DRRF is important for modulating dopaminergic transmission in the brain. PMID:11390978

  8. Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  9. Identification of a dopamine pathway that regulates sleep and arousal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Endo, Keita; Ito, Kei; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is required to maintain physiological functions, including memory, and is regulated by monoamines across species. Enhancement of dopamine signals by a mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) decreases sleep, but the underlying dopamine circuit responsible for this remains unknown. We found that the D1 dopamine receptor (DA1) in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFSB) mediates the arousal effect of dopamine in Drosophila. The short sleep phenotype of the DAT mutant was completely rescued by an additional mutation in the DA1 (also known as DopR) gene, but expression of wild-type DA1 in the dFSB restored the short sleep phenotype. We found anatomical and physiological connections between dopamine neurons and the dFSB neuron. Finally, we used mosaic analysis with a repressive marker and found that a single dopamine neuron projecting to the FSB activated arousal. These results suggest that a local dopamine pathway regulates sleep. PMID:23064381

  10. Striatal dopamine receptor plasticity in neurotensin deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Lucy G.; Qu, Hongyan; Bourke, Chase H.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Dobner, Paul R.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Kinkead, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to be caused, at least in part, by dysfunction in striatal dopamine neurotransmission. Both clinical studies and animal research have implicated the dopamine neuromodulator neurotensin (NT) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Utilizing male mice lacking the NT gene (NT−/−), these studies examined the consequences of NT deficiency on dopaminergic tone and function, investigating (1) dopamine concentrations and dopamine receptor and transporter expression and binding in dopaminergic terminal regions, and (2) the behavioral effects of selective dopamine receptor agonists on locomotion and sensorimotor gating in adult NT−/− mice compared to wildtype (NT+/+) mice. NT−/− mice did not differ from NT+/+ mice in concentrations of dopamine or its metabolite DOPAC in any brain region examined. However, NT−/− mice showed significantly increased D1 receptor, D2 receptor, and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA in the caudate putamen compared to NT+/+ controls. NT−/− mice also showed elevated D2 receptor binding densities in both the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens shell compared to NT+/+ mice. In addition, some of the behavioral effects of the D1-type receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole on locomotion, startle amplitude, and prepulse inhibition were dose-dependently altered in NT−/− mice, showing altered D1-type and D2-type receptor sensitivity to stimulation by agonists in the absence of NT. The results indicate that NT deficiency alters striatal dopamine receptor expression, binding, and function. This suggests a critical role for the NT system in the maintenance of striatal DA system homeostasis and implicates NT deficiency in the etiology of dopamine-associated disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:25449842

  11. Regulation of bat echolocation pulse acoustics by striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Tressler, Jedediah; Schwartz, Christine; Wellman, Paul; Hughes, Samuel; Smotherman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to control the bandwidth, amplitude and duration of echolocation pulses is a crucial aspect of echolocation performance but few details are known about the neural mechanisms underlying the control of these voice parameters in any mammal. The basal ganglia (BG) are a suite of forebrain nuclei centrally involved in sensory-motor control and are characterized by their dependence on dopamine. We hypothesized that pharmacological manipulation of brain dopamine levels could reveal how BG circuits might influence the acoustic structure of bat echolocation pulses. A single intraperitoneal injection of a low dose (5 mg kg–1) of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPTP), which selectively targets dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra, produced a rapid degradation in pulse acoustic structure and eliminated the bat's ability to make compensatory changes in pulse amplitude in response to background noise, i.e. the Lombard response. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements of striatal dopamine concentrations revealed that the main effect of MPTP was a fourfold increase rather than the predicted decrease in striatal dopamine levels. After first using autoradiographic methods to confirm the presence and location of D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors in the bat striatum, systemic injections of receptor subtype-specific agonists showed that MPTP's effects on pulse acoustics were mimicked by a D2-type dopamine receptor agonist (Quinpirole) but not by a D1-type dopamine receptor agonist (SKF82958). The results suggest that BG circuits have the capacity to influence echolocation pulse acoustics, particularly via D2-type dopamine receptor-mediated pathways, and may therefore represent an important mechanism for vocal control in bats. PMID:21900471

  12. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Levite, M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine, a principal neurotransmitter, deserves upgrading to 'NeuroImmunotransmitter' thanks to its multiple, direct and powerful effects on most/all immune cells. Dopamine by itself is a potent activator of resting effector T cells (Teffs), via two independent ways: direct Teffs activation, and indirect Teffs activation by suppression of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The review covers the following findings: (i) T cells express functional dopamine receptors (DRs) D1R-D5R, but their level and function are dynamic and context-sensitive, (ii) DR membranal protein levels do not necessarily correlate with DR mRNA levels, (iii) different T cell types/subtypes have different DR levels and composition and different responses to dopamine, (iv) autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells and T cell leukaemia/lymphoma also express functional DRs, (v) dopamine (~10(-8) M) activates resting/naive Teffs (CD8(+) >CD4(+) ), (vi) dopamine affects Th1/Th2/Th17 differentiation, (vii) dopamine inhibits already activated Teffs (i.e. T cells that have been already activated by either antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies cytokines or other molecules), (viii) dopamine inhibits activated Tregs in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, dopamine 'suppresses the suppressors' and releases the inhibition they exert on Teffs, (ix) dopamine affects intracellular signalling molecules and cascades in T cells (e.g. ERK, Lck, Fyn, NF-κB, KLF2), (x) T cells produce dopamine (Tregs>Teffs), can release dopamine, mainly after activation (by antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies, PKC activators or other), uptake extracellular dopamine, and most probably need dopamine, (xi) dopamine is important for antigen-specific interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, (xii) in few autoimmune diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis/SLE/rheumatoid arthritis), and neurological/psychiatric diseases (e.g. Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and Tourette), patient's T cells seem to have abnormal DRs

  13. Amphetamine paradoxically augments exocytotic dopamine release and phasic dopamine signals.

    PubMed

    Daberkow, D P; Brown, H D; Bunner, K D; Kraniotis, S A; Doellman, M A; Ragozzino, M E; Garris, P A; Roitman, M F

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain-reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting nonexocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties, which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to 2 h. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration, and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, nonelectrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sugar reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sugar-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify upregulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  14. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dan P; Bunner, Kendra D; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Cheer, Joseph F; Garris, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  15. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. PMID:26608248

  16. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glovaci, Iulia; Chapman, C. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36) completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is likely dependent

  17. METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE TYPE 5, DOPAMINE D2 AND ADENOSINE A2A RECEPTORS FORM HIGHER-ORDER OLIGOMERS IN LIVING CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Gandía, Jorge; Bertarelli, Daniela C. G.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi; Luján, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are known to form homo- and heteromers at the plasma membrane, but the stoichiometry of these receptor oligomers are relatively unknown. Here, by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we visualized for the first time the occurrence of heterodimers of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptors (mGlu5R) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in living cells. Furthermore, the combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques, as well as the sequential resonance energy transfer (SRET) technique, allowed us to detect the occurrence receptor oligomers containing more than two protomers, mGlu5R, D2R and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Interestingly, by using high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy we could confirm that the three receptors co-distribute within the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of the same dendritic spines of asymmetrical, putative glutamatergic, striatal synapses. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in native tissue demonstrated the existence of an association of mGlu5R, D2R and A2AR in rat striatum homogenates. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular composition of G protein-coupled receptor oligomers in general and the mGlu5R/D2R/A2AR oligomer in particular, a receptor oligomer that might constitute an important target for the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19344374

  18. Systemic Blockade of Dopamine D2-Like Receptors Increases High-Voltage Spindles in the Globus Pallidus and Motor Cortex of Freely Moving Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Heng, Li-Jun; Zhao, Tian-Zhi; Li, Wei-Xin; Jia, Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ling; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    High-voltage spindles (HVSs) have been reported to appear spontaneously and widely in the cortical–basal ganglia networks of rats. Our previous study showed that dopamine depletion can significantly increase the power and coherence of HVSs in the globus pallidus (GP) and motor cortex of freely moving rats. However, it is unclear whether dopamine regulates HVS activity by acting on dopamine D1-like receptors or D2-like receptors. We employed local-field potential and electrocorticogram methods to simultaneously record the oscillatory activities in the GP and primary motor cortex (M1) in freely moving rats following systemic administration of dopamine receptor antagonists or saline. The results showed that the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists, raclopride and haloperidol, significantly increased the number and duration of HVSs, and the relative power associated with HVS activity in the GP and M1 cortex. Coherence values for HVS activity between the GP and M1 cortex area were also significantly increased by dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists. On the contrary, the selective dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH23390, had no significant effect on the number, duration, or relative power of HVSs, or HVS-related coherence between M1 and GP. In conclusion, dopamine D2-like receptors, but not D1-like receptors, were involved in HVS regulation. This supports the important role of dopamine D2-like receptors in the regulation of HVSs. An siRNA knock-down experiment on the striatum confirmed our conclusion. PMID:23755132

  19. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. PMID:20417658

  20. Coexpressed D1- and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew T.; Maher, Kathryn N.; Wani, Khursheed A.; Betts, Katherine E.; Chase, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain. While subtypes of D1- and D2-like receptors are coexpressed in many neurons of the mammalian brain, it is unclear how signaling by these coexpressed receptors interacts to modulate the activity of the neuron in which they are expressed. D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. To begin to understand how coexpressed dopamine receptors interact to modulate neuron activity, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and isolated mutants defective in dopamine response. These mutants were also defective in behaviors mediated by endogenous dopamine signaling, including basal slowing and swimming-induced paralysis. We used transgene rescue experiments to show that defects in these dopamine-specific behaviors were caused by abnormal signaling in the cholinergic motor neurons. To investigate the interaction between the D1- and D2-like receptors specifically in these cholinergic motor neurons, we measured the sensitivity of dopamine-signaling mutants and transgenic animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling stimulated release from these same cells. Thus, coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors act antagonistically in vivo to modulate acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons of C. elegans. PMID:21515580

  1. Differential Contributions of Dopaminergic D1-like and D2-like Receptors to Cognitive Function in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Von Huben, Stefani N.; Davis, Sophia A.; Lay, Christopher C.; Katner, Simon N.; Crean, Rebecca D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Dopaminergic neurotransmission is critically involved in many aspects of complex behavior and cognition beyond reward/reinforcement and motor function. Mental and behavioral disorders associated with major disruptions of dopamine neurotransmission, including schizophrenia, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease and substance abuse, produce constellations of neuropsychological deficits in learning, memory and attention in addition to other defining symptoms. Objective To delineate the role dopaminergic D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes play in complex brain functions. Methods Monkeys (N=6) were trained on cognitive tests adapted from a human neuropsychological assessment battery (CANTAB; CAmbridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). The battery included tests of spatial working memory (self-ordered spatial search task, SOSS), visuo-spatial associative memory and learning (visuo-spatial paired associates learning task, vsPAL) and motivation (progressive ratio task, PR). Tests of motor function (bimanual motor skill task, BMS; rotating turntable task, RTT) were also included. Effects of the dopamine D2-like antagonist raclopride (10-56 μg/kg, i.m.) and the D1-like antagonist SCH23390 (SCH; 3.2-56 μg/kg, i.m.) on cognitive performance were then determined. Results Deficits on PR, RTT and BMS performance were observed after both raclopride and SCH23390. Spatial working memory accuracy was reduced to a greater extent by raclopride than by SCH which was unexpected, given prior reports on the involvement of D1 signaling for spatial working memory in monkeys. Deficits were observed on vsPAL performance after raclopride, but not after SCH23390. Conclusions The intriguing results suggest a greater contribution of D2-like over D1-like receptors to both spatial working memory and object-location associative memory. PMID:16538469

  2. Growth of dopamine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  3. Deamination of newly-formed dopamine in rat renal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. H.; Pestana, M.; Soares-da-Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    1. The present study has examined the formation of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in slices of the rat renal cortex and the renal medulla loaded with exogenous L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). The effects of pargyline and of two selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) types A and B, respectively Ro 41-1049 and Ro 19-6327, on the deamination of newly-synthesized dopamine in kidney slices incubated with exogenous L-DOPA were also tested. The assay of L-DOPA, dopamine, noradrenaline and DOPAC was performed by means of h.p.l.c. with electrochemical detection. 2. Incubation of renal slices with exogenous L-DOPA resulted in a concentration-dependent accumulation of dopamine and DOPAC; the tissue levels of newly-formed dopamine and DOPAC in slices of the renal medulla were 6-8% of those in cortical slices. 3. Pargyline (0.1 mM) produced a marked decrease (84% reduction) in the formation of DOPAC in kidney slices loaded with 1.0 mM L-DOPA; this effect was accompanied by a 17% increase in the accumulation of dopamine. Similar effects were obtained at higher concentrations of pargyline (0.5 and 1.0 mM). At 5.0 and 10.0 mM pargyline, a marked decrease (46 and 76% reduction) in the accumulation of newly-formed dopamine was observed. 4. The accumulation of dopamine and DOPAC was found to be time-dependent in experiments in which tissues were incubated with 5 and 10 microM L-DOPA for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Pargyline (0.1 mM) produced an increase in the accumulation of dopamine at all incubation periods and decreased the formation of DOPAC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1364853

  4. Dopamine receptors - IUPHAR Review 13.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  5. Dopamine release is severely compromised in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael A; Rajan, Vignesh; Miller, Charles E; Wightman, R Mark

    2006-05-01

    Recently, alterations in dopamine signaling have been implicated in Huntington's disease. In this work, dopamine release and uptake was measured in striatal slices from the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. Dopamine release in brain slices from 6-week-old R6/2 mice is substantially reduced (53% of wild type), while dopamine uptake is unaffected. In agreement with this, R6/2 mice injected with the dopamine uptake inhibitor cocaine exhibited a blunted motor activity response (54% of wild type). At 10 weeks of age, an even more dramatic motor activity decrease in response to cocaine injection (21% of wild type) was observed. Moreover, the pre-drug activity of 10-week-old R6/2 mice was significantly reduced (by 37%) compared with 6-week-old R6/2 mice. Striatal dopamine release decreased with age, indicating that progressive alterations in dopaminergic pathways may affect motor activity. The inhibition constants of cocaine and methamphetamine (METH) determined in brain slices differed little between genotype or age group, suggesting that the decreased responses to cocaine and METH arise from compromised dopamine release rather than differences in uptake or drug action. Collectively, these data demonstrate (i) a reduction in the ability of dopamine terminals to release dopamine and (ii) the importance of this attenuation of release on the motor symptoms of Huntington's disease. PMID:16573654

  6. Novel neuroprotective mechanisms of pramipexole, an anti-Parkinson drug, against endogenous dopamine-mediated excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Sawada, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Shimohama, Shun; Akaike, Akinori

    2007-02-28

    Parkinson disease is characterized by selective degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, and endogenous dopamine may play a pivotal role in the degenerative processes. Using primary cultured mesencephalic neurons, we found that glutamate, an excitotoxin, caused selective dopaminergic neuronal death depending on endogenous dopamine content. Pramipexole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist used clinically in the treatment of Parkinson disease, did not affect glutamate-induced calcium influx but blocked dopaminergic neuronal death induced by glutamate. Pramipexole reduced dopamine content but did not change the levels of total or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. The neuroprotective effect of pramipexole was independent of dopamine receptor stimulation because it was not abrogated by domperidone, a dopamine D2-type receptor antagonist. Moreover, both active S(-)- and inactive R(+)-enantiomers of pramipexole as a dopamine D2-like receptor agonist equally suppressed dopaminergic neuronal death. These results suggest that pramipexole protects dopaminergic neurons from glutamate neurotoxicity by the reduction of intracellular dopamine content, independently of dopamine D2-like receptor activation. PMID:17161393

  7. Dopamine Modulates the Activity of Sensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cecilia; Trapani, Josef G.; Pacentine, Itallia; Maeda, Reo; Sheets, Lavinia; Mo, Weike

    2015-01-01

    The senses of hearing and balance are subject to modulation by efferent signaling, including the release of dopamine (DA). How DA influences the activity of the auditory and vestibular systems and its site of action are not well understood. Here we show that dopaminergic efferent fibers innervate the acousticolateralis epithelium of the zebrafish during development but do not directly form synapses with hair cells. However, a member of the D1-like receptor family, D1b, tightly localizes to ribbon synapses in inner ear and lateral-line hair cells. To assess modulation of hair-cell activity, we reversibly activated or inhibited D1-like receptors (D1Rs) in lateral-line hair cells. In extracellular recordings from hair cells, we observed that D1R agonist SKF-38393 increased microphonic potentials, whereas D1R antagonist SCH-23390 decreased microphonic potentials. Using ratiometric calcium imaging, we found that increased D1R activity resulted in larger calcium transients in hair cells. The increase of intracellular calcium requires Cav1.3a channels, as a Cav1 calcium channel antagonist, isradipine, blocked the increase in calcium transients elicited by the agonist SKF-38393. Collectively, our results suggest that DA is released in a paracrine fashion and acts at ribbon synapses, likely enhancing the activity of presynaptic Cav1.3a channels and thereby increasing neurotransmission. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neurotransmitter dopamine acts in a paracrine fashion (diffusion over a short distance) in several tissues and bodily organs, influencing and regulating their activity. The cellular target and mechanism of the action of dopamine in mechanosensory organs, such as the inner ear and lateral-line organ, is not clearly understood. Here we demonstrate that dopamine receptors are present in sensory hair cells at synaptic sites that are required for signaling to the brain. When nearby neurons release dopamine, activation of the dopamine receptors increases the activity of

  8. Pharmacological evidence that dopamine inhibits the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow via D2-like receptors in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Vázquez, Oscar; Villamil-Hernández, Ma Trinidad; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión, David

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that N,N-di-n-propyl-dopamine (dopamine analogue) decreased heart rate in rats through stimulation of dopamine receptors. Nevertheless, the role of prejunctional dopamine D1/2-like receptors or even α2-adrenoceptors to mediate cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by dopamine remains unclear. Hence, this study identified the pharmacological profile of the cardiac sympatho-inhibition to dopamine in pithed rats. Male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared to stimulate the cardiac sympathetic outflow or to receive i.v. bolus of exogenous noradrenaline. I.v. continuous infusions of dopamine (endogenous ligand) or quinpirole (D2-like agonist) dose-dependently inhibited the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but not those to exogenous noradrenaline. In contrast, SKF-38393 (100 μg/kg∙min, D1-like agonist) failed to modify both of these responses. The sympatho-inhibition to dopamine (1.8 μg/kg∙min) or quinpirole (100 μg/kg∙min): i) remained unaltered after saline or the antagonists SCH-23390 (D1-like, 300 μg/kg) and rauwolscine (α2-adrenoceptors, 300 μg/kg); and ii) was significantly antagonized by raclopride (D2-like, 300 μg/kg). These antagonists, at the above doses, failed to modify the sympathetically-induced tachycardic responses. The above results suggest that the inhibition of the cardiac sympathetic outflow to dopamine and quinpirole is primarily mediated by prejunctional D2-like receptors but not D1-like receptors or α2-adrenoceptors. PMID:24225403

  9. M1-like Macrophage Polarization Promotes Orthodontic Tooth Movement.

    PubMed

    He, D; Kou, X; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Luo, Q; Song, Y; Liu, F; Yan, Y; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in inflammatory-mediated bone loss. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is associated with inflammatory bone remodeling. However, whether and how macrophages contribute to mechanical force-induced OTM remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that polarization of M1-like macrophages may contribute to the OTM. Orthodontic nickel-titanium springs were applied to the upper first molars of rats or mice to induce OTM. The distance of OTM gradually increased after mechanical force was applied to the rats for 5 and 10 d. M1-like macrophage polarization and expression of M1 cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α also increased after force application. More importantly, monocyte/macrophage depletion in mice by injection of clodronate liposomes decreased the distance of OTM and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, accompanied by reduced expressions of M1 markers TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), whereas systemic transfusion of M1 macrophages in mice increased them. Further experiments showed that injection of recombinant TNF-α increased the distance of OTM and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, as well as upregulated the expression of TNF-α and iNOS. Blockage of TNF-α by etanercept injection reduced the distance of OTM and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, as well as decreased the levels of TNF-α and iNOS. These data suggest that M1-like macrophage polarization promotes alveolar bone resorption and consequent OTM after mechanical force application. PMID:26124217

  10. Nigral dopamine type-1 receptors are reduced in Huntington's disease: A postmortem autoradiographic study using ( sup 3 H)SCH 23390 and correlation with ( sup 3 H)forskolin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Wagster, M.V.; Folstein, S.; Price, D.L.; Hedreen, J.C.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Intrastriatal injection of excitatory amino acids, particularly quinolinic acid, has been proposed as an animal model of Huntington's disease. Such neurotoxic lesions of caudate-putamen result in marked dopamine type-1 (D1) receptor losses in the injected nuclei as well as in the ipsilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata. Postmortem human substantia nigra from Huntington's disease brains and from control brains were examined using in vitro autoradiography. A marked reduction in ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 binding (labeling D1 receptors) in the substantia nigra of postmortem brains of Huntington's patients was identified, thus paralleling the alterations seen in the animal models. A positive, statistically significant correlation was also encountered between D1 receptor binding (labeled by ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390) and ({sup 3}H)forskolin binding (which identifies adenylate cyclase, a second messenger system linked to D1 receptor activation). The results suggest that in the human--as in lower vertebrates--D1 receptors are located on striatonigral terminals and that D1 receptor loss tends to be paralleled by a reduction in adenylate cyclase. Radioactive agents selective for the D1 receptor may prove useful in future studies of Huntington's disease using positron emission tomography scanning.

  11. The Role of Dopamine and Its Dysfunction as a Consequence of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Calderón Guzmán, David; Hernández García, Ernestina; Barragán Mejía, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is produced in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus of the brain. Dysfunction of the dopamine system has been implicated in different nervous system diseases. The level of dopamine transmission increases in response to any type of reward and by a large number of strongly additive drugs. The role of dopamine dysfunction as a consequence of oxidative stress is involved in health and disease. Introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds. The present review focuses on the therapeutic potential of antioxidant compounds as a coadjuvant treatment to conventional neurological disorders is discussed. PMID:26770661

  12. Purity and Enrichment of Laser-Microdissected Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda L.; Day, Trevor A.; Dayas, Christopher V.; Smith, Doug W.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to microdissect individual cells from the nervous system has enormous potential, as it can allow for the study of gene expression in phenotypically identified cells. However, if the resultant gene expression profiles are to be accurately ascribed, it is necessary to determine the extent of contamination by nontarget cells in the microdissected sample. Here, we show that midbrain dopamine neurons can be laser-microdissected to a high degree of enrichment and purity. The average enrichment for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the microdissected sample relative to midbrain sections was approximately 200-fold. For the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (Vmat2), average enrichments were approximately 100- and 60-fold, respectively. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad65) expression, a marker for GABAergic neurons, was several hundredfold lower than dopamine neuron-specific genes. Glial cell and glutamatergic neuron gene expression were not detected in microdissected samples. Additionally, SN and VTA dopamine neurons had significantly different expression levels of dopamine neuron-specific genes, which likely reflects functional differences between the two cell groups. This study demonstrates that it is possible to laser-microdissect dopamine neurons to a high degree of cell purity. Therefore gene expression profiles can be precisely attributed to the targeted microdissected cells. PMID:23984404

  13. Prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during reaction time performance

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Krystal L.; Alberico, Stephanie L.; Miller, Adam D.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Responses during a simple reaction time task are influenced by temporal expectation, or the ability to anticipate when a stimulus occurs in time. Here, we test the hypothesis that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during simple reaction time task performance. We depleted dopamine projections to the medial prefrontal circuits by infusing 6-hydroxidopamine, a selective neurotoxin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, and studied their performance on a simple reaction time task with two delays. VTA dopamine depletion did not change movements or learning of the reaction time task. However, VTA dopamine-depleted animals did not develop delay-dependent speeding of reaction times, suggesting that mesocortical dopamine signaling is required for temporal expectation. Next, we manipulated dopamine signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex using local pharmacology. We found that SCH23390, a D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist, specifically attenuated delay-dependent speeding, while sulpiride, a D2-type receptor antagonist, did not. These data suggest that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during performance of a simple reaction time task. Our findings provide insight into temporal processing of the prefrontal cortex, and how dopamine signaling influences prefrontal circuits that guide goal-directed behavior. PMID:24120554

  14. Prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during reaction time performance.

    PubMed

    Parker, K L; Alberico, S L; Miller, A D; Narayanan, N S

    2013-01-01

    Responses during a simple reaction time task are influenced by temporal expectation, or the ability to anticipate when a stimulus occurs in time. Here, we test the hypothesis that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during simple reaction time task performance. We depleted dopamine projections to the medial prefrontal circuits by infusing 6-hydroxidopamine, a selective neurotoxin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, and studied their performance on a simple reaction time task with two delays. VTA dopamine depletion did not change movements or learning of the reaction time task. However, VTA dopamine-depleted animals did not develop delay-dependent speeding of reaction times, suggesting that mesocortical dopamine signaling is required for temporal expectation. Next, we manipulated dopamine signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex using local pharmacology. We found that SCH23390, a D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist, specifically attenuated delay-dependent speeding, while sulpiride, a D2-type receptor antagonist, did not. These data suggest that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during performance of a simple reaction time task. Our findings provide insight into temporal processing of the prefrontal cortex, and how dopamine signaling influences prefrontal circuits that guide goal-directed behavior. PMID:24120554

  15. Tc1-like transposable elements in plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements (TEs) is widespread in animal genomes. Mariner-like elements, which bear a DDD triad catalytic motif, have been identified in a wide range of flowering plant species. However, as the founding member of the superfamily, Tc1-like elements that bear a DD34E triad catalytic motif are only known to unikonts (animals, fungi, and Entamoeba). Results Here we report the identification of Tc1-like elements (TLEs) in plant genomes. These elements bear the four terminal nucleotides and the characteristic DD34E triad motif of Tc1 element. The two TLE families (PpTc1, PpTc2) identified in the moss (Physcomitrella patens) genome contain highly similar copies. Multiple copies of PpTc1 are actively transcribed and the transcripts encode intact full length transposase coding sequences. TLEs are also found in angiosperm genome sequence databases of rice (Oryza sativa), dwarf birch (Betula nana), cabbage (Brassica rapa), hemp (Cannabis sativa), barley (Hordium valgare), lettuce (Lactuta sativa), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), pear (Pyrus x bretschneideri), and wheat (Triticum urartu). Conclusions This study extends the occurrence of TLEs to the plant phylum. The elements in the moss genome have amplified recently and may still be capable of transposition. The TLEs are also present in angiosperm genomes, but apparently much less abundant than in moss. PMID:24926322

  16. Cell cycle regulation of a Xenopus Wee1-like kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, P R; Coleman, T R; Dunphy, W G

    1995-01-01

    Using a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy, we have isolated a gene encoding a Wee1-like kinase from Xenopus eggs. The recombinant Xenopus Wee1 protein efficiently phosphorylates Cdc2 exclusively on Tyr-15 in a cyclin-dependent manner. The addition of exogenous Wee1 protein to Xenopus cell cycle extracts results in a dose-dependent delay of mitotic initiation that is accompanied by enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdc2. The activity of the Wee1 protein is highly regulated during the cell cycle: the interphase, underphosphorylated form of Wee1 (68 kDa) phosphorylates Cdc2 very efficiently, whereas the mitotic, hyperphosphorylated version (75 kDa) is weakly active as a Cdc2-specific tyrosine kinase. The down-modulation of Wee1 at mitosis is directly attributable to phosphorylation, since dephosphorylation with protein phosphatase 2A restores its kinase activity. During interphase, the activity of this Wee1 homolog does not vary in response to the presence of unreplicated DNA. The mitosis-specific phosphorylation of Wee1 is due to at least two distinct kinases: the Cdc2 protein and another activity (kinase X) that may correspond to an MPM-2 epitope kinase. These studies indicate that the down-regulation of Wee1-like kinase activity at mitosis is a multistep process that occurs after other biochemical reactions have signaled the successful completion of S phase. Images PMID:7749193

  17. Complexity of dopamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability. In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD. PMID:23683503

  18. Dopamine Neuron-Specific Optogenetic Stimulation in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Yang, Aimei; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Boyden, Edward S; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Optogenetic studies in mice have revealed new relationships between well-defined neurons and brain functions. However, there are currently no means to achieve the same cell-type specificity in monkeys, which possess an expanded behavioral repertoire and closer anatomical homology to humans. Here, we present a resource for cell-type-specific channelrhodopsin expression in Rhesus monkeys and apply this technique to modulate dopamine activity and monkey choice behavior. These data show that two viral vectors label dopamine neurons with greater than 95% specificity. Infected neurons were activated by light pulses, indicating functional expression. The addition of optical stimulation to reward outcomes promoted the learning of reward-predicting stimuli at the neuronal and behavioral level. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of effective and selective stimulation of dopamine neurons in non-human primates and a resource that could be applied to other cell types in the monkey brain. PMID:27610576

  19. The role of dopamine signaling in epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, Yuri; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies implicate most neuromodulatory systems in epileptogenesis. The dopaminergic system has a seizure-modulating effect that crucially depends on the different subtypes of dopamine (DA) receptors involved and the brain regions in which they are activated. Specifically, DA plays a major role in the control of seizures arising in the limbic system. Studies performed in a wide variety of animal models contributed to illustrate the opposite actions of D1-like and D2-like receptor signaling in limbic epileptogenesis. Indeed, signaling from D1-like receptors is generally pro-epileptogenic, whereas D2-like receptor signaling exerts an anti-epileptogenic effect. However, this view might appear quite simplistic as the complex neuromodulatory action of DA in the control of epileptogenesis likely requires a physiological balance in the activation of circuits modulated by these two major DA receptor subtypes, which determines the response to seizure-promoting stimuli. Here we will review recent evidences on the identification of molecules activated by DA transduction pathways in the generation and spread of seizures in the limbic system. We will discuss the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by activation of different DA receptors in relation to their role in limbic epileptogenesis, which lead to the activation of neuronal death/survival cascades. A deep understanding of the signaling pathways involved in epileptogenesis is crucial for the identification of novel targets for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24062645

  20. Association between Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) Variations rs6277 and rs1800497 and Cognitive Performance According to Risk Type for Psychosis: A Nested Case Control Study in a Finnish Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Hugh; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Miettunen, Jouko; Mukkala, Sari; Mäki, Pirjo; Liuhanen, Johanna; Murray, Graham K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ollila, Hanna; Paunio, Tiina; Veijola, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited research regarding the association between genes and cognitive intermediate phenotypes in those at risk for psychotic disorders. Methods We measured the association between established psychosis risk variants in dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and cognitive performance in individuals at age 23 years and explored if associations between cognition and these variants differed according to the presence of familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The subjects of the Oulu Brain and Mind Study were drawn from the general population-based Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986). Using linear regression, we compared the associations between cognitive performance and two candidate DRD2 polymorphisms (rs6277 and rs1800497) between subjects having familial (n=61) and clinical (n=45) risk for psychosis and a random sample of participating NFBC 1986 controls (n=74). Cognitive performance was evaluated using a comprehensive battery of tests at follow-up. Results Principal components factor analysis supported a three-factor model for cognitive measures. The minor allele of rs6277 was associated with poorer performance on a verbal factor (p=0.003) but this did not significantly interact with familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The minor allele of rs1800497 was associated with poorer performance on a psychomotor factor (p=0.038), though only in those at familial risk for psychotic disorders (interaction p=0.049). Conclusion The effect of two DRD2 SNPs on cognitive performance may differ according to risk type for psychosis, suggesting that cognitive intermediate phenotypes differ according to the type (familial or clinical) risk for psychosis. PMID:26114663

  1. Neuropharmacology of dopamine receptors:

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Frank I.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an extraordinary recent accumulation of information concerning the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of dopamine (DA) receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. Many new DA molecular entities have been cloned, their gene, peptide sequences and structures have been identified, their anatomical distributions in the mammalian brain described, and their pharmacology characterized. Progress has been made toward developing selective ligands and drug-candidates for different DA receptors. The new discoveries have greatly stimulated preclinical and clinical studies to explore the neuropharmacology of DA receptors and their implications in the neuropathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Accordingly, it seems timely to review the salient aspects of this specialized area of preclinical neuropharmacology and its relevance to clinical neuropsychiatry. PMID:24019715

  2. Differential effects of dopamine-directed treatments on cognition

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F Gregory; Valentin, Vivian V; von Meer, Stella S

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine, a prominent neuromodulator, is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. It has wide-ranging effects on both cortical and subcortical brain regions and on many types of cognitive tasks that rely on a variety of different learning and memory systems. As neuroscience and behavioral evidence for the existence of multiple memory systems and their corresponding neural networks accumulated, so did the notion that dopamine’s role is markedly different depending on which memory system is engaged. As a result, dopamine-directed treatments will have different effects on different types of cognitive behaviors. To predict what these effects will be, it is critical to understand: which memory system is mediating the behavior; the neural basis of the mediating memory system; the nature of the dopamine projections into that system; and the time course of dopamine after its release into the relevant brain regions. Consideration of these questions leads to different predictions for how changes in brain dopamine levels will affect automatic behaviors and behaviors mediated by declarative, procedural, and perceptual representation memory systems. PMID:26251602

  3. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  4. Probing TRAPPIST-1-like Systems with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Queloz, Didier; Alibert, Yann; Gillen, Ed; Gillon, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The search for small planets orbiting late M dwarfs holds the promise of detecting Earth-size planets for which their atmospheres could be characterized within the next decade. The recent discovery of TRAPPIST-1 entertains hope that these systems are common around hosts located at the bottom of the main sequence. In this Letter, we investigate the ability of the repurposed Kepler mission (K2) to probe planetary systems similar to TRAPPIST-1. We perform a consistent data analysis of 189 spectroscopically confirmed M5.5 to M9 late M dwarfs from Campaigns 1–6 to search for planet candidates and inject transit signals with properties matching TRAPPIST-1b and c. We find no transiting planet candidates across our K2 sample. Our injection tests show that K2 is able to recover both TRAPPIST-1 planets for 10% of the sample only, mainly because of the inefficient throughput at red wavelengths resulting in Poisson-limited performance for these targets. Increasing injected planetary radii to match GJ 1214b’s size yields a recovery rate of 70%. The strength of K2 is its ability to probe a large number of cool hosts across the different campaigns, out of which the recovery rate of 10% may turn into bona fide detections of TRAPPIST-1-like systems within the next two years.

  5. Mesolimbic dopamine signals the value of work.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Arif A; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Mabrouk, Omar S; Hetrick, Vaughn L; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Kennedy, Robert T; Aragona, Brandon J; Berke, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (phasic) dopamine fluctuations support learning, whereas much slower (tonic) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We found that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covaried with reward rate and motivational vigor. Second-by-second dopamine release encoded an estimate of temporally discounted future reward (a value function). Changing dopamine immediately altered willingness to work and reinforced preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, which is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  6. Complement receptor activity of recombinant porcine CR1-like protein expressed in a eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Wei, Xiaoming; Jiang, Junbing; Fan, Kuohai; Zhao, Junxing; Sun, Na; Wang, Zhiwei; Sun, Yaogui; Ma, Haili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Hongquan

    2016-08-01

    Primate complement receptor type 1 (CR1) protein, a single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune adherence and clearing complement-opsonized immune complexes. Here, the mRNA of the porcine primate-like complement receptor (CR1-like) gene was analyzed, and two domain sequences with potential functions were cloned into the pwPICZalpha vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins were purified with both Protein Pure Ni-NTA resin and strong anion exchange resin. The activities of the purified recombinant proteins were evaluated by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and complement receptor assays. The results indicated that two domains of the CR1-like protein, CCP36 and CCP811 with molecular weights of 29.8 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively, were successfully expressed in P. pastoris. These two recombinant proteins possess some of the functions of the primate CR1 protein. Using these two proteins coupled with an antibody blocking technique, we also showed that CR1-like is expressed on natural porcine erythrocytes. PMID:26903010

  7. Rhomboid-7 over-expression results in Opa1-like processing and malfunctioning mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Kylsten, Per

    2011-10-22

    Rhomboid-7 (rho-7) is a mitochondrial-specific intramembranous protease. The loss-of-function mutation rho-7 results in semi-lethality, while escapers have a reduced lifespan with several neurological disorders [1]. Here we show that general, or CNS-specific expression of rho-7 can rescue the lethality of rho-7. General, or CNS-specific over-expression of rho-7 in otherwise wild-type animals caused semi-lethality, with approximately 50% of the animals escaping this lethality, developing into adults displaying a shortened life span with larval locomotory problem. On a cellular level, over-expression resulted in severe depression of ATP levels and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II mRNA levels, a lowered number of mitochondria in neurons and aggregation of mitochondria in the brain indicating mitochondrial malfunction. Over-expression of rho-7 in developing eye discs resulted in an elevated apoptotic index. In the CNS, elevated levels of rho-7 were accompanied by both isoforms of Opa1-like, a dynamin-like GTPase, a mitochondrial component involved in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and function, including apoptosis. Most, but not all, of rho-7 over-expression phenotypes were suppressed by introducing a heterozygous mutation for Opa1-like. Our results suggest that rho-7 and Opa1-like function in a common molecular pathway affecting mitochondrial function and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:21945938

  8. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  9. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Waaijers, Marlijn; Mooij, Diana M; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Barreca, Antonina; De Caro, Maria Laura del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2004-09-01

    Dopamine is known to play a role in the modulation of aldosterone and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland, where dopamine receptors (DR), in particular the DR type 2 (D(2)), have been found to be expressed. DR expression has also been demonstrated in some types of benign adrenal tumors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate DR expression and D(2) localization in the normal adrenal gland and in different types of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effects of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline on hormone secretion in nontumoral adrenal cells. Adrenal tissues from 25 patients, subjected to adrenal surgery for different diseases, were studied. These included three normal adrenals; five adrenal hyperplasias; four aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two clinically nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas; two aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two androgen-secreting adrenal carcinomas; and three pheochromocytomas. In all tissues, DR and D(2) isoform (D(2long) and D(2short)) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. D(2) localization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody, whereas D(2)-like receptor expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding study, using the radiolabeled D(2) analog (125)I-epidepride. The effects of bromocriptine and cabergoline on baseline and ACTH and/or angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, cortisol, and androstenedione secretion were evaluated in cell cultures derived from five different adrenal hyperplasia. At RT-PCR, both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors were expressed in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals. D(2) and D(4) were expressed in aldosterone- and cortisol-secreting adenomas, cortisol-secreting carcinomas, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, whereas no DR was expressed in aldosterone- and androgen-secreting carcinomas. D(2), D(4), and D(5) were expressed in pheochromocytomas. In all D(2

  10. Breathing is affected by dopamine D2-like receptors in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Toshihisa; Kanamaru, Mitsuko; Iizuka, Makito; Sato, Kanako; Tsukada, Setsuro; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Homma, Ikuo; Izumizaki, Masahiko

    2015-04-01

    The precise mechanisms underlying how emotions change breathing patterns remain unclear, but dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter in the process of emotion-associated breathing. We investigated whether basal dopamine release occurs in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where sensory-related inputs are received and lead to fear or anxiety responses, and whether D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists affect breathing patterns and dopamine release in the BLA. Adult male mice (C57BL/6N) were perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, a D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH 23390), or a D2-like receptor antagonist ((S)-(-)-sulpiride) through a microdialysis probe in the BLA. Respiratory variables were measured using a double-chamber plethysmograph. Dopamine release was measured by an HPLC. Perfusion of (S)-(-)-sulpiride in the BLA, not SCH 23390, specifically decreased respiratory rate without changes in local release of dopamine. These results suggest that basal dopamine release in the BLA, at least partially, increases respiratory rates only through post-synaptic D2-like receptors, not autoreceptors, which might be associated with emotional responses. PMID:25281921

  11. Dopamine-related drugs act presynaptically to potentiate GABA(A) receptor currents in VTA dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, Avner; Yaka, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Electrical activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons is immediately inhibited following in vivo administration of cocaine and other DA-related drugs. While various forms of synaptic modulation were demonstrated in the VTA following exposure to DA-related drugs, comprehensive understanding of their ability to inhibit the activity of DA neurons, however, is still lacking. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from rat brain slices, a novel form of synaptic modulation induced by DA-related drugs was isolated. DA exposure was shown to cause potentiation of γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor type A (GABA(A)R)-mediated evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs), recorded from VTA DA neurons, under conditions of potassium channels blockade. The potentiation of these eIPSCs lasted for more than twenty minutes, could be mimicked by activation of D2-like but not D1-like DA receptors, and was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of GABA(A)R-mediated spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Furthermore, exposure to inhibitors of DA transporter (DAT) led to potentiation of GABA(A) currents in a manner similar to the DA-mediated potentiation. Finally, a prolonged presence of l-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) signaling was found to conceal the potentiation of GABA(A) currents induced by the DA-related drugs. Taken together, this study demonstrates a new modulatory form of VTA GABA(A) neurotransmission mediated by DA-related drugs. These results also suggest better understanding of the initial inhibitory action of DA-related drugs on the activity of DA neurons in the VTA. PMID:21527263

  12. Dopamine agonist: pathological gambling and hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    (1) Pathological gambling and increased sexual activity can occur in patients taking dopaminergic drugs. Detailed case reports and small case series mention serious familial and social consequences. The frequency is poorly documented; (2) Most affected patients are being treated for Parkinson's disease, but cases have been reported among patients prescribed a dopamine agonist for restless legs syndrome or pituitary adenoma; (3) Patients treated with this type of drug, and their relatives, should be informed of these risks so that they can watch for changes in behaviour. If such disorders occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose or to withdraw the drug or replace it with another medication. PMID:19536937

  13. Dopamine Autoreceptor Regulation of a Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Network

    PubMed Central

    Stagkourakis, Stefanos; Kim, Hoseok; Lyons, David J.; Broberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary How autoreceptors contribute to maintaining a stable output of rhythmically active neuronal circuits is poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue in a dopamine population, spontaneously oscillating hypothalamic rat (TIDA) neurons, that underlie neuroendocrine control of reproduction and neuroleptic side effects. Activation of dopamine receptors of the type 2 family (D2Rs) at the cell-body level slowed TIDA oscillations through two mechanisms. First, they prolonged the depolarizing phase through a combination of presynaptic increases in inhibition and postsynaptic hyperpolarization. Second, they extended the discharge phase through presynaptic attenuation of calcium currents and decreased synaptic inhibition. Dopamine reuptake blockade similarly reconfigured the oscillation, indicating that ambient somatodendritic transmitter concentration determines electrical behavior. In the absence of D2R feedback, however, discharge was abolished by depolarization block. These results indicate the existence of an ultra-short feedback loop whereby neuroendocrine dopamine neurons tune network behavior to echoes of their own activity, reflected in ambient somatodendritic dopamine, and also suggest a mechanism for antipsychotic side effects. PMID:27149844

  14. Differential degradation of motor deficits during gradual dopamine depletion with 6-hydroxydopamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Willard, A M; Bouchard, R S; Gittis, A H

    2015-08-20

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder whose cardinal motor symptoms arise due to the progressive loss of dopamine. Although this dopamine loss typically progresses slowly over time, currently there are very few animal models that enable incremental dopamine depletion over time within the same animal. This type of gradual dopamine depletion model would be useful in studies aimed at the prodromal phase of PD, when dopamine levels are pathologically low but motor symptoms have not yet presented. Utilizing the highly characterized neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), we have developed a paradigm to gradually deplete dopamine levels in the striatum over a user-defined time course - spanning weeks to months - in C57BL/6 mice. Dopamine depletions were achieved by administration of five low-dose injections (0.75μg) of 6-OHDA through an implanted intracranial bilateral cannula targeting the medial forebrain bundle. Levels of dopamine within the striatum declined linearly with successive injections, quantified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining and high-performance liquid chromatography. Behavioral testing was carried out at each time point to study the onset and progression of motor impairments as a function of dopamine loss over time. We found that spontaneous locomotion, measured in an open field, was robust until ∼70% of striatal dopamine was lost. Beyond this point, additional dopamine loss caused a sharp decline in motor performance, reaching a final level comparable to that of acutely depleted mice. Similarly, although rearing behavior was more sensitive to dopamine loss and declined linearly as a function of dopamine levels, it eventually declined to levels similar to those seen in acutely depleted mice. In contrast, motor coordination, measured on a vertical pole task, was only moderately impaired in gradually depleted mice, despite severe impairments observed in acutely depleted mice. These results demonstrate the importance of the temporal

  15. Sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists: review

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Carl Nikolaus; Wenzel, Karoline; Suppan, Klaudia; Ivanic, Gerd; Kriechbaum, Norbert; Crevenna, Richard; Ott, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assess the evidence for the existence and prevalence of sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease, the type of drugs implicated, and strategies for prevention and treatment. Design Review of publications between July 1999 and May 2001 in which sleep attacks or narcoleptic-like attacks were discussed in patients with Parkinson's disease. Results 124 patients with sleep events were found in 20 publications. Overall, 6.6% of patients taking dopamine agonists who attended movement disorder centres had sleep events. Men were over-represented. Sleep events occurred at both high and low doses of the drugs, with different durations of treatment (0-20 years), and with or without preceding signs of tiredness. Sleep attacks are a class effect, having been found in patients taking the following dopamine agonists: levodopa (monotherapy in 8 patients), ergot agonists (apomorphine in 2 patients, bromocriptine in 13, cabergoline in 1, lisuride or piribedil in 23, pergolide in 5,) and non-ergot agonists (pramipexole in 32, ropinirole in 38). Reports suggest two distinct types of events: those of sudden onset without warning and those of slow onset with prodrome drowsiness. Conclusion Insufficient data are available to provide effective guidelines for prevention and treatment of sleep events in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease. Prospective population based studies are needed to provide this information. What is already known on this topicCar crashes in patients with Parkinson's disease have been associated with sleep attacks caused by the dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropiniroleWhether sleep attacks exist, their connection with certain agonists, prevention or treatment, and the justification of legal actions are controversialWhat this study addsSleep attacks as a phenomenon distinct from normal somnolence really do existThey are a class effect of all dopamine drugsEffective prevention and treatment

  16. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth. PMID:26921458

  17. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  18. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H+/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [3H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  19. Metformin Prevents Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration Independent of AMPK Activation in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Santos, Vanessa V.; Deo, Minh; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Elsworth, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD. We generated transgenic mice in which AMPK activity in dopamine neurons was ablated by removing AMPK beta 1 and beta 2 subunits from dopamine transporter expressing neurons. These AMPK WT and KO mice were then chronically exposed to Metformin in the drinking water then exposed to MPTP, the mouse model of PD. Chronic Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) neuronal number and volume and TH protein concentration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, Metformin treatment prevented the MPTP-induced elevation of the DOPAC:DA ratio regardless of genotype. Metformin also prevented MPTP induced gliosis in the Substantia Nigra. These neuroprotective actions were independent of genotype and occurred in both AMPK WT and AMPK KO mice. Overall, our studies suggest that Metformin’s neuroprotective effects are not due to AMPK activation in dopaminergic neurons and that more research is required to determine how metformin acts to restrict the development of PD. PMID:27467571

  20. Pharmacologic neuroimaging of the ontogeny of dopamine receptor function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Iris; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Xu, Haibo; Ren, Jiaqian; Andersen, Susan L; Jenkins, Bruce G

    2010-07-01

    Characterization of the ontogeny of the cerebral dopaminergic system is crucial for gaining a greater understanding of normal brain development and its alterations in response to drugs of abuse or conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) was used to determine the response to dopamine transporter (DAT) blockers cocaine and methylphenidate (MPH), the dopamine releaser D-amphetamine (AMPH), the selective D1 agonist dihydrexidine, and the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole in young (<30 days old) and adult (>60 days old) rats. In adult rats, cocaine (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) or MPH (2 mg/kg) induced primarily positive cerebral blood volume (rCBV) changes in the dopaminergic circuitry, but negative rCBV changes in the young animals. Microdialysis measurements in the striatum showed that young rats have a smaller increase in extracellular dopamine in response to cocaine than adults. The young rats showed little rCBV response to the selective D1 agonist dihydrexidine in contrast to robust rCBV increases observed in the adults, whereas there was a similar negative rCBV response in the young and adult rats to the D2 agonist quinpirole. We also performed a meta-analysis of literature data on the development of D1 and D2 receptors and the DAT. These data suggest a predominance of D2-like over D1-like function between 20 and 30 days of age. These combined results suggested that the dopamine D1 receptor is functionally inhibited at young age. PMID:20523024

  1. Dopamine-dependent responses to morphine depend on glucocorticoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Michela; Aouizerate, Bruno; Barrot, Michel; Le Moal, Michel; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has shown that glucocorticoid hormones facilitate the behavioral and dopaminergic effects of morphine. In this study we examined the possible role in these effects of the two central corticosteroid receptor types: mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). To accomplish this, specific antagonists of these receptors were infused intracerebroventricularly and 2 hr later we measured: (i) locomotor activity induced by a systemic injection of morphine (2 mg/kg); (ii) locomotor activity induced by an infusion of morphine (1 μg per side) into the ventral tegmental area, which is a dopamine-dependent behavioral response to morphine; (iii) morphine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, a dopaminergic projection site mediating the locomotor and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Blockade of MRs by spironolactone had no significant effects on locomotion induced by systemic morphine. In contrast, blockade of GRs by either RU38486 or RU39305, which is devoid of antiprogesterone effects, reduced the locomotor response to morphine, and this effect was dose dependent. GR antagonists also reduced the locomotor response to intraventral tegmental area morphine as well as the basal and morphine-induced increase in accumbens dopamine, as measured by microdialysis in freely moving rats. In contrast, spironolactone did not modify dopamine release. In conclusion, glucocorticoids, via GRs, facilitate the dopamine-dependent behavioral effects of morphine, probably by facilitating dopamine release. The possibility of decreasing the behavioral and dopaminergic effects of opioids by an acute administration of GR antagonists may open new therapeutic strategies for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:9636221

  2. Kinetic diversity of dopamine transmission in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, I Mitch; Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Walters, Seth H; Varner, Erika L; Shu, Zhan; Bartlow, Kathleen M; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea S; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-05-01

    Dopamine (DA), a highly significant neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, operates on multiple time scales to affect a diverse array of physiological functions. The significance of DA in human health is heightened by its role in a variety of pathologies. Voltammetric measurements of electrically evoked DA release have brought to light the existence of a patchwork of DA kinetic domains in the dorsal striatum (DS) of the rat. Thus, it becomes necessary to consider how these domains might be related to specific aspects of DA's functions. Responses evoked in the fast and slow domains are distinct in both amplitude and temporal profile. Herein, we report that responses evoked in fast domains can be further classified into four distinct types, types 1-4. The DS, therefore, exhibits a total of at least five distinct evoked responses (four fast types and one slow type). All five response types conform to kinetic models based entirely on first-order rate expressions, which indicates that the heterogeneity among the response types arises from kinetic diversity within the DS terminal field. We report also that functionally distinct subregions of the DS express DA kinetic diversity in a selective manner. Thus, this study documents five response types, provides a thorough kinetic explanation for each of them, and confirms their differential association with functionally distinct subregions of this key DA terminal field. The dorsal striatum is composed of five significantly different dopamine domains (types 1-4 and slow, average ± SEM responses to medial forebrain bundle (MFB) stimulation are shown in the figure). Responses from each of these five domains exhibit significantly different ascending and descending kinetic profiles and return to a long lasting elevated dopamine state, termed the dopamine hang-up. All features of these responses are modeled with high correlation using first-order modeling as well as our recently published restricted diffusion

  3. A yeast TCP-1-like protein is required for actin function in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Vinh, D B; Drubin, D G

    1994-01-01

    We previously identified the ANC2 gene in a screen for mutations that enhance the defects caused by yeast actin mutations. Here we report that ANC2 is an essential gene that encodes a member of the TCP-1 family. TCP-1-related proteins are subunits of cytosolic heteromeric protein complexes referred to as chaperonins. These complexes can bind to newly synthesized actin and tubulin in vitro and can convert these proteins into an assembly-competent state. We show that anc2-1 mutants contain abnormal and disorganized actin structures, are defective in cellular morphogenesis, and are hypersensitive to the microtubule inhibitor benomyl. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type Anc2p ameliorates defects in actin organization and cell growth caused by actin overproduction. Mutations in BIN2 and BIN3, two other genes that encode TCP-1-like proteins, also enhance the phenotypes of actin mutants. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TCP-1-like proteins are required for actin and tubulin function in vivo. Images PMID:7916461

  4. DOPAMINE DEPLETION SLOWS RETINAL TRANSMISSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In male hooded rats, depletion of norepinephrine and dopamine by a-methyl-paratyrosine (AMT) significantly increased the latencies of early peaks in flash-evoked potentials recorded from the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic tract. These effects were not produc...

  5. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  6. Phasic dopamine signals: from subjective reward value to formal economic utility

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram; Carelli, Regina M; Wightman, R Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although rewards are physical stimuli and objects, their value for survival and reproduction is subjective. The phasic, neurophysiological and voltammetric dopamine reward prediction error response signals subjective reward value. The signal incorporates crucial reward aspects such as amount, probability, type, risk, delay and effort. Differences of dopamine release dynamics with temporal delay and effort in rodents may derive from methodological issues and require further study. Recent designs using concepts and behavioral tools from experimental economics allow to formally characterize the subjective value signal as economic utility and thus to establish a neuronal value function. With these properties, the dopamine response constitutes a utility prediction error signal. PMID:26719853

  7. MicroRNA-132 dysregulation in Toxoplasma gondii infection has implications for dopamine signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Talbot, C. Conover; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis and toxoplasmic encephalitis can be associated with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, which host cell processes are regulated and how Toxoplasma gondii affects these changes remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA sequences critical to neurodevelopment and adult neuronal processes by coordinating the activity of multiple genes within biological networks. We examined the expression of over 1000 miRNAs in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to infection with Toxoplasma. MiR-132, a cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-regulated miRNA, was the only miRNA that was substantially upregulated by all three prototype Toxoplasma strains. The increased expression of miR-132 was also documented in mice following infection with Toxoplasma. To identify cellular pathways regulated by miR-132, we performed target prediction followed by pathway enrichment analysis in the transcriptome of Toxoplasma-infected mice. This led us to identify 20 genes and dopamine receptor signaling was their strongest associated pathway. We then examined myriad aspects of the dopamine pathway in the striatum of Toxoplasma infected mice 5 days after infection. Here we report decreased expression of D1-like dopamine receptors (DRD1, DRD5), metabolizing enzyme (MAOA) and intracellular proteins associated with the transduction of dopamine-mediated signaling (DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr34 and Ser97). Increased concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were documented by HPLC analysis; however, the metabolism of dopamine was decreased and serotonin metabolism was unchanged. Our data show that miR-132 is upregulated following infection with Toxoplasma and is associated with changes in dopamine receptor signaling. Our findings provide a possible mechanism for how the parasite contributes to the neuropathology of infection. PMID:24657774

  8. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  9. Antihyperglycemic action of rhodiola-aqeous extract in type1-like diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhodiola rosea (Rhodiola) is a plant in the Crassulaceae family that grows in cold regions of the world. It is mainly used in clinics as an adaptogen. Recently, it has been mentioned that Rhodiola increases plasma β-endorphin to lower blood pressure. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic action of Rhodiola in relation to opioids in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Methods In the present study, the plasma glucose was analyzed with glucose oxidase method, and the determination of plasma β-endorphin was carried out using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The adrenalectomy of STZ-diabetic rats was used to evaluate the role of β-endorphin. In addition, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting analysis were performed to investigate mRNA and protein expressions. Results Rhodiola-water extract dose-dependently lowered the plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats and this action was reversed by blockade of opioid μ-receptors using cyprodime. An increase of plasma β-endorphin by rhodiola-water extract was also observed in same manner. The plasma glucose lowering action of rhodiola-water extract was attenuated in bilateral adrenalectomized rats. In addition, continuous administration of rhodiola-water extract for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats resulted in an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle and a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver. These effects were also reversed by blockade of opioid μ-receptors. Conclusions Taken together, rhodiola-water extract improves hyperglycemia via an increase of β-endorphin secretion from adrenal gland to activate opioid μ-receptors in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:24417880

  10. Mapping the Catechol Binding Site in Dopamine D1 Receptors: Synthesis and Evaluation of Two Parallel Series of Bicyclic Dopamine Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Lisa A.; Laban, Uros; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Juncosa, Jose I.; Lill, Markus A.; Watts, Val J.; Nichols, David E.

    2012-01-01

    A novel class of isochroman dopamine analogues, 1, originally reported by Abbott Laboratories, had greater than 100-fold selectivity for D1-like vs. D2-like receptors. We synthesized a parallel series of chroman compounds, 2, and showed that repositioning the oxygen in the heterocyclic ring reduced potency and conferred D2-like receptor selectivity to these compounds. In silico modeling supported the hypothesis that the altered pharmacology for 2 was due to potential intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the oxygen in the chroman ring and the meta-hydroxyl of the catechol moiety. This interaction realigns the catechol hydroxyl groups and disrupts key interactions between these ligands and critical serine residues in TM5 of the D1-like receptors. This hypothesis was tested by the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a parallel series of carbocyclic compounds, 3. Our results suggest that when the potential for intramolecular hydrogen bonding is removed, D1-like receptor potency and selectivity is restored. PMID:21538900

  11. Dopamine Neurons Encoding Long-Term Memory of Object Value for Habitual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-11-19

    Dopamine neurons promote learning by processing recent changes in reward values, such that reward may be maximized. However, such a flexible signal is not suitable for habitual behaviors that are sustained regardless of recent changes in reward outcome. We discovered a type of dopamine neuron in the monkey substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) that retains past learned reward values stably. After reward values of visual objects are learned, these neurons continue to respond differentially to the objects, even when reward is not expected. Responses are strengthened by repeated learning and are evoked upon presentation of the objects long after learning is completed. These "sustain-type" dopamine neurons are confined to the caudal-lateral SNc and project to the caudate tail, which encodes long-term value memories of visual objects and guides gaze automatically to stably valued objects. This population of dopamine neurons thus selectively promotes learning and retention of habitual behavior. PMID:26590420

  12. Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, A.V.; Iversen, L.L.; Rossor, M.; Spokes, E.; Bird, E.; Arregui, A.; Creese, I.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-09-01

    In postmortem samples of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens from 48 schizophrenic patients, there were significant increases in both the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent dissociation constant (KD) for tritiated spiperone. The increase in apparent KD probably reflects the presence of residual neuroleptic drugs, but changes in Bmax for tritiated spiperone reflect genuine changes in receptor numbers. The increases in receptors were seen only in patients in whom neuroleptic medication had been maintained until the time of death, indicating that they may be entirely iatrogenic. Dopamine measurements for a larger series of schizophrenic and control cases (n greater than 60) show significantly increased concentrations in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus. The changes in dopamine were not obviously related to neuroleptic medication and, unlike the receptor changes, were most severe in younger patients.

  13. Cocaine induction of dopamine transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Little, Karley Y; Elmer, Lawrence W; Zhong, Huailing; Scheys, Joshua O; Zhang, Lian

    2002-02-01

    Several previous human postmortem experiments have detected an increase in striatal [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in chronic cocaine users. However, animal experiments have found considerable variability in DAT radioligand binding levels in brain after cocaine administration, perhaps caused by length and dose of treatment and type of radioligand used. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake would be increased by exposure to cocaine through alterations in DAT cellular trafficking, rather than increased protein synthesis. Experiments were conducted in stably hDAT-transfected N2A cells and assessed the dose response and time course of cocaine effects on [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding to the DAT, [(3)H]dopamine uptake, measures of DAT protein and mRNA, as well as DAT subcellular location. Cocaine doses of 10(-6) M caused statistically significant increases in [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake after 12 and 3 h, respectively. Despite these increases in DAT function, there was no change in DAT total protein or mRNA. Immunofluorescence and biotinylation experiments indicated that cocaine treatment induced increases in plasma membrane DAT immunoreactivity and intracellular decreases. The present model system may further our understanding of regulatory alterations in DAT radioligand binding and function caused by cocaine exposure. PMID:11809869

  14. Variability in Dopamine Genes Dissociates Model-Based and Model-Free Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Kevin G.; Daw, Nathaniel D.; Frank, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    consideration of potential choice outcomes. Research implicates a dopamine-dependent striatal learning mechanism in the former type of choice. Although recent work has indicated that dopamine is also involved in flexible, goal-directed decision-making, it remains unclear whether it also contributes via striatum or via the dopamine-dependent working memory function of prefrontal cortex. We examined genetic indices of dopamine function in these regions and their relation to the two choice strategies. We found that striatal dopamine function related most clearly to the reflexive strategy, as previously shown, and that prefrontal dopamine related most clearly to the flexible strategy. These findings suggest that dissociable brain regions support dissociable choice strategies. PMID:26818509

  15. Transmembrane segment five serines of the D4 dopamine receptor uniquely influence the interactions of dopamine, norepinephrine, and Ro10-4548.

    PubMed

    Cummings, David F; Ericksen, Spencer S; Goetz, Angela; Schetz, John A

    2010-06-01

    Conserved serines of transmembrane segment (TM) five (TM5) are critical for the interactions of endogenous catecholamines with alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic, beta(2)-adrenergic, and D1, D2, and D3 dopamine receptors. The unique high-affinity interaction of the D4 dopamine receptor subtype with both norepinephrine and dopamine, and the fact that TM5 serine interactions have never been studied for this receptor subtype, led us to investigate the interactions of ligands with D4 receptor TM5 serines. Serine-to-alanine mutations at positions 5.42 and 5.46 drastically decreased affinities of dopamine and norepinephrine for the D4 receptor. The D4-S5.43A receptor mutant had substantially reduced affinity for norepinephrine, but a modest loss of affinity for dopamine. In functional assays of cAMP accumulation, norephinephrine was unable to activate any of the mutant receptors, even though the agonist quinpirole displayed wild-type functional properties for all of them. Dopamine was unable to activate the S5.46A mutant and had reduced potency for the S5.43A mutant and reduced potency and efficacy for the S5.42A mutant. In contrast, Ro10-4548 [RAC-2'-2-hydroxy-3-4-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl-propoxy-acetanilide], a catechol-like antagonist of the wild-type receptor unexpectedly functions as an agonist of the S5.43A mutant. Other noncatechol ligands had similar properties for mutant and wild-type receptors. This is the first example of a dopamine receptor point mutation selectively changing the receptor's interaction with a specific antagonist to that of an agonist, and together with other data, provides evidence, supported by molecular modeling, that catecholamine-type agonism is induced by different ligand-specific configurations of intermolecular H-bonds with the TM5 conserved serines. PMID:20215412

  16. Inhibition of titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis after local administration of dopamine and suppression of osteoclastogenesis via D2-like receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huilin; Xu, Yaozeng; Zhu, Mo; Gu, Ye; Zhang, Wen; Shao, Hongguo; Wang, Yijun; Ping, Zichuan; Hu, Xuanyang; Wang, Liangliang; Geng, Dechun

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammation and extensive osteoclast formation play critical roles in wear-debris-induced peri-implant osteolysis. We investigated the potential impact of dopamine on titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-eight C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups: sham control (PBS treatment), titanium (titanium/PBS treatment), low- (titanium/2 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine) and high-dopamine (titanium/10 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine). After 2 weeks, mouse calvariae were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometry analysis. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were isolated to assess osteoclast differentiation. Dopamine significantly reduced titanium-particle-induced osteolysis compared with the titanium group as confirmed by micro-CT and histomorphometric data. Osteoclast numbers were 34.9% and 59.7% (both p < 0.01) lower in the low- and high-dopamine-treatment groups, respectively, than in the titanium group. Additionally, low RANKL, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 immunochemistry staining were noted in dopamine-treatment groups. Dopamine markedly inhibited osteoclast formation, osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BMMs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the resorption area was decreased with 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M dopamine to 40.0% and 14.5% (both p < 0.01), respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of dopamine was reversed by the D2-like-receptor antagonist haloperidol but not by the D1-like-receptor antagonist SCH23390. These results suggest that dopamine therapy could be developed into an effective and safe method for osteolysis-related disease caused by chronic inflammation and excessive osteoclast formation. PMID:26695376

  17. Dopamine neurons control striatal cholinergic neurons via regionally heterogeneous dopamine and glutamate signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chuhma, Nao; Mingote, Susana; Moore, Holly; Rayport, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Midbrain dopamine neurons fire in bursts conveying salient information. Bursts are associated with pauses in tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons. While the reciprocal balance of dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum is well known, how dopamine neurons control cholinergic neurons has not been elucidated. Here we show that dopamine neurons make direct fast dopaminergic and glutamatergic connections with cholinergic interneurons, with regional heterogeneity. Dopamine neurons drive a burst-pause firing sequence in cholinergic interneurons in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, mixed actions in the accumbens core, and a pause in the dorsal striatum. This heterogeneity is due mainly to regional variation in dopamine-neuron glutamate cotransmission. A single dose of amphetamine attenuates dopamine neuron connections to cholinergic interneurons with dose-dependent regional specificity. Overall, the present data indicate that dopamine neurons control striatal circuit function via discrete, plastic connections with cholinergic interneurons. PMID:24559678

  18. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and dopamine transporter are molecular targets of Pitx3 in the ventral midbrain dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dong-Youn; Hong, Sunghoi; Jeong, Joo-Won; Choi, Sangdun; Kim, Hansoo; Kim, Jangwoo; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons play critical roles in the regulation of voluntary movement and their dysfunction is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Pitx3 has been implicated in the proper development of mDA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which are selectively lost in Parkinson’s disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying its role in mDA neuron development and/or survival are poorly understood. Toward this goal, we sought to identify downstream target genes of Pitx3 by comparing gene expression profiles in mDA neurons of wild-type and Pitx3-deficient aphakia mice. This global gene expression analysis revealed many potential target genes of Pitx3; in particular, the expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and dopamine transporter, responsible for dopamine storage and reuptake, respectively, is greatly reduced in mDA neurons by Pitx3 ablation. In addition, gain-of-function analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation strongly indicate that Pitx3 may directly activate transcription of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and dopamine transporter genes, critically contributing to neurotransmission and/or survival of mDA neurons. As the two genes have been known to be regulated by Nurr1, another key dopaminergic transcription factor, we propose that Pitx3 and Nurr1 may coordinately regulate mDA specification and survival, at least in part, through a merging and overlapping downstream pathway. PMID:19780901

  19. PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE MODULATION BY STIMULANT SELF ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is an essential participant in the initiation and modulation of various forms of goal-directed behavior, including drug reinforcement and addiction processes. Dopamine neurotransmission is increased by acute administration of all drugs of abuse, including the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Chronic exposure to these drugs via voluntary self-administration provides a model of stimulant abuse that is useful in evaluating potential behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur during addiction. This review describes commonly used methodologies to measure dopamine and baseline parameters of presynaptic dopamine regulation, including exocytotic release and reuptake through the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as dramatic adaptations in dopamine neurotransmission and drug sensitivity that occur with acute non-contingent and chronic, contingent self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:23277050

  20. Non-human lnc-DC orthologs encode Wdnm1-like protein

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Johannes M.; Ballingall, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent publication in Science, Wang et al. found a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expressed in human dendritic cells (DC), which they designated lnc-DC. Based on lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in human and murine systems, they concluded that lnc-DC is important in differentiation of monocytes into DC. However, Wang et al. did not mention that their so-called “mouse lnc-DC ortholog” gene was already designated “ Wdnm1-like” and is known to encode a small secreted protein.  We found that incapacitation of the Wdnm1-like open reading frame (ORF) is very rare among mammals, with all investigated primates except for hominids having an intact ORF. The null-hypothesis by Wang et al. therefore should have been that the human lnc-DC transcript might only represent a non-functional relatively young evolutionary remnant of a protein coding locus.  Whether this null-hypothesis can be rejected by the experimental data presented by Wang et al. depends in part on the possible off-target (immunogenic or otherwise) effects of their RNAi procedures, which were not exhaustive in regard to the number of analyzed RNAi sequences and control sequences.  If, however, the conclusions by Wang et al. on their human model are correct, and they may be, current knowledge regarding the Wdnm1-like locus suggests an intriguing combination of different functions mediated by transcript and protein in the maturation of several cell types at some point in evolution. We feel that the article by Wang et al. tends to be misleading without the discussion presented here. PMID:25309733

  1. Mesolimbic Dopamine Signals the Value of Work

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Arif A.; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (“phasic”) dopamine fluctuations support learning, while much slower (“tonic”) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We first show that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covary with reward rate and motivational vigor. We then show that second-by-second dopamine release encodes an estimate of temporally-discounted future reward (a value function). We demonstrate that changing dopamine immediately alters willingness to work, and reinforces preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly-evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, that is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  2. Grafted dopamine neurons: Morphology, neurochemistry, and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Ingrid; Bickford, Paula; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2010-02-01

    Grafting of dopamine-rich tissue to counteract the symptoms in Parkinson's disease became a promising tool for future treatment. This article discusses how to improve the functional outcome with respect to graft outgrowth and functions of dopamine release and electrophysiological responses to graft implantation in the host brain striatal target. It has been documented that a subpopulation of the dopamine neurons innervates the host brain in a target-specific manner, while some of the grafted dopamine neurons never project to the host striatum. Neurochemical studies have demonstrated that the graft-induced outgrowth synthesize, store, metabolize and release dopamine and possibly other neurotransmitters such as 5-HT. Furthermore, the released dopamine affects the dopamine-depleted brain in areas that are larger than the graft-derived nerve fibers reach. While stem cells will most likely be the future source of cells to be used in grafting, it is important to find the guiding cues for how to reinnervate the dopamine-depleted striatum in a proper way with respect to the dopamine subpopulations of A9 and A10 to efficiently treat the motor abnormalities seen in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19853009

  3. Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Ghazzaoui, Rassil; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2014-07-01

    Low striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine release have been observed in alcoholism, cocaine and heroin dependence. Multiple studies to date have examined D2 availability in cannabis dependence and have consistently failed to demonstrate alterations. In addition, the response of the dopamine system to an amphetamine challenge and to a stress challenge has also been examined, and did not show alterations. We review these studies here and conclude that cannabis dependence is an exception among commonly abused drugs in that it is not associated with blunting of the dopamine system. PMID:24513022

  4. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  5. Dopamine in the Dorsal Hippocampus Impairs the Late Consolidation of Cocaine-Associated Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kramar, Cecilia P; Chefer, Vladimir I; Wise, Roy A; Medina, Jorge H; Barbano, M Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is thought to be addictive because it elevates dopamine levels in the striatum, reinforcing drug-seeking habits. Cocaine also elevates dopamine levels in the hippocampus, a structure involved in contextual conditioning as well as in reward function. Hippocampal dopamine promotes the late phase of consolidation of an aversive step-down avoidance memory. Here, we examined the role of hippocampal dopamine function in the persistence of the conditioned increase in preference for a cocaine-associated compartment. Blocking dorsal hippocampal D1-type receptors (D1Rs) but not D2-type receptors (D2Rs) 12 h after a single training trial extended persistence of the normally short-lived memory; conversely, a general and a specific phospholipase C-coupled D1R agonist (but not a D2R or adenylyl cyclase-coupled D1R agonist) decreased the persistence of the normally long-lived memory established by three-trial training. These effects of D1 agents were opposite to those previously established in a step-down avoidance task, and were here also found to be opposite to those in a lithium chloride-conditioned avoidance task. After returning to normal following cocaine injection, dopamine levels in the dorsal hippocampus were found elevated again at the time when dopamine antagonists and agonists were effective: between 13 and 17 h after cocaine injection. These findings confirm that, long after the making of a cocaine–place association, hippocampal activity modulates memory consolidation for that association via a dopamine-dependent mechanism. They suggest a dynamic role for dorsal hippocampal dopamine in this late-phase memory consolidation and, unexpectedly, differential roles for late consolidation of memories for places that induce approach or withdrawal because of a drug association. PMID:24442095

  6. Dopamine in the dorsal hippocampus impairs the late consolidation of cocaine-associated memory.

    PubMed

    Kramar, Cecilia P; Chefer, Vladimir I; Wise, Roy A; Medina, Jorge H; Barbano, M Flavia

    2014-06-01

    Cocaine is thought to be addictive because it elevates dopamine levels in the striatum, reinforcing drug-seeking habits. Cocaine also elevates dopamine levels in the hippocampus, a structure involved in contextual conditioning as well as in reward function. Hippocampal dopamine promotes the late phase of consolidation of an aversive step-down avoidance memory. Here, we examined the role of hippocampal dopamine function in the persistence of the conditioned increase in preference for a cocaine-associated compartment. Blocking dorsal hippocampal D1-type receptors (D1Rs) but not D2-type receptors (D2Rs) 12 h after a single training trial extended persistence of the normally short-lived memory; conversely, a general and a specific phospholipase C-coupled D1R agonist (but not a D2R or adenylyl cyclase-coupled D1R agonist) decreased the persistence of the normally long-lived memory established by three-trial training. These effects of D1 agents were opposite to those previously established in a step-down avoidance task, and were here also found to be opposite to those in a lithium chloride-conditioned avoidance task. After returning to normal following cocaine injection, dopamine levels in the dorsal hippocampus were found elevated again at the time when dopamine antagonists and agonists were effective: between 13 and 17 h after cocaine injection. These findings confirm that, long after the making of a cocaine-place association, hippocampal activity modulates memory consolidation for that association via a dopamine-dependent mechanism. They suggest a dynamic role for dorsal hippocampal dopamine in this late-phase memory consolidation and, unexpectedly, differential roles for late consolidation of memories for places that induce approach or withdrawal because of a drug association. PMID:24442095

  7. The mRNA of a Knotted1-like transcription factor of potato is phloem mobile.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ameya; Bhogale, Sneha; Kang, Il Ho; Hannapel, David J; Banerjee, Anjan K

    2012-08-01

    Potato Homeobox1 (POTH1) is a Knotted1-like transcription factor from the Three Amino Acid Loop Extension (TALE) superfamily that is involved in numerous aspects of development in potato (Solanum tuberosum L). POTH1 interacts with its protein partner, StBEL5, to facilitate binding to specific target genes to modulate hormone levels, mediate leaf architecture, and enhance tuber formation. In this study, promoter analyses show that the upstream sequence of POTH1 drives β-glucuronidase activity in response to light and in association with phloem cells in both petioles and stems. Because POTH1 transcripts have previously been detected in phloem cells, long-distance movement of its mRNA was tested. Using RT-PCR and transgenic potato lines over-expressing POTH1, in vitro micrografts demonstrated unilateral movement of POTH1 RNA in a rootward direction. Movement across a graft union into leaves from newly arising axillary shoots and roots of wild type stocks was verified using soil-grown tobacco heterografts. Leaves from the wild type stock containing the mobile POTH1 RNA exhibited a reduction in leaf size relative to leaves from wild type grafts. Both untranslated regions of POTH1 when fused to an expression marker β-glucuronidase, repressed its translation in tobacco protoplasts. RNA/protein binding assays demonstrated that the UTRs of POTH1 bind to two RNA-binding proteins, a polypyrimidine tract-binding protein and an alba-domain type. Conserved glycerol-responsive elements (GRE), specific to alba-domain interaction, are duplicated in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of POTH1. These results suggest that POTH1 functions as a mobile signal in regulating development. PMID:22638904

  8. Dopamine: burning the candle at both ends.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine neurons are well known for signaling reward-prediction errors. In this issue, Matsumoto and Takada (2013) show that some dopamine neurons also signal salient events during progression through a visual search task requiring working memory and sustained attention. PMID:24011998

  9. Increased desensitization of dopamine D₂ receptor-mediated response in the ventral tegmental area in the absence of adenosine A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Al-Hasani, R; Foster, J D; Metaxas, A; Ledent, C; Hourani, S M O; Kitchen, I; Chen, Y

    2011-09-01

    G-protein coupled receptors interact to provide additional regulatory mechanisms for neurotransmitter signaling. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are expressed at a high density in striatal neurons, where they closely interact with dopamine D₂ receptors and modulate effects of dopamine and responses to psychostimulants. A(2A) receptors are expressed at much lower densities in other forebrain neurons but play a more prominent yet opposing role to striatal receptors in response to psychostimulants in mice. It is, therefore, possible that A(2A) receptors expressed at low levels elsewhere in the brain may also regulate neurotransmitter systems and modulate neuronal functions. Dopamine D₂ receptors play an important role in autoinhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dopamine release in other brain areas. Here, we examined the effect of A(2A) receptor deletion on D₂ receptor-mediated inhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons in the VTA. Spontaneous activity of dopamine neurons was recorded in midbrain slices, and concentration-dependent effects of the dopamine D₂ receptor agonist, quinpirole, was compared between wild-type and A(2A) knockout mice. The potency of quinpirole applied in single concentrations and the expression of D₂ receptors were not altered in the VTA of the knockout mice. However, quinpirole applied in stepwise escalating concentrations caused significantly reduced maximal inhibition in A(2A) knockout mice, indicating an enhanced agonist-induced desensitization of D₂ receptors in the absence of A(2A) receptors. The A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS21680, did not exert any effect on dopamine neuron firing or response to quinpirole, revealing a novel non-pharmacological interaction between adenosine A(2A) receptors and dopaminergic neurotransmission in midbrain dopamine neurons. Altered D₂ receptor desensitization may result in changes in dopamine neuron firing rate and pattern and dopamine

  10. Inhibition by dizocilpine (MK-801) of striatal dopamine release induced by MPTP and MPP+: possible action at the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P B; Reuben, M

    1995-01-01

    1. The NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801) can protect against neurotoxicity associated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its principal metabolite, the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). It has been suggested that these neurotoxic effects may be mediated by release of excitatory amino acids, but possible alternative mechanisms have been little investigated. 2. MPTP and MPP+ (0.1-1000 microM) were tested in superfused rat striatal synaptosomes preloaded with [3H]-dopamine. Both MPTP (10 microM and higher) and MPP+ (1 microM and higher) evoked an immediate and concentration-dependent release of [3H]-dopamine. The maximal effect exceeded that achievable with nicotine. For subsequent experiments, submaximal concentrations of MPTP (50 microM) and MPP+ (10 microM) were tested. 3. MK-801 (0.1-100 microM) inhibited responses to MPTP (50 microM) and MPP+ (10 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, further tests of NMDA-type glutamate receptor involvement proved negative. Responses to MPTP or MPP+ were unaffected by the omission of Mg2+ or Ca2+ and were not reduced by the NMDA receptor antagonists, AP-7 (200 microM) and kynurenic acid (300 microM). In this assay, N-methyl-D-aspartate (even in the absence of Mg2+ and with added glycine and strychnine) did not evoked [3H]-dopamine release. 4. In crude membrane preparations of rat cerebral cortex, MPTP and MPP+ inhibited high-affinity [3H]-nicotine binding to nicotinic cholinoceptors (IC50 1.8 microM and 26 microM, respectively). 5. [3H]-dopamine release evoked by nicotine (1 microM) was blocked by the nicotinic antagonists,mecamylamine and chlorisondamine, and by MK-801 (all at 100 micro M); K+-evoked release was not affected. Release evoked by MPTP and MPP+ was significantly attenuated by MK-801 but not by mecamylamine or chlorisondamine.6. At a high concentration (1O I1M), the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, completely blocked [3HJ-dopamine

  11. BOLD and its connection to dopamine release in human striatum: a cross-cohort comparison.

    PubMed

    Lohrenz, Terry; Kishida, Kenneth T; Montague, P Read

    2016-10-01

    Activity in midbrain dopamine neurons modulates the release of dopamine in terminal structures including the striatum, and controls reward-dependent valuation and choice. This fluctuating release of dopamine is thought to encode reward prediction error (RPE) signals and other value-related information crucial to decision-making, and such models have been used to track prediction error signals in the striatum as encoded by BOLD signals. However, until recently there have been no comparisons of BOLD responses and dopamine responses except for one clear correlation of these two signals in rodents. No such comparisons have been made in humans. Here, we report on the connection between the RPE-related BOLD signal recorded in one group of subjects carrying out an investment task, and the corresponding dopamine signal recorded directly using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a separate group of Parkinson's disease patients undergoing DBS surgery while performing the same task. The data display some correspondence between the signal types; however, there is not a one-to-one relationship. Further work is necessary to quantify the relationship between dopamine release, the BOLD signal and the computational models that have guided our understanding of both at the level of the striatum.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574306

  12. Snf1-Like Protein Kinase Ssp2 Regulates Glucose Derepression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Fujita, Yasuko; Tohda, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    The function of two fission yeast genes, SPCC74.03c/ssp2+ and SPAC23H4.02/ppk9+, encoding an Snf1-like protein kinase were investigated. Deletion of ssp2+ caused a partial defect in glucose derepression of inv1+, fbp1+, and gld1+ and in assimilation of sucrose and glycerol, while a mutation in ppk9+ had no apparent effect. Scr1, a transcription factor involved in glucose repression, localized to the nucleus under glucose-rich conditions and to the cytoplasm during glucose starvation in wild-type cells. In contrast, in the ssp2Δ mutant, Scr1 localized to the nucleus in cells grown in glucose-rich medium as well as in glucose-starved cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that Ssp2 is required for the phosphorylation of Scr1 upon glucose deprivation. Mutation of five putative Ssp2 recognition sites in Scr1 prevented glucose derepression of invertase in glucose-starved cells. These results indicate that Ssp2 regulates phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Scr1 in response to glucose. PMID:22140232

  13. A cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic analysis of the dopamine cell groups in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and retrorubral field in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuhong; Yuan, Yuan; Halliday, Glenda; Rusznák, Zoltán; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2012-04-01

    The three main dopamine cell groups of the brain are located in the substantia nigra (A9), ventral tegmental area (A10), and retrorubral field (A8). Several subdivisions of these cell groups have been identified in rats and humans but have not been well described in mice, despite the increasing use of mice in neurodegenerative models designed to selectively damage A9 dopamine neurons. The aim of this study was to determine whether typical subdivisions of these dopamine cell groups are present in mice. The dopamine neuron groups were analysed in 15 adult C57BL/6J mice by anatomically localising tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter protein (DAT), calbindin, and the G-protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK2) proteins. Measurements of the labeling intensity, neuronal morphology, and the proportion of neurons double-labeled with TH, DAT, calbindin, or GIRK2 were used to differentiate subregions. Coronal maps were prepared and reconstructed in 3D. The A8 cell group had the largest dopamine neurons. Five subregions of A9 were identified: the reticular part with few dopamine neurons, the larger dorsal and smaller ventral dopamine tiers, and the medial and lateral parts of A9. The latter has groups containing some calbindin-immunoreactive dopamine neurons. The greatest diversity of dopamine cell types was identified in the seven subregions of A10. The main dopamine cell groups in the mouse brain are similar in terms of diversity to those observed in rats and humans. These findings are relevant to models using mice to analyse the selective vulnerability of different types of dopamine neurons. PMID:21935672

  14. Urinary dopamine in man and rat: effects of inorganic salts on dopamine excretion.

    PubMed

    Ball, S G; Oats, N S; Lee, M R

    1978-08-01

    1. Plasma and urine free dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) were measured in six normal male volunteer subjects and the urinary clearance of dopamine was calculated for each subject. 2. The excretion rates for free dopamine in man were greater than could be explained by simple renal clearance. It was concluded that free dopamine must, therefore, be formed in the kidney. 3. Changes in urinary dopamine excretion were studied in four groups of rats initially maintained on low sodium diet and then given equimolar dietary supplements of NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl or NH4Cl, to study the specificity of the previously observed increase in dopamine excretion after increased dietary NaCl. 4. The mean dopamine excretion increased significantly in rats given NaCl, KCl and NH4Cl, whereas dopamine excretion decreased in those given NaHCO3. 5. The failure of dopamine excretion to rise in response to loading with NaHCO3 was unexpected, and argues against a simple effect of volume expansion by the sodium ion. The increase in dopamine excretion with KCl and NH4Cl showed that this response was not specific to the sodium ion. PMID:28196

  15. Pramipexole, a dopamine D2 autoreceptor agonist, decreases the extracellular concentration of dopamine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carter, A J; Müller, R E

    1991-07-23

    Pramipexole (SND 919) is a dopamine D2 autoreceptor agonist which is structurally related to talipexole (B-HT 920), a potential antipsychotic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pramipexole on the extracellular concentration of dopamine in vivo. Dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, were measured in the anterior striatum of freely moving rats by microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Pramipexole (30 and 100 micrograms/kg) caused long-lasting decreases in the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites. Talipexole (30 micrograms/kg) produced similar effects. Sulpiride (5 mg/kg), a selective dopamine D2 antagonist, caused a transient increase in the concentration of dopamine and long-lasting increases in the concentrations of its metabolites; it also reversed the effects of pramipexole. SCH-23390 (100 micrograms/kg), a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, caused a transient increase in the concentration of dopamine but did not affect the concentrations of the metabolites. SCH-23390 failed to reverse the effects of pramipexole. These results indicate that pramipexole reduces the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites in vivo through a reversible interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor. PMID:1685123

  16. Polypharmacology of dopamine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Butini, S; Nikolic, K; Kassel, S; Brückmann, H; Filipic, S; Agbaba, D; Gemma, S; Brogi, S; Brindisi, M; Campiani, G; Stark, H

    2016-07-01

    Most neurological diseases have a multifactorial nature and the number of molecular mechanisms discovered as underpinning these diseases is continuously evolving. The old concept of developing selective agents for a single target does not fit with the medical need of most neurological diseases. The development of designed multiple ligands holds great promises and appears as the next step in drug development for the treatment of these multifactorial diseases. Dopamine and its five receptor subtypes are intimately involved in numerous neurological disorders. Dopamine receptor ligands display a high degree of cross interactions with many other targets including G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes and ion channels. For brain disorders like Parkinsońs disease, schizophrenia and depression the dopaminergic system, being intertwined with many other signaling systems, plays a key role in pathogenesis and therapy. The concept of designed multiple ligands and polypharmacology, which perfectly meets the therapeutic needs for these brain disorders, is herein discussed as a general ligand-based concept while focusing on dopaminergic agents and receptor subtypes in particular. PMID:27234980

  17. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Senard, Jean-Michel; Rouet, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH) deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS). Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance. PMID:16722595

  18. Intact-Brain Analyses Reveal Distinct Information Carried by SNc Dopamine Subcircuits.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Talia N; Shilyansky, Carrie; Davidson, Thomas J; Evans, Kathryn E; Beier, Kevin T; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Crow, Ailey K; Malenka, Robert C; Luo, Liqun; Tomer, Raju; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-07-30

    Recent progress in understanding the diversity of midbrain dopamine neurons has highlighted the importance--and the challenges--of defining mammalian neuronal cell types. Although neurons may be best categorized using inclusive criteria spanning biophysical properties, wiring of inputs, wiring of outputs, and activity during behavior, linking all of these measurements to cell types within the intact brains of living mammals has been difficult. Here, using an array of intact-brain circuit interrogation tools, including CLARITY, COLM, optogenetics, viral tracing, and fiber photometry, we explore the diversity of dopamine neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). We identify two parallel nigrostriatal dopamine neuron subpopulations differing in biophysical properties, input wiring, output wiring to dorsomedial striatum (DMS) versus dorsolateral striatum (DLS), and natural activity patterns during free behavior. Our results reveal independently operating nigrostriatal information streams, with implications for understanding the logic of dopaminergic feedback circuits and the diversity of mammalian neuronal cell types. PMID:26232229

  19. The roles of STOP1-like transcription factors in aluminum and proton tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wei; Lou, He Qiang; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aluminum (Al) and proton (H+) are 2 coexisting rhizotoxicities limiting plant growth in acid soils. Sensitive to Proton Rhizotoxicity (STOP) 1-like zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in regulating expression of downstream genes involved in tolerance mechanism of either stress. In this mini-review, we summarized recent advances in characterizing STOP1-like proteins with respect to plant Al and H+ tolerance. The possible involvement of structure-function of STOP1-like proteins in differential regulation of Al and H+ tolerance are discussed. In addition, we also direct research in this area to protein phosphorylation. PMID:26689896

  20. The roles of STOP1-like transcription factors in aluminum and proton tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Lou, He Qiang; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) and proton (H(+)) are 2 coexisting rhizotoxicities limiting plant growth in acid soils. Sensitive to Proton Rhizotoxicity (STOP) 1-like zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in regulating expression of downstream genes involved in tolerance mechanism of either stress. In this mini-review, we summarized recent advances in characterizing STOP1-like proteins with respect to plant Al and H(+) tolerance. The possible involvement of structure-function of STOP1-like proteins in differential regulation of Al and H(+) tolerance are discussed. In addition, we also direct research in this area to protein phosphorylation. PMID:26689896

  1. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H⁺/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [³H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  2. Dopamine receptor heteromeric complexes and their emerging functions.

    PubMed

    George, Susan R; Kern, Andras; Smith, Roy G; Franco, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission is traditionally accepted as occurring through the five dopamine receptors that transduce its signal. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the range of physiologically relevant dopamine signaling complexes is greatly expanded by the ability of dopamine receptors to interact with other dopamine receptors and with receptors of other endogenous signaling ligands. These novel heteromeric complexes have functional properties distinct from the component receptors or are able to modulate the canonical signaling and function of the cognate receptors. These dopamine receptor heteromers provide new insight into physiological mechanisms and pathophysiological processes involving dopamine. PMID:24968781

  3. An ethylene response-related factor, GbERF1-like, from Gossypium barbadense improves resistance to Verticillium dahliae via activating lignin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weifeng; Jin, Li; Miao, Yuhuan; He, Xin; Hu, Qin; Guo, Kai; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-06-01

    An ethylene response-related factor, GbERF1-like, from Gossypium barbadense cv. '7124' involved in the defence response to Verticillium dahliae was characterized. GbERF1-like transcripts present ubiquitously in various tissues, with higher accumulation in flower organs. GbERF1-like was also responsive to defence-related phytohormones and V. dahliae infection. The downregulation of GbERF1-like increased the susceptibility of cotton plants to V. dahliae infection, while overexpression of this gene improved disease resistance in both cotton and Arabidopsis, coupled with activation of the pathogenesis-related proteins. Further analysis revealed that genes involved in lignin synthesis, such as PAL, C4H, C3H, HCT, CCoAOMT, CCR and F5H, showed higher expression levels in the overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis lines and lower expression levels in the RNAi cotton lines. The expression levels of these genes increased obviously when the GbERF1-like-overexpressing plants were inoculated with V. dahliae. Meanwhile, significant differences in the content of whole lignin could be found in the stems of transgenic and wild-type plants after inoculation with V. dahliae, as revealed by metabolic and histochemical analysis. More lignin could be detected in GbERF1-like-overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis but less in GbERF1-like-silencing cotton compared with wild-type plants. The ratio of S and G monomers in GbERF1-like-overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis increased significantly after infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, our results showed that the promoters of GhHCT1 and AtPAL3 could be transactivated by GbERF1-like in vivo based on yeast one-hybrid assays and dual-luciferase reporter assays. Knockdown of GhHCT1 in GbERF1-like over-expressing cotton decreases resistance to V. dahliae. Collectively, our results suggest that GbERF1-like acts as a positive regulator in lignin synthesis and contributes substantially to resistance to V. dahliae in plants. PMID:26971283

  4. Cav 1.3 L-type Ca ( 2+) channels mediate long-term adaptation in dopamine D2L-mediated GluA1 trafficking in the dorsal striatum following cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Schierberl, Kathryn; Giordano, Thomas; Satpute, Shirish; Hao, Jin; Kaur, Gagandeep; Hofmann, Franz; Moosmang, Sven; Striessnig, Joerg; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptor (AMPAR) plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the mesostriatal dopaminergic pathway has been implicated in persistent cocaine-induced behavioral responses; however, the precise mechanism underlying these changes remains unknown. Utilizing cocaine psychomotor sensitization in mice we find that repeated cocaine results in a basal reduction of Ser 845 GluA1 and cell surface GluA1 levels in the dorsal striatum (dStr) following a protracted withdrawal period, an adaptation that is dependent on Cav 1.3 channels but not those expressed in the VTA. We find that the basally-induced decrease in this phosphoprotein is the result of recruitment of the striatal dopamine D2 pathway, as evidenced by enhanced levels of D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA expression and D2R function as examined using the D2R antagonist, eticlopride, as well as alterations in the phosphorylation status of several downstream molecular targets of D2R's, including CREB, DARPP-32, Akt and GSK3β. Taken together with our recently published findings examining similar phenomena in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), these results underscore the utilization of divergent molecular mechanisms in the dStr, in mediating cocaine-induced persistent behavioral changes. PMID:22419037

  5. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  6. A PR-1-like protein of Fusarium oxysporum functions in virulence on mammalian hosts.

    PubMed

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Roldán-Rodríguez, Raquel; Serena, Carolina; López-Berges, Manuel S; Guarro, Josep; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2012-06-22

    The pathogenesis-related PR-1-like protein family comprises secreted proteins from the animal, plant, and fungal kingdoms whose biological function remains poorly understood. Here we have characterized a PR-1-like protein, Fpr1, from Fusarium oxysporum, an ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease on a wide range of plant species and can produce life-threatening infections in immunocompromised humans. Fpr1 is secreted and proteolytically processed by the fungus. The fpr1 gene is required for virulence in a disseminated immunodepressed mouse model, and its function depends on the integrity of the proposed active site of PR-1-like proteins. Fpr1 belongs to a gene family that has expanded in plant pathogenic Sordariomycetes. These results suggest that secreted PR-1-like proteins play important roles in fungal pathogenicity. PMID:22553200

  7. Cariprazine:New dopamine biased agonist for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    De Deurwaerdère, P

    2016-02-01

    Cariprazine (RGH-188, MP-214, Vraylar[TM]) is a new dopamine receptor ligand developed for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Cariprazine displays higher affinity at dopamine D3 receptors and a similar affinity at D2 and 5-HT2B receptors. At variance with some atypical antipsychotics, its affinity at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and histamine H1 receptors is modest compared with its three main targets. Cariprazine could correspond to a biased agonist at dopamine receptors, displaying either antagonist or partial agonist properties depending on the signaling pathways linked to D2/D3 receptors. The compound crosses the blood-brain barrier, as revealed by positron emission tomography and pharmacokinetic studies in various species. Two main metabolites result mainly from the activity of CYP34A and display properties similar to those of the parent drug. Behavioral data report that cariprazine is efficacious in animal models addressing positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia with no extrapyramidal side effects. In September 2015, the FDA approved the use of cariprazine for the treatment of schizophrenia and type I bipolar disorder. The efficacy of cariprazine in other neuropsychiatric diseases is currently being evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. Side effects have been observed in humans, including extrapyramidal side effects and akathisia of mild to moderate intensity. PMID:27092339

  8. Human striatal dopamine receptors are organized in compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.N.; Sapp, D.W.; Marshall, J.F.

    1986-10-01

    Dopamine (D2) receptors visualized in postmortem human striatum by quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding are organized into circumscribed zones of low receptor density separated from other such zones by regions of higher D2 density. The D2-rich zones of the caudate nucleus and putamen contain twice the binding of D2-poor zones. The Hill coefficient, obtained from saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding to thin sections of human striatum, gave a value near unity, indicating the binding was occurring to a single type of site. The patchiness of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding was unaltered by postincubation removal of lipid from the tissue sections, indicating that a differential absorption of tritium in white and grey matter does not account for the heterogeneous distribution. The D2-rich and D2-poor regions appear to form labyrinths oriented in the anterior-posterior axis and are typically aligned with, respectively, acetylcholinesterase-rich and -poor compartments as visualized on stained adjacent sections. Thus, the distribution of dopamine D2 receptors conforms to the striosomal organization of the human caudate-putamen, a finding that suggests that this receptor subtype may mediate the influence of dopamine on distinct neurochemical compartments within the structure.

  9. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control. PMID:25031392

  10. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    DOEpatents

    Civelli, Olivier; Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  11. Optogenetic Control of Serotonin and Dopamine Release in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic control of neurotransmitter release is an elegant method to investigate neurobiological mechanisms with millisecond precision and cell type-specific resolution. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can be expressed in specific neurons, and blue light used to activate those neurons. Previously, in Drosophila, neurotransmitter release and uptake have been studied after continuous optical illumination. In this study, we investigated the effects of pulsed optical stimulation trains on serotonin or dopamine release in larval ventral nerve cords. In larvae with ChR2 expressed in serotonergic neurons, low-frequency stimulations produced a distinct, steady-state response while high-frequency patterns were peak shaped. Evoked serotonin release increased with increasing stimulation frequency and then plateaued. The steady-state response and the frequency dependence disappeared after administering the uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, indicating that uptake plays a significant role in regulating the extracellular serotonin concentration. Pulsed stimulations were also used to evoke dopamine release in flies expressing ChR2 in dopaminergic neurons and similar frequency dependence was observed. Release due to pulsed optical stimulations was modeled to determine the uptake kinetics. For serotonin, Vmax was 0.54 ± 0.07 μM/s and Km was 0.61 ± 0.04 μM; and for dopamine, Vmax was 0.12 ± 0.03 μM/s and Km was 0.45 ± 0.13 μM. The amount of serotonin released per stimulation pulse was 4.4 ± 1.0 nM, and the amount of dopamine was 1.6 ± 0.3 nM. Thus, pulsed optical stimulations can be used to mimic neuronal firing patterns and will allow Drosophila to be used as a model system for studying mechanisms underlying neurotransmission. PMID:24849718

  12. Dopamine D1 receptor modulation of calcium channel currents in horizontal cells of mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Grove, James C R; Hirano, Arlene A; Brecha, Nicholas C; Barnes, Steven

    2016-08-01

    Horizontal cells form the first laterally interacting network of inhibitory interneurons in the retina. Dopamine released onto horizontal cells under photic and circadian control modulates horizontal cell function. Using isolated, identified horizontal cells from a connexin-57-iCre × ROSA26-tdTomato transgenic mouse line, we investigated dopaminergic modulation of calcium channel currents (ICa) with whole cell patch-clamp techniques. Dopamine (10 μM) blocked 27% of steady-state ICa, an action blunted to 9% in the presence of the L-type Ca channel blocker verapamil (50 μM). The dopamine type 1 receptor (D1R) agonist SKF38393 (20 μM) inhibited ICa by 24%. The D1R antagonist SCH23390 (20 μM) reduced dopamine and SKF38393 inhibition. Dopamine slowed ICa activation, blocking ICa by 38% early in a voltage step. Enhanced early inhibition of ICa was eliminated by applying voltage prepulses to +120 mV for 100 ms, increasing ICa by 31% and 11% for early and steady-state currents, respectively. Voltage-dependent facilitation of ICa and block of dopamine inhibition after preincubation with a Gβγ-blocking peptide suggested involvement of Gβγ proteins in the D1R-mediated modulation. When the G protein activator guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) was added intracellularly, ICa was smaller and showed the same slowed kinetics seen during D1R activation. With GTPγS in the pipette, additional block of ICa by dopamine was only 6%. Strong depolarizing voltage prepulses restored the GTPγS-reduced early ICa amplitude by 36% and steady-state ICa amplitude by 3%. These results suggest that dopaminergic inhibition of ICa via D1Rs is primarily mediated through the action of Gβγ proteins in horizontal cells. PMID:27193322

  13. Phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Matthew J.; Willuhn, Ingo; Clark, Jeremy J.; Phillips, Paul E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Short phasic bursts of neuronal activity in dopamine neurons produce rapid and transient increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations throughout the mesocorticolimbic system, which are associated with the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. It is well established that acute exposure to many addictive drugs produce increases in tonic dopamine levels that occur on the order of minutes. However, recent studies suggest that abused drugs similarly enhance phasic dopamine release events that occur on a subsecond time scale. Furthermore, drug experience modulates the synaptic and intrinsic properties of dopamine neurons, which could affect dopamine burst firing and phasic dopamine release. This review will provide a general introduction to the mesolimbic dopamine system, as well as the primary methods used to detect dopamine neurons and dopamine release. We present the role of phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors in the context of contemporary theories regarding the function of dopamine. Next we discuss the known drug-induced changes to dopamine neurons and phasic release in both in vitro and in vivo preparations. Finally, we offer a simple model that chronic drug experience attenuates tonic/basal dopamine levels but promotes phasic dopamine release, which may result in aberrant goal-directed behaviors contributing to the development of addiction. PMID:19630749

  14. Modulation by group I mGLU receptor activation and group III mGLU receptor blockade of locomotor responses induced by D1-like and D2-like receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Christophe; Degoulet, Mickael; Chevallier, Karine; Abraini, Jacques H; David, Hélène N

    2008-03-10

    Evidence for functional motor interactions between group I and group III metabotropic glutamatergic (mGlu) receptors and dopamine neurotransmission is now clearly established [David, H.N., Abraini, J.H., 2001a. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist S-4-CPG modulates the locomotor response produced by the activation of D1-like, but not D2-like, dopamine receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens. Eur. J. Neurosci. 15, 2157-2164, David, H.N., Abraini, J.H., 2002. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors interact in the rat nucleus accumbens to influence locomotor activity. Eur. J. Neurosci. 15, 869-875]. Nevertheless, whether or not and how, activation of group I and blockade of group III mGlu receptors modulate the motor responses induced by the activation of dopaminergic receptors in the NAcc still remains unknown. Answering this question needs to be assessed since functional interactions between neurotransmitters in the NAcc are well known to depend upon the level of activation of glutamatergic and/or dopaminergic receptors and because the effects of glutamatergic receptor agonists and antagonists on dopaminergic receptor-mediated locomotor responses are not always reciprocal as shown in previous studies. Our results show that activation of group I mGlu receptors by DHPG in the NAcc potentiated the locomotor response induced by intra-NAcc activation of D1-like receptors and blocked those induced by D2-like presynaptic or postsynaptic receptors. Alternatively, blockade of group III mGlu receptors by MPPG in the NAcc potentiated the locomotor responses mediated by D1-like receptors and by D2-like postsynaptic receptors and inhibited that induced by D2-like presynaptic receptors. These results compiled with previous data demonstrate that group I mGlu receptors and group III mGlu receptors can modulate the locomotor responses produced by D1-like and/or D2-like receptor agonists in a complex phasic and tonic

  15. Diagnosing dopamine-responsive dystonias.

    PubMed

    Malek, N; Fletcher, N; Newman, E

    2015-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of dopamine-responsive dystonias (DRDs) has expanded over the last decade to comprise several distinct disorders. At the milder end of the clinical spectrum is the autosomal-dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiency syndrome (GTPCH-DRD), and at the more severe end is the much less common autosomal recessive tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (TH-DRD), with intermediate forms in between. Understanding the pathophysiology of DRDs can help in their optimal diagnosis and management. These are conditions with the potential to be either underdiagnosed when not considered or overdiagnosed if there is an equivocal L-dopa (levo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) response. In this article, we discuss the clinical phenotypes of these disorders, and we outline how investigations can help in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:26045581

  16. Detection of Dopamine Dynamics in the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, R. Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores neurochemical events in the extra cellular space of the brain by use of in vivo voltammetric microelectrodes. Reports dopamine concentrations and pathways, and discusses techniques used for analysis. Recognizes current problems and future directions for research. (ML)

  17. Dopamine-oxytocin interactions in penile erection.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, T A; Allard, J; Wayman, C; Douglas, A J

    2009-12-01

    Dopamine and oxytocin have established roles in the central regulation of penile erection in rats; however, the neural circuitries involved in a specific erectile context and the interaction between dopamine and oxytocin mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus may serve as candidate sites because they contain oxytocin cells, receive dopaminergic inputs and have been implicated in mediating masculine sexual behavior. Double immunofluorescence revealed that substantial numbers of oxytocin cells in the MPOA, SON and PVN possess dopamine D(2), D(3) and D(4) receptors. In anaesthetized rats, using intracavernous pressure as a physiological indicator of erection, blockade of lumbosacral oxytocin receptors (UK, 427843) reduced erectile responses to a nonselective dopamine agonist (apomorphine), suggesting that dopamine recruits a paraventriculospinal oxytocin pathway. In conscious males in the absence of a female, penile erection elicited by a D(2)/D(3) (Quinelorane) but not D(4) (PD168077) agonist was associated with activation of medial parvocellular PVN oxytocin cells. In another experiment where males were given full access to a receptive female, a D(4) (L-745870) but not D(2) or D(3) antagonist (L-741626; nafadotride) inhibited penile erection (intromission), and this was correlated with SON magnocellular oxytocin neuron activation. Together, the data suggest dopamine's effects on hypothalamic oxytocin cells during penile erection are context-specific. Dopamine may act via different parvocellular and magnocellular oxytocin subpopulations to elicit erectile responses, depending upon whether intromission is performed. This study demonstrates the potential existence of interaction between central dopamine and oxytocin pathways during penile erection, with the SON and PVN serving as integrative sites. PMID:20128851

  18. Biophysically realistic minimal model of dopamine neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprisan, Sorinel

    2008-03-01

    We proposed and studied a new biophysically relevant computational model of dopaminergic neurons. Midbrain dopamine neurons are involved in motivation and the control of movement, and have been implicated in various pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The model we developed is a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type parallel conductance membrane model. The model captures the essential mechanisms underlying the slow oscillatory potentials and plateau potential oscillations. The main currents involved are: 1) a voltage-dependent fast calcium current, 2) a small conductance potassium current that is modulated by the cytosolic concentration of calcium, and 3) a slow voltage-activated potassium current. We developed multidimensional bifurcation diagrams and extracted the effective domains of sustained oscillations. The model includes a calcium balance due to the fundamental importance of calcium influx as proved by simultaneous electrophysiological and calcium imaging procedure. Although there are significant evidences to suggest a partially electrogenic calcium pump, all previous models considered only elecrtogenic pumps. We investigated the effect of the electrogenic calcium pump on the bifurcation diagram of the model and compared our findings against the experimental results.

  19. Dopamine Receptor Signaling in MIN6 β-Cells Revealed by Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brittany; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W

    2016-08-01

    Insulin secretion defects are central to the development of type II diabetes mellitus. Glucose stimulation of insulin secretion has been extensively studied, but its regulation by other stimuli such as incretins and neurotransmitters is not as well understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of insulin secretion by dopamine, which is synthesized in pancreatic β-cells from circulating L-dopa. Previous research has shown that this inhibition is mediated primarily by activation of the dopamine receptor D3 subtype (DRD3), even though both DRD2 and DRD3 are expressed in β-cells. To understand this dichotomy, we investigated the dynamic interactions between the dopamine receptor subtypes and their G-proteins using two-color fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) of mouse MIN6 β-cells. We show that proper membrane localization of exogenous G-proteins depends on both the Gβ and Gγ subunits being overexpressed in the cell. Triple transfections of the dopamine receptor subtype and Gβ and Gγ subunits, each labeled with a different-colored fluorescent protein (FP), yielded plasma membrane expression of all three FPs and permitted an FFS evaluation of interactions between the dopamine receptors and the Gβγ complex. Upon dopamine stimulation, we measured a significant decrease in interactions between DRD3 and the Gβγ complex, which is consistent with receptor activation. In contrast, dopamine stimulation did not cause significant changes in the interactions between DRD2 and the Gβγ complex. These results demonstrate that two-color FFS is a powerful tool for measuring dynamic protein interactions in living cells, and show that preferential DRD3 signaling in β-cells occurs at the level of G-protein release. PMID:27508444

  20. Cytosolic Sulfotransferase 1A3 Is Induced by Dopamine and Protects Neuronal Cells from Dopamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sidharthan, Neelima P.; Minchin, Rodney F.; Butcher, Neville J.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurotoxicity is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, and neurons utilize several mechanisms, including uptake and metabolism, to protect them from injury. Metabolism of dopamine involves three enzymes: monoamine oxidase, catechol O-methyltransferase, and sulfotransferase. In primates but not lower order animals, a sulfotransferase (SULT1A3) is present that can rapidly metabolize dopamine to dopamine sulfate. Here, we show that SULT1A3 and a closely related protein SULT1A1 are highly inducible by dopamine. This involves activation of the D1 and NMDA receptors. Both ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcineurin activation are required for induction. Pharmacological agents that inhibited induction or siRNA targeting SULT1A3 significantly increased the susceptibility of cells to dopamine toxicity. Taken together, these results show that dopamine can induce its own metabolism and protect neuron-like cells from damage, suggesting that SULT1A3 activity may be a risk factor for dopamine-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24136195

  1. Orbitofrontal Dopamine Depletion Upregulates Caudate Dopamine and Alters Behavior via Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, R. N.; Rygula, R.; Hong, Y. T.; Fryer, T. D.; Sawiak, S. J.; Ferrari, V.; Cockcroft, G.; Aigbirhio, F. I.; Robbins, T. W.; Roberts, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with upregulation of dopamine (DA) release in the caudate nucleus. The caudate has dense connections with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) via the frontostriatal loops, and both areas exhibit pathophysiological change in schizophrenia. Despite evidence that abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and prefrontal cortex function co-occur in schizophrenia, the influence of OFC DA on caudate DA and reinforcement processing is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that OFC dopaminergic dysfunction disrupts caudate dopamine function, we selectively depleted dopamine from the OFC of marmoset monkeys and measured striatal extracellular dopamine levels (using microdialysis) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding (using positron emission tomography), while modeling reinforcement-related behavior in a discrimination learning paradigm. OFC dopamine depletion caused an increase in tonic dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus and a corresponding reduction in D2/D3 receptor binding. Computational modeling of behavior showed that the lesion increased response exploration, reducing the tendency to persist with a recently chosen response side. This effect is akin to increased response switching previously seen in schizophrenia and was correlated with striatal but not OFC D2/D3 receptor binding. These results demonstrate that OFC dopamine depletion is sufficient to induce striatal hyperdopaminergia and changes in reinforcement learning relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:24872570

  2. Dopamine D4 receptors linked to protein kinase G are required for changes in dopamine release followed by locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Dong Kun; Shim, Yoon-Bo; Ryu, In Soo; Seo, Su Yeon; Kim, Jieun; Yang, Ju Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Wook; Choe, Eun Sang

    2015-05-01

    We previously found that the dopamine D2-type receptors (D2 and D3 receptors), coupled to protein kinase G (PKG), upregulate locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration. In this study, D4 receptors, another type of D2 receptor also coupled to PKG, were examined to determine their requirement in the regulation of locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration. The results demonstrated that repeated injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg), given once a day for seven consecutive days, significantly increased extracellular dopamine concentrations. Intra-caudate infusion of the D4 receptor agonist, PD168077 (10 nmol), and the PKG inhibitor, KT5823 (2 nmol), significantly decreased the repeated cocaine-induced increase in dopamine levels and locomotor activity. However, intra-caudate infusion of KT5823, but not PD168077, decreased ∆FosB immunoreactivity elevated by repeated cocaine administration. These findings suggest that D4 receptors linked to PKG could be a key modulator for dopamine release required for changes in locomotor activity caused by repeated cocaine exposure. PMID:25702161

  3. Attenuation of antagonist-induced impairment of dopamine receptors by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, M.I.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether chronic,long-term postnatal challenge of rat pups per se, with specific dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, would modify the ontogeny of the respective receptor types. Since the neuropeptide L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) attenuates the effect of haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptors in adult rats it was of interest to determine whether PLG would modulate antagonists-induced alterations in the ontogeny of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Half of the rats were treated daily for 32 days from birth with SCH-23390, a selective dopamine D1 antagonist; or spiroperidol, a selective dopamine D2 antagonists; or both SCH-23390 and spiroperidol; or saline. The other half of the litters were treated with PLG, in combination with the other treatments. Animals were decapitated at 5, 8, and 12 weeks from birth for neurochemical analysis of the striatum. Chronic SCH-23390 treatment produced a 70-80% decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 to striatal homogenates. The alteration at 5 weeks was associated with a 78% decrease in the Bmax for ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 binding, and no change in the K{sub D}. Similarly, at 5, 8, and 12 weeks, chronic spiroperidol treatment reduced the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol to striatal homogenates by 70-80%.

  4. Autoimmunity against dopamine receptors in neuropsychiatric and movement disorders: a review of Sydenham chorea and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Cox, C J

    2016-01-01

    Antineuronal autoantibodies are associated with the involuntary movement disorder Sydenham chorea (SC) and paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) which are characterized by the acute onset of tics and/or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In SC and PANDAS, autoantibodies signal human neuronal cells and activate calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Animal models immunized with group A streptococcal antigens demonstrate autoantibodies against dopamine receptors and concomitantly altered behaviours. Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from SC target and signal the dopamine D2L (long) receptor (D2R). Antibodies against D2R were elevated over normal levels in SC and acute-onset PANDAS with small choreiform movements, but were not elevated over normal levels in PANDAS-like chronic tics and OCD. The expression of human SC-derived anti-D2R autoantibody V gene in B cells and serum of transgenic mice demonstrated that the human autoantibody targets dopaminergic neurones in the basal ganglia and other types of neurones in the cortex. Here, we review current evidence supporting the hypothesis that antineuronal antibodies, specifically against dopamine receptors, follow streptococcal exposures and may target dopamine receptors and alter central dopamine pathways leading to movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26454143

  5. De novo expression of dopamine D2 receptors on microglia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Huck, Jojanneke H J; Freyer, Dorette; Böttcher, Chotima; Mladinov, Mihovil; Muselmann-Genschow, Claudia; Thielke, Mareike; Gladow, Nadine; Bloomquist, Dana; Mergenthaler, Philipp; Priller, Josef

    2015-11-01

    Dopamine is the predominant catecholamine in the brain and functions as a neurotransmitter. Dopamine is also a potent immune modulator. In this study, we have characterized the expression of dopamine receptors on murine microglia. We found that cultured primary microglia express dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5 receptors. We specifically focused on the D2 receptor (D2R), a major target of antipsychotic drugs. Whereas D2Rs were strongly expressed on striatal neurons in vivo, we did not detect any D2R expression on resident microglia in the healthy brains of wild-type mice or transgenic mice expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Drd2 promoter. However, cerebral ischemia induced the expression of D2R on Iba1-immunoreactive inflammatory cells in the infarct core and penumbra. Notably, D2R expression was confined to CD45(hi) cells, and GFP BM chimeras revealed that D2R was expressed on activated resident microglia as well as on peripherally derived macrophages in the ischemic brain. Importantly, the D2/3R agonist, pramipexole, enhanced the secretion of nitrite by cultured microglia in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Thus, dopamine may serve as a modulator of microglia function during neuroinflammation. PMID:26104289

  6. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  7. Endogenous Dopamine Suppresses Initiation of Swimming in Prefeeding Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalai, Vatsala; Cline, Hollis T.

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulator of locomotory circuits, yet the role that dopamine plays during development of these circuits is less well understood. Here, we describe a suppressive effect of dopamine on swim circuits in larval zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae exhibit marked changes in swimming behavior between 3 days postfertilization (dpf) and 5dpf. We found that swim episodes were fewer and of longer durations at 3 than at 5dpf. At 3dpf, application of dopamine as well as bupropion, a dopamine reuptake blocker, abolished spontaneous fictive swim episodes. Blocking D2 receptors increased frequency of occurrence of episodes and activation of adenylyl cyclase, a downstream target inhibited by D2-receptor signaling, blocked the inhibitory effect of dopamine. Dopamine had no effect on motor neuron firing properties, input impedance, resting membrane potential, or the amplitude of spike afterhyperpolarization. Application of dopamine either to the isolated spinal cord or locally within the cord does not decrease episode frequency, whereas dopamine application to the brain silences episodes, suggesting a supraspinal locus of dopaminergic action. Treating larvae with 10 μM MPTP reduced catecholaminergic innervation in the brain and increased episode frequency. These data indicate that dopamine inhibits the initiation of fictive swimming episodes at 3dpf. We found that at 5dpf, exogenously applied dopamine inhibits swim episodes, yet the dopamine reuptake blocker or the D2-receptor antagonist have no effect on episode frequency. These results led us to propose that endogenous dopamine release transiently suppresses swim circuits in developing zebrafish. PMID:18562547

  8. An amphioxus RAG1-like DNA fragment encodes a functional central domain of vertebrate core RAG1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanni; Xu, Ke; Deng, Anqi; Fu, Xing; Xu, Anlong; Liu, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The highly diversified repertoire of antigen receptors in the vertebrate immune system is generated via proteins encoded by the recombination activating genes (RAGs) RAG1 and RAG2 by a process known as variable, diversity, and joining [V(D)J] gene recombination. Based on the study of vertebrate RAG proteins, many hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of RAG. This issue remains unresolved, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the evolution of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that the amphioxus genome contains an ancient RAG1-like DNA fragment (bfRAG1L) that encodes a virus-related protein that is much shorter than vertebrate RAG1 and harbors a region homologous to the central domain of core RAG1 (cRAG1). bfRAG1L also contains an unexpected retroviral type II nuclease active site motif, DXN(D/E)XK, and is capable of degrading both DNA and RNA. Moreover, bfRAG1L shares important functional properties with the central domain of cRAG1, including interaction with RAG2 and localization to the nucleus. Remarkably, the reconstitution of bfRAG1L into a cRAG1-like protein yielded an enzyme capable of recognizing recombination signal sequences and performing V(D)J recombination in the presence of mouse RAG2. Moreover, this reconstituted cRAG1-like protein could mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes in RAG1-deficient mice. Together, our results demonstrate that amphioxus bfRAG1L encodes a protein that is functionally equivalent to the central domain of cRAG1 and is well prepared for further evolution to mediate V(D)J recombination. Thus, our findings provide unique insights into the evolutionary origin of RAG1. PMID:24368847

  9. Accumulation of B1-like B cells in transgenic mice over-expressing catalytically inactive RAG1 in the periphery

    PubMed Central

    Hassaballa, Ashraf E; Palmer, Victoria L; Anderson, Dirk K; Kassmeier, Michele D; Nganga, Vincent K; Parks, Kevin W; Volkmer, Dustin L; Perry, Greg A; Swanson, Patrick C

    2011-01-01

    During their development, B lymphocytes undergo V(D)J recombination events and selection processes that, if successfully completed, produce mature B cells expressing a non-self-reactive B-cell receptor (BCR). Primary V(D)J rearrangements yield self-reactive B cells at high frequency, triggering attempts to remove, silence, or reprogramme them through deletion, anergy induction, or secondary V(D)J recombination (receptor editing), respectively. In principle, expressing a catalytically inactive V(D)J recombinase during a developmental stage in which V(D)J rearrangement is initiated may impair this process. To test this idea, we generated transgenic mice expressing a RAG1 active site mutant (dnRAG1 mice); RAG1 transcript was elevated in splenic, but not bone marrow, B cells in dnRAG1 mice relative to wild-type mice. The dnRAG1 mice accumulate splenic B cells with a B1-like phenotype that exhibit defects in B-cell activation, and are clonally diverse, yet repertoire restricted with a bias toward Jκ1 gene segment usage. The dnRAG1 mice show evidence of impaired B-cell development at the immature-to-mature transition, immunoglobulin deficiency, and poorer immune responses to thymus-independent antigens. Interestingly, dnRAG1 mice expressing the anti-dsDNA 3H9H56R heavy chain fail to accumulate splenic B1-like cells, yet retain peritoneal B1 cells. Instead, these mice show an expanded marginal zone compartment, but no difference is detected in the frequency of heavy chain gene replacement. Taken together, these data suggest a model in which dnRAG1 expression impairs secondary V(D)J recombination. As a result, selection and/or differentiation processes are altered in a way that promotes expansion of B1-like B cells in the spleen. PMID:22044391

  10. An amphioxus RAG1-like DNA fragment encodes a functional central domain of vertebrate core RAG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanni; Xu, Ke; Deng, Anqi; Fu, Xing; Xu, Anlong; Liu, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The highly diversified repertoire of antigen receptors in the vertebrate immune system is generated via proteins encoded by the recombination activating genes (RAGs) RAG1 and RAG2 by a process known as variable, diversity, and joining [V(D)J] gene recombination. Based on the study of vertebrate RAG proteins, many hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of RAG. This issue remains unresolved, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the evolution of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that the amphioxus genome contains an ancient RAG1-like DNA fragment (bfRAG1L) that encodes a virus-related protein that is much shorter than vertebrate RAG1 and harbors a region homologous to the central domain of core RAG1 (cRAG1). bfRAG1L also contains an unexpected retroviral type II nuclease active site motif, DXN(D/E)XK, and is capable of degrading both DNA and RNA. Moreover, bfRAG1L shares important functional properties with the central domain of cRAG1, including interaction with RAG2 and localization to the nucleus. Remarkably, the reconstitution of bfRAG1L into a cRAG1-like protein yielded an enzyme capable of recognizing recombination signal sequences and performing V(D)J recombination in the presence of mouse RAG2. Moreover, this reconstituted cRAG1-like protein could mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes in RAG1-deficient mice. Together, our results demonstrate that amphioxus bfRAG1L encodes a protein that is functionally equivalent to the central domain of cRAG1 and is well prepared for further evolution to mediate V(D)J recombination. Thus, our findings provide unique insights into the evolutionary origin of RAG1. PMID:24368847

  11. The alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release is suppressed in ghrelin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jerlhag, Elisabet; Landgren, Sara; Egecioglu, Emil; Dickson, Suzanne L; Engel, Jörgen A

    2011-06-01

    Ghrelin, the first endogenous ligand for the type 1A growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1A), plays a role in energy balance, feeding behavior, and reward. Previously, we showed that pharmacologic and genetic suppression of the GHS-R1A attenuates the alcohol-induced stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, and conditioned place preference as well as alcohol consumption in mice, implying that the GHS-R1A is required for alcohol reward. The present study further elucidates the role of ghrelin for alcohol-induced dopamine release in nucleus accumbens and locomotor stimulation by means of ghrelin knockout mice. We found that the ability of alcohol to increase accumbal dopamine release in wild-type mice is not observed in ghrelin knockout mice. Furthermore, alcohol induced a locomotor stimulation in the wild-type mice and ghrelin knockout mice; however, the locomotor stimulation in homozygote mice was significantly lower than in the wild-type mice. The present series of experiments suggest that endogenous ghrelin may be required for the ability of alcohol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. PMID:21145690

  12. Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons into the median eminence activates dopamine-D2 receptors in the pituitary gland where it inhibits lactotroph function. We have previously described genetic dopamine-deficient mouse models which lack the ability to synthesize dopamine. Because...

  13. Dopamine systems in the forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cave, John W.; Baker, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    The brain contains a number of distinct regions that share expression of dopamine (DA) and its requisite biosynthetic machinery, but otherwise encompass a diverse array of features and functions. Across the vertebrate family, the olfactory bulb (OB) contains the major DA system in the forebrain. OB DA cells are primarily periglomerular interneurons that define the glomerular structures in which they receive innervation from olfactory receptor neurons as well as mitral and tufted cells, the primary OB output neurons. The OB DA cells are necessary for both discrimination and the dynamic range over which odorant sensory information can be detected. In the embryo, OB DA neurons are derived from the ventricular area of the evaginating telencephalon, the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence, and the septum. However, most OB DA interneurons are generated post-natally and continue to be produced throughout adult life from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and rostral migratory stream. Adult born OB DA neurons are capable of integrating into existing circuits and do not appear to degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Several genes have been identified that regulate the differentiation of OB DA interneurons from neural stem cells. These include transcription factors that modify the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the DA biosynthetic pathway and a reliable marker of the DA phenotype. Elucidation of the molecular genetic pathways of OB DA differentiation may advance the development of strategies to treat neurological disease. PMID:19731547

  14. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  15. Distinct dopamine neurons mediate reward signals for short- and long-term memories

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Friedrich, Anja B.; Sima, Richard J.; Preat, Thomas; Rubin, Gerald M.; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster can acquire a stable appetitive olfactory memory when the presentation of a sugar reward and an odor are paired. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which a single training induces long-term memory are poorly understood. Here we show that two distinct subsets of dopamine neurons in the fly brain signal reward for short-term (STM) and long-term memories (LTM). One subset induces memory that decays within several hours, whereas the other induces memory that gradually develops after training. They convey reward signals to spatially segregated synaptic domains of the mushroom body (MB), a potential site for convergence. Furthermore, we identified a single type of dopamine neuron that conveys the reward signal to restricted subdomains of the mushroom body lobes and induces long-term memory. Constant appetitive memory retention after a single training session thus comprises two memory components triggered by distinct dopamine neurons. PMID:25548178

  16. Distinct dopamine neurons mediate reward signals for short- and long-term memories.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Friedrich, Anja B; Sima, Richard J; Preat, Thomas; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-01-13

    Drosophila melanogaster can acquire a stable appetitive olfactory memory when the presentation of a sugar reward and an odor are paired. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which a single training induces long-term memory are poorly understood. Here we show that two distinct subsets of dopamine neurons in the fly brain signal reward for short-term (STM) and long-term memories (LTM). One subset induces memory that decays within several hours, whereas the other induces memory that gradually develops after training. They convey reward signals to spatially segregated synaptic domains of the mushroom body (MB), a potential site for convergence. Furthermore, we identified a single type of dopamine neuron that conveys the reward signal to restricted subdomains of the mushroom body lobes and induces long-term memory. Constant appetitive memory retention after a single training session thus comprises two memory components triggered by distinct dopamine neurons. PMID:25548178

  17. Simultaneous Decoupled Detection of Dopamine and Oxygen using Pyrolyzed Carbon Microarrays and FSCV

    PubMed Central

    Zachek, Matthew K.; Takmakov, Pavel; Moody, Ben; Wightman, R. Mark; McCarty, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    Microfabricated structures utilizing pyrolyzed photoresist have been shown to be a useful for monitoring electrochemical processes. These previous studies, however, were limited to constant potential measurements and slow scan voltammetry. Work described in this report utilizes microfabrication processes to produce devices that enable multiple fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) waveforms to be applied to different electrodes on a single substrate. This enabled the simultaneous, decoupled, detection of dopamine and oxygen. This paper describes the fabrication process of these arrays and shows that pyrolyzed photoresist electrodes possess comparable surface chemistry and electrochemical properties to PAN type, T-650, carbon fiber microelectrodes using background-subtracted FSCV. The functionality of the array is discussed in terms of the degree of crosstalk in response to flow injections of physiologically relevant concentrations of dopamine and oxygen. Finally, other applications of pyrolyzed photoresist microelectrode arrays are shown, including: spatially resolved detection of analytes and combining FSCV with amperometry for the detection of dopamine. PMID:19552423

  18. The Role of Dopamine in Drosophila Larval Classical Olfactory Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-An; Stocker, Reinhard F.; Thum, Andreas S.

    2009-01-01

    Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt) as well as appetitive (odor-sugar) associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive olfactory memory

  19. Oestrogen Receptors Enhance Dopamine Neurone Survival in Rat Midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. L.; Ho, C. C.; Day, A. E.; Walker, Q. D.; Francis, R.; Kuhn, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings in our laboratory and elsewhere have shown that ovariectomy of rats in adulthood attenuates cocaine-stimulated locomotor behaviour. Ovarian hormones enhance both cocaine-stimulated behaviour and increase dopamine overflow after psychomotor stimulants. The present study aimed to determine whether ovarian hormones have these effects in part by maintaining dopamine neurone number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) and to investigate the roles of specific oestrogen receptors (ERs) in the maintenance of mesencephalic dopamine neurones. To accomplish this goal, we used unbiased stereological techniques to estimate the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) cell bodies in midbrain regions of intact, ovariectomised and hormone-replaced female rats and mice. Animals received active or sham gonadectomy on postnatal day 60 and received vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2) or selective ER agonists propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT, ERα) or diarylpropionitrile (DPN, ERβ) for 1 month post-surgery. In both rats and mice, ovariectomy reduced the number of TH-IR cells in the SNpc and VTA. Replacement with E2, PPT or DPN prevented or attenuated the loss observed with ovariectomy in both rats and mice. An additional study using ER knockout mice revealed that adult female mice lacking ERα had fewer TH-IR cells in midbrain regions than wild-type mice, whereas mice lacking ERβ had TH-IR cell counts comparable to wild-type. These findings suggest that, although both ER subtypes play a role in the maintenance of TH-IR cell number in the SNpc and VTA, ERα may play a more significant role. PMID:20136693

  20. A knotted1-like homeobox protein regulates abscission in tomato by modulating the auxin pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KD1, a gene encoding a KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX transcription factor is known to be involved, in tomato, in ontogeny of the compound leaf. KD1 is also highly expressed in both leaf and flower abscission zones. Reducing abundance of transcripts of this gene in tomato, using both virus induced gene sile...

  1. A transgenic approach to controlling wheat seed dormancy level by using Triticeae DOG1-like genes.

    PubMed

    Ashikawa, Ikuo; Mori, Masahiko; Nakamura, Shingo; Abe, Fumitaka

    2014-08-01

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait: low levels can cause premature germination, while too much can inhibit uniform germination. As an approach to controlling the seed dormancy level in crops, we used Triticeae DOG1-like genes as transgenes. DOG1 is an Arabidopsis gene that underlies natural variation in seed dormancy. We previously showed that although their sequence similarities to DOG1 were low, some cereal DOG1-like genes enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here, we introduced two DOG1-like genes, TaDOG1L4 from wheat and HvDOG1L1 from barley, individually into the wheat cultivar Fielder. Their overexpression under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter enhanced the seed dormancy level while leaving other traits unchanged. TaDOG1L4 was more effective than HvDOG1L1, which accords with the previously revealed difference in the effectiveness of these two genes in Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Knockdown of endogenous TaDOG1L4 in Fielder using double-strand RNA interference decreased the seed dormancy level by several tens of percent. This result indicates that some degree of seed dormancy inherent in wheat is imparted by DOG1-like genes. PMID:24752830

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Zar1 and Zar1-like genes in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zygote arrest 1 (Zar1) is a maternal effect gene that is essential for early embryonic development. Recently, a novel gene called Zar1-like (Zar1l) was discovered. Functional studies showed that ZAR1L plays an important role in regulating oocyte-to-embryo transition in mouse. The objectives of this ...

  3. Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, T. D. L.; Miyasaki, J.; Zurowski, M.; Lang, A. E.; Pellecchia, G.; Van Eimeren, T.; Rusjan, P.; Houle, S.; Strafella, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder reported in association with dopamine agonists used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Although impulse control disorders are conceptualized as lying within the spectrum of addictions, little neurobiological evidence exists to support this belief. Functional imaging studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities of dopaminergic function in patients with drug addictions, but to date no study has specifically evaluated dopaminergic function in Parkinson’s disease patients with impulse control disorders. We describe results of a [11C] raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) study comparing dopaminergic function during gambling in Parkinson’s disease patients, with and without pathological gambling, following dopamine agonists. Patients with pathological gambling demonstrated greater decreases in binding potential in the ventral striatum during gambling (13.9%) than control patients (8.1%), likely reflecting greater dopaminergic release. Ventral striatal bindings at baseline during control task were also lower in patients with pathological gambling. Although prior imaging studies suggest that abnormality in dopaminergic binding and dopamine release may be markers of vulnerability to addiction, this study presents the first evidence of these phenomena in pathological gambling. The emergence of pathological gambling in a number of Parkinson’s disease patients may provide a model into the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:19346328

  4. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.).

    PubMed

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado - P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection. PMID:25972890

  5. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J.; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado – P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection. PMID:25972890

  6. A transgenic mouse model of neuroepithelial cell specific inducible overexpression of dopamine D1-receptor.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, K; Araki, K; McCarthy, D M; Sims, J R; Ren, J Q; Zhang, X; Bhide, P G

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine and its receptors appear in the brain during early embryonic period suggesting a role for dopamine in brain development. In fact, dopamine receptor imbalance resulting from impaired physiological balance between D1- and D2-receptor activities can perturb brain development and lead to persisting changes in brain structure and function. Dopamine receptor imbalance can be produced experimentally using pharmacological or genetic methods. Pharmacological methods tend to activate or antagonize the receptors in all cell types. In the traditional gene knockout models the receptor imbalance occurs during development and also at maturity. Therefore, assaying the effects of dopamine imbalance on specific cell types (e.g. precursor versus postmitotic cells) or at specific periods of brain development (e.g. pre- or postnatal periods) is not feasible in these models. We describe a novel transgenic mouse model based on the tetracycline dependent inducible gene expression system in which dopamine D1-receptor transgene expression is induced selectively in neuroepithelial cells of the embryonic brain at experimenter-chosen intervals of brain development. In this model, doxycycline-induced expression of the transgene causes significant overexpression of the D1-receptor and significant reductions in the incorporation of the S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine into neuroepithelial cells of the basal and dorsal telencephalon indicating marked effects on telencephalic neurogenesis. The D1-receptor overexpression occurs at higher levels in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) than the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) or cerebral wall (CW). Moreover, although the transgene is induced selectively in the neuroepithelium, D1-receptor protein overexpression appears to persist in postmitotic cells. The mouse model can be modified for neuroepithelial cell-specific inducible expression of other transgenes or induction of the D1-receptor transgene in other cells in specific brain regions by

  7. A Dopamine- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanism for Network Adaptation in Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, C. F.; Pignatelli, A.; Partida, G. J.; Ishida, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrates can detect light intensity changes in vastly different photic environments, in part, because post-receptoral neurons undergo “network adaptation”. Previous data implicated dopaminergic, cAMP-dependent inhibition of retinal ganglion cells in this process, yet left unclear how this occurs, and whether this occurs in darkness versus light. To test for light- and dopamine-dependent changes in ganglion cell cAMP levels in situ, we immunostained dark- and light-adapted retinas with anti-cAMP antisera, in the presence and absence of various dopamine receptor ligands. To test for direct effects of dopamine receptor ligands and membrane-permeable protein kinase ligands on ganglion cell excitability, we recorded spikes from isolated ganglion cells in perforated-patch whole-cell mode, before and during application of these agents by microperfusion. Our immunostainings show that light, endogenous dopamine, and exogenous dopamine elevate ganglion cell cAMP levels in situ by activating D1-type dopamine receptors. Our spike recordings show that D1-type agonists and 8-bromo cAMP reduce spike frequency and curtail sustained spike firing, and that these effects entail protein kinase A activation. These effects resemble those of background light on ganglion cell responses to light flashes. Network adaptation could thus be produced, to some extent, by dopaminergic modulation of ganglion cell spike generation, a mechanism distinct from modulation of transmitter release onto ganglion cells or of transmitter-gated currents in ganglion cells. Combining these observations, with results obtained in studies of photoreceptor, bipolar, and horizontal cells, indicates that all three layers of neurons in the retina are equipped with mechanisms for adaptation to ambient light. PMID:11606650

  8. Levodopa Reverses Cytokine-Induced Reductions in Striatal Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Carla R.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies using neuroimaging and in vivo microdialysis in humans and nonhuman primates indicate that inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-alpha reduce dopamine release in the ventral striatum in association with depressive symptoms including anhedonia and psychomotor slowing. Methods: Herein, we examined whether reduced striatal dopamine release in rhesus monkeys chronically treated with interferon-alpha can be restored by administration of the dopamine precursor levodopa via reverse in vivo microdialysis. Results: Levodopa completely reversed interferon-alpha–induced reductions in striatal dopamine release. No changes were found in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine ratio, which increases when unpackaged dopamine is metabolized via monoamine oxidase. Conclusions: These findings suggest that inflammatory cytokines reduce the availability of dopamine precursors without affecting end-product synthesis or vesicular packaging and/or release and provide the foundation for future studies investigating therapeutic strategies that facilitate availability of dopamine precursors to improve depressive symptoms in patient populations with increased inflammation. PMID:25638816

  9. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... CONGENITAL Sources for This Page Cubells JF, Zabetian CP. Human genetics of plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity: ... GeneReview: Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency Kim CH, Zabetian CP, Cubells JF, Cho S, Biaggioni I, Cohen BM, Robertson ...

  10. Brain May Compensate for Dopamine Neuron Loss Early in Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Science News Brain May Compensate for Dopamine Neuron Loss Early in Parkinson’s - May 09 2014 Scientists ... at least 25 percent of the brain’s dopamine neurons already have been lost. So why do symptoms ...