Science.gov

Sample records for doris robertson proceedings

  1. The International DORIS Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, G.; Fagard, H.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    The DORIS system was initially developed for precise orbit determination and precise positioning on the Earth. In continuation of the DORIS Pilot Experiment initiated in 1999, the International DORIS Service (IDS) officially started on July 1, 2003 as an IAG Service after an official acceptance from the IAG Executive Committee at the IUGG General Assembly in Sapporo, Japan. Following this decision, the IERS Directing board accepted the DORIS Service as a new IERS external service. Six satellites carrying DORIS receivers are currently in orbit, permanently observed by 56 well-distributed tracking stations. Among these, three satellites (Jason-1, ENVISAT and SPOT5) are equipped with the new generation of DORIS receivers and were launched between December 2001 and May 2002. The DORIS receivers on these three spacecraft include a navigation function, called DIODE. The permanent tracking network has been constantly improved and specific campaigns of observations have been conducted in Wettzell, Gads and in Antarctica. Recent DORIS performances for precise positioning were improved by this large increase in the satellite constellation, leading to almost 1 cm precision for weekly station coordinates. Significant improvements were also obtained in Polar Motion estimations, leading to 1.0-1.5 mas daily results. In 2003 and 2004, several steps were taken to improve the operations of the IDS, as well as its international cooperation, by organizing several specific analysis campaigns. The International DORIS Service has now started its scientific activity on a routine basis for the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS).

  2. The International Doris Service (IDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, G.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    The DORIS system was developed for precise orbit determination and precise positioning on Earth. In continuation of the DORIS Pilot Experiment initiated in 1999, the International DORIS Service (IDS) officially started on July 1, 2003 as an IAG Service after the decision of the IAG Executive Committee at the IUGG General Assembly in Sapporo. Following this decision, the IERS Directing board accepted the DORIS Service as a new IERS external service. Six satellites fitted out with DORIS receivers are currently flying, permanently observed by 56 well distributed stations. Among them, three satellites equipped with new DORIS receivers (Jason-1, ENVISAT and SPOT5) have been successfully launched between Dec. 2001 and May 2002. All of them host a navigation function, called DIODE. Two new stations have been added to the permanent network in 2003: Crozet (French Southern Indian Ocean territories) and Jiufeng (China). In response to proposals submitted by candidate host agencies in the frame of IDS, the following stations were installed: Wettzell (Germany), Gavdos (radar altimeter calibration site in Crete), Lambert and Sorsdal (Glacier movement monitoring in Antarctica) in Winter 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. The 2003 and early 2004 highlights include the renovation of a number of stations, reorganization of the Data Centers, and new developments in the coordination of analyses. While the Analysis Centers continue their support to IERS, the Analysis Coordinator and the Central Bureau are jointly developing comparison and combination activities that eventually aim at benefiting to the IERS Combination Pilot Project.

  3. LOD estimation from DORIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Filler, Vratislav; Buday, Michal; Hugentobler, Urs

    2016-04-01

    The difference between astronomically determined duration of the day and 86400 seconds is called length of day (LOD). The LOD could be also understood as the daily rate of the difference between the Universal Time UT1, based on the Earth rotation, and the International Atomic Time TAI. The LOD is estimated using various Satellite Geodesy techniques as GNSS and SLR, while absolute UT1-TAI difference is precisely determined by VLBI. Contrary to other IERS techniques, the LOD estimation using DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by satellite) measurement did not achieve a geodetic accuracy in the past, reaching the precision at the level of several ms per day. However, recent experiments performed by IDS (International DORIS Service) analysis centre at Geodetic Observatory Pecny show a possibility to reach accuracy around 0.1 ms per day, when not adjusting the cross-track harmonics in the Satellite orbit model. The paper presents the long term LOD series determined from the DORIS solutions. The series are compared with C04 as the reference. Results are discussed in the context of accuracy achieved with GNSS and SLR. Besides the multi-satellite DORIS solutions, also the LOD series from the individual DORIS satellite solutions are analysed.

  4. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  5. GSFC DORIS Contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Bail, K.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA GSFC DORIS analysis center has provided weekly DORIS solutions from November 1992 to January 2009 (839 SINEX files) of station positions and Earth Orientation Parameters for inclusion in the DORIS contribution to ITRF2008. The NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination software was used to process the orbits and produce the normal equations. The weekly SINEX gscwd 10 submissions included DORIS data from Envisat, TOPEX!Poseidon, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5. The orbits were mostly seven days in length (except for weeks with data gaps or maneuvers). The processing used the GRACE-derived EIGEN-GL04S1 gravity model, updated modeling for time-variable gravity, the GOT4.7 ocean tide model and tuned satellite-specific macromodels for SPOT -2, SPOT -3, SPOT -4, SPOT-5 and TOPEX/Poseidon. The University College London (UCL) radiation pressure model for Envisat improves nonconservative force modeling for this satellite, reducing the median residual empirical daily along-track accelerations from 3.75 x 10-9 m/s(exp 2) with the a priori macromodel to 0.99 x 10-9 m/s2 with the UCL model. For the SPOT and Envisat DORIS satellite orbits from 2003 to 2008, we obtain average RMS overlaps of 0.8-0.9 cm in the radial direction, 2.1-3.4 cm cross-track, and 1.7-2.3 cm along-track. The RMS orbit differences between Envisat DORIS-only and SLR & DORIS orbits are 1.1 cm radially, 6.4 cm along-track and 3.7 cm cross-track and are characterized by systematic along-track mean offsets due to the Envisat DORIS system time bias of +/- 5-1O micro s. We obtain a good agreement between the geometrically-determined geocenter parameters and geocenter parameters determined dynamically from analysis of the degree one terms of the geopotential. The intrinsic RMS weekly position repeatability with respect to the IDS-3 combination ranges from 2.5 to 3.0 cm in 1993-1994 to 1.5 cm in 2007-2008.

  6. GSFC DORIS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bail, K.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.

    2010-06-01

    The NASA GSFC DORIS analysis center has provided weekly DORIS solutions from November 1992 to January 2009 (839 SINEX files) of station positions and Earth Orientation Parameters for inclusion in the DORIS contribution to ITRF2008. The NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination software was used to process the orbits and produce the normal equations. The weekly SINEX gscwd10 submissions included DORIS data from Envisat, TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5. The orbits were mostly seven days in length (except for weeks with data gaps or maneuvers). The processing used the GRACE-derived EIGEN-GL04S1 gravity model, updated modeling for time-variable gravity, the GOT4.7 ocean tide model and tuned satellite-specific macromodels for SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5 and TOPEX/Poseidon. The University College London (UCL) radiation pressure model for Envisat improves nonconservative force modeling for this satellite, reducing the median residual empirical daily along-track accelerations from 3.75 × 10 -9 m/s 2 with the a priori macromodel to 0.99 × 10 -9 m/s 2 with the UCL model. For the SPOT and Envisat DORIS satellite orbits from 2003 to 2008, we obtain average RMS overlaps of 0.8-0.9 cm in the radial direction, 2.1-3.4 cm cross-track, and 1.7-2.3 cm along-track. The RMS orbit differences between Envisat DORIS-only and SLR & DORIS orbits are 1.1 cm radially, 6.4 cm along-track and 3.7 cm cross-track and are characterized by systematic along-track mean offsets due to the Envisat DORIS system time bias of ±5-10 μs. We obtain a good agreement between the geometrically-determined geocenter parameters and geocenter parameters determined dynamically from analysis of the degree one terms of the geopotential. The intrinsic RMS weekly position repeatability with respect to the IDS-3 combination ranges from 2.5 to 3.0 cm in 1993-1994 to 1.5 cm in 2007-2008.

  7. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane

    2009-04-01

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the ΛCDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of Ωeff0 approx 4 × 10-6, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10-8 and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state weff < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  8. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  9. Improved DORIS accuracy for precise orbit determination and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Jayles, Christian; Tavernier, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 and 2002, 3 more DORIS satellites were launched. Since then, all DORIS results have been significantly improved. For precise orbit determination, 20 cm are now available in real-time with DIODE and 1.5 to 2 cm in post-processing. For geodesy, 1 cm precision can now be achieved regularly every week, making now DORIS an active part of a Global Observing System for Geodesy through the IDS.

  10. The DORIS Data Center at the CDDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Dube, Maurice

    2000-01-01

    The DORIS system (Doppler Orbitography and Radio positioning Integrated by Satellite) was designed and developed by CNES, the National Geographic Institute, IGN (Institut G6ographique National), and the Space Geodesy Research Group, GRGS (Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie Spatiale - CNES/CNRS/Universite Paul Sabatier) to meet new needs for the precise determination of satellite positions on their orbits and for precise positioning of terrestrial beacons. This system has been carried since 1990 on the French SPOT 2 satellite, since 1992 on the French/American satellite TOPEX/POSEIDON, and since 1998 on the French SPOT 4 satellite. It will be part of the JASON (CNES/NASA) and ENVISAT (ESA) altimetric missions and also the SPOT follow-on Earth observation missions. DORIS is a radio-electrical system which takes Doppler measurements between a satellite in low orbit and a permanent global network for the purpose, on the one hand, of determining the satellite's position in orbit, and on the other hand, of locating ground beacons with a high degree of precision.

  11. About the Compatibility of DORIS and VLBI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Il'in, Gennady; Smolentsev, Sergey; Sergeev, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the compatibility of the DORIS and VLBI observations at Badary Observatory. The DORIS beacon stands at 100-m distance from the main radio telescope dish and transmits signals on two frequencies: 2036.25 MHz and 401.25 MHz. The latter frequency is modulated to send messages containing an ID number, timing information, data from the meteorological sensors, and engineering data (e.g., power). Both frequencies affect the S/X band radio telescope receivers. The parameters of the DORIS signals were measured at the outputs of the S/X band intermediate frequency amplifier. It was found that: (1) The level of RFI, produced by the DORIS beacon, practically corresponds to the level of the system (antenna plus receiver) noise signal and does not overload the S/X band receivers. (2) The DORIS 401.25 MHz signal is out of the frequency bands recorded during standard VLBI sessions. As a result, RFI from DORIS does not affect VLBI observations. This conclusion was confirmed after data correlations of actual VLBI observations that were conducted with the DORIS beacon turned on/off.

  12. Analysis of HY2A precise orbit determination using DORIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fan; Peng, Bibo; Zhang, Yu; Evariste, Ngatchou Heutchi; Liu, Jihua; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhong, Min; Lin, Mingsen; Wang, Nazi; Chen, Runjing; Xu, Houze

    2015-03-01

    HY2A is the first Chinese marine dynamic environment satellite. The payloads include a radar altimeter to measure the sea surface height in combination with a high precision orbit to be determined from tracking data. Onboard satellite tracking includes GPS, SLR, and the DORIS DGXX receiver which delivers phase and pseudo-range measurements. CNES releases raw phase and pseudo-range measurements with RINEX DORIS 3.0 format and pre-processed Doppler range-rate with DORIS 2.2 data format. However, the VMSI software package developed by Van Martin Systems, Inc which is used to estimate HY2A DORIS orbits can only process Doppler range-rate but not the DORIS phase data which are available with much shorter latency. We have proposed a method of constructing the phase increment data, which are similar to range-rate data, from RINEX DORIS 3.0 phase data. We compute the HY2A orbits from June, 2013 to August, 2013 using the POD strategy described in this paper based on DORIS 2.2 range-rate data and our reconstructed phase increment data. The estimated orbits are evaluated by comparing with the CNES precise orbits and SLR residuals. Our DORIS-only orbits agree with the precise GPS + SLR + DORIS CNES orbits radially at 1-cm and about 3-cm in the other two directions. SLR test with the 50° cutoff elevation shows that the CNES orbit can achieve about 1.1-cm accuracy in radial direction and our DORIS-only POD solutions are slightly worse. In addition, other HY2A DORIS POD concerns are discussed in this paper. Firstly, we discuss the frequency offset values provided with the RINEX data and find that orbit accuracy for the case when the frequency offset is applied is worse than when it is not applied. Secondly, HY2A DORIS antenna z-offsets are estimated using two kinds of measurements from June, 2013 to August, 2013. The results show that the measurement errors contribute a total of about 2-cm difference of estimated z-offset. Finally, we estimate HY2A orbits selecting 3 days with

  13. Improved DORIS Reference Frame Solution from NASA GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Chinn, D. S.; Le Bail, K.; Zelensky, N. P.; Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Beall, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    At GSFC, since 2008, we have been routinely processing data to DORIS and SLR satellites from 1993. A SINEX time series, based on processing of DORIS data from 1993 to 2008 (designated wd10) was included in the IDS combination for ITRF2008 (Le Bail et al., 2010; Valette et al., 2010). We have updated this series with the addition of new satellites Cryosat2 and Jason-2, and the new series (designated wd12) is routinely submitted to the IDS combination center for inclusion in the DORIS operational combination. In preparation for an eventual reprocessing of all the DORIS data for eventual inclusion in a new ITRF we are now updating our processing standards. As a first step, we update to the ITRF2008 reference frame as expressed through DPOD2008. In addition, we apply the GMF and GPT models for the troposphere, and we update the modeling for the change in pitch of SPOT-5 solar arrays after January 2008. Finally, we consider updated standards for static and time-variable gravity modeling. With this base series, we compute cumulative solution, expressed in ITRF2008, and examine the week-by-week station solution parameters, in particular scale, WRMS and Helmert transformation parameters. Finally we consider a joint solution with SLR, where the DORIS system is tied to SLR in two ways, first through the orbit computations using satellites tracked by both SLR and DORIS (e.g. TOPEX, Envisat, Jason-2, Cryosat2), and second through explicit ties at collocated sites. As one of the means of testing of these DORIS-only and SLR+DORIS solutions, we examine the vertical rates at sites in the vicinity of tide gauges.

  14. Real-time on-board orbit determination with DORIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthias, J.-P.; Jayles, C.; Pradines, D.

    1993-01-01

    A spaceborne orbit determination system is being developed by the French Space Agency (CNES) for the SPOT 4 satellite. It processes DORIS measurements to produce an orbit with an accuracy of about 50O meters rms. In order to evaluate the reliability of the software, it was combined with the MERCATOR man/machine interface and used to process the TOPEX/Poseidon DORIS data in near real time during the validation phase of the instrument, at JPL and at CNES. This paper gives an overview of the orbit determination system and presents the results of the TOPEX/Poseidon experiment.

  15. Status of DORIS stations in Antarctica for precise geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.; Amalvict, M.; Shibuya, K.

    2005-01-01

    In Antarctica, besides the quite numerous GPS stations, four DORIS stations are permanently operating. In addition to the permanent DORIS stations, episodic campaigns took place at DomeC/Conccordia and on Sorsdal and Lambert glaciers. In this paper, we first collect general information concerning the stations and the campaigns (location, start of measurements, etc). We then present the results of observations of the permanent stations keeping in mind that we are primarily interested here in the vertical component, which is the most uncertain component.

  16. Breakdown: Mind Terror in Sylvia Plath and Doris Lessing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Marie

    Both Sylvia Plath and Doris Lessing use themes prevalent in Gothic horror tales--fear, madness, dissolution of personality, the dream journey, and the grotesque--but both writers make use of these themes in their own inimitable way. This paper discusses Plath's "The Bell Jar" and Lessing's "Briefing for a Descent into Hell" in terms of these…

  17. Status of the DORIS Contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, J. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Le Bail, K.; Moore, P.

    2009-04-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS), in operation since 2003, submitted three sets of solutions to ITRF2005 from the IGN/JPL, LEGOS/CLS, and INASAN analysis centers, but no DORIS technique combination. Since that time new analysis centers, have become operational, including the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), and the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Other analysis centers who have made SINEX submissions for inclusion in ITRF2008, including Geoscience Australia (GAU), the University of Newcastle (NCL), and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSC). These analysis centers run different software, including Gypsy (IGN & INASAN), GINS (LCA), Bernese (GOP), NAPEOS (ESOC), GEODYN (Geoscience Australia and NASA GSFC) and FAUST (NCL). Each center applies own analysis strategy in the preparation of their SINEX contribution. The objective is to combine these analysis center contributions into a single IDS combination. The SINEX submissions are processed using the CATREF software, and we describe the results in comparison to ITRF2005. For example, preliminary results already obtained for the period from 1999 to 2008 show a strong improvement in the scale agreement between the analysis centers. We also describe the results of detailed intercenter orbit comparisons using DORIS satellite orbits, which allow us to diagnose potential anomalies in the processing and implement improvements in the future DORIS/IDS ITRF submission.

  18. In Her Own Name? Public Relations Pioneer Doris Fleischman Bernays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Susan

    The first married woman to be issued a United States passport (1925) in her maiden name Doris E. Fleischman and her husband, Edward L. Bernays, maintained a partnership in one of the country's premier public relations firms until Fleischman's death in 1980. Yet although Bernays received tremendous popular, trade, and scholarly media attention,…

  19. Proceedings:

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.S.

    1987-12-01

    With increasingly stringent requirements on the performance of accelerators and storage rings, there is a wide interest in modeling-based control. The organizers recognized the need to have an overview and discussion on the current status of modeling-based accelerator control and how advances in computer technology, software engineering, and expert systems can impact control and diagnosis. As a result, a workshop was organized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on August 17-18, 1987. It was made possible by the joint support of the AGS, NSLS and Applied Mathematics Departments of BNL. The talks and discussions were divided into three main topics: elements of modeling, knowledge representation, and integration of modeling-based control systems with AI and workstations. This volume is the unedited collection of papers, presented at the Workshop. Separate abstracts were prepared for 10 papers in these proceedings.

  20. DORIS Satellite Phase Center Determination and Consequences on the Derived Scale of the Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal R.; Haines, Bruce; Kuang, Da

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the analysis of several years of Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (Doris) data undertaken to estimate daily determination of satellite antenna phase center corrections. This was done on a satellite by satellite basis. For each DORIS satellite, we considered long-term time series of such individual estimations, looking for possible biases, discontinuities, trends or annual signals. The analysis compared DORIS to GPS estimates for common satellites (Jason and TOPEX/Poseidon).

  1. 13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. NO. 5 POWER HACKSAW (FOREGROUND) AND WELLS METAL BAND SAW (BACKGROUND). VIEW SOUTHEAST - Oldman Boiler Works, Office/Machine Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. Perturbations of the Robertson-Walker space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai Chan

    This dissertation contains three parts consisting of thirteen chapters. Each chapter is self-contained, and can be read independently. In chapter 1, we have presented a complete set of cosmological perturbation equations using the covariant equations. We also present an explicit solution for the evolution of large scale cosmological density perturbations assuming a perfect fluid. In chapter 2, two independent gauge-invariant variables are derived which are continuous at any transition where there is a discontinuous change in pressure. In chapter 3, we present a Newtonian counterpart to the general relativistic covariant approach to cosmological perturbations. In chapter 4, we present a simple way of deriving cosmological perturbation equations in generalized gravity theories which accounts for metric perturbations in gauge-invariant way. We apply this approach to the f(phi,R)-omega(phi)phi, cphi;c Lagrangian. In chapter 5, we have derived second order differential equations for cosmological perturbations in a Robertson-Walker space, for each of the following gravity theories: f(R) gravity, generalized scalar-tensor gravity, gravity with non-minimally coupled scalar field, and induced gravity. Asymptotic solutions are derived for the large and small scale limits. In chapter 6, classical evolution of density perturbations in the large scale limit is clarified in the generalized gravity theories. In chapter 7, we apply our method to a theory with the Lagrangian L approximately f(R) + gamma RR;c;c. In chapter 8, T(M)ab;b equals 0 is shown in a general ground. In chapter 9, the origin of the Friedmann-like behavior of the perturbed model in the large scale limit is clarified in a comoving gauge. Thus, when the imperfect fluid contributions are negligible, the large scale perturbations in a nearly flat background evolve like separate Friedmann models. In chapter 10, we generalize the perturbation equations applicable to a class of generalized gravity theories with multi

  3. Combined Weekly Coordinate Solutions from SLR and DORIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F.; Chinn, D.; Le Bail, K.; Zelensky, N.; Melachroinos, S.; Beall, J.

    2011-01-01

    In International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) 2005 and ITRF2008, the approach for the construction of solutions by the IERS has been for individual analysis centers of each technique to process geodetic tracking data, and for each technique to develop a solution (or contribution) that is integrated into the final ITRF solution by careful combination of the technique solutions. The connections between the geodetic networks are realized by the application of local ties. In an alternate approach, we may assure processing homogeneity by creating normal equations for different techniques with the same orbit determination software, using identically derived algorithms. Another derivative of this approach is to realize the ties between the techniques using satellites tracked with multiple techniques; in effect tieing the networks together using satellite dynamics. In this solution, we develop a time series and a set of cumulative solutions from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) & Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) based on homogeneous processing with the NASA GEODYN precise orbit determination suite of programs, where we jointly combine weekly the SLR data to Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, and Stella with the DORIS data from SPOT2-SPOT5, as well as satellites that utilize both techniques (TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-2). We discuss the modeling that is applied including upgrades implemented since the submission of the GSC ITRF2008 contributions for IDS. Firstly, we compare the SLR-only solutions comprising four geodetic satellites with the standard approach of utilizing only Lageos1 & Lageos2. Secondly, we evaluate the impact on the DORIS coordinates of the joint analysis with the SLR data.

  4. The preembryo as potential: a reply to John A. Robertson.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Richard A

    1991-12-01

    ... In conclusion, let me agree with Robertson that reasonable persons may indeed disagree on concrete conclusions touching preembryo freezing, discard, research, and diagnosis. But it is one of the challenges to reasonable people to give reasons for their conclusions. When Robertson notes that preembryo research "has been found acceptable by most bodies that have examined the subject," he leaves unstated the fact that many of these bodies have not given reasons for their conclusions. This is especially true of the Warnock Committee. It is definitely not true of John Robertson. He has attempted to give analytic support for his rather permissive positions. I find this support too fragile for its assigned task, though I hasten to say that this does not mean that only a totally prohibitive position is defensible or is mine. Prima facie still means prima facie. PMID:11645712

  5. Error Analysis of Weekly Station Coordinates in the DORIS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Simon D. P.; Willis, Pascal

    2006-11-01

    Twelve years of DORIS data from 31 selected sites of the IGN/JPL (Institut Géographique National/Jet Propulsion Laboratory) solution IGNWD05 have been analysed using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) in an attempt to understand the nature of the noise in the weekly station coordinate time-series. Six alternative noise models in a total of 12 different combinations were used as possible descriptions of the noise. The six noise models can be divided into two natural groups, temporally uncorrelated (white) noise and temporally correlated (coloured) noise. The noise can be described as a combination of variable white noise and one of flicker, first-order Gauss Markov or power-law noise. The data set as a whole is best described as a combination of variable white noise plus flicker noise. The variable white noise, which is white noise with variable amplitude that is a function of the weekly formal errors multiplied by an estimated scale factor, shows a dependence on site latitude and the number of DORIS-equipped satellites used in the solution. The latitude dependence is largest in the east component due to the near polar orbit of the SPOT satellites. The amplitude of the flicker noise is similar in all three components and equal to about 20 mm/year1/4. There appears to be no latitude dependence of the flicker noise amplitude. The uncertainty in rates (site velocities) after 12 years is just under 1 mm/year. These uncertainties are around 3 4 times larger than if only variable white noise had been assumed, i.e., no temporally correlated noise. A rate uncertainty of 1 mm/year after 12 years in the vertical is similar to that achieved using Global Positioning System (GPS) data but it takes DORIS twice as long to reach 1 mm/year than GPS in the horizontal. The analysis has also helped to identify sites with either anomalous noise characteristics or large noise amplitudes, and tested the validity of previously proposed discontinuities. In addition, several new offsets

  6. Behavior of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Jambrina, L.

    2016-03-01

    In Stoica (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 71-80, 2016) a regularization procedure is suggested for regularizing Big Bang singularities in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes. We argue that this procedure is only appliable to one case of Big Bang singularities and does not affect other types of singularities.

  7. Behavior of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Jambrina, L.

    2016-08-01

    In Stoica (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 71-80, 2016) a regularization procedure is suggested for regularizing Big Bang singularities in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes. We argue that this procedure is only appliable to one case of Big Bang singularities and does not affect other types of singularities.

  8. Using DORIS measurements for modeling the vertical total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) system was originally developed for precise orbit determination of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. Beyond that, it is highly qualified for modeling the distribution of electrons within the Earth's ionosphere. It measures with two frequencies in L-band with a relative frequency ratio close to 5. Since the terrestrial ground beacons are distributed quite homogeneously and several LEOs are equipped with modern receivers, a good applicability for global vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling can be expected. This paper investigates the capability of DORIS dual-frequency phase observations for deriving VTEC and the contribution of these data to global VTEC modeling. The DORIS preprocessing is performed similar to commonly used global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) preprocessing. However, the absolute DORIS VTEC level is taken from global ionospheric maps (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) as the DORIS data contain no absolute information. DORIS-derived VTEC values show good consistency with IGS GIMs with a RMS between 2 and 3 total electron content units (TECU) depending on solar activity which can be reduced to less than 2 TECU when using only observations with elevation angles higher than . The combination of DORIS VTEC with data from other space-geodetic measurement techniques improves the accuracy of global VTEC models significantly. If DORIS VTEC data is used to update IGS GIMs, an improvement of up to 12 % can be achieved. The accuracy directly beneath the DORIS satellites' ground-tracks ranges between 1.5 and 3.5 TECU assuming a precision of 2.5 TECU for altimeter-derived VTEC values which have been used for validation purposes.

  9. A New Open-Source Tool For Education of SAR Interferometry: ADORE-DORIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.

    2012-12-01

    Delft Object-oRiented Interferometry Software (DORIS) is an open source and actively developed package empowering students and scientists from all over the world with means to carry out high quality synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry. Automated DORIS Environment (ADORE) attempts to automate the processing steps involved in generating interferograms using DORIS. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) is an imported tool for earth scientists in a wide spectrum of applications. The complexity involved with the generation of interferograms from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data limits InSAR's wide-use by scientists, and it's education in undergraduate classes. ADORE attempts to soften the learning curve for generating interferograms using DORIS. In this presentation the founding idea and practical benefits of ADORE is outlined and main processing steps are highlighted using an example data set.

  10. Looking for systematic error in scale from terrestrial reference frames derived from DORIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, L.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term stability of the scale of Terrestrial Reference Frames is directly linked with station height determination and is critical for several scientific studies, such as global mean sea level rise or ocean circulation with consequences on global warming studies. In recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions, the DORIS technique was not sonsidered able to provide any useful information on scale. We have analyzed three different DORIS time series of coordinates performed independently using different software packages.

  11. The International DORIS Service (IDS) - Recent Developments in Preparation for ITRF2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Lemoine, Frank G.; Moreaux, Guilhem; Soudarin, Laurent; Ferrage, Pascale; Ries, John; Otten, Michiel; Saunier, Jerome; Noll, Carey E.; Biancale, Richard; Luzum, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS) was created in 2003 under the umbrella of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) to foster scientific research related to the French DORIS tracking system and to deliver scientific products, mostly related to the International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS). We first present some general background related to the DORIS system (current and planned satellites, current tracking network and expected evolution) and to the general IDS organization (from Data Centers, Analysis Centers and Combination Center). Then, we discuss some of the steps recently taken to prepare the IDS submission to ITRF2013 (combined weekly time series based on individual solutions from several Analysis Centers). In particular, recent results obtained from the Analysis Centers and the Combination Center show that improvements can still be made when updating physical models of some DORIS satellites, such as Envisat, Cryosat-2 or Jason-2. The DORIS contribution to ITRF2013 should also benefit from the larger number of ground observations collected by the last generation of DGXX receivers (first instrument being onboard Jason-2 satellite). In particular for polar motion, sub-millarcsecond accuracy seems now to be achievable. Weekly station positioning internal consistency also seems to be improved with a larger DORIS constellation.

  12. Analysis of a Possible Future Degradation in the DORIS Geodetic Results Related to Changes in the Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the consequences of losing one or more of the 4 remaining Doppler & Ranging Information System (DORIS) satellites and any impact such a loss might have on geodesy. The goals of this program are to analyze the sensitivity of the current DORIS geodetic results (station position and polar motion) to the size of the DORIS constellation and to verify if some satellites are most important or less important than others. The conclusions of the study are summarized.

  13. Effect of Time Varying Gravity on DORIS processing for ITRF2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelensky, N. P.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Beall, J. W.; Melachroinos, S. A.; Beckley, B. D.; Pavlis, D.; Wimert, J.

    2013-12-01

    Computations are under way to develop a new time series of DORIS SINEX solutions to contribute to the development of the new realization of the terrestrial reference frame (c.f. ITRF2013). One of the improvements that are envisaged is the application of improved models of time-variable gravity in the background orbit modeling. At GSFC we have developed a time series of spherical harmonics to degree and order 5 (using the GOC02S model as a base), based on the processing of SLR and DORIS data to 14 satellites from 1993 to 2013. This is compared with the standard approach used in ITRF2008, based on the static model EIGEN-GL04S1 which included secular variations in only a few select coefficients. Previous work on altimeter satellite POD (c.f. TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2) has shown that the standard model is not adequate and orbit improvements are observed with application of more detailed models of time-variable gravity. In this study, we quantify the impact of TVG modeling on DORIS satellite POD, and ascertain the impact on DORIS station positions estimated weekly from 1993 to 2013. The numerous recent improvements to SLR and DORIS processing at GSFC include a more complete compliance to IERS2010 standards, improvements to SLR/DORIS measurement modeling, and improved non-conservative force modeling to DORIS satellites. These improvements will affect gravity coefficient estimates, POD, and the station solutions. Tests evaluate the impact of time varying gravity on tracking data residuals, station consistency, and the geocenter and scale reference frame parameters.

  14. Gravity model improvement using the DORIS tracking system on the SPOT 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    A high-precision radiometric satellite tracking system, Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite system (DORIS), has recently been developed by the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). DORIS was designed to provide tracking support for missions such as the joint United States/French TOPEX/Poseidon. As part of the flight testing process, a DORIS package was flown on the French SPOT 2 satellite. A substantial quantity of geodetic quality tracking data was obtained on SPOT 2 from an extensive international DORIS tracking network. These data were analyzed to assess their accuracy and to evaluate the gravitational modeling enhancements provided by these data in combination with the Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) gravitational model. These observations have noise levels of 0.4 to 0.5 mm/s, with few residual systematic effects. Although the SPOT 2 satellite experiences high atmospheric drag forces, the precision and global coverage of the DORIS tracking data have enabled more extensive orbit parameterization to mitigate these effects. As a result, the SPOT 2 orbital errors have been reduced to an estimated radial accuracy in the 10-20 cm RMS range. The addition of these data, which encompass many regions heretofore lacking in precision satellite tracking, has significantly improved GEM-T3 and allowed greatly improved orbit accuracies for Sun-synchronous satellites like SPOT 2 (such as ERS 1 and EOS). Comparison of the ensuing gravity model with other contemporary fields (GRIM-4C2, TEG2B, and OSU91A) provides a means to assess the current state of knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Thus, the DORIS experiment on SPOT 2 has provided a strong basis for evaluating this new orbit tracking technology and has demonstrated the important contribution of the DORIS network to the success of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission.

  15. Towards a four technique GGOS site: VLBI - DORIS compatibility tests at Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Thomas; Didelot, Francois; Kodet, Jan; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Mähler, Swetlana; Neidhardt, Alexander; Plötz, Christian; Saunier, Jérôme; Schüler, Torben; Walter, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), co-location sites are of special importance for the evaluation and mutual control of the individual geodetic space techniques. At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell a DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacon could complete the geodetic instrumentation consisting of three Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes, two Laser Ranging (LR) systems and a number of multi- Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Integrating all fourth geodetic instrumentation into one site generates new problems with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). While the VLBI system is designed to receive very weak signals from quasars, the DORIS beacon emits strong signals in the UHF frequency band at 401.25 MHz and in the S band at 2036.25 MHz. During the observation of quasars with VLBI there is a high risk of coupling DORIS S band signals into the VLBI receiving chain generating spurious signal and, in the worst case, overloading receiving chain electronics and risking its damage. Before a DORIS beacon is operated at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, it must be ensured that it can be operated alongside the VLBI system without any risk of damage or degradation of the measurement. Field tests under different setups were performed to assess the impact of the DORIS signal on the classical geodetic VLBI 20-m and the VGOS 13-m radio telescopes. Different locations on the observatory each at a distance of more than 100 m were occupied by the DORIS antenna. It has been shown that obstacles like buildings or earth mounds attenuate the signal up to 20 dB. However the power received at the input of the Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) is still at a critical level when the radio telescope points towards the DORIS beacon. The quality of the correlated signals is not or barely affected at long baselines. At local baselines however, the DORIS emission as a common mode signal degrades

  16. Analysis of long time series of precipitable water vapour from GPS, DORIS and NWP models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Olivier; Willis, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of GPS and DORIS measurements provides accurate estimates of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and total column water vapour (TCWV). Such measurements are now available for more than 15 years from permanent ground-based stations which cover quite homogenously the globe and receive increasing interest for meteorology and climate research. This work assesses the quality of operational and reprocessed GPS and DORIS datasets. Regarding GPS, two solutions produced by JPL as contributions to IGS (repro1, covering period 1995-2007, and trop_new, covering period 2001-2010) are compared. An independent reprocessed solution produced by IGN (sgn_repro1, covering period 2004-2010) is also used in the intercomparison. Differences due to different data processing procedures and errors in metadata and discontinuities due to changes in data processing procedures are evidenced in the operational solution. A reprocessed DORIS solution (IGN solution, period 1993-2008) is also compared to GPS and to the ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-Interim). The impact of changes in GPS or DORIS equipment on the quality of the ZTD estimates is investigated. The reprocessed GPS and DORIS ZTD estimates are converted into TCWV and analysed globally and for different regions. The TCWV time series reveal significant variability at various timescales (inter-annual, seasonal, intra-seasonal and synoptic) and look very promising for validating independent observational datasets (e.g., radiosondes and satellite products) and models (reanalyses, climate models).

  17. Time-varying gravity comparison of the GSFC solutions derived from DORIS, SLR and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, D. S.; Le Bail, K.; Lemoine, F. G.; Beall, J. W.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    The GRACE gravity mission has now supplied us with solutions for the time variations in the Earth's gravity field that now span more than five years, from 2003 to the present. Solutions are available from different analysis centers: GSFC, CNES, JPL, and UT/CSR. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning) Integrated by satellite have also been used to develop time series of geopotential solutions, which describe the low degree variations in the geopotential. In the case of SLR, these data span more than 25 years, and in the case of DORIS the solutions span the past 15 years (since 1993). The SLR satellites that contribute include Lageos1 and Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, and other spacecraft. The DORIS satellites include the full constellation of DORIS spacecraft including TOPEX, ENVISAT, and the SPOT series of satellites. We describe the time series obtained from the various solutions, and examine statistically the similarities and differences between the time series, and the quality of the solutions, and describe the annual and interannual signals that appear in the solutions. We compare the low degree harmonics for the periods where the SLR, DORIS and GRACE time series overlap, and we intercompare the geopotential rate solutions for the three sets of solutions, bearing in mind that the techniques supply solutions over different time periods.

  18. IDS evaluation of the DORIS versions of the DGFI, IGN and JPL ITRF2014 solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, Guilhem; Capdeville, Hugues; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Ferrage, Pascale

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the three IERS Production Centers (DGFI, IGN and JPL) delivered three independent solutions from the contributions of the four space geodetic techniques (DORIS, GNSS, SLR and VLBI). Even if these three ITRF2014 realizations are based on the same input, they differ on several points such as the space geodetic techniques weighting, the estimation of station velocities or the modelization of post-seismic deformation. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the DORIS part of these three realizations of ITRF2014 in terms of (1) position and velocity discontinuities; (2) geocenter and scale; (3) stations position residuals; (4) DORIS tie-vectors. This analyze will be based on the solution files of the IDS contribution to ITRF2014 as well as on its extension to 2015. Furthermore, we will estimate the impact of these three ITRF2014 solutions on DORIS orbit determination. Then, we will address recommendations to the DORIS community of the use of these three ITRF2014 solutions.

  19. Spatial and Lorentzian surfaces in Robertson-Walker space times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bang-Yen; Van der Veken, Joeri

    2007-07-01

    Let L14(f,c)=(I×fS,gfc) be a Robertson-Walker space time which does not contain any open subset of constant curvature. In this paper, we provide a general study of nondegenerate surfaces in L14(f,c). First, we prove the nonexistence of marginally trapped surfaces with positive relative nullity. Then, we classify totally geodesic submanifolds. Finally, we classify the family of surfaces with parallel second fundamental form and the family of totally umbilical surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector.

  20. Noncommutative corrections to the Robertson-Walker metric

    SciTech Connect

    Fabi, S.; Harms, B.; Stern, A.

    2008-09-15

    Upon applying Chamseddine's noncommutative deformation of gravity, we obtain the leading order noncommutative corrections to the Robertson-Walker metric tensor. We get an isotropic inhomogeneous metric tensor for a certain choice of the noncommutativity parameters. Moreover, the singularity of the commutative metric at t=0 is replaced by a more involved space-time structure in the noncommutative theory. In a toy model we construct a scenario where there is no singularity at t=0 at leading order in the noncommutativity parameter. Although singularities may still be present for nonzero t, they need not be the source of all timelike geodesics and the result resembles a bouncing cosmology.

  1. Research Activities for the DORIS Contribution to the Next International Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.

    2012-01-01

    For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the reference frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling. . . ). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next international reference frame.

  2. Using DORIS for modeling the Vertical Total Electron Content of the Earth's Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The ionosphere is a dispersive medium for microwaves. As a consequence, most space-geodetic observation techniques can be utilized to extract information on ionospheric parameters, e.g. the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC). By combining different techniques one can take advantage of their different spatial and temporal data distributions as well as their different observation characteristics and sensitivities concerning ionospheric parameter estimation. Nowadays, most geodetic VTEC models are based on observations from terrestrial permanent stations of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), especially of the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, a few groups compute models from a combination of different observations techniques, mostly combination of terrestrial GPS with satellite altimetry and/or GPS radio occultations (e.g. from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission). Today, DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) is rarely used in ionospheric modeling although it provides valuable measurements on two frequencies. Recently, we started to include DORIS measurements in our ionosphere modeling process and to test their capability and their potential to derive ionospheric parameters such as VTEC. Although DORIS was primarily designed for precise orbit computation of satellites, it can be used as a tool to study the Earth's ionosphere. The DORIS ground beacons are almost globally distributed and the system is on board of various Low Earth Orbiters (LEO) with different orbit heights, such as Jason-2, Cryosat-2, HY-2a, and Saral. The last generation of DORIS receivers directly provides phase measurements on two frequencies. In this contribution, we show the capability of DORIS for ionosphere VTEC modeling. For this purpose, we compute DORIS VTEC values from the two-frequency measurements of different missions and include it in our ionosphere model approach where the unknown model parameters are estimated within an

  3. Null hypersurfaces in generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Matias; Palmas, Oscar; Solis, Didier A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the geometry of null hypersurfaces M in generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes. First we characterize such null hypersurfaces as graphs of generalized eikonal functions over the fiber and use this characterization to show that such hypersurfaces are parallel if and only if their fibers are also parallel. We further use this technique to construct several examples of null hypersurfaces in both de Sitter and anti de Sitter spaces. Then we characterize all the totally umbilical null hypersurfaces M in a Lorentzian space form (viewed as a quadric in a semi-Euclidean ambient space) as intersections of the space form with a hyperplane. Finally we study the totally umbilical spacelike hypersurfaces of null hypersurfaces in space forms and characterize them as planar sections of M.

  4. Outcome analysis of reduction mammaplasty using the modified Robertson technique.

    PubMed

    Chalekson, Charles P; Neumeister, Michael W; Zook, Elvin G; Russell, Robert C

    2002-07-01

    The benefits of reduction mammaplasty have been well documented in previous literature. Anticipating and correcting for pseudoptosis (bottoming-out), however, can impair the cosmetic outcome as the inferior skin envelope stretches and lengthens over time. We present long-term results on patients using the modified Robertson technique for reduction mammaplasty, which appears to have significant benefit in helping to prevent bottoming-out. Surveys were sent to patients undergoing reduction mammaplasty surgery with this technique from 1987 to 1997. Patients were queried regarding preoperative and postoperative symptoms, satisfaction, and outcome related to their surgery and were also offered free follow-up examinations. The patients who returned for follow-up were then evaluated by the attending surgeons for evaluation of scarring, nipple position, ptosis, pseudoptosis, shape, and overall appearance. Reduced breasts were also compared with cosmetically optimal breasts to compare for measured levels of pseudoptosis using our defined visual inferior pole ratio measurements. Average reduction size was 910 g and follow-up was 4.7 years from the time of surgery. There was significant improvement demonstrated in all areas questioned, with the greatest relief shown in back and shoulder pain, shoulder grooving, and difficulty fitting clothing. There was also demonstrated to be significantly less use of medical modalities postoperatively and significant increases in activity levels. Satisfaction for size, shape, symmetry, and overall results was 85, 94, 98, and 94 percent, respectively. Evaluations for pseudoptosis by the attending surgeons were rated good or excellent in 95 percent of patients. Measurements of the visual inferior pole ratio for pseudoptosis also demonstrated no significant differences when compared with aesthetically optimal breasts. The modified Robertson reduction mammaplasty is a reliable technique that can be used for both small and large reductions

  5. DORIS satellite antenna maps derived from long-term residuals time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal R.; Desai, S. D.; Bertiger, W. I.; Haines, B. J.; Auriol, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that phase pattern models for the Jason-1 GPS antenna significantly benefit GPS-based precise orbit determination (POD) for the satellite. We have used a similar technique to derive DORIS receiver antenna maps, using all available DORIS tracking data over long time periods (from 1993.0 to 2004.0). We demonstrate that the derived correction models are satellite specific. For a given satellite, year-to-year estimations show clear systematic patterns. Some of these systematic patterns are attributable to the derivative of the multi-path effects in the direction of the satellite velocity. For early SPOT data, the patterns can be explained by an offset in the TAI time tagging (typically 8 (mu)s). In a second step, we have applied the SPOT2 antenna correction models in precise orbit determination and in the positioning of ground beacons. Preliminary results on DORIS/SPOT2 show that application of the DORIS antenna maps lead to a slight improvement of the derived POD and geodetic results (typically less than 5%).

  6. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD)with SLR and DORIS Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Wang, Y. M.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter follow-on, is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. T/P has demonstrated that, the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based on SLR and DORIS tracking. For verification and cross-calibration, Jason-1, was initially injected into the T/P orbit, flying just 72 seconds ahead of T/P. This configuration lasted over 21 Jason cycles. In mid-August T/P was maneuvered into its final tandem configuration, a parallel groundtrack, in order to improve the combined coverage. Preliminary investigations using cycles 1-9, shown at the June 2002 SWT, indicated that nominal Jason orbits can achieve the 2-3 cm accuracy objective, however several puzzling aspects of SLR and DORIS measurement modeling were also observed. This paper presents recent analysis of Jason SLR+DORIS POD spanning more than 20 cycles, and revisits several of the more puzzling issues, including estimation of the Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) offset. The accuracy of the orbits and of the measurement modeling are evaluated using several tests, including SLR, DORIS, and altimeter crossover residual analysis, altimeter collinear analysis, and direct comparison with GPS and other orbits. T/P POD results over the same period are used as a reference.

  7. Present-day plate motions: Retrieval from the TOPEX/Poseidon orbitography network (DORIS system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souriau, Annie; Cazenave, Anny; Biancale, R.; Balmino, G.; Dominh, K.; Mazzega, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Boucher, Claude; Willis, P.; Kasser, M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the proposal is to determine the present motion of the main tectonic plates from the Doppler data of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) orbitography system, which includes in its final configuration about 50 tracking stations with a world-wide distribution.

  8. The Poynting-Robertson effect: A critical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klačka, J.; Petržala, J.; Pástor, P.; Kómar, L.

    2014-04-01

    Physics of the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) effect is discussed and compared with the statements published in the past 30 years. Relativistically covariant formulation reveals the essence of the P-R effect and points out to nonphysical explanations in scientific papers and monographs. Although the final equation of motion m dv→/dt=(SA‧Q‾pr‧/c)[(1-v→·e→/c)e→-v→/c] has been usually correctly presented and used, its derivation and explanation of its essence is frequently incorrect. The difference between the effects of solar electromagnetic and corpuscular (solar wind) radiation is stressed. The force acting on the particle due to the solar wind (the simple case of radial solar wind velocity is considered) is F→sw=Fsw[(1-v→·e→/vsw)e→-x‧v→/vsw], where Fsw is the force on the stationary particle, vsw is the heliocentric solar-wind speed, and, the value of x‧ depends on material properties of the particle (1 < x‧ < 3). We present secular orbital evolution of dust particle under the action of the P-R effect. Initial conditions are included. Time of spiralling of the particle into the Sun is analytically calculated. Secular evolutions of perihelion and aphelion distances are investigated.

  9. Straight strings and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, W.G. )

    1992-10-15

    The embeddability of a straight cosmic string in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe is examined. Although previous suggestions that an exact embedding for a string with longitudinal tension equal to energy density is impossible are substantiated, it is shown that the deviations of either the external metric from the exact FRW metric or of the internal structure of the string from the exact tension equals energy density are expected to be very small, of the order of the square of the ratio of the string diameter (or the evacuated shell around the string) to the Hubble radius. Thus the lack of an exact mathematical embedding leads to negligible physical consequences. The problem with solving for an exact embedding of a string in the manner of the Swiss-cheese model is examined in detail, and it is shown that the metric in the evacuated region around the string is unique. That metric is determined to lowest order in the ratio of the evacuated region over the Hubble radius. The implications of this uniqueness for the Swiss-cheese embedding of a string are discussed.

  10. Conformally Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2015-07-01

    In a Universe where, according to the standard cosmological models, some 97% of the total mass-energy is still ‘missing in action’, it behooves us to spend at least a little effort critically assessing and exploring radical alternatives. Among possible (dare we say plausible), nonstandard but superficially viable models, those spacetimes conformal to the standard Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) class of cosmological models play a very special role—these models have the unique and important property of permitting large non-perturbative geometric deviations from FLRW cosmology without unacceptably distorting the cosmic microwave background. Performing a ‘cosmographic’ analysis (that is, temporarily setting aside the Einstein equations, since the question of whether or not the Einstein equations are valid on galactic and cosmological scales is essentially the same question as whether or not dark matter/dark energy actually exist), and using both supernova data and information about galactic structure, one can nevertheless place some quite significant observational constraints on any possible conformal mode—however, there is still an extremely rich range of phenomenological possibilities for both cosmologists and astrophysicists to explore.

  11. As-Built documentation of programs to implement the Robertson and Doraiswamy/Thompson models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenziano, D. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The software which implements two spring wheat phenology models is described. The main program routines for the Doraiswamy/Thompson crop phenology model and the basic Robertson crop phenology model are DTMAIN and BRMAIN. These routines read meteorological data files and coefficient files, accept the planting date information and other information from the user, and initiate processing. Daily processing for the basic Robertson program consists only of calculation of the basic Robertson increment of crop development. Additional processing in the Doraiswamy/Thompson program includes the calculation of a moisture stress index and correction of the basic increment of development. Output for both consists of listings of the daily results.

  12. Separation and divergence: the untold story of James Robertson's and John Bowlby's theoretical dispute on mother-child separation.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2009-01-01

    The work of Robertson and Bowlby is generally seen as complementary, Robertson being the practically oriented observer and Bowlby focusing on theoretical explanations for Robertson's observations. The authors add to this picture an "untold story" of the collaboration between Robertson and Bowlby: the dispute between the two men that arose in the 1960s about the corollaries of separation and the ensuing personal animosity. On the basis of unique archival materials, this until now little known aspect of the history of attachment theory is extensively documented. The deteriorating relationship between Robertson and Bowlby is described against the background of different currents in psychoanalysis in Britain in the interbellum. PMID:19575387

  13. Time-variable Gravity Solutions from 1993 to 2013 from SLR and DORIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Beall, Jennifer W.; Melachroinos, Stavros

    2014-05-01

    The GRACE mission has been highly successful in determining the time-variable gravity field of the Earth, producing monthly or even more frequent solutions (cf. 10-day) solutions using both spherical harmonics and mascons. However the GRACE time series only commences in 2002-2003 and a gap of several years may occur in the series before a GRACE follow-on satellite is launched. Satellites tracked by SLR and DORIS have also been used to study time variations in the Earth's gravitational field. In this paper we discuss the development of a new time series of low degree spherical harmonic fields based on the available SLR, DORIS data. We have developed solutions to 5x5 in spherical harmonics based on data from up to 18 satellites tracked with SLR and DORIS data. (i.e. Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Lares, Blits, Larets, Westpac, TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Cryosat-2, Jason-2, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4 and Etalon1 and Etalon2). The new solutions are consistent with the IERS2010 standards with respect to the mean pole and the definition of C21 and S21. We have applied a preliminary version of this time series to the computation of a time series of orbits for TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 and to the reprocessing of DORIS data for the NASA GSFC submission to ITRF2013 (series gscwd23). We discuss the derivation of these solutions and their evaluation, including their comparison with other solutions, such as those derived from GRACE data.

  14. Time-variable Gravity Solutions from 1993 to 2013 from SLR and DORIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beall, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The GRACE mission has been highly successful in determining the time-variable gravity field of the Earth, producing monthly or even more frequent solutions (cf. 10-day) solutions using both spherical harmonics and mascons. However the GRACE time series only commences in 2002-2003 and a gap of several years may occur in the series before a GRACE follow-on satellite is launched. Satellites tracked by SLR and DORIS have also been used to study time variations in the Earth's gravitational field. In this paper we discuss the development of a new time series of low degree spherical harmonic fields based on the available SLR, DORIS data. We have developed solutions to 5x5 in spherical harmonics based on data from up to 18 satellites tracked with SLR and DORIS data. (i.e. Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Lares, Blits, Larets, Westpac, TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Cryosat-2, Jason-2, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4 and Etalon1 and Etalon2). The new solutions are consistent with the IERS2010 standards with respect to the mean pole and the definition of C21 and S21. We discuss the quality of these solutions, the contribution of the various satellites. We have applied this time series to the computation of orbits for TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, & Jason-2 and to the reprocessing of DORIS data for the NASA GSFC submission to ITRF2013 (series gscwd25 and gscwd26). We discuss the derivation of these solutions and their evaluation, including their comparison with other solutions, such as those derived from GRACE data.

  15. 8. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. TIMBER CRIB BRIDGE ACROSS HUDSON RIVER AT LOWER WORKS. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  16. 9. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. LAKE SANFORD WINTER. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  17. 7. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. CAMP AT TAHAWUS CLUB. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  18. 5. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, CA. 1915. MACNAUGHTON COTTAGE OF UPPER WORKS. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  19. 12. Photocopied June 1978, R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR PAINTING, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied June 1978, R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR PAINTING, CA. 1918. VIEW OF THE 'NEW' FURNACE FROM SOUTH. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  20. 13. Photocopied June 1978. R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, LAKE HARKNESS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopied June 1978. R.H. ROBERTSON WATER COLOR, LAKE HARKNESS, CA. 1915. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  1. Spacetime Emergence of the Robertson-Walker Universe from a Matrix Model

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, Rene; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2007-06-29

    Using a novel, string theory-inspired formalism based on a Hamiltonian constraint, we obtain a conformal mechanical system for the spatially flat four-dimensional Robertson-Walker Universe. Depending on parameter choices, this system describes either a relativistic particle in the Robertson-Walker background or metric fluctuations of the Robertson-Walker geometry. Moreover, we derive a tree-level M theory matrix model in this time-dependent background. Imposing the Hamiltonian constraint forces the spacetime geometry to be fuzzy near the big bang, while the classical Robertson-Walker geometry emerges as the Universe expands. From our approach, we also derive the temperature of the Universe interpolating between the radiation and matter dominated eras.

  2. Spacetime emergence of the robertson-walker universe from a matrix model.

    PubMed

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2007-06-29

    Using a novel, string theory-inspired formalism based on a Hamiltonian constraint, we obtain a conformal mechanical system for the spatially flat four-dimensional Robertson-Walker Universe. Depending on parameter choices, this system describes either a relativistic particle in the Robertson-Walker background or metric fluctuations of the Robertson-Walker geometry. Moreover, we derive a tree-level M theory matrix model in this time-dependent background. Imposing the Hamiltonian constraint forces the spacetime geometry to be fuzzy near the big bang, while the classical Robertson-Walker geometry emerges as the Universe expands. From our approach, we also derive the temperature of the Universe interpolating between the radiation and matter dominated eras. PMID:17678078

  3. Impact of DORIS ground antennas environment on their radio signal quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaya, P.; Tourain, C.

    2010-06-01

    Among the factors which may disrupt the DORIS measurements quality, the ground antennas environment is of high importance. For a set of 15 selected DORIS beacon, the differences between the effective and theoretical power received on-board the satellites (SPOT-5 and Envisat) have been analyzed in terms of spatial direction around the antenna. Such antenna maps have also been established regarding the Doppler residuals of the least-square precise orbit adjustment. Thanks to 360° views from the antennas and aerial views of the sites, the impact of the signal obstructions (trees, roofs, antennas …) on power attenuation and Doppler residuals is discussed. Depending on the nature of the obstructed object, the attenuation level can reach more than 5 dB, and the residual RMS of the orbit adjustment may be doubled from the nominal value, reaching 1 mm/s locally. The nature of the ground at the foot of the antennas has been correlated to DORIS signal quality at high elevation: reflections on flat surfaces (e.g. roofs) affect the signal more significantly than reflections on natural ground (e.g. soil). In particular, a modeling of the multipath phenomenon affecting Fairbanks site has been established and fits remarkably with the observations. Finally, an evaluation of the direct impact of obstructing objects on the orbit has also been performed. The example of a scaffolding at Kauai site displays a few millimeters error in the along-track position of the satellite.

  4. DPOD2005 : Realization of a DORIS terrestrial reference frame for precise orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Pascal; Ries, John C.; Soudarin, Laurent; Zelensky, Nikita; Pavlis, Erricos C.

    Scientific studies related to altimetry data (mean sea level determination and its time evolution) require centimeter-level orbit determination in the radial component of the satellite. Change in station coordinates and velocities affect the orbit determination and the derived oceanographic results. Following the release of the ITRF2005, we conducted an extensive study related to the DORIS tracking network. For all ground beacons, we verified if the ITRF2005 position and velocity can be extrapolated in time without significant loss of precision. We tried to identified discontinuities in the DORIS coordinates time series, either caused by physical reason, such as Earthquakes, or by instrumental causes. We also identified time periods for which data for a specific station should not be used for orbit determination. In particular, specific stations such as Socorro Island, on which horizontal and vertical movements are detected from the DORIS results will be presented and can be explained by a volcano deformation. Finally, a more complex example will be provided for the Arequipa station, where a major Earthquake happened on June 23, 2001 and for which some relaxation effects are noticeable in the velocity determination even 2 years after the station displacement. A complete set of positions and velocities (by intervals) is given (DPOD2005) and will be used for Jason and TOPEX orbit determination.

  5. The common signal of the geocenter motion in the DORIS and SLR time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bail, K.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Beall, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Surface mass redistribution within the Earth system, especially in the atmosphere, oceans, continents and ice sheets, causes the position of the Earth's center of mass (geocentre) to vary in a reference frame attached to the solid Earth. Space techniques as the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite (DORIS) and the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) can measure the geocenter motion. DORIS has historically not produced reliable solutions for geocenter, particularly in the Z direction, however we experiment with improvements in radiation pressure modelling described by Gobinddass, M-L et al. (J. Geodesy, submitted) using the GEODYN Orbit Determination and Geodetic Parameter Estimation Software where we explicitly solve for the geocenter signals. In this study, we analyze geocenter motion signals derived from the DORIS and the SLR space geodetic techniques, and comparing with external models. The goal is to underline the common signal found in each of these GSFC solutions and to point out the expected difference of the noise. For this concern, we use statistical tools as the principal component analysis and the multi-variate spectral singular analysis.

  6. Assessment of voice and speech symptoms in early Parkinson's disease by the Robertson dysarthria profile.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Giovanni; Guerrieri, Marta; Liuzzi, Daniele; Gigante, Angelo Fabio; di Nicola, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Changes in voice and speech are thought to involve 75-90 % of people with PD, but the impact of PD progression on voice/speech parameters is not well defined. In this study, we assessed voice/speech symptoms in 48 parkinsonian patients staging <3 on the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale and 37 healthy subjects using the Robertson dysarthria profile (a clinical-perceptual method exploring all components potentially involved in speech difficulties), the Voice handicap index (a validated measure of the impact of voice symptoms on quality of life) and the speech evaluation parameter contained in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III). Accuracy and metric properties of the Robertson dysarthria profile were also measured. On Robertson dysarthria profile, all parkinsonian patients yielded lower scores than healthy control subjects. Differently, the Voice Handicap Index and the speech evaluation parameter contained in the UPDRS-III could detect speech/voice disturbances in 10 and 75 % of PD patients, respectively. Validation procedure in Parkinson's disease patients showed that the Robertson dysarthria profile has acceptable reliability, satisfactory internal consistency and scaling assumptions, lack of floor and ceiling effects, and partial correlations with UPDRS-III and Voice Handicap Index. We concluded that speech/voice disturbances are widely identified by the Robertson dysarthria profile in early parkinsonian patients, even when the disturbances do not carry a significant level of disability. Robertson dysarthria profile may be a valuable tool to detect speech/voice disturbances in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26615536

  7. A high-quality, homogenized, global, long-term (1993-2008) DORIS precipitable water dataset for climate monitoring and model verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Olivier; Willis, Pascal; Wang, Junhong; Mears, Carl

    2014-05-01

    A high-quality, consistent, global, long-term dataset of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and precipitable water (PW) was produced from Doppler Orbitography Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) measurements. DORIS measurements from 81 sites are reprocessed homogeneously from January 1993 to August 2008. The dataset was screened and homogenized. A two-level screening method was developed. The first level uses post-processing information and applies range checks and outlier checks to ZTD and formal error estimates. It rejects less than 3% of the data. The second level detects outliers by comparing DORIS ZTD data with ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data and rejects about 1% of the data. There is consistency between the screened DORIS ZTD data, ERA-Interim and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. A linear drift in mean differences is evidenced, which potentially results from biases introduced by the progressive replacement of Alcatel antennas with Starec antennas at the DORIS sites. The DORIS PW was homogenized by applying a bias correction based on the median difference between DORIS and ERA-Interim PW data each time the station equipment is changed. The homogenized DORIS PW data were compared with ERA-Interim, GPS, radiosonde, and microwave radiometer satellite data (SSM/I and AMSRE). There is excellent agreement with GPS data with a correlation of 0.98 and a standard deviation of differences of 1.5 kg m-2, and with ERA-Interim and satellite PW data, with a correlation > 0.95 and a standard deviation of differences < 2.7 kg m-2. Radiosonde data show less good agreement with the DORIS PW data. Preliminary results of water vapor trends and variability are shown for 31 sites with more than 10 years of data and 23 sites with more than 15 years of data. Good consistency is found between DORIS PW trends and ERA-Interim trends, which demonstrates the high potential of the DORIS PW dataset for climate monitoring and model verification.

  8. Toward A Feminist Transformation of the Academy: II. Proceedings of the Annual GLCA Women's Studies Conference (6th, November 7-9, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Beth, Ed.; And Others

    The keynote address, ten selected papers, and two panel discussions are included in these conference proceedings. Questions are presented by members of an opening panel (Brenda Bankart, Louise Bernikow, Deborah Hilty, and Doris Friedensohn) based on the personal experiences and work of individual panelists. The keynote address, "Toward a Feminist…

  9. Impact of orbit modeling on DORIS station position and Earth rotation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Rodriguez-Solano, Carlos Javier; Hugentobler, Urs; Filler, Vratislav

    2014-04-01

    The high precision of estimated station coordinates and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) obtained from satellite geodetic techniques is based on the precise determination of the satellite orbit. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of different orbit parameterizations on the accuracy of station coordinates and the ERPs derived from DORIS observations. In a series of experiments the DORIS data from the complete year 2011 were processed with different orbit model settings. First, the impact of precise modeling of the non-conservative forces on geodetic parameters was compared with results obtained with an empirical-stochastic modeling approach. Second, the temporal spacing of drag scaling parameters was tested. Third, the impact of estimating once-per-revolution harmonic accelerations in cross-track direction was analyzed. And fourth, two different approaches for solar radiation pressure (SRP) handling were compared, namely adjusting SRP scaling parameter or fixing it on pre-defined values. Our analyses confirm that the empirical-stochastic orbit modeling approach, which does not require satellite attitude information and macro models, results for most of the monitored station parameters in comparable accuracy as the dynamical model that employs precise non-conservative force modeling. However, the dynamical orbit model leads to a reduction of the RMS values for the estimated rotation pole coordinates by 17% for x-pole and 12% for y-pole. The experiments show that adjusting atmospheric drag scaling parameters each 30 min is appropriate for DORIS solutions. Moreover, it was shown that the adjustment of cross-track once-per-revolution empirical parameter increases the RMS of the estimated Earth rotation pole coordinates. With recent data it was however not possible to confirm the previously known high annual variation in the estimated geocenter z-translation series as well as its mitigation by fixing the SRP parameters on pre-defined values.

  10. GPS and DORIS evidence for a very slow subsidence of Tahiti Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadil, Abdelali; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Sichoix, Lydie; Ortéga, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    A decade of GPS (Global Positioning System) and DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) observations were analyzed to monitor the vertical displacement of the Tahiti Island. The local network consisted of co-located two GPS stations (THTI and TAH1) and a DORIS beacon (PAQB). While DORIS weekly series of station positions were computed by the IGN/JPL group (Institut Géographique National and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) using GIPSY-OASIS II software, two different GPS processing modes were adopted. In the first one, GPS data from 20 IGS (International GPS Service) stations located in and around the Pacific plate were processed using GAMIT-GLOBK software in its standard three-step approach. We estimated station coordinates, tropospheric zenith delays, horizontal gradients, and orbital and earth orientation parameters (EOP) parameters. The regional quasi-observations have been combined with quasi-observations from an analysis of GPS data from over 300 stations performed by the MIT group (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). The GPS solution was realized in a global reference frame by estimating a 14-parameter transformation between our loosely constrained GPS analysis and the known ITRF2005 positions and velocities of 46 IGS stations. In the second one, only THTI and TAH1 data have been reduced with respect to the precise point positioning PPP mode of GIPSY-OASIS II software using the new JPL final clocks and orbits. Each daily solution was aligned to the ITRF2005 reference frame. Solid earth and polar tide corrections following the IERS Conventions 2003, ocean loading corrections using the FES2004 ocean tide model, antenna phase center models, and the Vienna Mapping Fucntion VMF were taken into account in both softwares. Before estimating velocities, time series were cleaned to remove outliers and analyzed for their noise properties, periodic signals and earthquake and antenna jumps. The GPS and DORIS vertical velocity fields

  11. 50 CFR 80.50 - What activities are eligible for funding under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Eligible Activities § 80.50 What activities...

  12. 50 CFR 80.50 - What activities are eligible for funding under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Eligible Activities § 80.50 What activities...

  13. Revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity: Space-time structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, José G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1986-11-01

    The experimental testing of the Lorentz transformations is based on a family of sets of coordinate transformations that do not comply in general with the principle of equivalence of the inertial frames. The Lorentz and Galilean sets of transformations are the only member sets of the family that satisfy this principle. In the neighborhood of regular points of space-time, all members in the family are assumed to comply with local homogeneity of space-time and isotropy of space in at least one free-falling elevator, to be denoted as Robertson's ab initio rest frame [H. P. Robertson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 378 (1949)]. Without any further assumptions, it is shown that Robertson's rest frame becomes a preferred frame for all member sets of the Robertson family except for, again, Galilean and Einstein's relativities. If one now assumes the validity of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics in the preferred frame, a different electrodynamics spontaneously emerges for each set of transformations. The flat space-time of relativity retains its relevance, which permits an obvious generalization, in a Robertson context, of Dirac's theory of the electron and Einstein's gravitation. The family of theories thus obtained constitutes a covering theory of relativistic physics. A technique is developed to move back and forth between Einstein's relativity and the different members of the family of theories. It permits great simplifications in the analysis of relativistic experiments with relevant “Robertson's subfamilies.” It is shown how to adapt the Clifford algebra version of standard physics for use with the covering theory and, in particular, with the covering Dirac theory.

  14. IVS Tropospheric Parameters: Comparison with DORIS and GPS for CONT02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Harald; Snajdrova, Kristyna; Boehm, Johannes; Willis, Pascal; Engelhardt, Gerald; Lanotte, Roberto; Tomasi, Paolo; Negusini, Monia; MacMillan, Daniel; Vereshchagina, Iraida

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002 the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry) set up the Pilot Project - Tropospheric Parameters, and the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG), Vienna, was put in charge of coordinating the project. Seven IVS Analysis Centers have joined the project and regularly submitted their estimates of tropospheric parameters (wet and total zenith delays, horizontal gradients) for all IVS-R1 mid IVS-R4 sessions since January 1st, 2002. The individual submissions are combined by a two-step procedure to obtain stable, robust and highly accurate tropospheric parameter time series with one hour resolution (internal accuracy: 2-4 ram). Starting with July 2003, the combined tropospheric estimates became operational IVS products. In the second half of October 2002 the VLBI campaign CONT02 was observed with 8 stations participating around the globe. At four of them (Gilmore Creek, U.S.A.; Hartebeesthoek, South Africa; Kokee Park, U.S.A.; Ny-Alesund, Norway) also total zenith delays from DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) are available and these estimates are compared with those from the IGS (International GPS Service) and the IVS. The distance from the DORIS beacons to the co-located GPS and VLBI stations is around 2 km or less for the four sites mentioned above.

  15. Vertical Crustal Motion Derived from Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges, and Comparisons with DORIS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    A somewhat unorthodox method for determining vertical crustal motion at a tide-gauge location is to difference the sea level time series with an equivalent time series determined from satellite altimetry, To the extent that both instruments measure an identical ocean signal, the difference will be dominated by vertical land motion at the gauge. We revisit this technique by analyzing sea level signals at 28 tide gauges that are colocated with DORIS geodetic stations. Comparisons of altimeter-gauge vertical rates with DORIS rates yield a median difference of 1.8 mm/yr and a weighted root-mean-square difference of2.7 mm/yr. The latter suggests that our uncertainty estimates, which are primarily based on an assumed AR(l) noise process in all time series, underestimates the true errors. Several sources of additional error are discussed, including possible scale errors in the terrestrial reference frame to which altimeter-gauge rates are mostly insensitive, One of our stations, Male, Maldives, which has been the subject of some uninformed arguments about sea-level rise, is found to have almost no vertical motion, and thus is vulnerable to rising sea levels. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of COSPAR.

  16. Two-mode optical tomograms: a possible experimental check of the Robertson uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Ventriglia, F.

    2012-02-01

    An experimental check of the two-mode Robertson uncertainty relations and inequalities for the highest quadrature moments using homodyne photon detection is suggested. The relation between optical tomograms and symplectic tomograms is used to connect the tomographic dispersion matrix and the quadrature components dispersion matrix of the two-mode field states.

  17. Spatially-Hyperbolic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe with Potentially Broken Z 2-Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariescu, Ciprian; Bodnarescu, Adrian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura

    2016-09-01

    For the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe with negative curvature, sustained by a spontaneous Z 2- symmetry breaking scalar field, depending on time alone, we have derived the Einstein-Gordon system of equations. For physically relevant cases, the matter-curvature system have been numerically analyzed.

  18. Spatially-Hyperbolic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe with Potentially Broken Z 2-Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariescu, Ciprian; Bodnarescu, Adrian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura

    2016-05-01

    For the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe with negative curvature, sustained by a spontaneous Z 2- symmetry breaking scalar field, depending on time alone, we have derived the Einstein-Gordon system of equations. For physically relevant cases, the matter-curvature system have been numerically analyzed.

  19. 4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, LAKE HENDERSON, FROM TAHAWUS CLUB BOAT DOCK. CA. 1914. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, PRESIDENT OF THE TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  20. An Evolving Genetic Architecture Interacts with Hill-Robertson Interference to Determine the Benefit of Sex.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Alexander O B; Peck, Kayla M; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Burch, Christina L

    2016-06-01

    Sex is ubiquitous in the natural world, but the nature of its benefits remains controversial. Previous studies have suggested that a major advantage of sex is its ability to eliminate interference between selection on linked mutations, a phenomenon known as Hill-Robertson interference. However, those studies may have missed both important advantages and important disadvantages of sexual reproduction because they did not allow the distributions of mutational effects and interactions (i.e., the genetic architecture) to evolve. Here we investigate how Hill-Robertson interference interacts with an evolving genetic architecture to affect the evolutionary origin and maintenance of sex by simulating evolution in populations of artificial gene networks. We observed a long-term advantage of sex-equilibrium mean fitness of sexual populations exceeded that of asexual populations-that did not depend on population size. We also observed a short-term advantage of sex-sexual modifier mutations readily invaded asexual populations-that increased with population size, as was observed in previous studies. We show that the long- and short-term advantages of sex were both determined by differences between sexual and asexual populations in the evolutionary dynamics of two properties of the genetic architecture: the deleterious mutation rate ([Formula: see text]) and recombination load ([Formula: see text]). These differences resulted from a combination of selection to minimize [Formula: see text] which is experienced only by sexuals, and Hill-Robertson interference experienced primarily by asexuals. In contrast to the previous studies, in which Hill-Robertson interference had only a direct impact on the fitness advantages of sex, the impact of Hill-Robertson interference in our simulations was mediated additionally by an indirect impact on the efficiency with which selection acted to reduce [Formula: see text]. PMID:27098911

  1. Murdered bread, living bread: Doris Grant and the homemade, wholemeal loaf.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Amy C

    2011-06-01

    Doris Grant (1905-2003), a middle-class, British housewife, published numerous books from the 1940s into the 1970s urging her fellow housewives to bake organic, wholemeal bread for their families. This article argues that Grant's arguments defy easy categorization as either 'conservative' or 'progressive'. On the one hand, her targeted appeal to women reflected a traditional, conservative understanding of gender roles: women were, first and foremost, wives and mothers and therefore naturally responsible for family diet and health. On the other hand, Grant also pushed her readers to look beyond their homes and recognize a dangerous food supply system that was impinging on their daily lives. She demanded that her readers reject comfortable complicity in this system and preached the value of individual action in effecting substantive change. PMID:21705083

  2. Basal Adare volcanics, Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land, Antarctica: Late Miocene intraplate basalts of subaqueous origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Dunlap, W.J.; Isaac, M.J.; Sutherland, R.P.; Faure, K.

    2007-01-01

    Late Cenozoic lavas and associated hyaloclastite breccias of the Adare volcanics (Hallett volcanic province) in Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land rest unconformably on Paleozoic greywackes. Abundant hyaloclastite breccias are confined to a paleovalley; their primary geological features, and the stable isotope ratios of secondary minerals, are consistent with eruption in a subaqueous environment with calcite formation probably involving seawater. In contrast, the lavas which stratigraphically overlie the hyaloclastites on Mayr Spur probably were erupted subaerially. K-Ar dating of eight samples from this basal sequence confirms the known older age limit (Late Miocene) of the Hallett volcanic province. Geochemical data reveal an ocean island basalt-like affinity, similar to other Cenozoic igneous rocks of the Hallett volcanic province. If a submarine eruptive paleoenvironment is accepted then there has been net tectonic or isostatic post-Late Miocene uplift of a few hundred metres in the Robertson Bay-Adare Peninsula area

  3. The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Big Bang Singularities are Well Behaved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-01-01

    We show that the Big Bang singularity of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model does not raise major problems to General Relativity. We prove a theorem showing that the Einstein equation can be written in a non-singular form, which allows the extension of the spacetime before the Big Bang. The physical interpretation of the fields used is discussed. These results follow from our research on singular semi-Riemannian geometry and singular General Relativity.

  4. Back reaction of a long range force on a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background

    SciTech Connect

    Brisudova, Martina; Kinney, William H.

    2000-11-15

    It is possible that there may exist long-range forces in addition to gravity. In this paper we construct a simple model for such a force based on exchange of a massless scalar field and analyze its effect on the evolution of a homogeneous Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. The presence of such an interaction leads to an equation of state characterized by positive pressure and to resonant particle production similar to that observed in preheating scenarios.

  5. Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind in the space debris problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Celletti, A.; Galeş, C.

    2016-07-01

    We analyse the combined effect of Poynting-Robertson and solar-wind drag on space debris. We derive a model within Cartesian, Gaussian and Hamiltonian frameworks. We focus on the geosynchronous resonance, although the results can be easily generalized to any resonance in Medium Earth Orbit and in regions located outside the geostationary ring. By numerical and analytical techniques, we compute the drift in semimajor axis due to Poynting-Robertson and solar-wind drag. After a linear stability analysis of the equilibria, we combine a careful investigation of the regular, resonant, chaotic behaviour of the phase space with a long-term propagation of a sample of initial conditions. The results strongly depend on the value of the area-to-mass ratio of the debris, which might show different dynamical behaviours: temporary capture or escape from the geosynchronous resonance, as well as temporary capture or escape from secondary resonances involving the rate of variation of the longitude of the Sun. Such analysis shows that Poynting-Robertson and solar-wind drag must be taken into account, when looking at the long-term behaviour of space debris. Trapping or escape from the resonance can be used to place the debris in convenient regions of the phase space.

  6. Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind in the space debris problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Celletti, A.; Galeş, C.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the combined effect of Poynting-Robertson and solar wind drag on space debris. We derive a model within Cartesian, Gaussian and Hamiltonian frameworks. We focus on the geosynchronous resonance, although the results can be easily generalized to any resonance in MEO and in regions located outside the geostationary ring. By numerical and analytical techniques, we compute the drift in semi-major axis due to Poynting-Robertson and solar wind drag. After a linear stability analysis of the equilibria, we combine a careful investigation of the regular, resonant, chaotic behavior of the phase space with a long-term propagation of a sample of initial conditions. The results strongly depend on the value of the area-to-mass ratio of the debris, which might show different dynamical behaviors: temporary capture or escape from the geosynchronous resonance, as well as temporary capture or escape from secondary resonances involving the rate of variation of the longitude of the Sun. Such analysis shows that Poynting-Robertson and solar wind drag must be taken into account, when looking at the long-term behavior of space debris. Trapping or escape from the resonance can be used to place the debris in convenient regions of the phase space.

  7. A high-quality, homogenized, global, long-term (1993-2008) DORIS precipitable water data set for climate monitoring and model verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Olivier; Willis, Pascal; Wang, Junhong; Mears, Carl

    2014-06-01

    For the first time a high-quality, consistent, global, long-term data set of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and precipitable water (PW) is produced from Doppler orbitography radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) measurements at 81 sites. The data set was screened using a two-level procedure. First, postprocessing information is used to apply range checks and outlier checks to ZTD and formal error estimates. Second, outliers are detected by comparing DORIS ZTD with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data. These procedures reject 3% and 1% of the data, respectively. A linear drift is evidenced in the screened DORIS ZTD data compared to ERA-Interim and Global Positioning System (GPS) data, which potentially results from biases introduced by the progressive replacement of Alcatel antennas with Starec antennas. The DORIS PW is homogenized by applying a bias correction computed form comparison with ERA-Interim data each time station equipment is changed. The homogenized DORIS data are in excellent agreement with GPS data (correlation of 0.98 and standard deviation of differences of 1.5 kg m-2) and with ERA-Interim and satellite PW data (correlation > 0.95 and standard deviation of differences < 2.7 kg m-2). The agreement with radiosonde data is less good. Preliminary results of water vapor trends and variability are shown for 31 sites with more than 10 years of data. Good consistency is found between DORIS PW trends and ERA-Interim trends, which demonstrates the high potential of the DORIS PW data set for climate monitoring and model verification. The final DORIS PW data set is freely available in the supporting information.

  8. 50 CFR 80.50 - What activities are eligible for funding under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Eligible Activities § 80.50 What activities are eligible...

  9. 50 CFR 80.50 - What activities are eligible for funding under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Eligible Activities § 80.50 What activities are eligible...

  10. DORIS downstream service: a support to civil defence autorithies in landslides and subsidence risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, A.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Manunta, M.; Calò, F.; Paglia, L.; Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; Bellotti, F.; Colombo, D.; Strozzi, T.; Wegmuller, U.; Mora, O.; Sanches, F.

    2012-04-01

    DORIS is an advanced FP7-EU project for the design of a pre-operational advanced downstream service aimed at detecting, mapping, monitoring and forecasting surface deformations, including landslides and ground subsidence, by exploiting multiple Earth Observation (EO) and ground-based (non-EO) data technologies. Ground deformations are the result of a variety of natural and human-induced causes and triggers. These phenomena are frequent and widespread in Europe, causing extensive economic damage to private properties and public assets and their social impact is relevant. In Europe, the large number of areas affected by ground deformations, the frequency and extent of the triggering events, the extent of the impact and the magnitude of the damage, make it mandatory a multiscale, systemic approach. Further, the complexity and extent of the problem is such that it cannot be tackled (and solved) at an individual, site-specific scale, or using a single technique or methodology. The problem can be approached only through the integration of data and information taken at different scales, and with the collaborative efforts of multiple expertise. With this respect, the several satellite sensors now available, including about forty passive - optical - sensors and nine active - synthetic aperture radar (SAR) - sensors, provide valuable technological alternatives to traditional methods and tools to detect, map, monitor and forecast ground deformations over large areas and with the required accuracy. The temporal continuity and the geometric compatibility among time series of ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT data represents an unprecedented opportunity to generate very long time series of ground deformations. This provides exclusive information for an improved understanding of the long term behavior of slow and very-slow ground deformation phenomena. In this context, DORIS intends to exploit the extensive catalogues of multiple C-band SAR sensors to provide, via a joint analysis

  11. DORIS-based point mascons for the long term stability of precise orbit solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, L.; Lemoine, J. M.; Mercier, F.; Zelensky, N. P.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years non-tidal Time Varying Gravity (TVG) has emerged as the most important contributor in the error budget of Precision Orbit Determination (POD) solutions for altimeter satellites' orbits. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided POD analysts with static and time-varying gravity models that are very accurate over the 2002-2012 time interval, but whose linear rates cannot be safely extrapolated before and after the GRACE lifespan. One such model based on a combination of data from GRACE and Lageos from 2002-2010, is used in the dynamic POD solutions developed for the Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) of the Jason series of altimeter missions and the equivalent products from lower altitude missions such as Envisat, Cryosat-2, and HY-2A. In order to accommodate long-term time-variable gravity variations not included in the background geopotential model, we assess the feasibility of using DORIS data to observe local mass variations using point mascons. In particular, we show that the point-mascon approach can stabilize the geographically correlated orbit errors which are of fundamental interest for the analysis of regional Mean Sea Level trends based on altimeter data, and can therefore provide an interim solution in the event of GRACE data loss. The time series of point-mass solutions for Greenland and Antarctica show good agreement with independent series derived from GRACE data, indicating a mass loss at rate of 210 Gt/year and 110 Gt/year respectively.

  12. DORIS/Jason-2: Better than 10 cm on-board orbits available for Near-Real-Time Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayles, C.; Chauveau, J. P.; Rozo, F.

    2010-12-01

    DIODE (DORIS Immediate Orbit on-board Determination) is a real-time on-board orbit determination software, embedded in the DORIS receiver. The purpose of this paper is to focus on DIODE performances. After a description of the recent DORIS evolutions, we detail how compliance with specifications are verified during extensive ground tests before the launch, then during the in-flight commissioning phase just after the launch, and how well they are met in the routine phase and today. Future improvements are also discussed for Jason-2 as well as for the next missions. The complete DORIS ground validation using DORIS simulator and new DORIS test equipments has shown prior to the Jason-2 flight that every functional requirement was fulfilled, and also that better than 10 cm real-time DIODE orbits would be achieved on-board Jason-2. The first year of Jason-2 confirmed this, and after correction of a slowly evolving polar motion error at the end of the commissioning phase, the DIODE on-board orbits are indeed better than the 10 cm specification: in the beginning of the routine phase, the discrepancy was already 7.7 cm Root-Mean-Square (RMS) in the radial component as compared to the final Precise Orbit Ephemerides (POE) orbit. Since the first day of Jason-2 cycle 1, the real-time DIODE orbits have been delivered in the altimetry fast delivery products. Their accuracy and their 100% availability make them a key input to fairly precise Near-Real-Time Altimetry processing. Time-tagging is at the microsecond level. In parallel, a few corrections (quaternion problem) and improvements have been gathered in an enhanced version of DIODE, which is already implemented and validated. With this new version, a 5 cm radial accuracy is achieved during ground validation over more than Jason-2 first year (cycles 1-43, from July 12th, 2008 to September 11th, 2009). The Seattle Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting (OSTST) has recommended an upload of this v4.02 version on

  13. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models do not require zero active mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Hobson, Michael P.

    2016-07-01

    The Rh = ct cosmological model has received considerable attention in recent years owing to claims that it is favoured over the standard Λ cold dark mater (ΛCDM) model by most observational data. A key feature of the Rh = ct model is that the zero active mass condition ρ + 3p = 0 holds at all epochs. Most recently, Melia has claimed that this condition is a requirement of the symmetries of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. We demonstrate that this claim is false and results from a flaw in the logic of Melia's argument.

  14. Local inhomogeneities in a Robertson-Walker background. I. General framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, K.

    1980-09-15

    A complete generalization of the ''Swiss cheese'' type of locally inhomogeneous cosmologies is given. Neither the explicity form of the spherically symmetric interior metric nor the spatial curvature and equation of state of the Robertson-Walker background is restricted a priori. The history, mass, and mass growth rate of any timelike inhomogeneity is developed in terms of a single function characteristic of the inhomogeneity. Recent results which have generalized the standard ''Swiss cheese'' case of a Vaidra interior metric follow immediately from the framework given here.

  15. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models do not require zero active mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Hobson, Michael P.

    2016-04-01

    The Rh = ct cosmological model has received considerable attention in recent years owing to claims that it is favoured over the standard Λ cold dark mater (ΛCDM) model by most observational data. A key feature of the Rh = ct model is that the zero active mass condition ρ + 3p = 0 holds at all epochs. Most recently, Melia (2016b) has claimed that this condition is a requirement of the symmetries of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. We demonstrate that this claim is false and results from a flaw in the logic of Melia's argument.

  16. Corrections to Hawking-like radiation for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2009-07-01

    Recently, a Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond the semiclassical approximation in black hole physics was developed by Banerjee and Majhi. We generalize their analysis of black holes to the case of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. It is shown that all the higher order quantum corrections in the single particle action are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. The corrections to the Hawking-like temperature and entropy of the apparent horizon for the FRW universe are also obtained. In the corrected entropy, the area law involves a logarithmic area correction together with the standard term with the inverse power of the area.

  17. The Solar Poynting-Robertson Effect On Particles Orbiting Solar System Bodies: Circular Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The Poynting-Robertson effect from sunlight impinging directly on a particle which orbits a Solar System body (planet, asteroid, comet) is considered from the Sun's rest frame. There appear to be no significant first-order terms in V(sub b)/c for circular orbits, where V(sub b) is the body's speed in its orbit about the Sun and c is the speed of light, when the particle's orbital semimajor axis is much smaller than the body's orbital semimajor axis about the Sun as is mainly the case in the Solar System.

  18. The Capture of Interstellar Dust: The Pure Poynting-Robertson Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have discovered interstellar dust particles entering the solar system. In general, particles trajectories not altered by Lorentz forces or radiation pressure should encounter the sun on open orbits. Under Newtonian forces alone these particles return to the interstellar medium. Dissipative forces, such as Poynting Robertson (PR) and corpuscular drag and non-dissipative Lorentz forces can modify open orbits to become closed. In particular, it is possible for the orbits of particles that pass close to the Sun to become closed due to PR drag. Further, solar irradiation will cause modification of the size of the dust particle by evaporation. The combination of these processes gives rise a class of capture orbits and bound orbits with evaporation. Considering only the case of pure PR drag a minimum impact parameter is derived for initial capture by Poynting-Robertson drag. Orbits in the solar radiation field are computed numerically accounting for evaporation with optical and material properties for ideal interstellar particles modeled. The properties of this kind of particle capture are discussed for the Sun but is applicable to other stars.

  19. The Dirac equation and the normalization of its solutions in a closed Friedmann- Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finster, Felix; Reintjes, Moritz

    2009-05-01

    We set up the Dirac equation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and separate the spatial and time variables. In the case of a closed universe, the spatial dependence is solved explicitly, giving rise to a discrete set of solutions. We compute the probability integral and analyze a spacetime normalization integral. This analysis allows us to introduce the fermionic projector in a closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and to specify its global normalization as well as its local form. First author supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  20. Atmospheric gradients from GNSS, VLBI, and DORIS analyses and from Numerical Weather Models during CONT14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Dick, Galina; Nilsson, Tobias; Soja, Benedikt; Wickert, Jens; Zus, Florian; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Observations from space-geodetic techniques are nowadays increasingly used to derive atmospheric information for various commercial and scientific applications. A prominent example is the operational use of GNSS data to improve global and regional weather forecasts, which was started in 2006. Atmosphere gradients describe the azimuthal asymmetry of zenith delays. Estimates of geodetic and other parameters significantly improve when atmosphere gradients are determined in addition. Here we assess the capability of several space geodetic techniques (GNSS, VLBI, DORIS) to determine atmosphere gradients of refractivity. For this purpose we implement and compare various strategies for gradient estimation, such as different values for the temporal resolution and the corresponding parameter constraints. Applying least squares estimation the gradients are usually deterministically modelled as constants or piece-wise linear functions. In our study we compare this approach with a stochastic approach modelling atmosphere gradients as random walk processes and applying a Kalman Filter for parameter estimation. The gradients, derived from space geodetic techniques are verified by comparison with those derived from Numerical Weather Models (NWM). These model data were generated using raytracing calculations based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses with different spatial resolutions. The investigation of the differences between the ECMWF and NCEP gradients hereby in addition allow for an empirical assessment of the quality of model gradients and how suitable the NWM data are for verification. CONT14 (2014-05-06 until 2014-05-20) is the youngest two week long continuous VLBI campaign carried out by IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). It presents the state-of-the-art VLBI performance in terms of number of stations and number of observations and presents thus an

  1. Direct determination of geocenter motion by combining SLR, VLBI, GNSS, and DORIS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Abbondanza, C.; Altamimi, Z.; Chin, T. M.; Collilieux, X.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Jiang, Y.; Parker, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The longest-wavelength surface mass transport includes three degree-one spherical harmonic components involving hemispherical mass exchanges. The mass load causes geocenter motion between the center-of-mass of the total Earth system (CM) and the center-of-figure of the solid Earth surface (CF), and deforms the solid Earth. Estimation of the degree-1 surface mass changes through CM-CF and degree-1 deformation signatures from space geodetic techniques can thus complement GRACE's time-variable gravity data to form a complete change spectrum up to a high resolution. Currently, SLR is considered the most accurate technique for direct geocenter motion determination. By tracking satellite motion from ground stations, SLR determines the motion between CM and the geometric center of its ground network (CN). This motion is then used to approximate CM-CF and subsequently for deriving degree-1 mass changes. However, the SLR network is very sparse and uneven in global distribution. The average number of operational tracking stations is about 20 in recent years. The poor network geometry can have a large CN-CF motion and is not ideal for the determination of CM-CF motion and degree-1 mass changes. We recently realized an experimental Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) through station time series using the Kalman filter and the RTS smoother. The TRF has its origin defined at nearly instantaneous CM using weekly SLR measurement time series. VLBI, GNSS and DORIS time series are combined weekly with those of SLR and tied to the geocentric (CM) reference frame through local tie measurements and co-motion constraints on co-located geodetic stations. The unified geocentric time series of the four geodetic techniques provide a much better network geometry for direct geodetic determination of geocenter motion. Results from this direct approach using a 90-station network compares favorably with those obtained from joint inversions of GPS/GRACE data and ocean bottom pressure models. We will

  2. Supersymmetry: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, E.C.

    1985-07-01

    Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings. (LEW)

  3. Time Variable Gravity from Weekly Solutions from 1993 to 2010 using SLR and DORIS data and Comparisons with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, D. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Le Bail, K.; Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    GRACE has been routinely monitoring the time-variable gravity field of the Earth since 2003 with either periodic solutions expressed as spherical harmonics or mascons. GRACE can resolve time-variable gravity to between degree 40 and 60, however the time series may be interrupted prior to the launch of a GRACE-2 spacecraft. A suite of satellites tracked by SLR, DORIS and also GPS has been in orbit for many years, and with these satellites it is possible to construct a time series of low degree spherical harmonics over several decades. We have recently reprocessed SLR and DORIS data from 1993 to 2010 using ITRF2008 and have developed weekly solutions based on SLR data to Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Larets, TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, the SPOT satellites, and Jason-2. The new C20 solutions compare favorably to independent SLR solutions, however the annual amplitude in the SLR solutions is greater than in the annual amplitude of the C20 recoveries from GRACE-derived solutions. For non-zonal low degree coefficients, the GRACE and SLR time series seem in reasonable agreement over the time period where the data are in common. We summarize the current status of the processing, and the quality of the solutions that have been obtained thus far, and provide a perspective on future work that remains to be done.

  4. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T/P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data. The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  5. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7,2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason- 1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data, The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  6. The ubiquitous ostracode Darwinula stevensoni (Brady and Robertson, 1870), redescription of the species and lectotype designation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    Darwinula stevensoni (Brady and Robertson 1870) is the type species of Darwinula, the ubiquitous living and fossil nonmarine nominate genus of the Darwinulidae and the Darwinulacea. To date, the additional families Darwinuloididae (fossil), Microdarwinulidae (living and fossil), Panxianidae (fossil), and Suchonellidae (fossil) have been referred to the Darwinulacea. A type specimen for D. stevensoni has not been previously designated. In order to stabilize the species, a lectotype is selected from the type series in the Brady collection at The Hancock Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne. The species is redescribed and reillustrated based on the study of the carapace of a paralectotype and also of valves and appendages of specimens from both England and the United States. Living species of Darwinula have a cosmopolitan distribution in fresh and brackish water. Fossil Darwinulacea, documented in the Carboniferous, serve as indicators of continental Paleozoic to Holocene deposits. - Author

  7. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual. PMID:26256313

  8. Effects of field interactions upon particle creation in Robertson-Walker universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birrell, N. D.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ford, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Particle creation due to field interactions in an expanding Robertson-Walker universe is investigated. A model in which pseudoscalar mesons and photons are created as a result of their mutual interaction is considered, and the energy density of created particles is calculated in model universes which undergo a bounce at some maximum curvature. The free-field creation of non-conformally coupled scalar particles and of gravitons is calculated in the same space-times. It is found that if the bounce occurs at a sufficiently early time the interacting particle creation will dominate. This result may be traced to the fact that the model interaction chosen introduces a length scale which is much larger than the Planck length.

  9. Renormalizability of the functional Schroedinger picture in Robertson--Walker space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Eboli, O. ); Pi, S.; Samiullah, M.

    1989-07-01

    We study free and self-interacting scalar quantum field theories in a flat Robertson-Walker metric in the functional Schroedinger picture. We discuss Schroedinger picture quantization, relating it to conventional Heisenberg picture quantization. For the interacting theory, we introduce the time-dependent Gaussian approximation to study time evolution of pure and mixed states and we establish renormalizability of the approximation. We also study the question of computing a finite, renormalized energy-momentum tensor for both the free and the interacting theory in the Gaussian appproximation. Using the adiabatic expansion, we show that the entire subtration necessary to make the the energy-momentum tensor finite in the free theory can be written in terms of covariantly conserved tensors. We further show that the same subtraction is sufficient to make the energy-momentum tensor finite in the Gaussian approximation for the interacting theory provided that the mass and coupling constants are renromalized. {copyright} 1989 Academic Press, Inc.

  10. Infrared spectra of weak hydrogen bonds and indirect damping. On the deep connection between the quantum model and the semi-classical one of Robertson and Yarwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, Paul; Déjardin, Pierre-Michel; Henri-Rousseau, Olivier

    2005-06-01

    The classical approximation of the quantum model dealing with the IR spectra of weak hydrogen bond involving indirect damping [B. Boulil, O. Henri-Rousseau, P. Blaise, Chem. Phys. 126 (1988) 263] is obtained. It transforms, via a crude approximation concerning the interpretation of stochastic averages, into the classical Robertson-Yarwood (RY) model [G. Robertson, J. Yarwood, Chem. Phys. 32 (1978) 267].

  11. Uniqueness of complete maximal hypersurfaces in spatially open (n+1)-dimensional Robertson-Walker spacetimes with flat fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelegrín, José A. S.; Romero, Alfonso; Rubio, Rafael M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, under natural geometric and physical assumptions we provide new uniqueness and non-existence results for complete maximal hypersurfaces in spatially open Robertson-Walker spacetimes whose fiber is flat. Moreover, our results are applied to relevant spacetimes as the steady state spacetime, Einstein-de Sitter spacetime and radiation models.

  12. Update of the South-Atlantic Anomaly corrective model for JASON-1 DORIS data using the maps of energetic particles from the CARMEN dosimeter onboard JASON-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdeville, Hugues; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of the ultra stable oscillator (USO) of DORIS/Jason-1 to the high energy protons trapped in the Van Allen belts is now well known. This sensitivity causes a fluctuation of the frequency when the satellite crosses the area of the South-Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The principal consequence is the impossibility of using the measurements of the DORIS beacons located in the SAA area for cm-precision positioning since the real frequency of the on-board oscillator is varying rapidly in that area. Moreover, these DORIS measurements do not contribute (or little) to the determination of the orbit of Jason-1 because they are eliminated during the pre-processing on residuals criteria. To correct for this sensitivity to the effects of solar radiation, a model of the frequency evolution of the USO was designed and validated by Lemoine and Capdeville in 2006. This model allows a significant improvement in the orbit adjustment. It takes into account the geographical characteristics of the SAA region (1x1 degree SAA grid) as well as the parameters of the USO's response to this external stimulation: an amplitude, a relaxation time-constant and a memory effect of the SAA disturbance. In the framework of the IDS contribution to the new realization of ITRF, the Jason-1 DORIS data from the end of TOPEX' life (November 2004) to the launch of Jason-2 (July 2008) have been used, corrected by this model. The corrected DORIS data have been provided to the data center for the use of the IDS Analysis Centers. The Jason-2 satellite carries a dosimeter instrument (CARMEN). The purpose here is to take the advantage of this instrument to improve our SAA corrective model by using the maps of energetic particles provided by CARMEN. First, a correlation study between the SAA DORIS grid and the CARMEN maps has been done to determine the dosimeter map which has the best agreement. Then, this map is used to calculate the others parameters of the model. The new model will be used to correct

  13. Poynting Robertson Battery and the Chiral Magnetic Fields of AGN Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    We propose that the magnetic fields in the accretion disks of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generated by azimuthal electric currents due to the difference between the plasma electron and ion velocities that arises when the electrons are retarded by interactions with the AGN photons (the Poynting Robertson battery). This process provides a unique relation between the polarity of the poloidal B field to the angular velocity Omega of the accretion disk (B is parallel to Omega), a relation absent in the more popular dynamo B-field generation. This then leads to a unique direction for the toroidal B field induced by disk rotation. Observations of the toroidal fields of 29 AGN jets revealed by parsec-scale Faraday rotation measurements show a clear asymmetry that is consistent with this model, with the probability that this asymmetry comes about by chance being approx.0.06 %. This lends support to the hypothesis that the universe is seeded by B fields that are generated in AGNs via this mechanism and subsequently injected into intergalactic space by the jet outflows.

  14. METAL ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS CAUSED BY POYNTING-ROBERTSON DRAG ON THEIR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2011-05-01

    Recent discoveries of compact (sizes {approx}Robertson (PR) drag on the debris disk is effective at providing metal accretion rate M-dot{sub PR}{approx}10{sup 8} g s{sup -1} and higher, scaling quadratically with WD effective temperature. We compare our results with observations and show that, as expected, no WD hosting a particulate debris disk shows evidence of metal accretion rate below that produced by the PR drag. Existence of WDs accreting metals at rates significantly higher than M-dot{sub PR} suggests that another mechanism in addition to the PR drag drives accretion of high-Z elements in these systems.

  15. Electrodynamics in the Friedmann Robertson Walker universe: Maxwell and Dirac fields in Newman Penrose formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, U.

    2006-07-01

    Maxwell and Dirac fields in Friedmann Robertson Walker (FRW) spacetime are investigated using the Newman Penrose method. The variables are all separable, with the angular dependence given by spin-weighted spherical harmonics. All the radial parts reduce to the barrier penetration problem, with mostly repulsive potentials representing the centrifugal energies. Both the helicity states of the photon field see the same potential, but that of the Dirac field see different ones; one component even sees attractive potential in the open universe. The massless fields have the usual exponential time dependences; that of the massive Dirac field is coupled to the evolution of the cosmic scale factor a. The case of the radiation-filled flat universe is solved in terms of the Whittaker function. A formal series solution, valid in any FRW universe, is also presented. The energy density of the Maxwell field is explicitly shown to scale as a-4. The co-moving particle number density of the massless Dirac field is found to be conserved, but that of the massive one is not. Particles flow out of certain regions, and into others, creating regions that are depleted of certain linear and angular momenta states, and others with excess. Such a current of charged particles would constitute an electric current that could generate a cosmic magnetic field. In contrast, the energy density of these massive particles still scales as a-4.

  16. Physical basis for the symmetries in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    Modern cosmological theory is based on the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric. Often written in terms of co-moving coordinates, this well-known solution to Einstein's equations owes its elegant and highly practical formulation to the cosmological principle and Weyl's postulate, upon which it is founded. However, there is physics behind such symmetries, and not all of it has yet been recognized. In this paper, we derive the FRW metric coefficients from the general form of the spherically symmetric line element and demonstrate that, because the co-moving frame also happens to be in free fall, the symmetries in FRW are valid only for a medium with zero active mass. In other words, the spacetime of a perfect fluid in cosmology may be correctly written as FRW only when its equation of state is ρ+3 p = 0, in terms of the total pressure p and total energy density ρ. There is now compelling observational support for this conclusion, including the Alcock-Paczýnski test, which shows that only an FRW cosmology with zero active mass is consistent with the latest model-independent baryon acoustic oscillation data.

  17. Preserving information from the beginning to the end of time in a Robertson-Walker spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Stefano; Pierini, Roberto; Wilde, Mark M.

    2014-12-01

    Preserving information stored in a physical system subjected to noise can be modeled in a communication-theoretic paradigm, in which storage and retrieval correspond to an input encoding and output decoding, respectively. The encoding and decoding are then constructed in such a way as to protect against the action of a given noisy quantum channel. This paper considers the situation in which the noise is not due to technological imperfections, but rather to the physical laws governing the evolution of the Universe. In particular, we consider the dynamics of quantum systems under a 1 + 1 Robertson-Walker spacetime and find that the noise imparted to them is equivalent to the well known amplitude damping channel. Since one might be interested in preserving both classical and quantum information in such a scenario, we study trade-off coding strategies and determine a region of achievable rates for the preservation of both kinds of information. For applications beyond the physical setting studied here, we also determine a trade-off between achievable rates of classical and quantum information preservation when entanglement assistance is available.

  18. Stability of triangular points in the photogravitational CR3BP with Poynting-Robertson drag and a smaller triaxial primary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagadish; Emmanuel, A. Balogun

    2014-09-01

    The stability of triangular equilibrium points in the framework of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) is investigated for a test particle of infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of two massive bodies (primaries), when the bigger primary is a source of radiation and the smaller one is a triaxial rigid body with one of the axes as the axis of symmetry and its equatorial plane coinciding with the plane of motion, under the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag effect as a result of the radiating primary. It is found that the involved parameters influence the position of triangular points and their linear stability. It is noted that these points are unstable in the presence of Poynting-Robertson drag effect and conditionally stable in the absence of it.

  19. Class of solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, H. S.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in a homogeneous and isotropic universe are given by triconfluent Heun functions for the spatially closed, flat, and open geometries of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with different forms of energy. In a matter-dominated universe, we find the polynomial solution and the energy density spectrum. In the cases of radiation-dominated and vacuum universes, there are no polynomial solutions as shown.

  20. Gaussian approximation of lambdaphi/sup 4/ theory in (3+1)-dimensional spatially flat Robertson-Walker space

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, H.

    1989-03-15

    We investigate lambdaphi/sup 4/ theory within the Gaussian approximation in spatially flat Robertson-Walker space in 3+1 dimensions. After having performed an adiabatic expansion for one of the ansatz functions, we find that the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor provides two additional constraints which have to be satisfied by the bare couplings. These conditions force the theory to be trivial after renormalization.

  1. Stress-energy tensor of adiabatic vacuum in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve E-mail: merve.tarman@boun.edu.tr

    2011-04-01

    We compute the leading order contribution to the stress-energy tensor corresponding to the modes of a quantum scalar field propagating in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with arbitrary coupling to the scalar curvature, whose exact mode functions can be expanded as an infinite adiabatic series. While for a massive field this is a good approximation for all modes when the mass of the field m is larger than the Hubble parameter H, for a massless field only the subhorizon modes with comoving wave-numbers larger than some fixed k{sub *} obeying k{sub *}/a > H can be analyzed in this way. As infinities coming from adiabatic zero, second and fourth order expressions are removed by adiabatic regularization, the leading order finite contribution to the stress-energy tensor is given by the adiabatic order six terms, which we determine explicitly. For massive and massless modes these have the magnitudes H{sup 6}/m{sup 2} and H{sup 6}a{sup 2}/k{sub *}{sup 2}, respectively, and higher order corrections are suppressed by additional powers of (H/m){sup 2} and (Ha/k{sub *}){sup 2}. When the scale factor in the conformal time η is a simple power a(η) = (1/η){sup n}, the stress-energy tensor obeys P = Øρ with Ø = (n−2)/n for massive and Ø = (n−6)/(3n) for massless modes. In that case, the adiabaticity is eventually lost when 0 < n < 1 for massive and when 0 < n < 3/2 for massless fields since in time H/m and Ha/k{sub *} become order one. We discuss the implications of these results for de Sitter and other cosmologically relevant spaces.

  2. Mapping Glacial Weathering Processes with Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: A Case Study at Robertson Glacier, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Shock, E.; Canovas, P. A., III

    2014-12-01

    Geologic weathering processes in cold environments, especially subglacial chemical processes acting on rock and sediment, are not well characterized due to the difficulty of accessing these environments. Glacial weathering of geologic materials contributes to the solute flux in meltwater and provides a potential source of energy to chemotrophic microbes, and is thus an important component to understand. In this study, we use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to map the extent of glacial weathering in the front range of the Canadian Rockies using remotely detected infrared spectra. We ground-truth our observations using laboratory infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and geochemical analyses of field samples. The major goals of the project are to quantify weathering inputs to the glacial energy budget, and to link in situ sampling with remote sensing capabilities. Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada is an excellent field site for this technique as it is easily accessible and its retreating stage allows sampling of fresh subglacial and englacial sediments. Infrared imagery of the region was collected with the ASTER satellite instrument. At that same time, samples of glacially altered rock and sediments were collected on a downstream transect of the glacier and outwash plain. Infrared laboratory spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the composition and abundance of minerals present. Geochemical data were also collected at each location, and ice and water samples were analyzed for major and minor elements. Our initial conclusion is that the majority of the weathering seems to be occurring at the glacier-rock interface rather than in the outwash stream. Results from both laboratory and ASTER data indicate the presence of leached weathering rinds. A general trend of decreasing carbonate abundances with elevation (i.e. residence time in ice) is observed, which is consistent with increasing calcium ion

  3. Complex modes of bonding: NCI/ELI-D vs. DORI surface analyses of hapticities and hydrogen-hydrogen contacts in zincocene related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebs, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) topology is prone to wrong/ambiguous bond assignments (lacking bond critical points) in areas of low electron densities (ED), e.g. for hydrogen-hydrogen contacts, and flat density gradients, e.g. for metal-ring contacts (hapticities), both in experimental and computed ED. Within this study, two ED-derived bonding indicators are applied to a set of zincocene related compounds: non-covalent interactions (NCI) surfaces are combined with electron localizability indicator (ELI-D) surfaces and compared to density overlap regions indicator (DORI) surfaces. Both methods (NCI/ELI-D, DORI) result in spatial deconvolution of covalent and non-covalent interactions and unravel weak interactions not observed in the AIM topology.

  4. The exploitation of large archives of space-borne C-band SAR data in the framework of FP7-DORIS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Ventisette, Chiara; Ciampalini, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    DORIS (Ground Deformations Risk Scenarios: an Advanced Assessment Service) is an advanced downstream service project within the seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission. A European team was set up in order to make the best views of the most advanced research and technologies outcomes in the field of Earth Observation (EO) for the improvement of risk management. The aim of the DORIS project is the development of new methodologies for the detection, mapping, monitoring and forecasting of ground deformations. DORIS integrates traditional and innovative EO and ground based (non-EO) data to improve our understanding of the complex phenomena at different temporal and spatial scales and in various physiographic and environmental settings that result in ground deformations, including landslides and ground subsidence, for civil protection purposes. One of the goal of the Doris Project is the exploitation of the large data archives for geohazards mapping. In this work the existing ESA Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) archives, operating in the microwave C-band (data collected by the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite) were analysed through new algorithms developed to reconstruct long time series (almost 20 years) and the obtained preliminary results are presented. The algorithms are based on Small BAseline Subset technique (SBAS; developed by CNR-IREA), ERS- ENVISAT Stitching (T.R.E.), Stable Point Network (SPN; Altamira) and ERS-ENVISAT Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA; Gamma). The potentiality of these algorithms were evaluate in selected test sites characterized by different ground deformation phenomena (landslide and/or subsidence): i) Central Umbria (Italy); ii) Messina Province (Italy); iii) Rácalmás (Hungary); iv) Silesian Coal Basin (Poland); v) Tramuntana Range (Mallorca, Spain) and vi) St. Moritz (Switzerland). The results demonstrate the usefulness of the implemented algorithms, but in some cases there is a loss of the coherent points

  5. The structure and origin of Prydz Bay and MacRobertson Shelf, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagg, H. M. J.

    1985-04-01

    A marine geophysical survey in early 1982, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, indicated that much of Prydz Bay is underlain by a sedimentary basin. Severe seismic multiples preclude an accurate estimate of total sediment thickness, but interpretation of the seismic and magnetic data suggest that it is probably at least 5 km. The trends of the southeast basin margin and of mild faulting and folding in the southwest indicate an overall NNE trend, roughly orthogonal to the continental margin. In the south of Prydz Bay, two series of seismic sequences are evident, separated by a mildly erosional unconformity. The lower series ranges from poorly- to well-stratified, has minor folding and faulting, and probably derives from continental and perhaps shallow marine pre-breakup sediments. The upper series is generally well-stratified, and prograded near the shelf edge; it probably represents shallow marine post-breakup sediments. The seabed is distinctly unconformable with the underlying sediments, implying both that much of the upper series sediments and some of the lower series sediments have been bulldozed off by advances of the Amery Ice Shelf, and that present sedimentation rates are very low. Possible thin moraines or tillites in the northeast part of the Prydz Bay are also attributed to these glacial advances. The continental slope and rise sedimentary section ranges from at least 3 km thick off Prydz Bay, to thin off the MacRobertson Shelf to the west, reflecting the more prolific sediment source in Prydz Bay. The deep water section includes several seismic sequences, the most distinctive being interpreted as sheet volcanics and turbidite fans. The deepest visible unconformity is locally strongly faulted and may separate the pre-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Indo-Antarctic breakup has been tentatively dated as Early Neocomian (130 Ma) and the E-W orientation of the resultant Antarctic coast invites interpretation of the Lambert Glacier

  6. Comment on 'Quantization of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation'

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Cervantes, Mayra; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2007-03-15

    The quantization of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the presence of a negative cosmological constant was used in a recent paper to conclude that there are solutions that avoid singularities (big bang-big crunch) at the quantum level. We show that a proper study of their model does not indicate that it prevents the occurrence of singularities at the quantum level, in fact the quantum probability of such event is larger than the classical one. Our numerical simulations based on the powerful variational sinc collocation method (VSCM) also show that the precision of the results of that paper is much lower than the 20 significant digits reported by the authors.

  7. On the initial value problem for the wave equation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Bilal; Craig, Walter

    2014-09-01

    The propagator W(t 0,t 1)(g,h) for the wave equation in a given space-time takes initial data (g(x),h(x)) on a Cauchy surface {(t,x) : t=t 0} and evaluates the solution (u(t 1,x),∂ t u(t 1,x)) at other times t 1. The Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times are defined for t 0,t 1>0, whereas for t 0→0, there is a metric singularity. There is a spherical means representation for the general solution of the wave equation with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background metric in the three spatial dimensional cases of curvature K=0 and K=-1 given by S. Klainerman and P. Sarnak. We derive from the expression of their representation three results about the wave propagator for the Cauchy problem in these space-times. First, we give an elementary proof of the sharp rate of time decay of solutions with compactly supported data. Second, we observe that the sharp Huygens principle is not satisfied by solutions, unlike in the case of three-dimensional Minkowski space-time (the usual Huygens principle of finite propagation speed is satisfied, of course). Third, we show that for 00 emanating from the space-time singularity at t=0. Under reflection t→-t, the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric gives a space-time metric for t<0 with a singular future at t=0, and the same solution formulae hold. We thus have constructed solutions u(t,x) of the wave equation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times which exist for all [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where in conformally regularized coordinates, these solutions are continuous through the singularity t=0 of space-time, taking on specified data u(0,⋅)=g(⋅) at the singular time. PMID:25197255

  8. Charged Dust Grain Dynamics Subject to Solar Wind, Poynting–Robertson Drag, and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Christoph; Bourdin, Philippe; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting–Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. For this reason, we derive a secular theory of motion by the means of an averaging method and validate it with numerical simulations of the unaveraged equations of motions. The theory predicts that the secular motion of charged particles is mainly affected by the z-component of the solar magnetic axis, or the normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field leads to an increase or decrease of semimajor axis depending on its functional form and sign of charge of the dust grain. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting–Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semimajor axis on secular timescales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces under certain circumstances. We derive a simple relation between the parameters of the magnetic field, the physical properties of the dust grain, as well as the shape and orientation of the orbital ellipse of the particle, which is a necessary conditions for the stabilization in semimajor axis.

  9. Noise characteristics in DORIS station positions time series derived from IGN-JPL, INASAN and CNES-CLS analysis centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Using wavelet transform and Allan variance, we have analysed the solutions of weekly position residuals of 09 high latitude DORIS stations in STCD (STation Coordinate Difference) format provided from the three Analysis Centres : IGN-JPL (solution ign11wd01), INASAN (solution ina10wd01) and CNES-CLS (solution lca11wd02), in order to compare the spectral characteristics of their residual noise. The temporal correlations between the three solutions, two by two and station by station, for each component (North, East and Vertical) reveal a high correlation in the horizontal components (North and East). For the North component, the correlation average is about 0.88, 0.81 and 0.79 between, respectively, IGN-INA, IGN-LCA and INA-LCA solutions, then for the East component it is about 0.84, 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. However, the correlations for the Vertical component are moderate with an average of 0.64, 0.57 and 0.58 in, respectively, IGN-INA, IGN-LCA and INA-LCA solutions. After removing the trends and seasonal components from the analysed time series, the Allan variance analysis shows that the three solutions are dominated by a white noise in the all three components (North, East and Vertical). The wavelet transform analysis, using the VisuShrink method with soft thresholding, reveals that the noise level in the LCA solution is less important compared to IGN and INA solutions. Indeed, the standard deviation of the noise for the three components is in the range of 5-11, 5-12 and 4-9mm in the IGN, INA, and LCA solutions, respectively.

  10. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the study of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.

  11. Genetically Modified Networks: A Genetic Algorithm contribution to Space Geodesy. Application to the transformation of SLR and DORIS EOP time series into ITRF2005.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulot, D.; Collilieux, X.; Pollet, A.; Berio, P.; Gobinddass, M. L.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we apply Genetic Algorithms (GAs) in order to optimize the referencing (and consequently the precision - stability - and the accuracy) of the EOPs with respect to ITRF2005. These EOPs are derived from SLR or DORIS data at a daily sampling, simultaneously with weekly station positions. GAs are evolutionary algorithms, i.e. stochastic algorithms based on the evolution theory and using some genetic operators such as chromosome crossover and gene mutations. They are currently used for a broad spectrum of activities, from medicine to defence to finance. They have also been used in Earth and Space sciences (remote sensing, geophysics, meteorology, astrophysics, astronomy, etc.) since the early nineties. But, as far as we know, the present work is the first application of GAs in the framework of Space Geodesy. In this work, we use an algorithm based on GAs to find weekly optimal sub-networks over which applying minimum constraints in order to reference EOPs. Each week, the three rotations of the involved terrestrial frames are forced to be zero with respect to ITRF2005 through minimum constraints applied over these sub-networks, which are called Genetically Modified Networks (GMNs). The reference system effects are used as objectives to optimize with GAs. Regarding SLR, our approach provides an improvement of 10 % in accuracy for polar motion in comparison to the results obtained with the network specially designed for EOP referencing by the Analysis Working Group of the International Laser Ranging Service. This improvement of nearly 25 as represents 50 % of the current precision of the IERS 05 C04 reference series. We also show preliminary results regarding such GMNs for the DORIS technique using two different solutions (IGN and CNES/CLS solutions). Finally, for practical applications, we also test, for the SLR and the DORIS techniques, the possible emergence of global core networks to be used for EOP referencing on the basis of GAs.

  12. Quantization of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Monerat, G.A.; Silva, E.V. Correa; Oliveira-Neto, G.

    2006-02-15

    In the present work, we quantize three Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation. The models differ from each other by the constant curvature of their spatial sections, which may be positive, negative or zero. They give rise to Wheeler-DeWitt equations for the scale factor which have the form of the Schroedinger equation for the quartic anharmonic oscillator. We find their eigenvalues and eigenfunctions by using a method first developed by Chhajlany and Malnev. After that, we use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets for each case and evaluate the time-dependent expectation value of the scale factors, which are found to oscillate between finite maximum and minimum values. Since the expectation values of the scale factors never vanish, we have an initial indication that these models may not have singularities at the quantum level.

  13. Molecular cloning of a maize gene involved in photosynthetic membrane organization that is regulated by Robertson's Mutator.

    PubMed Central

    Martienssen, R A; Barkan, A; Freeling, M; Taylor, W C

    1989-01-01

    The maize photosynthetic mutant hcf106 has a distinctive and unusual thylakoid membrane organization, and fails to accumulate three of the five thylakoid membrane protein complexes. This mutant arose in a Robertson's Mutator background, and shows somatic instability typical of a transposon-induced allele. In addition, hcf106 is suppressed when Mu1 elements are inactive and modified in their terminal inverted repeats. Thus plants homozygous for the mutant allele adopt a mutant phenotype only when Mu1 elements are active and unmodified. DNA from the mutant allele has been cloned by 'transposon-tagging' using the transposon Mu1, and the identity of the clone confirmed by observing somatic excision of the transposon in a revertant sector. A 1.2 kb transcript homologous to the cloned DNA is found in wild-type and suppressed seedlings, but is not found in mutant seedlings, suggesting that suppression is mediated at the level of transcript accumulation. Images PMID:2548850

  14. 'DIRTY WORK', BUT SOMEONE HAS TO DO IT: HOWARD P. ROBERTSON AND THE REFEREEING PRACTICES OF PHYSICAL REVIEW IN THE 1930S.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Roberto

    2016-06-20

    In the 1930s the mathematical physicist Howard P. Robertson was the main referee of the journal Physical Review for papers concerning general relativity and related subjects. The rich correspondence between Robertson and the editors of the journal enables a historical investigation of the refereeing process of Physical Review at the time that it was becoming one of the most influential physics periodicals in the world. By focusing on this case study, the paper investigates two complementary aspects of the evolution of the refereeing process: first, the historical evolution of the refereeing practices in connection with broader contextual changes, and second, the attempts to define the activity of the referee, including the epistemic virtues required and the journal's functions according to the participants' categories. By exploring the tension between Robertson's idealized picture about how the referee should behave and the desire to promote his intellectual agenda, I show that the evaluation criteria that Robertson employed were contextually dependent and I argue that, in the 1930s, through his reports the referee had an enormous power in defining what direction future research should take. PMID:27386715

  15. Note: Comparison of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering of a titania sponge structure at the beamlines BW4 (DORIS III) and P03 (PETRA III)

    SciTech Connect

    Rawolle, M.; Koerstgens, V.; Ruderer, M. A.; Metwalli, E.; Guo, S.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P.; Herzog, G.; Benecke, G.; Schwartzkopf, M.; Buffet, A.; Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.

    2012-10-15

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a powerful technique for morphology investigation of nanostructured thin films. GISAXS measurements at the newly installed P03 beamline at the storage ring PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, are compared to the GISAXS data from the beamline BW4 at the storage ring DORIS III, which had been used extensively for GISAXS investigations in the past. As an example, a titania thin film sponge structure is investigated. Compared to BW4, at beamline P03 the resolution of larger structures is slightly improved and a higher incident flux leads to a factor of 750 in scattered intensity. Therefore, the acquisition time in GISAXS geometry is reduced significantly at beamline P03.

  16. Chondracanthid copepod parasites of dories (Zeiformes: Zeidae) with the description of a new species of Chondracanthus from waters off northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola E; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Incorvaia, Inés S; Timi, Juan T

    2013-09-01

    A new species of parasitic copepod, Chondracanthus hoi sp. n. (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae), is described based on specimens of both sexes collected from the buccal cavity and gill arches of the silvery john dory, Zenopsis conchifer (Lowe) (Zeiformes: Zeidae), from waters off northern Argentina (35-36 degrees S, 53-54 degrees W). Female of C. hoi differs from its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of five pairs of trunk processes, antennule with four knobs tipped with small setae and absence of denticles on the terminal process of maxilla. Chondracanthids and zeiform fishes have been proposed as an example of co-speciation; this assumption is derived from a series of analyses based on incomplete records of both geographical distribution and host range of some parasite species, as well as misidentification offish hosts. These inconsistences observed during our bibliographical analyses are also discussed. PMID:24261137

  17. New Test of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Metric Using the Distance Sum Rule.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Syksy; Bolejko, Krzysztof; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    We present a new test of the validity of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, based on comparing the distance from redshift 0 to z(1) and from z(1) to z(2) to the distance from 0 to z(2). If the Universe is described by the FLRW metric, the comparison provides a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature. The test relies on geometrical optics, it is independent of the matter content of the Universe and the applicability of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. We apply the test to observations, using the Union2.1 compilation of supernova distances and Sloan Lens ACS Survey galaxy strong lensing data. The FLRW metric is consistent with the data, and the spatial curvature parameter is constrained to be -1.22<Ω(K0)<0.63, or -0.08<Ω(K0)<0.97 with a prior from the cosmic microwave background and the local Hubble constant, though modeling of the lenses is a source of significant systematic uncertainty. PMID:26382671

  18. A new velocity field for Africa from combined GPS and DORIS space geodetic Solutions: Contribution to the definition of the African reference frame (AFREF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Farah, H.

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed 16 years of GPS and 17 years of Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) data at continuously operating geodetic sites in Africa and surroundings to describe the present-day kinematics of the Nubian and Somalian plates and constrain relative motions across the East African Rift. The resulting velocity field describes horizontal and vertical motion at 133 GPS sites and 9 DORIS sites. Horizontal velocities at sites located on stable Nubia fit a single plate model with a weighted root mean square residual of 0.6 mm/yr (maximum residual 1 mm/yr), an upper bound for plate-wide motions and for regional-scale deformation in the seismically active southern Africa and Cameroon volcanic line. We confirm significant southward motion ( ˜ 1.5 mm/yr) in Morocco with respect to Nubia, consistent with earlier findings. We propose an updated angular velocity for the divergence between Nubia and Somalia, which provides the kinematic boundary conditions to rifting in East Africa. We update a plate motion model for the East African Rift and revise the counterclockwise rotation of the Victoria plate and clockwise rotation of the Rovuma plate with respect to Nubia. Vertical velocities range from - 2 to +2 mm/yr, close to their uncertainties, with no clear geographic pattern. This study provides the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, expressed in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008), a contribution to the upcoming African Reference Frame (AFREF). Except for a few regions, the African continent remains largely under-sampled by continuous space geodetic data. Efforts are needed to augment the geodetic infrastructure and openly share existing data sets so that the objectives of AFREF can be fully reached.

  19. Argon-40/argon-39 whole-rock slate ages from the Robertson Bay terrane, northern Victoria Land: Documenting diachronous orogeny as a result of terrane accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    In models of tectonic convergence, oceanic material enters subduction zones, descends, and is deformed. Over time subduction cuts across areas of deformation and should become younger in a direction opposite the dip of the subduction zone. Typically, geologists have found it difficult to document this because of insufficient cross-strike exposure, uncertainties in interpretation of radiometric ages, and overprinting of later tectonothermal events. The Robertson Bay and Bowers terranes of northern Victoria Land, which were accreted to the east antarctic craton (Gondwana margin) during the Ordovician Ross Orogeny, offer a unique opportunity to document a potentially diachronous deformation associated with an Ordovician orogeny. Exposed over a large area, these terranes display nearly uniform lithology, low metamorphic grade, and structural style and are combined with the absence of a regionally significant tectonothermal over print. Reconnaissance age analysis by potassium/argon and argon-40/argon-39 methods suggests that ages decrease eastward across the Robertson Bay terrane. The objective is systematically to collect samples of and perform argon-40/argon-39 age analysis on a whole-rock suite from the Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes. The resultant ages would more clearly document the suggested diachronism and allow more rigorous evaluation of the various tectonothermal models proposed for the evolution of the Gondwana margin.

  20. On the importance of spectral responsivity of Robertson-Berger-type ultraviolet radiometers for long-term observations.

    PubMed

    di Sarra, Alcide; Disterhoft, Patrick; DeLuisi, John J

    2002-07-01

    A system to determine the spectral responsivity of ultraviolet (UV) radiometers has been developed and is routinely operated at the Central Ultraviolet Calibration Facility, at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The instrument and the measurement methodologies are described. Results of measurements from thermally controlled broadband UV radiometers of the Robertson-Berger (R-B)-type are described. Systematic differences in the spectral response curves for these instruments have been detected. The effect of these differences on the field operation of UV-B radiometers has been studied by calculating the instrumental response from modeled UV spectra. The differences of the weighted spectral UV irradiances, measured by two radiometers with different spectral response functions, caused by the daily variation in the position of the sun were estimated for fixed values of total ozone, altitude and albedo, and for cloud-free conditions. These differences increase with the solar zenith angle and are as large as 8%. Larger differences in the instrumental response may be produced by ozone variations. Thus, care must be taken when analyzing data from R-B radiometers and comparing results from different instruments. Routine cycling of UV-B radiometers in operative networks without a careful determination of the spectral responsivity, or small drifts of the spectral responsivity, may strongly affect the accuracy of UV radiation measurements and produce an erroneous trend. Because of the possible differences among radiometers, it would not be practical to derive the long-term behavior of UV radiation without routine and thorough characterization of the spectral responsivities of the instruments. PMID:12126309

  1. A fully covariant information-theoretic ultraviolet cutoff for scalar fields in expanding Friedmann Robertson Walker spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, A.; Chatwin-Davies, A.; Martin, R. T. W.

    2013-02-01

    While a natural ultraviolet cutoff, presumably at the Planck length, is widely assumed to exist in nature, it is nontrivial to implement a minimum length scale covariantly. This is because the presence of a fixed minimum length needs to be reconciled with the ability of Lorentz transformations to contract lengths. In this paper, we implement a fully covariant Planck scale cutoff by cutting off the spectrum of the d'Alembertian. In this scenario, consistent with Lorentz contractions, wavelengths that are arbitrarily smaller than the Planck length continue to exist. However, the dynamics of modes of wavelengths that are significantly smaller than the Planck length possess a very small bandwidth. This has the effect of freezing the dynamics of such modes. While both wavelengths and bandwidths are frame dependent, Lorentz contraction and time dilation conspire to make the freezing of modes of trans-Planckian wavelengths covariant. In particular, we show that this ultraviolet cutoff can be implemented covariantly also in curved spacetimes. We focus on Friedmann Robertson Walker spacetimes and their much-discussed trans-Planckian question: The physical wavelength of each comoving mode was smaller than the Planck scale at sufficiently early times. What was the mode's dynamics then? Here, we show that in the presence of the covariant UV cutoff, the dynamical bandwidth of a comoving mode is essentially zero up until its physical wavelength starts exceeding the Planck length. In particular, we show that under general assumptions, the number of dynamical degrees of freedom of each comoving mode all the way up to some arbitrary finite time is actually finite. Our results also open the way to calculating the impact of this natural UV cutoff on inflationary predictions for the cosmic microwave background.

  2. Radiation Pressure, Poynting-Robertson Drag, and Solar Wind Drag in the Restricted Three-Body Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Zook, Herbert A.; Jackson, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effects of radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag, and solar wind drag on dust grains trapped in mean motion resonances with the Sun and Jupiter in the restricted (negligible dust mass) three-body Problem. We especially examine the evolution of dust grains in the 1:1 resonance. As a first step, the Sun and Jupiter are idealized to both be in circular orbit about a common center of mass (circular restricted three-body problem). From the equation of motion of the dust particle in the rotating reference frame, the drag-induced time rate of change of its Jacobi "constant," C, is then derived and expressed in spherical coordinates. This new mathematical expression in spherical coordinates shows that C, in the 1:1 resonance, both oscillates and secularly increases with increasing time. The new expression gives rise to an easy understanding of how an orbit evolves when the radiation force and solar wind drag are included. All dust grain orbits are unstable in time when PR and solar wind drag are included in the Sun-Jupiter-dust system. Tadpole orbits evolve into horseshoe orbits; and these orbits continuously expand in size to lead to close encounters with Jupiter. Permanent trapping is impossible. Orbital evolutions of a dust grain trapped in the 1:1 resonance in the planar circular, an inclined case, an eccentric case, and the actual Sun-Jupiter case are numerically simulated and compared with each other and show grossly similar time behavior. Resonances other than 1:1 are also explored with the new expression. Stable exterior resonance trapping may be possible under certain conditions. One necessary condition for such a trap is derived. Trapping in interior resonances is shown to be always unstable.

  3. Petrology and U-PB geochronology of the Robertson River Igneous Suite, Blue Ridge province, Virginia - Evidence for multistage magmatism associated witn an early episode of Laurentian rifting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic (735-702 Ma) Robertson River Igneous Suite includes at least eight plutons ranging in composition from syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite to alkali feldspar syenite. These plutons intruded Mesoproterozoic (1.2-1.0 Ga) gneissic basement of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium in northern and central Virginia during an early episode of Laurentian rifting. Robertson River plutons range in composition from metaluminous to peralkaline and, relative to other granite types, exhibit compositional characteristics of A-type granitoids including (1) marked enrichment in Nb, Zr, Y, REE (except Eu), and Ga, (2) high Ga/Al and FeO(total)/MgO, and (3) depletion of Ba and Sr. High Ga/Al ratios are particularly diagnostic of the suite and serve as an effective discriminant between originally metaluminous and peralkaline bulk compositions, providing a useful proxy for widely used indicators based on major elements that are prone to remobilization. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate that the suite was emplaced in two pulses, occurring at 735 to 722 and 706 to 702 Ma. Metaluminous magmas were emplaced during both pulses, formed most of the main batholith, and fractionated as independent, time-correlative groups. Peralkaline magmas were emplaced only during the final pulse, formed a volcanic center that erupted unknown quantities of rhyolite, and experienced a style of fractionation similar to the metaluminous types. Differences in Ce/Nb, Y/Nb, and Yb/Ta ratios suggest that the metaluminous and peralkaline magmas were derived from different sources. The Robertson River Igneous Suite is part of a regional group of Late Neoproterozoic (760-700 Ma) plutons including at least 20 other A-type granitoid bodies exposed throughout the Laurentian terrane of Virginia and northwestern North Carolina. Like the Robertson River, most of the other granitoids are metaluminous in composition, typically form multi-intrusive, elongate plutons, and are not geographically

  4. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  5. Mach's principle: Exact frame-dragging via gravitomagnetism in perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with K=({+-}1,0)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Christoph

    2009-03-15

    We show that there is exact dragging of the axis directions of local inertial frames by a weighted average of the cosmological energy currents via gravitomagnetism for all linear perturbations of all Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes and of Einstein's static closed universe, and for all energy-momentum-stress tensors and in the presence of a cosmological constant. This includes FRW universes arbitrarily close to the Milne Universe and the de Sitter universe. Hence the postulate formulated by Ernst Mach about the physical cause for the time-evolution of inertial axes is shown to hold in general relativity for linear perturbations of FRW universes. - The time-evolution of local inertial axes (relative to given local fiducial axes) is given experimentally by the precession angular velocity {omega}-vector{sub gyro} of local gyroscopes, which in turn gives the operational definition of the gravitomagnetic field: B-vector{sub g}{identical_to}-2{omega}-vector{sub gyro}. The gravitomagnetic field is caused by energy currents J-vector{sub {epsilon}} via the momentum constraint, Einstein's G{sup 0-}circumflex{sub i-circumflex} equation, (-{delta}+{mu}{sup 2})A-vector{sub g}=-16{pi}G{sub N}J-vector{sub {epsilon}} with B-vector{sub g}=curl A-vector{sub g}. This equation is analogous to Ampere's law, but it holds for all time-dependent situations. {delta} is the de Rham-Hodge Laplacian, and {delta}=-curl curl for the vorticity sector in Riemannian 3-space. - In the solution for an open universe the 1/r{sup 2}-force of Ampere is replaced by a Yukawa force Y{sub {mu}}(r)=(-d/dr)[(1/R)exp(-{mu}r)], form-identical for FRW backgrounds with K=(-1,0). Here r is the measured geodesic distance from the gyroscope to the cosmological source, and 2{pi}R is the measured circumference of the sphere centered at the gyroscope and going through the source point. The scale of the exponential cutoff is the H-dot radius, where H is the Hubble rate, dot is the derivative with respect to

  6. Dr Robert Robertson (1742-1829): Fever Specialist and Philosopher-Experimenter in the Treatment of Fevers with Peruvian Bark in the Latter Eighteenth-century Royal Navy.

    PubMed

    Short, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The life and works of Dr Robert Robertson are reviewed set against the background of the extant British management of fevers during the latter 18th-century. Commencing in 1769, using the febrifuge Peruvian bark (cortex Peruvianus; Jesuit's Powder), he experimented and tested Peruvian bark mono-therapy protocols in the tropics in the cure and prevention of intermittent fever (predominantly malaria). His later work also showed the benefit of the bark in the acute care of developed continuous fevers (largely Ship Fever due to Epidemic Louse-borne Typhus Fever) in both the Temperate and Torrid Zones. In the realm of comparative statistics Robertson first demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of bark therapy against the dangerous depleting processes of the antiphlogistic regimen. He was the first to alert the Admiralty to the efficacy of bark in both the cure of acute fevers as well as a prophylactic in the tropics, and signalled the dangers of bloodletting in treating fevers of the tropics. He authored 13 books devoted to fevers outlining his theory of Febrile Infection and its treatment. The essay concludes with his role as the Physician-in-Charge of the Royal Hospital, Greenwich over a 28-year period, as an acknowledged expert in the small British group of 18th-century fever specialists. PMID:27172733

  7. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, www.doris-project.eu). Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  8. 75 FR 81459 - Simplified Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Simplified Proceedings in certain civil penalty proceedings. 75 FR 28223. The Commission explained that since... simplify the procedures for handling certain civil penalty proceedings. DATES: The final rule takes effect... to deal with that burgeoning caseload, the Commission is considering methods to simplify...

  9. 5 CFR 919.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 919.965 Section 919... (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a...

  10. 29 CFR 98.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal proceedings. 98.965 Section 98.965 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including...

  11. Cosmology of a Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker 3-brane, late-time cosmic acceleration, and the cosmic coincidence.

    PubMed

    Doolin, Ciaran; Neupane, Ishwaree P

    2013-04-01

    A late epoch cosmic acceleration may be naturally entangled with cosmic coincidence--the observation that at the onset of acceleration the vacuum energy density fraction nearly coincides with the matter density fraction. In this Letter we show that this is indeed the case with the cosmology of a Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) 3-brane in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. We derive the four-dimensional effective action on a FLRW 3-brane, from which we obtain a mass-reduction formula, namely, M(P)(2) = ρ(b)/|Λ(5)|, where M(P) is the effective (normalized) Planck mass, Λ(5) is the five-dimensional cosmological constant, and ρ(b) is the sum of the 3-brane tension V and the matter density ρ. Although the range of variation in ρ(b) is strongly constrained, the big bang nucleosynthesis bound on the time variation of the effective Newton constant G(N) = (8πM(P)(2))(-1) is satisfied when the ratio V/ρ ≳ O(10(2)) on cosmological scales. The same bound leads to an effective equation of state close to -1 at late epochs in accordance with astrophysical and cosmological observations. PMID:25166976

  12. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  13. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K. )

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  14. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  15. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  16. Proceedings: 1981 PCB seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, G.; Marks, J.

    1982-09-01

    The EPRI PCB seminar, held in Dallas, Texas, on December 1 to 3, 1981, was the first comprehensive seminar covering PCB problems and solutions of interest to the electric utilities. The purpose of the meeting, attended by 300 participants, was to present emerging technologies and ideas for PCB analysis and removal. The major areas covered were: background and history of the problem, analytic techniques, spill cleanup, destruction of askarels, treatment of capacitors, and decontamination of oil. Both EPRI-sponsored and independently developed projects are included. In addition to the ongoing research on new technologies, some presentations cover processes ready or almost ready for commercialization. Supplementing the proceedings, a videotape of author interviews was prepared and is available for purchase from EPRI (415/855-2286).

  17. Recombination Rate Variation Modulates Gene Sequence Evolution Mainly via GC-Biased Gene Conversion, Not Hill–Robertson Interference, in an Avian System

    PubMed Central

    Bolívar, Paulina; Mugal, Carina F.; Nater, Alexander; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω) is often used to measure the strength of natural selection. However, ω may be influenced by linkage among different targets of selection, that is, Hill–Robertson interference (HRI), which reduces the efficacy of selection. Recombination modulates the extent of HRI but may also affect ω by means of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a process leading to a preferential fixation of G:C (“strong,” S) over A:T (“weak,” W) alleles. As HRI and gBGC can have opposing effects on ω, it is essential to understand their relative impact to make proper inferences of ω. We used a model that separately estimated S-to-S, S-to-W, W-to-S, and W-to-W substitution rates in 8,423 avian genes in the Ficedula flycatcher lineage. We found that the W-to-S substitution rate was positively, and the S-to-W rate negatively, correlated with recombination rate, in accordance with gBGC but not predicted by HRI. The W-to-S rate further showed the strongest impact on both dN and dS. However, since the effects were stronger at 4-fold than at 0-fold degenerated sites, likely because the GC content of these sites is farther away from its equilibrium, ω slightly decreases with increasing recombination rate, which could falsely be interpreted as a consequence of HRI. We corroborated this hypothesis analytically and demonstrate that under particular conditions, ω can decrease with increasing recombination rate. Analyses of the site-frequency spectrum showed that W-to-S mutations were skewed toward high, and S-to-W mutations toward low, frequencies, consistent with a prevalent gBGC-driven fixation bias. PMID:26446902

  18. 7 CFR 97.201 - Protest proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protest proceedings. 97.201 Section 97.201 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Protest Proceedings § 97.201 Protest proceedings. (a) Opposition shall be made by submitting in writing a petition for protest proceedings, which petition shall be supported...

  19. 34 CFR 85.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... term also includes appeals from those proceedings. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L...) Definitions § 85.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil...

  20. 22 CFR 1508.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1508.965 Section 1508.965 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  1. 22 CFR 1006.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1006.965 Section 1006.965 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  2. 22 CFR 1006.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1006.965 Section 1006.965 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  3. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 208.965 Section 208.965 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  4. 22 CFR 1508.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1508.965 Section 1508.965 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any...

  5. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13... Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy Assistant... to conduct any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, including grand jury proceedings and...

  6. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 208.965 Section 208.965 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  7. 29 CFR 98.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 98.965 Section 98.965 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  8. 49 CFR 1016.103 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proceedings covered. 1016.103 Section 1016.103... CFR 1100.11. (b) The Board may also designate a proceeding not listed in paragraph (a) of this section... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 1016.103 Proceedings covered....

  9. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil...

  10. 7 CFR 3017.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 3017.965 Section 3017.965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  11. Proceedings of cogeneration power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeter, J.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Cogeneration Power Plants. Topics as diverse as extended operational performance findings, updating of control systems, the complex relationships involved in cogeneration projects, and correction of station noise complaints are covered.

  12. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    puzzlement. The apparent absence of hints in the LHC experimental data of new phenomena that could relate to dark matter, dark energy, the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe, the unification of the strong and the electroweak interactions and their further unification with gravity left the Symposium with no guidance as to how to answer the question: what next? And in experimental fundamental science it is not the confirmation of already established theories that thrills the most; it is the appearance of the unexpected that creates the greatest excitement. However, the LHC is only at the beginning of its voyage into the uncharted territories of higher energies and smaller dimensions that it was built for, so the possibilities for unexpected discoveries are only starting to be explored. The LHC will start up again in 2015 with nearly twice its previous energy and with increased luminosity—new discoveries might then appear sooner than we even dare hope for! The LHC Nobel Symposium was attended by about 60 invited participants and lasted four days. The program was divided into seven sessions; QCD and Heavy Ion Physics, B Physics, Electroweak Physics, The Higgs Boson, Connections to Neutrino Physics and Astroparticle Physics, Beyond the Standard Model and Forward Look. There were 27 plenary invited talks given by participants, each followed by lively discussions. All but one of the speakers have submitted write-ups of their talks for these proceedings. We are hopeful that the remaining talk will be published in a forthcoming issue of Physica Scripta . I am gratified that Professor Roland Allen has agreed to write a paper on the essence of the Higgs boson discovery to be published in Physica Scripta , intended for undergraduate students and educated physicists, regardless of their field of research. I wish to express my deep gratitude to all Speakers and Participants in the Symposium, to the Members of the Local and International Organizing Committees, to the

  14. Characterizing englacial and subglacial weathering processes in a silicate-carbonate system at Robertson Glacier, Canada: Combining field measurements and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic weathering processes in cold environments, especially processes acting on subglacial and englacial sediments and rocks, are not well characterized due to the difficulty of accessing these environments. However, subglacial and englacial weathering of geologic materials contributes to the solute flux in meltwater and provides a potential source of energy to chemotrophic microbes, and is thus an important component to understand. In this study, we characterize the weathering products present in a glaciated silicate-carbonate system using infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and geochemical analyses. We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to determine whether glacial weathering products can be detected from remotely detected infrared spectra. The major goals of the project are to quantify weathering inputs to the glacial energy budget, and to link in situ sampling with remote sensing capabilities. Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada (115°20'W, 50°44'N) provides an excellent field site for this technique as it is accessible, and its retreating stage allows sampling of fresh subglacial and englacial sediments. This site is also of great significance to microbiology studies due to the recent detection of methanogens in the local subglacial till. Samples of glacially altered rock and sediments were collected on a downstream transect of the glacier in September 2011. Infrared laboratory spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the composition and abundance of minerals present. Infrared imagery of the region was collected at the time of sampling with the ASTER satellite instrument. Geochemical data were also collected at each location, and ice and water samples were analyzed for major and minor elements. pH values decreased in the downstream direction, and Ca+2 and SO4-2 in solution increased downstream. This is initially consistent with earlier studies of similar systems; however, the majority of

  15. Village Power `97. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinal, J.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.; Weingart, J.

    1997-09-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six key activities, including village application development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and an Internet-based village power project database. The current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. This document contains reports presented at the Proceedings of Village Power, 1997. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  16. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    puzzlement. The apparent absence of hints in the LHC experimental data of new phenomena that could relate to dark matter, dark energy, the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe, the unification of the strong and the electroweak interactions and their further unification with gravity left the Symposium with no guidance as to how to answer the question: what next? And in experimental fundamental science it is not the confirmation of already established theories that thrills the most; it is the appearance of the unexpected that creates the greatest excitement. However, the LHC is only at the beginning of its voyage into the uncharted territories of higher energies and smaller dimensions that it was built for, so the possibilities for unexpected discoveries are only starting to be explored. The LHC will start up again in 2015 with nearly twice its previous energy and with increased luminosity—new discoveries might then appear sooner than we even dare hope for! The LHC Nobel Symposium was attended by about 60 invited participants and lasted four days. The program was divided into seven sessions; QCD and Heavy Ion Physics, B Physics, Electroweak Physics, The Higgs Boson, Connections to Neutrino Physics and Astroparticle Physics, Beyond the Standard Model and Forward Look. There were 27 plenary invited talks given by participants, each followed by lively discussions. All but one of the speakers have submitted write-ups of their talks for these proceedings. We are hopeful that the remaining talk will be published in a forthcoming issue of Physica Scripta . I am gratified that Professor Roland Allen has agreed to write a paper on the essence of the Higgs boson discovery to be published in Physica Scripta , intended for undergraduate students and educated physicists, regardless of their field of research. I wish to express my deep gratitude to all Speakers and Participants in the Symposium, to the Members of the Local and International Organizing Committees, to the

  17. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa, Gaasterand; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    This special issue comprises the papers accepted for presentation at the 19th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, joint with the 10th European Conference on Computational Biology, an official conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org). ISMB/ECCB 2011 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2011/) will take place in Vienna, Austria, from July 17 through July 19, 2011; preceded during July 14–16 by eight 1- or 2- day Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings, three satellite meetings and nine half-day tutorials; and followed by two additional satellite meetings. The 48 papers in this volume were selected from 258 submitted papers. Submitted papers were assigned to 13 areas. Area Chairs led each topic area by selecting their area's program committee and overseeing the reviewing process. Many Area Chairs were new compared to 2010, and two completely new areas were added in 2011, ‘Data Visualization’ and ‘Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics’. Six papers for which Area Chairs were in conflict were reviewed under a ‘Conflicts Management’ section headed by the Proceedings Chairs; one such paper was accepted in ‘Bioimaging’. Areas, co-chairs and acceptance information are listed in Table 1. Compared to prior years, five mature topic areas had steady submissions, ‘Evolution and Comparative Genomics’, ‘Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics’, ‘Protein Structure and Function’, ‘Sequence Analysis’, ‘Text Mining’. Two areas newer to ISMB were underrepresented this year, ‘Bioimaging’ and ‘Disease Models and Epidemiology’. One area doubled, ‘Applied Bioinformatics’, renamed from last year's ‘Other Bioinformatics Applications’; and one tripled, ‘Protein Interactions and Molecular Networks’. Across the areas, 326 members of the bioinformatics community provided reviews. Most papers received three reviews and several received four or more. There was

  18. Mach's principle: Exact frame-dragging via gravitomagnetism in perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with K=(±1,0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Christoph

    2009-03-01

    We show that there is exact dragging of the axis directions of local inertial frames by a weighted average of the cosmological energy currents via gravitomagnetism for all linear perturbations of all Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes and of Einstein’s static closed universe, and for all energy-momentum-stress tensors and in the presence of a cosmological constant. This includes FRW universes arbitrarily close to the Milne Universe and the de Sitter universe. Hence the postulate formulated by Ernst Mach about the physical cause for the time-evolution of inertial axes is shown to hold in general relativity for linear perturbations of FRW universes.—The time-evolution of local inertial axes (relative to given local fiducial axes) is given experimentally by the precession angular velocity Ω→gyro of local gyroscopes, which in turn gives the operational definition of the gravitomagnetic field: B→g≡-2Ω→gyro. The gravitomagnetic field is caused by energy currents J→ɛ via the momentum constraint, Einstein’s G0^i^ equation, (-Δ+μ2)A→g=-16πGNJ→ɛ with B→g=curlA→g. This equation is analogous to Ampère’s law, but it holds for all time-dependent situations. Δ is the de Rham-Hodge Laplacian, and Δ=-curlcurl for the vorticity sector in Riemannian 3-space.—In the solution for an open universe the 1/r2-force of Ampère is replaced by a Yukawa force Yμ(r)=(-d/dr)[(1/R)exp⁡(-μr)], form-identical for FRW backgrounds with K=(-1,0). Here r is the measured geodesic distance from the gyroscope to the cosmological source, and 2πR is the measured circumference of the sphere centered at the gyroscope and going through the source point. The scale of the exponential cutoff is the H-dot radius, where H is the Hubble rate, dot is the derivative with respect to cosmic time, and μ2=-4(dH/dt). Analogous results hold in closed FRW universes and in Einstein’s closed static universe.—We list six fundamental tests for the principle formulated by

  19. Proceedings of IEEE supercomputing '88

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain 61 papers grouped under the headings of: Program development; Horizon; a new supercomputer development; Dataflow systems; Compiler evaluation; Visualization; Compiler technology; Operating systems for supercomputing; Mass storage systems-1; Supercomputer performance; Mass storage systems-11; Supercomputer benchmarking; Supercomputer architecture-1; Training and education; Architecture-11; Algorithms-1; Algorithms-11; and Supercomputing center management.

  20. Fine Particle Scrubbing: A Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1974

    1974-01-01

    These articles deal with the proceedings of a 1974 symposium on the use of wet scrubbers for the control of fine particle air pollutants. Various wet scrubbers, their engineering, performance, efficiency, and future are discussed. Tables, formulas, and models are included. (TK)

  1. International Women's Leadership Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents proceedings of the American Association of Dental Schools' International Women's Leadership Conference. Addresses, panel presentations, and general-sessions topics included leadership training and promotion for women in dental education, women's health issues and research, the glass ceiling, infrastructures for research and training,…

  2. Arctic energy technologies workshop: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    The objectives of this ''Arctic Energy Technologies Workshop'' were threefold: To acquaint participants with the current US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Arctic and Offshore Research Program. To obtain information on Arctic oil and gas development problem areas, and on current and planned research. To provide an opportunity for technical information exchange among engineers, geologists, geophysicists, physical scientists, oceanographers, statisticians, analysts, and other participants engaged in similar research areas. The first section of the proceedings is the keynote address ''Current Arctic Offshore Technology'', presented by Kenneth Croasdale, of K.R. Croasdale and Associates, Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The second section of the proceedings includes 14 technical papers presented in two sessions at the Workshop: Sea Ice Research, and Seafloor/Soils Research. The third section of the proceedings includes the summaries of four work-group discussion sessions from the second day of the meeting: (1) Arctic Offshore Structures, (2) Arctic Offshore Pipelines, (3) Subice Development Systems, and (4) Polar-Capable Ice Vessels. The work groups addressed state-of-the-art, technical issues, R and D needs, and environmental concerns in these four areas. All papers in this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Proceedings of the geosciences workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  4. 75 FR 28223 - Simplified Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 2700 Simplified Proceedings AGENCY: Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Mine Safety and...

  5. Proceedings of seismic engineering 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Seismic Engineering Technical Subcommittee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division. Topics covered include: seismic damping and energy absorption, advanced seismic analysis methods, new analysis techniques and applications of advanced methods, seismic supports and test results, margins inherent in the current design methods, and risk assessment, and component and equipment qualification.

  6. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parallel proceedings. 12.24... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.24 Parallel proceedings. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a parallel proceeding shall include: (1) An arbitration...

  7. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parallel proceedings. 12.24... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.24 Parallel proceedings. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a parallel proceeding shall include: (1) An arbitration...

  8. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parallel proceedings. 12.24... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.24 Parallel proceedings. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a parallel proceeding shall include: (1) An arbitration...

  9. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parallel proceedings. 12.24... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.24 Parallel proceedings. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a parallel proceeding shall include: (1) An arbitration...

  10. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parallel proceedings. 12.24... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.24 Parallel proceedings. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a parallel proceeding shall include: (1) An arbitration...

  11. 16 CFR 1.64 - Condemnation proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condemnation proceedings. 1.64 Section 1.64 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.64 Condemnation proceedings. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act...

  12. 16 CFR 1.64 - Condemnation proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Condemnation proceedings. 1.64 Section 1.64 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.64 Condemnation proceedings. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act...

  13. 47 CFR 1.80 - Forfeiture proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forfeiture proceedings. 1.80 Section 1.80 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.80 Forfeiture proceedings. (a) Persons against whom and violations for which a forfeiture may...

  14. 47 CFR 1.80 - Forfeiture proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forfeiture proceedings. 1.80 Section 1.80 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.80 Forfeiture proceedings. (a) Persons against whom and violations for which a forfeiture may...

  15. 12 CFR 238.21 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control proceedings. 238.21 Section 238.21... (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Control Proceedings § 238.21 Control proceedings. (a) Preliminary determination of control. (1) The Board may issue a preliminary determination...

  16. 12 CFR 238.21 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control proceedings. 238.21 Section 238.21... (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Control Proceedings § 238.21 Control proceedings. (a) Preliminary determination of control. (1) The Board may issue a preliminary determination...

  17. 12 CFR 225.31 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control proceedings. 225.31 Section 225.31... (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Control and Divestiture Proceedings § 225.31 Control proceedings. (a) Preliminary determination of control. (1) The...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  3. 31 CFR 19.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 19.965 Section 19.965 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any...

  4. 29 CFR 1471.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 1471.965 Section 1471.965 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means...

  5. 29 CFR 1471.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 1471.965 Section 1471.965 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means...

  6. 47 CFR 1.80 - Forfeiture proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forfeiture proceedings. 1.80 Section 1.80 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.80 Forfeiture proceedings. (a) Persons against whom and violations for which a forfeiture may...

  7. 14 CFR 314.15 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral proceedings. 314.15 Section 314.15 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.15 Oral proceedings....

  8. 12 CFR 225.31 - Control proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control proceedings. 225.31 Section 225.31 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Control and Divestiture Proceedings § 225.31 Control proceedings....

  9. 14 CFR 13.115 - Public proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public proceedings. 13.115 Section 13.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES....115 Public proceedings. (a) All investigative proceedings and depositions shall be public unless...

  10. 47 CFR 1.80 - Forfeiture proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forfeiture proceedings. 1.80 Section 1.80... Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.80 Forfeiture proceedings. (a) Persons against whom and violations... to have: (1) Willfully or repeatedly failed to comply substantially with the terms and conditions...

  11. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  12. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1208 - Restricted proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricted proceedings. 1.1208 Section 1.1208 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Ex Parte Communications Restricted Proceedings § 1.1208 Restricted proceedings. Unless otherwise provided by the Commission or its...

  14. 14 CFR 13.115 - Public proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public proceedings. 13.115 Section 13.115....115 Public proceedings. (a) All investigative proceedings and depositions shall be public unless the Presiding Officer determines that the public interest requires otherwise. (b) The Presiding Officer...

  15. 45 CFR 13.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proceedings covered. 13.3 Section 13.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These rules apply only to adversary adjudications. For...

  16. 34 CFR 21.44 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Further proceedings. 21.44 Section 21.44 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE What Procedures Are Used in... proceedings, which may include such proceedings as informal conferences, oral arguments, additional...

  17. 5 CFR 919.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 919.965 Section 919.965 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any...

  18. 31 CFR 19.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 19.965 Section 19.965 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any...

  19. 19 CFR 111.59 - Preliminary proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary proceedings. 111.59 Section 111.59... in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.59 Preliminary proceedings. (a) Opportunity to participate... preliminary proceedings. The port director will serve upon the broker, in the manner set forth in §...

  20. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  1. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  2. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the... proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably... under the jurisdiction of the court of each party; (2) The date of the marriage and the place at...

  3. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted...

  4. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted...

  5. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted...

  6. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted...

  7. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted...

  8. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  9. National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and suggestions put forth by officials, industry experts and policymakers in their efforts to come together to develop a roadmap for America''s clean energy future and outline the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision. The National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop was held April 2-3, 2002. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which is also available online.

  10. 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2006 Annual Merit Review, held May 16-19, 2006 in Arlington, Va., showcased approximately 250 projects. Principal investigators presented their project status and results in oral and poster presentations, which are available in the 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings. A panel of more than 150 community experts peer reviewed two-t

  11. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  12. Ground Control in Mining. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain 36 papers on strata control in underground mining. Specific topics include: support pillar design, mathematical modeling of support-rock interactions, deformation of mine roadways, support recovery, roof bolt design and performance, rock burst prediction methods, detection of abandoned shafts, water influx control, rock mechanical property measurements, ground subsidence effects and forecasting, surveying techniques, and stress analyses. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. 41 CFR 105-68.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 105... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including...

  14. 41 CFR 105-68.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 105... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including...

  15. The Future of ADASS Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.

    2011-07-01

    The 20 years that ADASS has been running has seen amazing leaps in our ability to disseminate information around the globe. In 2009 a sub-committee of the POC was set up to investigate how we publish the proceedings of this conference. This paper primarily is a summary of the general introduction to the problem that was given on the Monday of ADASS XX. A BoF on Monday night was used to discuss the problem in more depth. Finally on Wednesday a vote was taken during one of the plenary sessions to gauge the feelings of the ADASS community at large.

  16. Proceedings of NHA Annual Conferences

    SciTech Connect

    Debbi L. Smith

    2004-06-30

    The Proceedings of "Hydrogen: A Clean Energy Choice" and the 16th Annual U.S. Hydrogen Conference, "Partnering for the Global Hydrogen Future" include the presentations of high-level keynote speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, the state government of California, Ambassadors and Executives of large corporations and emerging companies all presenting their vision on a future fueled by hydrogen. Parallel technical sessions informed attendees of developments in hydrogen technology R&D, commercial product development and market readiness. Persentations of the Student Design Competition Finalists are also included.

  17. SOLTECH 91: Proceedings, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traugott, W.; Hewett, R.; Menicucci, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program at SOLTECH91. The SOLTECH91 national solar energy conference was held in Burlingame, California during the period March 26 to 29, 1991. The Solar Energy Research Institute manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews; (2) Current and Near-Term Solar Industrial Applications; Solar Detoxification of Organics in Water; and Solar Thermal Electric Systems. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  18. 14 CFR 302.13 - Consolidation of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules of General Applicability § 302.13... of its business and to the ends of justice and will not unduly delay the proceedings. Although...

  19. 39 CFR 3020.56 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Further proceedings. 3020.56 Section 3020.56 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by Users of the Mail To Modify the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.56 Further proceedings. If the Commission determines...

  20. 39 CFR 3020.35 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Further proceedings. 3020.35 Section 3020.35 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by the Postal Service To Modify the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.35 Further proceedings. If the Commission determines...

  1. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.76 Further proceedings. If... consider the merits of going forward with the proposal. Upon conclusion of the conference, the Commission... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission...

  2. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.76 Further proceedings. If... consider the merits of going forward with the proposal. Upon conclusion of the conference, the Commission... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission...

  3. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Further proceedings. 3020.76 Section 3020.76 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Proposal of the Commission To Modify the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.76 Further proceedings. If the Commission determines that...

  4. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.76 Further proceedings. If... consider the merits of going forward with the proposal. Upon conclusion of the conference, the Commission... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission...

  5. 39 CFR 3020.76 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.76 Further proceedings. If... consider the merits of going forward with the proposal. Upon conclusion of the conference, the Commission... reasons for not going forward with formal proceedings; or (d) Direct other action as the Commission...

  6. 16 CFR 1.13 - Rulemaking proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rulemaking proceeding. 1.13 Section 1.13... PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.13 Rulemaking proceeding. (a... proposing issues subject to the procedures of § 1.13 (d)(5) and (d)(6). Interested persons may...

  7. 16 CFR 1.13 - Rulemaking proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rulemaking proceeding. 1.13 Section 1.13... PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.13 Rulemaking proceeding. (a... proposing issues subject to the procedures of § 1.13 (d)(5) and (d)(6). Interested persons may...

  8. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.965 Legal proceedings....

  9. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In...

  10. 12 CFR 625.2 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proceedings covered. 625.2 Section 625.2 Banks... EXPENSES UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 625.2 Proceedings covered. (a) The EAJA... recommended decision under § 625.26 of this part will be omitted and the Board will make a final decision...