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Sample records for doped diamond nanocrystallite

  1. Endo-Fullerenes and Doped Diamond Nanocrystallite Based Solid-State Qubits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Seongjun; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, K.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the use of endo-fullerenes and doped diamond nanocrystallites in the development of a solid state quantum computer. Arrays of qubits, which have 1/2 nuclear spin, are more easily fabricated than arrays of similar bare atoms. H-1 can be encapsulated in a C20D20 fullerene, while P-31 can be encapsulated in a diamond nanocrystallite.

  2. Endo-Fullerene and Doped Diamond Nanocrystallite Based Models of Qubits for Solid-State Quantum Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Seongjun; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Models of encapsulated 1/2 nuclear spin H-1 and P-31 atoms in fullerene and diamond nanocrystallite, respectively, are proposed and examined with ab-initio local density functional method for possible applications as single quantum bits (qubits) in solid-state quantum computers. A H-1 atom encapsulated in a fully deuterated fullerene, C(sub 20)D(sub 20), forms the first model system and ab-initio calculation shows that H-1 atom is stable in atomic state at the center of the fullerene with a barrier of about 1 eV to escape. A P-31 atom positioned at the center of a diamond nanocrystallite is the second model system, and 3 1P atom is found to be stable at the substitutional site relative to interstitial sites by 15 eV, Vacancy formation energy is 6 eV in diamond so that substitutional P-31 atom will be stable against diffusion during the formation mechanisms within the nanocrystallite. The coupling between the nuclear spin and weakly bound (valance) donor electron coupling in both systems is found to be suitable for single qubit applications, where as the spatial distributions of (valance) donor electron wave functions are found to be preferentially spread along certain lattice directions facilitating two or more qubit applications. The feasibility of the fabrication pathways for both model solid-state qubit systems within practical quantum computers is discussed with in the context of our proposed solid-state qubits.

  3. Photoluminescence characteristics of ZnS nanocrystallites doped with Ti3+and Ti4+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Lü, M.; Xu, D.; Yuan, D.; Song, C.; Zhou, G.

    Direct synthesis of ZnS nanocrystallites doped with Ti3+ or Ti4+ by precipitation has led to novel photoluminescence properties. Detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence spectrophotometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveal the crystal lattice structure, average size, emission spectra, absorption spectra and composition. The average crystallite size doped with different mole ratios, estimated from the Debye-Scherrer formula, is about 2.6+/-0.2 nm. The nanoparticles can be doped with Ti3+ and Ti4+ during the synthesis without the X-ray diffraction pattern being altered. The strong and stable visible-light emission has been observed from ZnS nanocrystallites doped with Ti3+ (its maximum fluorescence intensity is about twice that of undoped ZnS nanoparticles). However, the fluorescence intensity of the ZnS nanocrystallites doped with Ti4+ is almost the same as that of the undoped ZnS nanoparticles. The emission peak of the undoped sample is at 440-450 nm. The emission spectrum of the doped sample consists of two emission peaks, one at 420-430 nm and the other at 510 nm.

  4. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  5. Upconversion luminescence properties of nanocrystallite MgAl2O4 spinel doped with Ho3+ and Yb3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watras, A.; Dereń, P. J.; Pązik, R.; Maleszka-Bagińska, K.

    2012-10-01

    The upconversion luminescence spectra of nanocrystallite MgAl2O4 doped with 1% of Ho3+ and 5% of Yb3+ ions after excitation at 980 nm were measured. Influence of excitation regime either continuous or pulse on upconversion mechanisms was shown. For continuous wave (CW) laser excitation upconversion process is due to phonon assisted Excited State Absorption (ESA). For pulse laser excitation upconversion emission is due to Energy Transfer Upconversion (ETU).

  6. Boron doped polycrystalline diamond films for strain sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wur, D.; Davidson, J.L.; Kang, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    It has been recently established in our work and others that boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films (PDF) have piezoresistivity (PZR). This property opens PDF to the field of sensor applications using strain sensing. Polycrystalline diamond films have been prepared with microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and boron-doped to p-type semiconductors. In addition, by combining the piezoresistive effect in doped PDF and the insulating property of undoped PDF, whereby doped diamond resistors reside on a dielectric diamond substrate diaphragm, a monolithic all-diamond microstructure for examining the strain response of patterned p-doped diamond PZRs was fabricated and characterized. This work examines some critical issues of diamond for strain sensing applications such as its rupture stress and edge stress of diamond diaphragm and the high temperature responses of a diamond strain sensor.

  7. Low temperature synthesis of iodine-doped TiO 2 nanocrystallites with enhanced visible-induced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Fu, Ji-Wen; Tao, Xia; Li, Xin; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-03-01

    Iodine-doped TiO 2 nanocrystallites (denoted as I-TNCs) were prepared via a newly developed triblock copolymer-mediated sol-gel method at a temperature of 393 K. I-doping, crystallization and the formation of porous structure have been simultaneously achieved. The obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the as-prepared I-TNCs possessed a diameter of ca. 5 nm with anatase crystalline structure and a specific surface area of over 200 m 2 g -1. The presence of iodine expanded the photoresponse in visible light range, and led to enrich in surface hydroxyl group on the TiO 2 surface. Compared with the commercial photocatalyst P25, the I-TNCs significantly enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and the I-TNCs with 2.5 mol% doping ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic activity.

  8. Electrical Characterization of Diamond/Boron Doped Diamond Nanostructures for Use in Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołuński, Ł.; Zwolski, K.; Płotka, P.

    2016-01-01

    The polycrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) shows stable electrical properties and high tolerance for harsh environments (e.g. high temperature or aggressive chemical compounds) comparing to other materials used in semiconductor devices. In this study authors have designed electronic devices fabricated from non-intentionally (NiD) films and highly boron doped diamond structures. Presented semiconductor devices consist of highly boron doped structures grown on NiD diamond films. Fabricated structures were analyzed by electrical measurements for use in harsh environment applications. Moreover, the boron-doping level and influence of oxygen content on chemical composition of diamond films were particularly investigated. Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (MW PE CVD) has been used for thin diamond films growth. Non-intentionally doped diamond (0 ppm [B]/[C]) films have been deposited on the Si/SiO2 wafers with different content of carbon, boron and oxygen in the gas phase. Then, the shape of the highly doped diamond structures were obtained by pyrolysis of SiO2 on NiD film and standard lithography process. The highly doped structures were obtained for different growth time and [B]/[C] ratio (4000 - 10000 ppm). The narrowest distance between two highly doped structures was 5pm. The standard Ti/Au ohmic contacts were deposited using physical vapour deposition for electrical characterization of NiD/BDD devices. The influence of diffusion boron from highly doped diamond into non-doped/low-doped diamond film was investigated. Surface morphology of designed structures was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope and optical microscope. The resistivity of the NiD and film was studied using four-point probe measurements also DC studies were done.

  9. Note: Novel diamond anvil cell for electrical measurements using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, R; Sasama, Y; Fujioka, M; Irifune, T; Tanaka, M; Yamaguchi, T; Takeya, H; Takano, Y

    2016-07-01

    A novel diamond anvil cell suitable for electrical transport measurements under high pressure has been developed. A boron-doped metallic diamond film was deposited as an electrode on a nano-polycrystalline diamond anvil using a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique combined with electron beam lithography. The maximum pressure that can be achieved by this assembly is above 30 GPa. We report electrical transport measurements of Pb up to 8 GPa. The boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes showed no signs of degradation after repeated compression. PMID:27475610

  10. Note: Novel diamond anvil cell for electrical measurements using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Sasama, Y.; Fujioka, M.; Irifune, T.; Tanaka, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeya, H.; Takano, Y.

    2016-07-01

    A novel diamond anvil cell suitable for electrical transport measurements under high pressure has been developed. A boron-doped metallic diamond film was deposited as an electrode on a nano-polycrystalline diamond anvil using a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique combined with electron beam lithography. The maximum pressure that can be achieved by this assembly is above 30 GPa. We report electrical transport measurements of Pb up to 8 GPa. The boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes showed no signs of degradation after repeated compression.

  11. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, René; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E

    2011-06-15

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are

  12. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer. PMID:24738731

  13. Ion implantation of diamond: Damage, doping, and lift-off

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, N.R.; McGucken, E.; Swanson, M.L.; Hunn, J.D.; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    In order to make good quality economical diamond electronic devices, it is essential to grow films and to dope these films to obtain n- and p- type conductivity. This review talk discuss first doping by ion implantation plus annealing of the implantation damage, and second flow to make large area single crystal diamonds. C implantation damage below an estimated Frenkel defect concentration of 7% could be recovered almost completely by annealing at 950C. For a defect concentration between 7 and 10%, a stable damage form of diamond (``green diamond``) was formed by annealing. At still higher damage levels, the diamond graphitized. To introduce p-type doping, we have co-implanted B and C into natural diamond at 77K, followed by annealing up to 1100C. The resulting semiconducting material has electrical properties similar to those of natural B-doped diamond. To create n-type diamond, we have implanted Na{sup +}, P+ and As{sup +} ions and have observed semiconducting behavior. This has been compared with carbon or noble element implantation, in an attempt to isolate the effect of radiation damage. Recently, in order to obtain large area signal crystals, we have developed a novel technique for removing thin layers of diamond from bulk or homoepitaxial films. This method consists of ion implantation, followed by selective etching. High energy (4--5 MeV) implantation of carbon or oxygen ions creates a well-defined layer of damaged diamond buried at a controlled depth. This layer is graphitized and selectivity etched either by heating at 550C in an oxygen ambient or by electrolysis. This process successfully lifts off the diamond plate above the graphite layer. The lift-off method, combined with well-established homoepitaxial growth processes, has potential for fabrication of large area single-crystal diamond sheets.

  14. Multiple phosphorus chemical sites in heavily phosphorus-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Rikiya; Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Hirai, Masaaki; Kato, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Satoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2011-02-21

    We have performed high-resolution core level photoemission spectroscopy on a heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond film in order to elucidate the chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms in diamond. P 2p core level study shows two bulk components, providing spectroscopic evidence for multiple chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms. This indicates that only a part of doped-phosphorus atoms contribute to the formation of carriers. From a comparison with band calculations, possible origins for the chemical sites are discussed.

  15. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, A.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Bellet-Amalric, E.

    2014-08-25

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV{sup 0} or NV{sup −}. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  16. Thermal diffusion boron doping of single-crystal natural diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Wu, Henry; Mikael, Solomon; Mi, Hongyi; Blanchard, James P.; Venkataramanan, Giri; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin; Morgan, Dane; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-05-01

    With the best overall electronic and thermal properties, single crystal diamond (SCD) is the extreme wide bandgap material that is expected to revolutionize power electronics and radio-frequency electronics in the future. However, turning SCD into useful semiconductors requires overcoming doping challenges, as conventional substitutional doping techniques, such as thermal diffusion and ion implantation, are not easily applicable to SCD. Here we report a simple and easily accessible doping strategy demonstrating that electrically activated, substitutional doping in SCD without inducing graphitization transition or lattice damage can be readily realized with thermal diffusion at relatively low temperatures by using heavily doped Si nanomembranes as a unique dopant carrying medium. Atomistic simulations elucidate a vacancy exchange boron doping mechanism that occurs at the bonded interface between Si and diamond. We further demonstrate selectively doped high voltage diodes and half-wave rectifier circuits using such doped SCD. Our new doping strategy has established a reachable path toward using SCDs for future high voltage power conversion systems and for other novel diamond based electronic devices. The novel doping mechanism may find its critical use in other wide bandgap semiconductors.

  17. Homoepitaxial Boron Doped Diamond Anvils as Heating Elements in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeffrey; Samudrala, Gopi; Smith, Spencer; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Weir, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in designer-diamond technology have allowed for the use of electrically and thermally conducting homoepitaxially-grown layers of boron-doped diamond (grown at 1200 °C with a 2% mixture of CH4 in H, resulting in extremely high doping levels ~ 1020/cm3) to be used as heating elements in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). These diamonds allow for precise control of the temperature inside of the diamond anvil itself, particularly when coupled with a cryostat. Furthermore, the unmatched thermally conducting nature of diamond ensures that no significant lateral gradient in temperature occurs across the culet area. Since a thermocouple can easily be attached anywhere on the diamond surface, we can also measure diamond temperatures directly. With two such heaters, one can raise sample temperatures uniformly, or with any desired gradient along the pressure axis while preserving optical access. In our continuing set of benchmark experiments, we use two newly created matching heater anvils with 500 μm culets to analyze the various fluorescence emission lines of ruby microspheres, which show more complicated behavior than traditional ruby chips. We also report on the temperature dependence of the high-pressure Raman modes of paracetamol (C8H9NO2) up to 20 GPa.

  18. Electrochemical hydrogen termination of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Rene; Kriele, Armin; Obloh, Harald; Hees, Jakob; Wolfer, Marco; Smirnov, Waldemar; Yang Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-08-02

    Boron-doped diamond is a promising transducer material for numerous devices which are designed for contact with electrolytes. For optimized electron transfer the surface of diamond needs to be hydrogen terminated. Up to now H-termination of diamond is done by plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. In this paper, we show that boron-doped diamond can be H-terminated electrochemically by applying negative voltages in acidic solutions. Electrochemical H-termination generates a clean surface with virtually no carbon-oxygen bonds (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a reduced electron affinity (scanning electron microscopy), a highly hydrophobic surface (water contact angle), and a fast electron exchange with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup -3/-4} (cyclic voltammetry).

  19. Semiconducting polymers with nanocrystallites interconnected via boron-doped carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kilho; Lee, Ju Min; Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Geunjin; Kang, Hongkyu; Park, Byoungwook; Ho Kahng, Yung; Kwon, Sooncheol; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Byoung Hun; Kim, Jehan; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Sang Ouk; Lee, Kwanghee

    2014-12-10

    Organic semiconductors are key building blocks for future electronic devices that require unprecedented properties of low-weight, flexibility, and portability. However, the low charge-carrier mobility and undesirable processing conditions limit their compatibility with low-cost, flexible, and printable electronics. Here, we present significantly enhanced field-effect mobility (μ(FET)) in semiconducting polymers mixed with boron-doped carbon nanotubes (B-CNTs). In contrast to undoped CNTs, which tend to form undesired aggregates, the B-CNTs exhibit an excellent dispersion in conjugated polymer matrices and improve the charge transport between polymer chains. Consequently, the B-CNT-mixed semiconducting polymers enable the fabrication of high-performance FETs on plastic substrates via a solution process; the μFET of the resulting FETs reaches 7.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is the highest value reported for a flexible FET based on a semiconducting polymer. Our approach is applicable to various semiconducting polymers without any additional undesirable processing treatments, indicating its versatility, universality, and potential for high-performance printable electronics. PMID:25372930

  20. Doping level influence on chemical surface of diamond electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, A. F.; Baldan, M. R.; Ferreira, N. G.

    2013-04-01

    The modification of surface bond termination promoted by the doping level on diamond electrodes is analyzed. The films were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique using the standard mixture of H2/CH4 with an extra H2 flux passing through a bubbler containing different concentrations of B2O3 dissolved in methanol. Diamond morphology and quality were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy techniques while the changes in film surfaces were analyzed by contact angle, cyclic voltammetry and synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The boron-doped diamond (BDD) films hydrophobicity, reversibility, and work potential window characteristics were related to their physical properties and chemical surface, as a function of the doping level. From the Mott-Schottky plots (MSP) and XPS analyzes, for the lightly (1018 cm-3) and highly (1020 cm-3) BDD films, the relationship between the BDD electrochemical responses and their surface bond terminations is discussed.

  1. Laser annealing of neutron irradiated boron-10 isotope doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Butler, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    10B isotope doped p-type diamond epilayer grown by chemical vapor deposition on (110) oriented type IIa diamond single crystal substrate was subjected to neutron transmutation at a fluence of 2.4 9 1020 thermal and 2.4 9 1020 fast neutrons. After neutron irradiation, the epilayer and the diamond substrate were laser annealed using Nd YAG laser irradiation with wave length, 266 nm and energy, 150 mJ per pulse. The neutron irradiated diamond epilayer and the substrate were characterized before and after laser annealing using different techniques. The characterization techniques include optical microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and electrical sheet conductance measurement. The results indicate that the structure of the irradiation induced amorphous epilayer changes to disordered graphite upon laser annealing. The irradiated substrate retains the (110) crystalline structure with neutron irradiation induced defects.

  2. Boron doping of diamond via solid state diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, W.; Delfino, M.; Ching, L.-Y.; Reynolds, G.; Hodul, D.; Cooper, C. B., III

    Boron was diffused into diamond and simultaneously electrically activated by a rapid thermal annealing technique using a cubic boron nitride planar diffusion source in an argon atmosphere. Type IIa diamonds of 100 line orientation were precleaned in an ammonium persulfate/sulfuric acid solution at 200 C before processing in a rapid thermal processor. Annealing temperature was 1370 C for 20 sec. Electrical contacts of Ti/Au were made on diamond via evaporation, and subsequent ohmic annealing was carried out for 30 min at 800 C. The current-voltage characteristics of boron-doped diamond was found to be ohmic with a resistance of 170 mega-ohm from -5 to 5 volts as compared with the high resistivity (greater than 10 exp 15 ohm-cm) of the unprocessed IIa diamond. Boron concentrations as high as 3.5 x 10 exp 19 atoms/cc were detected at a depth of 500 A in the diamond substrate using secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  3. Color Centers in Silic On-Doped Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedov, V. S.; Krivobok, V. S.; Khomich, A. V.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Khomich, A. A.; Martyanov, A. K.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Poklonskaya, O. N.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon-doped microcrystalline diamond films of 1 μm thickness were grown by chemical vapor deposition in microwave plasma from mixtures of methane-hydrogen-silane on substrates of aluminum nitride, tungsten, and silicon. The diamond films were found to contain optically active silicon vacancy (SiV) centers giving rise to the 737-nm band in the photoluminescence spectra. The spectral features of a newly discovered narrow band of comparable intensity at 720-722 nm were studied. It is shown that the band at 720-722 nm occurs in the photoluminescence spectra only in the presence of silica in the diamond, regardless of the substrate material. The temperature dynamics of the photoluminescence spectra in the range of 5-294 K were investigated. The possible nature and mechanisms of formation of the color centers responsible for the 720-722 nm band are discussed.

  4. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Kenichi; Joseph Heremans, F.; Bassett, Lee C.; Myers, Bryan A.; Toyli, David M.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.; Palmstrom, Christopher J.; Awschalom, David D.

    2012-08-20

    We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of synthetic diamond using an in situ nitrogen delta-doping technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite their proximity to the surface, doped NV centers with depths (d) ranging from 5 to 100 nm display long spin coherence times, T{sub 2} > 100 {mu}s at d = 5 nm and T{sub 2} > 600 {mu}s at d {>=} 50 nm. The consistently long spin coherence observed in such shallow NV centers enables applications such as atomic-scale external spin sensing and hybrid quantum architectures.

  5. Focused ion beam fabrication of boron-doped diamond ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingping; Holt, Katherine B; Foord, John S

    2009-07-15

    The fabrication of ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) for analytical electrochemical applications has been explored, using boron-doped diamond as the active electrode material in an insulating coating formed by deposition of electrophoretic paint. Because of the rough nature of the diamond film, the property of such coatings that is normally exploited in the fabrication of UMEs, namely the tendency to retract automatically from sharp protrusions, cannot be used in the present instance. Instead focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering was employed to controllably produce UMEs with well-defined geometry, critical dimension of a few micrometers, and very thin insulating coatings. If the FIB machining is carried out at normal incidence to the diamond electrode surface, significant ion beam damage reduces the yield of successful electrodes. However, if a parallel machining geometry is employed, high yields of ultramicroelectrodes with a flat disk geometry can be obtained very reliably. The electrochemical properties of diamond UMEs are characterized. They show much lower background currents than the equivalent Pt or carbon fiber electrodes but more varied electrochemical response than macroscopic diamond electrodes. PMID:19545137

  6. ESR and Microwave Absorption in Boron Doped Diamond Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Superconductivity has been reportedly found in boron-doped diamond. Most research to date has only studied superconductivity in polycrystalline and thin film boron-diamonds, as opposed to a single crystal. In fact, only one other group has examined a macro scale boron-doped diamond crystal. Our group has successfully grown large single crystals by using the High Temperature High Pressure method (HTHP) and observed a transition to metallic and superconducting states for high B concentrations. For the present, we are studying BDD crystal using Electron Spin Resonance. We conducted our ESR analysis over a range of temperatures (2K to 300K) and found several types of signals, proving the existence of charge carriers with spin 1/2 in BDD. Moreover, we have found that with increasing B concentrations, from n ~ 1018 cm-3 to n of over 1020 cm-3, the ESR signal changes from that of localized spins to the Dysonian shape of free carriers. The low magnetic field microwave absorption has also been studied in BDD samples at various B concentrations and the clear transition to superconducting state has been found below Tc that ranges from 2K to 4 K depending on concentration and quality of crystal. Sergey Polyakov, Victor Denisov, Vladimir Blank, Ray Baughman, Anvar Zakhidov.

  7. Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, V. I.; Kucherova, O. V.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Zubkova, A. V.; Butler, J. E.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, A. V.; Vikharev, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120-150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10-13 down to 2 × 10-17 cm2 was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (˜2 × 10-20 cm2). At T > Troom in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.

  8. Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Zubkov, V. I. Kucherova, O. V.; Zubkova, A. V.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, A. V.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Vikharev, A. L.; Butler, J. E.

    2015-10-14

    Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120–150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10{sup −13} down to 2 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2} was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (∼2 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}). At T > T{sub room} in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.

  9. Co-doping of CVD diamond with boron and sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Sally Catherine

    Boron is well-established as a p-type dopant in diamond, but attempts to find a viable n-type dopant remain unsuccessful. In 1999, sulfur was reported to give n-type conductivity. However, later measurements indicated that the samples contained boron and were p-type. Recently, we showed that diamond co-doped with sulfur and small quantities of boron shows n-type conductivity, which was established by Mott-Schottky analyses, thermoelectric effect, Hall measurements, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), and UV open-circuit photo-potential. At higher boron concentrations, a transition to p-type behavior is observed due to overcompensation. Experiments performed without boron in the feed gas or without residual boron in the reactor chamber showed no sulfur incorporation and no change in conductivity. There is evidence that the excess sulfur concentration in the near-surface region is not stable. At room temperature and below, the activation energies range from 0.06 to 0.12 eV. Above 400K there is an irreversible loss in conductivity and the activation energy increases to approximately 1.3 eV. Additionally, we observed by SIMS that there exists a concentration gradient in sulfur with film depth. This sulfur concentration gradient is also observed in our electrical measurements. STS shows a decrease in conductivity with film depth and Hall effect measurements show both p-type and n-type coefficients for samples which are n-type in the near-surface region. The flat-band potential obtained from the Mott-Schottky experiments is only 1 to 1.5 V more negative on the electrochemical scale than that for boron-doped diamond. This implies that the Fermi level is only 1 to 1.5 eV higher than the Fermi level in boron-doped diamond. This observation implies that the n-type conductivity is not by excitation of electrons to the conduction band, but by an alternate mechanism that occurs in the middle of the band gap. One such possibility is an acceptor impurity band. Electrons from

  10. The boron doping of single crystal diamond for high power diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicley, Shannon Singer

    Diamond has the potential to revolutionize the field of high power and high frequency electronic devices as a superlative electronic material. The realization of diamond electronics depends on the control of the growth process of both lightly and heavily boron doped diamond. This dissertation work is focused on furthering the state of the art of boron doped diamond (BDD) growth toward the realization of high power diamond Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). The achievements of this work include the fabrication of a new dedicated reactor for lightly boron doped diamond deposition, the optimization of growth processes for both heavily and lightly boron doped single crystal diamond (SCD), and the proposal and realization of the corner architecture SBD. Boron doped SCD is grown in microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) plasma disc bell-jar reactors, with feedgas mixtures including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and diborane. Characterization methods for the analysis of BDD are described, including Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and temperature-dependent four point probe conductivity for activation energy. The effect of adding carbon dioxide to the plasma feedgas for lightly boron doped diamond is investigated. The effect of diborane levels and other growth parameters on the incorporated boron levels are reported, and the doping efficiency is calculated over a range of boron concentrations. The presence of defects is shown to affect the doping uniformity. The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in heavily boron doped SCD deposition is investigated. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron

  11. Application of N- and B-doped CVD diamond layers for cyclic voltammetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torz-Piotrowska, R.; Wrzyszczyński, A.; Paprocki, K.; Staryga, E.

    2009-10-01

    Conductive polycrystalline diamond layers prepared by the CVD process have received attention from electrochemists owing to such superior electrochemical properties as the wide potential window, the very low background current, the stability of chemical and physical properties. In this paper, the cyclic voltammetry application using N- and B-doped diamond electrodes was studied. Diamond layers, doped with boron and nitrogen, were synthesized on a silicon substrate in a hot-filament CVD reactor. The obtained diamond layers were characterized using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of diamond layers were measured in KCl and NaCl basic solutions to gain knowledge about their potential application as an electrode material. It was found that boron doped diamond electrodes showed potential windows up to about 7 V which were almost twice wider than those observed for conventional Pt electrodes.

  12. Electron emission from conduction band of heavily phosphorus doped diamond negative electron affinity surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Mimura, Hidenori; Okano, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen (H)-terminated surfaces of diamond have attracted significant attention due to their negative electron affinity (NEA), suggesting high-efficiency electron emitters. Combined with n-type doping technique using phosphorus (P) as donors, the unique NEA surface makes diamond a promising candidate for vacuum cold-cathode applications. However, high-electric fields are needed for the electron emission from the n-type doped diamond with NEA. Here we have clarified the electron emission mechanism of field emission from P-doped diamond having NEA utilizing combined ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy/field emission spectroscopy (UPS/FES). An UP spectrum has confirmed the NEA of H-terminated (1 1 1) surface of P-doped diamond. Despite the NEA, electron emission occurs only when electric field at the surface exceeds 4.2  ×  106 V cm-1. Further analysis by UPS/FES has revealed that the emitted energy level is shifted, indicating that the electron emission mechanism of n-type diamond having NEA surface does not follow a standard field emission theory, but is dominated by potential barrier formed within the diamond due to upward band bending. The reduction of internal barrier is the key to achieve high-efficiency electron emitters using P-doped diamond with NEA, of which application ranges from high-resolution electron spectroscopy to novel vacuum nanoelectronics devices.

  13. Phase evolution in sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped BaTiO3 nanocrystallites: structural, magnetic and ferroelectric characterisation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dimple P; Roy, Mainak; Maiti, Nandita; Tyagi, Avesh K

    2016-04-14

    The properties of nanomaterials are highly dependent on their size, morphology, crystal phase, etc., which in turn depend on the method of synthesis. We report here the electrical and magnetic characterisation of sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped nano BaTiO3 samples. The dopant ion concentration has been optimized and the coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity has been observed in the sample. With increase in Fe(3+) doping from 0 to 20 mol%, a gradual phase change from tetragonal to hexagonal occurred in these sonochemically synthesized BaTiO3 nanomaterials. Below 15 mol% Fe concentration the material displays ferroelectric behaviour with the absence of any magnetic ordering, while at an Fe concentration of ∼15 mol% the material exhibits both room temperature ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. Ferromagnetism as well as relaxor type behaviour has been observed in the BaTiO3:Fe(3+)(20%) sample. We have studied the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering in these sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped BaTiO3 nanomaterials and have tried to correlate the results with their crystal structure and morphology. The origin of ferromagnetism in these materials has been attributed to both intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. PMID:27003320

  14. Thick homoepitaxial (110)-oriented phosphorus-doped n-type diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, Y.; Pobedinskas, P.; Janssens, S. D.; Sakr, G.; Jomard, F.; Turner, S.; Lu, Y.-G.; Dexters, W.; Soltani, A.; Verbeeck, J.; Barjon, J.; Nesládek, M.; Haenen, K.

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of n-type diamond is essential for the realization of electronic components for extreme environments. We report on the growth of a 66 μm thick homoepitaxial phosphorus-doped diamond on a (110)-oriented diamond substrate, grown at a very high deposition rate of 33 μm h-1. A pristine diamond lattice is observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which indicates the growth of high quality diamond. About 2.9 × 1016 cm-3 phosphorus atoms are electrically active as substitutional donors, which is 60% of all incorporated dopant atoms. These results indicate that P-doped (110)-oriented diamond films deposited at high growth rates are promising candidates for future use in high-power electronic applications.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  16. Diamond Film Gas Sensors for Leak Detection of Semiconductor Doping Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazushi; Yokota, Yoshihiro; Tachibana, Takeshi; Miyata, Koichi; Kobashi, Koji; Fukunaga, Tetsuya; Takada, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    Gas sensors for leak detection of toxic semiconductor doping gases such as PH3, B2H6, and AsH3 were fabricated using diamond films. The sensors have a double-layered structure composed of undoped and B-doped polycrystalline diamond layers with Pt electrodes. The relative changes in the resistance of the sensors were typically 10-20% for 0.2 ppm PH3 in air, and the highest value was over 100%. It was concluded that the diamond film gas sensors fabricated in the present work would be practically applicable as compact solid-state sensors with an advantage over the conventional aqueous electrolyte sensors.

  17. Investigation on the optical properties of sulfur-doped diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjie; Zhao, Qingxun; Yin, Zengqian; Zhao, Zhanlong

    2011-08-01

    Sulfur-doped diamond thin films have been synthesized using CH4/H2/Ar/H2S gas mixture by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The optical properties of the films are investigated by SEM and Raman spectra. The Gaussian line shape is used in the curve fitting for the Raman spectra. Results show that the ID/IG presents the trend of first increase and then decrease with the increase of S/C ratio, however, an upward shift of the diamond peak is observed. This implies residual stress in the sulfur-doped diamond thin films. Moreover, optimum experimental conditions are proposed.

  18. Peculiarities of boron distribution in as-grown boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, V. D.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Terentiev, S. A.; Nosukhin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) single crystals have been grown under conditions of high isostatic pressure by the temperature gradient method. Numerous equilateral triangles were found on the fluorescence images of {111}-diamond facets. Structural peculiarities of BDD were investigated by JEM-2010 transmission electron microscope with GIF Quantum attachment for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High resolution image of diamond lattice revealed some distorted {111}-layers. EELS testifies the presence of boron in distorted regions of diamond lattice. The crystallographic features of BDD and their connection with the superconductivity are discussed.

  19. Visible-light sensitization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond through non-covalent surface modification.

    PubMed

    Krysova, Hana; Vlckova-Zivcova, Zuzana; Barton, Jan; Petrak, Vaclav; Nesladek, Milos; Cigler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-14

    A novel simple and versatile synthetic strategy is developed for the surface modification of boron-doped diamond. In a two-step procedure, polyethyleneimine is adsorbed on the hydrogenated diamond surface and subsequently modified with a model light-harvesting donor-π-bridge-acceptor molecule (coded P1). The sensitized diamond exhibits stable cathodic photocurrents under visible-light illumination in aqueous electrolyte solution with dimethylviologen serving as an electron mediator. In spite of the simplicity of the surface sensitization protocol, the photoelectrochemical performance is similar to or better than that of other sensitized diamond electrodes which were reported in previous studies (2008-2014). PMID:25418375

  20. Structure and superconductivity of isotope-enriched boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joe D; Ekimov, E A; Sidorov, V A; Zoteev, A; Lebed, Y; Stishov, S M

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting boron-doped diamond samples were synthesized with isotopes of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C. We claim the presence of a carbon isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature, which supports the 'diamond-carbon'-related nature of superconductivity and the importance of the electron-phonon interaction as the mechanism of superconductivity in diamond. Isotope substitution permits us to relate almost all bands in the Raman spectra of heavily boron-doped diamond to the vibrations of carbon atoms. The 500 cm{sup 01} Raman band shifts with either carbon or boron isotope substitution and may be associated with vibrations of paired or clustered boron. The absence of a superconducting transition (down to 1.6 K) in diamonds synthesized in the Co-C-B system at 1900 K correlates with the small boron concentration deduced from lattice parameters.

  1. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of homoepitaxial diamond multilayers and delta-doped structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet, J.; Chicot, G.; Eon, D.; Bustarret, E.

    2014-01-13

    The optimization of diamond-based unipolar electronic devices such as pseudo-vertical Schottky diodes or delta-doped field effect transistors relies in part on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p{sup –}) and heavily boron doped (p{sup ++}) layers with well-controlled thicknesses and steep interfaces. Optical ellipsometry offers a swift and contactless method to characterize the thickness, roughness, and electronic properties of semiconducting and metallic diamond layers. We report ellipsometric studies carried out on delta-doped structures and other epitaxial multilayers with various boron concentrations and thicknesses (down to the nanometer range). The results are compared with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and transport measurements.

  2. Boron doping to diamond and DLC using plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikegami, T.; Grotjohn; Reinhard, D.; Asmussen, J.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling carriers in diamond by doping is important to realize diamond electronic devices with advanced electrical characteristics. As a doping method the Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) has been gathering attention due to its excellence in making shallow, highly doped regions over large areas, and its high dose rate, good dose controllability and isotropic doping properties. The authors have begun to investigate boron doping of diamond, silicon and diamond-like carbon films using PIII. As a doping source they use the plasma sputtering of a solid boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) target instead of toxic gas source like diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}). The B{sub 4}C target of 1-in. diameter and a substrate (Si, diamond or diamond-like carbon film) are located in the downtown region of an ECR plasma produced by the microwave plasma disc reactor (MPDR) filled with 1--5 mTorr Ar gas. In order to sputter the target a negative self bias from {minus}400V to {minus}700V is induced by applying RF (13.56 MHz) power of 50--200W to the target holder. For boron ion implantation, negative pulses of {minus}1kV to {minus}8kV, 1--5{micro}s pulse duration, 1--200Hz repetition rate are applied to the substrate holder using a voltage pulser which consists of high voltage capacitors and MOSFETs. After thermal treatment of the doped materials their electrical resistivity are measured using the four-probe method. Details of both the PIII source and substrate doping experimental results are shown at the meeting.

  3. Tribological properties of undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qi; Stanishevsky, Andrei; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films were deposited on mirror polished Ti–6Al–4V substrates in a Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition system. Sliding wear tests were conducted in ambient air with a nanotribometer. A systematic study of the tribological properties for both undoped and boron-doped NCD films were carried out. It was found for diamond/diamond sliding, coefficient of friction decreases with increasing normal loads. It was also found that the wear rate of boron-doped NCD films is about 10 times higher than that of undoped films. A wear rate of ~5.2×10−9 mm3/Nm was found for undoped NCD films. This value is comparable to the best known value of that of polished polycrystalline diamond films. Although no surface deformation, film delamination or micro-cracking were observed for undoped films, boron-doped NCD film undergoes a critical failure at a normal stress of 2.2 GPa, above which surface deformation is evident. Combined with high hardness and modulus, tunable conductivity and improved open air thermal stability, boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond film has tremendous potentials for applications such as Atomic Force Microscope probes, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System devices and biomedical sensors. PMID:19946362

  4. Impact of nitrogen doping on growth and hydrogen impurity incorporation of thick nanocrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Li-Ping; Tang, Chun-Jiu; Jiang, Xue-Fan; L. Pinto, J.

    2011-05-01

    A much larger amount of bonded hydrogen was found in thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films produced by only adding 0.24% N2 into 4% CH4/H2 plasma, as compared to the high quality transparent microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films, grown using the same growth parameters except for nitrogen. These experimental results clearly evidence that defect formation and impurity incorporation (for example, N and H) impeding diamond grain growth is the main formation mechanism of NCD upon nitrogen doping and strongly support the model proposed in the literature that nitrogen competes with CHx (x = 1, 2, 3) growth species for adsorption sites.

  5. The effect of substrate temperature and growth rate on the doping efficiency of single crystal boron doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Demlow, SN; Rechenberg, R; Grotjohn, T

    2014-10-01

    The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in single crystal, boron doped diamond (BDD) deposition is investigated. Single crystal diamond (SCD) is grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) on high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) type Ib substrates. Samples are grown at substrate temperatures of 850-950 degrees C for each of five doping concentration levels, to determine the effect of the growth temperature on the doping efficiency and defect morphology. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth, delta-doping and characterization of diamond films by hot filament chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtengi, Bokani

    The synthesis of high-quality heteroepitaxial diamond films continues to attract interesting research possibilities for the development of diamond devices. Diamond has great properties; mechanical, optical, electrical and its natural impurities that can be explored for various applications. The color centers are widely recognized as promising solid-state platform for quantum computing applications. We report successful heteroepitaxial growth and delta doping of color centers in hot filament chemical vapor deposited diamond films composed of nitrogen, germanium and silicon indicated by the strong photoluminescence intensity peaks obtained using the confocal microscope. We studied the effect of hot-filament chemical vapor deposition conditions on the quality of diamond films grown on silicon and silicon carbide substrates. The effect of substrate distance, the methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) gases flow rates and ratios, substrate growth and filament temperature, growth time and growth termination procedures on diamond film quality are discussed. The relatively good quality of these films was confirmed by several spectroscopic techniques including, Raman spectroscopy that gave insights into the relative sp2/sp3 bonding configurations, the residual strain and the crystalline quality. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the grain size and morphology. In-situ growth monitoring was studied using the laser reflectance interferometer (LRI) tool, which provides data for thickness, growth rate measurements and guidance for nitrogen doping. Optimal growth conditions that lead to synthesis of high quality heteroepitaxial diamond layer at growth rate of 0.5microm/hr were determined. The delta-doped samples have been analyzed using the confocal optical microscope to measure their spin-dependent photoluminescence intensity (IPL). Electrical properties of the undoped diamond films have been measured using the Hall effects measurement for resistivity and

  7. Low-temperature electrical transport in B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2014-05-01

    B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are grown using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method, and their electrical transport properties varying with temperature are investigated. When the B-doped concentration of UNCD film is low, a step-like increase feature of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature, reflecting at least three temperature-modified electronic state densities at the Fermi level according to three-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping transport mechanism, which is very different from that of reported B-doped nanodiamond. With increasing B-doped concentration, a superconductive transformation occurs in the UNCD film and the highest transformation temperature of 5.3 K is observed, which is higher than that reported for superconducting nanodiamond films. In addition, the superconducting coherence length is about 0.63 nm, which breaks a reported theoretical and experimental prediction about ultra-nanoscale diamond's superconductivity.

  8. Low-temperature electrical transport in B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie Gu, Changzhi

    2014-05-05

    B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are grown using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method, and their electrical transport properties varying with temperature are investigated. When the B-doped concentration of UNCD film is low, a step-like increase feature of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature, reflecting at least three temperature-modified electronic state densities at the Fermi level according to three-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping transport mechanism, which is very different from that of reported B-doped nanodiamond. With increasing B-doped concentration, a superconductive transformation occurs in the UNCD film and the highest transformation temperature of 5.3 K is observed, which is higher than that reported for superconducting nanodiamond films. In addition, the superconducting coherence length is about 0.63 nm, which breaks a reported theoretical and experimental prediction about ultra-nanoscale diamond's superconductivity.

  9. An insight into what superconducts in polycrystalline boron-doped diamonds based on investigations of microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Wirth, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Papageorgiou, T.; Braun, H. F.; Miyajima, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) synthesized under high pressure and high temperatures [Ekimov, et al. (2004) Nature 428:542–545] has raised a number of questions on the origin of the superconducting state. It was suggested that the heavy boron doping of diamond eventually leads to superconductivity. To justify such statements more detailed information on the microstructure of the composite materials and on the exact boron content in the diamond grains is needed. For that we used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. For the studied superconducting BDD samples synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures the diamond grain sizes are ≈1–2 μm with a boron content between 0.2 (2) and 0.5 (1) at %. The grains are separated by 10- to 20-nm-thick layers and triangular-shaped pockets of predominantly (at least 95 at %) amorphous boron. These results render superconductivity caused by the heavy boron doping in diamond highly unlikely. PMID:18697937

  10. Anodic coupling of guaiacol derivatives on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kirste, Axel; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2011-06-17

    The anodic treatment of guaiacol derivatives on boron-doped diamond electrodes (BDD) provides a direct access to nonsymmetrical biphenols, which would require a multistep sequence by conventional methods. Despite the destructive nature of BDD anodes they can be exploited for chemical synthesis. PMID:21608986

  11. Enhanced p-type conduction of B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films by high temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, S. S.; Hu, X. J.

    2013-07-14

    We report the enhanced p-type conduction with Hall mobility of 53.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} in B-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films by 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing. High resolution transmission electronic microscopy, uv, and visible Raman spectroscopy measurements show that a part of amorphous carbon grain boundaries (GBs) transforms to diamond phase, which increases the opportunity of boron atoms located at the GBs to enter into the nano-diamond grains. This phase transition doping is confirmed by the secondary ion mass spectrum depth profile results that the concentration of B atoms in nano-diamond grains increases after 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing. It is also observed that 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing improves the lattice perfection, reduces the internal stress, decreases the amount of trans-polyacetylene, and increases the number or size of aromatic rings in the sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon cluster in B-doped NCD films. These give the contributions to improve the electrical properties of 1000 Degree-Sign C annealed B-doped NCD films.

  12. A hydrophobic three-dimensionally networked boron-doped diamond electrode towards electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    He, Yapeng; Lin, Haibo; Wang, Xue; Huang, Weimin; Chen, Rongling; Li, Hongdong

    2016-06-28

    A boron-doped diamond electrode with a three-dimensional network was fabricated on a mesh titanium substrate. Properties such as higher surface area, enhanced mass transfer and a hydrophobic surface endowed the prepared electrode with excellent electrochemical oxidation ability towards contaminants. PMID:27264247

  13. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  14. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  15. Cytotoxicity of Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films Prepared by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Gou, Li; Ran, Junguo; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties and chemical stability, making it highly suitable for biomedical applications. For implant materials, the impact of boron-doped NCD films on the character of cell growth (i.e., adhesion, proliferation) is very important. Boron-doped NCD films with resistivity of 10-2 Ω·cm were grown on Si substrates by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) process with H2 bubbled B2O3. The crystal structure, diamond character, surface morphology, and surface roughness of the boron-doped NCD films were analyzed using different characterization methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact potential difference and possible boron distribution within the film were studied with a scanning kelvin force microscope (SKFM). The cytotoxicity of films was studied by in vitro tests, including fluorescence microscopy, SEM and MTT assay. Results indicated that the surface roughness value of NCD films was 56.6 nm and boron was probably accumulated at the boundaries between diamond agglomerates. MG-63 cells adhered well and exhibited a significant growth on the surface of films, suggesting that the boron-doped NCD films were non-toxic to cells. supported by the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China) (No. KFJJ201313)

  16. Comparative investigation of surface transfer doping of hydrogen terminated diamond by high electron affinity insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, C.; Ciccognani, W.; Colangeli, S.; Limiti, E.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2016-07-01

    We report on a comparative study of transfer doping of hydrogenated single crystal diamond surface by insulators featured by high electron affinity, such as Nb2O5, WO3, V2O5, and MoO3. The low electron affinity Al2O3 was also investigated for comparison. Hole transport properties were evaluated in the passivated hydrogenated diamond films by Hall effect measurements, and were compared to un-passivated diamond films (air-induced doping). A drastic improvement was observed in passivated samples in terms of conductivity, stability with time, and resistance to high temperatures. The efficiency of the investigated insulators, as electron accepting materials in hydrogenated diamond surface, is consistent with their electronic structure. These surface acceptor materials generate a higher hole sheet concentration, up to 6.5 × 1013 cm-2, and a lower sheet resistance, down to 2.6 kΩ/sq, in comparison to the atmosphere-induced values of about 1 × 1013 cm-2 and 10 kΩ/sq, respectively. On the other hand, hole mobilities were reduced by using high electron affinity insulator dopants. Hole mobility as a function of hole concentration in a hydrogenated diamond layer was also investigated, showing a well-defined monotonically decreasing trend.

  17. Biocompatibility of nanostructured boron doped diamond for the attachment and proliferation of human neural stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alice C.; Vagaska, Barbora; Edgington, Robert; Hébert, Clément; Ferretti, Patrizia; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. We quantitatively investigate the biocompatibility of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) after the inclusion of boron, with and without nanostructuring. The nanostructuring method involves a novel approach of growing NCD over carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that act as a 3D scaffold. This nanostructuring of BNCD leads to a material with increased capacitance, and this along with wide electrochemical window makes BNCD an ideal material for neural interface applications, and thus it is essential that their biocompatibility is investigated. Approach. Biocompatibility was assessed by observing the interaction of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) with a variety of NCD substrates including un-doped ones, and NCD doped with boron, which are both planar, and nanostructured. hNSCs were chosen due to their sensitivity, and various methods including cell population and confluency were used to quantify biocompatibility. Main results. Boron inclusion into NCD film was shown to have no observable effect on hNSC attachment, proliferation and viability. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of nanostructured boron-doped NCD is increased upon nanostructuring, potentially due to the increased surface area. Significance. Diamond is an attractive material for supporting the attachment and development of cells as it can show exceptional biocompatibility. When boron is used as a dopant within diamond it becomes a p-type semiconductor, and at high concentrations the diamond becomes quasi-metallic, offering the prospect of a direct electrical device-cell interfacing system.

  18. Boron doping of diamond powder by enhanced diffusion and forced diffusion: Diffusion concentrations, mechanical, chemical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshani, Fariborz

    Diamond, with its unique mechanical properties, is an excellent material for a wide range of applications. However, there exist some problems. One such problem is integration of diamond of diamond into tool's (usually tungsten-carbide) lattice matrix for the purpose of increasing its performance. The presence of cobalt in the matrix, which acts as a poison for diamond, causes graphitization and degradation of diamond. In addition, diamond graphitizes at sintering temperatures (1770 K). The results of this work suggest that boron has produced a protective layer for diamond, thus reducing the effects of annealing at high temperatures. Boron has been introduced into single crystal high pressure, high temperature diamond powder by enhanced diffusion and forced diffusion techniques. Enhanced diffusion resulted in higher concentrations of boron in diamond powder. Total boron concentrations of 500 to 600 ppm, and 10sp{20} cmsp{-3} at a depth of 0.5 micrometer, have been achieved. Hardness tests performed on doped samples reveal that diamond did not lose its strength due to diffusion at elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis did not show any change in the "quality" of diamond due to doping. Oxidation experiments performed on doped and undoped samples revealed that the samples with the highest boron concentrations had superior performance and resistance to oxidation. Final weight loss in these samples was much less than in undoped samples and samples with low boron concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy of these samples showed that degradation due to oxidation of heavily doped diamond samples was significantly less than other samples.

  19. Improvements in the Formation of Boron-Doped Diamond Coatings on Platinum Wires Using the Novel Nucleation Process (NNP)

    PubMed Central

    Fhaner, Mathew; Zhao, Hong; Bian, Xiaochun; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the initial nucleation density for the growth of boron-doped diamond on platinum wires, we employed the novel nucleation process (NNP) originally developed by Rotter et al. and discussed by others [1–3]. This pretreatment method involves (i) the initial formation of a thin carbon layer over the substrate followed by (ii) ultrasonic seeding of this “soft” carbon layer with nanoscale particles of diamond. This two-step pretreatment is followed by the deposition of boron-doped diamond by microwave plasma-assisted CVD. Both the diamond seed particles and sites on the carbon layer itself function as the initial nucleation zones for diamond growth from an H2-rich source gas mixture. We report herein on the characterization of the pre-growth carbon layer formed on Pt as well as boron-doped films grown for 2, 4 and 6 h post NNP pretreatment. Results from scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical studies are reported. The NNP method increases the initial nucleation density on Pt and leads to the formation of a continuous diamond film in a shorter deposition time than is typical for wires pretreated by conventional ultrasonic seeding. The results indicate that the pregrowth layer itself consists of nanoscopic domains of diamond and functions well to enhance the initial nucleation of diamond without any diamond powder seeding. PMID:21617759

  20. Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of {sup 10}B doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Verghese, K.; Butler, J. E.

    2014-08-28

    {sup 10}B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp{sup 2} bonded nanocrystalline regions.

  1. Optical patterning of trapped charge in nitrogen-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Albu, Remus; Manson, Neil; Doherty, Marcus; Henshaw, Jacob; Meriles, Carlos

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is emerging as a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing and nanoscale metrology. Of interest in these applications is the manipulation of the NV charge state, which can be attained by optical illumination. Here we use two-color optical microscopy to investigate the dynamics of NV photo-ionization, charge diffusion, and trapping in type-1b diamond. We combine fixed-point laser excitation and scanning fluorescence imaging to locally alter the concentration of negatively charged NVs and to subsequently probe the corresponding redistribution of charge. We uncover the formation of various spatial patterns of trapped charge, which we semi-quantitatively reproduce via a model of the interplay between photo-excited carriers and atomic defects in the diamond lattice. Further, by using the NV as a local probe, we map the relative fraction of positively charged nitrogen upon localized optical excitation. These observations may prove important to various technologies, including the transport of quantum information between remote NVs and the development of three-dimensional, charge-based memories. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-1314205.

  2. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.

  3. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrentsmore » around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.« less

  4. Sulfur doping of diamond films: Spectroscopic, electronic, and gas-phase studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherbridge, James R.; May, Paul W.; Fuge, Gareth M.; Robertson, Giles F.; Rosser, Keith N.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2002-03-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been used to grow sulfur doped diamond films on undoped Si and single crystal HPHT diamond as substrates, using a 1% CH4/H2 gas mixture with various levels of H2S addition (100-5000 ppm), using both microwave (MW) plasma enhanced CVD and hot filament (HF) CVD. The two deposition techniques yield very different results. HFCVD produces diamond films containing only trace amounts of S (as analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), the film crystallinity is virtually unaffected by gas phase H2S concentration, and the films remain highly resistive. In contrast, MWCVD produces diamond films with S incorporated at levels of up to 0.2%, and the amount of S incorporation is directly proportional to the H2S concentration in the gas phase. Secondary electron microscopy observations show that the crystal quality of these films reduces with increasing S incorporation. Four point probe measurements gave the room temperature resistivities of these S-doped and MW grown films as ˜200 Ω cm, which makes them ˜3 times more conductive than undoped diamond grown under similar conditions. Molecular beam mass spectrometry has been used to measure simultaneously the concentrations of the dominant gas phase species present during growth, for H2S doping levels (1000-10 000 ppm in the gas phase) in 1% CH4/H2 mixtures, and for 1% CS2/H2 gas mixtures, for both MW and HF activation. CS2 and CS have both been detected in significant concentrations in all of the MW plasmas that yield S-doped diamond films, whereas CS was not detected in the gas phase during HF growth. This suggests that CS may be an important intermediary facilitating S incorporation into diamond. Furthermore, deposition of yellow S was observed on the cold chamber walls when using H2S concentrations >5000 ppm in the MW system, but very little S deposition was observed for the HF system under similar conditions. All of these results are rationalized by a model of the important gas phase

  5. Method of synthesizing metal doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Mayumi (Inventor); Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of synthesizing metal doped carbon films by placing a substrate in a chamber with a selected amount of a metalorganic compound. An electron cyclotron resonance is applied to the chamber in order to vaporize the metalorganic compound. The resonance is applied to the chamber until a metal doped carbon film is formed. The metalorganic compound is preferably selected from the group consisting of an organic salt of ruthenium, palladium, gold or platinum.

  6. Effect of nitrogen on the growth of boron doped single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, Sunil; Vohra, Yogesh

    2013-11-18

    Boron-doped single crystal diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on synthetic (100) Type Ib diamond substrates using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. A modification in surface morphology of the film with increasing boron concentration in the plasma has been observed using atomic force microscopy. Use of nitrogen during boron doping has been found to improve the surface morphology and the growth rate of films but it lowers the electrical conductivity of the film. The Raman spectra indicated a zone center optical phonon mode along with a few additional bands at the lower wavenumber regions. The change in the peak profile of the zone center optical phonon mode and its downshift were observed with the increasing boron content in the film. Furthermore, sharpening and upshift of Raman line was observed in the film that was grown in presence of nitrogen along with diborane in process gas.

  7. Electrochemical mineralization pathway of quinoline by boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunrong; Ma, Keke; Wu, Tingting; Ye, Min; Tan, Peng; Yan, Kecheng

    2016-04-01

    Boron-doped diamond anodes were selected for quinoline mineralization, and the resulting intermediates, phenylpropyl aldehyde, phenylpropionic acid, and nonanal were identified and followed during quinoline oxidation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The evolutions of formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, NO2(-), NO3(-), and NH4(+) were quantified. A new reaction pathway for quinoline mineralization by boron-doped diamond anodes has been proposed, where the pyridine ring in quinoline is cleaved by a hydroxyl radical giving phenylpropyl aldehyde and NH4(+). Phenylpropyl aldehyde is quickly oxidized into phenylpropionic acid, and the benzene ring is cleaved giving nonanal. This is further oxidized to formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid. Finally, these organic intermediates are mineralized to CO2 and H2O. NH4(+) is also oxidized to NO2(-) and on to NO3(-). The results will help to gain basic reference for clearing intermediates and their toxicity. PMID:26855227

  8. Effect of nitrogen on the growth of boron doped single crystal diamond

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Karna, Sunil; Vohra, Yogesh

    2013-11-18

    Boron-doped single crystal diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on synthetic (100) Type Ib diamond substrates using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. A modification in surface morphology of the film with increasing boron concentration in the plasma has been observed using atomic force microscopy. Use of nitrogen during boron doping has been found to improve the surface morphology and the growth rate of films but it lowers the electrical conductivity of the film. The Raman spectra indicated a zone center optical phonon mode along with a few additional bands at the lower wavenumber regions. The change in the peak profilemore » of the zone center optical phonon mode and its downshift were observed with the increasing boron content in the film. Furthermore, sharpening and upshift of Raman line was observed in the film that was grown in presence of nitrogen along with diborane in process gas.« less

  9. Electronic and optical properties of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, W.; Achatz, P.; Williams, O. A.; Haenen, K.; Bustarret, E.; Stutzmann, M.; Garrido, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the electronic and optical properties of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films grown on quartz substrates by CH4/H2 plasma chemical vapor deposition. Diamond thin films with a thickness below 350 nm and with boron concentration ranging from 1017 to 1021cm-3 have been investigated. UV Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to assess the quality and morphology of the diamond films. Hall-effect measurements confirmed the expected p -type conductivity. At room temperature, the conductivity varies from 1.5×10-8Ω-1cm-1 for a nonintentionally doped film up to 76Ω-1cm-1 for a heavily B -doped film. Increasing the doping level results in a higher carrier concentration while the mobility decreases from 1.8 down to 0.2cm2V-1s-1 . For NCD films with low boron concentration, the conductivity strongly depends on temperature. However, the conductivity and the carrier concentration are no longer temperature dependent for films with the highest boron doping and the NCD films exhibit metallic properties. Highly doped films show superconducting properties with critical temperatures up to 2 K. The critical boron concentration for the metal-insulator transition is in the range from 2×1020 up to 3×1020cm-3 . We discuss different transport mechanisms to explain the influence of the grain boundaries and boron doping on the electronic properties of NCD films. Valence-band transport dominates at low boron concentration and high temperatures, whereas hopping between boron acceptors is the dominant transport mechanism for boron-doping concentration close to the Mott transition. Grain boundaries strongly reduce the mobility for low and very high doping levels. However, at intermediate doping levels where hopping transport is important, grain boundaries have a less pronounced effect on the mobility. The influence of boron and the effect of grain boundaries on the optoelectronic properties of the NCD films are examined using spectrally

  10. Optical patterning of trapped charge in nitrogen-doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Harishankar; Henshaw, Jacob; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Manson, Neil B; Albu, Remus; Doherty, Marcus W; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond is emerging as a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing and nanoscale metrology. Of interest in these applications is the manipulation of the NV charge, which can be attained by optical excitation. Here, we use two-colour optical microscopy to investigate the dynamics of NV photo-ionization, charge diffusion and trapping in type-1b diamond. We combine fixed-point laser excitation and scanning fluorescence imaging to locally alter the concentration of negatively charged NVs, and to subsequently probe the corresponding redistribution of charge. We uncover the formation of spatial patterns of trapped charge, which we qualitatively reproduce via a model of the interplay between photo-excited carriers and atomic defects. Further, by using the NV as a probe, we map the relative fraction of positively charged nitrogen on localized optical excitation. These observations may prove important to transporting quantum information between NVs or to developing three-dimensional, charge-based memories. PMID:27573190

  11. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium-Doped Diamond like Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, M. K.; Ueno, M.; Lian, G.; Dickey, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated metalorganic precursor deposition using a Microwave Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma for depositing metal-doped diamondlike carbon films. Specifically, the deposition of ruthenium doped diamondlike carbon films was investigated using the decomposition of a novel ruthenium precursor, Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)-ruthenium (Ru(C5H4C2H5)2). The ruthenium precursor was introduced close to the substrate stage. The substrate was independently biased using an applied RF power. Films were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Four Point Probe. The conductivity of the films deposited using ruthenium precursor showed strong dependency on the deposition parameters such as pressure. Ruthenium doped sample showed the presence of diamond crystallites with an average size of approx. 3 nm while un-doped diamondlike carbon sample showed the presence of diamond crystallites with an average size of 11 nm. TEM results showed that ruthenium was atomically dispersed within the amorphous carbon network in the films.

  12. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Alegre, M. P. Araújo, D.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Fiori, A.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-27

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5–17.0 × 10{sup 20}at/cm{sup 3} range in the 〈111〉 direction and at 3.2 × 10{sup 21 }at/cm{sup 3} for the 〈001〉 one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of N-Type Zinc Oxide/P-Type Boron Doped Diamond Heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Marián; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Bruncko, Jaroslav; Novotný, Ivan; Ižák, Tibor; Vojs, Marian; Kozak, Halyna; Varga, Marián; Artemenko, Anna; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Diamond and ZnO are very promising wide-bandgap materials for electronic, photovoltaic and sensor applications because of their excellent electrical, optical, physical and electrochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this contribution we show that the combination of these two materials opens up the potential for fabrication of bipolar heterojunctions. Semiconducting boron doped diamond (BDD) thin films were grown on Si and UV grade silica glass substrates by HFCVD method with various boron concentration in the gas mixture. Doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ge) thin layers were deposited by diode sputtering and pulsed lased deposition as the second semiconducting layer on the diamond films. The amount of dopants within the films was varied to obtain optimal semiconducting properties to form a bipolar p-n junction. Finally, different ZnO/BDD heterostructures were prepared and analyzed. Raman spectroscopy, SEM, Hall constant and I-V measurements were used to investigate the quality, structural and electrical properties of deposited heterostructures, respectively. I-V measurements of ZnO/BDD diodes show a rectifying ratio of 55 at ±4 V. We found that only very low dopant concentrations for both semiconducting materials enabled us to fabricate a functional p-n junction. Obtained results are promising for fabrication of optically transparent ZnO/BDD bipolar heterojunction.

  14. Transient photoresponse of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes in saline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Simonov, Alexandr N.; Laird, Jamie S.; Maturana, Matias I.; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Spiccia, Leone; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Beyond conventional electrically-driven neuronal stimulation methods, there is a growing interest in optically-driven approaches. In recent years, nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) has emerged as a strong material candidate for use in electrically-driven stimulation electrodes. This work investigates the electrochemical activity of N-UNCD in response to pulsed illumination, to assess its potential for use as an optically-driven stimulation electrode. Whilst N-UNCD in the as-grown state exhibits a weak photoresponse, the oxygen plasma treated film exhibits two orders of magnitude enhancement in its sub-bandgap open circuit photovoltage response. The enhancement is attributed to the formation of a dense network of oxygen-terminated diamond nanocrystals at the N-UNCD surface. Electrically connected to the N-UNCD bulk via sub-surface graphitic grain boundaries, these diamond nanocrystals introduce a semiconducting barrier between the sub-surface graphitic semimetal and the electrolyte solution, leading to a photovoltage under irradiation with wavelengths of λ = 450 nm and shorter. Within the safe optical exposure limit of 2 mW mm-2, charge injection capacity of 0.01 mC cm-2 is achieved using a 15 × 15 μm electrode, meeting the requirements for extracellular and intercellular stimulation. The nanoscale nature of processes presented here along with the diamond's biocompatibility and biostability open an avenue for the use of oxygen treated N-UNCD as optically driven stimulating electrodes.

  15. Simulation and bonding of dopants in nanocrystalline diamond.

    PubMed

    Barnard, A S; Russo, S P; Snook, I K

    2005-09-01

    The doping of the wide-band gap semiconductor diamond has led to the invention of many electronic and optoelectronic devices. Impurities can be introduced into diamond during chemical vapor deposition or high pressure-high temperature growth, resulting in materials with unusual physical and chemical properties. For electronic applications one of the main objectives in the doping of diamond is the production of p-type and n-type semiconductors materials; however, the study of dopants in diamond nanoparticles is considered important for use in nanodevices, or as qubits for quantum computing. Such devices require that bonding of dopants in nanodiamond must be positioned substitutionally at a lattice site, and must exhibit minimal or no possibility of diffusion to the nanocrystallite surface. In light of these requirements, a number of computational studies have been undertaken to examine the stability of various dopants in various forms of nanocrystalline diamond. Presented here is a review of some such studies, undertaken using quantum mechanical based simulation methods, to provide an overview of the crystal stability of doped nanodiamond for use in diamondoid nanodevices. PMID:16193953

  16. Relaxation of the resistive superconducting state in boron-doped diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardakova, A.; Shishkin, A.; Semenov, A.; Goltsman, G. N.; Ryabchun, S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Sacépé, B.; Klein, Th.; Bustarret, E.

    2016-02-01

    We report a study of the relaxation time of the restoration of the resistive superconducting state in single crystalline boron-doped diamond using amplitude-modulated absorption of (sub-)THz radiation (AMAR). The films grown on an insulating diamond substrate have a low carrier density of about 2.5 ×1021cm-3 and a critical temperature of about 2 K . By changing the modulation frequency we find a high-frequency rolloff which we associate with the characteristic time of energy relaxation between the electron and the phonon systems or the relaxation time for nonequilibrium superconductivity. Our main result is that the electron-phonon scattering time varies clearly as T-2, over the accessible temperature range of 1.7 to 2.2 K. In addition, we find, upon approaching the critical temperature Tc, evidence for an increasing relaxation time on both sides of Tc.

  17. Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Čermák, Jan Rezek, Bohuslav; Koide, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2014-02-07

    Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4 nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500 nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650 nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365 nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210 mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

  18. Optoelectronic studies of boron-doped and gamma-irradiated diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Puskar; Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Peters, Raul; Farmer, John; Gupta, Sanju; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.

    2011-10-01

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of a synthetic diamond, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, etc. is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Employing surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic probes we studied diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV measurements showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent intense gamma irradiation reverts back the quasi-metallic samples to semiconducting state via compensating electrical activity of boron by hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions in the SPV spectra was observed at ˜3.1 eV, also present in most of the PL spectra. We argue that this is a signature of the sp^2-C clusters/layers in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  19. Electronic and physico-chemical properties of nanometric boron delta-doped diamond structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chicot, G. Fiori, A.; Tran Thi, T. N.; Bousquet, J.; Delahaye, J.; Grenet, T.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Volpe, P. N.; Tranchant, N.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Arnault, J. C.; Gerbedoen, J. C.; Soltani, A.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Araújo, D.; Jomard, F.; and others

    2014-08-28

    Heavily boron doped diamond epilayers with thicknesses ranging from 40 to less than 2 nm and buried between nominally undoped thicker layers have been grown in two different reactors. Two types of [100]-oriented single crystal diamond substrates were used after being characterized by X-ray white beam topography. The chemical composition and thickness of these so-called delta-doped structures have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been performed on mesa-patterned Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the hole sheet carrier density and mobility has been investigated over a broad temperature range (6 K < T < 450 K). Depending on the sample, metallic or non-metallic behavior was observed. A hopping conduction mechanism with an anomalous hopping exponent was detected in the non-metallic samples. All metallic delta-doped layers exhibited the same mobility value, around 3.6 ± 0.8 cm{sup 2}/Vs, independently of the layer thickness and the substrate type. Comparison with previously published data and theoretical calculations showed that scattering by ionized impurities explained only partially this low common value. None of the delta-layers showed any sign of confinement-induced mobility enhancement, even for thicknesses lower than 2 nm.

  20. Surface transfer doping of diamond by MoO{sub 3}: A combined spectroscopic and Hall measurement study

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Stephen A. O. Crawford, Kevin G.; Moran, David A. J.; Cao, Liang; Qi, Dongchen; Tallaire, Alexandre; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2013-11-11

    Surface transfer doping of diamond has been demonstrated using MoO{sub 3} as a surface electron acceptor material. Synchrotron-based high resolution photoemission spectroscopy reveals that electrons are transferred from the diamond surface to MoO{sub 3}, leading to the formation of a sub-surface quasi 2-dimensional hole gas within the diamond. Ex-situ electrical characterization demonstrated an increase in hole carrier concentration from 1.00 × 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} for the air-exposed hydrogen-terminated diamond surface to 2.16 × 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} following MoO{sub 3} deposition. This demonstrates the potential to improve the stability and performance of hydrogen-terminated diamond electronic devices through the incorporation of high electron affinity transition metal oxides.

  1. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Possibilities and limitations of ion implantation in diamond, and comparison with other doping methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, V. S.

    1994-04-01

    Diamond is a crystal with extremely strong atomic bonds. It is characterised by very low equilibrium parameters of the solubility and diffusion coefficients of impurities. Ion implantation therefore represents a natural alternative doping method. The published experimental results show that p-type and p+-type layers can be formed by boron ion implantation. Implantation of Li+ and C+ produces n-type layers. Diamond films grown in the presence of phosphorus and sodium can also be electrically conducting. The efficiency of this method of introducing electrically active centres varies strongly with the temperature of diamond during implantation and with the conditions during the subsequent annealing.

  2. Assessment of Electrodes Prepared from Wafers of Boron-doped Diamond for the Electrochemical Oxidation of Waste Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Sullivan, I.A.; Newey, A.W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes is being investigated as a treatment process for radioactively contaminated oily wastes. Previously, it was shown that electrodes coated with a thin film of diamond were able to oxidise a cutting oil but not a mineral oil. These tests were inconclusive, because the electrodes lost their diamond coating during operation. Accordingly, an electrode prepared from a 'solid' wafer of boron-doped diamond is being investigated to determine whether it will oxidise mineral oils. The electrode has been tested with sucrose, a cutting oil and an emulsified mineral oil. Before and after each test, the state of the electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry with the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Analysis of the cyclic voltammogram suggested that material accumulated on the surface of the electrode during the tests. The magnitude of the effect was in the order: - emulsified mineral oil > cutting oil > sucrose. Despite this, the results indicated that the electrode was capable of oxidising the emulsified mineral oil. Confirmatory tests were undertaken in the presence of alkali to trap the carbon dioxide, but they had to be abandoned when the adhesive holding the diamond in the electrode was attacked by the alkali. Etching of the diamond wafer was also observed at the end of the tests. Surface corrosion is now regarded as an intrinsic part of the electrochemical oxidation on diamond, and it is expected that the rate of attack will determine the service life of the electrodes. (authors)

  3. Localized electropolymerization on oxidized boron-doped diamond electrodes modified with pyrrolyl units.

    PubMed

    Actis, Paolo; Manesse, Mael; Nunes-Kirchner, Carolina; Wittstock, Gunther; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2006-11-14

    This paper describes the functionalization of oxidized boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)pyrrole (TMPP) and the influence of this layer on the electrochemical transfer kinetics as well as on the possibility of forming strongly adhesive polypyrrole films on the BDD interface through electropolymerization. Furthermore, localized polymer formation was achieved on the TMPP-modified BDD interface using the direct mode of a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) as well as an electrochemical scanning near-field optical microscope (E-SNOM). Depending on the method used polypyrrole dots with diameters in the range of 1-250 microm are electrogenerated. PMID:17066183

  4. Growth and characterization of Li-doped ZnO thin films on nanocrystalline diamond substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Xia, Yiben; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Jinyong; Hu, Guang; Zhu, Xuefeng; Shi, Weimin

    2008-02-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond(NCD) films with a mean surface roughness of 23.8 nm were grown on silicon substrates in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition(HFCVD) system. Then, Zn 1-xLi xO (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) films were deposited on these NCD films by radio-frequency(RF) reactive magnetron sputtering method. When x was 0.1, the Li-doped ZnO film had a larger resistivity more than 10 8Ω•cm obtained from Hall effect measurement. All the Zn 1-xLi xO films had a strong c-axis orientation structure determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The above results suggested that the Li-doped ZnO film/NCD structure prepared in this work was attractive for the application of high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

  5. Piezoresistivity of polycrystalline p-type diamond films of various doping levels at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.L.; Jiang, X.; Taube, K.; Klages, C.

    1997-07-01

    The piezoresistivity of polycrystalline p-type diamond films has been studied. The films were grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition and {ital in situ} doped with different concentrations of boron. A four-point electrical measurement was performed to evaluate the film resistivity change upon straining in a four-point bending beam setup. Films were glued directly onto a stainless steel beam and the silicon substrates were selectively removed. A gauge factor (relative change of the resistivity divided by the elastic strain) of about 690 under 100 microstrains was obtained at room temperature for a film doped with 32 ppm boron. With increasing temperature and dopant concentration the gauge factor increases. The experimental results obtained are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. CTAB-assisted precipitation synthesis and photoluminescence properties of olive-like YVO 4:Eu nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Rongjiang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Kezheng

    2009-12-01

    The olive-like YVO 4:Eu nanocrystallites with the equatorial diameters ranging from 50 to 80 nm and the lengths in the range of 100-130 nm have been prepared via cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted precipitation method at room temperature in ammonia water media. The olive-like morphologies of nanocrystallites are preserved for the samples calcined at 200 and 400 °C, respectively, while the raisin-like nanocrystallites are obtained after the sample was calcined at 600 °C. The olive-like or raisin-like YVO 4:Eu nanocrystallites upon excitation at 275 nm exhibit the characteristic emission bands of 5D0- 7FJ ( J = 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions of Eu 3+, with the 5D0- 7F2 transition (split into two peaks at 617 and 621 nm) being the most prominent band. The red-to-orange ratio of Eu 3+ for YVO 4:Eu nanocrystallites varied with the change in the calcining temperature or the Eu-doped concentration, respectively. Both the calcining temperature and Eu-doped concentration could influence the emission color purity of the YVO 4:Eu nanocrystallites.

  7. Boron-doped diamond nano/microelectrodes for bio-sensing and in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hua; Wang, Shihua; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the fabrication of the first diamond electrode in the mid 1980s, repid progress has been made on the development and application of this new type of electrode material. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes exhibit outstanding properties compared to oxygen-containing sp2 carbon electrodes. These properties make BDD electrodes an ideal choice for use in complex samples. In recent years, BDD microelectrodes have been applied to in vitro and in vivo measurements of biological molecules in animals, tissues and cells. This review will summarize recent progress in the development and applications of BDD electrodes in bio-sensing and in vitro measurements of biomolecules. In the first section, the methods for BDD nanocrystalline diamond film deposition and BDD microelectrodes preparation are described. This is followed by a description and discussion of several approaches for characterization of the BDD electrode surface structure, morphology, and electrochemical activity. Further, application of BDD microelectrodes for use in the in vitro analysis of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), histamine, and adenosine from tissues are summarized and finally some of the remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:21196394

  8. Boron-doped diamond nano/microelectrodes for biosensing and in vitro measurements.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hua; Wang, Shihua; Galligan, James J; Swain, Greg M

    2011-01-01

    Since the fabrication of the first diamond electrode in the mid 1980s, repid progress has been made on the development and application of this new type of electrode material. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes exhibit outstanding properties compared to oxygen-containing sp2 carbon electrodes. These properties make BDD electrodes an ideal choice for use in complex samples. In recent years, BDD microelectrodes have been applied to in vitro measurements of biological molecules in tissues and cells. This review will summarize recent progress in the development and applications of BDD electrodes in bio-sensing and in vitro measurements of biomolecules. In the first section, the methods for BDD diamond film deposition and BDD microelectrodes preparation are described. This is followed by a description and discussion of several approaches for characterization of the BDD electrode surface structure, morphology, and electrochemical activity. Further, application of BDD microelectrodes for use in the in vitro analysis of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), histamine, and adenosine from tissues are summarized and finally some of the remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:21196394

  9. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μ{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μ{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  10. Electrochemical behavior of triflusal, aspirin and their metabolites at glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Enache, Teodor Adrian; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2010-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of triflusal (TRF) and aspirin (ASA), before and after hydrolysis in water and in alkaline medium using two different electrode surfaces, glassy carbon and boron doped diamond, was study by differential pulse voltammetry over a wide pH range. The hydrolysis products are 2-(hydroxyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzoic acid (HTB) for triflusal and salicylic acid (SA) for aspirin, which in vivo represent their main metabolites. The hydrolysis processes were also followed by spectrophotometry. The UV results showed complete hydrolysis after one hour for TRF and after two hours for ASA in alkaline solution. The glassy carbon electrode enables only indirect determination of TRF and ASA through the electrochemical detection of their hydrolysis products HTB and SA, respectively. The oxidation processes of HTB and SA are pH dependent and involve different numbers of electrons and protons. Moreover, the difference between the oxidation peak potential of SA and HTB was equal to 100 mV in the studied pH range from 1 to 8 due to the CF3 of the aromatic ring of HTB molecule. Due to its wider oxidation potential range, the boron doped diamond electrode was used to study the direct oxidation of TRF and ASA, as well as of their respective metabolites HTB and SA. PMID:20402644

  11. Fluorine doping into diamond-like carbon coatings inhibits protein adsorption and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Okazaki, Yuko; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2007-12-15

    The first major event when a medical device comes in contact with blood is the adsorption of plasma proteins. Protein adsorption on the material surface leads to the activation of the blood coagulation cascade and the inflammatory process, which impair the lifetime of the material. Various efforts have been made to minimize protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. Recently, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has received much attention because of their antithrombogenicity. We recently reported that coating silicon substrates with fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) drastically suppresses platelet adhesion and activation. Here, we evaluated the protein adsorption on the material surfaces and clarified the relationship between protein adsorption and platelet behaviors, using polycarbonate and DLC- or F-DLC-coated polycarbonate. The adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen were assessed using a colorimetric protein assay, and platelet adhesion and activation were examined using a differential interference contrast microscope. A higher ratio of albumin to fibrinogen adsorption was observed on F-DLC than on DLC and polycarbonate films, indicating that the F-DLC film should prevent thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion and activation on the F-DLC films were more strongly suppressed as the amount of fluorine doping was increased. These results show that the F-DLC coating may be useful for blood-contacting devices. PMID:17600326

  12. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-01-01

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32−/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32−/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h−1.

  13. Mitigating surface-induced decoherence of spin sensors in nitrogen delta-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Bryan A.; Dartiailh, Matthieu C.; Ohno, Kenichi; Awschalom, David D.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.

    2014-03-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a robust nanoscale sensor of magnetic fields. To maximize their sensitivity to external spins, NVs have to be located close to the diamond surface while mitigating surface-induced decoherence. This requires a quantitative understanding of the dominant noise origins, which are currently not well understood. To address this we create shallow NVs by delta-doping during CVD growth and apply scanning probe-based magnetic resonance imaging to find their depths with nm precision. We probe the noise with dynamical decoupling (DD) control of the NVs and fit their coherence decay envelopes to a spin-bath model with two contributions: bulk and surface electronic spins. The fits yield a surface spin density σs = 0.0032/nm2 and relaxation rate 1/τs = 190 kHz. We find an optimal CPMG-4 passive detection sensitivity of 250 μp/ √Hz for an NV at 14 nm depth. Doped NVs within 10 nm of the surface were progressively decoupled from noise in the 1/τs frequency regime using shorter DD inter-pulse delays, thereby enhancing their sensitivity. This work was supported by DARPA QuASAR, AFOSR YIP, Bruker, and a Department of Defense NDSEG fellowship.

  14. Magnetic imaging with shallow spins in nitrogen delta-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Bryan A.; Boss, Jens; Ohno, Kenichi; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Awschalom, David D.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) electronic spins in diamond are atomic-size sensors of magnetism at the nanoscale. Shallow NVs with long spin coherence times (T2) are desirable for ultrasensitive magnetometry. However, T2 tends to decrease for shallow NVs, which couple most strongly to external spins. To optimize magnetic sensitivity, it was recently shown that delta-doping nitrogen during chemical vapor deposition of single-crystal diamond (SCD) can produce films with a < 5 nm thick layer of NVs that retain long T2. Here, using a magnetic field gradient produced by a scanning probe, we investigate optically-detected magnetic resonance measurement protocols to simultaneously determine the relative and absolute depths of the NVs in SCD films containing multiple doped layers separated by a few nm. A consistent comparison of NV properties, such as T2, versus depth is important for engineering spin placement. Furthermore, this magnetic field gradient technique enables sub-diffraction imaging of NV centers, which itself will be explored for high resolution NV-based magnetometry. This work was supported by DARPA QuASAR, AFOSR YIP, and the ASEE NDSEG fellowship.

  15. Development of neuraminidase detection using gold nanoparticles boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Wulan T; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Saepudin, Endang; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-03-15

    Gold nanoparticles-modified boron-doped diamond (AuNPs-BDD) electrodes, which were prepared with a self-assembly deposition of AuNPs at amine-terminated boron-doped diamond, were examined for voltammetric detection of neuraminidase (NA). The detection method was performed based on the difference of electrochemical responses of zanamivir at gold surface before and after the reaction with NA in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 5.5). A linear calibration curve for zanamivir in 0.1 M PBS in the absence of NA was achieved in the concentration range of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) M (R(2) = 0.99) with an estimated limit of detection (LOD) of 2.29 × 10(-6) M. Furthermore, using its reaction with 1.00 × 10(-5) M zanamivir, a linear calibration curve of NA can be obtained in the concentration range of 0-12 mU (R(2) = 0.99) with an estimated LOD of 0.12 mU. High reproducibility was shown with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.14% (n = 30). These performances could be maintained when the detection was performed in mucin matrix. Comparison performed using gold-modified BDD (Au-BDD) electrodes suggested that the good performance of the detection method is due to the stability of the gold particles position at the BDD surface. PMID:26717895

  16. Stratigraphy of a diamond epitaxial three-dimensional overgrowth using doping superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, F.; Fiori, A.; Araujo, D.; Eon, D.; Villar, M. P.; Bustarret, E.

    2016-05-01

    The selective doped overgrowth of 3D mesa patterns and trenches has become an essential fabrication step of advanced monolithic diamond-based power devices. The methodology here proposed combines the overgrowth of plasma-etched cylindrical mesa structures with the sequential growth of doping superlattices. The latter involve thin heavily boron doped epilayers separating thicker undoped epilayers in a periodic fashion. Besides the classical shape analysis under the scanning electron microscope relying on the appearance of facets corresponding to the main crystallographic directions and their evolution toward slow growing facets, the doping superlattices were used as markers in oriented cross-sectional lamellas prepared by focused ion beam and observed by transmission electron microscopy. This stratigraphic approach is shown here to be applicable to overgrown structures where faceting was not detectable. Intermediate growth directions were detected at different times of the growth process and the periodicity of the superlattice allowed to calculate the growth rates and parameters, providing an original insight into the planarization mechanism. Different configurations of the growth front were obtained for different sample orientations, illustrating the anisotropy of the 3D growth. Dislocations were also observed along the lateral growth fronts with two types of Burger vector: b 01 1 ¯ = /1 2 [ 01 1 ¯ ] and b 112 = /1 6 [ 112 ] . Moreover, the clustering of these extended defects in specific regions of the overgrowth prompted a proposal of two different dislocation generation mechanisms.

  17. Concurrent improvement in biocompatibility and bioinertness of diamond-like carbon films with nitrogen doping.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Chii-Ruey; Wei, Da-Hua; Shen, You-Ruey; Li, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Jen-Ai; Liang, Chia-Yao

    2012-11-01

    The surfaces of implantable biomaterials improving biocompatibility and bioinertness are critical for new application of bioimplantable devices. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is a promising biomaterial with use for coating bioimplantable devices because of its good biocompatibility, bioinertness, and mechanical properties. In this study, concurrent improvement in biocompatibility and bioinertness of DLC films has been achieved using N-incorporation technique. The N doping degree was found to play an important role in affecting the biocompatibility and bioinertness of N-doped DLC films. The results indicated that the N-doped DLC films deposited at N(2) concentration of 5% could help to create suitable condition of surface/structure/adhesion combination of DLC films in the both affinity of the L929 mouse fibroblasts and electrochemical inertness in the Hank's balanced salt solutions (simulating human body fluids). N doping supports the attachment and proliferation of cells and prevents the permeation of electrolyte solutions, thereby simultaneity improved the biocompatibility and bioinertness of DLC films. This finding is useful for the fabrication and encapsulation of in vivo devices without induced immune response in the human body. PMID:22829476

  18. Effect of Polishing on the Friction Behaviors and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Films on WC-Co Inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-04-01

    Boron doped (B-doped) diamond films are deposited onto WC-Co inserts by HFCVD with the mixture of acetone, trimethyl borate (C3H9BO3) and H2. The as-deposited B-doped diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry and Rockwell hardness tester. The effects of mechanical polishing on the friction behavior and cutting performance of B-doped diamond are evaluated by ball-on-plate type reciprocating tribometer and turning of aluminum alloy 7075 materials, respectively. For comparison, the same tests are also conducted for the bare WC-Co inserts with smooth surface. Friction tests suggest that the unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films possess relatively low fluctuation of friction coefficient than as-received bare WC-Co samples. The average stable friction coefficient for B-doped diamond films decreases apparently after mechanical polishing. The values for WC-Co sample, unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films are approximately 0.38, 0.25 and 0.11, respectively. The cutting results demonstrate that the low friction coefficient and high adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films play an essential role in the cutting performance enhancement of the WC-Co inserts. However, the mechanical polishing process may lower the adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films. Consequently, the polished B-doped diamond coated inserts show premature wear in the machining of adhesive aluminum alloy materials.

  19. ortho-Selective phenol-coupling reaction by anodic treatment on boron-doped diamond electrode using fluorinated alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kirste, Axel; Nieger, Martin; Malkowsky, Itamar M; Stecker, Florian; Fischer, Andreas; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2009-01-01

    Enlarged scope by fluorinated mediators: Oxyl radicals are easily formed on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes and can be exploited for the ortho-selective coupling to the corresponding biphenols (see scheme). At partial conversion, a clean transformation is achieved that can be applied to electron-rich as well as fluorinated phenols. PMID:19180606

  20. Bacterial attachment and removal properties of silicon- and nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Su, Xueju; Wang, Su; Zhang, Xiaoling; Navabpour, Parnia; Teer, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Si- and N-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with various Si and N contents were deposited on glass slides using magnetron sputter ion-plating and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Surface energy analysis of the DLC coatings revealed that with increasing Si content, the electron acceptor gamma(s)(+) value decreased while the electron donor gamma(s)(-) value increased. The antifouling property of DLC coatings was evaluated with the bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, which is one of the most common microorganisms forming biofilms on the surface of heat exchangers in cooling water systems. P. fluorescens had a high value of the gamma(s)(-) component (69.78 mN m(-1)) and a low value of the gamma(s)(+) component (5.97 mN m(-1)), and would be negatively charged with the zeta potential of -16.1 mV. The experimental results showed that bacterial removal by a standardised washing procedure increased significantly with increasing electron donor gamma(s)(-) values and with decreasing electron acceptor gamma(s)(+) values of DLC coatings. The incorporation of 2%N into the Si-doped DLC coatings further significantly reduced bacterial attachment and significantly increased ease of removal. The best Si-N-doped DLC coatings reduced bacterial attachment by 58% and increased removal by 41%, compared with a silicone coating, Silastic T2. Bacterial adhesion strength on the DLC coatings is explained in terms of thermodynamic work of adhesion. PMID:19283517

  1. Effect of Silicon Doping in Cvd Diamond Films from Microcrystalline to Nanocrystalline on WC-Co Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Cui, Yuxiao; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2013-12-01

    Si-doped diamond films with various Si concentrations are deposited on WC-Co substrates using HFCVD method, with the mixture of acetone, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and hydrogen as the reactant source. A variety of characterizations, including FE-SEM, AFM, Raman, XRD, surface profilometer and Rockwell indentation, are conducted to systematically investigate the influence of Si incorporation on diamond films. As the Si/C ratio from 0% to 5%, the grain size of as-deposited films decreases from 4 μm to about 50 nm, and the surface roughness reduces from Ra 290 nm to Ra 180 nm. Besides, the intensity ratio of I(111)/I(220) varies from 0.57 to 0, indicating the <110> preferred orientation of the nanocrystalline structure in the 5% doped diamond films. The silicon doping is beneficial for the formation of non-diamond carbide phases in the films, according to the Raman spectra. Moreover, the film adhesion is also improved with the increase of Si/C ratio.

  2. Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrodes for Neural Interfaces: In vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P.

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections adjacent to the electrodes were obtained for histological analysis. Both types of implants were contained in a thin fibrous encapsulation layer, the thickness of which decreased with time. Although the level of neovascularization around the implants was similar, BDD electrodes elicited significantly thinner fibrous capsules and a milder inflammatory reaction at both time points. These results suggest that BDD films may constitute an appropriate material to support stable performance of implantable neural electrodes over time. PMID:27013949

  3. Stress reduction of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films from ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Wang, Aiying

    2015-01-15

    Structure and properties of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films (DLC) were investigated using ab initio calculations. The effect of Cu concentrations (1.56∼7.81 at.%) on atomic bond structure was mainly analyzed to clarify the residual stress reduction mechanism. Results showed that with introducing Cu into DLC films, the residual compressive stress decreased firstly and then increased for each case with the obvious deterioration of mechanical properties, which was in agreement with the experimental results. Structural analysis revealed that the weak Cu-C bond and the relaxation of both the distorted bond angles and bond lengths accounted for the significant reduction of residual compressive stress, while at the higher Cu concentration the increase of residual stress attributed to the existence of distorted Cu-C structures and the increased fraction of distorted C-C bond lengths.

  4. Characterization of heavily B-doped polycrystalline diamond films using Raman spectroscopy and electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Gheeraert, E.; Deneuville, A.; Fontaine, F.; Abello, L.; Lucazeau, G.

    1995-12-01

    Heavily B-doped polycrystalline diamond films ([B]≳1019 cm-3) are studied by Raman spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. The formation of an impurity band is accompanied by a Fano-type interference for the one-phonon scattering. Bands at 1200 and 500 cm-1 are observed in Raman spectroscopy for concentrations above 1020 cm-3. They are related to maxima in the phonon density of states, and are ascribed to disordered regions or crystalline regions of very small size. The concentration of defects associated with the paramagnetic signal observed around g=2.0030 increases drastically above 1021 B cm-3. The Mott insulator-metal transition is accompanied by the presence of a new paramagnetic signal (g=2.0007 for 2×1020 B cm-3, g=1.9990 for 1021 B cm-3) ascribed to free holes in the impurity band.

  5. Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrodes for Neural Interfaces: In vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections adjacent to the electrodes were obtained for histological analysis. Both types of implants were contained in a thin fibrous encapsulation layer, the thickness of which decreased with time. Although the level of neovascularization around the implants was similar, BDD electrodes elicited significantly thinner fibrous capsules and a milder inflammatory reaction at both time points. These results suggest that BDD films may constitute an appropriate material to support stable performance of implantable neural electrodes over time. PMID:27013949

  6. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM.

    PubMed

    Avdic, A; Lugstein, A; Wu, M; Gollas, B; Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, T; Leonhardt, K; Denuault, G; Bertagnolli, E

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes. PMID:21368355

  7. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdic, A.; Lugstein, A.; Wu, M.; Gollas, B.; Pobelov, I.; Wandlowski, T.; Leonhardt, K.; Denuault, G.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes.

  8. Chemical Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Applications to Biosensors and Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Svítková, Jana; Ignat, Teodora; Švorc, Ľubomír; Labuda, Ján; Barek, Jiří

    2016-05-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a prospective electrode material that possesses many exceptional properties including wide potential window, low noise, low and stable background current, chemical and mechanical stability, good biocompatibility, and last but not least exceptional resistance to passivation. These characteristics extend its usability in various areas of electrochemistry as evidenced by increasing number of published articles over the past two decades. The idea of chemically modifying BDD electrodes with molecular species attached to the surface for the purpose of creating a rational design has found promising applications in the past few years. BDD electrodes have appeared to be excellent substrate materials for various chemical modifications and subsequent application to biosensors and biosensing. Hence, this article presents modification strategies that have extended applications of BDD electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. Different methods and steps of surface modification of this electrode material for biosensing and construction of biosensors are discussed. PMID:26337147

  9. Optoelectronic surface-related properties in boron-doped and irradiated diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nemashkalo, A.; Chapagain, P. R.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.; Peters, R. M.; Farmer, J.; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-15

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of synthetic diamond films, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to study diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV experiments showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent gamma irradiation reverts quasi-metallic samples back to a semiconducting state by compensating electrical activity of boron possibly via hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions observed at {approx}3.1-3.2 eV in the SPV spectra was also present in all of the PL spectra. It is likely that this is a signature of the sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon clusters in or in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  10. Amperometric oxygen sensor based on a platinum nanoparticle-modified polycrystalline boron doped diamond disk electrode.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Laura; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2009-02-01

    Pt nanoparticle (NP)-modified polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (pBDD) disk electrodes have been fabricated and employed as amperometric sensors for the determination of dissolved oxygen concentration in aqueous solution. pBDD columns were cut using laser micromachining techniques and sealed in glass, in order to make disk electrodes which were then characterized electrochemically. Electrodeposition of Pt onto the diamond electrodes was optimized so as to give the maximum oxygen reduction peak current with the lowest background signal. Pt NPs, >0-10 nm diameter, were found to deposit randomly across the pBDD electrode, with no preference for grain boundaries. The more conductive grains were found to promote the formation of smaller nanoparticles at higher density. With the use of potential step chronoamperometry, in which the potential was stepped to a diffusion-limited value, a four electron oxygen reduction process was found to occur at the Pt NP-modified pBDD electrode. Furthermore the chronoamperometric response scaled linearly with dissolved oxygen concentration, varied by changing the oxygen/nitrogen ratio of gas flowed into solution. The sensor was used to detect dissolved oxygen concentrations with high precision over the pH range 4-10. PMID:19117391

  11. Simultaneous hydrogen production and electrochemical oxidation of organics using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juyuan; Chang, Ming; Pan, Peng

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents advantages of using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for hydrogen production and wastewater treatment in a single electrochemical cell. Results indicated that the BDD electrode possessed the widest known electrochemical window, allowing new possibilities for both anodic and cathodic reactions to simultaneously take place. The BDD electrode exhibited high anodic potential, generating high oxidation state radicals that facilitated oxidation of toxic waste organic compounds such as 4-nitrophenols. In contrast, because of widening of potential windows, the rate of hydrogen evolution at the cathode was significantly increased. Time-on-stream concentrations of reaction intermediates were monitored to elucidate mechanism involved in 4-nitrophenol oxidation. Spalling, fouling, or reduction in the thickness of thin-film diamond coating was not observed. Overall, the BDD electrode exhibits unique properties including chemical inertness, anticorrosion, and extended service life. These properties are especially important in wastewater treatment. Economic advantages were attributed to the low cost and long duration BDD electrode and the valuable hydrogen byproduct produced. Analysis has shown that technology associated with the BDD electrode could be effectively implemented with minimum energy input and capital requirements. When combined with solar energy and fuel cells, electrochemical wastewater processing can become energy efficient and cost-effective. PMID:18497166

  12. Optoelectronic surface-related properties in boron-doped and irradiated diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemashkalo, A.; Chapagain, P. R.; Peters, R. M.; Farmer, J.; Gupta, S.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of synthetic diamond films, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to study diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV experiments showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent gamma irradiation reverts quasi-metallic samples back to a semiconducting state by compensating electrical activity of boron possibly via hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions observed at ˜3.1-3.2 eV in the SPV spectra was also present in all of the PL spectra. It is likely that this is a signature of the sp2-hybridized carbon clusters in or in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  13. Energy consumption of electrooxidation systems with boron-doped diamond electrodes in the pulse current mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-jun; Gao, Xu-hui; Hei, Li-fu; Askari, Jawaid; Li, Cheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A pulse current technique was conducted in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system for electrochemical wastewater treatment. Due to the strong generation and weak absorption of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface, the BDD electrode possesses a powerful capability of electrochemical oxidation of organic compounds, especially in the pulse current mode. The influences of pulse current parameters such as current density, pulse duty cycle, and frequency were investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, average current efficiency, and specific energy consumption. The results demonstrated that the relatively high COD removal and low specific energy consumption were obtained simultaneously only if the current density or pulse duty cycle was adjusted to a reasonable value. Increasing the frequency slightly enhanced the COD removal and average current efficiency. A pulse-BDD anode system showed a stronger energy saving ability than a constant-BDD anode system when the electrochemical oxidation of phenol of the two systems was compared. The results prove that the pulse current technique is more cost-effective and more suitable for a BDD anode system for real wastewater treatment. A kinetic analysis was presented to explain the above results.

  14. Multichannel Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Ultramicroelectrode Arrays: Design, Fabrication and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Raphael; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaëlle; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Bongrain, Alexandre; Yvert, Blaise; Picaud, Serge; Mailley, Pascal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of an 8 × 8 multichannel Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicro-electrode array (UMEA). The device combines both the assets of microelectrodes, resulting from conditions in mass transport from the bulk solution toward the electrode, and of BDD's remarkable intrinsic electrochemical properties. The UMEAs were fabricated using an original approach relying on the selective growth of diamond over pre-processed 4 inches silicon substrates. The prepared UMEAs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that the electrodes have exhibited a very fast electrode transfer rate (k0) up to 0.05 cm·s−1 (in a fast redox couple) and on average, a steady state limiting current (in a 0.5 M potassium chloride aqueous solution containing 1 mM Fe(CN)64− ion at 100 mV·s−1) of 1.8 nA. The UMEAs are targeted for electrophysiological as well as analytical applications. PMID:22969367

  15. Cathodoluminescence measurements on heavily boron doped homoepitaxial diamond films and their interfaces with their Ib substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, C.; Deneuville, A.; Wade, M.; Jomard, F.; Chevallier, J.

    2006-02-01

    Heavily boron doped 1.8 to 2.4 μm thick homoepitaxial diamond films with 1.5 × 1021 cm-3 [B] 1.75 × 1021 cm-3 have been deposited directly on their (100) Ib substrates at 830 °C. Their cathodoluminescence spectra probe the controlled thicknesses from 0.28 to 2.8 μm, therefore the bulk of the films as well as their interfaces with their substrates. The bulk of these films exhibit a band with shoulders ascribed to BETO (5.036 eV), FETO (5.094 eV) and BENP (5.184 eV) excitons whose energies are downward shifted by about 180 meV in comparison with monocrystalline diamond with low [B] < 5 × 1018 cm-3. This large shift allows the appearance of narrow peaks around 5.216, 5.271 and 5.357 eV ascribed to BETO, FETO and BENP from interfacial layers with low [B]. From their BETO to FETO ratio, their concentration of boron on isolated substitutional sites is significantly lower than their total low [B] content measured by SIMS. A tentative model is proposed to explain the characteristics of these 40 to 160 quasihomogeneous interfacial layers.

  16. Electrical and photoelectrical characterization of undoped and S-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Porter, L. M.; Koeck, F. A. M.; Tang, Y.-J.; Nemanich, R. J.

    2008-04-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films are being intensively researched for a variety of potential applications, such as optical windows, electrochemical electrodes, and electron emitting surfaces for field emission displays. In this study Zr, Ti, Cu, and Pt on intrinsic and lightly sulfur-doped (n-type) NCD films were electrically and photoelectrically characterized. Intrinsic and sulfur-doped NCD films were synthesized on 1in. diameter quartz and silicon substrates by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. All metals showed linear (Ohmic) current-voltage characteristics in the as-deposited state. The Schottky barrier heights (ΦB) at the metal-film interface were investigated using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The undoped NCD films exhibited a negative electron affinity and a band gap of 5.0±0.4eV. The ΦB were calculated based on this band gap measurement and the consistent indication from Hall measurements that the films are n-type. The ΦB values were calculated from shifts in the core-level (C1s) peaks immediately obtained before and after in situ, successive metal depositions. The ΦB values for Zr, Ti, and Pt on undoped films were calculated to be 3.3, 3.2, and 3.7eV, respectively. The S-doped films also showed increasing ΦB with metal work functions: 3.0, 3.1, and 3.4eV for Zr, Ti, and Pt, respectively. In general accordance with the barrier height trends, the specific contact resistivity (ρc) values increased with the metal work functions for both undoped and S-doped films. For the undoped films ρc increased from 3×10-5Ωcm2 for Zr to 6.4×10-3Ωcm2 for Pt. The ρc values for the S-doped films were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those for the undoped films: 3.5×10-7-4.5×10-5Ωcm2 for Zr and Pt, respectively. The Hall-effect measurements indicated that the average sheet resistivity and carrier concentration values were 0.16 and 3.5×1018cm-3 for the undoped films and 0.15Ωcm and 4.9×1019cm-3 for

  17. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, A.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-29

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 21} atoms cm{sup −3}. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7 μm with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp{sup 2} regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  18. Electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activity of Pt-TiO2 films on boron-doped diamond substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Marcu, Maria; Spătaru, Nicolae

    2013-03-01

    In the present work boron-doped diamond (BDD) polycrystalline films were used as support for direct anodic deposition of hydrous titanium oxide, and continuous TiO2 coatings were obtained by appropriately adjusting the deposition charge. The photoelectrochemical activity of the TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated and it was found that, in terms of charge carriers separation efficiency, conductive diamond is a much better support for TiO2, compared to traditional carbonaceous materials such as glassy carbon. Further electrochemical deposition of platinum particles on the oxide-coated conductive diamond enabled the formation of a composite with enhanced electrochemically active surface area. The electrocatalytic and photocatalytic properties of the Pt/TiO2/BDD electrodes thus obtained were also scrutinized and it appeared that these hybrid systems also exhibit promising features for methanol anodic oxidation.

  19. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  20. Protection of Diamond-like Carbon Films from Energetic Atomic Oxygen Degradation Through Si-doping Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masahito; Kitamura, Akira; Matsumoto, Koji; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Fontaine, Julien; Belin, Michel

    2009-01-05

    The effect of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the surface properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) was investigated. Two types of DLC were tested that contain approximately 10 at% and 20 at% of Si atoms. Surface analytical results of high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy; SR-PES) as well as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) have been used for characterization of the AO-exposed Si-doped DLC. It was identified by SR-PES that a SiO{sub 2} layer was formed by the hyperthermal AO exposure at the Si-doped DLC surface. RBS data indicates that AO exposure leads to severe thickness loss on the undopedd DLC. In contrast, a SiO{sub 2} layer formed by the hyperthermal atomic oxygen reaction of Si-doped DLC protects the DLC underneath the SiO{sub 2} layer.

  1. Cathodic reductive coupling of methyl cinnamate on boron-doped diamond electrodes and synthesis of new neolignan-type products.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Taiki; Obata, Rika; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Einaga, Yasuaki; Nishiyama, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The electroreduction reaction of methyl cinnamate on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated. The hydrodimer, dimethyl 3,4-diphenylhexanedioate (racemate/meso = 74:26), was obtained in 85% yield as the major product, along with small amounts of cyclic methyl 5-oxo-2,3-diphenylcyclopentane-1-carboxylate. Two new neolignan-type products were synthesized from the hydrodimer. PMID:25815070

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the deep electrochemical oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Borisova, D. A.; Rosenwinkel, K.-H.; Weichgrebe, D.; Stopp, P.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the deep oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode are studied to develop a technique for purifying wastewater from pharmaceutical products. The products of sodium diclofenac electrolysis are analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. It is shown that the toxicity of the drug and products of its electrolysis decreases upon its deep oxidation.

  3. The analysis of estrogenic compounds by flow injection analysis with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Brocenschi, Ricardo F; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Duran, Boris; Swain, Greg M

    2014-08-01

    We report on the use of flow injection analysis with amperometric detection (FIA-EC) to evaluate the potential of using diamond electrodes for the analysis of three estrogenic compounds: estrone, 17-β-estradiol, and estriol. Amperometric detection was performed using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode that offered low background current, relatively low limits of detection, and good response reproducibility and stability. For all three compounds, response linearity was observed over the concentration range tested, 0.10 to 3.0μmol L(-1), the sensitivity was ca. 10mA L mol(-1), and the minimum concentration detection (S/N≥3) was 0.10μmol L(-1) (~27μg L(-1)). The response variability with multiple injections was ca. 10% (RSD) over 20 injections. For estrone, the oxidation reaction on diamond does not proceed through an adsorbed state like it does on glassy carbon. After an initial current attenuation, the diamond electrode exhibited a stable response (oxidation current) for 3 days of continuous use, indicative of minimal surface contamination or fouling by reaction intermediates and products. The method for estrone was assessed using spiked city tap and local river water. Estrone recoveries in spiked city and river water samples presented standard deviations of less than 10%. In summary, the FIA-EC method with a diamond electrode enables sensitive, reproducible, stable, quick, and inexpensive determination of estrogenic compounds in water samples. PMID:24881529

  4. Boomerang-shaped VOX nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlecht, U.; Kienle, L.; Duppel, V.; Burghard, M.; Kern, K.

    2004-09-01

    "L"-shaped VOX nanobelts were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. These nanobelts represent the first example of nano-sized objects, containing well-defined kinks. The angle was found to be 96° ± 3°. Here we report on initial experiments with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), which revealed twinning to be the origin of the kinked structure. The interesting boomerang-shaped nanocrystallites were compared with their more widely known counterpart, the V2O5 nanofibers. Furthermore, thin films with areas exceeding 10 × 10 μm2 have been found to be produced by the hydrothermal synthesis route. The SAED data revealed, that all three morphologies are based on a similar crystal structure.

  5. Boron-doped diamond microelectrodes for use in capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Cvacka, Josef; Quaiserová, Veronika; Park, JinWoo; Show, Yoshiyuki; Muck, Alexander; Swain, Greg M

    2003-06-01

    The fabrication and characterization of boron-doped diamond microelectrodes for use in electrochemical detection coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE-EC) is discussed. The microelectrodes were prepared by coating thin films of polycrystalline diamond on electrochemically sharpened platinum wires (76-, 25-, and 10-microm diameter), using microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The diamond-coated wires were attached to copper wires (current collectors), and several methods were explored to insulate the cylindrical portion of the electrode: nail polish, epoxy, polyimide, and polypropylene coatings. The microelectrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. They exhibited low and stable background currents and sigmoidally shaped voltammetric curves for Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) at low scan rates. The microelectrodes formed with the large diameter Pt and sealed in polypropylene pipet tips were employed for end-column detection in CE. Evaluation of the CE-EC system and the electrode performance were accomplished using a 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, run buffer, and a 30-cm-long fused-silica capillary (75-microm i.d.) with dopamine, catechol, and ascorbic acid serving as test analytes. The background current (approximately 100 pA) and noise (approximately 3 pA) were measured at different detection potentials and found to be very stable with time. Reproducible separation (elution time) and detection (peak current or area) of dopamine, catechol, and ascorbic acid were observed with response precisions of 4.1% or less. Calibration curves constructed from the peak area were linear over 4 orders of magnitude, up to a concentration between 0.1 and 1 mM. Mass limits of detection for dopamine and catechol were 1.7 and 2.6 fmol, respectively (S/N = 3). The separation efficiency was approximately 33,000, 56,000, and 98,000 plates/m for dopamine, catechol, and ascorbic acid, respectively. In

  6. Use of seawater for the boron-doped diamond electrochemical treatment of diluted vinasse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Daskalaki, V M; Marakas, H; Mantzavinos, D; Katsaounis, A; Gikas, P

    2013-01-01

    Vinasse wastewater of high organic content (COD = 131,000 mg/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD = 0.11) cannot be easily managed and usually require several consecutive treatment steps. The objective of this work was to dilute vinasse wastewater with seawater and then subject them to electrochemical oxidation over boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The use of seawater is a rational and novel approach for plants close to the seashore since it may achieve the desirable levels of effluent concentration and conductivity without consuming other water resources and extra electrolytes. Experiments were conducted at initial COD values of 830-8,400 mg/L, NaCl concentrations of 34-200 mM and current densities of 70-200 mA/cm(2) for up to 5 hours. The effect of current density and NaCl concentration was marginal on the electrochemical treatment, while the single most important parameter was the initial COD concentration. The order of reaction for COD reduction appears to be 'first' at low effluent concentrations and it decreases to 'zero' at higher concentrations, denoting the importance of the ratio of organics to reactive radicals concentration. Based on COD and total organic carbon data, it is postulated that degradation occurs predominantly through total oxidation (i.e. mineralization) to carbon dioxide and water, which is characteristic of BDD anodes. PMID:24334881

  7. QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Manivannan; M.S. Seehra

    2003-08-19

    In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.

  8. Microfluidic platform for environmental contaminants sensing and degradation based on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Mayorga-Martinez, CarmenC; Watanabe, Takeshi; Ivandini, TribidasariA; Honda, Yuki; Pino, Flavio; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira; Einaga, Yasuaki; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-01-15

    We have developed a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for electrochemical detection and degradation of the pesticide atrazine (Atz). It is based on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes and a competitive magneto-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that enables high sensitivity. To detect the enzymatic reaction, we employed a BDD electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs), as a highly conductive catalytic transducer. Chronoamperometry revealed a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.5 pM for atrazine, which, to the best of our knowledge, is one of the lowest value published to date. Finally, we degraded Atz in the same platform, using a bare BDD electrode that features remarkable corrosion stability, a wide potential window, and much higher O2 overvoltage as compared to conventional electrodes. These characteristics enable the electrode to produce a greater amount of HO• on the anode surface than do conventional electrodes and consequently, to destroy the pollutant more rapidly. Our new LOC platform might prove interesting as a smart system for detection and remediation of diverse pesticides and other contaminants. PMID:26339934

  9. Development of a biochemical oxygen demand sensor using gold-modified boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Saepudin, Endang; Wardah, Habibah; Harmesa; Dewangga, Netra; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-11-20

    Gold-modified boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were examined for the amperometric detection of oxygen as well as a detector for measuring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) using Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UICC Y-181. An optimum potential of -0.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was applied, and the optimum waiting time was observed to be 20 min. A linear calibration curve for oxygen reduction was achieved with a sensitivity of 1.4 μA mg(-1) L oxygen. Furthermore, a linear calibration curve in the glucose concentration range of 0.1-0.5 mM (equivalent to 10-50 mg L(-1) BOD) was obtained with an estimated detection limit of 4 mg L(-1) BOD. Excellent reproducibility of the BOD sensor was shown with an RSD of 0.9%. Moreover, the BOD sensor showed good tolerance against the presence of copper ions up to a maximum concentration of 0.80 μM (equivalent to 50 ppb). The sensor was applied to BOD measurements of the water from a lake at the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia, with results comparable to those made using a standard method for BOD measurement. PMID:23088708

  10. Yeast-based Biochemical Oxygen Demand Sensors Using Gold-modified Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Harmesa; Saepudin, Endang; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-01

    A gold nanoparticle modified boron-doped diamond electrode was developed as a transducer for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurements. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UICC Y-181 was immobilized in a sodium alginate matrix, and used as a biosensing agent. Cyclic voltammetry was applied to study the oxygen reduction reaction at the electrode, while amperometry was employed to detect oxygen, which was not consumed by the microorganisms. The optimum waiting time of 25 min was observed using 1-mm thickness of yeast film. A comparison against the system with free yeast cells shows less sensitivity of the current responses with a linear dynamic range (R(2) = 0.99) of from 0.10 mM to 0.90 mM glucose (equivalent to 10 - 90 mg/L BOD) with an estimated limit of detection of 1.90 mg/L BOD. However, a better stability of the current responses could be achieved with an RSD of 3.35%. Moreover, less influence from the presence of copper ions was observed. The results indicate that the yeast-immobilized BOD sensors is more suitable to be applied in a real condition. PMID:26179128

  11. Electrochemical degradation of chlorobenzene on boron-doped diamond and platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhao, Guohua; Wu, Meifen; Lei, Yanzhu; Geng, Rong

    2009-08-30

    In this paper the electrochemical degradation of chlorobenzene (CB) was investigated on boron-doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt) anodes, and the degradation kinetics on these two electrodes was compared. Compared with the total mineralization with a total organic carbon (TOC) removal of 85.2% in 6h on Pt electrode, the TOC removal reached 94.3% on BDD electrode under the same operate condition. Accordingly, the mineralization current efficiency (MCE) during the mineralization on BDD electrode was higher than that on the Pt electrode. Besides TOC, the conversion of CB, the productions and decay of intermediates were also monitored. Kinetic study indicated that the decay of CB on BDD and Pt electrodes were both pseudo-first-order reactions, and the reaction rate constant (k(s)) on BDD electrode was higher than that on Pt electrode. The different reaction mechanisms on the two electrodes were investigated by the variation of intermediates concentrations. Two different reaction pathways for the degradation of CB on BDD electrode and Pt electrode involving all these intermediates were proposed. PMID:19264395

  12. Nitrogen-doped diamond electrode shows high performance for electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yanming; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-30

    Effective electrode materials are critical to electrochemical reduction, which is a promising method to pre-treat anti-oxidative and bio-refractory wastewater. Herein, nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) electrodes that possess superior electrocatalytic properties for reduction were fabricated by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology. Nitrobenzene (NB) was chosen as the probe compound to investigate the material's electro-reduction activity. The effects of potential, electrolyte concentration and pH on NB reduction and aniline (AN) formation efficiencies were studied. NDD exhibited high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for reduction of NB to AN. The NB removal efficiency and AN formation efficiency were 96.5% and 88.4% under optimal conditions, respectively; these values were 1.13 and 3.38 times higher than those of graphite electrodes. Coulombic efficiencies for NB removal and AN formation were 27.7% and 26.1%, respectively; these values were 4.70 and 16.6 times higher than those of graphite electrodes under identical conditions. LC-MS analysis revealed that the dominant reduction pathway on the NDD electrode was NB to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) to AN. PMID:24361797

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of biological pretreated and membrane separated landfill leachate concentrates on boron doped diamond anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Yu, Zhiming; Wei, Qiuping; Long, HangYu; Xie, Youneng; Wang, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the high quality boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with excellent electrochemical properties were deposited on niobium (Nb) substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. The electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate concentrates from disc tube reverse osmosis (DTRO) process over a BDD anode was investigated. The effects of varying operating parameters, such as current density, initial pH, flow velocity and cathode material on degradation efficiency were also evaluated following changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH3sbnd N). The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE) was used to appraise different operating conditions. As a result, the best conditions obtained were as follows, current density 50 mA cm-2, pH 5.16, flow velocity 6 L h-1. Under these conditions, 87.5% COD and 74.06% NH3sbnd N removal were achieved after 6 h treatment, with specific energy consumption of 223.2 kWh m-3. In short, these results indicated that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD/Nb anode is an effective method for the treatment of landfill leachate concentrates.

  14. Mineralization of bisphenol A (BPA) by anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode.

    PubMed

    Murugananthan, M; Yoshihara, S; Rakuma, T; Shirakashi, T

    2008-06-15

    Anodic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA), a representative endocrine disrupting chemical, was carried out using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode at galvanostatic mode. The electro-oxidation behavior of BPA at BDD electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetric technique. The extent of degradation and mineralization of BPA were monitored by HPLC and total organic carbon (TOC) value, respectively. The results obtained, indicate that the BPA removal at BDD depends on the applied current density (Iappl), initial concentration of BPA, pH of electrolyte and supporting medium. Galvanostatic electrolysis at BDD anode cause concomitant generation of hydroxyl radical that leads to the BPA destruction. The kinetics for the BPA degradation follows a pseudo-first order reaction with a higher rate constant 12.8x10(-5) s(-1) for higher Iappl value 35.7 mA cm(-2), indicating that the oxidation reaction is limited by Iappl control. Complete mineralization of BPA was achieved regardless of the variables and accordingly the mineralization current efficiency was calculated from the TOC removal measurements. Considering global oxidation process, the effect of supporting electrolytes has been discussed in terms of the electro generated inorganic oxidants. The better performance of BDD anode was proved on a comparative study with Pt and glassy carbon under similar experimental conditions. A possible reaction mechanism for BPA degradation involving three main aromatic intermediates, identified by GC-MS analysis, was proposed. PMID:18023975

  15. Continuous and selective measurement of oxytocin and vasopressin using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Asai, Kai; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of oxytocin using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was studied. Cyclic voltammetry of oxytocin in a phosphate buffer solution exhibits an oxidation peak at +0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is attributable to oxidation of the phenolic group in the tyrosyl moiety. Furthermore, the linearity of the current peaks obtained in flow injection analysis (FIA) using BDD microelectrodes over the oxytocin concentration range from 0.1 to 10.0 μM with a detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3) was high (R(2) = 0.995). Although the voltammograms of oxytocin and vasopressin observed with an as-deposited BDD electrode, as well as with a cathodically-reduced BDD electrode, were similar, a clear distinction was observed with anodically-oxidized BDD electrodes due to the attractive interaction between vasopressin and the oxidized BDD surface. By means of this distinction, selective measurements using chronoamperometry combined with flow injection analysis at an optimized potential were demonstrated, indicating the possibility of making selective in situ or in vivo measurements of oxytocin. PMID:27599852

  16. Electrochemical decolorization of dye wastewater by surface-activated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chienhung; Nurhayati, Ervin; Juang, Yaju; Huang, Chihpin

    2016-07-01

    Complex organics contained in dye wastewater are difficult to degrade and often require electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) to treat it. Surface activation of the electrode used in such treatment is an important factor determining the success of the process. The performance of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BD-NCD) film electrode for decolorization of Acid Yellow (AY-36) azo dye with respect to the surface activation by electrochemical polarization was studied. Anodic polarization found to be more suitable as electrode pretreatment compared to cathodic one. After anodic polarization, the originally H-terminated surface of BD-NCD was changed into O-terminated, making it more hydrophilic. Due to the oxidation of surface functional groups and some portion of sp(2) carbon in the BD-NCD film during anodic polarization, the electrode was successfully being activated showing lower background current, wider potential window and considerably less surface activity compared to the non-polarized one. Consequently, electrooxidation (EO) capability of the anodically-polarized BD-NCD to degrade AY-36 dye was significantly enhanced, capable of nearly total decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal even after several times of re-using. The BD-NCD film electrode favored acidic condition for the dye degradation; and the presence of chloride ion in the solution was found to be more advantageous than sulfate active species. PMID:27372123

  17. Electrochemical incineration of sulfanilic acid at a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric

    2012-06-01

    The anodic oxidation of sulfanilic acid solutions has been studied in acidic medium using a divided cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode. Overall mineralization was achieved under all experimental conditions tested due to the efficient destruction of sulfanilic acid and all its by-products with hydroxyl radicals generated at the BDD anode from water oxidation. The alternative use of an undivided cell with the same electrodes gave rise to the coating of the cathode with polymeric compounds, thus preventing the complete electrochemical incineration of sulfanilic acid. The solutions treated in the anodic compartment of the divided cell were degraded at similar rate under pH regulation within the pH interval 2.0-6.0. The mineralization current efficiency was enhanced when the applied current decreased and the initial substrate concentration increased. The decay of sulfanilic acid was followed by reversed-phase HPLC, showing a pseudo first-order kinetics. Hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone were identified as aromatic intermediates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and/or reversed-phase HPLC. Maleic, acetic, formic, oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as generated carboxylic acids by ion-exclusion HPLC. Ionic chromatographic analysis of electrolyzed solutions revealed that the N content of sulfanilic acid was mainly released as NH(4)(+) ion and in much smaller proportion as NO(3)(-) ion. PMID:22365277

  18. Bioelectrochemical degradation of urea at platinized boron doped diamond electrodes for bioregenerative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Eduardo; González-González, Ileana; Flynn, Michael; Griebenow, Kai; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2009-10-01

    The recovery of potable water from space mission wastewater is critical for the life support and environmental health of crew members in long-term missions. NASA estimates reveal that at manned space missions 1.91 kg/person day of urine is produced, with urea and various salts as its main components. In this research we explore the utilization of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, 15,000 U/g) along with a platinized boron doped diamond electrode (Pt-BDD) to degrade urea. Urea is directly degraded to nitrogen by the in situ utilization of the reaction products as a strategy to increase the amount of clean water in future space expeditions. The biochemical reaction of urease produces ammonia and carbon dioxide from urea. Thereafter, ammonia is electrooxidized at the interface of the Pt-BDD producing molecular nitrogen. The herein presented system has been proven to have 20% urea conversion efficiency. This research has potential applications for future long-term space missions since the reaction byproducts could be used for a biomass subsystem (in situ resource recovery), while generating electricity from the same process.

  19. Continuous and selective measurement of oxytocin and vasopressin using boron-doped diamond electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Kai; Ivandini, Tribidasari A.; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of oxytocin using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was studied. Cyclic voltammetry of oxytocin in a phosphate buffer solution exhibits an oxidation peak at +0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is attributable to oxidation of the phenolic group in the tyrosyl moiety. Furthermore, the linearity of the current peaks obtained in flow injection analysis (FIA) using BDD microelectrodes over the oxytocin concentration range from 0.1 to 10.0 μM with a detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3) was high (R2 = 0.995). Although the voltammograms of oxytocin and vasopressin observed with an as-deposited BDD electrode, as well as with a cathodically-reduced BDD electrode, were similar, a clear distinction was observed with anodically-oxidized BDD electrodes due to the attractive interaction between vasopressin and the oxidized BDD surface. By means of this distinction, selective measurements using chronoamperometry combined with flow injection analysis at an optimized potential were demonstrated, indicating the possibility of making selective in situ or in vivo measurements of oxytocin. PMID:27599852

  20. Functionalization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond with N3 dye molecules.

    PubMed

    Yeap, W S; Liu, X; Bevk, D; Pasquarelli, A; Lutsen, L; Fahlman, M; Maes, W; Haenen, K

    2014-07-01

    N3 dye molecules [cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II)] are covalently attached to boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD) thin films through a combination of coupling chemistries, i.e., diazonium, Suzuki, and EDC-NHS. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy are used to verify the covalent bonding of the dye on the B:NCD surface (compared to a hydrogen-terminated reference). The spectroscopic results confirm the presence of a dense N3 chromophore layer, and the positions of the frontier orbitals of the dye relative to the band edge of the B:NCD thin film are inferred as well. Proof-of-concept photoelectrochemical measurements show a strong increase in the photocurrent compared to non-dye-functionalized B:NCD films. This study opens up the possibility of applying N3-sensitized B:NCD thin films as hole conductors in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:24915549

  1. Survivability of Silicon-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films in Energetic Atomic/Molecular Oxygen Beam Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kishida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Kumiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Zhang, Jianming; Minton, Timothy K.

    Volatile products were measured from two types of diamond-like carbon films under the hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam bombardment. It was clearly observed that CO and CO2 were formed at the conventional hydrogenated DLC surface when exposed to hyperthermal AO beam. Desorption rates of CO and CO2 are constant with AO fluence which reflects the constant erosion rate of the hydrogenated DLC. In contrast, Si-doped DLC shows decrease in amount of CO and CO2 with increasing AO fluence. Oxidation of Si atoms at the DLC surface was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, confirming the formation of SiO2 film formed at the DLC surface that could prevent AO reaction with C atoms in DLC which leads to loss of DLC. Since a self-healing capability can be expected on Si-doped DLC, metal doping is a promising technology for space application of DLC.

  2. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping. PMID:27483841

  3. Electrochemical analysis of acetaminophen using a boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Wangfuengkanagul, Nattakarn; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2002-06-01

    The electrochemistry of acetaminophen in phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) was studied at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry, hydrodynamic voltammetry, and flow injection with amperometric detection. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the reaction as a function of concentration of analyte. Comparison experiments were performed using a polished glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Acetaminophen undergoes quasi-reversible reaction at both of these two electrodes. The BDD and GC electrodes provided well-resolved cyclic voltammograms but the voltammetric signal-to-background ratios obtained from the diamond electrode were higher than those obtained from the GC electrode. The diamond electrode provided a linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 8 mM and a detection of 10 microM (S/B approximately 3) for voltammetric measurement. The flow injection analysis results at the diamond electrode indicated a linear dynamic range from 0.5 to 50 microM and a detection limit of 10 nM (S/N approximately 4). Acetaminophen in syrup samples has also been investigated. The results obtained in the recovery study (24.68+/-0.26 mg/ml) were comparable to those labeled (24 mg/ml). PMID:12039625

  4. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Clément; Cottance, Myline; Degardin, Julie; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Bergonzo, Philippe; Picaud, Serge

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Boron doped Diamond proved to be a very attractive material for neural interfacing, especially with the retina, where reduce glia growth is observed with respect to other materials, thus facilitating neuro-stimulation over long terms. In the present study, we integrated diamond microelectrodes on a polyimide substrate and investigated their performances for the development of neural prosthesis. A full description of the microfabrication of the implants is provided and their functionalities are assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous structure of the electrode surface was thus revealed and showed promising properties for neural recording or stimulation. Using the flexible implant, we showed that is possible to follow in vivo the evolution of the electric contact between the diamond electrodes and the retina over 4months by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The position of the implant was also monitored by optical coherence tomography to corroborate the information given by the impedance measurements. The results suggest that diamond microelectrodes are very good candidates for retinal prosthesis. PMID:27612691

  5. Optical emission study of a doped diamond deposition process by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayar, M.; Supiot, P.; Veis, P.; Gicquel, A.

    2008-08-01

    Standard H2/CH4/B2H6 plasmas (99% of H2 and 1% of CH4, with 0-100ppm of B2H6 added) used for doped diamond film growth are studied by optical emission spectroscopy in order to gain a better understanding of the influence of boron species on the gas phase chemistry. Only two boron species are detected under our experimental conditions (9/15/23Wcm-3 average microwave power density values), and the emission spectra used for studies reported here are B(S1/22-P1/2,3/202) and BH [AΠ1-XΣ+1(0,0)]. Variations of their respective emission intensities as a function of the ratio B /C, the boron to carbon ratio in the gas mixture, are reported. We confirmed that the plasma parameters (Tg, Te, and ne) are not affected by the introduction of diborane, and the number densities of B atoms and BH radical species were estimated from experimental measurements. The results are compared to those obtained from a zero-dimensional chemical kinetic model where two groups of reactions are considered: (1) BHx+H ↔BHx -1+H2 (x=1-3) by analogy with the well-known equilibrium CHx+H set of reactions, which occurs, in particular, in diamond deposition reactors; and (2) from conventional organic chemistry, the set of reactions involving boron species: BHx+C2H2 (x =0-1). The results clearly show that the model based on hydrogen and boron hydrides reactions alone is not consistent with the experimental results, while it is so when taking into account both sets of reactions. Once an upper limit for the boron species number densities has been estimated, axial profiles are calculated on the basis of the plasma model results obtained previously in Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Matériaux et des Hautes Pressions, and significant differences in trends for different boron species are found. At the plasma-to-substrate boundary, [BH] and [B] drop off in contrast to [BH2], which shows little decrease, and [BH3], which shows little increase, in this region.

  6. Stabilizing shallow color centers in diamond created by nitrogen delta-doping using SF{sub 6} plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Osterkamp, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Scharpf, Jochen; Müller, Christoph; McGuinness, Liam Paul; Naydenov, Boris Jelezko, Fedor; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R. Jürgen

    2015-03-16

    Here we report the fabrication of stable, shallow (<5 nm) nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond by nitrogen delta doping at the last stage of the chemical vapor deposition growth process. The NVs are stabilized after treating the diamond in SF{sub 6} plasma, otherwise the color centers are not observed, suggesting a strong influence from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show the presence of only fluorine atoms on the surface, in contrast to previous studies, indicating very good surface coverage. We managed to detect hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance signal from protons in the immersion oil, revealing a depth of the NVs of about 5 nm.

  7. Precise control of photoluminescence of silicon-vacancy color centers in homoepitaxial single-crystal diamond: evaluation of efficiency of Si doping from gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralchenko, Victor; Sedov, Vadim; Saraykin, Vladimir; Bolshakov, Andrey; Zavedeev, Evgeny; Ashkinazi, Evgeny; Khomich, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Ability to precisely control the Si-related color center abundance in diamond is important for the use of silicon-vacancy (SiV) defects with bright photoluminescence (PL) in quantum information technologies and optical biomarkers. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of Si incorporation in (100) plane of homoepitaxial diamond layers upon in situ doping by adding silane SiH4 in the course of diamond chemical vapor deposition in microwave plasma using CH4-H2 mixtures. Both the Si concentration in the doped samples, as determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and PL intensity of SiV centers at 738 nm wavelength, measured at excitation wavelength of 473 nm, demonstrate a linear increase with silane content in feed gas in the range. The incorporation efficiency f, defined as the ratio of Si concentration in diamond to that in gas, f = [Si/C]dia/[Si/C]gas is found to be (1.1 ± 0.5) × 10-3 for the silane concentrations explored, [SiH4/CH4] < 0.7 %; thus, the Si atoms are accommodated in (100) diamond face easier than nitrogen and phosphorus, but more difficult than boron. This finding allows a tailoring of the Si content and photoluminescence intensity of SiV centers in in situ doped CVD diamond.

  8. Sulfate-mediated electrooxidation of X-ray contrast media on boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Petrovic, Mira

    2016-05-01

    Recently, electrochemical activation of sulfate ions to sulfate radical species and nonradically activated persulfate has been demonstrated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, which enhanced the electrooxidation kinetics of several persistent contaminants. In this study, we investigated the transformation pathways of two X-ray contrast media (ICM), diatrizoate and iopromide, in electrooxidation at BDD anode using sulfate and inert nitrate anolyte. Sulfate anolyte yielded a seven-fold increase in apparent rate constants for ICM oxidation compared to inert nitrate anolyte, and a two-fold increase for the removal of organic carbon. Higher iodine release was observed in electrooxidation of diatrizoate compared to iopromide. In the case of diatrizoate, around 80% of deiodination efficiency was achieved in both anolytes. Deiodination efficiency of iopromide was somewhat lower in nitrate anolyte (≤75%) and significantly reduced in sulfate anolyte (≤46%) due to a larger steric hindrance of alkyl side chains. Moreover, a considerable lag phase of iopromide deiodination was observed in sulfate anolyte, indicating that initial oxidation reactions took place almost exclusively at the alkyl side chains. Several transformation products (TPs) of ICM were identified in electrooxidation in sulfate anolyte, and only three TPs in the case of nitrate anolyte. The main mechanistic steps in the oxidation of iopromide were H-abstraction and bond cleavage in the alkyl side chains. Diatrizoate was mainly transformed through oxidative cleavage of iodine substituent and inter-molecular cyclization. Two hydroxylamine derivatives of iopromide and a nitro-derivative of diatrizoate were observed in sulfate anolyte. These products have not been reported previously for hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of ICM. Given that electron-transfer mechanism is more typical for sulfate than for hydroxyl radicals, formation of hydroxylamine and nitro-derivatives of ICM was assigned to one

  9. Kinetics of the electrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid on ultrananocrystalline boron doped conductive diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Urtiaga, Ane; Fernández-González, Carolina; Gómez-Lavín, Sonia; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    This work deals with the electrochemical degradation and mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Model aqueous solutions of PFOA (100mg/L) were electro-oxidized under galvanostatic conditions in a flow-by undivided cell provided with a tungsten cathode and an anode formed by a commercial ultrananocrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) coating on a niobium substrate. A systematic experimental study was conducted in order to analyze the influence of the following operation variables: (i) the supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 (1.4 and 8.4g/L) and Na2SO4 (5g/L); (ii) the applied current density, japp, in the range 50-200 A/m(2) and (iii) the hydrodynamic conditions, in terms of flowrate in the range 0.4×10(-4)-1.7×10(-4)m(3)/s and temperature in the range 293-313K. After 6h of treatment and at japp 200A/m(2), PFOA removal was higher than 93% and the mineralization ratio, obtained from the decrease of the total organic carbon (TOC) was 95%. The electrochemical generation of hydroxyl radicals in the supporting electrolyte was experimentally measured based on their reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide. The enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals at higher japp was related to the faster kinetics of PFOA removal. The fitting of experimental data to the proposed kinetic model provided the first order rate constants of PFOA degradation, kc(1) that moved from 2.06×10(-4) to 15.58×10(-4)s(-1), when japp varied from 50 to 200A/m(2). PMID:24981910

  10. Bioelectrochemical degradation of urea at platinized boron doped diamond electrodes for bioregenerative applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ileana; Nicolau, Eduardo; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    The recovery of potable water from space mission wastewater is critical for the life support and environmental health of crew members in long-term missions. NASA estimates reveal that at manned space missions 0.06 kg/person·day of urine is produced, with urea and various salts as its main components. Current spacecraft water reclamation strategies include the utilization of not only multifiltration systems (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), but also biological components to deal with crew urine streams. In this research we explore the utilization of urease (EC 3.5.1.5) to convert urea directly to nitrogen by the in-situ utilization of the reaction products, to increase the amount of clean water in future space expeditions. First of all, platinum was electrodeposited on boron doped diamond electrodes by cycling the potential between -0.2 V and 1.0 V in metal/0.5 M H2SO4 solution. SEM images of the electrodes showed a distribution of platinum nanoparticles ranging between 50 nm and 300 nm. The biochemical reaction of urease in nature produces ammonia and carbon dioxide from urea. Based on this, Cyclic Voltammetry experiments of an ammonium acetate solution at pH 10 were performed showing an anodic peak at -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl due to the ammonia oxidation. Then, a urease solution (Jack Bean) was poured into the electrochemical cell and subsequent additions of urea were performed with the potential held at -0.3 V in order to promote ammonia oxidation. Chronoamperometry data shows that with more than five urea additions the enzyme still responding by producing ammonia, which is being subsequently oxidized at the electrode surface and producing molecular nitrogen. This research has tremendous applications for future long-term space missions since the reaction byproducts could be used for a biomass subsystem (in-situ resource recovery), while generating electricity from the same process.

  11. Toward a Boron-Doped Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Electrode-Based Dielectrophoretic Preconcentrator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenli; Radadia, Adarsh D

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results on immunobeads-based isolation of rare bacteria and their capture at a boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BD-UNCD) electrode in a microfluidic dielectrophoretic preconcentrator. We systematically vary the bead surface chemistry and the BD-UNCD surface chemistry and apply dielectrophoresis to improve the specific and the nonspecific capture of bacteria or beads. Immunobeads were synthesized by conjugating antibodies to epoxy-/sulfate, aldehyde-/sulfate, or carboxylate-modified beads with or without poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coimmobilization. The carboxylate-modified beads with PEG provided the highest capture efficiency (∼65%) and selectivity (∼95%) in isolating live Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cultures containing 1000 E. coli O157:H7 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, or ∼500 E. coli O157:H7 and ∼500 E. coli K12 cfu/mL. Higher specificity was achieved with the addition of PEG to the antibody-functionalized bead surface, highest with epoxy-/sulfate beads (85-86%), followed by carboxylate-modified beads (76-78%) and aldehyde-/sulfate beads (74-76%). The bare BD-UNCD electrodes of the preconcentrator successfully withstood 240 kV/m for 100 min that was required for the microfluidic dielectrophoresis of 1 mL of sample. As expected, the application of dielectrophoresis increased the specific and the nonspecific capture of immunobeads at the BD-UNCD electrodes; however, the capture specificity remained unaltered. The addition of PEG to the antibody-functionalized BD-UNCD surface had little effect on the specificity in immunobeads capture. These results warrant the fabrication of electrical biosensors with BD-UNCD so that dielectrophoretic preconcentration can be performed directly at the biosensing electrodes. PMID:26829879

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of B-doped polycrystalline diamond films: Growth rate and incorporation efficiency of dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Deneuville, A.; Fontaine, F.; Gheeraert, E.; Campargue, A.; Chenevier, M.; Rodolphe, S.

    1995-12-01

    The growth rate and the incorporation efficiency of dopants have been studied in the case of chemical vapor deposition of B-doped polycrystalline diamond films. The deposition rate is found to decrease with the addition of diborane in the gas phase. This is correlated with a modification of the plasma chemistry as observed by emission spectroscopy (decrease in the H/H2, CH/H, and C2/H ratios with the addition of diborane). The concentration of boron incorporated in the films is observed to vary with the square of the boron concentration in the gas phase.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of wastewater polluted by nitrate: selective reduction to N2 on boron-doped diamond cathode.

    PubMed

    Georgeaud, V; Diamand, A; Borrut, D; Grange, D; Coste, M

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical tests of nitrate reduction on Boron-Doped Diamond cathode are investigated through a Design of Experiments (DOE) method. The results show good reduction of nitrate into almost exclusively N2. In the studied domain, the best experimental conditions are high initial nitrate content, low acidic pH values and low working current densities. The application of DOE conclusions on an agro-industrial wastewater gives really satisfying results: final nitrate contents lower than 50 mg/L without nitrite or ammonium formation, and with low energy consumption (under 25 kWh/kgNO3). PMID:21252421

  14. Doped diamond-like carbon coatings for surgical instruments reduce protein and prion-amyloid biofouling and improve subsequent cleaning.

    PubMed

    Secker, T J; Hervé, R; Zhao, Q; Borisenko, K B; Abel, E W; Keevil, C W

    2012-01-01

    Doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings offer potential antifouling surfaces against microbial and protein attachment. In particular, stainless steel surgical instruments are subject to tissue protein and resilient prion protein attachment, making decontamination methods used in sterile service departments ineffective, potentially increasing the risk of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during surgical procedures. This study examined the adsorption of proteins and prion-associated amyloid to doped DLC surfaces and the efficacy of commercial cleaning chemistries applied to these spiked surfaces, compared to titanium nitride coating and stainless steel. Surfaces inoculated with ME7-infected brain homogenate were visualised using SYPRO Ruby/Thioflavin T staining and modified epi-fluorescence microscopy before and after cleaning. Reduced protein and prion amyloid contamination was observed on the modified surfaces and subsequent decontamination efficacy improved. This highlights the potential for a new generation of coatings for surgical instruments to reduce the risk of iatrogenic CJD infection. PMID:22694725

  15. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koinkar, Pankaj M.; Patil, Sandip S.; Kim, Tae-Gyu; Yonekura, Daisuke; More, Mahendra A.; Joag, Dilip S.; Murakami, Ri-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B 2O 3 concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B 2O 3 concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/μm, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of ˜1 μA is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  16. CE with a boron-doped diamond electrode for trace detection of endocrine disruptors in water samples.

    PubMed

    Browne, Damien J; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2013-07-01

    Off-line SPE and CE coupled with electrochemical detection have been used for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, 4-ethylphenol, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in bottled drinking water. The use of boron-doped diamond electrode as an electrochemical detector in amperometric mode that provides a favorable analytical performance for detecting these endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. The oxidative electrochemical detection of the endocrine-disrupting compounds was accomplished by boron-doped diamond electrode poised at +1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl without electrode pretreatment. An off-line SPE procedure (Bond Elut® C18 SPE cartridge) was utilized to extract and preconcentrate the compounds prior to separation and detection. The minimum concentration detectable for all four compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 μM, having S/N equal to three. After exposing the plastic bottle water container under sunlight for 7 days, the estimated concentration of BPA in the bottled drinking water was estimated to be 0.03 μM. This proposed approach has great potential for rapid and effective determination of BPA content present in water packaging of plastic bottles that have been exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. PMID:23172695

  17. Retention of enzyme activity with a boron-doped diamond electrode in the electro-oxidative nitration of lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Iniesta, Jesús; Esclapez-Vicente, María Deseada; Heptinstall, John; Walton, David J.; Peterson, Ian R.; Mikhailov, Victor A.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report the successful use of a non-metallic electrode material, boron-doped diamond (BDD), for the anodic electro-oxidative modification of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Platinum electrodes can give rise to loss of activity of HEWL in electrosynthetic studies, whereas activity is retained on boron-doped diamond which is proposed as an effective substitute material for this purpose. We also compare literature methods of electrode pre-treatment to determine the most effective in electrosynthesis. Our findings show a decrease in total nitroprotein yield with decreasing nitrite concentration and an increase with increasing solution pH, confirming that, at a BDD electrode, the controlling factor remains the concentration of tyrosine phenolate anion. Purification of mono- and bis-nitrated HEWL and assay of enzymic activity showed better retention of activity at BDD electrode surfaces when compared to platinum. The products from electro-oxidation of HEWL at BDD were confirmed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, which revealed unique mass increases of +45 and +90 Da for the mono- and bis-nitrated lysozyme, respectively, corresponding to nitration at tyrosine residues. The nitration sites were confirmed as Tyr23 and Tyr20. PMID:21760652

  18. Formation of Boron-Carbon Nanosheets and Bilayers in Boron-Doped Diamond: Origin of Metallicity and Superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, S N; Denisov, V N; Mavrin, B N; Kirichenko, A N; Kuznetsov, M S; Martyushov, S Yu; Terentiev, S A; Blank, V D

    2016-12-01

    The insufficient data on a structure of the boron-doped diamond (BDD) has frustrated efforts to fully understand the fascinating electronic properties of this material and how they evolve with doping. We have employed X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering for detailed study of the large-sized BDD single crystals. We demonstrate a formation of boron-carbon (B-C) nanosheets and bilayers in BDD with increasing boron concentration. An incorporation of two boron atoms in the diamond unit cell plays a key role for the B-C nanosheets and bilayer formation. Evidence for these B-C bilayers which are parallel to {111} planes is provided by the observation of high-order, super-lattice reflections in X-ray diffraction and Laue patterns. B-C nanosheets and bilayers minimize the strain energy and affect the electronic structure of BDD. A new shallow acceptor level associated with B-C nanosheets at ~37 meV and the spin-orbit splitting of the valence band of ~6 meV are observed in electronic Raman scattering. We identified that the superconducting transitions occur in the (111) BDD surfaces only. We believe that the origin of Mott and superconducting transitions is associated with the two-dimensional (2D) misfit layer structure of BDD. A model for the BDD crystal structure, based on X-ray and Raman data, is proposed and confirmed by density functional theoretical calculation. PMID:26754937

  19. Formation of Boron-Carbon Nanosheets and Bilayers in Boron-Doped Diamond: Origin of Metallicity and Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, S. N.; Denisov, V. N.; Mavrin, B. N.; Kirichenko, A. N.; Kuznetsov, M. S.; Martyushov, S. Yu; Terentiev, S. A.; Blank, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    The insufficient data on a structure of the boron-doped diamond (BDD) has frustrated efforts to fully understand the fascinating electronic properties of this material and how they evolve with doping. We have employed X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering for detailed study of the large-sized BDD single crystals. We demonstrate a formation of boron-carbon (B-C) nanosheets and bilayers in BDD with increasing boron concentration. An incorporation of two boron atoms in the diamond unit cell plays a key role for the B-C nanosheets and bilayer formation. Evidence for these B-C bilayers which are parallel to {111} planes is provided by the observation of high-order, super-lattice reflections in X-ray diffraction and Laue patterns. B-C nanosheets and bilayers minimize the strain energy and affect the electronic structure of BDD. A new shallow acceptor level associated with B-C nanosheets at 37 meV and the spin-orbit splitting of the valence band of 6 meV are observed in electronic Raman scattering. We identified that the superconducting transitions occur in the (111) BDD surfaces only. We believe that the origin of Mott and superconducting transitions is associated with the two-dimensional (2D) misfit layer structure of BDD. A model for the BDD crystal structure, based on X-ray and Raman data, is proposed and confirmed by density functional theoretical calculation.

  20. Boron doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes comparative study of the oxidation behaviour of cysteine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Enache, T A; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2011-04-01

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviour at boron doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes of the sulphur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine, using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry over a wide pH range, was compared. The oxidation reactions of these amino acids are irreversible, diffusion-controlled pH dependent processes, and occur in a complex cascade mechanism. The amino acid cysteine undergoes similar three consecutive oxidation reactions at both electrodes. The first step involves the oxidation of the sulfhydryl group with radical formation, that undergoes nucleophilic attack by water to give an intermediate species that is oxidized in the second step to cysteic acid. The oxidation of the sulfhydryl group leads to a disulfide bridge between two similar cysteine moieties forming cysteine. The subsequent oxidation of cystine occurs at a higher potential, due to the strong disulfide bridge covalent bond. The electro-oxidation of methionine at a glassy carbon electrode occurs in two steps, corresponding to the formation of sulfoxide and sulfone, involving the adsorption and protonation/deprotonation of the thiol group, followed by electrochemical oxidation. Methionine undergoes a one-step oxidation reaction at boron doped diamond electrodes due to the negligible adsorption, and the oxidation also leads to the formation of methionine sulfone. PMID:21377428

  1. Resistance to protein adsorption and adhesion of fibroblasts on nanocrystalline diamond films: the role of topography and boron doping.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, María; Papaioannou, Stavros; Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Gurevich, Leonid; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) films exhibit outstanding electrochemical properties that make them very attractive for the fabrication of electrodes for novel neural interfaces and prosthetics. In these devices, the physicochemical properties of the electrode materials are critical to ensure an efficient long-term performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of topography and doping to the biological performance of BNCD films. For this purpose, undoped and boron-doped NCD films were deposited on low roughness (LR) and high roughness (HR) substrates, which were studied in vitro by means of protein adsorption and fibroblast growth assays. Our results show that BNCD films significantly reduce the adsorption of serum proteins, mostly on the LR substrates. As compared to fibroblasts cultured on LR BNCD films, cells grown on the HR BNCD films showed significantly reduced adhesion and lower growth rates. The mean length of fibronectin fibrils deposited by the cells was significantly increased in the BNCD coated substrates, mainly in the LR surfaces. Overall, the largest influence on protein adsorption, cell adhesion, proliferation, and fibronectin deposition was due to the underlying sub-micron topography, with little or no influence of boron doping. In perspective, BNCD films displaying surface roughness in the submicron range may be used as a strategy to reduce the fibroblast growth on the surface of neural electrodes. PMID:26975747

  2. Fluorine and boron co-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by pulsed glow discharge plasma immersion ion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Ming; Hakovirta, M.; Peters, A. M.; Taylor, B.; Nastasi, M.

    2002-05-01

    Fluorine (F) and boron (B) co-doped diamond-like carbon (FB-DLC) films were prepared on different substrates by the plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP) technique. A pulse glow discharge plasma was used for the PIIP deposition and was produced at a pressure of 1.33 Pa from acetylene (C2H2), diborane (B2H6), and hexafluoroethane (C2F6) gas. Films of FB-DLC were deposited with different chemical compositions by varying the flow ratios of the C2H2, B2H6, and C2F6 source gases. The incorporation of B2H6 and C2F6 into PIIP deposited DLC resulted in the formation of F-C and B-C hybridized bonding structures. The levels of the F and B concentrations effected the chemical bonding and the physical properties as was evident from the changes observed in density, hardness, stress, friction coefficient, and contact angle of water on films. Compared to B-doped or F-doped DLC films, the F and B co-doping of DLC during PIIP deposition resulted in the formation of films that possessed a reduced hydrogen concentration and stress, while maintaining a high hardness, low friction coefficient, and high wetting contact angle.

  3. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  4. Enhanced capacitance of composite TiO2 nanotube/boron-doped diamond electrodes studied by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, K.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Sawczak, M.; Sobaszek, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on novel composite nanostructures based on boron-doped diamond thin films grown on top of TiO2 nanotubes. The nanostructures made of BDD-modified titania nanotubes showed an increase in activity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. The BDD thin films (~200-500 nm) were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW PA CVD) onto anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays. The influence of boron-doping level, methane admixture and growth time on the performance of the Ti/TiO2/BDD electrode was studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate the surface morphology and grain size distribution. Moreover, the chemical composition of TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The composite electrodes TiO2/BDD are characterized by a significantly higher capacitive current compared to BDD films deposited directly onto a Ti substrate. The novel composite electrode of TiO2 nanotube arrays overgrown by boron-doped diamond (BDD) immersed in 0.1 M NaNO3 can deliver a specific capacitance of 2.10, 4.79, and 7.46 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 for a [B]/[C] ratio of 2k, 5k and 10k, respectively. The substantial improvement of electrochemical performance and the excellent rate capability could be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 treatment in CH4 : H2 plasma and the high electrical conductivity of BDD layers. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra using an electric equivalent circuit allowed us to determine the surface area on the basis of the value of constant phase element.

  5. Diamond nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Beha, Katja; Wolfer, Marco; Becker, Merle C; Siyushev, Petr; Jamali, Mohammad; Batalov, Anton; Hinz, Christopher; Hees, Jakob; Kirste, Lutz; Obloh, Harald; Gheeraert, Etienne; Naydenov, Boris; Jakobi, Ingmar; Dolde, Florian; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Twittchen, Daniel; Markham, Matthew; Dregely, Daniel; Giessen, Harald; Meijer, Jan; Jelezko, Fedor; Nebel, Christoph E; Bratschitsch, Rudolf; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition. PMID:23365803

  6. Undoped and boron doped diamond nanoparticles as platinum and platinum-ruthenium catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Torre Riveros, Lyda

    Nanoparticular diamond is a promising material that can be used as a robust and chemically stable catalytic support. It has been studied and characterized physically and electrochemically, in its powder and thin film forms. This thesis work intends to demonstrate that undoped diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) and boron-doped diamond nanoparticles (BDDNPs) can be used as an electrode and a catalytic support material for platinum and ruthenium catalysts. The electrochemical properties of diamond nanoparticle electrodes, fabricated using the ink paste method, were investigated. As an initial step, we carried out chemical purification of commercially available undoped DNPs by refluxing in aqueous HNO3 as well as of BDDNPs which were doped through a collaborative work with the University of Missouri. The purified material was characterized by spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The reversibility of reactions such as ferricyanide/ferrocyanide (Fe(CN) 63-/Fe(CN)64-) and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry at the undoped DNPs and BDDNPs surface. These redox probes showed limited peak currents and presented linear relationships between current (i) and the square root of the potential scan rate (v1/2). However, compared to conventional electrodes, the peak currents were smaller. BDDNPs show an improvement in charge transfer currents when compared to undoped DNPs. Platinum and ruthenium nanoparticles were chemically deposited on undoped DNPs and BDDNPs through the use of the excess of a mild reducing agent such NaBH4. In order to improve the nanoparticle dispersion sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), a surfactant agent, was used. Percentages of platinum and ruthenium metals were varied as well as the stoichiometric amount of the reducing agent to determine adequate parameters for optimum performance in methanol oxidation. Both before and after the reducing process the samples were characterized by scanning

  7. Enhanced Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells on Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Grausova, Lubica; Kromka, Alexander; Burdikova, Zuzana; Eckhardt, Adam; Rezek, Bohuslav; Vacik, Jiri; Haenen, Ken; Lisa, Vera; Bacakova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films have been proven to be promising substrates for the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-derived cells. To understand the role of various degrees of doping (semiconducting to metallic-like), the NCD films were deposited on silicon substrates by a microwave plasma-enhanced CVD process and their boron doping was achieved by adding trimethylboron to the CH4:H2 gas mixture, the B∶C ratio was 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm. The room temperature electrical resistivity of the films decreased from >10 MΩ (undoped films) to 55 kΩ, 0.6 kΩ, and 0.3 kΩ (doped films with 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm of B, respectively). The increase in the number of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in 7-day-old cultures on NCD films was most apparent on the NCD films doped with 133 and 1000 ppm of B (153,000±14,000 and 152,000±10,000 cells/cm2, respectively, compared to 113,000±10,000 cells/cm2 on undoped NCD films). As measured by ELISA per mg of total protein, the cells on NCD with 133 and 1000 ppm of B also contained the highest concentrations of collagen I and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. On the NCD films with 6700 ppm of B, the cells contained the highest concentration of focal adhesion protein vinculin, and the highest amount of collagen I was adsorbed. The concentration of osteocalcin also increased with increasing level of B doping. The cell viability on all tested NCD films was almost 100%. Measurements of the concentration of ICAM-1, i.e. an immunoglobuline adhesion molecule binding inflammatory cells, suggested that the cells on the NCD films did not undergo significant immune activation. Thus, the potential of NCD films for bone tissue regeneration can be further enhanced and tailored by B doping and that B doping up to metallic-like levels is not detrimental for cells. PMID:21695172

  8. Corrosion behavior of aluminum doped diamond-like carbon thin films in NaCl aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Al) thin films were deposited on n-Si(100) substrates by co-sputtering a graphite target under a fixed DC power (650 W) and an aluminum target under varying DC power (10-90 W) at room temperature. The structure, adhesion strength and surface morphology of the DLC:Al films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-scratch testing and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The corrosion performance of the DLC:Al films was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 0.6 M NaCl aqueous solution. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DLC:Al films increased from about 18 to 30.7 k(omega) though the corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values with increased Al content in the films. PMID:21128496

  9. Modification of the surface morphology of the silicon substrate for boron-doped diamond electrodes in electrochemical wastewater treatment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Kim, Jung-Do; Lim, Dae-Soon

    2016-01-01

    For electrochemical wastewater treatment applications, textured boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were fabricated by using a simple and cost-effective etching process. On the basis of the surface area measurement, the etching time was optimized in order to achieve higher electrochemical wastewater treatment performance. The surface structure, electrochemical properties, and electrochemical oxidation performance of the electrodes were characterized by using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, in addition to electrochemical techniques. The textured BDD electrode demonstrated a dense and large surface area with no change in the film's properties. The effective surface area of the textured BDD electrode was approximately twice as large as that of the planar BDD electrode. The electrochemical results clearly demonstrate that the enhanced surface area of the BDD electrode achieves a higher current efficiency and much lower energy consumption in the electrochemical oxidation of methyl-orange.

  10. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  11. Voltammetric determination of mixtures of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in beverage samples using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Yardım, Yavuz; Keskin, Ertugrul; Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-11-15

    Herein, a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode that is anodically pretreated was used for the simultaneous determination of caffeine (CAF) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) by cyclic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The dependence of peak current and potential on pH, scan rate, accumulation parameters and other experimental variables were studied. By using square-wave stripping mode after 60 s accumulation under open-circuit voltage, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of CAF and CGA present in binary mixtures by about 0.4V in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 1.0. The limits of detection were 0.107 µg mL(-1) (5.51×10(-7) M) for CAF, and 0.448 µg mL(-1) (1.26×10(-6) M) for CGA. The practical applicability of this methodology was tested in commercially available beverage samples. PMID:24148509

  12. Development of Sensitive Analytical Approach for the Quantification of α-Lipoic Acid Using Boron Doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Dalibor M; Mehmeti, Eda; Kalcher, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    A boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated for use as an electrochemical sensor for α-lipoic acid (LA) using amperometric and differential pulse voltammetric detection. LA displays a well expressed oxidation peak at +0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl in solutions with a pH value of 3. It was found that signals obtained are linearly related to the concentration range from 0.3 to 105 μM with detection limit of 0.088 μM. Interferences by common compounds such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine were tested and the method was successfully applied to the determination of LA in human body fluids where it gave recoveries in the range from 95 to 97%. PMID:27506710

  13. Chemometric study on the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid using platinum and boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyong; He, Zhenzhu; Wu, Jingyu; Fu, Degang

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt) anodes. Trials were performed in the presence of sulfate electrolyte media under recirculation mode. The parameters that influence the degradation efficiency were investigated, including applied current density, flow rate, supporting electrolyte concentration and reaction time. To reduce the number of experiments, the system had been managed under chemometric technique named Doehlert matrix. As a consequence, the mineralization of NTA demonstrated similar behavior upon operating parameters on these two anodes. Further kinetic study indicated that the degradations followed pseudo-first-order reactions for both BDD and Pt anodes, and the reaction rate constant of the former was found to be higher than that of the latter. Such difference could be interpreted by results from fractal analysis. In addition, a reaction sequence for NTA mineralization considering all the detected intermediates was also proposed. PMID:25747300

  14. Comparative surface and nano-tribological characteristics of nanocomposite diamond-like carbon thin films doped by silver

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han-Shen; Endrino, Jose L.; Anders, Andre

    2008-07-10

    In this study we have deposited silver-containing hydrogenated and hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite thin films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition methods. The surface and nano-tribological characteristics were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-scratching experiments. The silver doping was found to have no measurable effect on sp2-sp3 hybridization of the hydrogenated DLC matrix and only a slight effect on the hydrogen-free DLC matrix. The surface topography was analyzed by surface imaging. High- and low-order roughness determined by AFM characterization was correlated to the DLC growth mechanism and revealed the smoothing effect of silver. The nano-tribological characteristics were explained in terms of friction mechanisms and mechanical properties in correlation to the surface characteristics. It was discovered that the adhesion friction was the dominant friction mechanism; the adhesion force between the scratching tip and DLC surface was decreased by hydrogenation and increased by silver doping.

  15. Evaluation of freestanding boron-doped diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition as substrates for vertical power electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, R.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.; Silva, F.; Gicquel, A.; Bisaro, R.; Servet, B.; Garry, G.; Barjon, J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, 4 × 4 mm2 freestanding boron-doped diamond single crystals with thickness up to 260 μm have been fabricated by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition. The boron concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy were 1018 to 1020 cm-3 which is in a good agreement with the values calculated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, thus indicating that almost all incorporated boron is electrically active. The dependence of lattice parameters and crystal mosaicity on boron concentrations have also been extracted from high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments on (004) planes. The widths of x-ray rocking curves have globally shown the high quality of the material despite a substantial broadening of the peak, indicating a decrease of structural quality with increasing boron doping levels. Finally, the suitability of these crystals for the development of vertical power electronic devices has been confirmed by four-point probe measurements from which electrical resistivities as low as 0.26 Ω cm have been obtained.

  16. Use of zirconium-phosphate-carbonate chemistry to immobilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on boron-doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maciej; Krysiński, Paweł; Blanchard, G J

    2005-09-13

    We report on the formation of monomolecular layers of perylene- and pyrene-alkanoic acids on boron-doped diamond (BDD) substrates. The carboxylic acid layers are bound by coordination to zirconium phosphate (ZP) functionalities on the BDD substrate surface. The resulting Zr-phosphate-carbonate (ZPC) linkages between the substrate and the adlayer are asymmetric, of the form -(OPO3(2-) Zr4+-O2C-R)+ X-. Pyrene and perylene are well-established optical probes of polarity and viscosity at interfaces. We have used electrochemical and steady-state fluorescence techniques to study the loading density and behavior of these monomolecular films, allowing comparison of BDD and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) substrates. Electrochemical data suggest that the pyrene chromophores are positioned roughly at the same distance from the surface, regardless of the length of the anchoring alkanoic acid chain, a finding that can be explained by the pyrene lying on the substrate surface. Such a conformation is plausible given the surface coverage (5 x 10(-11) mol/cm2, ca. 0.1 monolayer) we measure for these systems. PMID:16142963

  17. A nitrogen doped low-dislocation density free-standing single crystal diamond plate fabricated by a lift-off process

    SciTech Connect

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki Kato, Yukako; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Hideaki; Shikata, Shinichi

    2014-06-23

    A nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond plate with a low dislocation density is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a high pressure high temperature synthetic type IIa seed substrate by ion implantation and lift-off processes. To avoid sub-surface damage, the seed surface was subjected to deep ion beam etching. In addition, we introduced a nitrogen flow during the CVD step to grow low-strain diamond at a relatively high growth rate. This resulted in a plate with low birefringence and a dislocation density as low as 400 cm{sup −2}, which is the lowest reported value for a lift-off plate. Reproducing this lift-off process may allow mass-production of single crystal CVD diamond plates with low dislocation density and consistent quality.

  18. A Drude model analysis of conductivity and free carriers in boron-doped diamond films and investigations of their internal stress and strain.

    PubMed

    Manciu, Felicia S; Manciu, Marian; Durrer, William G; Salazar, Jessica G; Lee, Kendall H; Bennet, Kevin E

    2014-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) has seen a substantial increase in interest for use as electrode coating material for electrochemistry and studies of deep brain stimulation mechanism. In this study, we present an alternative method for determining important characteristics, including conductivity, carrier concentration, and time constant, of such material by the signature of Drude-like metallic behavior in the far-infrared (IR) spectral range. Unlike the direct determination of conductivity from the four-point probe method, using far-IR transmittance provides additional information, such as whether the incorporation of boron results in a large concentration of carriers or in inducing defects in the diamond lattice. The slightly doped to medium-doped BDD samples that were produced using chemical vapor deposition and analyzed in this work show conductivities ranging between 5.5 and 11 (Ω cm)(-1). Different growth conditions demonstrate that increasing boron concentration results in an increase in the carrier concentration, with values between 7.2 × 10(16) and 2.5 × 10(17) carriers/cm(3). Addition of boron, besides leading to a decrease in the resistivity, also resulted in a decrease in the time constant, limiting BDD conductivity. Investigations, by confocal Raman mapping, of the induced stress in the material due to interaction with the substrate or to the amount of doping are also presented and discussed. The induced tensile stress, which was distributed closer to the film-substrate interface decreased slightly with doping. PMID:25328245

  19. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid using a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films.

    PubMed

    Tyszczuk-Rotko, Katarzyna; Bęczkowska, Ilona; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and application of a novel sensor (a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films) for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid by differential pulse voltammetry. The main advantage of the lead film and polymer covered boron-doped diamond electrode is that the sensitivity of the stripping responses is increased and the separation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved due to the modification of the boron-doped diamond surface by the lead layer. Additionally, the repeatability of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved by the application of the Nafion film coating. In the presence of oxygen, linear calibration curves were obtained in a wide concentration range from 5×10(-7) to 2×10(-4) mol L(-1) for paracetamol and from 1×10(-6) to 5×10(-4) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid. The analytical utility of the differential pulse voltammetric method elaborated was tested in the assay of paracetamol and ascorbic acid in commercially available pharmaceutical formulations and the method was validated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. PMID:25127609

  20. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    SciTech Connect

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S.; Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-10-14

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO=VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}=0.3 eV±0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV±0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  1. Efficiency and stability of spectral sensitization of boron-doped-diamond electrodes through covalent anchoring of a donor-acceptor organic chromophore (P1).

    PubMed

    Krysova, Hana; Barton, Jan; Petrak, Vaclav; Jurok, Radek; Kuchar, Martin; Cigler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2016-06-28

    A novel procedure is developed for chemical modification of H-terminated B-doped diamond surfaces with a donor-π-bridge-acceptor molecule (P1). A cathodic photocurrent near 1 μA cm(-2) flows under 1 Sun (AM 1.5) illumination at the interface between the diamond electrode and aqueous electrolyte solution containing dimethylviologen (electron mediator). The efficiency of this new electrode outperforms that of the non-covalently modified diamond with the same dye. The found external quantum efficiency of the P1-sensitized diamond is not far from that of the flat titania electrode sensitized by a standard organometallic dye used in solar cells. However, the P1 dye, both pure and diamond-anchored, shows significant instability during illumination by solar light. The degradation is a two-stage process in which the initially photo-generated products further decompose in complicated dark reactions. These findings need to be taken into account for optimization of organic chromophores for solar cells in general. PMID:27264474

  2. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: HPHT Synthesis of Micron Grade Boron-Doped Diamond Single Crystal in Fe-Ni-C-B Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He-Min; Zang, Chuan-Yi; Li, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Hong-An; Li, Shang-Sheng; Zhou, Sheng-Guo; Guo, Wei; Jia, Xiao-Peng

    2008-07-01

    Micron grade boron-doped diamond crystals with octahedral morphology are successfully synthesized in a Fe—Ni—C—B system under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). The effects of the additive boron on synthesis conditions, nucleation and growth, crystal morphology of diamond are studied. The synthesized micron grade diamond crystals were characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The research results show that the V-shaped section of synthetic diamond moves downwards to the utmost extent due to 0.3a wt% (a is a constant.) boron added in the synthesis system. The crystal colour is black, and the average crystal size is about 25 μm. The crystal faces of synthetic diamond are mainly {111} face. The synthesis of this kind of diamond is few reported, and it will have important and widely applications.

  3. Cathodic and anodic pre-treated boron doped diamond with different sp2 content: Morphological, structural, and impedance spectroscopy characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldan, M. R.; Azevedo, A. F.; Couto, A. B.; Ferreira, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the influence of cathodic (Red) and anodic (Ox) pre-treatment on boron doped diamond (BDD) films grown with different sp2/sp3 ratios was systematically studied. The sp2/sp3 ratios were controlled by the addition of CH4 of 1,3,5 and 7 sccm in the gas inlet during the growth process. The electrodes were treated in 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 at -3 and 3 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively, for 30 min. The electrochemical response of BDD films was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky Plot (MSP) measurements. Four film sample sets were produced in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition reactor. During the growth process, an additional H2 line passing through a bubbler containing the B2O3 dissolved in methanol was used to carry the boron. The scanning electron microscopy morphology showed well faced films with a small decrease in their grain size as the CH4 concentration increased. The Raman spectra depicted a pronounced sp2 band, mainly for films with 5 and 7 sccm of CH4. MSP showed a decrease in the acceptor concentration as the CH4 increased indicating the CH4 influence on the doping process for Red-BDD and Ox-BDD samples. Nonetheless, an apparent increase in the acceptor concentrations for both Ox-BDD samples was observed compared to that for Red-BDD samples, mainly attributed to the surface conductive layer (SCL) formation after this strong oxidation process. The EIS Nyquist plots for Red-BDD showed a capacitance increase for the films with higher sp2 content (5 and 7 sccm). On the other hand, the Nyquist plots for Ox-BDD can be described as semicircles near the origin, at high frequencies, where their charge transfer resistance strongly varied with the sp2 increase in such films.

  4. Assessments of the Effect of Increasingly Severe Cathodic Pretreatments on the Electrochemical Activity of Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Brocenschi, Ricardo F; Hammer, Peter; Deslouis, Claude; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C

    2016-05-17

    The electrochemical response of many redox species on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes can be strongly dependent on the type of chemical termination on their surface, hydrogen (HT-BDD) or oxygen (OT-BDD). For instance, on an HT-BDD electrode the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox system presents a reversible voltammetric behavior, whereas the oxidation overpotential of ascorbic acid (AA) is significantly decreased. Moreover, the electrochemical activity of BDD electrodes can be significantly affected by electrochemical pretreatments, with cathodic pretreatments (CPTs) leading to redox behaviors associated with HT-BDD. Here we report on the effect of increasingly severe CPTs on the electrochemical activity of a highly doped BDD electrode, assessed with the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) and AA redox probes, and on the atomic bonding structure on the BDD surface, assessed by XPS. The hydrogenation level of the BDD surface was increased by CPTs, leading to decreases of the total relative level of oxidation of the BDD surface of up to 36%. Contrary to what is commonly assumed, we show that BDD surfaces do not need to be highly hydrogenated to ensure that a reversible voltammetric behavior is obtained for Fe(CN)6](3-/4-); after a CPT, this was attained even when the total relative level of oxidation on the BDD surface was about 15%. At the same time, the overpotential for AA oxidation was confirmed as being very sensitive to the level of oxidation of the BDD surface, a behavior that might allow the use of AA as a secondary indicator of the relative atomic bonding structure on the BDD surface. PMID:27101534

  5. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.5 M Na2SO4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz.

  6. Mechanistic proposal for the electrochemical and sonoelectrochemical oxidation of thiram on a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Steter, Juliana R; Kossuga, Miriam H; Motheo, Artur J

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out of sonochemical (SCh), electrochemical (ECh) and sonoelectrochemical (SECh) strategies for the degradation of the fungicide thiram in dilute aqueous solution. The SCh and SECh studies were performed using a sonicator equipped with an 11 mm titanium-alloy probe and operated at 20 kHz with a power intensity of 523 W cm(-2). In the ECh and SECh investigations, galvanostatic electrolyses were implemented using a single compartment electrochemical cell with a boron-doped diamond electrode as anode and applied current densities in the range 10-50 mA cm(-2). For these processes, the decrease in concentration of thiram was monitored by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis and values of current efficiency and energy consumption were determined. The results showed that the rate of degradation of thiram and the amount of energy consumed were directly proportional to the applied current density, while current efficiency was inversely related to current density. The kinetics of thiram degradation followed a pseudo first order model with apparent rate constants in the region of 10(-3)min(-1). Thiram in aqueous solution was subjected to "exhaustive" degradation by ECh and SECh processes for 5h at applied current densities of 35 mA cm(-2) and the intermediates/byproducts so-formed were identified by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Mechanisms of the degradation reactions have been proposed on the basis of the results obtained. PMID:26384879

  7. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. PMID:25129707

  8. XPS study of ruthenium tris-bipyridine electrografted from diazonium salt derivative on microcrystalline boron doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Agnès, Charles; Arnault, Jean-Charles; Omnès, Franck; Jousselme, Bruno; Billon, Martial; Bidan, Gérard; Mailley, Pascal

    2009-12-28

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) functionalization has received an increasing interest during the last few years. Such an infatuation comes from the original properties of BDD, including chemical stability or an electrochemical window, that opens the way for the design of (bio)sensors or smart interfaces. In such a context, diazonium salts appear to be well suited for BDD functionalization as they enable covalent immobilization of functional entities such as enzymes or DNA. In this study we report microcrystalline BDD functionalization with a metallic complex, ruthenium tris(bipyridine), using the p-(tris(bipyridine)Ru(2+))phenyl diazonium salt. Electrografting using cyclic voltammetry (CV) allowed the formation of a ruthenium complex film that was finely characterized using electrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, we showed that chronopotentiometry (CP) is a convenient tool to monitor Ru complex film deposition through the control of the electrochemical pulse parameters (i.e. current density and pulse duration). Finally, such a control was demonstrated through the correlation between electrochemical and XPS characterizations. PMID:20024438

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of tramadol in low-salinity reverse osmosis concentrates using boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Schulz, Manoj; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical treatment of low-salinity reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates was investigated using tramadol (100 μM) as a model substance for persistent organic contaminants. Galvanostatic degradation experiments using boron-doped diamond electrodes at different applied currents were conducted in RO concentrates as well as in ultra-pure water containing either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. Kinetic investigations revealed a significant influence of in-situ generated active chlorine besides direct anodic oxidation. Therefore, tramadol concentrations decreased more rapidly at elevated chloride content. Nevertheless, reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be comparatively low, demonstrating that transformation rather than mineralization was taking place. Early stage product formation could be attributed to both direct and indirect processes, including demethylation, hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative aromatic ring cleavage and halogenation reactions. The latter led to various halogenated derivatives and resulted in AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) formation in the lower mg/L-range depending on the treatment conditions. Characterisation of transformation products (TPs) was achieved via MS(n) experiments and additional NMR measurements. Based on identification and quantification of the main TPs in different matrices and on additional potentiostatic electrolysis, a transformation pathway was proposed. PMID:25660808

  10. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-01-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron–hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems. PMID:25994309

  11. Electrochemical incineration of cresols: a comparative study between PbO2 and boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Flox, Cristina; Arias, Conchita; Brillas, Enric; Savall, André; Groenen-Serrano, Karine

    2009-03-01

    The electrooxidation of aqueous solutions containing 5mM of o-, m- and p-cresol at pH 4.0 has been investigated using a flow filter-press reactor with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) under galvanostatic electrolysis. All cresols are degraded at similar rate up to attaining overall mineralization. Comparable treatment of the m-cresol effluent on PbO(2) leads to partial electrochemical incineration. However, this pollutant is more rapidly removed with PbO(2) than with BDD. The decay kinetics of all cresols follows a pseudo-first-order reaction. Aromatic intermediates such as 2-methylhydroquinone and 2-methyl-p-benzoquinone and carboxylic acids such as maleic, fumaric, pyruvic, malonic, tartronic, glycolic, glyoxylic, acetic, oxalic and formic, have been identified and followed during the m-cresol treatment by chromatographic techniques. From these oxidation by-products, a plausible reaction sequence for m-cresol mineralization on both anodes is proposed. The energy consumption for the corresponding electrochemical process is also calculated. PMID:19118859

  12. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-05-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron-hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems.

  13. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Keller, Jürg; Brillas, Enric; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl(-) ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl2/HClO/ClO(-)), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO(-) species led to the production of ClO3(-) and ClO4(-) ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment. PMID:25464295

  14. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, Carlee; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  15. Highly sensitive detection of influenza virus by boron-doped diamond electrode terminated with sialic acid-mimic peptide.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Ujie, Michiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Akahori, Miku; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-08-01

    The progression of influenza varies according to age and the presence of an underlying disease; appropriate treatment is therefore required to prevent severe disease. Anti-influenza therapy, such as with neuraminidase inhibitors, is effective, but diagnosis at an early phase of infection before viral propagation is critical. Here, we show that several dozen plaque-forming units (pfu) of influenza virus (IFV) can be detected using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode terminated with a sialic acid-mimic peptide. The peptide was used instead of the sialyloligosaccharide receptor, which is the common receptor of influenza A and B viruses required during the early phase of infection, to capture IFV particles. The peptide, which was previously identified by phage-display technology, was immobilized by click chemistry on the BDD electrode, which has excellent electrochemical characteristics such as low background current and weak adsorption of biomolecules. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that H1N1 and H3N2 IFVs were detectable in the range of 20-500 pfu by using the peptide-terminated BDD electrode. Our results demonstrate that the BDD device integrated with the receptor-mimic peptide has high sensitivity for detection of a low number of virus particles in the early phase of infection. PMID:27457924

  16. Electrochemical degradation of the antihypertensive losartan in aqueous medium by electro-oxidation with boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Claudio; Contreras, Nicole; Mansilla, Héctor D; Yáñez, Jorge; Salazar, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    In this work the electrochemical oxidation of losartan, an emerging pharmaceutical pollutant, was studied. Electrochemical oxidation was carried out in batch mode, in an open and undivided cell of 100cm(3) using a boron-doped diamond (BDD)/stainless steel system. With Cl(-) medium 56% of mineralization was registered, while with the trials containing SO4(2-) as supporting electrolyte a higher mineralization yield of 67% was reached, even obtaining a total removal of losartan potassium at 80mAcm(-2) and 180min of reaction time at pH 7.0. Higher losartan potassium concentrations enhanced the mineralization degree and the efficiency of the electrochemical oxidation process. During the mineralization up to 4 aromatic intermediates were identified by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Moreover, short-linear carboxylic acids, like oxalic, succinic and oxamic were detected and quantified by ion-exclusion HPLC. Finally, the ability of the electrochemical oxidation process to mineralize dissolved commercial tablets containing losartan was achieved, obtaining TOC removal up to 71% under optimized conditions (10mAcm(-2), 0.05M Na2SO4, pH 7.0 and 25°C and 360min of electrolysis). PMID:27180209

  17. Sensitive voltammetric determination of thymol in essential oil of Carum copticum seeds using boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Dalibor M

    2015-10-01

    Essential oil of Carum copticum seeds, obtained from a local shop, was extracted and content of thymol was analyzed using square-wave voltammetry at boron-doped diamond electrode. The effect of various parameters, such as pH of supporting electrolyte and square-wave voltammetric parameters (modulation amplitude and frequency), was examined. In Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 4), thymol provided a single and oval-shaped irreversible oxidation peak at +1.13 V versus silver/silver chloride potassium electrode (3M). Under optimal experimental conditions, a plot of peak height against concentration of thymol was found to be linear over the range of 4 to 100μM consisting of two linear ranges: from 4 to 20μM (R(2)=0.9964) and from 20 to 100μM (R(2)=0.9993). The effect of potential interferences such as p-cymene and γ-terpinene (major components in essential oil of C. copticum seeds) was evaluated. Thus, the proposed method displays a sufficient selectivity toward thymol with a detection limit of 3.9μM, and it was successfully applied for the determination of thymol in essential oil of C. copticum seeds. The Prussian blue method was used for validation of the proposed electroanalytical method. PMID:26119334

  18. Treatment of ink effluents from flexographic printing by lime precipitation and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Diamadopoulos, Evan; Barndõk, Helen; Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2009-01-01

    Effluent treatment from flexographic printing was investigated by precipitation/coagulation and electrochemical oxidation over boron-doped diamond electrodes. Precipitation with 3 g/L of lime led to complete removal of effluent turbidity (initial value of about 410 NTU) but only about 20% chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease (initial value of about 1,900 mg/L). Higher lime dosages (up to 15 g/L) had no effect on separation. On the other hand, coagulation with alum in the range 0.05-1 mM failed to enhance the extent of solids separation achieved by gravity settling alone (i.e. about 60%). Preliminary electrochemical oxidation experiments in the presence of sulphuric acid as supporting electrolyte showed that treatment performance (in terms of COD removal and decrease in sample absorbance at 300 nm) increased with increasing applied current. The latter was more efficiently utilized at shorter treatment times and lower currents with efficiency reaching 30%. Following lime precipitation, the effluent was electrochemically oxidized at alkaline conditions for 360 min yielding 64% absorbance reduction and 50% COD removal (this corresponds to 60% overall COD removal for the combined process). The rather low electrochemical treatment performance may be attributed to limestone deposition and fouling of electrodes and other electrochemical reactor components as evidenced by the gradual drop in conductivity/current throughout the operation. PMID:19923752

  19. Simultaneous square-wave voltammetric determination of aspartame and cyclamate using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Roberta Antigo; de Carvalho, Adriana Evaristo; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2008-07-30

    A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspartame and cyclamate in dietary products at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. In square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of aspartame and cyclamate present in binary mixtures by about 400 mV. The detection limit for aspartame in the presence of 3.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) cyclamate was 4.7x10(-7) mol L(-1), and the detection limit for cyclamate in the presence of 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame was 4.2x10(-6) mol L(-1). When simultaneously changing the concentration of both aspartame and cyclamate in a 0.5 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution, the corresponding detection limits were 3.5x10(-7) and 4.5x10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained was 1.3% for the 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame solution (n=5) and 1.1% for the 3.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) cyclamate solution. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of aspartame in several dietary products with results similar to those obtained using an HPLC method at 95% confidence level. PMID:18585340

  20. Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon as optically transparent electrode for infrared attenuated total reflection spectroelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Nicola; Kahn, Markus; Berghauser, Roswitha; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2011-05-01

    This contribution describes the development of nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) thin films for multi-reflection mid-infrared (MIR) attenuated total reflectance (IR-ATR) spectroelectrochemistry. N-DLC coatings were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) involving the ablation of a high purity graphite target. The DLC matrix was further modified by ablating the target in the presence of nitrogen gas. This technique offers the advantage of depositing thin films at room temperature, thereby enabling coating of temperature-sensitive substrates including e.g., MIR waveguides. The resulting films were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and determined to be composed of carbon, nitrogen, and adventitious oxygen. Raman spectroscopic studies indicate that the addition of nitrogen induces further clustering and ordering of the sp(2)-hybridized carbon phase. The electrochemical activity of PLD fabricated N-DLC films was verified using the Ru(NH(3))(3+/2+) redox couple, and was determined to be comparable with that of other carbon-based electrodes. In situ spectroelectrochemical studies involving N-DLC coated zinc selenide (ZnSe) MIR waveguides provided evidence concerning the oxidation of N-DLC at anodic potentials in 1 M HClO(4) solutions. Finally, the electropolymerization of polyaniline (PAni) was performed at N-DLC-modified waveguide surfaces, which enabled spectroscopic monitoring of the electropolymerization, as well as in situ studying the structural conversion of PAni at different potentials. PMID:21373709

  1. Differential patterning of neuronal, glial and neural progenitor cells on phosphorus-doped and UV irradiated diamond-like carbon.

    PubMed

    Regan, Edward M; Uney, James B; Dick, Andrew D; Zhang, Yiwei; Nunez-Yanez, Jose; McGeehan, Joseph P; Claeyssens, Frederik; Kelly, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an attractive biomaterial for coating human implantable devices. Our particular research interest is in developing DLC as a coating material for implants and electrical devices for the nervous system. We previously reported that DLC is not toxic to N2a neuroblastoma cells or primary cortical neurons and showed that phosphorus-doped DLC (P:DLC) could be used to produce patterned neuron networks. In the present study we complement and extend these findings by exploring patterning of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants, human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) and U-87 astroglioma cells on P:DLC. Further P:DLC data is provided to highlight that P:DLC can be used as an effective coating material for in vitro multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) with potential for patterning groups of neurons on selected electrodes. We also introduce ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a simple treatment to render DLC neurocompatible. We show that UV:DLC can be used to support patterned and unpatterned cortical neuron growth. These findings strongly support the use of DLC as tailorable and tuneable substrate to study neural cell biology in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that DLC is a well-suited candidate material for coating implantable devices in the human nervous system. PMID:19833386

  2. Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna

    2011-05-15

    Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L(-1) (<100 mg L(-1), the National Discharge Standard of China). More importantly, the destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters. PMID:21377794

  3. Preferential cell attachment to nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) for the measurement of quantal exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Atanu; Barizuddin, Syed; Hossain, Maruf; Polo-Parada, Luis; Gillis, Kevin D.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical measurement of transmitter or hormone release from individual cells on microchips has applications both in basic science and drug screening. High-resolution measurement of quantal exocytosis requires the working electrode to be small (cell-sized) and located in immediate proximity to the cell. We examined the ability of candidate electrode materials to promote the attachment of two hormone-secreting cell types as a mechanism for targeting cells for to recording electrodes with high precision. We found that nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) promoted cell attachment relative to other materials tested in the rank order of DLC:N > In2O3/SnO2 (ITO), Pt > Au. In addition, we found that treating candidate electrode materials with polylysine did not increase attachment of chromaffin cells to DLC:N, but promoted cell attachment to the other tested materials. We found that hormone-secreting cells did not attach readily to Teflon AF as a potential insulating material, and demonstrated that patterning of Teflon AF leads to selective cell targeting to DLC:N “docking sites”. These results will guide the design of the next generation of biochips for automated and high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis. PMID:19124153

  4. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5-10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  5. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5–10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  6. Determination of vanillin in commercial food product by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Yardım, Yavuz; Gülcan, Mehmet; Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-12-01

    A method for the determination of food additive vanillin was developed by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Its determination was carried out at the anodically pre-treated boron-doped diamond electrode in aqueous solutions. Using square-wave stripping mode, the compound yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in phosphate buffer, pH 2.5 at +1.14 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) (a pre-concentration step being carried out at open-circuit condition for 60s). A linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range of 0.5-15.0 μg mL(-1) (3.3×10(-6)-9.8×10(-5) mol L(-1)) with a detection limit of 0.024 μg mL(-1) (1.6×10(-7) mol L(-1)). As an example, the practical applicability of the proposed method was tested for the determination of this flavouring agent in commercial pudding powder of Keshkule (Turkish milk pudding with almond flour). PMID:23870896

  7. Biophotonic low-coherence sensors with boron-doped diamond thin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewska, D.; Karpienko, K.; Sobaszek, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-coherence sensors using Fabry-Perot interferometers are finding new applications in biophotonic sensing, especially due to the rapid technological advances in the development of new materials. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using boron-doped nanodiamond layers to protect mirror in a Fabry-Perot interferometer. A low-coherence sensor using Fabry-Perot interferometer with a boron-doped nanodiamond (B-NCD) thin protective layer has been developed. B-NCD layers with different boron doping level were investigated. The boron level, expressed as the boron to carbon (/[C]) ratio in the gas phase, was: 0, 2000, 5000 or 10000 ppm. B-NCD layers were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The sensing Fabry-Perot interferometer, working in the reflective mode, was connected to the source and to the optical processor by single-mode fibers. Superluminescent diodes with Gaussian spectral density were used as sources, while an optical spectrum analyzer was used as an optical processor. The design of the sensing interferometer was optimized to attain the maximum interference contrast. The experiment has shown that B-NCD thin layers can be successfully used in biophotonic sensors.

  8. Ellipsometric investigation of nitrogen doped diamond thin films grown in microwave CH4/H2/N2 plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficek, Mateusz; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Ryl, Jacek; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Lin, I.-Nan; Haenen, Ken; Darowicki, Kazimierz

    2016-06-01

    The influence of N2 concentration (1%-8%) in CH4/H2/N2 plasma on structure and optical properties of nitrogen doped diamond (NDD) films was investigated. Thickness, roughness, and optical properties of the NDD films in the VIS-NIR range were investigated on the silicon substrates using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The samples exhibited relatively high refractive index (2.6 ± 0.25 at 550 nm) and extinction coefficient (0.05 ± 0.02 at 550 nm) with a transmittance of 60%. The optical investigation was supported by the molecular and atomic data delivered by Raman studies, bright field transmission electron microscopy imaging, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy diagnostics. Those results revealed that while the films grown in CH4/H2 plasma contained micron-sized diamond grains, the films grown using CH4/H2/(4%)N2 plasma exhibited ultranano-sized diamond grains along with n-diamond and i-carbon clusters, which were surrounded by amorphous carbon grain boundaries.

  9. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Conti, G.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Fadley, C. S.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO = VBMCIGS - VBMdiamond = 0.3 eV ± 0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV ± 0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  10. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2008-05-06

    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

  11. Ethanol sensor based on nanocrystallite cadmium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Gadkari, Ashok B.; Shinde, Tukaram J.; Vasambekar, Pramod N.

    2015-06-24

    The cadmium ferrite was synthesized by oxalate co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques, respectively. The nanocrystallite CdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sensor was tested for LPG, Cl{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH. The sensitivity was measured at various operating temperatures in the range of 100-400°C. The sensor shows highest sensitivity and selectivity to C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH at 350°C. The response and recovery time was measured at operating temperature of 350°C. The sensor exhibits a lower response and recovery time for LPG and Cl{sub 2} as compared to ethanol.

  12. Comparing atrazine and cyanuric acid electro-oxidation on mixed oxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Geoffroy R P; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Miwa, Douglas W; Machado, Sérgio A S; Motheo, Artur J

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of pesticides has been promoted by many methods for clean up of contaminated soil and wastewaters. The main goal is to decrease the toxicity of the parent compound to achieve non-toxic compounds or even, when complete mineralization occurs, carbon dioxide and water. Therefore, electrochemical degradation (potentiostatic and galvanostatic) of both the pesticide atrazine and cyanuric acid (CA) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes, in different supporting electrolytes (NaCl and Na2SO4), is presented with the aim of establishing the influence of the operational parameters on the process efficiency. The results demonstrate that both the electrode material and the supporting electrolyte have a strong influence on the rate of atrazine removal. In the chloride medium, the rate of atrazine removal is always greater than in sulfate under all conditions employed. Furthermore, in the sulfate medium, atrazine degradation was significant only at the BDD electrode. The total organic carbon (TOC) load decreased by 79% and 56% at the BDD and DSA electrodes, respectively, in the chloride medium. This trend was maintained in the sulfate medium but the TOC removal was lower (i.e. 33% and 13% at BDD and DSA electrodes, respectively). CA, a stable atrazine degradation intermediate, was also studied and it is efficiently removed using the BDD electrode in both media, mainly when high current densities are employed. The use of the BDD electrode in the chloride medium not only degrades atrazine but also mineralized cyanuric acid leading to the higher TOC removal. PMID:23837356

  13. Entropy-driven structure and dynamics in carbon nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nicholas W; Wang, Qifei; Rios, Orlando; Keffer, David J

    2014-01-01

    New carbon composite materials are being developed that contain carbon nanocrystallites in the range of 5 17 A in radius dispersed within an amorphous carbon matrix. Evaluating the applicability of these materials for use in battery electrodes requires a molecular-level understanding of the thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic properties of the nanocrystallites. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the molecular-level mechanisms for such experimental observations as the increased spacing between carbon planes in nanocrystallites as a function of decreasing crystallite size. As the width of this spacing impacts Li-ion capacity, an explanation of the origin of this distance is relevant to understanding anode performance. It is thus shown that the structural configuration of these crystallites is a function of entropy. The magnitude of out-of-plane ripples, binding energy between layers, and frequency of characteristic planar modes are reported over a range of nanocrystallite sizes and temperatures. This fundamental information for layered carbon nanocrystallites may be used to explain enhanced lithium ion diffusion within the carbon composites.

  14. nanocrystallites condensed in vapor-phase for photocatalyst applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Yagi, Nobuyasu; Nakagou, Riki; Sugimura, Akira; Umezu, Ikurou

    2014-10-01

    We have synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystallites by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in oxygen (O2) background gas for photocatalyst applications. Varying O2 background gas pressure or substrate target distance ( D TS), it was possible to change weight fraction of anatase phase in the anatase/rutile mixture from 0.2 to 1.0. Porosity of the deposited TiO2 films increased with increasing and D TS. Relation between the process parameters and the formed crystal phases was explained from the point of cooling process in vapor-phase. Furthermore, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was performed as post-annealing, suppressing sintering of the nanocrystallites. Photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 nanocrystallites depended on the RTA temperature and following crystallinity restoring as well as the crystal phase: anatase or rutile.

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  16. Characterization of single-crystal diamond grown from the vapor phase on substrates of natural diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Altukhov, A. A.; Vikharev, A. L.; Gorbachev, A. M.; Dukhnovsky, M. P.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Ziablyuk, K. N.; Mitenkin, A. V.; Muchnikov, A. B. Radishev, D. B.; Ratnikova, A. K.; Fedorov, Yu. Yu.

    2011-03-15

    The results of studies of single-crystal diamond layers with orientation (100) grown on substrates of IIa-type natural diamond by chemical-vapor deposition and of semiconductor diamond obtained subsequently by doping by implantation of boron ions are reported. Optimal conditions of postimplantation annealing of diamond that provide the hole mobility of 1150 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} (the highest mobility obtained so far for semiconductor diamond after ion implantation) are given.

  17. Electrochemical Response of Biomolecules on Carbon Substrates: Comparison between Oxidized HOPG and O-Terminated Boron-Doped CVD Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Claudia; Sternschulte, Hadwig; Denisenko, Andrej; Schlichtiger, Alice; Stimming, Ulrich

    In this work, two types of electroactive proteins, namely azurin and ferrocene-labeled papain, were adsorbed on differently oxidized diamond and investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A comparison was made with oxidized highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). A direct electron transfer to the biomolecules was confirmed for all oxidized carbon electrodes. A strong influence of the oxygen termination process of diamond on the charge transfer through the interface has been observed. This effect has been attributed to different defects and electronic states at the interface, as confirmed by capacitance-voltage measurements in electrolyte, electrical characterisation and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Wet chemical oxidized diamond was proved to be the most effective electrode material for biomolecule anchoring with an electron transfer rate higher by factor of three than that of HOPG.

  18. Diamond Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isberg, J.

    2010-11-01

    For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175° C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin (˜1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

  19. Diamond Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Isberg, J.

    2010-11-01

    For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175 deg.n C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin ({approx}1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

  20. Hydrogenation effects on carrier transport in boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Katamune, Yūki Takeichi, Satoshi; Ohmagari, Shinya; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-15

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite (UNCD/a-C:H) films were deposited by coaxial arc plasma deposition with a boron-blended graphite target at a base pressure of <10{sup −3} Pa and at hydrogen pressures of ≤53.3 Pa. The hydrogenation effects on the electrical properties of the films were investigated in terms of chemical bonding. Hydrogen-scattering spectrometry showed that the maximum hydrogen content was 35 at. % for the film produced at 53.3-Pa hydrogen pressure. The Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed strong absorptions by sp{sup 3} C–H bonds, which were specific to the UNCD/a-C:H, and can be attributed to hydrogen atoms terminating the dangling bonds at ultrananocrystalline diamond grain boundaries. Temperature-dependence of the electrical conductivity showed that the films changed from semimetallic to semiconducting with increasing hydrogen pressure, i.e., with enhanced hydrogenation, probably due to hydrogenation suppressing the formation of graphitic bonds, which are a source of carriers. Carrier transport in semiconducting hydrogenated films can be explained by a variable-range hopping model. The rectifying action of heterojunctions comprising the hydrogenated films and n-type Si substrates implies carrier transport in tunneling.

  1. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  2. Effects of nitrogen doping on the electrical conductivity and optical absorption of ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zkria, Abdelrahman; Katamune, Yūki; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    3 at. % nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite (UNCD/a-C:H) films were synthesized by coaxial arc plasma deposition. Optically, the films possess large absorption coefficients of more than 105 cm‑1 at photon energies from 3 to 5 eV. The optical band gap was estimated to be 1.28 eV. This value is smaller than that of undoped films, which might be attributable to increased sp2 fractions. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity implies that carrier transport follows a hopping conduction model. Heterojunctions with p-type Si substrates exhibited a typical rectifying action. From the capacitance–voltage characteristics that evidently indicated the expansion of a depletion region into the film side, the built-in potential and carrier concentration were estimated to be 0.51 eV and 7.5 × 1016 cm‑3, respectively. It was experimentally demonstrated that nitrogen-doped UNCD/a-C:H films are applicable as an n-type semiconductor.

  3. Structural and electrical properties and current–voltage characteristics of nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films on Si substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Masato; Murakami, Kazuki; Magara, Kohei; Nakamura, Kazuki; Ohashi, Haruka; Tokuda, Kengo; Takami, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Haruka; Enta, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Yushi; Ando, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    We have deposited nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using CH4, N2, and Ar, and investigated the effects of N doping on the structure and the electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of the N-DLC films. We fabricated undoped DLC/p-type Si and N-DLC/p-type Si heterojunctions and examined the current–voltage characteristics of the heterojunctions. When the N2 flow ratio was increased from 0 to 3.64%, the resistivity markedly decreased from the order of 105 Ω·cm to that of 10‑2 Ω·cm and the internal stress also decreased. The resistivity gradually increased with increasing N2 flow ratio from 3.64 to 13.6%, and then it decreased at a N2 flow ratio of 13.6%. These behaviors can be explained in terms of the clustering of sp2 carbons and the formation of sp3C–N, sp2C=N, sp1C≡N, and C–H n bonds. The rectification ratio of the heterojunction using the N-DLC film prepared at 3.64% was 35.8 at ±0.5 V.

  4. Thermoluminescent properties of Ni and Co doped synthetic, high pressure, high temperature diamonds: application to ionising radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Gheeraert, E; Kanda, H; Lapraz, D; Briand, D

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamond crystals grown under diluted nickel or cobalt as solvent catalysts is reported. After a study of TL properties of 6 different samples, it is shown that a crystal grown with Ni+2%Ti and annealed at 2100 K presents an intense glow peak at around 490 K. This peak is characterised by a broad emission band centred at 530 nm (2.34 eV). This crystal presents a significant, reproducible and linear TL response relative to the absorbed dose up to an X ray air kerma of 10 Gy. All these features make this material suitable for ionising radiation dosimetry. A similar study is made on another crystal grown from pure Co, and a comparative review of the results does show that for dosimetry work, Ni-containing diamonds are more appropriate than those grown from Co catalyst. PMID:12382890

  5. Surface Roughness and Critical Exponent Analyses of Boron-Doped Diamond Films Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging: Application of Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Vierkant, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of the surface roughness of growing metal or semiconductor thin films provides much needed information about their growth kinetics and corresponding mechanism. While some systems show stages of nucleation, coalescence, and growth, others exhibit varying microstructures for different process conditions. In view of these classifications, we report herein detailed analyses based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization to extract the surface roughness and growth kinetics exponents of relatively low boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by utilizing the analytical power spectral density (PSD) and autocorrelation function (ACF) as mathematical tools. The machining industry has applied PSD for a number of years for tool design and analysis of wear and machined surface quality. Herein, we present similar analyses at the mesoscale to study the surface morphology as well as quality of BDD films grown using the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. PSD spectra as a function of boron concentration (in gaseous phase) are compared with those for samples grown without boron. We find that relatively higher boron concentration yields higher amplitudes of the longer-wavelength power spectral lines, with amplitudes decreasing in an exponential or power-law fashion towards shorter wavelengths, determining the roughness exponent ( α ≈ 0.16 ± 0.03) and growth exponent ( β ≈ 0.54), albeit indirectly. A unique application of the ACF, which is widely used in signal processing, was also applied to one-dimensional or line analyses (i.e., along the x- and y-axes) of AFM images, revealing surface topology datasets with varying boron concentration. Here, the ACF was used to cancel random surface "noise" and identify any spatial periodicity via repetitive ACF peaks or spatially correlated noise. Periodicity at shorter spatial wavelengths was observed for no doping and low doping levels, while smaller correlations were observed for relatively

  6. Photo- and thermionic emission of MWPECVD nanocrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicala, G.; Magaletti, V.; Valentini, A.; Nitti, M. A.; Bellucci, A.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films with and without a diamond buffer layer (BL) have been grown on p-type silicon substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique at different values of deposition temperature (652-884 °C). The photo- and thermionic electron emission properties of NCD films have been investigated, illustrated and explained by analyzing the surface morphology and the grain shape determined by atomic force microscopy, the chemical-structural properties by Raman spectroscopy and nanocrystallites size by X-ray diffraction. The NCD films with BL grown at the highest deposition temperature have shown the highest photo- and thermionic emission currents.

  7. Simultaneous determination of eleven compounds related to metabolism of bioamines in rat cortex and hippocampus by HPLC-ECD with boron-doped diamond working electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Yang, Jun-qing; Luo, Ying; Shang, Jing-chuan; Jiang, Xin-hui

    2016-01-25

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with electrochemical detection employing boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was established for simultaneous determination of eleven bioamines with their precursor amino acids and metabolites, including two precursors (tyrosine and tryptophan), three catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine) and their four metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, homovanillic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol), as well as serotonin and its metabolite (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), in a single run of 20 min using vanillic acid as internal standard. The separation was performed on an ODS2 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) with column oven temperature of 30 °C. Quantification was accomplished at an oxidation potential of 700 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode after a range of applied voltages were tested. Several parameters of this new chromatographic method were validated after optimizaton of the analytical conditions. The new method was successfully applied to test cortex and hippocampus samples from Sprague-Dawley rats with good separation. These eleven compounds in cortices and hippocampi were compared, which was used for monitoring their variations in neuroscience research. PMID:26512998

  8. High-performance liquid chromatographic method with amperometric detection employing boron-doped diamond electrode for the determination of sildenafil, vardenafil and their main metabolites in plasma.

    PubMed

    Bartošová, Zdenka; Jirovský, David; Horna, Aleš

    2011-11-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive HPLC method with electrochemical detection employing boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) for the determination of sildenafil (Viagra™), vardenafil (Levitra™) and their main metabolites, N-desmethyl sildenafil and N-desethyl vardenafil in human plasma is presented. The assay involved drug extraction by tert-butyl methyl ether and isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. Complete separation of all analytes was achieved within 12 min. The mobile phase consisted of 20mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate with 40 mM sodium perchlorate/acetonitrile (70:30, v/v), pH 3.5. The electrode working potential was +1520 mV (vs. Pd/H(2)). Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 10-400 ng mL(-1). Phloretin was used as an internal standard. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for the studied analytes were within the range of 2-4 ng mL(-1) and 7.0-13.4 ng mL(-1), respectively. The developed method was applied to human plasma samples spiked with analytes at therapeutic concentrations. The study confirms the method's suitability for both pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic monitoring. PMID:21943935

  9. An Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent – hydroxyl radicals – for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins. PMID:23210708

  10. Microstructure and surface properties of chromium-doped diamond-like carbon thin films fabricated by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Tian, Xiubo; Gui, Gang; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Chu, Paul K.

    2013-07-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) has attracted much interest due to the large plasma density and high ionization rate of sputtered materials. It is expected to produce a highly ionized C flux from a graphite target but unfortunately, the ionization rate of carbon is still very small and the discharge on a solid carbon target is unstable as well. In this work, a stable discharged chromium target is used in the preparation of chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (Cr-DLC) films in HPPMS in reactive C2H2 gas, but the unstable graphite. The chromium concentration in the Cr-DLC films is limited by surface poisoning due to reactive gas. Less than 2% of Cr is incorporated into the DLC films at C2H2 flow rate of 5 sccm or higher. However, as a result of the high ionization rate of the reactive gas in HPPMS, intense ion bombardment of the substrate is realized. The films show a smooth surface and a dense structure with a large sp3 concentration. As the C2H2 flow increase, the sp3 fraction increase and the sp3 to sp2 ratio increase to 0.75 at a C2H2 flow rate of 10 sccm. Compared to the substrate, the Cr-DLC films have lower friction and exhibit excellent corrosion resistance.

  11. Molecular Signature of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Simultaneous Nanomolar Detection of Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Buzid, Alyah; Shang, Fengjun; Reen, F. Jerry; Muimhneacháin, Eoin Ó; Clarke, Sarah L.; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H. T.; O’Gara, Fergal; McGlacken, Gerard P.; Glennon, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    Electroanalysis was performed using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the simultaneous detection of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS), 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline (HHQ) and pyocyanin (PYO). PQS and its precursor HHQ are two important signal molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while PYO is a redox active toxin involved in virulence and pathogenesis. This Gram-negative and opportunistic human pathogen is associated with a hospital-acquired infection particularly in patients with compromised immunity and is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Early detection is crucial in the clinical management of this pathogen, with established infections entering a biofilm lifestyle that is refractory to conventional antibiotic therapies. Herein, a detection procedure was optimized and proven for the simultaneous detection of PYO, HHQ and PQS in standard mixtures, biological samples, and P. aeruginosa spiked CF sputum samples with remarkable sensitivity, down to nanomolar levels. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) scans were also applicable for monitoring the production of PYO, HHQ and PQS in P. aeruginosa PA14 over 8 h of cultivation. The simultaneous detection of these three compounds represents a molecular signature specific to this pathogen. PMID:27427496

  12. Study of degradation intermediates formed during electrochemical oxidation of pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) at boron doped diamond (BDD) and platinum-iridium anodes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Muff, Jens

    2014-08-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technique for degradation of otherwise recalcitrant organic micropollutants in waters. In this study, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation was investigated concerning the degradation of the groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) through the electrochemical oxygen transfer process with two anode materials: Ti/Pt90-Ir10 and boron doped diamond (Si/BDD). Besides the efficiency of the degradation of the main pollutant, it is also of outmost importance to control the formation and fate of stable degradation intermediates. These were investigated quantitatively with HPLC-MS and TOC measurements and qualitatively with a combined HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS protocol. 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide was found to be degraded most efficiently by the BDD cell, which also resulted in significantly lower amounts of intermediates formed during the process. The anodic degradation pathway was found to occur via substitution of hydroxyl groups until ring cleavage leading to carboxylic acids. For the BDD cell, there was a parallel cathodic degradation pathway that occurred via dechlorination. The combination of TOC with the combined HPLC-UV/MS was found to be a powerful method for determining the amount and nature of degradation intermediates. PMID:24873711

  13. Diazo dye Congo Red degradation using a Boron-doped diamond anode: An experimental study on the effect of supporting electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Jalife-Jacobo, H; Feria-Reyes, R; Serrano-Torres, O; Gutiérrez-Granados, S; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M

    2016-12-01

    Diazo dye Congo Red (CR) solutions at 100mg/L, were degraded using different supporting electrolytes in an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOPs), like the anodic oxidation (AOx/BDD). All experiments were carried out in a 3L flow reactor with a Boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and stainless steel cathode (AISI 304), at 7.5, 15, 30 and 50mA/cm(2) current densities (j). Furthermore, each experiment was carried out under a flow rate of 7L/min. Additionally, HClO4, NaCl, Na2SO4, and H2SO4 were tested as supporting electrolytes at a 50mM concentration. The degradation process was at all times considerably faster in NaCl medium. Solutions containing SO4(2-) or ClO4(-) ions were less prompted to degradation due to the low oxidation power of these species into the bulk. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, was carried out to evaluate the mineralization of CR. The degradation of CR, was evaluated with the HPLC analysis of the treated solutions. PMID:26952083

  14. Molecular Signature of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Simultaneous Nanomolar Detection of Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzid, Alyah; Shang, Fengjun; Reen, F. Jerry; Muimhneacháin, Eoin Ó.; Clarke, Sarah L.; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H. T.; O’Gara, Fergal; McGlacken, Gerard P.; Glennon, Jeremy D.

    2016-07-01

    Electroanalysis was performed using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the simultaneous detection of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS), 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline (HHQ) and pyocyanin (PYO). PQS and its precursor HHQ are two important signal molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while PYO is a redox active toxin involved in virulence and pathogenesis. This Gram-negative and opportunistic human pathogen is associated with a hospital-acquired infection particularly in patients with compromised immunity and is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Early detection is crucial in the clinical management of this pathogen, with established infections entering a biofilm lifestyle that is refractory to conventional antibiotic therapies. Herein, a detection procedure was optimized and proven for the simultaneous detection of PYO, HHQ and PQS in standard mixtures, biological samples, and P. aeruginosa spiked CF sputum samples with remarkable sensitivity, down to nanomolar levels. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) scans were also applicable for monitoring the production of PYO, HHQ and PQS in P. aeruginosa PA14 over 8 h of cultivation. The simultaneous detection of these three compounds represents a molecular signature specific to this pathogen.

  15. Effect of tetramethylsilane flow on the deposition and tribological behaviors of silicon doped diamond-like carbon rubbed against poly(oxymethylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingrui; Lim, Yankuang; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Umehara, Noritsugu

    2014-11-01

    In this study, silicon doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) was deposited on stainless steel (JIS SUS304) by using surface wave-excited plasma (SWP). The effects of tetramethylsilane (TMS) flow on the composition, topography, mechanical properties and tribological behavior were investigated. Pin-on-disc tribo-meter was used to investigate the tribological behavior of the Si-DLC coating rubbed against poly(oxymethylene) (POM). The results show that the deposition rate, roughness of Si-DLC increased and the hardness of Si-DLC decreased with the increase of TMS flow rate from 2 to 4 sccm; the roughness increase therein led to the increase of ploughing term of friction. The increase of adhesion term was also seen with the increase of TMS flow rate, being attributed to the decrease of hydrogen concentration in the coating. It was considered that more POM transferred onto the Si-DLC deposited at higher TMS flow rate due to larger heat generation by friction.

  16. Subcellular mechanism of Escherichia coli inactivation during electrochemical disinfection with boron-doped diamond anode: A comparative study of three electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren; Wang, Zuhui

    2015-11-01

    Although the identification of effective oxidant species has been extensively studied, yet the subcellular mechanism of bacterial inactivation has never been clearly elucidated in electrochemical disinfection processes. In this study, subcellular mechanism of Escherichia coli inactivation during electrochemical disinfection was revealed in terms of comprehensive factors such as cell morphology, total organic components, K(+) leakage, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation, membrane potential, membrane proteins, intracellular enzyme, cellular ATP level and DNA. The electrolysis was conducted with boron-doped diamond anode in three electrolytes including chloride, sulfate and phosphate. Results demonstrated that cell inactivation was mainly attributed to damage to the intracellular enzymatic systems in chloride solution. In sulfate solution, certain essential membrane proteins like the K(+) ion transport systems were eliminated. Thus, the pronounced K(+) leakage from cytosol resulted in gradual collapse of the membrane potential, which would hinder the subcellular localization of cell division-related proteins as well as ATP synthesis and thereby lead to the bacterial inactivation. Remarkable lipid peroxidation was observed, while the intracellular damage was negligible. In phosphate solution, the cells sequentially underwent overall destruction as a whole cell with no captured intermediate state, during which the organic components of the cells were mostly subjected to mineralization. This study provided a thorough insight into the bacterial inactivation mechanism on the subcellular level. PMID:26233659

  17. In situ control of local pH using a boron doped diamond ring disk electrode: optimizing heavy metal (mercury) detection.

    PubMed

    Read, Tania L; Bitziou, Eleni; Joseph, Maxim B; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical approach to modifying aqueous solution pH in the vicinity of a detector electrode in order to optimize the electrochemical measurement signal is described. A ring disk electrode was employed where electrochemical decomposition of water on the ring was used to generate a flux of protons which adjusts the local pH controllably and quantifiably at the disk. Boron doped diamond (BDD) functioned as the electrode material given the stability of this electrode surface especially when applying high potentials (to electrolyze water) for significant periods of time. A pH sensitive iridium oxide electrode electrodeposited on the disk electrode demonstrated that applied positive currents on the BDD ring, up to +50 μA, resulted in a local pH decrease of over 4 orders of magnitude, which remained stable over the measurement time of 600 s. pH generation experiments were found to be in close agreement with finite element simulations. The dual electrode arrangement was used to significantly improve the stripping peak signature for Hg in close to neutral conditions by the generation of pH = 2.0, locally. With the ability to create a localized pH change electrochemically in the vicinity of the detector electrode, this system could provide a simple method for optimized analysis at the source, e.g., river and sea waters. PMID:24321045

  18. Molecular Signature of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Simultaneous Nanomolar Detection of Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Buzid, Alyah; Shang, Fengjun; Reen, F Jerry; Muimhneacháin, Eoin Ó; Clarke, Sarah L; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; O'Gara, Fergal; McGlacken, Gerard P; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2016-01-01

    Electroanalysis was performed using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the simultaneous detection of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS), 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline (HHQ) and pyocyanin (PYO). PQS and its precursor HHQ are two important signal molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while PYO is a redox active toxin involved in virulence and pathogenesis. This Gram-negative and opportunistic human pathogen is associated with a hospital-acquired infection particularly in patients with compromised immunity and is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Early detection is crucial in the clinical management of this pathogen, with established infections entering a biofilm lifestyle that is refractory to conventional antibiotic therapies. Herein, a detection procedure was optimized and proven for the simultaneous detection of PYO, HHQ and PQS in standard mixtures, biological samples, and P. aeruginosa spiked CF sputum samples with remarkable sensitivity, down to nanomolar levels. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) scans were also applicable for monitoring the production of PYO, HHQ and PQS in P. aeruginosa PA14 over 8 h of cultivation. The simultaneous detection of these three compounds represents a molecular signature specific to this pathogen. PMID:27427496

  19. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  20. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  1. Diamond optics V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 20, 21, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Albert; Sandor, Holly

    Attention is given to unconventional diamond and DLC deposition processes, deposition characterization; diamond characterization, and structural, thermal, and optical properties. Particular attention is given to diamond CVD growth chemistry; a synthesis technique of diamondlike carbon films by a laser ablation ion source in the atmosphere; mass spectrometry studies of diamond deposition; characterization of electron cyclotron resonance plasmas for diamond deposition; thinning and polishing of diamond films by a diffusional reaction with metals; twin quituplets in a CVD diamond; characterization of diamond films deposited by hot-filament CVD using CF4 as a doping gas by Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy; properties of optically smooth diamond thin films produced by ECR-PACVD; calculations of energy barriers to CVD diamon growth; thermal properties of optical-quality diamond films; attenuated total reflectance infrared absorption in CVD diamond films; and optical properties of boron-doped diamond films. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  2. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  3. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  4. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  5. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  6. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection.

    PubMed

    Nantaphol, Siriwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-09-01

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H2O2 produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL(-1) to 270.69 mg dL(-1)), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL(-1)), and high sensitivity (49.61 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H2O2. In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6-100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time. PMID:26388372

  7. Microwave Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond. I. N2/H2 and NH3/H2 Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Truscott, Benjamin S; Kelly, Mark W; Potter, Katie J; Johnson, Mack; Ashfold, Michael N R; Mankelevich, Yuri A

    2015-12-31

    We report a combined experimental/modeling study of microwave activated dilute N2/H2 and NH3/H2 plasmas as a precursor to diagnosis of the CH4/N2/H2 plasmas used for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of N-doped diamond. Absolute column densities of H(n = 2) atoms and NH(X(3)Σ(-), v = 0) radicals have been determined by cavity ring down spectroscopy, as a function of height (z) above a molybdenum substrate and of the plasma process conditions, i.e., total gas pressure p, input power P, and the nitrogen/hydrogen atom ratio in the source gas. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate variations in the relative number densities of H(n = 3) atoms, NH(A(3)Π) radicals, and N2(C(3)Πu) molecules as functions of the same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by 2-D (r, z) coupled kinetic and transport modeling for the same process conditions, which consider variations in both the overall chemistry and plasma parameters, including the electron (Te) and gas (T) temperatures, the electron density (ne), and the plasma power density (Q). Comparisons between experiment and theory allow refinement of prior understanding of N/H plasma-chemical reactivity, and its variation with process conditions and with location within the CVD reactor, and serve to highlight the essential role of metastable N2(A(3)Σ(+)u) molecules (formed by electron impact excitation) and their hitherto underappreciated reactivity with H atoms, in converting N2 process gas into reactive NHx (x = 0-3) radical species. PMID:26593853

  8. Mineralization of salicylic acid in acidic aqueous medium by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using platinum and boron-doped diamond as anode and cathodically generated hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Guinea, Elena; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Solutions containing 164 mg L(-1) salicylic acid of pH 3.0 have been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation, anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H(2)O(2), electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton at constant current density. Their oxidation power has been comparatively studied in a one-compartment cell with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a graphite or O(2)-diffusion cathode. In the three latter procedures, 0.5mM Fe(2+) is added to the solution to form hydroxyl radical (()OH) from Fenton's reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) generated at the O(2)-diffusion cathode. Total mineralization is attained for all methods with BDD and for photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton with Pt. The poor decontamination achieved in anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton with Pt is explained by the slow removal of most pollutants by ()OH formed from water oxidation at the Pt anode in comparison to their quick destruction with ()OH produced at BDD. ()OH generated from Fenton's reaction oxidizes rapidly all aromatic pollutants, but it cannot destroy final Fe(III)-oxalate complexes. Solar photoelectro-Fenton treatments always yield quicker degradation rate due to the very fast photodecarboxylation of these complexes by UVA irradiation supplied by solar light. The effect of current density on the degradation rate, efficiency and energy cost of all methods is examined. The salicylic acid decay always follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic, alpha-ketoglutaric, glycolic, glyoxylic, maleic, fumaric, malic, tartronic and oxalic acids are detected as oxidation products. A general reaction sequence for salicylic acid mineralization considering all these intermediates is proposed. PMID:17692891

  9. Preparation of TiO2/boron-doped diamond/Ta multilayer films and use as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Li, Mingji; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2015-12-01

    We report nanostructured TiO2/boron-doped diamond (BDD)/Ta multilayer films and their electrochemical performances as supercapacitor electrodes. The BDD films were grown on Ta substrates using electron-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Ti metal layers were deposited on the BDD surfaces by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, and nanostructured TiO2/BDD/Ta thin films were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermal annealing. The successful formation of TiO2 and Ta layered nanostructures was demonstrated using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The electrochemical responses of these electrodes were evaluated by examining their use as electrical double-layer capacitors, using cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance measurements. When the TiO2/BDD/Ta film was used as the working electrode with 0.1 M Na2SO4 as the electrolyte, the capacitor had a specific capacitance of 5.23 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 for a B/C ratio of 0.1% w/w. Furthermore, the TiO2/BDD/Ta film had improved electrochemical stability, with a retention of 89.3% after 500 cycles. This electrochemical behavior is attributed to the quality of the BDD, the surface roughness and electrocatalytic activities of the TiO2 layer and Ta nanoporous structures, and the synergies between them. These results show that TiO2/BDD/Ta films are promising as capacitor electrodes for special applications.

  10. The ferroelectricity in perovskite K0.85Ba0.15TaO3+0.075 nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingyu; Xu, Chong; Chen, Yan; Ding, Qingfeng; Yuan, Hongming; Sun, Fengyue; Feng, Shouhua

    2015-08-01

    The perovskite K0.85Ba0.15TaO3+0.075 nanocrystallites have been synthesized by mild hydrothermal method for the first time. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the crystallographic structure is a primitive cubic, space group Pm-3m with a unit cell edge a=4.00 Å. Heavily Ba doped in K-site was achieved in the perovskite structure with excess oxygen to balance the charge. The chemical substitution changes the crystal structure and electronic structure of KTaO3, which has an impact on its polarization property and induce a ferroelectric phase. The temperature-dependent dielectric response from 300 K to 600 K and hysteresis loop at 300 K provide direct evidence for the ferroelectric character. Its Curie temperature has been obtained from relative dielectric and thermal analysis (TC=460 K).

  11. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  12. Precipitation of heterogeneous nanostructures: Metal nanoparticles and dielectric nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2010-07-15

    Heterogeneous precipitation of nanocrystallites of metallic Bi and anatase was observed in CaO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramics. Addition of AlN reduced the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Bi metal nanoparticles, which were uniformly dispersed in the glass. After heat-treatment of the Bi-precipitated glass around the glass transition temperature, nanocrystalline anatase precipitated out without aggregation of the Bi metal particles. It was found that the anatase nanocrystal size was affected by the distance between a nanocrystal and a precipitated Bi nanoparticle. The glass-ceramic produced is a functional material containing a random dispersion of different types of nanoparticles with different dielectric constants.

  13. Mechanism of Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with in situ Microwave Activated Boron-doped Diamond and Platinum Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junxia; Zhao, Guohua; Liu, Meichuan; Li, Dongming

    2009-09-01

    Remarkable enhancement in degradation effect is achieved at in situ activated boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Pt anodes with different extent through electrochemical oxidation (EC) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with microwave (MW) radiation in a flow system. Results show that when EC is activated with MW radiation, the complete mineralization time of 2,4-D at the BDD is reduced quickly from 10 to 4 h while Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal at Pt is increased from 37.7 to 58.3% at 10 h; the initial current efficiency is both improved about 1.5 times while the pseudo-first-order rate constant is increased by 153 and 119% at the BDD and Pt, respectively. To gain insight into the higher efficiency in microwave activated EC, the mechanism has therefore been systematically evaluated from the essence of electrochemical reaction and the accumulated hydroxyl radical concentration. 2,4-Dichlorophenol, catechol, benquinone, and maleic and oxalic acids are the main intermediates on the Pt anode measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the intermediates on the BDD electrode include 2,4-dichlorophenol, hydroquinone, and maleic and oxalic acids. The reaction pathway with microwave radiation is the same as that in a conventional electrochemical oxidation on both electrodes. While less and lower aromatic intermediates produce at the BDD with MW, which suggests the higher ring-open ratio and the faster oxidation of carboxylic acids. With microwave radiation, the ring-open ratio at the BDD is increased to 98.8% from 85.6%; the value at Pt is increased to 67.3% from 35.9%. So microwave radiation can activate the electrochemical oxidation, which leads to the higher efficiency. This promotion is mainly due to the higher accumulated hydroxyl radical concentration and the effects by microwave radiation. All the results prove that the BDD electrode presents much better mineralization performance with MW. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first

  14. Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 648 million carats in 2006, with 79 percent of the production coming from Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and the U.S. U.S. consumption was was an estimated 602 million carats, imports were over 391 million carats, and exports were about 83 million carats. About 87 percent of the industrial diamonds market uses synthetic diamonds, which are expected to become less expensive as technology improves and competition from low-cost producers increases.

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  17. Preparation of zinc sulfide nanocrystallites from single-molecule precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palve, Anil M.; Garje, Shivram S.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc sulfide nanocrystallites were prepared using Zinc(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes of the types Zn(L) 2 and ZnCl 2(LH) 2 (where, LH=thiosemicarbazones of cinnamaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, indol-3-carboxaldehyde and thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde) as single source precursors by solvothermal decomposition in ethylene glycol and ethylene diamine in few cases. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Solvothermal decomposition in ethylene glycol resulted in the formation of hexagonal ZnS (JCPDS: 36-1450) as evident from the XRD patterns. However, XRD shows formation of hybrid material, ZnS 0.5EN in case of solvothermal decomposition in ethylenediamine. Infrared spectra authenticate the capping of ethylene glycol and ethylenediamine on ZnS and ZnS 0.5EN, respectively. TEM images showed formation of spherical nanoparticles for the materials obtained from ethylene glycol, whereas plate-like morphology is observed in case of materials obtained from ethylene diamine. The blue shift of absorption bands compared to bands of bulk materials in the UV-vis spectra supports the formation of smaller particles.

  18. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  19. Advanced Diamond Anvil Techniques (Customized Diamond Anvils)

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    A complete set of diamond-based fabrication tools now exists for making a wide range of different types of diamond anvils which are tailored for various high-P applications. Current tools include: CVD diamond deposition (making diamond); Diamond polishing, laser drilling, plasma etching (removal of diamond); and Lithography, 3D laser pantography (patterning features onto diamond); - Metal deposition (putting electrical circuits and metal masks onto diamond). Current applications include the following: Electrical Conductivity; Magnetic Susceptibility; and High-P/High-T. Future applications may include: NMR; Hall Effect; de Haas - Shubnikov (Fermi surface topology); Calorimetry; and thermal conductivity.

  20. Highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for bisphenol A detection based on a diazonium-functionalized boron-doped diamond electrode modified with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-tyrosinase hybrid film.

    PubMed

    Zehani, Nedjla; Fortgang, Philippe; Saddek Lachgar, Mohamed; Baraket, Abdoullatif; Arab, Madjid; Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Kherrat, Rochdi; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the detection of Bisphenol A (BPA) in water has been developed by immobilizing tyrosinase onto a diazonium-functionalized boron doped diamond electrode (BDD) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The fabricated biosensor exhibits excellent electroactivity towards o-quinone, a product of this enzymatic reaction of BPA oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase. The developed BPA biosensor displays a large linear range from 0.01 nM to 100 nM, with a detection limit (LOD) of 10 pM. The feasibility of the proposed biosensor has been demonstrated on BPA spiked water river samples. Therefore, it could be a promising and reliable analytical tool for on-site monitoring of BPA in waste water. PMID:26232678

  1. Exchange bias magnetism in films of NiFe/(Ni,Fe)O nanocrystallite dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C.-H.; Chi, C.-C.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K.-W.; Lin, T.-L.

    2014-05-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni,Fe)O thin films having a nanocrystallite dispersion morphology were prepared by a reactive ion beam-assisted deposition technique. The crystallite sizes of these dispersion-based films were observed to decrease from 8.4 ± 0.3 nm to 3.4 ± 0.3 nm as the deposition flow-rate increased from 2.78% to 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar. Thin film composition was determined using selective area electron diffraction images and Multislice simulations. Through a detailed analysis of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the nanocrystallites were determined to be Ni{sub 3}Fe (a ferromagnet), NiO, and FeO (both antiferromagnets). It was determined that the interfacial molar Ni{sub 3}Fe ratio in the nanocrystallite dispersions increased slightly at first, then decreased as the oxygen content was increased; at 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar, the interfacial molar ratio was essentially zero (only NiO and FeO remained). For nanocrystallite dispersion films grown with O{sub 2}/Ar flow-rate greater than 7.89%, no interfacial (intermixed) Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was detected, which resulted in no measurable exchange bias. Comparing the exchange bias field between the nanocrystallite dispersion films at 5 K, we observed a decrease in the magnitude of the exchange bias field as the nanocrystallite size decreased. The exchange bias coupling for all samples measured set in at essentially the same temperature (i.e., the exchange bias blocking temperature). Since the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic (FM/AFM) contact area in the nanocrystallite dispersion films increased as the nanocrystallite size decreased, the increase in the magnitude of the exchange bias could be attributed to larger regions of defects (vacancies and bond distortions) which occupied a significant portion of the FM/AFM interfaces in the nanocrystallite dispersion films.

  2. A pathway of nanocrystallite fabrication by photo-assisted growth in pure water

    PubMed Central

    Jeem, Melbert; bin Julaihi, Muhammad Rafiq Mirza; Ishioka, Junya; Yatsu, Shigeo; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Shibayama, Tamaki; Iwasaki, Tomio; Kato, Takahiko; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a new production pathway for a variety of metal oxide nanocrystallites via submerged illumination in water: submerged photosynthesis of crystallites (SPSC). Similar to the growth of green plants by photosynthesis, nanocrystallites shaped as nanoflowers and nanorods are hereby shown to grow at the protruded surfaces via illumination in pure, neutral water. The process is photocatalytic, accompanied with hydroxyl radical generation via water splitting; hydrogen gas is generated in some cases, which indicates potential for application in green technologies. Together with the aid of ab initio calculation, it turns out that the nanobumped surface, as well as aqueous ambience and illumination are essential for the SPSC method. Therefore, SPSC is a surfactant-free, low-temperature technique for metal oxide nanocrystallites fabrication. PMID:26076674

  3. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    diamond's exceptional properties for quantum information processing [2], a topic on which there have been many recent papers, and where a diamond colour centre single photon source is already commercially available. Biomedical applications of diamond are recognised, partly tribological and partly electrochemical, but lie outside the present group of papers. Processing and controlling diamond surfaces and interfaces with other materials in their environment are critical steps en route to exploitation. Boron-doped diamond has already found application in electro-analysis and in the bulk oxidation of dissolved species in solution [3]. Energy-related applications—ranging from high-power electronics [3] to a potential first wall of fusion reactors [4]—are further exciting potential applications. Even small and ugly diamonds have value. Their mechanical properties [5] dominate, with significant niche applications such as thermal sinks. The major applications for diamond to date exploit only a fraction of diamond's special properties: visual for status diamonds, and mechanical for working diamonds. Diamond physics reaches well beyond the usual laboratory, to the geological diamond formation processes in the Earth's mantle. Characterization of natural gem diamonds [6, 7] is one part of the detective story that allows us to understand the conditions under which they formed. It was only half a century ago that the scientific and technological challenges of diamond synthesis were met systematically. Today, most of the recent research on diamond has concentrated on synthetics, whether created using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) techniques or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The HPHT synthesis of diamond has advanced dramatically [8, 9] to the extent that dislocation birefringence [10] can be largely eliminated. In silicon technology, the elimination of dislocations was a major step in microelectronics. Now, even diamond can be synthesised containing virtually no

  4. Controlled incorporation of mid-to-high Z transition metals in CVD diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; El-Dasher, B; Teslich, N E; Hamza, A V; Obloh, H; Mueller-Sebert, W; Wolfer, M; Fuchs, T; Grimm, M; Kriele, A; Wild, C

    2010-01-08

    We report on a general method to fabricate transition metal related defects in diamond. Controlled incorporation of Mo and W in synthetic CVD diamond was achieved by adding volatile metal precursors to the diamond chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth process. Effects of deposition temperature, grain structure and precursor exposure on the doping level were systematically studied, and doping levels of up to 0.25 at.% have been achieved. The metal atoms are uniformly distributed throughout the diamond grains without any indication of inclusion formation. These results are discussed in context of the kinetically controlled growth process of CVD diamond.

  5. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  6. Probing the effect of intrinsic defects and dopants on the structural evolution and optical properties of ZnO nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, N. R.; Sahu, D.; Acharya, B. S.; Nayak, P.

    2015-06-24

    Role of intrinsic defects and external impurities in modifying the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures has been studied and discussed. ZnO nanocrystallites doped with B, N and S elements have been prepared by ultrasound assisted wet chemical method. Structural evolution of ZnO in presence of dopant ions has been studied by XRD and electron microscopic measurements. Elemental analysis like XPS has been carried out to ascertain the dopant configuration. A variation in crystallographic parameters and microstructure is found to be observed as impurity is incorporated into ZnO. This has been explained on the basis of the substitution of dopant at Zn{sup 2+} and O{sup −} sites rearranging the lattice. Optical absorption measurements and PL studies reflect a change in band gap of ZnO by impurity adsorption. Most of the cases, the band gap is found to be broadened which has been explained in the line of Moss-Burstein effect. The excitonic emission in ZnO is observed to blue shift supporting the above results and the defect emissions also get modified in terms of position and intensity. New PL bands observed have been assigned to the transitions related to the defect states present in the band gap of ZnO along with intrinsic defects.

  7. Enhanced charge-discharge properties of SnO2 nanocrystallites in confined carbon nanospace.

    PubMed

    Oro, Shinji; Urita, Koki; Moriguchi, Isamu

    2014-07-11

    Almost perfect embedding of SnO2 nanocrystallites in carbon nanopores was achieved by in situ synthesis using vaporized SnCl2 and silica opal-derived nanoporous carbons. The reversibility of SnO2-Sn conversion and Sn-Li alloying/de-alloying reactions was greatly enhanced by the confinement in regulated carbon nanospace. PMID:24853494

  8. Synthesis of GaN nanocrystallites by pulsed laser ablation in pure nitrogen background gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Kakumoto, Soichiro; Sugimura, Akira; Umezu, Ikurou

    2011-09-01

    GaN is a promising material not only for electronic devices but also for photocatalysts. Synthesis of GaN nanocrystal is a key issue to improve performance for these applications. In the present study, GaN nanocrystallites have been synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA), where safe and inactive pure N2 gases were used as reactive background gases. The third harmonics beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (355 nm, 10 mJ/pulse, 4 J/(cm2 pulse)) was used to ablate a sintered high purity GaN target. The deposition substrates were not heated. It was clarified that the formed GaN nanoparticles contained a hexagonal system with the wurtzite structure. The diameter of the nanocrystallites was about 10 nm, and showed only little dependence on the background gas pressure, while the porosity of the assembly of nanocrystallites and content of GaN nanocrystallites in the assembly increased with background gas pressure. Highly porous nanometer-sized GaN film obtained at higher gas pressure is considered to be candidate structures for the photocatalysts.

  9. Diamond Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On April 24, a group traveling with Diamond Tours visited StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The trip marked Diamond Tours' return to StenniSphere since Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005. About 25 business professionals from Georgia enjoyed the day's tour of America's largest rocket engine test complex, along with the many displays and exhibits at the museum. Before Hurricane Katrina, the nationwide company brought more than 1,000 visitors to StenniSphere each month. That contributed to more than 100,000 visitors from around the world touring the space center each year. In past years StenniSphere's visitor relations specialists booked Diamond Tours two or three times a week, averaging 40 to 50 people per visit. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars. For more information or to book a tour, visit http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/home/index.html and click on the StenniSphere logo; or call 800-237-1821 or 228-688-2370.

  10. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  11. Mutual relation among lattice distortion, Hall effect property and band edge cathodoluminescence of heavily-boron-doped microwave-plasma CVD diamond films homoepitaxially grown on vicinal (001) high-pressure/high-temperature-synthesized Ib substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Reona; Maida, Osamu; Ito, Toshimichi

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated properties of heavily-B-doped diamond (HBD) films homoepitaxially grown with boron-to-carbon (B/C) mole ratios ranging from 1000 to 5000 ppm in the source gas mainly by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL), and Hall effect measurements. Each HBD layer was deposited on a vicinal (001) substrate of high-pressure/high-temperature synthesized Ib-type diamond with 5° misorientation angle by means of high-power-density microwave-plasma chemical-vapor-deposition method with a source gas composed of 4% CH4 in H2 and H2-diluted B(CH3)3. XRD data indicated that the lattice constant of the B-doped layer slightly decreased for the B/C ratios≤3000 ppm while slightly increasing for that of 5000 ppm, suggesting that for the latter HBD sample a part of the incorporated B atoms behaved differently from the remaining other B atoms. By contrast the Hall data indicated that all the HBD samples had a degenerate feature only at temperatures well below room temperature (RT), above which a semiconducting feature was evident, and that the density of the degenerate holes steeply increased from 1.3×1019 to 1.2×1021 cm-3 with increases in the incorporated B density, [B], from 1.2×1020 to 5.9×1020 cm-3. This drastic change in the hole density strongly suggested the presence of a [B]-dependent impurity band. Their evident near-band-edge CL spectra taken at RT and 85 K demonstrated that radiative transition features in the HBD layers considerably varied for the B/C ratios studied. The CL peaks were consistently assigned by assuming both the presence of an impurity band and a slight bandgap shrinkage. These observed features are discussed in relation to the energy separation between the low-mobility impurity band assumed and the valence band in the high-quality HBD layer which are not merged in energy.

  12. Diamond Analyzed by Secondary Electron Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a promising semiconductor material for novel electronic applications because of its chemical stability and inertness, heat conduction properties, and so-called negative electron affinity (NEA). When a surface has NEA, electrons generated inside the bulk of the material are able to come out into the vacuum without any potential barrier (work function). Such a material would have an extremely high secondary electron emission coefficient o, very high photoelectron (quantum) yield, and would probably be an efficient field emitter. Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films have even more advantages than diamond single crystals. Their fabrication is relatively easy and inexpensive, and they can be grown with high levels of doping--consequently, they can have relatively high conductivity. Because of these properties, diamond can be used for cold cathodes and photocathodes in high-power electronics and in high-frequency and high-temperature semiconductor devices.

  13. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.

    2008-03-29

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  14. In situ formation and assembly of CdS nanocrystallites into polyhedrons on Eggshell membrane at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huilan; Xu, Jia; Chen, Jianjun; Moon, Won-Jin; Zhang, Di

    2012-01-01

    A room-temperature soakage procedure was carried out to successfully form and assemble CdS nanocrystallites into polyhedrons on the eggshell membrane (ESM). Based on the biomaterial ESM served as the reactive substrate and some ESM biomacromolecules acted as the surfactants, CdS nanocrystallites were in situ formed, further assembled into well-distributed polyhedrons, and finally performed CdS-ESM hybrid nanocomposites. This moderate bioinspired strategy would also be of great value to prepare novel functional nanocomposites.

  15. First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2013-12-14

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0 μ{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33 meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.

  16. Thermal Behaviour of Nanocomposites based on Glycerol Plasticized Thermoplastic Starch and Cellulose Nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Anupama; Kaur, Ramanpreet

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to study the thermal behaviour of cellulose nanocrystals/TPS based nanocomposites. Nanocrystalline cellulose was isolated from cotton linters using sonochemical method and characterized through WAXRD & TEM. These nanocrystals were then dispersed in glycerol plasticized starch in varying proportions and films were cast. The thermal degradation of thermoplastic starch/cellulose nanocrystallite nanocomposites was studied using TGA under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermal degradation was carried out for nanocomposites at a rate of 10 °C/min and at different rates under nitrogen atmosphere namely 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 °C/min for nanocomposites containing 10% cellulose nanocrystals. Ozawa and Flynn and Kissinger methods were used to determine the apparent activation energy of these nanocomposites. The addition of cellulose nanocrystallites produced a significant effect on the activation energy for thermal degradation of the composites materials in comparison with the matrix alone. These nanocomposites are potential applicant for food packaging applications.

  17. Luminescent silicon carbide nanocrystallites in 3C-SiC/polystyrene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. Y.; Wu, X. L.; Kong, F.; Qiu, T.; Huang, G. S.

    2005-04-01

    We report optical emission of SiC nanocrystallite films, which clearly shows the quantum confinement effect. Bulk polycrystalline 3C-SiC was first electrochemically etched and then the fabricated porous silicon carbide was ultrasonically treated in water or toluene suspension to disperse into colloidal nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images clearly show that the colloidal nanoparticles have 3C-SiC lattice structure with sizes varying from about 6nm down to below 1nm. The suspension of 3C-SiC nanocrystallites exhibits ultrabright emission with wavelengths ranging from 400to520nm when the excitation wavelength varies from 250to480nm, in accordance with the quantum confinement effect. By adding polystyrene to the toluene suspension containing SiC nanoparticles and coating the mixing solution onto a Si wafer, we obtain the SiC/polystyrene films that luminesce.

  18. Diamond cutters' grinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, B. F.

    1985-03-01

    The development of diamond tool designs is determined by the development of the technology for the synthesis of artificial diamonds. The technology of syntehsizing artificial diamonds involves the production of mono and polycrystalline diamonds and composition diamond-containing materials. High strength and thermally stable monocrystalline diamonds brands AS30 to AS80 in a size of up to 800 micrometers, and polycrystalline diamonds: black diamonds, ballas (Synthetic Fiber) in a size up to 10mm, are manufactured. Production of single-layer and double-layer diamond plates used in cutting tools is organized. The raw materials base with the constant decrease in the use of natural diamonds is the basis for the development of the manufacture of a wide array of diamond tools. New areas of applications for tools using natural diamonds, such as diamond cutters for turning high-precision parts, straightening tools, hardness gages are outlined. Diamond cutters with natural diamonds are used to grind surfaces which have exceptionally high requirements with respect to the reflecting capacity and roughness.

  19. Ionization equilibrium at the transition from valence-band to acceptor-band migration of holes in boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklonski, N. A.; Vyrko, S. A.; Poklonskaya, O. N.; Kovalev, A. I.; Zabrodskii, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    A quasi-classical model of ionization equilibrium in the p-type diamond between hydrogen-like acceptors (boron atoms which substitute carbon atoms in the crystal lattice) and holes in the valence band (v-band) is proposed. The model is applicable on the insulator side of the insulator-metal concentration phase transition (Mott transition) in p-Dia:B crystals. The densities of the spatial distributions of impurity atoms (acceptors and donors) and of holes in the crystal are considered to be Poissonian, and the fluctuations of their electrostatic potential energy are considered to be Gaussian. The model accounts for the decrease in thermal ionization energy of boron atoms with increasing concentration, as well as for electrostatic fluctuations due to the Coulomb interaction limited to two nearest point charges (impurity ions and holes). The mobility edge of holes in the v-band is assumed to be equal to the sum of the threshold energy for diffusion percolation and the exchange energy of the holes. On the basis of the virial theorem, the temperature Tj is determined, in the vicinity of which the dc band-like conductivity of holes in the v-band is approximately equal to the hopping conductivity of holes via the boron atoms. For compensation ratio (hydrogen-like donor to acceptor concentration ratio) K ≈ 0.15 and temperature Tj, the concentration of "free" holes in the v-band and their jumping (turbulent) drift mobility are calculated. Dependence of the differential energy of thermal ionization of boron atoms (at the temperature 3Tj/2) as a function of their concentration N is calculated. The estimates of the extrapolated into the temperature region close to Tj hopping drift mobility of holes hopping from the boron atoms in the charge states (0) to the boron atoms in the charge states (-1) are given. Calculations based on the model show good agreement with electrical conductivity and Hall effect measurements for p-type diamond with boron atom concentrations in the

  20. Optimizing the Growth of (111) Diamond for Diamond Based Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Eric; Godwin, Patrick; Samarth, Nitin; Snyder, David; de Las Casas, Charles; Awschalom, David D.

    Magnetometers based on nitrogen vacancy (NV) ensembles have recently achieved sub-picotesla sensitivities [Phys. Rev. X 5, 041001(2015)], putting the technique on par with SQUID and MFM magnetometry.Typically these sensors use (100) oriented diamond with NV centers forming along all four (111) crystal orientations.This allows for vector magnetometry, but is a hindrance to the absolute sensitivity. Diamond grown on (111) oriented substrates through microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(MP-CVD) provides a promising route in this context since such films can exhibit preferential orientation greater than 99% [Appl. Phys. Lett.104, 102407 (2014)]. An important challenge though is to achieve sufficiently high NV center densities required for enhancing the sensitivity of an NV ensemble magnetometer.We report systematic studies of the MP-CVD growth and characterization of (111) oriented diamond, where we vary growth temperature, methane concentration, and nitrogen doping. For each film we study the Nitrogen to NV ratio, the NV- to NV0 ratio, and alignment percentage to minimize sources of decoherence and ensure preferential alignment. From these measurements we determine the optimal growth parameters for high sensitivity, NV center ensemble scalar magnetometry. Funded by NSF-DMR.

  1. Strong green luminescence of Ni2+-doped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Lü, M.; Xü, D.; Yuan, D.; Chang, J.; Zhou, G.; Pan, M.

    ZnS nanoparticles doped with Ni2+ have been obtained by chemical co-precipitation from homogeneous solutions of zinc and nickel salt compounds, with S2- as precipitating anion, formed by decomposition of thioacetamide (TAA). The average size of particles doped with different mole ratios, estimated from the Debye-Scherrer formula, is about 2-2.5 nm. The nanoparticles could be doped with nickel during synthesis without altering the X-ray diffraction pattern. A Hitachi M-850 fluorescence spectrophotometer reveals the emission spectra of samples. The absorption spectra show that the excitation spectra of Ni-doped ZnS nanocrystallites are almost the same as those of pure ZnS nanocrystallites (λex=308-310 nm). Because a Ni2+ luminescent center is formed in ZnS nanocrystallites, the photoluminescence intensity increases with the amount of ZnS nanoparticles doped with Ni2+. Stronger and stable green-light emission (520 nm) (its intensity is about two times that of pure ZnS nanoparticles) has been observed from ZnS nanoparticles doped with Ni2+.

  2. Diamond Sheet: A new diamond tool material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Diamond sheet is termed a diamond tool material because it is not a cutting tool, but rather a new material from which a variety of different tools may be fabricated. In appearance and properties, it resembles a sheet of copper alloy with diamond abrasive dispersed throughout it. It is capable of being cut, formed, and joined by conventional methods, and subsequently used for cutting as a metal bonded diamond tool. Diamond sheet is normally made with industrial diamond as the abrasive material. The metal matrix in diamond sheet is a medium hard copper alloy which has performed well in most applications. This alloy has the capability of being made harder or softer if specific cutting conditions require it. Other alloys have also been used including a precipitation hardened aluminum alloy with very free cutting characteristics. The material is suitable for use in a variety of cutting, surfacing, and ring type tools, as well as in such mundane items as files and sandpaper. It can also be used as a bearing surface (diamond to diamond) and in wear resistant surfaces.

  3. Semiconductor nanocrystallite formation using inert gas ambient pulsed laser ablation and its application to light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Yamada, Yuka; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Makino, Toshiharu; Orii, Takaaki; Onai, Seinosuke

    1999-07-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in inert background gases can synthesize the nanoscaled silicon (Si), for studying its material properties as one of the quantum confinement effects. We report an optimized condition in Si nanocrystalline formation by the PLA in inert background gas, varying processing parameters: pulse energy and width, inert background gas pressure. The optimized process can prepare well-dispersed Si nanocrystallites without any droplets and debris. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of the processing parameters Si nanocrystallites without any droplets and debris. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of the processing parameters on transition from amorphous-like Si thin films to nanocrystallites. It was found that there is a processing window of the inert background gas pressure where the carrier confinement effects become apparent. Next, we have fabricated electroluminescent (EL), diodes with active layers of the Si nanocrystallites. The structure of the EL diodes was semitransparent platinum electrode/Si nanocrystallite layer/p-type Si/Pt electrode. We have observed visible spectra of not only green photoluminescence, but also red EL, at room temperature. Furthermore, we have found that the EL diodes showed strong nonlinear dependence of EL intensity on current density.

  4. Electrical properties of diamond nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, M.

    Nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) can potentially be used in a large variety of applications such as electrochemical electrodes, tribology, cold cathodes, and corrosion resistance. A thorough knowledge of the electrical properties of NCD films is therefore critical to understand and predict their performance in various applications. In the present work the electrical properties of NCD films were analysed using Impedance Spectroscopy and Hall Effect measurements. Impedance Spectroscopy permits to identify and single out the conduction paths within the films tested. Such conduction paths can be through grain interiors and/or grain boundaries. Hall measurements, carried out on Boron doped NCD, permits determination of the mobility of the films. Specific treatments were devised to enhance the properties of the NCD films studied. Detonation nanodiamond (DND) is becoming an increasingly interesting material. It is already used as abrasive material or component for coatings [1], but its potential applications can extend far beyond these. It is therefore essential to understand the structure and electrical properties of DND in order to exploit the full potential of this material. In the present work, electrical properties of DND were studied using Impedance Spectroscopy. The results obtained suggest that DND could be used to manufacture devices able to work as Ammonia detectors. Another major area of study in this work was ultra-violet diamond photodetectors. Using high quality CVD single-crystal diamond, UV photodetection devices were built using standard lithographic techniques. Following the application of heat treatments, the photoconductive properties of these devices were highly enhanced. The devices represent the state-of-the-art UV diamond photodetectors.

  5. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  6. Diamond bio electronics.

    PubMed

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions. PMID:19745488

  7. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  8. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  9. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P.

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  10. Diamond thin film temperature and heat-flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Yang, G. S.; Masood, A.; Fredricks, R.

    1995-01-01

    Diamond film temperature and heat-flux sensors are developed using a technology compatible with silicon integrated circuit processing. The technology involves diamond nucleation, patterning, doping, and metallization. Multi-sensor test chips were designed and fabricated to study the thermistor behavior. The minimum feature size (device width) for 1st and 2nd generation chips are 160 and 5 micron, respectively. The p-type diamond thermistors on the 1st generation test chip show temperature and response time ranges of 80-1270 K and 0.29-25 microseconds, respectively. An array of diamond thermistors, acting as heat flux sensors, was successfully fabricated on an oxidized Si rod with a diameter of 1 cm. Some problems were encountered in the patterning of the Pt/Ti ohmic contacts on the rod, due mainly to the surface roughness of the diamond film. The use of thermistors with a minimum width of 5 micron (to improve the spatial resolution of measurement) resulted in lithographic problems related to surface roughness of diamond films. We improved the mean surface roughness from 124 nm to 30 nm by using an ultra high nucleation density of 10(exp 11)/sq cm. To deposit thermistors with such small dimensions on a curved surface, a new 3-D diamond patterning technique is currently under development. This involves writing a diamond seed pattern directly on the curved surface by a computer-controlled nozzle.

  11. Enhancing the mechanical properties of single-crystal CVD diamond.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Yan, Chih-Shiue; Meng, Yufei; Lai, Joseph; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2009-09-01

    Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at high growth rates are described. CVD processes used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal CVD diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness (∼78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal CVD diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond. PMID:21832321

  12. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This methodmore » can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.« less

  13. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  14. Metallic nanocrystallites-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbon as labels for a sensitive simultaneous multianalyte electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Lishi

    2015-11-15

    This work reports on a facile, novel multianalyte electrochemical immunoassay for simultaneous detection of a-fetoprotein (AFP) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) using metal-containing nanomaterials confined in the ordered mesoporous carbon matrix (OMC-M) as labels. Well-dispersed uniform metallic nanocrystallites incorporated OMC materials were fabricated through a simple, economical, and green preparative strategy toward phenolic resol as a carbon source and metal nitrate as metal sources. The large amount of metallic nanocrystallites loading on the OMC nanomaterials, greatly amplified the detection signals, and the good biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes-chitosan retained excellent stability for the sandwich-type immunoassay. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunoassay exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of analytes, providing a better linear response range from 0.001 to 150 ng/mL for AFP and for HER-2, with a lower limit of detectionof 0.6p g/mL and 0.35 pg/mL (S/N=3), respectively. The immunosensor exhibited convenience, low cost, rapidity, good specificity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of AFP and HER-2 in real human serum samples, indicating that the developed immunoassay has the potential to find application in clinical detection of AFP and HER-2 and other tumor markers as an alternative approach. PMID:26046316

  15. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Desautels, R. D. Lierop, J. van; Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280 K) compared with that of bulk iron (∼1000 K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  16. Nano-inclusions in diamond: Evidence of diamond genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, R.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Focused Ion Beam technology (FIB) for TEM sample preparation introduced approximately 15 years ago revolutionized the application of TEM in Geosciences. For the first time, FIB enabled cutting samples for TEM use from exactly the location we are interested in. Applied to diamond investigation, this technique revealed the presence of nanometre-sized inclusions in diamond that have been simply unknown before. Nanoinclusions in diamond from different location and origin such as diamonds from the Lower and Upper Mantle, metamorphic diamonds (Kazakhstan, Erzgebirge, Bohemia), diamonds from ophiolites (Tibet, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Ural Mountains), diamonds from igneous rocks (Hawaii, Kamchatka) and impact diamonds (Popigai Crater, Siberia) have been investigated during the last 15 years. The major conclusion of all these TEM studies is, that the nanoinclusions, their phases and phase composition together with the micro- and nanostructure evidence the origin of diamond and genesis of diamond. We can discriminate Five different mechanisms of diamond genesis in nature are observed: Diamond crystallized from a high-density fluid (Upper mantle and metamorphic diamond). Diamond crystallized from carbonatitic melt (Lower mantle diamond). Diamond precipitates from a metal alloy melt (Diamond from ophiolites). Diamond crystallized by gas phase condensation or chemical vapour condensation (CVD) (Lavas from Kamchatka, xenoliths in Hawaiian lavas). Direct transformation of graphite into diamond.

  17. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOEpatents

    Lundin, Ralph L.; Stewart, Delbert D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond.

  18. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOEpatents

    Lundin, R.L.; Stewart, D.D.; Evans, C.J.

    1992-04-14

    An apparatus is described for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond. 1 figs.

  19. Ab initio study of electron-phonon coupling in boron-doped SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margine, E. R.; Blase, X.

    2008-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to study the electronic structure, lattice dynamics, and electron-phonon coupling in boron-doped silicon carbide in the cubic phase. Our results provide evidence that the recently discovered superconducting transition in boron-doped silicon carbide can be explained within a standard phonon-mediated mechanism. For the same doping rate, the coupling constant λ in B-doped SiC is very close to that of doped diamond and twice as large as that of B-doped silicon. However, doped silicon carbide differs from its diamond counterpart as most of the electron-phonon coupling originates from low energy vibrational modes.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium oxide nanocrystallites and probing the vacancy-type defects through positron annihilation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anjan; Mandal, Atis Chandra; Roy, Soma; Prashanth, Pendem; Ahamed, Sk Izaz; Kar, Subhrasmita; Prasad, Mithun S.; Nambissan, P. M. G.

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium oxide nanocrystallites exhibit certain abnormal characteristics when compared to those of other wide band gap oxide semiconductors in the sense they are most prone to water absorption and formation of a hydroxide layer on the surface. The problem can be rectified by heating and pure nanocrystallites can be synthesized with controllable sizes. Inevitably the defect properties are distinctly divided between two stages, the one with the hydroxide layer (region I) and the other after the removal of the layer by annealing (region II). The lattice parameters, the optical band gap and even the positron annihilation characteristics are conspicuous by their distinct behavior in the two stages of the surface configurations of nanoparticles. While region I was specific with the formation of positronium-hydrogen complexes that drastically altered the defect-specific positron lifetimes, pick-off annihilation of orthopositronium atoms marked region II. The vacancy clusters within the nanocrystallites also trapped positrons. They agglomerated due to the effect of the higher temperatures and resulted in the growth of the nanocrystallites. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopic measurements supported these findings and all the more indicated the trapping of positrons additionally into the neutral divacancies and negatively charged trivacancies. This is apart from the Mg2+ monovacancies which acted as the dominant trapping centers for positrons.

  1. Enhancement of the Si p-n diode NIR photoresponse by embedding β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevlyagin, A. V.; Goroshko, D. L.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Galkin, K. N.; Galkin, N. G.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    By using solid phase epitaxy of thin Fe films and molecular beam epitaxy of Si, a p+-Si/p-Si/β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites/n-Si(111) diode structure was fabricated. Transmission electron microscopy data confirmed a well-defined multilayered structure with embedded nanocrystallites of two typical sizes: 3-4 and 15-20 nm, and almost coherent epitaxy of the nanocrystallites with the Si matrix. The diode at zero bias conditions exhibited a current responsivity of 1.7 mA/W, an external quantum efficiency of about 0.2%, and a specific detectivity of 1.2 × 109 cm × Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 1300 nm at room temperature. In the avalanche mode, the responsivity reached up to 20 mA/W (2% in terms of efficiency) with a value of avalanche gain equal to 5. The data obtained indicate that embedding of β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites into the depletion region of the Si p-n junction results in expansion of the spectral sensitivity up to 1600 nm and an increase of the photoresponse by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with a conventional Si p-n junction. Thereby, fabricated structure combines advantage of the silicon photodiode functionality and simplicity with near infrared light detection capability of β-FeSi2.

  2. Enhancement of the Si p-n diode NIR photoresponse by embedding β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Shevlyagin, A. V.; Goroshko, D. L.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Galkin, K. N.; Galkin, N. G.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    By using solid phase epitaxy of thin Fe films and molecular beam epitaxy of Si, a p+-Si/p-Si/β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites/n-Si(111) diode structure was fabricated. Transmission electron microscopy data confirmed a well-defined multilayered structure with embedded nanocrystallites of two typical sizes: 3–4 and 15–20 nm, and almost coherent epitaxy of the nanocrystallites with the Si matrix. The diode at zero bias conditions exhibited a current responsivity of 1.7 mA/W, an external quantum efficiency of about 0.2%, and a specific detectivity of 1.2 × 109 cm × Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 1300 nm at room temperature. In the avalanche mode, the responsivity reached up to 20 mA/W (2% in terms of efficiency) with a value of avalanche gain equal to 5. The data obtained indicate that embedding of β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites into the depletion region of the Si p-n junction results in expansion of the spectral sensitivity up to 1600 nm and an increase of the photoresponse by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with a conventional Si p-n junction. Thereby, fabricated structure combines advantage of the silicon photodiode functionality and simplicity with near infrared light detection capability of β-FeSi2. PMID:26434582

  3. Enhancement of the Si p-n diode NIR photoresponse by embedding β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Shevlyagin, A V; Goroshko, D L; Chusovitin, E A; Galkin, K N; Galkin, N G; Gutakovskii, A K

    2015-01-01

    By using solid phase epitaxy of thin Fe films and molecular beam epitaxy of Si, a p(+)-Si/p-Si/β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites/n-Si(111) diode structure was fabricated. Transmission electron microscopy data confirmed a well-defined multilayered structure with embedded nanocrystallites of two typical sizes: 3-4 and 15-20 nm, and almost coherent epitaxy of the nanocrystallites with the Si matrix. The diode at zero bias conditions exhibited a current responsivity of 1.7 mA/W, an external quantum efficiency of about 0.2%, and a specific detectivity of 1.2 × 10(9) cm × Hz(1/2)/W at a wavelength of 1300 nm at room temperature. In the avalanche mode, the responsivity reached up to 20 mA/W (2% in terms of efficiency) with a value of avalanche gain equal to 5. The data obtained indicate that embedding of β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites into the depletion region of the Si p-n junction results in expansion of the spectral sensitivity up to 1600 nm and an increase of the photoresponse by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with a conventional Si p-n junction. Thereby, fabricated structure combines advantage of the silicon photodiode functionality and simplicity with near infrared light detection capability of β-FeSi2. PMID:26434582

  4. Electrically Conductive Diamond Membrane for Electrochemical Separation Processes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-07-20

    Electrochemically switchable selective membranes play an important role in selective filtration processes such as water desalination, industrial waste treatment, and hemodialysis. Currently, membranes for these purposes need to be optimized in terms of electrical conductivity and stability against fouling and corrosion. In this paper, we report the fabrication of boron-doped diamond membrane by template diamond growth on quartz fiber filters. The morphology and quality of the diamond coating are characterized via SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The membrane is heavily boron doped (>10(21) cm(-3)) with >3 V potential window in aqueous electrolyte. By applying a membrane potential against the electrolyte, the redox active species can be removed via flow-through electrolysis. Compared to planar diamond electrodes, the ∼250 times surface enlargement provided by such a membrane ensures an effective removal of target chemicals from the input electrolyte. The high stability of diamond enables the membrane to not only work at high membrane bias but also to be self-cleaning via in situ electrochemical oxidation. Therefore, we believe that the diamond membrane presented in this paper will provide a solution to future selective filtration applications especially in extreme conditions. PMID:27396448

  5. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  6. Plasma and ion beam enhanced chemical vapour deposition of diamond and diamond-like carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongji

    WC-Co cutting tools are widely used in the machining industry. The application of diamond coatings on the surfaces of the tools would prolong the cutting lifetime and improves the manufacturing efficiency. However, direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond coatings on WC-Co suffer from severe premature adhesion failure due to interfacial graphitization induced by the binder phase Co. In this research, a combination of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrogen (H2) plasma pretreatments and a novel double interlayer of carbide forming element (CFE)/Al were developed to enhance diamond nucleation and adhesion. The results showed that both the pretreatments and interlayers were effective in forming continuous and adhesive nanocrystalline diamond coatings. The method is a promising replacement of the hazardous Murakami's regent currently used in WC-Co pretreatment with a more environmental friendly approach. Apart from coatings, diamond can be fabricated into other forms of nanostructures, such as nanotips. In this work, it was demonstrated that oriented diamond nanotip arrays can be fabricated by ion beam etching of as-grown CVD diamond. The orientation of diamond nanotips can be controlled by adjusting the direction of incident ion beam. This method overcomes the limits of other techniques in producing nanotip arrays on large areas with controlled orientation. Oriented diamond nano-tip arrays have been used to produce anisotropic frictional surface, which is successfully used in ultra-precision positioning systems. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) has many properties comparable to diamond. In this thesis, the preparation of alpha-C:H thin films by end-Hall (EH) ion source and the effects of ion energy and nitrogen doping on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited thin films were investigated. The results have demonstrated that smooth and uniform alpha-C:H and alpha-C:H:N films with large area and reasonably high hardness and Young's modulus can be

  7. Multilayer diamond coated WC tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, W.D.; Jagannaham, K.; Narayan, J.

    1995-12-31

    To increase adhesion of diamond coatings, a multilayer structure was developed. The multilayer diamond coating consisted of a first discontinuous diamond layer, an interposing layer, and a top continuous diamond layer. The diamond layer was grown on WC substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition and the interposing layer was grown by pulsed laser deposition. Machining tests were used to characterize adhesion properties of the multilayer diamond coatings on WC(Co) substrates. Results indicate that diamond coatings exhibit good adhesion on the WC tool substrates. The wear resistance of the WC tool is improved significantly by the diamond coatings.

  8. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays.

    PubMed

    Varney, Michael W; Aslam, Dean M; Janoudi, Abed; Chan, Ho-Yin; Wang, Donna H

    2011-01-01

    Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM). The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA), due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors. PMID:25586924

  9. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Varney, Michael W.; Aslam, Dean M.; Janoudi, Abed; Chan, Ho-Yin; Wang, Donna H.

    2011-01-01

    Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM). The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA), due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors. PMID:25586924

  10. Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Silver Nanocrystallites is Dependent on Surface Coatings and Cell Types

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, Anil K; Pelletier, Dale A; Wang, Wei; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2012-01-01

    Due to their unique antimicrobial properties silver nanocrystallites have garnered substantial recognition and are used extensively in biomedical applications such as wound dressing, surgical instruments and as bone substitute material. They are also released into unintended locations such as the environment or biosphere. Therefore it is imperative to understand the potential interactions, fate and transport of nanoparticles with environmental biotic systems. Although numerous factors including the composition, size, shape, surface charge and capping molecule of nanoparticles are known to influence the cell cytotoxicity, our results demonstrate for the first time that surface coatings are a major determinant in eliciting the potential cytotoxicity and cell interactions of silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, silver nanocrystallites with nearly uniform size and shape distribution but with different surface coatings, imparting overall high negativity to high positivity, were synthesized. These nanoparticles were poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride-Ag, biogenic-Ag, colloidal-Ag (uncoated) and oleate-Ag with zeta potentials +45 5 mV, -12 2 mV, -42 5 mV and -45 5 mV respectively; the particles were thoroughly purified so as to avoid false cytotoxicity interpretations. A systematic investigation on the cytotoxic effects, cellular response and membrane damage caused by these four different silver nanoparticles were evaluated using multiple toxicity measurements on mouse macrophage (RAW-264.7) and lung epithelial (C-10) cell lines. From a toxicity perspective, our results clearly indicated that the cytotoxicity was depend on various factors such as synthesis procedure, surface coat or surface charge and the cell-type for the different silver nanoparticles that were investigated. Poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride -Ag was found to be the most toxic, followed by biogenic-Ag and oleate-Ag, whereas uncoated-Ag was found to be least toxic to both

  11. Diamond nucleation using polyethene

    DOEpatents

    Morell, Gerardo; Makarov, Vladimir; Varshney, Deepak; Weiner, Brad

    2013-07-23

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  12. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  13. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Messier, R.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  14. The use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewska, D.; Karpienko, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers. Two kinds of diamond surfaces were used: undoped diamond film and boron- doped diamond film. They were deposited on glass plates as well as silicon layers. A conventionally used mirror was used as a reference layer. Diamond films were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (μPE CVD) system. Measurements were performed using two superluminescent diodes (SLD) with wavelengths of 1300 mm and 1550 mm. The optimal conditions for each layers were examined: the required wavelength of the light source and the length of Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity. Metrological parameters of Fabry-Perot interferometer with different mirrors were compared. The presented thin diamond films may be an interesting alternative to the commonly used reflective surfaces.

  15. Very High Efficiency, Miniaturized, Long-Lived Alpha Particle Power Source Using Diamond Devices for Extreme Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai U. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source that converts a-particle energy into electricity by coulomb collision in doped diamond films is described. Alpha particle decay from curium-244 creates electron-hole pairs by free- ing electrons and holes inside the crystal lattice in N- and P-doped diamond films. Ohmic contacts provide electrical connection to an electronic device. Due to the built-in electric field at the rectifying junction across the hT- and P-doped diamond films, the free electrons are constrained to traveling in generally one direction. This one direction then supplies electrons in a manner similar to that of a battery. The radioactive curium layer may be disposed on diamond films for even distribution of a-particle radiation. The resulting power source may be mounted on a diamond substrate that serves to insulate structures below the diamond substrate from a-particle emission. Additional insulation or isolation may be provided in order to prevent damage from a-particle collision. N-doped silicon may be used instead of N-doped diamond.

  16. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    diamond's exceptional properties for quantum information processing [2], a topic on which there have been many recent papers, and where a diamond colour centre single photon source is already commercially available. Biomedical applications of diamond are recognised, partly tribological and partly electrochemical, but lie outside the present group of papers. Processing and controlling diamond surfaces and interfaces with other materials in their environment are critical steps en route to exploitation. Boron-doped diamond has already found application in electro-analysis and in the bulk oxidation of dissolved species in solution [3]. Energy-related applications—ranging from high-power electronics [3] to a potential first wall of fusion reactors [4]—are further exciting potential applications. Even small and ugly diamonds have value. Their mechanical properties [5] dominate, with significant niche applications such as thermal sinks. The major applications for diamond to date exploit only a fraction of diamond's special properties: visual for status diamonds, and mechanical for working diamonds. Diamond physics reaches well beyond the usual laboratory, to the geological diamond formation processes in the Earth's mantle. Characterization of natural gem diamonds [6, 7] is one part of the detective story that allows us to understand the conditions under which they formed. It was only half a century ago that the scientific and technological challenges of diamond synthesis were met systematically. Today, most of the recent research on diamond has concentrated on synthetics, whether created using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) techniques or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The HPHT synthesis of diamond has advanced dramatically [8, 9] to the extent that dislocation birefringence [10] can be largely eliminated. In silicon technology, the elimination of dislocations was a major step in microelectronics. Now, even diamond can be synthesised containing virtually no

  17. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  18. Positron annihilation spectroscopic studies of Mn substitution-induced cubic to tetragonal transformation in ZnFe2-xMnxO4 (x = 0.0-2.0) spinel nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyriac, Jincemon; Mundiyaniyil Thankachan, Rahul; Raneesh, B.; Nambissan, P. M. G.; Sanyal, D.; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2015-12-01

    The replacement of cations at the B-sites in the spinel ferrite ZnFe2O4 by Mn3+ ions brings in several interesting changes, the most striking among them being a transformation from the spinel cubic structure to a body-centered tetragonal one. Concomitantly, there are variations in the nanocrystallite sizes and also in the lattice parameters. These are examined through high-precision X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopic analysis. A more interesting aspect is the success of positron annihilation spectroscopy comprising of the measurements of positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening measurements in understanding the effects of cation replacement and the resultant generation of vacancy-type defects. There are definite changes in the positron lifetimes and intensities which show positron trapping in trivacancy-type defect clusters and the nanocrystallite surfaces. The presence of ortho-positronium atoms within the extended intercrystallite region is also identified, although in small concentrations. The cubic to tetragonal transformation is indicated through definite decrease in the values of the positron lifetimes. We also performed a model analysis to predict the expected effect of substitution on the positron lifetime in the bulk of the sample and the experimentally obtained positron lifetimes significantly differed, indirectly hinting at the possibility of a structural transformation. Finally, Mössbauer spectroscopic studies have indicated a ferromagnetic nature for one of the samples, i.e. the one with Mn3+ doping concentration x = 0.4, which incidentally had the lowest crystallite size ~10 nm.

  19. Diamond Ranch High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsky, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Highlights award-winning Diamond Ranch High School (California) that was designed and built on a steep site around Los Angeles considered unsatisfactory for building due to its unstable soils. Building organization is discussed, and photos are provided. (GR)

  20. Amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1998-06-09

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  1. PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS

    DOEpatents

    Dugdale, R.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

  2. Diamond nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Tokano, Yuji; Miyamoto, Iwao; Komuro, Masanori; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and oxygen gas reactive ion etching (RIE) were used to fabricate fine patterns in a diamond mould. To prevent charge-up during EB lithography, thin conductive polymer was spin-coated over the PMMA resist, yielding dented line patterns 2 μ m wide and 270 nm deep. The diamond mould was pressed into PMMA on a silicon substrate heated to 130, 150 and 170ºC at 43.6, 65.4 and 87.2 MPa. All transferred PMMA convex line patterns were 2 μ m wide. Imprinted pattern depth increased with rising temperature and pressure. PMMA patterns on diamond were transferred by the diamond mould at 150ºC and 65.4 MPa, yielding convex line patterns 2 μ m wide and 200 nm high. Direct aluminium and copper patterns were obtained using the diamond mould at room temperature and 130.8 MPa. The diamond mould is thus useful for replicating patterns on PMMA and metals.

  3. High-mobility diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstrass, Maurice I.

    1994-04-01

    Recent improvements in the CVD diamond deposition process have made possible the fabrication of diamond photoconductive diodes with carrier mobility and lifetime exceeding the values typical of natural gemstones. One of the more surprising recent results is that the best room-temperature carrier properties have been measured on polycrystalline diamond films. The combined electron- hole mobility, as measured by transient photoconductivity at low carrier densities, is 4000 square centimeters per volt per second at electric field of 200 volts per centimeter and is comparable to that of the best single-crystal IIa natural diamonds. Carrier lifetimes measured under the same conditions are 150 picoseconds for the CVD diamond films. The collection distance within the diamond films, at the highest applied fields, is comparable to the average film grain size, indicative of little or no carrier scattering at grain boundaries. A comparison of SIMS measurements with electrical results suggest that impurity incorporation in the near grain boundary regions are responsible for controlling the carrier mobility.

  4. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp(2) carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes. PMID:25404788

  5. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Heidi B.

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes. PMID:25404788

  6. Growth of CdS nanocrystallites on graphene oxide Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanam, Pavan K.; Singh, Gulbagh; Divakar Botcha, V.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.; Major, S. S.

    2012-08-01

    Large area GO-Cd composite Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers were transferred onto Si substrate by introducing Cd2+ ions into the subphase. The changes in the behaviour of the Langmuir monolayer isotherm in the presence of Cd2+ ions are attributed to changes in the microstructure and density of the GO sheets on the subphase surface. The uptake of Cd onto the GO monolayers and the effect of subsequent sulphidation were investigated by AFM, FTIR, Raman, XPS and HRTEM techniques. The incorporation of Cd into the GO monolayers causes some overlapping of sheets and extensive formation of wrinkles. Sulphidation of the GO-Cd sheets results in the formation of uniformly distributed CdS nanocrystallites on the entire basal plane of the GO monolayers. The de-bonding of Cd with oxygen functional groups results in a reduction of the wrinkles. The GO sheets function primarily as a platform for the interaction of metal ions with oxygen functionalities and their structure and characteristic features are not affected by either uptake of Cd or formation of CdS.

  7. Growth of CdS nanocrystallites on graphene oxide Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers.

    PubMed

    Narayanam, Pavan K; Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V Divakar; Sutar, D S; Talwar, S S; Srinivasa, R S; Major, S S

    2012-08-17

    Large area GO-Cd composite Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers were transferred onto Si substrate by introducing Cd(2+) ions into the subphase. The changes in the behaviour of the Langmuir monolayer isotherm in the presence of Cd(2+) ions are attributed to changes in the microstructure and density of the GO sheets on the subphase surface. The uptake of Cd onto the GO monolayers and the effect of subsequent sulphidation were investigated by AFM, FTIR, Raman, XPS and HRTEM techniques. The incorporation of Cd into the GO monolayers causes some overlapping of sheets and extensive formation of wrinkles. Sulphidation of the GO-Cd sheets results in the formation of uniformly distributed CdS nanocrystallites on the entire basal plane of the GO monolayers. The de-bonding of Cd with oxygen functional groups results in a reduction of the wrinkles. The GO sheets function primarily as a platform for the interaction of metal ions with oxygen functionalities and their structure and characteristic features are not affected by either uptake of Cd or formation of CdS. PMID:22828441

  8. Structure and optical absorption properties of NiTiO3 nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Wei; Yuan, Jin-Pei; Gao, Xiao-Mei; Liang, Er-Qian; Wang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Nickel titanate (NiTiO3) nanocrystallites are synthesized via a solid-state reaction from a precursor prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. Ilmenite-structural NiTiO3 consists of alternating layers of NiO6 and TiO6 octahedra. It not only strongly absorbs ultraviolet light (wavelength <360 nm) but also selectively absorbs visible light mainly in a wavelength range of 420-540 nm and above 700 nm. The synthetic NiTiO3 is a direct-gap semiconducting material with a band gap of 3.00 eV and has obvious absorbance peaks at 448, 502, and 743 nm, corresponding to the photon energies of 2.77, 2.47, and 1.67 eV, respectively. Nevertheless, NiTiO3 does not exhibit obvious photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue in water. It is proposed that the visible light absorbance peaks of NiTiO3 mainly originate from the Ni: d → d charge-transfer transitions within its valence band. NiTiO3 has wide energy gaps from the hybridized Ni 3 d and O 2 p orbitals to the Ti 3 d orbitals, which block both Ni2+ → Ti4+ and O2- → Ti4+ charge-transfer transitions between valence band and conduction band, and thus baffle its photocatalytic performance.

  9. Cryotribology of diamond and graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Yukikazu; Ashaboglu, A.F.; Rabinowicz, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental study was carried out on the tribological behavior of materials of interest in cryogenic applications, focusing on diamond and graphite. Both natural diamond (referred in the text as diamond) and chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) diamond (CVD-diamond) were used. The experiment was carried out using a pin-on-disk tribometer capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures, from 4.2 to 293 K. Two basic scenarios of testing were used: (1) frictional coefficient ({mu}) vs velocity (v) characteristics at constant temperatures; (2) {mu} vs temperature (T) behavior at fixed sliding speeds. For diamond/CVD-diamond, graphite/CVD-diamond, stainless steel/CVD-diamond pairs, {mu}`s are virtually velocity independent. For each of diamond/graphite, alumina/graphite, and graphite/graphite pairs, the {partial_derivative}{mu}/{partial_derivative}v characteristic is favorable, i.e., positive. For diamond/CVD-diamond and graphite/CVD-diamond pairs, {mu}`s are nearly temperature independent between in the range 77 - 293 K. Each {mu} vs T plot for pin materials sliding on graphite disks has a peak at a temperature in the range 100 - 200 K.

  10. Large improvement of phosphorus incorporation efficiency in n-type chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtani, Ryota; Yamamoto, Takashi; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2014-12-08

    Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a promising way to generate n-type, e.g., phosphorus-doped, diamond layers for the fabrication of electronic components, which can operate at extreme conditions. However, a deeper understanding of the doping process is lacking and low phosphorus incorporation efficiencies are generally observed. In this work, it is shown that systematically changing the internal design of a non-commercial chemical vapor deposition chamber, used to grow diamond layers, leads to a large increase of the phosphorus doping efficiency in diamond, produced in this device, without compromising its electronic properties. Compared to the initial reactor design, the doping efficiency is about 100 times higher, reaching 10%, and for a very broad doping range, the doping efficiency remains highly constant. It is hypothesized that redesigning the deposition chamber generates a higher flow of active phosphorus species towards the substrate, thereby increasing phosphorus incorporation in diamond and reducing deposition of phosphorus species at reactor walls, which additionally reduces undesirable memory effects.

  11. Large improvement of phosphorus incorporation efficiency in n-type chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Ryota; Yamamoto, Takashi; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a promising way to generate n-type, e.g., phosphorus-doped, diamond layers for the fabrication of electronic components, which can operate at extreme conditions. However, a deeper understanding of the doping process is lacking and low phosphorus incorporation efficiencies are generally observed. In this work, it is shown that systematically changing the internal design of a non-commercial chemical vapor deposition chamber, used to grow diamond layers, leads to a large increase of the phosphorus doping efficiency in diamond, produced in this device, without compromising its electronic properties. Compared to the initial reactor design, the doping efficiency is about 100 times higher, reaching 10%, and for a very broad doping range, the doping efficiency remains highly constant. It is hypothesized that redesigning the deposition chamber generates a higher flow of active phosphorus species towards the substrate, thereby increasing phosphorus incorporation in diamond and reducing deposition of phosphorus species at reactor walls, which additionally reduces undesirable memory effects.

  12. Diamond nanoelectromechanical resonators: Dissipation and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, Matthias

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) have become a viable commercial technology and are becoming more and more prevalent in research applications. Through miniaturization, the mechanical response to external sources becomes ever more sensitive. This transduction, coupled to an electrical readout circuit, results in unprecedented sensitivity. This thesis examines dissipation in diamond NEMS resonators in the MHz to GHz range. NCD (Nano-crystalline diamond) has extraordinary properties that make it an intriguing material to study. To begin with, the mechanical hardness allows for a boost in resonance frequency, but beyond that, boron-doped diamond also shows extraordinary electrical behavior. Although scaling benefits speed and sensitivity, dissipation increases dramatically with miniaturization, negating some of the gains in sensitivity. The dissipative mechanisms at play in the MHz range are identified at high temperatures. It is found that extrinsic dissipation mechanisms, mainly circuit and clamping losses, can limit the quality factor (inverse of the dissipation). Furthermore, due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of NEMS, surface defects become significant at the nano-scale. For the first time, quantum dissipation due to assisted phonon tunneling of two level systems is observed in diamond NEMS resonators at millikelvin temperatures. Through scaling, it is shown that the low temperature behavior is universal for a broad range of MHz resonators, including silicon and gallium arsenide, as well as graphene and carbon-nanotubes. Beyond the mechanical response, the superconducting properties of highly boron-doped diamond (BDD) are studied. It is found that the critical temperature of 3.3 K for the thin-film is maintained at the nano-scale. The high critical field, on the order of 3 T for thin-films, is strongly suppressed, already at the micro-scale. The zero resistance state is compromised with fields as low as 0.1 T for submicron wide constrictions. It is known

  13. Electric-field-driven hole carriers and superconductivity in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Rhim, S. H.; Sugiyama, A.; Sano, K.; Akiyama, T.; Ito, T.; Weinert, M.; Freeman, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    First-principles calculations of electric-field-driven superconductivity at the hydrogenated diamond (110) surface are presented. While the hydrogens on the surface effectively maintain the intrinsic sp3 covalent nature of diamond, the hole carriers induced by an external negative electric field (E-field) lead to a metallic surface region. Importantly, the concentration of hole carriers, confined within a few carbon layers of thickness ˜5-10 Å below the surface, exceeds 1021 cm-3, which is larger than the critical hole density responsible for superconductivity in the boron-doped diamond, while the calculated electron-phonon coupling constants are comparable in magnitude, suggesting the possibility of superconductivity with enhanced critical field.

  14. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  15. Quantifying selective alignment of ensemble nitrogen-vacancy centers in (111) diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Kosuke; Ozawa, Hayato; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Hatano, Mutsuko; Mizuochi, Norikazu

    2015-11-09

    Selective alignment of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is an important technique towards its applications. Quantification of the alignment ratio is necessary to design the optimized diamond samples. However, this is not a straightforward problem for dense ensemble of the NV centers. We estimate the alignment ratio of ensemble NV centers along the [111] direction in (111) diamond by optically detected magnetic resonance measurements. Diamond films deposited by N{sub 2} doped chemical vapor deposition have NV center densities over 1 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3} and alignment ratios over 75%. Although spin coherence time (T{sub 2}) is limited to a few μs by electron spins of nitrogen impurities, the combination of the selective alignment and the high density can be a possible way to optimize NV-containing diamond samples for the sensing applications.

  16. High performance hydrogen-terminated diamond field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Stephen A. O.

    Diamond provides extreme properties which make it suitable as a new substrate material for high performance electronics. It has the potential to provide both high frequency and high power performance while operating in extreme environments such as elevated temperature or exposed to corrosive chemicals or radiation. Research to date has shown the potential of diamond for this purpose with hydrogen-terminated diamond surface channel transistors already showing promise in terms of high frequency operation. The inherent instability of using atmospheric molecules to induce a p-type doping at this hydrogen-terminated diamond surface has so far limited power performance and robustness of operation. This work reports upon the scaling of surface channel hydrogen-terminated transistors with FET gate lengths of 250 nm and 120 nm showing performance comparable to other devices published to date. The gate length was then scaled for the first time to sub-100 nm dimensions with a 50 nm gate length FET fabricated giving record high-frequency performance with a fT of 53 GHz. An adapted fabrication procedure was developed for this project with special attention paid to the volatility of the particles upon the diamond surface. Equivalent RF circuit models were extracted for each gate length and analysed in detail. Work was then undertaken to investigate a more stable alternative to the atmospheric induced doping effect with alternative electron accepting materials being deposited upon the hydrogen-terminated diamond surface. The as yet untested organic material F16CuPc was deposited on to hydrogen-terminated diamond and demonstrated its ability to encapsulate and preserve the atmospheric induced sub-surface conductivity at room temperature. For the first time an inorganic material was also investigated as a potential encapsulation for the hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, MoO3 was chosen due to its high electron affinity and like F16CuPc also showed the ability to preserve and

  17. Making Diamond in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the graphite to diamond transformation and a phase diagram for carbon. Describes high temperature-higher pressure experimental apparatus and growth of diamonds from seed crystals. Reviews properties of the diamond which suggest uses for the synthetic product. Illustrations with text. (GH)

  18. Diamond collecting in northern Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of numerous diamond-bearing kimberlite diatremes in the N Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming is of both scientific and economic interest. Species recovered from heavy-mineral concentrates include Cr-diopside, spinel, Mg-ilmenite, pyrope and diamond. A nodule tentatively identified as a graphite-diamond eclogite was also found. -G.W.R.

  19. Films and Disperse Materials Based on Diamond-Like and Related Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gun'ko, V. M.; Mikhalovsky, S. V.; Mikhalovska, L. I.; Tomlins, P.; Field, S.; Teer, D. G.; Fitzgerald, S.; Fucassi, F.; Bogatyrev, V. M.; Semikina, T. V.; Turanska, S. P.; Borysenko, M. V.; Turov, V. V.; Gorbyk, P. P.

    Structural, adsorption, mechanical and other properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, ultradisperse diamonds and porous diamond compacts were studied in comparison with Ti, TiO X , TiN X , TiC, Zr, ZrO X , ZrN X , ZrC, SiO2, graphite-like carbon film and graphitised carbon black. Control of the properties of DLC materials by doping or surface modification, high mechanical characteristics and tribological behaviour, chemical passivity, biocompatibility and nontoxicity allow the use of these materials in industry and medicine.

  20. High fraction of substitutional phosphorus in a (100) diamond epilayer with low surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinault-Thaury, M.-A.; Berini, B.; Stenger, I.; Chikoidze, E.; Lusson, A.; Jomard, F.; Chevallier, J.; Barjon, J.

    2012-05-01

    For high power electronics, diamond is a promising semiconductor with phosphorus being the current substitutional donor. However, up to now, in (100) oriented grown diamond, only a small fraction of phosphorus atoms is incorporated in substitutional sites (<30%) and the epilayer surface exhibits macrosteps. In this work, we present a (100) phosphorus-doped diamond epilayer where ˜100% of the phosphorus atoms are incorporated in substitutional sites. The film exhibits a low surface roughness (RMS = 0.5 nm). Our epilayer is conductive (ρ = 5.0 × 106 Ω . cm at 300 K) and neutral phosphorus are detected in infrared absorption.

  1. Covalent attachment of catalyst molecules to conductive diamond: CO2 reduction using "smart" electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shu A; Ruther, Rose E; Zhang, Linghong; Franking, Ryan A; Hamers, Robert J; Berry, John F

    2012-09-26

    We report here covalent attachment of a catalytically active cobalt complex onto boron-doped, p-type conductive diamond. Peripheral acetylene groups were appended on a cobalt porphyrin complex, and azide-alkyne cycloaddition was used for covalent linking to a diamond surface decorated with alkyl azides. The functionalized surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, and the catalytic activity was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and FTIR. The catalyst-modified diamond surfaces were used as "smart" electrodes exhibiting good stability and electrocatalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of CO(2) to CO in acetonitrile solution. PMID:22963046

  2. Zr/oxidized diamond interface for high power Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Traoré, A. Muret, P.; Fiori, A.; Eon, D.; Gheeraert, E.; Pernot, J.

    2014-02-03

    High forward current density of 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} (at 6 V) and a breakdown field larger than 7.7 MV/cm for diamond diodes with a pseudo-vertical architecture, are demonstrated. The power figure of merit is above 244 MW/cm{sup 2} and the relative standard deviation of the reverse current density over 83 diodes is 10% with a mean value of 10{sup −9} A/cm{sup 2}. These results are obtained with zirconium as Schottky contacts on the oxygenated (100) oriented surface of a stack comprising an optimized lightly boron doped diamond layer on a heavily boron doped one, epitaxially grown on a Ib substrate. The origin of such performances are discussed.

  3. Raman and photoluminescence spectra of two-dimensional nanocrystallites of monolayer WS2 and WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Lin, Miao-Ling; Tan, Qing-Hai; Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-06-01

    Defects strongly modify optical properties in pristine and nanostructured two-dimensional (2D) materials. The ion implantation technique can be used to gradually introduce defects in semiconductor to obtain nanocrystallites (NCs) with different domain sizes. Here, we present a detailed study on the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of 2D NCs of monolayer WS2 (1L WS2) and 1L WSe2 prepared by ion implantation. With increasing ion dosages, both {{{E}}}\\prime and {{{A}}}1\\prime modes of 1L WS2 exhibit a downshift in frequency and an asymmetrical broadening toward lower frequency, while the {{{A}}}1\\prime mode in 1L WSe2 NCs exhibits an opposite behavior, showing asymmetrical broadening and peak shift toward higher frequency. This behavior is well understood by phonon quantum confinement of the out-of-plane optical branch whose frequency displays a minimum at Γ in pristine 1L WSe2. After the ion implantation, phonons from the Brillouin zone boundary are revealed in the Raman spectra, and the corresponding assignments are identified by resonant Raman spectra at low temperature. The defects can act as trapping centers of free carriers, which result in a sharp decrease of photoluminescence (PL) emission from A exciton with increasing ion dosage. The PL peak from A-exciton in both 1L WS2 and 1L WSe2 NCs blueshifts with increasing the ion dosage due to the quantum confinement effect of smaller NC size. The ion-implantation results in a new emission peak of defect-bound neutral excitons below the A-exciton peak in both 1L WS2 and 1L WSe2 NCs. Its relative intensity to the A exciton increases with increasing the ion dosage and finally vanishes along with the A exciton. These results offer a route toward tailoring the optical properties of 2D materials by controlling the size of 2D NCs.

  4. Hydrogen adsorption in the series of carbon nanostructures: Graphenes-graphene nanotubes-nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Kirichenko, A. N.; Tat'yanin, E. V.

    2016-07-01

    A comparative analysis of hydrogen absorption capability is performed for the first time for three types of carbon nanostructures: graphenes, oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs), and pyrocarbon nanocrystallites (PCNs) synthesized in the pores of TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with mean diameters ( D m) of 50 and 90 nm, using methane as the pyrolized gas. The morphology of the carbon nanostructures is studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen adsorption is investigated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in combination with mass-spectrometry. It is shown that only OCNTGs can adsorb and store hydrogen, the desorption of which under atmospheric pressure occurs at a temperature of around 175°C. Hydrogen adsorption by OCNTGs is quantitatively determined and found to be about 1.5% of their mass. Applying certain assumptions, the relationship between the mass of carbon required for the formation of single-wall OCNTGs in membrane pores and the surface area of pores is established. Numerical factor Ψ = m dep/ m calc, where m dep is the actual mass of carbon deposited upon the formation of OCNTGs and mcalc is the calculated mass of carbon necessary for the formation of OCNTGs is introduced. It is found that the dependence of specific hydrogen adsorption on the magnitude of the factor has a maximum at Ψ = 1.2, and OCNTGs can adsorb and store hydrogen in the interval 0.4 to 0.6 < Ψ < 1.5 to 1.7. Possible mechanisms of hydrogen adsorption and its relationship to the structure of carbon nanoformations are examined.

  5. Diamond Measuring Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  6. Process for making diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasquin, J. R.; Estes, M. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of a device and process for making industrial diamonds. The device is composed of an exponential horn tapering from a large end to a small end, with a copper plate against the large end. A magnetic hammer abuts the copper plate. The copper plate and magnetic hammer function together to create a shock wave at the large end of the horn. As the wave propagates to the small end, the extreme pressure and temperature caused by the wave transforms the graphite, present in an anvil pocket at the small end, into diamonds.

  7. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALABLE, LOW-COST, ULTRANANOCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN (CECS) - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will employ the large scale; highly reliable boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BD-UNCD®) electrodes developed during Phase I project to build and test Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation process (EAOP)...

  9. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOEpatents

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  10. CVD diamond layers for electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, M.; Fabisiak, K.; Wrzyszczyński, A.; Banaszak, A.; Szybowicz, M.; Paprocki, K.; Bała, W.; Bylicki, F.

    2014-09-01

    Diamond electrodes of different morphologies and qualities were manufactured by hot filament chemical deposition (HF CVD) techniques by changing the parameters of diamond growth process. The estimation of diamond quality and identification of different carbon phases was performed by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The effect of diamond quality and amorphous carbon phase content on the electrochemical response of an obtained diamond electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 as supporting electrolyte was investigated by cyclic voltammetry with [Fe(CN)6]4-/3- as a redox probe. The kinetic parameters such as catalytic reaction rate constant k0 and electron transfer coefficient α were determined. The obtained results show that the analytical performance of undoped diamond electrodes can be implemented just by the change of diamond layers quality.

  11. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustarret, E.

    2015-07-01

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  12. Carbonado: natural polycrystalline diamond.

    PubMed

    Trueb, L F; De Wys, E C

    1969-08-22

    Carbonados are porous aggregates of mostly xenomorphic diamond crystallites ranging in diameter from a fraction of a micron to over 20 microns. Crystalline inclusions (up to 3 percent) occur in the pores of the crystallites and consist mainly of orthoclase and small amounts of other igneous, metamorphic, and secondary minerals. PMID:17742270

  13. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  14. Diamond is on budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materlik, Gerhard

    2008-02-01

    Your editorial last month, entitled "The £80m black hole" (January p15), was accompanied by a picture of the Diamond Light Source, which some readers may have interpreted as being responsible for the current shortfall in funding for the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). This implication is totally inaccurate and misleading.

  15. ELECTRON AMPLIFICATION IN DIAMOND.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY, J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RAO, T.; SEGALOV, Z.; WU, Q.

    2006-07-10

    We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission ''amplifiers'' for photocathodes. Secondary emission gain of over 300 has been achieved in transmission mode and emission mode for a variety of diamond samples. Techniques of sample preparation, including hydrogenation to achieve negative electron affinity (NEA), have been adapted to this application.

  16. DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BOHON, J.; CHANG, X.; GROVER, R.; ISAKOVIC, A.; RAO, T.; WU, Q.

    2007-11-26

    High-average-current linear electron accelerators require photoinjectors capable of delivering tens to hundreds of mA average current, with peak currents of hundreds of amps. Standard photocathodes face significant challenges in meeting these requirements, and often have short operational lifetimes in an accelerator environment. We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission amplifiers for photocathodes, which are intended to increase the achievable average current while protecting the cathode from the accelerator. The amplifier is a thin diamond wafer which converts energetic (few keV) primary electrons into hundreds of electron-hole pairs via secondary electron emission. The electrons drift through the diamond under an external bias and are emitted into vacuum via a hydrogen-terminated surface with negative electron affinity (NEA). Secondary emission gain of over 200 has been achieved. Two methods of patterning diamond, laser ablation and reactive-ion etching (RIE), are being developed to produce the required geometry. A variety of diagnostic techniques, including FTIR, SEM and AFM, have been used to characterize the diamonds.

  17. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  18. Multiplying Electrons With Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As researchers in the Space Communications Division of NASA s Glenn Research Center in 1992, Dr. Gerald Mearini, Dr. Isay Krainsky, and Dr. James Dayton made a secondary electron emission discovery that became the foundation for Mearini s company, GENVAC AeroSpace Corporation. Even after Mearini departed Glenn, then known as Lewis Research Center, his contact with NASA remained strong as he was awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to further develop his work. Mearini s work for NASA began with the investigation of diamond as a material for the suppression of secondary electron emissions. The results of his research were the opposite of what was expected diamond proved to be an excellent emitter rather than absorber. Mearini, Krainsky, and Dayton discovered that laboratory-grown diamond films can produce up to 45 electrons from a single incident electron. Having built an electron multiplier prototype at NASA, Mearini decided to start his own company to develop diamond structures usable in electron beam devices.

  19. Development of Designer Diamond Anvils for High Pressure-High-Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yogesh K. Vohra

    2005-05-12

    The focus of this program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) is to develop the next generation of designer diamond anvils that can perform simultaneous joule heating and temperature profile measurements in a diamond anvil cell. A series of tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will be fabricated onto to the anvil and encapsulated by a chemical vapor deposited diamond layer to allow for a complete temperature profile measurement across the anvil. The tip of the diamond anvil will be engineered to reduce the thermal conductivity so that the tungsten-heating coils can be deposited on top of this layer. Several different approaches will be investigated to engineer the tip of the diamond anvil for reduction in thermal conductivity (a) isotopic mixture of 12C and 13C in the diamond layer, (b) doping of diamond with impurities (nitrogen and/or boron), and (c) growing diamond in a higher concentration of methane in hydrogen plasma. Under this academic alliance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), PI and his graduate students will use the lithographic and diamond polishing facility at LLNL. This proposed next generation of designer diamond anvils will allow multi-tasking capability with the ability to measure electrical, magnetic, structural and thermal data on actinide materials with unparallel sensitivity in support of the stockpile stewardship program.

  20. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8-17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9-5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  1. Lower pressure synthesis of diamond material

    DOEpatents

    Lueking, Angela; Gutierrez, Humberto; Narayanan, Deepa; Burgess Clifford, Caroline E.; Jain, Puja

    2010-07-13

    Methods of synthesizing a diamond material, particularly nanocrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon and bucky diamond are provided. In particular embodiments, a composition including a carbon source, such as coal, is subjected to addition of energy, such as high energy reactive milling, producing a milling product enriched in hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon compared to the coal. A milling product is treated with heat, acid and/or base to produce nanocrystalline diamond and/or crystalline diamond-like carbon. Energy is added to produced crystalline diamond-like carbon in particular embodiments to produce bucky diamonds.

  2. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm(2)/Vs, respectively, at room temperature. PMID:27545201

  3. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm2/Vs, respectively, at room temperature. PMID:27545201

  4. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  5. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  6. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  7. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  8. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply...

  9. Most diamonds were created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablon, Brooke Matat; Navon, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Diamonds crystallize deep in the mantle (>150 km), leaving their carbon sources and the mechanism of their crystallization debatable. They can form from elemental carbon, by oxidation of reduced species (e.g. methane) or reduction of oxidized ones (e.g. carbonate-bearing minerals or melts), in response to decreasing carbon solubility in melts or fluids or due to changes in pH. The mechanism of formation is clear for fibrous diamonds that grew from the carbonate-bearing fluids trapped in their microinclusions. However, these diamonds look different and, based on their lower level of nitrogen aggregation, are much younger than most monocrystalline (MC) diamonds. In the first systematic search for microinclusions in MC diamonds we examined twinned crystals (macles), assuming that during their growth, microinclusions were trapped along the twinning plane. Visible mineral inclusions (>10 μm) and nitrogen aggregation levels in these clear macles are similar to other MC diamonds. We found 32 microinclusions along the twinning planes in eight out of 30 diamonds. Eight inclusions are orthopyroxene; four contain >50% K2O (probably as K2(Mg, Ca)(CO3)2); but the major element compositions of the remaining 20 are similar to those of carbonate-bearing high-density fluids (HDFs) found in fibrous diamonds. We conclude that the source of carbon for these macles and for most diamonds is carbonate-bearing HDFs similar to those found here and in fibrous diamonds. Combined with the old ages of MC diamonds (up to 3.5 Ga), our new findings suggest that carbonates have been introduced into the reduced lithospheric mantle since the Archaean and that the mechanism of diamond formation is the same for most diamonds.

  10. Raman investigation of diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Li-Ming

    1993-12-31

    Extensive Raman investigations were conducted on a wide range of diamond films whose structures were dilineated by optical and confocal microscopy. The Raman Spectra from one extreme of this range indicates a very intense 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} line diagnostic of bulk crystalline diamond. Microscopy of the corresponding film shows the presence of many large true diamond crystallite. The 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} Raman line at the other extreme of the range, however, is virtually absent. It is replaced, at this extreme, by a very broad Raman contour whose maxima occur near 1355 cm{sup {minus}1} and 1575 cm{sup {minus}1}. Optical microscopy now reveals a complete lack of diamond crystallites. The ratio of the integrated Raman intensity of the 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} diamond line to the integral of the entire broad contour extending from {approx}1200 cm{sup {minus}1} to 1800 cm{sup {minus}1}, with maxima near 1355 cm{sup {minus}1} and 1575 cm{sup {minus}1}, was determined. This ratio rises with increasing diamond crystallite size, and it decreases as true diamond crystallites are replaced by diamond-like, but amorphous, hard carbon, which produces the broad Raman contour. The measured intensity ratio was analyzed in terms of a differential equation related to phonon coupling. The increase of the intensity ratio of the 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} diagnostic diamond peak is due to phono-phonon coupling between the diamond crystallites, as the concentration of the amorphous diamond-like carbon decreases. Confocal microscopy indicates many amorphous-like regions interspersed between diamond crystallites which account for the intensity loss, and agree with the Raman intensity measurements. These Raman measurements crystallinity versus amorphous hard-carbon character of thin diamond film.

  11. Kinetics of hydrothermal crystallization under saturated steam pressure and the self-healing effect by nanocrystallite for hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Wei; Lui, Truan-Sheng

    2009-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings (HACs) with a low crystalline state were prepared using the plasma spraying process followed by hermetic autoclaving hydrothermal treatment at 100, 150 and 200 degrees C. Experimental evidence confirmed that the HACs became significantly crystallized and the content of amorphous calcium phosphate decreased by performing the autoclaving hydrothermal treatment in an ambient saturated steam pressure system. The obvious chemisorbed hydroxy groups (OH) peak in the X-ray photoelectron spectra detected from the hydrothermally crystallized HAC specimens means that the hydroxyl-deficient state of plasma-sprayed HACs is significantly improved by the abundant replenished OH groups. The HA nanocrystallite observed from scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images within hydrothermally treated HACs is the result of nucleation and grain growth through the replenishment of OH groups into the hydroxyl-deficient HA crystal structure. The microstructural self-healing effect is a result of reduction in defects (pores, microcracks and lamellar boundaries) due to new-growth HA nanocrystallite. According to the systematic derivation of the Arrhenius equation, the HA crystallization is a second-order Arrhenius reaction kinetics. Besides the effects of heating temperature and an atmosphere with abundant water molecules, the saturated steam pressure is a crucial factor which significantly improves the crystallization rate constant and further reduces the activation energy for the hydrothermal HA crystallization. PMID:19376760

  12. Magnetocaloric effect and evidence of superparamagnetism in GdA l2 nanocrystallites: A magnetic-structural correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, V. G.; da Silva, L. M.; dos Santos, A. O.; Lang, R.; Otubo, L.; Coelho, A. A.; Cardoso, L. P.

    2016-03-01

    The correlation between structural and magnetic properties of GdA l2 , focusing on the role played by the disorder in magnetic ordering and how it influences the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) are discussed. Micrometric-sized particles, consisting of nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, were prepared by a mechanical milling technique and characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as magnetic measurements as a function of an applied external magnetic field and temperature. The results show that the average particle size is just slightly diminished (≈7%) with the milling time (between 3 and 13 h), whereas the average crystallite size undergoes an expressive reduction (≈43%). For long milling times, structural disorders mostly associated with crystallite size singularly affect the magnetic properties, leading to a large tablelike MCE in the temperature range between 30 and 165 K. Below 30 K, nanocrystallites with dimensions below a given critical size cause an enhancement in the magnetic entropy change related to superparamagnetic behavior. In contrast, for low milling times, relative cooling power values are improved. These striking features along with the small magnetic hysteresis observed make the milled GdA l2 a promising material for application in the magnetic refrigeration technology. Finally, a discussion in an attempt to elucidate the origin of the spin-glass states previously reported in the literature for mechanically milled GdA l2 samples for very long times (400 and 1000 h) is presented.

  13. Preparation of TiO2 Nanocrystallite Powders Coated with 9 mol% ZnO for Cosmetic Applications in Sunscreens

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Horng-Huey; Chen, Hui-Ting; Yen, Feng-Ling; Lu, Wan-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with and without 9 mol% ZnO has been studied for cosmetic applications in sunscreens by a co-precipitation process using TiCl4 and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as starting materials. XRD results show that the phases of anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2 coexist for precursor powders without added ZnO (T-0Z) and calcined at 523 to 973 K for 2 h. When the T-0Z precursor powders are calcined at 1273 K for 2 h, only the rutile TiO2 appears. In addition, when the TiO2 precursor powders contain 9 mol% ZnO (T-9Z) are calcined at 873 to 973 K for 2 h, the crystallized samples are composed of the major phase of rutile TiO2 and the minor phases of anatase TiO2 and Zn2Ti3O8. The analyses of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the absorption of the T-9Z precursor powders after being calcined has a red-shift effect in the UV range with increasing calcination temperature. Therefore, the TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO can be used as the attenuate agent in the UV-A region for cosmetic applications in sunscreens. PMID:22408415

  14. Preparation and Thermal Stability of Ultrafine Nickel Powders Containing hcp-Ni Nanocrystallites Using Liquid-Phase Reduction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhimei; Jin, Shengming; Liu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    Ultrafine nickel powders containing hexagonal close-packed nickel (hcp-Ni) nanocrystallites were prepared using liquid-phase reduction with NiC2O4, NaOH, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and ethylene glycol (EG). The nickel powders were characterized by XRD and SEM. TG analysis was used to determine the thermal stability of ultrafine nickel powders. The results showed that nickel powders with 45.1 pct of hcp-Ni nanocrystallites were synthesized under the following conditions: a reflux time of 3 hours, an NiC2O4-to-EG molar ratio of 0.01, 5 g/L PVP, and 85 g/L NaOH. SEM results illustrated that spherical particles of size 500 nm were obtained. The results of thermal stability showed that the antioxidant property at high temperature was improved with the increase of hcp-Ni content. The oxidation rate of nickel powders with 43.3 pct hcp-Ni was less than 50 pct even if the temperature was up to 873 K (600 °C).

  15. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    SciTech Connect

    Clausing, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  17. Nanocrystalline diamond for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitura, Stanislaw

    1997-06-01

    The unique properties of thin amorphous diamond layers make them perspective candidates for producing advanced micro- electronic devices, coatings for cutting tools and optics. Moreover, due to the highest bicompatibility of carbon resulting from the presence of this element in human body, it appears to be a potential biomaterial. Until present the amorphous diamond has found industrial applications in some areas. One of the applications of the carbon layers are coatings for medical implants. The studies of carbon films as coatings for implants in surgery were aimed on the investigations of biological resistance of implants, histopathological investigations on laboratory animals, tests of corrosion resistance, measurements of mechanical properties and a breakdown test in Tyrod solution. The current state of published work in the subject is reviewed in the paper together with a discussion concerning classification of this material.

  18. Hexagonal diamonds in meteorites: implications.

    PubMed

    Hanneman, R E; Strong, H M; Bundy, F P

    1967-02-24

    A new polymorph of carbon, hexagonal diamond, has been discovered in the Canyon Diablo and Goalpara meteorites. This phase had been synthesized recently under specific high-pressure conditions in the laboratory. Our results: provide strong evidence that diamonds found in these meteorites were produced by intense shock pressures acting on crystalline graphite inclusions present within the meteorite before impact, rather than by disintegration of larger, statically grown diamonds, as some theories propose. PMID:17830485

  19. Diamond films for laser hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Watkins, L.; Ravi, K.; Yokota, S.

    1989-01-01

    Laser-damage experiments were performed on free-standing polycrystalline diamond films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD. The high laser-induced stress resistance found for this material makes it useful for thin-film coatings for laser optics. Results for diamond-coated silicon substrates demonstrate the enhanced damage threshold imparted by diamond thin-film coatings to materials susceptible to laser damage.

  20. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond thickness on the substrate.

  1. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond film thickness on the substrate.

  2. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  3. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  4. DIAMOND PEAK WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    1984-01-01

    No metallic mineral resources were identified during a mineral survey of the Diamond Peak Wilderness in Oregon. Cinder cones within the wilderness contain substantial cinder resources, but similar deposits that are more accessible occur outside the wilderness. The area could have geothermal resources, but available data are insufficient to evaluate their potential. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas of the High Cascades outside the wilderness, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the several Cascade wilderness could be made.

  5. Doped biocompatible layers prepared by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, M.; Weiserová, M.; Kocourek, T.; Jurek, K.; Strnad, J.

    2010-03-01

    The contribution deals with KrF laser synthesis and study of doped biocompatible materials with focus on diamond-like carbon (DLC) and hydroxyapatite (HA). Overview of materials used for dopation is given. Experimental results of study of HA layers doped with silver are presented. Films properties were characterized using profilometer, SEM, WDX, XRD and optical transmission. Content of silver in layers moved from 0.06 to 13.7 at %. The antibacterial properties of HA, silver and doped HA layers were studied in vivo using Escherichia coli cells.

  6. DIAMOND AMPLIFIER FOR PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    RAO,T.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CHANG,X.; HULBERT,S.; JOHNSON,P.D.; KEWISCH,J.

    2004-06-21

    We report a new approach to the generation of high-current, high-brightness electron beams. Primary electrons are produced by a photocathode (or other means) and are accelerated to a few thousand electron-volts, then strike a specially prepared diamond window. The large Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) provides a multiplication of the number of electrons by about two orders of magnitude. The secondary electrons drift through the diamond under an electric field and emerge into the accelerating proper of the ''gun'' through a Negative Electron Affinity surface of the diamond. The advantages of the new approach include the following: (1) Reduction of the number of primary electrons by the large SEY, i.e. a very low laser power in a photocathode producing the primaries. (2) Low thermal emittance due to the NEA surface and the rapid thermalization of the electrons. (3) Protection of the cathode from possible contamination from the gun, allowing the use of large quantum efficiency but sensitive cathodes. (4) Protection of the gun from possible contamination by the cathode, allowing the use of superconducting gun cavities. (5) Production of high average currents, up to ampere class. (6) Encapsulated design, making the ''load-lock'' systems unnecessary. This paper presents the criteria that need to be taken into account in designing the amplifier.

  7. Raman barometry of diamond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izraeli, E. S.; Harris, J. W.; Navon, O.

    1999-11-01

    Pressures and temperatures of the diamond source region are commonly estimated using chemical equilibria between coexisting mineral inclusions. Here we present another type of geobarometer, based on determination of the internal pressure in olivine inclusions and the stresses in the surrounding diamond. Using Raman spectroscopy, pressures of 0.13 to 0.65 GPa were measured inside olivine inclusions in three diamonds from the Udachnaya mine in Siberia. Stresses in the diamond surrounding the inclusions indicated similar pressures (0.11-0.41 GPa). Nitrogen concentration and aggregation state in two of the diamonds yielded mantle residence temperatures of ˜1200°C. Using this temperature and the bulk moduli and thermal expansion of olivine and diamond, we calculated source pressures of 4.4-5.2 GPa. We also derived a linear approximation for the general dependence of the source pressure ( P0, GPa) on source temperature ( T0, °C) and the measured internal pressure in the inclusion ( Pi): P0=(3.259×10 -4Pi+3.285×10 -3) T0+0.9246 Pi+0.319. Raman barometry may be applied to other inclusions in diamonds or other inclusion-host systems. If combined with IR determination of the mantle residence temperature of the diamond, it allows estimation of the pressure at the source based on a non-destructive examination of a single diamond containing a single inclusion.

  8. Conversion of fullerenes to diamonds

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1995-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond or diamond-like films on a substrate surface. The method involves the steps of providing a vapor selected from the group of fullerene molecules or an inert gas/fullerene molecule mixture, providing energy to the fullerene molecules consisting of carbon-carbon bonds, the energized fullerene molecules breaking down to form fragments of fullerene molecules including C.sub.2 molecules and depositing the energized fullerene molecules with C.sub.2 fragments onto the substrate with farther fragmentation occurring and forming a thickness of diamond or diamond-like films on the substrate surface.

  9. Diamonds in ophiolites: Contamination or a new diamond growth environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D.; Griffin, W. L.; Yang, J.; Gain, S.; Stern, R. A.; Huang, J.-X.; Jacob, D. E.; Xu, X.; Stokes, A. J.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Pearson, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    For more than 20 years, the reported occurrence of diamonds in the chromites and peridotites of the Luobusa massif in Tibet (a complex described as an ophiolite) has been widely ignored by the diamond research community. This skepticism has persisted because the diamonds are similar in many respects to high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic/industrial diamonds (grown from metal solvents), and the finding previously has not been independently replicated. We present a detailed examination of the Luobusa diamonds (recovered from both peridotites and chromitites), including morphology, size, color, impurity characteristics (by infrared spectroscopy), internal growth structures, trace-element patterns, and C and N isotopes. A detailed comparison with synthetic industrial diamonds shows many similarities. Cubo-octahedral morphology, yellow color due to unaggregated nitrogen (C centres only, Type Ib), metal-alloy inclusions and highly negative δ13C values are present in both sets of diamonds. The Tibetan diamonds (n = 3) show an exceptionally large range in δ15N (-5.6 to + 28.7 ‰) within individual crystals, and inconsistent fractionation between {111} and {100} growth sectors. This in contrast to large synthetic HPHT diamonds grown by the temperature gradient method, which have with δ15N = 0 ‰ in {111} sectors and + 30 ‰ in {100} sectors, as reported in the literature. This comparison is limited by the small sample set combined with the fact the diamonds probably grew by different processes. However, the Tibetan diamonds do have generally higher concentrations and different ratios of trace elements; most inclusions are a NiMnCo alloy, but there are also some small REE-rich phases never seen in HPHT synthetics. These characteristics indicate that the Tibetan diamonds grew in contact with a C-saturated Ni-Mn-Co-rich melt in a highly reduced environment. The stable isotopes indicate a major subduction-related contribution to the chemical environment. The

  10. Evolution of Diamond Crystal Shape with Boron Concentration during CVD Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, R.; Silva, F.; Tallaire, A.; Mille, V.; Achard, J.; Gicquel, A.

    2010-11-01

    Homoepitaxially grown boron-doped diamond films have been extensively studied for many years, in particular for the development of power-electronic devices. Coplanar structures have already been fabricated and characterized but, in such structures, the current is limited by a high series resistance. A vertical component could allow overcoming this issue but this requires that thick heavily boron-doped diamond crystals with a large usable top surface are grown. In this paper we used a 3D geometrical model in order to study the evolution of the crystal shape of thick diamond crystals as a function of boron doping. The growth parameters used in the model were determined by measuring the growth rate in different crystalline orientations. It was found that the addition of boron to the gas phase promotes the appearance of large {110} and {113} crystalline faces. {110} faces have a detrimental effect on the crystal since they can generate large stress and promote crystal break-up. The results predicted by the model are consistent with that obtained for a thick boron-doped diamond single crystal.

  11. N-type droping of nanocrystalline diamond films with nitrogen and electrodes made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.

    2004-09-21

    An electrically conducting n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having no less than 10.sup.19 atoms/cm.sup.3 of nitrogen is disclosed. A method of making the n-doped UNCD. A method for predictably controlling the conductivity is also disclosed.

  12. Transport coefficients in diamond from ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfâs, Henrik; Grigoriev, Anton; Isberg, Jan; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-03-01

    By combining the Boltzmann transport equation with ab-initio electronic structure calculations, we obtain transport coefficients for boron-doped diamond. We find the temperature dependence of the resistivity and the hall coefficients in good agreement with experimental measurements. Doping in the samples is treated via the rigid band approximation and scattering is treated in the relaxation time approximation. In contrast to previous results, the acoustic phonon scattering is the dominating scattering mechanism for the considered doping range. At room temperature, we find the thermopower, S, in the range 1-1.6 mV/K and the power factor, S2σ, in the range 0.004-0.16 μW /cm K2.

  13. Anodic oxidation of benzoquinone using diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The anodic degradation of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), one of the most toxic xenobiotic, was investigated by electrochemical oxidation at boron-doped diamond anode. The electrolyses have been performed in a single-compartment flow cell in galvanostatic conditions. The influence of applied current (0.5-2 A), BQ concentration (1-2 g dm(-3)), temperature (20-45 °C) and flow rate (100-300 dm(3) h(-1)) has been studied. BQ decay kinetic, the evolution of its oxidation intermediates and the mineralization of the aqueous solutions were monitored during the electrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. The results obtained show that the use of diamond anode leads to total mineralization of BQ in any experimental conditions due to the production of oxidant hydroxyl radicals electrogenerated from water discharge. The decay kinetics of BQ removal follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, and the rate constant increases with rising current density. The COD removal rate was favoured by increasing of applied current, recirculating flow rate and it is almost unaffected by solution temperature. PMID:24710725

  14. Structure and magnetic properties of chromium doped cobalt molybdenum nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskos, Niko; Żołnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander; Adamski, Paweł; Moszyński, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Four nanocomposites containing mixed phases of Co3Mo3N and Co2Mo3N doped with chromium have been prepared. A linear fit is found for relation between Co2Mo3N and chromium concentrations. The magnetization in ZFC and FC modes at different temperatures (2-300 K) and in applied magnetic fields (up to 70 kOe) have been investigated. It has been detected that many magnetic characteristics of the studied four nanocomposites correlate not with the chromium concentration but with nanocrystallite sizes. The obtained results were interpreted in terms of magnetic core-shell model of a nanoparticle involving paramagnetic core with two magnetic sublattices and a ferromagnetic shell related to chromium doping.

  15. Hybrid Group IV Nanophotonic Structures Incorporating Diamond Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Ishiwata, Hitoshi; Babinec, Thomas M; Radulaski, Marina; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Dory, Constantin; Dahl, Jeremy; Edgington, Robert; Soulière, Veronique; Ferro, Gabriel; Fokin, Andrey A; Schreiner, Peter R; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate a new approach for engineering group IV semiconductor-based quantum photonic structures containing negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV(-)) color centers in diamond as quantum emitters. Hybrid diamond-SiC structures are realized by combining the growth of nano- and microdiamonds on silicon carbide (3C or 4H polytype) substrates, with the subsequent use of these diamond crystals as a hard mask for pattern transfer. SiV(-) color centers are incorporated in diamond during its synthesis from molecular diamond seeds (diamondoids), with no need for ion-implantation or annealing. We show that the same growth technique can be used to grow a diamond layer controllably doped with SiV(-) on top of a high purity bulk diamond, in which we subsequently fabricate nanopillar arrays containing high quality SiV(-) centers. Scanning confocal photoluminescence measurements reveal optically active SiV(-) lines both at room temperature and low temperature (5 K) from all fabricated structures, and, in particular, very narrow line widths and small inhomogeneous broadening of SiV(-) lines from all-diamond nanopillar arrays, which is a critical requirement for quantum computation. At low temperatures (5 K) we observe in these structures the signature typical of SiV(-) centers in bulk diamond, consistent with a double lambda. These results indicate that high quality color centers can be incorporated into nanophotonic structures synthetically with properties equivalent to those in bulk diamond, thereby opening opportunities for applications in classical and quantum information processing. PMID:26695059

  16. Update on diamond and diamond-like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettington, Alan H.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviewed the infrared uses of diamond-like carbon thin films and the potential uses of synthetic diamond layers. Diamond-like carbon is used widely as a protective anti-reflection coating for exposed germanium infrared windows and lenses and as thin protective coatings for front surface aluminium mirrors. This material is also used in protective anti-reflective coatings for zinc sulphide as the outer thin film in multi-layer designs incorporating variable index intermediate layers of germanium carbide. The maximum thickness of diamond-like carbon that can be used is often limited by the stress induced in the layer through the method of deposition and by the absorption present in the basic material. This stress and absorption can be far lower in synthetic diamond layers but there are now problems associated with the high substrate temperatures, difficulties in coating large areas uniformly and problems arising from surface scattering and low deposition rates.

  17. Microstructural evolution of diamond growth during HFCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to study the nucleation and growth mechanism of diamond by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process. A novel technique has shown a direct evidence for the formation of the diamond-like carbon layer 8-14 nm thick in which small diamond micro-crystallites were embedded. These diamond micro-crystallites were formed as a result of transformation of diamond-like carbon into diamond. The diamond micro-crystallites present in the amorphous diamond-like carbon layer provided nucleation sites for diamond growth. Large diamond crystallites were observed to grow from these micro-crystallites. The mechanism of diamond growth will be presented based on experimental findings.

  18. High temperature photoelectron emission and surface photovoltage in semiconducting diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. T.; Cooil, S. P.; Roberts, O. R.; Evans, S.; Langstaff, D. P.; Evans, D. A.

    2014-08-11

    A non-equilibrium photovoltage is generated in semiconducting diamond at above-ambient temperatures during x-ray and UV illumination that is sensitive to surface conductivity. The H-termination of a moderately doped p-type diamond (111) surface sustains a surface photovoltage up to 700 K, while the clean (2 × 1) reconstructed surface is not as severely affected. The flat-band C 1s binding energy is determined from 300 K measurement to be 283.87 eV. The true value for the H-terminated surface, determined from high temperature measurement, is (285.2 ± 0.1) eV, corresponding to a valence band maximum lying 1.6 eV below the Fermi level. This is similar to that of the reconstructed (2 × 1) surface, although this surface shows a wider spread of binding energy between 285.2 and 285.4 eV. Photovoltage quantification and correction are enabled by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy applied during annealing cycles between 300 K and 1200 K. A model is presented that accounts for the measured surface photovoltage in terms of a temperature-dependent resistance. A large, high-temperature photovoltage that is sensitive to surface conductivity and photon flux suggests a new way to use moderately B-doped diamond in voltage-based sensing devices.

  19. Structural and optical characterization of CdSe nanocrystallites/rare earth ions in sol gel glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Gijo; Joseph, Cyriac; Ittyachen, M. A.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2007-07-01

    Sol-gel method is used to prepare semiconductor cadmium selenide nanocrystallites together with europium and terbium ions in silica matrix. From the electron diffraction pattern in the transmission electron micrograph (TEM), the plane distances (d) were estimated to be 1.072 Å, 1.233 Å and 2.149 Å, which match the (2 1 4), (3 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes of bulk CdSe. The intensity of characteristic red emission of Europium (Eu3+) and green emission of Terbium (Tb3+) ions increases considerably in the presence of CdSe particles. The blue emission is prominent in the glass samples in the gel stage. The purity of the colors are measured using the Commission Internationale de Eclairage (CIE) color coordinate diagram and is found to be 100% for RED and GREEN.

  20. Titanium dioxide/calcium fluoride nanocrystallite for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell. A strategy of enhancing light harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zubin; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Chen, Xiaoxu; Chen, Haiyan; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-02-01

    Enhancement of light harvest for dye excitation is a persistent objective in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We present here the fabrication of titanium dioxide/calcium fluoride (TiO2/CaF2) photoanodes for efficient DSSC applications. Owing to the interference effect of incident light beams reflected from TiO2/CaF2 and CaF2/electrolyte interfaces, the light intensity and therefore dye excitation have been markedly enhanced. The crystal structure and therefore photovoltaic performance are optimized by adjusting CaF2 dosage. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.66% is measured from the DSSC employing TiO2/0.5 wt% CaF2 nanocrystallite in comparison with 6.02% for the solar cell with pristine TiO2 anode.

  1. Characterization of the silicon/β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites heterostructures for the NIR photodetection at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevlyagin, Alexander; Goroshko, Dmitry; Chusovitin, Evgeniy; Galkin, Konstantin; Galkin, Nikolay

    2015-07-01

    Using solid phase epitaxy of thin Fe films and molecular beam epitaxy of Si, p-Si/β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites/n-Si(001) diode structure was fabricated. The diode exhibited a current responsivity of 15 mA/W and external quantum efficiency of about 1% at a wavelength of 1300 nm at 120 K without bias and 200 mA/W and 10%, respectively, at -30 V. The device specific detectivity calculated at 120 K in zero bias conditions of 2.1 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 1.3 µm is the highest ever reported for Si/β-FeSi2 systems. The Franz-Keldysh effect gives grounds for applying such systems not only for the development of optrons but also for that of electro-optical modulators.

  2. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, W.; Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y.; Onoda, S.; Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y.; Shikata, S.; Makino, T.; Koka, M.; Hanaizumi, O.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  3. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, Sacharia; Winfree, William P.; Crews, B. Scott

    1990-01-01

    A laser pulse technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate is developed. The effective thermal diffusivity of diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by the laser pulses. An analytical model is developed to calculate the effective in-plane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film. Phase and amplitude measurements give similar results. The thermal conductivity of the films is found to be better than that of type 1a natural diamond.

  4. Electronic properties of CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, C. E.

    2003-03-01

    The electronic properties of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond are reviewed based on data measured by transient and spectrally resolved photoconductivity experiments, photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) where substitutional nitrogen (P1-centre) and carbon defects (H1-centre) are detected. The results show that nominally undoped high quality polycrystalline CVD diamond is a n-type semiconductor due to the presence of substitutional nitrogen. The sub-band-gap optical absorption is governed by amorphous graphite present at grain boundaries. Spectrally resolved photoconductivity experiments measured in the same regime are partially dominated by diamond bulk properties which are comparable to single crystalline Ib and IIa diamond and partially by grain boundaries. Mobilities and drift length of carriers are discussed and compared to properties of single crystalline diamond.

  5. Light-Triggered Release of Biomolecules from Diamond Nanowire Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Coffinier, Yannick; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-06-28

    The controlled release of biomolecules from a substrate surface is a challenging task. Photocleavable linkers appear as attractive candidates for light-triggered delivery. We show here the possibility of creating photoactivable diamond nanowire interfaces, from which molecules can be photochemically released upon irradiation at 365 nm for several minutes. The approach is based on the covalent modification of boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) with o-nitrobenzyl containing ligands, to which different biomolecules can be attached via amide bond formation. The photodecomposition reaction and the subsequent release of small proteins such as lysozyme or enzymes such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Using a colorimetric assay, we demonstrate that, while complete cleavage of HRP was achieved upon irradiation for 10 min at 1 W cm(-2), this exposure time resulted in a partial loss of enzymatic activity. PMID:27244476

  6. Electron energy loss spectrometry of interstellar diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) measurements on diamond residues from carbonaceous meteorites designed to elucidate the structure and composition of interstellar diamonds. Dynamic effective medium theory is used to model the dielectric properties of the diamonds and in particular to synthesize the observed spectra as mixtures of diamond and various pi-bonded carbons. The results are shown to be quantitatively consistent with the idea that diamonds and their surfaces are the only contributors to the electron energy loss spectra of the diamond residues and that these peculiar spectra are the result of the exceptionally small grain size and large specific surface area of the interstellar diamonds.

  7. Diamonds in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotherton, M.

    2004-12-01

    My first science fiction novel, Star Dragon, just recently available in paperback from Tor, features a voyage to the cataclysmic variable star system SS Cygni. My second novel, Spider Star, to appear early in 2006, takes place in and around a dark matter ``planet'' orbiting a neutron star. Both novels are ``hard'' science fiction, relying on accurate physics to inform the tales. It's possible to bring to life abstract concepts like special relativity, and alien environments like accretion disks, by using science fiction. Novels are difficult to use in a science class, but short stories offer intriguing possibilities. I'm planning to edit an anthology of hard science fiction stories that contain accurate science and emphasize fundamental ideas in modern astronomy. The working title is Diamonds in the Sky. The collection will be a mix of original stories and reprints, highlighting challenging concepts covered in a typical introductory astronomy course. Larry Niven's classic story, ``Neutron Star," is an excellent demonstration of extreme tidal forces in an astronomical context. Diamonds in the Sky will include forewards and afterwards to the stories, including discussion questions and mathematical formulas/examples as appropriate. I envision this project will be published electronically or through a print-on-demand publisher, providing long-term availabilty and keeping low cost. I encourage interested parties to suggest previously published stories, or to suggest which topics must be included.

  8. Growth model and the effect of CuO nanocrystallites on the properties of chemically derived epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Takeshi; Niwa, Toshiharu; Yamada, Yutaka; Hirabayashi, Izumi; Shibata, Junko; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kato, Kazumi; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2002-09-01

    In metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD), CuO nanocrystallites in calcined film, which influence the critical current density (Jc) of the resulting film, have seldom been considered before. CuO nanocrystallites ripen and grow during the calcining process at 200-250 degC and grow into large CuO grains in the YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film. The final diameter of the grains is about 0.1 mum. When highly purified coating solution is used, suppressing the creation of nanocrystallites in the precursor film is an effective way to obtain high-Jc YBCO film because the nanocrystallites consist only of CuO. We obtained the highest-Jc YBCO film on LaAlO3 single crystal with a calcining process of 9h43m at 200-250 degC. It was 141 nm thick and had a Jc of 7.5 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T), as measured by the four-probe method. The firing process of TFA-MOD still has several unsolved problems; why can H2O and HF gas diffuse quickly within the film? These phenomena can be explained by a model with a quasiliquid consisting of Y, Ba, Cu, O, H, and F. The H2O and HF can move quickly in the quasiliquid network within the film during the firing process. According to the model, we can get more conversion of CuO nanocrystallites into quasiliquid by increasing the amount of water vapor. Jc of the film was increased from 3.3 to 4.5 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T) by increasing the humidity from 4.2% to 12.1% during the long calcining profile of 66h40m at 200-250 degC. These results confirm the above model. CuO nanocrystallites in precursor films induce nonstoichiometric metal contents in the quasiliquid. Isolated CuO grains in YBCO film indirectly cause nonstoichiometric quasiliquid in other areas. Such nonstoichiometric quasiliquid leads to non-YBCO materials such as BaO, Y2O3, and Y2Cu2O5. Thus, films derived from non-highly purified coating solution and ones prepared with an inappropriate calcining process both have lower Jc values. Micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscopy and Jc

  9. Monodisperse spherical mesoporous Eu-doped TiO2 phosphor particles and the luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jianbo; Xiang, Liqin; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2007-03-01

    Monodisperse spherical and mesoporous Eu-doped TiO2 phosphor particles were prepared by nonionic surfactant-assisted soft-chemistry method. It is shown that the phosphor particles possess submicron diameter of about 250nm and narrow size distribution. Under ultraviolet irradiation the particles show characteristic luminescence corresponding to D05-Fj7 of Eu3+. Especially, the calcined particles consisted of mesopores and semicrystalline framework shows the strongest photoluminescence compared to the amorphous particles without annealing and the completely crystalline particles annealed at higher temperature. This is attributed to the energy transfer from titania nanocrystallite to Eu3+ ions dispersed in glassy amorphous titania region.

  10. Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter describes the nature of clean and contaminated diamond surfaces, Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond film deposition technology, analytical techniques and the results of research on CVD diamond films, and the general properties of CVD diamond films. Further, it describes the friction and wear properties of CVD diamond films in the atmosphere, in a controlled nitrogen environment, and in an ultra-high-vacuum environment.

  11. An Isothermal Device Configuration for Diamond Based Photon-Enhanced Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianyin; Koeck, Franz; Nemanich, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Diamond can obtain a negative electron affinity (NEA) after hydrogen termination. With NEA and n-type doping, a low effective work function and efficient thermionic emission has been observed from these diamond films. Photo-induced electron emission from nitrogen doped diamond with visible light illumination has also been established by our group. Recently several reports have described efficient energy conversion based on the photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) mechanism. This study proposes a multi-layer emitter and collector structure for an isothermal PETE converter. The emitter structure is based on an n-type NEA diamond film deposited on a p-type Si substrate to enable electron emission across a vacuum gap. In this structure the above-bandgap light is absorbed in the Si and establishs an enhanced electron population for emission through the low work function surface, while sub-bandgap light is absorbed in the collector for transfer to a heat engine. Spectroscopy measurements of the n-type diamond on Si indicate strong electron emissivity with photon illumination, and the emission intensity is significantly increased at elevated temperatures. A simplified model describing the efficiency and performance of an isothermal PETE device is presented. This research is supported through ONR under grant number # N00014-10-1-0540.

  12. Plasmon resonance enhanced temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Si-V centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoheng; Song, Jie; Wang, Qiliang; Liu, Junsong; Li, Hongdong; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-11-01

    Temperature dependent optical property of diamond has been considered as a very important factor for realizing high performance diamond-based optoelectronic devices. The photoluminescence feature of the zero phonon line of silicon-vacancy (Si-V) centers in Si-doped chemical vapor deposited single crystal diamond (SCD) with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) induced by gold nanoparticles has been studied at temperatures ranging from liquid nitrogen temperature to 473 K, as compared with that of the SCD counterpart in absence of the LSPR. It is found that with LSPR the emission intensities of Si-V centers are significantly enhanced by factors of tens and the magnitudes of the redshift (width) of the emissions become smaller (narrower), in comparison with those of normal emissions without plasmon resonance. More interestingly, these strong Si-V emissions appear remarkably at temperatures up to 473 K, while the spectral feature was not reported in previous studies on the intrinsic Si-doped diamonds when temperatures are higher than room temperature. These findings would lead to reaching high performance diamond-based devices, such as single photon emitter, quantum cryptography, biomarker, and so forth, working under high temperature conditions.

  13. Plasmon resonance enhanced temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Si-V centers in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shaoheng; Song, Jie; Wang, Qiliang; Liu, Junsong; Li, Hongdong; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-11-23

    Temperature dependent optical property of diamond has been considered as a very important factor for realizing high performance diamond-based optoelectronic devices. The photoluminescence feature of the zero phonon line of silicon-vacancy (Si-V) centers in Si-doped chemical vapor deposited single crystal diamond (SCD) with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) induced by gold nanoparticles has been studied at temperatures ranging from liquid nitrogen temperature to 473 K, as compared with that of the SCD counterpart in absence of the LSPR. It is found that with LSPR the emission intensities of Si-V centers are significantly enhanced by factors of tens and the magnitudes of the redshift (width) of the emissions become smaller (narrower), in comparison with those of normal emissions without plasmon resonance. More interestingly, these strong Si-V emissions appear remarkably at temperatures up to 473 K, while the spectral feature was not reported in previous studies on the intrinsic Si-doped diamonds when temperatures are higher than room temperature. These findings would lead to reaching high performance diamond-based devices, such as single photon emitter, quantum cryptography, biomarker, and so forth, working under high temperature conditions.

  14. All-Diamond Microelectrodes as Solid State Probes for Localized Electrochemical Sensing.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduardo L; Gouvêa, Cristol P; Quevedo, Marcela C; Neto, Miguel A; Archanjo, Braulio S; Fernandes, António J S; Achete, Carlos A; Silva, Rui F; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L; Oliveira, Filipe J

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of an all-diamond microprobe is demonstrated for the first time. This ME (microelectrode) assembly consists of an inner boron doped diamond (BDD) layer and an outer undoped diamond layer. Both layers were grown on a sharp tungsten tip by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a stepwise manner within a single deposition run. BDD is a material with proven potential as an electrochemical sensor. Undoped CVD diamond is an insulating material with superior chemical stability in comparison to conventional insulators. Focused ion beam (FIB) cutting of the apex of the ME was used to expose an electroactive BDD disk. By cyclic voltammetry, the redox reaction of ferrocenemethanol was shown to take place at the BDD microdisk surface. In order to ensure that the outer layer was nonelectrically conductive, a diffusion barrier for boron atoms was established seeking the formation of boron-hydrogen complexes at the interface between the doped and the undoped diamond layers. The applicability of the microelectrodes in localized corrosion was demonstrated by scanning amperometric measurements of oxygen distribution above an Al-Cu-CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) galvanic corrosion cell. PMID:26057348

  15. CVD Diamond Dielectric Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gat, R.

    2009-01-22

    The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerating structures: high RF breakdown field, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) cylindrical diamond structures have been manufactured with dimensions corresponding to fundamental TM{sub 01} mode frequencies in the GHz to THz range. Surface treatments are being developed to reduce the secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient below unity to reduce the possibility of multipactor. The diamond CVD cylindrical waveguide technology developed here can be applied to a variety of other high frequency, large-signal applications.

  16. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic hydrogen defect free diamond or diamond like films on a substrate. The method involves providing vapor containing fullerene molecules with or without an inert gas, providing a device to impart energy to the fullerene molecules, fragmenting at least in part some of the fullerene molecules in the vapor or energizing the molecules to incipient fragmentation, ionizing the fullerene molecules, impinging ionized fullerene molecules on the substrate to assist in causing fullerene fragmentation to obtain a thickness of diamond on the substrate.

  17. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; McCauley, Thomas G.; Zhou, Dan; Krauss, Alan R.

    2003-07-15

    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  18. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-07-10

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF ZrxLa1-xOy NANOCRYSTALLITES IN METAL-HIGH-k OXIDE-SILICON-TYPE NONVOLATILE MEMORY DEVICES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

    2012-12-01

    To investigate characterization of ZrxLa1-xOy nanocrystallites as a buffer oxide in forming the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) structure, we synthesized ZrxLa1-xOy nanocrystallites by sol-gel method. Moreover, from the solution prepared, thin films on silicon wafer substrates have been realized by "dip-coating" with a pulling out speed of 5 cm min-1. The structure, morphology, electrical properties of thin film was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Electrical property characterization was performed with metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures through capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current density-voltage (J-V) measurements. The leakage current density was below 1.0 ×10-6A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm.

  20. Ytterbium-doped glass-ceramics for optical refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Filho, Elton Soares de Lima; Krishnaiah, Kummara Venkata; Ledemi, Yannick; Yu, Ye-Jin; Messaddeq, Younes; Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-02-23

    We report for the first time the characterization of glass-ceramics for optical refrigeration. Ytterbium-doped nanocrystallites were grown in an oxyfluoride glass matrix of composition 2YbF(3):30SiO(2)-15Al(2)O(3)-25CdF(2)-22PbF(2)-4YF(3), forming bulk glass-ceramics at three different crystalisation levels. The samples are compared with a corresponding uncrystalised (glass) sample, as well as a Yb:YAG sample which has presented optical cooling. The measured X-ray diffraction spectra, and thermal capacities of the samples are reported. We also report for the first time the use of Yb:YAG as a reference for absolute photometric quantum efficiency measurement, and use the same setup to characterize the glass and glass-ceramic samples. The cooling figure-of-merit was measured by optical calorimetry using a fiber Bragg grating and found to depend on the level of crystallization of the sample, and that samples with nanocrystallites result in higher quantum efficiency and lower background absorption than the pure-glass sample. In addition to laser-induced cooling, the glass-ceramics have the potential to serve as a reference for quantum efficiency measurements. PMID:25836500

  1. Characterization of ultrananocrystalline diamond microsensors for in vivo dopamine detection

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Zeng, Hongjun; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Covey, Dan P.; Carlisle, John A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We show the technical feasibility of coating and micro patterning boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD®) on metal microwires and of applying them as microsensors for the detection of dopamine in vivo using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. UNCD electrode surface consistently generated electrochemical signals with high signal-to-noise ratio of >800 using potassium ferrocyanide-ferricyanide redox couple. Parylene patterned UNCD microelectrodes were effectively applied to detect dopamine reliably in vitro using flow injection analysis with a detection limit of 27 nM and in the striatum of the anesthetized rat during electrical stimulation of dopamine neurons. PMID:23918991

  2. Characterization of ultrananocrystalline diamond microsensors for in vivo dopamine detection.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Prabhu U; Zeng, Hongjun; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Covey, Dan P; Carlisle, John A; Garris, Paul A

    2013-06-24

    We show the technical feasibility of coating and micro patterning boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD(®)) on metal microwires and of applying them as microsensors for the detection of dopamine in vivo using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. UNCD electrode surface consistently generated electrochemical signals with high signal-to-noise ratio of >800 using potassium ferrocyanide-ferricyanide redox couple. Parylene patterned UNCD microelectrodes were effectively applied to detect dopamine reliably in vitro using flow injection analysis with a detection limit of 27 nM and in the striatum of the anesthetized rat during electrical stimulation of dopamine neurons. PMID:23918991

  3. Adsorptive Separation and Sequestration of Krypton, I and C14 on Diamond Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tushar; Loyalka, Sudarsha; Prelas, Mark; Viswanath, Dabir

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this research proposal was to address the separation and sequestration of Kr and I from each other using nano-sized diamond particles and retaining these in diamond until they decay to the background level or can be used as a byproduct. Following removal of Kr and I, an adsorbent will be used to adsorb and store CO2 from the CO2 rich stream. A Field Enhanced Diffusion with Optical Activation (FEDOA-a large scale process that takes advantage of thermal, electrical, and optical activation to enhance the diffusion of an element into diamond structure) was used to load Kr and I on micron or nano sized particles having a larger relative surface area. The diamond particles can be further increased by doping it with boron followed by irradiation in a neutron flux. Previous studies showed that the hydrogen storage capacity could be increased significantly by using boron-doped irradiated diamond particles. Diamond powders were irradiated for a longer time by placing them in a quartz tube. The surface area was measured using a Quantachrome Autosorb system. No significant increase in the surface area was observed. Total surface area was about 1.7 m2/g. This suggests the existence of very minimal pores. Interestingly it showed hysteresis upon desorption. A reason for this may be strong interaction between the surface and the nitrogen molecules. Adsorption runs at higher temperatures did not show any adsorption of krypton on diamond. Use of a GC with HID detector to determine the adsorption capacity from the breakthrough curves was attempted, but experimental difficulties were encountered.

  4. Fabrication of amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1995-12-12

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  5. Diamond family of nanoparticle superlattices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenyan; Tagawa, Miho; Xin, Huolin L; Wang, Tong; Emamy, Hamed; Li, Huilin; Yager, Kevin G; Starr, Francis W; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Gang, Oleg

    2016-02-01

    Diamond lattices formed by atomic or colloidal elements exhibit remarkable functional properties. However, building such structures via self-assembly has proven to be challenging because of the low packing fraction, sensitivity to bond orientation, and local heterogeneity. We report a strategy for creating a diamond superlattice of nano-objects via self-assembly and demonstrate its experimental realization by assembling two variant diamond lattices, one with and one without atomic analogs. Our approach relies on the association between anisotropic particles with well-defined tetravalent binding topology and isotropic particles. The constrained packing of triangular binding footprints of truncated tetrahedra on a sphere defines a unique three-dimensional lattice. Hence, the diamond self-assembly problem is solved via its mapping onto two-dimensional triangular packing on the surface of isotropic spherical particles. PMID:26912698

  6. Diamond turning of optical crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.; Syn, C.K.; Fuchs, B.A.; Velsko, S.P.

    1990-03-01

    Diamond turning (DT) has proven to be a cost effective optical fabrication technique for both aspherical and spherical/flat figures when precise geometrical tolerances are important. We are interested in the DT of crystals for several reasons. DT has been very effective to insure requisite accurate geometrical orientation of optical surfaces to crystalline axes for frequency conversion applications. Also, DT can achieve figure up to the edge of the crystal. Another key DT benefit is enhanced laser damage threshold, which we feel in part is due to the freedom of the surface from polishing impurities. Several important issues for diamond turning optical crystals are the tool wear, associated surface finish, and laser damage properties. We have found that careful selection and control of diamond turning parameters can yield production techniques for crystals previously considered incompatible with diamond turning. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Method of Dehalogenation using Diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    1999-02-26

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  8. Photo-stimulated low electron temperature high current diamond film field emission cathode

    DOEpatents

    Shurter; Roger Philips , Devlin; David James , Moody; Nathan Andrew , Taccetti; Jose Martin , Russell; Steven John

    2012-07-24

    An electron source includes a back contact surface having a means for attaching a power source to the back contact surface. The electron source also includes a layer comprising platinum in direct contact with the back contact surface, a composite layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in platinum in direct contact with the layer comprising platinum. The electron source also includes a nanocrystalline diamond layer in direct contact with the composite layer. The nanocrystalline diamond layer is doped with boron. A portion of the back contact surface is removed to reveal the underlying platinum. The electron source is contained in an evacuable container.

  9. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  10. Band structure parameters of metallic diamond from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, H.; Achatz, P.; Nicolaou, A.; Le Fèvre, P.; Bertran, F.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Bustarret, E.

    2015-07-01

    The electronic band structure of heavily boron doped diamond was investigated by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on (100)-oriented epilayers. A unique set of Luttinger parameters was deduced from a comparison of the experimental band structure of metallic diamond along the Δ (Γ X ) and Σ (Γ K ) high-symmetry directions of the reciprocal space, with theoretical band structure calculations performed both within the local density approximation and by an analytical k . p approach. In this way, we were able to describe the experimental band structure over a large three-dimensional region of the reciprocal space and to estimate hole effective masses in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental papers.

  11. Narrow-Linewidth Homogeneous Optical Emitters in Diamond Nanostructures via Silicon Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ruffin E.; Sipahigil, Alp; Sukachev, Denis D.; Zibrov, Alexander S.; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2016-04-01

    The negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV-) center in diamond is a bright source of indistinguishable single photons and a useful resource in quantum-information protocols. Until now, SiV- centers with narrow optical linewidths and small inhomogeneous distributions of SiV- transition frequencies have only been reported in samples doped with silicon during diamond growth. We present a technique for producing implanted SiV- centers with nearly lifetime-limited optical linewidths and a small inhomogeneous distribution. These properties persist after nanofabrication, paving the way for the incorporation of high-quality SiV- centers into nanophotonic devices.

  12. Properties of interfaces of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemanich, R. J.; Bergman, L.; Turner, K. F.; van der Weide, J.; Humphreys, T. P.

    1993-04-01

    Results related to two different interface aspects involving diamond are described: (1) the initial states of CVD diamond film growth, and (2) the negative electron affinity and formation of metal-diamond interfaces. The surface and interface properties are probed with STM, Raman scattering/photoluminescence and angle-resolved UV photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS). STM measurements of diamond nuclei on Si after various plasma growth processes show both flat and hillocked structures characteristics of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional growth modes, respectively. STS measurements show distinct I- V characteristics of the nuclei and the substrate. The presence of optical defects and the diamond quality are studied with micro-Raman/photoluminescence measurements. The results indicate an increased density of impurity-related defects during the initial stages of growth. The interface properties of Ti on natural crystal (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) surfaces are studied with ARUPS using 21.2 eV HeI emission. Prior to deposition the diamond (1 1 1) is chemically cleaned, and a sharp (0.5 eV FWHM) peak is observed at the position of the conduction band minimum, indicating a negative electron affinity surface. After a subsequent argon plasma clean this peak disappears, while the spectrum shows a shift of 0.5 eV towards higher energies. Upon sub-monolayer titanium deposition on (1 1 1) diamond, the negative electron affinity peak reappears. Further titanium depositions causes this titanium-induced negative electron affinity peak to be attenuated, indicating that the emission originates from the interface. A similar experiment, done on the diamond (1 0 0) surface, however, does not result in a negative electron affinity. By determining the relative positions of the diamond valence band edge and the titanium Fermi level, the Schottky barrier height of titanium on diamond is measured. A model, based on the Schottky barrier height of titanium on diamond, and the work function of titanium, is

  13. Measurement of the separation dependence of resonant energy transfer between CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystallite quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, Farbod; Ziama, Sannah P.; Curtis, Eric D.; Decca, Ricardo S.

    2011-08-01

    The separation dependence of the interaction between two resonant groups of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystallite quantum dots is studied at room temperature. A near-field scanning optical microscope is used to bring a group of monodisperse ˜6.5-nm-diam nanocrystallite quantum dots, which are attached to the microscope probe, into close proximity of an ˜8.5-nm-diam group of nanocrystallite quantum dots which are deposited on a solid immersion lens. Information extracted from photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, and absorption curves as well as numerical calculations of the energy levels show that the third excited excitonic energy level of the large quantum dots nearly matches the ground excitonic energy level for the small quantum dots. Quenching of the small quantum dots’ photoluminescence signal is observed as they approach the large quantum dots. On average, the separation between microscope probe and solid immersion lens changed in the 15-50-nm range. The transition probability between these two groups of quantum dots is calculated to be (2.60×10-47m6)/R6, within the experimentally obtained range of transition probabilities (0.70×10-47m6)/R6-(11.0×10-47m6)/R6 . The Förster radius, as a signature of energy transfer efficiency, is experimentally found to be in the 14-22-nm range.

  14. Thermally induced alkylation of diamond.

    PubMed

    Hoeb, Marco; Auernhammer, Marianne; Schoell, Sebastian J; Brandt, Martin S; Garrido, Jose A; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D

    2010-12-21

    We present an approach for the thermally activated formation of alkene-derived self-assembled monolayers on oxygen-terminated single and polycrystalline diamond surfaces. Chemical modification of the oxygen and hydrogen plasma-treated samples was achieved by heating in 1-octadecene. The resulting layers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. This investigation reveals that alkenes selectively attach to the oxygen-terminated sites via covalent C-O-C bonds. The hydrophilic oxygen-terminated diamond is rendered strongly hydrophobic following this reaction. The nature of the process limits the organic layer growth to a single monolayer, and FTIR measurements reveal that such monolayers are dense and well ordered. In contrast, hydrogen-terminated diamond sites remain unaffected by this process. This method is thus complementary to the UV-initiated reaction of alkenes with diamond, which exhibits the opposite reactivity contrast. Thermal alkylation increases the range of available diamond functionalization strategies and provides a means of straightforwardly forming single organic layers in order to engineer the surface properties of diamond. PMID:21090790

  15. Ion and electron bombardment-related ion emission during the analysis of diamond using secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman de la Mata, Berta; Dowsett, Mark G.

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, the ability to grow single crystal layers of both doped and pure diamonds has improved, and devices for applications in high power electronics and microelectronics are being developed, most of them based on boron doped diamond. In this work, convoluted angular and energy spectra (so-called secondary ion mass spectrometry energy spectra) have been measured for {sup 11}B{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sup +}, {sup 16}O{sup +}, CO{sup +} and CO{sub 2}{sup +} ions ejected from a single crystal boron doped diamond layer under ultralow energy oxygen and electron beam bombardment. A low energy tail was observed in the {sup 12}C{sup +}, CO{sup +}, and CO{sub 2}{sup +} signals, corresponding to ions produced in the gas phase. Changing the bombardment conditions, we have identified interaction with the electron beam as the main ionization mechanism. In the case of {sup 12}C{sup +} it appears that the gas phase ions are produced by electron stimulated desorption and postionization of surface species created by the oxygen beam. We have detected high signals for CO{sup +} and CO{sub 2}{sup +} ionized in the gas phase, which supports a mechanism previously suggested to explain the anomalously fast diamond erosion under oxygen ion beam bombardment. We also observe that some species appearing in the mass spectrum are produced by electron stimulated desorption and this needs to be remembered when analyzing these on insulating diamond with charge compensation.

  16. Biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited diamond.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Tsai, C; Gerberich, W W; Kruckeberg, L; Kania, D R

    1995-04-01

    The biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited (CVD) diamond surfaces has been assessed. Our results indicate that CVD diamond is as biocompatible as titanium (Ti) and 316 stainless steel (SS). First, the amount of adsorbed and 'denatured' fibrinogen on CVD diamond was very close to that of Ti and SS. Second, both in vitro and in vivo there appears to be less cellular adhesion and activation on the surface of CVD diamond surfaces compared to Ti and SS. This evident biocompatibility, coupled with the corrosion resistance and notable mechanical integrity of CVD diamond, suggests that diamond-coated surfaces may be highly desirable in a number of biomedical applications. PMID:7654876

  17. A procedure for diamond turning KDP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R.C.; Thompson, S.L.

    1995-07-07

    A procedure and the equipment necessary for single-point diamond flycutting (loosely referred to as diamond turning) potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are described. It is based on current KDP diamond turning activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), drawing upon knowledge from the Nova crystal finishing development during the 1980`s and incorporating refinements from our efforts during 1995. In addition to describing a step-by-step process for diamond turning KDP, specific discussions are included on the necessary diamond tool geometry and edge sharpness, cutting fluid, and crystal preparation, handling, cleaning, and inspection. The authors presuppose that the reader is already familiar with diamond turning practices.

  18. Advance leads to new diamond coatings applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cederquist, S.C.

    1999-06-01

    a significant advance in producing wear-resistant coatings has been achieved by scientists at the US Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) (Albuquerque, New Mexico) through the discovery of a stress-free amorphous (noncrystalline) diamond thin film material that has many of the same properties as its crystalline diamond cousin. The stress-free amorphous diamond coating is harder than any other known coating--with the exception of crystalline diamond. Crystalline diamond films are difficult to grow, and even harder to shape into parts. Thin films of amorphous diamond offer some flexibility, but are associated with problems like warping.

  19. Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Ramos, M. A.; Skukan, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Jakšić, M.

    2015-04-01

    Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that boron-doped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm2 and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be at Ep = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α0 and 5.68 MeV for α1) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work.

  20. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  1. Tuning the size and magnetic properties of ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Andersen, Henrik L; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Stingaciu, Marian; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-04-12

    Magnetically soft zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) nanocrystallites were successfully synthesized from cheap, abundant materials, using a mild, scalable hydrothermal route. The partial substitution of zinc by cobalt was generally observed to reduce the resulting crystallite sizes and the saturation magnetization. Post-synthesis annealing proved to be an efficient way of inducing crystallite growth to a certain limit, thereby improving the magnetic properties. In the annealing experiments crystallite growth was observed to be extremely dependent on the annealing atmosphere, with the size increasing from dynamic vacuum, to air, argon and helium. As prepared crystallite sizes were found to be between 4.74(1) nm and 5.90(1) nm. Heat treatment caused the growth to increase to anywhere between 7.9 nm and 21.7 nm. The largest crystallite sizes, 35.2(1) nm to 44.9(1) nm, were reached by compaction of the powders prior to heating. The largest magnetizations were generally observed in the largest samples containing the least amount of zinc. The highest observed saturation magnetization was 80.49(1) emu g(-1) measured for a sample with 35.2(1) nm sized crystallites of the composition Zn0.35Co0.66Fe1.99O4. PMID:26947563

  2. Superparamagnetic relaxation and magnetic anisotropy energy distribution in CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinone, A.J.; Samia, A.C.S.; Zhang, Z.J.

    1999-08-19

    Superparamagnetism is a unique feature of magnetic nanoparticles. Spinel ferrite nanoparticles provide great opportunities for studying the mechanism of superparamagnetic properties. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystallites have been synthesized with a microemulsion method. The neutron diffraction studies and the temperature-dependent decay of magnetization show the superparamagnetic relaxation occurring in these nanoparticles. The neutron diffraction shows a high degree of inversion with the 78% tetrahedral sites occupied by Fe{sup 3+} cations. The nanoparticles with a 12 nm diameter have a blocking temperature around 320 K. The field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements display a divergence below the blocking temperature. The energy barrier distribution of magnetic anisotropy is derived from the temperature-dependent decay of magnetization. The magnetic anisotropy is clearly the origin of the divergence in the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements. The energy barrier distribution function is used in a computer simulation of the zero-field-cooled magnetization, and the calculated magnetization has a great consistency with experimentally measured values. These studies on the magnetic anisotropy distribution elucidate the mechanism of superparamagnetic relaxation and facilitate the design and control of superparamagnetic properties in nanoparticles.

  3. Combined single-crystalline and polycrystalline CVD diamond substrates for diamond electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Vikharev, A. L. Gorbachev, A. M.; Dukhnovsky, M. P.; Muchnikov, A. B.; Ratnikova, A. K.; Fedorov, Yu. Yu.

    2012-02-15

    The fabrication of diamond substrates in which single-crystalline and polycrystalline CVD diamond form a single wafer, and the epitaxial growth of diamond films on such combined substrates containing polycrystalline and (100) single-crystalline CVD diamond regions are studied.

  4. Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Greg M. Swain, PI

    2009-03-10

    The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

  5. Optoelectronic properties of p-diamond/n-GaN nanowire heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Fabian Hetzl, Martin; Weiszer, Saskia; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin; Wolfer, Marco; Nebel, Christoph E.; Kato, Hiromitsu

    2015-10-21

    In this work, nanodiodes comprised of n-GaN nanowires on p-diamond substrates are investigated. The electric transport properties are discussed on the basis of simulations and determined experimentally for individual p-diamond/n-GaN nanodiodes by applying conductive atomic force microscopy. For low doping concentrations, a high rectification ratio is observed. The fabrication of a prototype nanoLED device on the basis of ensemble nanowire contacts is presented, showing simultaneous electroluminescence in the UV and the green spectral range which can be ascribed to hole injection into the n-GaN nanowires and electron injection into the p-diamond, respectively. In addition, the operation and heat distribution of the nanoLED device are visualized by active thermographic imaging.

  6. Synchrotron radiation x-ray beam profile monitor using chemical vapor deposition diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Togo; Takahashi, Sunao; Nariyama, Nobuteru; Hirono, Toko; Tachibana, Takeshi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2006-12-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) of a Si-doped polycrystalline diamond film fabricated using the chemical vapor deposition technique was employed to measure the profile of a synchrotron radiation pink x-ray beam emitted from an in-vacuum hybrid undulator at the SPring-8 facility. The spectrum of the section of the diamond film penetrated by the emitted visible red light exhibited a peak at 739 nm and a wideband structure extending from 550 to 700 nm. The PL intensity increased with the absorbed dose of the incident beam in the diamond within a dynamic range of 10{sup 3}. A two-dimensional distribution of the PL intensity revealed the undulator beam profile.

  7. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  8. Nanocrystalline diamond synthesized from C60

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Langehorst, F.; Jacobsen, S.; Liebske, C.

    2010-11-30

    A bulk sample of nanocrystalline cubic diamond with crystallite sizes of 5-12 nm was synthesized from fullerene C{sub 60} at 20(1) GPa and 2000 C using a multi-anvil apparatus. The new material is at least as hard as single crystal diamond. It was found that nanocrystalline diamond at high temperature and ambient pressure kinetically is more stable with respect to graphitization than usual diamonds.

  9. Diamond thin films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leksono, M.

    1991-09-05

    Undoped and boron doped diamond thin films have been successfully grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The films were characterized using x- ray diffraction techniques, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and various electrical measurements. The deposition rates of the diamond films were found to increase with the CH{sub 4} concentration, substrate temperature, and/or pressure, and at 1.0% methane, 900{degrees}C, and 35 Torr, the value was measured to be 0.87 {mu}m/hour. The deposition rate for boron doped diamond films, decreases as the diborane concentration increases. The morphologies of the undoped diamond films are strongly related to the deposition parameters. As the temperature increases from 840 to 925 C, the film morphology changes from cubo-octahedron to cubic structures, while as the CH{sub 4} concentration increases from 0.5 to 1.0%, the morphology changes from triangular (111) faces with a weak preferred orientation to square (100) faces. At 2.0% Ch{sub 4} or higher the films become microcrystalline with cauliflower structures. Scanning electron microscopy analyses also demonstrate that selective deposition of undoped diamond films has been successfully achieved using a lift-off process with a resolution of at least 2 {mu}m. The x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra demonstrate that high quality diamond films have been achieved. The concentration of the nondiamond phases in the films grown at 1.0% CH{sub 4} can be estimated from the Raman spectra to be at less than 0.2% and increases with the CH{sub 4} concentration. The Raman spectra of the boron doped diamond films also indicate that the presence of boron tends to suppress the nondiamond phases in the films. Infrared spectra of the undoped diamond films show very weak CH stretch peaks which suggest that the hydrogen concentration is very low.

  10. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  11. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  12. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  13. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  14. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  15. 46 CFR 45.33 - Diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diamond. 45.33 Section 45.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.33 Diamond. (a) Each vessel must be marked with the diamond mark described in figure 2 of § 45.35 amidships...

  16. Diamond device architectures for UV laser monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatori, S.; Girolami, M.; Oliva, P.; Conte, G.; Bolshakov, A.; Ralchenko, V.; Konov, V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper reviews the status of diamond detectors for UV laser monitoring and imaging. Single pixel detectors, position sensitive architectures, optically activated switches and sensor arrays for beam positioning and imaging are analyzed. The performances of natural diamond and synthetic diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition are compared to evaluate the suitability of such an outstanding material for the described applications.

  17. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  18. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  19. Diamond Molecules Found in Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. M. K.; Dahl, J. E. P.; Liu, S. G.; Olmstead, M. M.; Buerki, P. R.; Gat, R.

    We recently reported [1,2] the discovery and isolation of new members of the hydrogen-terminated diamond series, ˜1 to ˜2 nm sized higher diamondoids from petroleum. Crystallographic studies [1,2] revealed a wealth of diamond molecules that are nanometer-sized rods, helices, discs, pyramids, etc. Highly rigid, well-defined, readily derivatizable structures make them valuable molecular building blocks for nanotechnology. We now produce certain higher diamondoids in gram quantities. Although more stable than graphite particles of comparable size, higher diamondoids are extraordinarily difficult to synthesize. Attempts to synthesize them were abandoned in the 1980's. We examined extracts of diamond-containing materials synthesized by CO2 laser-induced gas-phase synthesis [3] and commercial CVD in an attempt to detect diamantane to undecamantane. However, high-sensitivity GCMS detected no diamondoids in these materials.

  20. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  1. Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities.

    PubMed

    Tomljenovic-Hanic, S; Steel, M J; de Sterke, C Martijn; Salzman, J

    2006-04-17

    Diamond based technologies offer a material platform for the implementation of qubits for quantum computing. The photonic crystal architecture provides the route for a scalable and controllable implementation of high quality factor (Q) nanocavities, operating in the strong coupling regime for cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we compute the photonic band structures and quality factors of microcavities in photonic crystal slabs in diamond, and compare the results with those of the more commonly-used silicon platform. We find that, in spite of the lower index contrast, diamond based photonic crystal microcavities can exhibit quality factors of Q=3.0x10(4), sufficient for proof of principle demonstrations in the quantum regime. PMID:19516502

  2. Diamond Quantum Devices in Biology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuzhou; Jelezko, Fedor; Plenio, Martin B; Weil, Tanja

    2016-06-01

    The currently available techniques for molecular imaging capable of reaching atomic resolution are limited to low temperatures, vacuum conditions, or large amounts of sample. Quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offer great potential to achieve single-molecule detection with atomic resolution under ambient conditions. Diamond nanoparticles could also be prepared with implanted NV centers, thereby generating unique nanosensors that are able to traffic into living biological systems. Therefore, this technique might provide unprecedented access and insight into the structure and function of individual biomolecules under physiological conditions as well as observation of biological processes down to the quantum level with atomic resolution. The theory of diamond quantum sensors and the current developments from their preparation to sensing techniques have been critically discussed in this Minireview. PMID:27120692

  3. Deep ultraviolet diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Granados, Eduardo; Spence, David J; Mildren, Richard P

    2011-05-23

    We present a synchronously pumped diamond Raman laser operating at 275.7 nm pumped by the 4th harmonic of a mode locked Nd:YVO4 laser. The laser had a threshold pump pulse energy of 5.8 nJ and generated up to 0.96 nJ pulses at 10.3% conversion efficiency. The results agree well with a numerical model that includes two-photon absorption of the pump and Stokes beams and uses a Raman gain coefficient of diamond of 100 cm/GW. We also report on the observation of nanometer scale two-photon assisted etching of the diamond crystal surfaces. PMID:21643343

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE: Diamond for bio-sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Christoph E.; Rezek, Bohuslav; Shin, Dongchan; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Yang, Nianjun

    2007-10-01

    A summary of photo- and electrochemical surface modifications applied on single-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond films is given. The covalently bonded formation of amine- and phenyl-linker molecule layers is characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry and field-effect transistor characterization experiments. Amine- and phenyl-layers are very different with respect to formation, growth, thickness and molecule arrangement. We detect a single-molecular layer of amine-linker molecules on diamond with a density of about 1014 cm-2 (10% of carbon bonds). Amine molecules are bonded only on initially H-terminated surface areas to carbon. In the case of electrochemical deposition of phenyl-layers, multi-layer formation is detected due to three-dimensional (3D) growths. This gives rise to the formation of typically 25 Å thick layers. The electrochemical grafting of boron-doped diamond works on H-terminated and oxidized surfaces. After reacting such films with hetero-bifunctional crosslinker molecules, thiol-modified ss-DNA markers are bonded to the organic system. Application of fluorescence and AFM on hybridized DNA films shows dense arrangements with densities of up to 1013 cm-2. The DNA is tilted by an angle of about 35° with respect to the diamond surface. Shortening the bonding time of thiol-modified ss-DNA to 10 min causes a decrease of DNA density to about 1012 cm-2. Application of AFM scratching experiments shows threshold removal forces of around 75 nN for DNA bonded on phenyl-linker molecules and of about 45 nN for DNA bonded to amine-linker molecules. DNA sensor applications using Fe(CN6)3-/4- mediator redox molecules, impedance spectroscopy and DNA-field effect transistor devices performances are introduced and discussed.

  5. Planar Field Emitters and High Efficiency Photocathodes Based on Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumant, Anirudha V. (Inventor); Baryshev, Sergey V. (Inventor); Antipov, Sergey P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of forming a field emitter comprises disposing a first layer on a substrate. The first layer is seeded with nanodiamond particles. The substrate with the first layer disposed thereon is maintained at a first temperature and a first pressure in a mixture of gases which includes nitrogen. The first layer is exposed to a microwave plasma to form a nitrogen doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film on the first layer, which has a percentage of nitrogen in the range of about 0.05 atom % to about 0.5 atom %. The field emitter has about 10.sup.12 to about 10.sup.14 emitting sites per cm.sup.2. A photocathode can also be formed similarly by forming a nitrogen doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film on a substrate similar to the field emitter, and then hydrogen terminating the film. The photocathode is responsive to near ultraviolet light as well as to visible light.

  6. Planar field emitters and high efficiency photocathodes based on ultrananocrystalline diamond

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Baryshev, Sergey V.; Antipov, Sergey P.

    2016-08-16

    A method of forming a field emitter comprises disposing a first layer on a substrate. The first layer is seeded with nanodiamond particles. The substrate with the first layer disposed thereon is maintained at a first temperature and a first pressure in a mixture of gases which includes nitrogen. The first layer is exposed to a microwave plasma to form a nitrogen doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film on the first layer, which has a percentage of nitrogen in the range of about 0.05 atom % to about 0.5 atom %. The field emitter has about 10.sup.12 to about 10.sup.14 emitting sites per cm.sup.2. A photocathode can also be formed similarly by forming a nitrogen doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film on a substrate similar to the field emitter, and then hydrogen terminating the film. The photocathode is responsive to near ultraviolet light as well as to visible light.

  7. Phosphorus donor incorporation in (1 0 0) homoepitaxial diamond: Role of the lateral growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinault-Thaury, M.-A.; Tillocher, T.; Kobor, D.; Habka, N.; Jomard, F.; Chevallier, J.; Barjon, J.

    2011-11-01

    With its superlative properties, diamond is a promising semiconductor for high power electronic applications in terms of operating temperature, breakdown voltage and thermal dissipation. The p-type doping is currently controlled but it is not the case for the n-type doping. In spite of the low solubility of substitutional donors bigger than carbon, n-type material can be achieved (with phosphorus dopant, Ed(P)=0.6 eV) via incorporation during the growth of diamond. In this study, we focus on the influence of growth parameters on the phosphorus incorporation in substitutional sites (methane ratio, miscut angle of vicinal substrates). We evidence the preferential incorporation of phosphorus donors in index planes such as (5 1 1) and (6 1 1).

  8. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  9. Enhancing secondary yield of a diamond amplifier using a nitrogen layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Shaw, Jonathan L.; Yater, Joan E.; Pate, Bradford B.

    2015-06-07

    A thin nitrogen-doped layer less than 4% of the total thickness in diamond thin film amplifier is shown to reduce losses of generated secondaries to the back contact, generated by a high energy primary electron beam compared to a thin film without the substitutional nitrogen layer modification. Simulation indicates that the losses due to absorption of diffusing electrons by the back contact may be considerably reduced by a factor of 2 (depending on field across the film, width of the nitrogen layer, and boron doping level), thereby mitigating undesirable effects associated with trace amounts of boron.

  10. White electroluminescence of n-ZnO:Al/p-diamond heterostructure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Can; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Li-Jun; Pan, Xiu-Fang; Li, Song-Kun; Jing, Long-Wei

    2013-08-01

    An n-ZnO:Al/p-boron-doped diamond heterostructure electroluminescent device is produced, and a rectifying behavior can be observed. The electroluminescence spectrum at room temperature exhibits two visible bands centred at 450 nm-485 nm (blue emission) and 570 nm-640 nm (yellow emission). Light emission with a luminance of 15 cd/m2 is observed from the electroluminescent device at a forward applied voltage of 85 V, which is distinguished from white light by the naked eye.

  11. Phase Transformation and Microstructure of Zn2Ti3O8 Nanocrystallite Powders Prepared Using the Hydrothermal Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Li; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Ko, Horng-Huey; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the phase transformation and microstructure of Zn2Ti3O8 nanocrystallite powders prepared using the hydrothermal process that includes TiCl4 and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as the initial materials. Differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, nanobeam electron diffraction, and high resolution TEM were utilized to characterize the transition behavior of zinc titanate precursor powders after calcination. Nanocrystalline Zn2Ti3O8 powders with a size range of about 5.0 to 8.0 nm were obtained when the precursor powders were calcined at 773 K (500 °C) for 1 hour. When the zinc titanate precursor powders were calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 1 hour, the cubic crystal of Zn2Ti3O8 with a o = 0.8399 ± 0.0003 nm still remained the predominant crystalline phase and the crystallite size increased to 20.0 nm. In addition, ZnTiO3 phase first appeared because of the 13.8 pct of Zn2Ti3O8 decomposition when the zinc titanate precursor powders were calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 1 hour. When the zinc titanate precursor powders were calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 9 hours, the Zn2Ti3O8 crystallites grew continuously to 80.0 nm and enhanced the crystallinity. When the precursor powders were calcined at 1273 K (1000 °C) for 1 hour, Zn2TiO4 crystallites with a o = 0.8461 ± 0.0002 nm were the predominant crystalline phase.

  12. Electron Microscopy of Natural and Epitaxial Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posthill, J. B.; George, T.; Malta, D. P.; Humphreys, T. P.; Rudder, R. A.; Hudson, G. C.; Thomas, R. E.; Markunas, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Semiconducting diamond films have the potential for use as a material in which to build active electronic devices capable of operating at high temperatures or in high radiation environments. Ultimately, it is preferable to use low-defect-density single crystal diamond for device fabrication. We have previously investigated polycrystalline diamond films with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and homoepitaxial films with SEM-based techniques. This contribution describes some of our most recent observations of the microstructure of natural diamond single crystals and homoepitaxial diamond thin films using TEM.

  13. Thermal Conductivity Of Natural Type IIa Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan; Vining, Cronin; Zoltan, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Report describes application of flash diffusivity method to measure thermal conductivity of 8.04 x 8.84 x 2.35-mm specimen of natural, white, type-IIa diamond at temperatures between 500 and 1,250 K. Provides baseline for comparison to isotopically pure (12C) diamond. Results used as reference against which diamond films produced by chemical-vapor deposition at low pressures can be compared. High thermal conductivity of diamond exploited for wide variety of applications, and present results also used to estimate heat-conduction performances of diamond films in high-temperature applications.

  14. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOEpatents

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  15. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOEpatents

    Casstevens, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  16. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H

    2005-06-21

    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  17. CVD diamond film oxidation resistance research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Longwei; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Lijun; Pan, Xiufang; Sun, Yiqing; Wang, Jinye; Sun, Hongtao

    2013-12-01

    Diamond films were deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system, and its oxidation experiments were carried out in atmospheric environmental condition by using a muffle furnace. Inatmospheric environment (the temperature is from 400°C to 900°C) the oxidation resistance of diamond thin films was investigated. The results indicate that under the atmospheric environment diamond thin film surface morphology did not change after 6 hours at 400°C. Diamond thin film surface morphology began to change after 2 hours at 600°C, and when time was extended to 4 hours, the diamond thin film surface morphology changed significantly. The surface morphology of diamond films began to change after 15 minutes at a 700°C condition and when time was extended to 6 hours diamond films were all destroyed. All the diamond films on the silicon substrate disappeared completely in 20 minutes at 900°C. The intact crystal face is the reason that natural diamond has stable chemical property. The crystal face of synthetic diamond film has a lot of defects, especially on the side. Oxidation of the diamond films begin with the grain boundary and defects.

  18. Cu-doped Cd1- x Zn x S alloy: synthesis and structural investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Indu; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Ahlawat, Rachna

    2016-03-01

    Copper doped Cd1- x Zn x S ( x ≤ 1) quantum dots have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Structural investigation of the synthesized nanomaterials has been carried out by powder XRD method. The XRD results have confirmed that as-prepared Cu-doped Cd1- x Zn x S quantum dots have hexagonal structure. The average nanocrystallite size was estimated in the range 2-12 nm using Debye-Scherrer formula. The lattice constants, lattice plane, d-spacing, unit cell volume, Lorentz factor and dislocation density were also calculated from XRD data. The change in particle size was observed with the change in Zn concentration. Furthermore, FTIR spectra of the prepared samples were observed for identification of COO- and O-H functional groups. The TEM study has also reported the same size range of nanoparticles. The increase in agglomeration has been observed with the increase in Zn concentration in the prepared samples.

  19. Piezoelectric actuated micro-resonators based on the growth of diamond on aluminum nitride thin films.

    PubMed

    Hees, J; Heidrich, N; Pletschen, W; Sah, R E; Wolfer, M; Williams, O A; Lebedev, V; Nebel, C E; Ambacher, O

    2013-01-18

    Unimorph heterostructures based on piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) and diamond thin films are highly desirable for applications in micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. In this paper, we present a new approach to combine thin conductive boron-doped as well as insulating nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) with sputtered AlN films without the need for any buffer layers between AlN and NCD or polishing steps. The zeta potentials of differently treated nanodiamond (ND) particles in aqueous colloids are adjusted to the zeta potential of AlN in water. Thereby, the nucleation density for the initial growth of diamond on AlN can be varied from very low (10(8) cm(-2)), in the case of hydrogen-treated ND seeding particles, to very high values of 10(11) cm(-2) for oxidized ND particles. Our approach yielding high nucleation densities allows the growth of very thin NCD films on AlN with thicknesses as low as 40 nm for applications such as microelectromechanical beam resonators. Fabricated piezo-actuated micro-resonators exhibit enhanced mechanical properties due to the incorporation of boron-doped NCD films. Highly boron-doped NCD thin films which replace the metal top electrode offer Young's moduli of more than 1000 GPa. PMID:23220817

  20. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  1. Diamond Nanowires: A Novel Platform for Electrochemistry and Matrix-Free Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Szunerits, Sabine; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed. PMID:26024422

  2. 'Diamond Jenness': Before the Grind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic imager mosaic of the rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was snapped on sol 177 before NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool, or 'Rat.'

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  3. 'Diamond Jenness': After the Grind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic imager mosaic taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rock dubbed 'Diamond Jenness.' It was taken on sol 177 (July 23, 2004) after the rover first ground into the rock with its rock abrasion tool, or 'Rat.' The rover later ground into the rock a second time. A sliced spherule, or 'blueberry,' is visible in the upper left corner of the hole.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  4. 'Diamond Jenness': A Tough Grind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic imager mosaic of the target area called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  5. Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Shwachman Diamond Syndrome Foundation Inc. Click the image below to ... more Your Help Can Directly Impact these Lives! Recent News 8th International Congress--Pictures and Presentation Abstracts 6th Annual Tough Mudder a Huge Success! Shop Amazon Smile for Father's Day Mother gives ...

  6. Saturation of CVD Diamond Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lucile S. Dauffy; Richard A. Lerche; Greg J. Schmid; Jeffrey A. Koch; Christopher Silbernagel

    2005-01-01

    A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a 400 nm laser (3.1 eV photons) in order to study the saturation of the wafer and its surrounding electronics. In a first experiment, the laser beam energy was increased from a few tens of a pJ to about 100 µJ, and the signal from the diamond was recorded until full saturation of the detection system was achieved. Clear saturation of the detection system was observed at about 40 V, which corresponds with the expected saturation at 10% of the applied bias (250V). The results indicate that the interaction mechanism of the 3.1 eV photons in the diamond (Ebandgap = 5.45 eV) is not a multi-photon process but is linked to the impurities and defects of the crystal. In a second experiment, the detector was irradiated by a saturating first laser pulse and then by a delayed laser pulse of equal or smaller amplitude with delays of 5, 10, and 20 ns. The results suggest that the diamond and associated electronics recover within 10 to 20 ns after a strong saturating pulse.

  7. High thermal conductivity of diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Patrick M.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this educational exercise were to demonstrate the high rate of heat flow from a synthetic diamond coupon and to compare it to a commonly used thermal conductor, such as copper. The principles of heat transfer by conduction and convection may also be demonstrated. A list of equipment and supplies and the procedure for the experiment are presented.

  8. A New Commercializable Route for the Preparation of Single-Source Precursors for Bulk, Thin-Film, and Nanocrystallite I-III-IV Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H. C.; Harris, Jerry D.; Fanwick, Philip E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2004-01-01

    We report a new simplified synthetic procedure for commercial manufacture of ternary single source precursors (SSP). This new synthetic process has been successfully implemented to fabricate known SSPs on bulk scale and the first liquid SSPs to the semiconductors CuInSe2 and AgIn(x)S(y). Single crystal X-ray determination reveals the first unsolvated ternary AgInS SSP. SSPs prepared via this new route have successfully been used in a spray assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to deposit polycrystalline thin films, and for preparing ternary nanocrystallites.

  9. Electric-pulse discharge as a novel technique to synthesize {beta}-SiC nano-crystallites from liquid-phase organic precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Du Kai; Yang Haibin Wei Ronghui; Li Minghui; Yu Qingjiang; Fu Wuyou; Yang Nan; Zhu Hongyang; Zeng Yi

    2008-01-08

    {beta}-SiC nano-crystallites have been prepared by electric pulses discharged in liquid-phase organic precursors. The composition and crystal structure of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electronic and transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the sample synthesized from the precursor (hexamethyl disilane) is composed of uniform grains with only 8 nm, while the one synthesize from the other precursor (dimethyl silicone oil) is of better crystalline structure with average grain size 22 nm, which may be attributed to discharge in liquid-phase source and short discharge intervals.

  10. Diamond/diamond-like carbon coated nanotube structures for efficient electron field emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimitrijevic, Steven (Inventor); Withers, James C. (Inventor); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a nanotube coated with diamond or diamond-like carbon, a field emitter cathode comprising same, and a field emitter comprising the cathode. It is also directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from a field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes by coating the nanotube with diamond or diamond-like carbon. In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from an electron field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes, which method comprises coating the nanotubes with diamond or diamond-like carbon.

  11. Multiple Diamond Anvil (MDA) apparatus using nano-polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irifune, T.; Kunimoto, T.; Tange, Y.; Shinmei, T.; Isobe, F.; Kurio, A.; Funakoshi, K.

    2011-12-01

    Thanks to the great efforts by Dave Mao, Bill Bassett, Taro Takahashi, and their colleagues at the University of Rochester through 1960s-70s, diamond anvil cell (DAC) became a major tool to investigate the deep Earth after its invention by scientists at NBS in 1958. DAC can now cover almost the entire pressure and temperature regimes of the Earth's interior, which seems to have solved the longstanding debate on the crystal structure of iron under the P-T conditions of the Earth's inner core. In contrast, various types of static large-volume presses (LVP) have been invented, where tungsten carbide has conventionally been used as anvils. Kawai-type multianvil apparatus (MA), which utilize 6 first-stage harden steel and 8 tungsten carbide anvils, is the most successful LVP, and has been used for accurate measurements of phase transitions, physical properties, element partitioning, etc. at high pressure and temperature. However, pressures using tungsten carbide as the second-stage anvils have been limited to about 30 GPa due to significant plastic deformation of the anvils. Efforts have been made to expand this pressure limit by replacing tungsten carbide anvils with harder sintered diamond (SD) anvils over the last two decades, but the pressures available in KMA with SD anvils have still been limited to below 100 GPa. We succeeded to produce nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD or HIME-Diamond) in 2003, which is known to have ultrahigh hardness, very high toughness and elastic stiffness, high transmittance of light, relatively low thermal conductivity. These properties are feasible for its use as anvils, and some preliminary experiments of application of NPD anvils to laser heated DAC have successfully made in the last few years. We are now able to synthesize NPD rods with about 1cm in both diameter and length using a newly constructed 6000-ton KMA at Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, and have just started to apply this new polycrystalline diamond as anvils

  12. Medical applications of diamond particles and surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Boehm, R. D.; Sumant, A. V.

    2011-04-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon that is being considered for use in several medical applications. Ramachandran determined that the crystal structure of diamond consists of two close packed interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices; one lattice is shifted with respect to the other along the elemental cube space diagonal by one-quarter of its length. If one approximates carbon atoms as equal diameter rigid spheres, the filling of this construction is 34%. Due to the carbon-carbon distance (1.54 {angstrom}), diamond crystal exhibits the highest atomic density (1.76 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) of any solid. The very high bond energy between two carbon atoms (83 kcal/mol) and the directionality of tetrahedral bonds are the main reasons for the high strength of diamond. Diamond demonstrates the highest Vickers hardness value of any material (10,000 kg/mm{sup 2}). The tribological properties of diamond are also impressive; the coefficient of friction of polished diamond is 0.07 in argon and 0.05 in humid air. Diamond is resistant to corrosion except in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 C. In addition, type IIa diamond exhibits the highest thermal conductivity of all materials (20 W cm{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature).

  13. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or

  14. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  15. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  16. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  17. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  18. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  19. Electrical transport behavior of n-ZnO nanorods/p-diamond heterojunction device at higher temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, D. D.; Li, H. D.; Cheng, S. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Yu, Q.; Yang, Y. Z.

    2012-08-01

    The n-ZnO nanorods (NRs)/p-diamond heterojunction structures are fabricated by thermal vapor growing ZnO NRs on chemical vapor deposited boron-doped diamond film. Temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the p-n heterojunction are examined from 25 °C to 220 °C. The turn-on voltage and ideality factor of the devices decrease with increasing temperature, whereas the reverse saturation current increases at higher temperatures. The carrier injection efficiency is effectively enhanced at high temperatures. The electrical transport behaviors are investigated at various temperatures and bias voltages.

  20. Effects of FeNi-phosphorus-carbon system on crystal growth of diamond under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Bi, Ning; Li, Shang-Sheng; Su, Tai-Chao; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Hu, Qiang; Jia, Xiao-Peng; Ma, Hong-An

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the crystal growth of diamond from the FeNi-Carbon system with additive phosphorus at high pressures and high temperatures of 5.4-5.8 GPa and 1280-1360 °C. Attributed to the presence of additive phosphorus, the pressure and temperature condition, morphology, and color of diamond crystals change obviously. The pressure and temperature condition of diamond growth increases evidently with the increase of additive phosphorus content and results in the moving up of the V-shape region. The surfaces of the diamonds also become coarse as the additive phosphorus added in the growth system. Raman spectra indicate that diamonds grown from the FeNi-phosphorus-carbon system have more crystal defects and impurities. This work provides a new way to enrich the doping of diamond and improve the experimental exploration for future material applications. Project supported by the Doctoral Fund of Henan Polytechnic University, China (Grant Nos. B2013-013 and B2013-044) and the Research Projects of Science and Technology of the Education Department of Henan Province, China (Grant Nos. 14B430026 and 12A430010).