Science.gov

Sample records for dorpat im letzten

  1. Dirty deeds at Dorpat.

    PubMed

    Jack, David

    2005-06-01

    Johann Georg Noel Dragendorff was a German-born pharmacist who made a name for himself at a young age with the Pharmaceutical Society of St. Petersburg. Among his most celebrated contributions to science was the development of the reagent named after him, which consisted of a mixture of bismuth and potassium iodides in dilute sulfuric acid. Dragendorff's activities in St. Petersburg led to the offer of the Chair in Pharmacy and Directorship of the Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Dorpat (now Tartu in Estonia). This was a university with strong Western influence in the sciences, and the majority of its students in the 19th century were Baltic Germans. Dragendorff's sudden departure from Dorpat leads the author to question whether his supposed resignation was rather a dismissal brought on by Alexander II's promotion of Russian culture. PMID:16193108

  2. [PhD theses at the University of Tartu/Dorpat supervised by Georg Dragendorff 1864-1894].

    PubMed

    Hinrikus, T; Tankler, H; Raal, A

    2005-05-01

    During 30 years, the professor of pharmacy Georg Dragendorff (1836-1898), who had been invited from Germany, supervised 90 theses of Master of Pharmacy and 87 theses of Doctor of Medicine in Tartu/Dorpat. The present article discusses the authors of these theses, Dragendorff and his co-operation with other university lecturers, the structure of the theses and the regulations of the thesis defence. Analysis of the contents of the theses revealed extensive contacts of the pharmacy of the time with different fields of science. Dragendorff as the supervisor of these theses contributed much to the training of physicians. PMID:15918592

  3. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  4. IMS - MS Data Extractor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-10-20

    An automated drift time extraction and computed associated collision cross section software tool for small molecule analysis with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The software automatically extracts drift times and computes associated collision cross sections for small molecules analyzed using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) based on a target list of expected ions provided by the user.

  5. Instant Messaging: IM Online! RU?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the technology of instant messaging (IM), a relatively simple form of communication. It is also--by its very nature--a collaborative communications tool. This collaborative nature is what makes IM ideal for educational and learning environments. With IM playing such a large role in the communication, interactivity, and…

  6. Vernetzung im Kfz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Elektrische und elektronische Systeme im Kfz sind vielfach nicht voneinander unabhängig, sondern beeinflussen und ergänzen sich gegenseitig. Deshalb wurden schon bei den frühen Einspritz- und Zündsystemen Signalleitungen eingesetzt, um eine einfache Kommunikation zwischen diesen beiden Systemen zu ermöglichen. Die zunehmende Anzahl elektronischer Systeme erhöhte jedoch rasch den Bedarf und die Vielfalt an auszutauschenden Informationen. Die Anzahl der hierzu erforderlichen Signalleitungen und Stecker anschlüsse stiegen gleichermaßen, so dass die bis dahin angewandte Technik an ihre Grenzen stieß.

  7. Ein Entscheidungsmodell zur Weitergabe persönlicher Daten im Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiblmaier, Horst

    In den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten wandelte sich das Internet von einer Spielwiese für technikbegeisterte Computerspezialisten zu einem vielseitig einsetzbaren weltweiten Netzwerk für Privatpersonen und Unternehmen. Maßgeblichen Anteil daran besaß die rasante Entwicklung des World Wide Web (WWW), das, durch die Möglichkeit multimediale Inhalte zu vermitteln, für einen großen Teil der Bevölkerung industrialisierter Länder zu einem wesentlichen Bestandteil des täglichen Lebens wurde. Dass diese Entwicklung noch lange nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigt die derzeitige Diskussion zum Thema Web 2.0 bzw. 3.0. Waren es in den letzten Jahren die hohen Umsatzzuwächse im E-Commerce und multimedial gestaltete Webseiten in Kombination mit aufwändigen Applikationen, die für ständig steigende Nutzerzahlen im World Wide Web sorgten, so wird dieser Innovationsschub nunmehr durch eine Vielzahl von Anwendungen fortgesetzt, die sich durch die zunehmende Vernetzung der Nutzer untereinander auszeichnen.

  8. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  9. Energieeffizienz im Rechenzentrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hintemann, Ralph; Skurk, Holger

    In den stark automatisierten, arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsystemen der Industrienationen ist die eine effiziente und zuverlässige zentrale Informationstechnik (IT) der Unternehmen entscheidend für den Geschäftserfolg. Immer mehr Unternehmensabläufe werden durch die IT unterstützt. Vielfach ist es sogar nur noch durch die umfassende IT-Unterstützung der Geschäftsprozesse möglich, im globalen Wettbewerb erfolgreich zu sein. Die installierte Rechenleistung in modernen Unternehmen steigt dabei ständig an. Neue und verbesserte Anwendungen und Programm-Features erfordern leistungsfähige Server. In den Rechenzentren kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen sind heute Rechenleistungen installiert, die vor wenigen Jahren ausschließlich einigen Großunternehmen vorbehalten waren. Diese im Grundsatz positive Entwicklung kann aber auch zu hohen Strom- und Kühlleistungen in Rechenzentren führen. Damit stellen sich neue Herausforderungen an die Planung, Ausführung und den Betrieb einer IT-Infrastruktur.

  10. Summation of IMS Volume Frequencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordillo, Frank

    A computer program designed to produce summary information on the data processing volume of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS) is described. Written in FORTRAN IV for use on an IBM 360 Model 91, the program sorts IMS input data on the basis of run identifier and on the basis of classroom identification…

  11. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  12. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  13. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  14. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  15. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  16. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  17. Physikdidaktik Ein Rastertunnelmikroskop im Selbstbau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzer, Oliver; Fuchs, Harald

    2004-09-01

    Seit Anfang der achtziger Jahre macht das Rastertunnelmikroskop die Untersuchung von Oberflächen mit atomarer Genauigkeit möglich. Engagierte Schüler und Studienanfänger haben nun die Möglichkeit, sich selbst ein Bild des Sub-Mikrokosmos zu machen: die Universität Münster präsentiert im Internet eine komplette Anleitung für den Aufbau eines einfachen Rastertunnelmikroskops für unter 1000 .

  18. Analysis of IMS spectra using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E.

    1992-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been used for over 20 years, and IMS coupled to gas chromatography (GC/IMS) has been used for over 10 years. There still is no systematic approach to IMS spectral interpretation such as exists for mass spectrometry and infrared spectrometry. Neural networks, a form of adaptive pattern recognition, were examined as a method of data reduction for IMS and GC/IMS. A wide variety of volatile organics were analyzed using IMS and GC/IMS and submitted to different networks for identification. Several different networks and data preprocessing algorithms were studied. A network was linked to a simple rule-based expert system and analyzed. The expert system was used to filter out false positive identifications made by the network using retention indices. The various network configurations were compared to other pattern recognition techniques, including human experts. The network performance was comparable to human experts, but responded much faster. Preliminary comparison of the network to other pattern recognition showed comparable performance. Linkage of the network output to the rule-based retention index system yielded the best performance.

  19. Analysis of IMS spectra using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been used for over 20 years, and IMS coupled to gas chromatography (GC/IMS) has been used for over 10 years. There still is no systematic approach to IMS spectral interpretation such as exists for mass spectrometry and infrared spectrometry. Neural networks, a form of adaptive pattern recognition, were examined as a method of data reduction for IMS and GC/IMS. A wide variety of volatile organics were analyzed using IMS and GC/IMS and submitted to different networks for identification. Several different networks and data preprocessing algorithms were studied. A network was linked to a simple rule-based expert system and analyzed. The expert system was used to filter out false positive identifications made by the network using retention indices. The various network configurations were compared to other pattern recognition techniques, including human experts. The network performance was comparable to human experts, but responded much faster. Preliminary comparison of the network to other pattern recognition showed comparable performance. Linkage of the network output to the rule-based retention index system yielded the best performance.

  20. GEOSPATIAL IT/IM QA CHECKLIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance (QA) of information technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) systems help to ensure that the end product is of known quality and integrity. As the complexity of IT & IM processes increase, so does the need for regular QA evaluation.

    The areas revi...

  1. Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  2. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  3. I'm a Map, I'm a Green Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    I'm talking about the ways we represent ourselves and our world. I've put some thoughts on the topic together here--a gathering that enacts new media creating and takes up conceptual layers like metaphors, models, and composing. The primary sources are videos from the Get a Mac campaign, aka I'm a Mac; I'm a PC ads. Posthuman concepts blending…

  4. The pinhole interface for IMS/MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Glenn E.

    1995-01-01

    An important supplementary technique for ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is mass spectrometry (MS). A mass spectrometer coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS/MS) can provide significant information on the composition of the ions contributing to an ion mobility peak. On the other hand, the interpretation of IMS/MS results requires knowledge of processes which can occur at the pinhole interface. When the ion composition is a mixture of ion clusters, the observed cluster distribution may not be an accurate representation of the ion clusters in the IMS. Depending on the buffer gas, lower clusters can form by equilibrating with reduced concentrations in the continuum regime of the expansion and larger clusters can form by collisional stabilization in the cooled jet stream. Besides water, nitrogen molecules can also add to the ion clusters. Even though nitrogen is non-polar, this addition is made possible by an ion-induced dipole interaction between the ion and molecule.

  5. IM Based Speed Servodrive with Luenberger Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacho, Juraj; Žalman, Milan

    2010-05-01

    The article concerns observing states of the Induction Motor (IM) using a Luenberger observer in the speed servo drive. The movement of the motor and observer roots is analyzed for a variable speed. Following the analysis, a new method for gain evaluation of the IM magnetic flux observer is presented. This structure is extended by including an adaptive speed observer. The functionality of the presented method is proved in simulations using MATLAB Simulink.

  6. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features thatmore » includes associated information about the detected features.« less

  7. Magnetospheric research as accomplished by IMS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.

    1990-12-01

    This study is based on the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) program launched and carried out during 1976-1979. Brief descriptions of various experiments aboard the different satellites are given. The magnetospheric features revealed by these measurements are described and discussed. The experiments covered include those aboard the ISEE, GEOS, ATS-6, P78-2 (SCATHA), S3-3, and Prognoz-7 missions. The IMS ground-based experiments are also briefly outlined. Among the results discussed are the tangential and rotational discontinuities in the magnetopause, flux transfer events at the magnetopause, plasma sheet and magnetotail phenomena, and the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  8. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features that includes associated information about the detected features.

  9. A Learning Design Ontology Based on the IMS Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorim, Ricardo R.; Lama, Manuel; Sanchez, Eduardo; Riera, Adolfo; Vila, Xose A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ontology to represent the semantics of the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification, a meta-language used to describe the main elements of the learning design process. The motivation of this work relies on the expressiveness limitations found on the current XML-Schema implementation of the IMS LD conceptual model. To…

  10. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  11. Toward an Intelligent Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Carla J. Miller

    2003-07-01

    The ultimate goal is to design and build a very smart ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) that can operate autonomously. To accomplish this, software capable of interpreting spectra so that it can be used in control loops for data interpretation as well as adjusting instrument parameters is being developed. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy numbers are used in this IMS spectra classification scheme. Fuzzy logic provides a straight forward method for developing a classification/detection system, whenever rules for classifying the spectra can be described linguistically. Instead of using 'max' and 'min' values, the product of the truth values is used to determine class membership. Using the product allows rule-bases that utilize the AND function to allow each condition to discount truth value in determining membership, while rule-bases with an OR function are allowed to accumulate membership. Fuzzy numbers allow encapsulation of the uncertainties due to ion mobility peak widths as well as measured instrumental parameters, such as pressure and temperature. Associating a peak with a value of uncertainty, in addition to making adjustments to the mobility calculation based on variations in measured parameters, enables unexpected shifts to be more reliably detected and accounted for; thereby, reducing the opportunity for 'false negative' results. The measure of uncertainty is anticipated to serve the additional purpose of diagnosing the operational conditions of the IMS instrument.

  12. Development of a high-throughput IMS-IMS-MS approach for analyzing mixtures of biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Valentine, Stephen J.; Sowell, Rena A.; Clemmer, David E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-throughput approach for biomolecule analysis is demonstrated for a mixture of peptides from tryptic digest of four proteins as well as a tryptic digests of human plasma. In this method a chip-based electrospray autosampler coupled to a hybrid ion mobility (IMS) mass spectrometer (MS) is utilized to achieve rapid sample analysis. This high-throughput measurement is realized by exploiting the direct infusion capability of the chip based electrospray with its rapid sample manipulating capability as well as a high sensitive IMS-MS with a recently developed IMS-IMS separation technique that can be multiplexed to provide greater throughput. From replicate IMS-MS runs of known mixtures, the average uncertainty of peak intensities is determined to be ±7% (relative standard deviation), and a detection limit in the low attomole range is established. The method is illustrated by analyzing 124 human plasma protein samples in duplicate, a measurement that required 16.5 hours. Current limitations as well as implications of the high-throughput approach for complex biological sample analysis are discussed. PMID:18590839

  13. Evaluation of Arizona's enhanced I/M program

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom

    1999-04-21

    MOBILE5 slightly overpredicts initial reductions in CO and HC, and dramatically overpredicts initial reductions in NOx. About one-third of the vehicles that fail initial I/M testing do not complete the I/M program. Only a small portion of these receive a waiver. Initial I/M repair effectiveness as measured by remote sensing is only half of that as measured by IM240. Possible causes are sensitivity to operating mode, and how long after repair emissions are measured. 37% of the vehicles that initially fail and eventually pass in 1995 fail again in 1997. Half of these fail for the same combination of pollutants in both years. Vehicles that never pass the Im240 are still being driven in the I/M area; these vehicles are from all model years.

  14. Modellierung von Anwenderverhalten im Social Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Armin; Höfler, Patrick; Lindstaedt, Stefanie

    Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, gemeinsame Verwendungsszenarien des Semantic Web und des Social Web zu identifizieren und zu benennen. Dabei wird ein Teilaspekt des Themengebiets im Detail betrachtet: die Nutzung von Services, die Beobachtungen des Verhaltens von Anwendern analysieren, um daraus maschinell interpretierbare Informationen zu erhalten und diese als Modelle zu organisieren. Es werden zunächst einige Eigenschaften und Unterscheidungsmerkmale von Anwenderverhalten und organisierten Modellen dargestellt. Anschließend wird der mögliche wechselseitige Nutzen von Anwenderverhalten und Modellen diskutiert. Den Abschluss bildet eine Betrachtung einiger exemplarischer Software-Services, die heute schon verwendet werden, um Anwenderverhalten in Modelle überzuführen.

  15. A new IMS Seismic Array in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estabrook, C. H.; Barrientos, S.; Bergsson, B. H.; Boureima, O. A.; Ebeling, C.; Hfaiedh, M.; Soumana, S.; Suarez, G.

    2006-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test- Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has built a sixteen element broadband seismic array in southwestern Niger near the town of Torodi. This is the first array to be built in West Africa. The array has a diameter of 6 km (three rings with a central element), contains twelve vertical and four 3-component broadband sensors, all with identical instrument responses (Guralp CMG-3TB broadband sensors, flat to velocity from 100 seconds to 20 Hz). All sensors are deployed at 50 meters depth in boreholes. Many elements have seismic noise characteristics at or below Peterson's Low Noise Model at frequencies higher than 0.5 Hz. The array is autonomous: it is powered entirely by solar power, and transmits data directly to Vienna via VSAT with about a 20 second delay from real time. Data availability is nearly 100% since January 2006. The array is entirely on 2 billion year old granodiorite/tonalite with all of the sensors emplaced within the crystalline rock. A receiver function performs on the data shows a very simple crustal structure with a Moho depth of 38 km. The array is capable of resolving and detecting events with magnitude (mb) less than 3.0 from events in Peru and Indonesia, showing that the array significantly adds to the IMS detection capabilities in the Africa region and world-wide.

  16. Hermann Wilhelm Abich im Kaukasus: Zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Ilse; Seibold, Eugen

    2006-11-01

    Hermann Abich was born in 1806 in Berlin and died in 1886 in Graz. He grew up in a wealthy family which had friendly relations with famous scientists like Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Buch or Carl Ritter. After his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin he turned to extended fieldwork at the volcanoes of Italy. In 1833 1834 he published excellent petrological/chemical results and got soon a good scientific reputation. Thus he was nominated as Professor for Geology and Mineralogy of the prestigious Russian University in Dorpat (now Tartu, Esthonia) in 1842. In 1844 he was sent to Armenia by the Russian authorities. For the next three decades his fieldwork with about 190 publications was concentrated on the Great and Lesser Caucasus. This was a period of Russian expansion to the South with long-lasting regional fights. But he enjoyed the support of powerful governors. He was an indefatigable and enthusiastic explorer and a precise observer and designer. His interests covered many fields: morphology, glaciology, structural geology, volcanology with Thermal Springs, mineral resources from hydrocarbons, coal, salt to ores, stratigraphy and paleontology as a base for geological maps. But he also gave advice for practical problems, and he was active in meteorology, botany and archaeology. Alltogether he became “the Father of Caucasus Geology”. The following sketch stresses only on three aspects of his activities. He was one of the first pioneers in hydrocarbon exploration, especially around the anticlines with the mud volcanoes near Baku. In many respects, however, his fundamental ideas were erronous. He explained the structure of the Great Caucasus by the traditional theories of Leopold von Buch and Elie de Beaumont. The Caucasus anticline “was elevated by forces acting from beneath”. Following them he tried to discover regularities in the strike of mountain chains. Similarily he treated volcanism like Alexander von Humboldt and Leopold von Buch with their two

  17. Functional Overview of SWRL/IMS Version 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, John F.

    Version 3 of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS) is a fully automated system which accepts pupil criterion exercises from remote sites and returns various reports to the same location. This paper briefly describes the SWRL/IMS system design and functional characteristics. The instructional system…

  18. OPSN: The IMS COMSYS 1 and 2 Data Preprocessing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, John

    The Instructional Management System (IMS) developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) processes student and teacher-generated data through the use of an optical scanner that produces a magnetic tape (Scan Tape) for input to IMS. A series of computer routines, OPSN, preprocesses the Scan Tape and prepares the data for transmission to the…

  19. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A A A Text Size I ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? – Eliza* ...

  20. GC-IMS: a technology for many applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Lawrence V.; Romeskie, Julian M.

    1998-12-01

    Fast GC (gas chromatography) - IMS (ion mobility spectrometry) as a core technology is sufficiently flexible with respect to a broad range of chemical detection capabilities. The application of this dual technology can provide unique solutions in many operational environments. GC-IMS is the next evolutionary step in the advancement of IMS technology. Using the advantages of IMS (i.e., small, high sensitivity, rugged, operates at atmospheric pressure, etc.) And the chemical selection capability of GC, this detector configuration can be customized to detect and identify explosives, ICAO markers, and narcotics. This paper will present a technical discussion on GC-IMS and describe several commercial off the shelf (COTS) systems with potential application in many operating environments. Instruments include the Orion for explosives detection, Ariel for narcotics detection, Sirius for both explosives and narcotics detection, and NorthStar for handheld narcotics detection.

  1. IMS R and D program at Canada customs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilon, Pierre; Mungham, Tony; Ng, Lay-Keow; Lawrence, Andre

    1995-01-01

    Over the last few years, Revenue Canada, in collaboration with Barringer Instruments Limited, has been involved in the development of a field-usable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work has culminated in the manufacturing and commercialization by Barringer of the Ionscan 350 instruments, now in use by various law enforcement agencies worldwide. Although IMS exhibits a very strong and distinctive response toward some nitrogen containing drugs, e.g., cocaine, like all separation techniques it has inherent limitations, namely moderate resolution and low chemical signal to noise ratio which may affect the reliability of IMS-based drug detectors. A program is in place at the Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate (LSSD) to investigate the applicability of various digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to IMS output signals. The application of neural network techniques to overlapping IMS peaks is presented.

  2. Isothermal aging of IM7/8320 and IM7/5260

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1992-01-01

    Isothermal aging was conducted on two composite systems being considered as possible candidates for the next generation supersonic transport. The composite systems were IM7/5260, a carbon/thermoset, and IM7/8320, a carbon/amorphous thermoplastic. The materials were isothermally aged for a total of 5000 hours at 125 C and 175 C. These temperatures are approximately equivalent to the upper skin temperatures of an aircraft flying at Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4, respectively. The variations of the following properties were determined as a function of aging time: weight loss, moduli, glass transition temperature, microcracking, and modulus and strength of a +/- 45 laminate. The difficulties and accuracy of strain measurements are also discussed.

  3. Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 2 (Ergänzungen 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieve, M.; Lenarz, Thomas

    In Deutschland leben ca. 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung hinsichtlich des Schädigungsortes im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. eine Schalleitungsschwerhörigkeit, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, d. h. eine Schallempfindungsschwerhörigkeit, wobei hier der Schädigungsort auch am Hörnerven oder in den zentralen Hörabschnitten liegen kann. Therapeutisch lassen sich sowohl Schwerhörigkeiten im Bereich des Mittelohres als auch im Innenohr und sogar im Hirnstammbereich (Hirnstammimplantat) behandeln. 1,9 Millionen Schwerhörige haben eine Erkrankung im Mittelohrbereich, d. h. der Schall kann nur ungenügend auf das Innenohr übertragen werden. Die Ursache besteht meist in einer chronischen Mittelohrentzündung, die zu einer Zerstörung des Trommelfells und der Gehörknöchelchenkette geführt haben. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluß des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen. Mittelohroperationen werden mikrochirurgisch unter dem Operationsmikroskop durchgeführt, wobei zunächst durch eine sanierende Operation der Entzündungsprozeß entfernt wird und nach einer Ausheilungszeit die Gehörknöchelchenkette durch künstliche Prothesen rekonstruiert werden kann.

  4. No Sex Please, I'm a Stressed New Mom

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159263.html No Sex Please, I'm a Stressed New Mom Study ... HealthDay News) -- First-time parents may see their sex life hit the skids if mom feels stressed ...

  5. Depth-resolved image mapping spectrometer (IMS) with structured illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Bedard, Noah; Hagen, Nathan; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-08-01

    We present a depth-resolved Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) which is capable of acquiring 4D (x, y, z, λ) datacubes. Optical sectioning is implemented by structured illumination. The device's spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a multispectral microsphere and mouse kidney tissue fluorescence imaging experiment. We also compare quantitatively the depth-resolved IMS with a hyperspectral confocal microscope (HCM) in a standard fluorescent bead imaging experiment. The comparison results show that despite the use of a light source with four orders of magnitude lower intensity in the IMS than that in the HCM, the image signal-to-noise ratio acquired by the IMS is 2.6 times higher than that achieved by the equivalent confocal approach.

  6. A digital boxcar integrator for IMS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin J.; Stimac, Robert M.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Parker, Donald C.

    1995-01-01

    When trying to detect or quantify a signal at or near the limit of detectability, it is invariably embeded in the noise. This statement is true for nearly all detectors of any physical phenomena and the limit of detectability, hopefully, occurs at very low signal-to-noise levels. This is particularly true of IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometers) spectra due to the low vapor pressure of several chemical compounds of great interest and the small currents associated with the ionic detection process. Gated Integrators and Boxcar Integrators or Averagers are designed to recover fast, repetitive analog signals. In a typical application, a time 'Gate' or 'Window' is generated, characterized by a set delay from a trigger or gate pulse and a certain width. A Gated Integrator amplifies and integrates the signal that is present during the time the gate is open, ignoring noise and interference that may be present at other times. Boxcar Integration refers to the practice of averaging the output of the Gated Integrator over many sweeps of the detector. Since any signal present during the gate will add linearly, while noise will add in a 'random walk' fashion as the square root of the number of sweeps, averaging N sweeps will improve the 'Signal-to-Noise Ratio' by a factor of the square root of N.

  7. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  8. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  9. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  10. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  11. Evaluation of Gas Chromatography/Mini-IMS to Detect VOCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Peters, Randy; James, John T.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Toxicology Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has pioneered the use of gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) for measuring target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) aboard spacecraft. Graseby Dynamics, under contract to NASA/Wyle, has built several volatile organic analyzers (VOA) based on GC/IMS. Foremost among these have been the volatile organic analyzer-risk mitigation unit and the two flight VOA units for International Space Station (ISS). The development and evaluation of these instruments has been chronicled through presentations at the International Conference on Ion Mobility Spectrometry over the past three years. As the flight VOA from Graseby is prepared for operation on ISS at JSC, it is time to begin evaluations of technologies for the next generation VOA, Although the desired instrument characteristics for the next generation unit are the same as the current unit, the requirements are much more stringent. As NASA looks toward future missions beyond Earth environs, a premium will be placed upon small, light, reliable, autonomous hardware. It is with these visions in mind that the JSC Toxicology Laboratory began a search for the next generation VOA. One technology that is a candidate for the next generation VOA is GC/IMS. The recent miniaturization of IMS technology permits it to compete with other, inherently small, technologies such as chip-sized sensor arrays. This paper will discuss the lessons learned from the VOA experience and how that has shaped the design of a potential second generation VOA based upon GC/IMS technology. Data will be presented from preliminary evaluations of GC technology and the mini-IMS when exposed to VOCs likely to be detected aboard spacecraft. Results from the evaluation of an integrated GC/mini-IMS system will be shown if available.

  12. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Special IMS periods for 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Special International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) Satellite Periods selected at times when two or more satellites are expected to be in interesting regions of the magnetosphere simultaneously are described. Data are presented to aid in defining a program of magnetospheric observations which emphasizes coordinated measurements of satellites, rockets, balloons, aircraft, and ground-based stations. The position is given of currently operating high altitude spacecraft in the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic, Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric, and Solar Magnetic coordinate systems to determine their passage through the bow shock, the magnetopause, the cusp, or the neutral sheet region. Information on the synchronous and low altitude spacecraft and experiments are included in tabular form along with a tabular summary of all the rocket, balloon, and aircraft campaigns in 1976.

  13. Direct analysis of organic priority pollutants by IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giam, C. S.; Reed, G. E.; Holliday, T. L.; Chang, L.; Rhodes, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many routine methods for monitoring of trace amounts of atmospheric organic pollutants consist of several steps. Typical steps are: (1) collection of the air sample; (2) trapping of organics from the sample; (3) extraction of the trapped organics; and (4) identification of the organics in the extract by GC (gas chromatography), HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), or MS (Mass Spectrometry). These methods are often cumbersome and time consuming. A simple and fast method for monitoring atmospheric organics using an IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometer) is proposed. This method has a short sampling time and does not require extraction of the organics since the sample is placed directly in the IMS. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses in the IMS to organic 'priority pollutants'. Priority pollutants including representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, phenols, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were analyzed in both the positive and negative detection mode at ambient atmospheric pressure. Detection mode and amount detected are presented.

  14. Robust sliding mode continuous control of an IM drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jezernik, K.; Hren, A.; Drevensek, D.

    1995-12-31

    A control approach for robust trajectory tracking of IM servodrive based on the variable structure systems (VSS) is described. A new discrete-time control algorithm has been developed by combining VSS and Lyapunov design. It possesses all the good properties of the sliding mode and avoids the unnecessary discontinuity of the control input, thus eliminating chattering which has been considering as serious obstacles for applications of VSS. A unified control approach for current, torque and motion control based on the discrete-time sliding mode for application in indirect vector control of an IM drive is developed. The sliding mode approach can be applied to the control of an Im drive due to the replacement of the hysteresis controller with widely used PWM technique. All the theoretical issues are verified by experiment. The experimental system consists of a transputer and a microcontroller, thus allowing parallel processing.

  15. The Search for Polarization Variability in IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugin, A. V.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Piirola, V.; Butkevich, A. G.

    2006-11-01

    We have studied linear polarization in the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi in order to check the possibility that this star has variable polarization. For this purpose, accurate polarization measurements in the B, V, and R passbands with the new CCD polarimeter on the remotely operated KVA telescope at La Palma were carried out in 2005 August-November. Our observations have yielded accurate determination of the polarization in IM Peg: PB=0.064%+/-0.004%, θB=97deg+/-2deg PV=0.102%+/-0.006%, θV=91deg+/-3deg and PR=0.078%+/-0.005%, θR=95deg+/-4deg. Analysis of the data indicates no significant polarization variability in IM Peg. The upper limit for the amplitude of possible variability is <=0.03% in all passbands. In contrast to the previously published results, the linear polarization in this star is most likely nonvariable and interstellar in origin.

  16. Assessing the Peak Capacity of IMS-IMS Separations of Tryptic Peptide Ions in 300 K He

    PubMed Central

    Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Bohrer, Brian C.; Koeniger, Stormy L.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional ion mobility spectrometry (IMS-IMS) coupled with mass spectrometry is examined as a means of separating mixtures of tryptic peptides (from myoglobin and hemoglobin). In this study we utilize two distinct drift regions that are identical in that each contains He buffer gas at 300 K. The two-dimensional advantage is realized by changing the structures of the ions. As ions arrive at the end of the first drift region, those of a specified mobility are selected, exposed to energizing collisions, and then introduced into a second drift region. Upon collisional activation some ions undergo structural transitions, leading to substantial changes in their mobilities; others undergo only slight (or no) mobility changes. Examination of peak positions and shapes for peptides that are separated in the first IMS dimension indicates experimental peak capacities ranging from ~60 to 80; the peak shapes and range of changes in mobility that are observed in the second drift region (after activation) indicates a capacity enhancement ranging from a factor of ~7 to 17. Thus, experimental (and theoretical) evaluation of the peak capacity of IMS-IMS operated in this fashion indicates that capacities of ~480 to 1360 are accessible for peptides. Molecular modeling techniques are used to simulate the range of structural changes that would be expected for tryptic peptide ions and are consistent with the experimental shifts that are observed. PMID:17222015

  17. Coordinated optical and ultraviolet observations of IM Pegasi

    SciTech Connect

    Huenemoerder, D.P.; Ramsey, L.W.; Buzasi, D.L. )

    1990-02-01

    IUE spectra and optical observations of IM Peg obtained during the summers of 1985 and 1986 are analyzed. The modulations of the UV emission lines and the H-alpha, H-beta, and the CaII IR triplet (IRT) optical lines are examined. It is observed that: the UV emissin-line modulation increases as a function of height, H-alpha variability is related to stochastic events, H-beta displays excess absorption relative to a standard star, and the Ca IRT reveals a clear modulation with phase. It is noted that IM Peg corresponds to the solar paradigm used to explain RS CVn activity. 30 refs.

  18. Coordinated optical and ultraviolet observations of IM Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Buzasi, Derek L.

    1990-01-01

    IUE spectra and optical observations of IM Peg obtained during the summers of 1985 and 1986 are analyzed. The modulations of the UV emission lines and the H-alpha, H-beta, and the CaII IR triplet (IRT) optical lines are examined. It is observed that: the UV emissin-line modulation increases as a function of height, H-alpha variability is related to stochastic events, H-beta displays excess absorption relative to a standard star, and the Ca IRT reveals a clear modulation with phase. It is noted that IM Peg corresponds to the solar paradigm used to explain RS CVn activity.

  19. Pulsation research during the IMS. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    After describing the development status of the field of magnetic pulsations in 1975, before the initiation of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS), attention is given to the IMS's novel observational results and an attempt is made to identify the most effective research methods employed. It is found that the most fruitful work involved small-scale collaboration between a few individuals or a few groups possessing complementary data sets. Consideration is restricted to research on the long period pulsations which can be broadly classified as field line resonances. Recommendations are made for future research efforts.

  20. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  1. The Education of Children in Im/Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzubiaga, Angela E.; Nogueron, Silvia C.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of im/migrant children in schools have increased throughout the world. The principal receiving areas are North America, Western Europe, the Persian Gulf, Asia and the Pacific, and the Southern Cone of South America. In the United States, one out of every four children younger than the age of 8 lives in a family where at least one…

  2. OPSCAN 100, Scan Tape Preparation for IMS Runs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Pamela

    An Opscan 100 optical scanner was used to score test materials received at the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) during the tryout of SWRL's Instructional Management System (IMS). This document describes the functional characteristics of the optical scanner. Directions for preparing two types of control forms processed by the scanner and…

  3. IMS Version 3 Student Data Base Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John R.

    Computer routines that update the Instructional Management System (IMS) Version 3 student data base which supports the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) student monitoring system are described. Written in IBM System 360 FORTRAN IV, the program updates the data base by adding, changing and deleting records, as well as adding and deleting…

  4. Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusch, Gene E.

    This student manual explains an innovative strategy through which Bellingham Technical College's (Washington) evening Industrial Electrician and Millwright Apprenticeships were aggregated with workforce upgrade course offerings to form the college's first evening degree program in Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Section 1 contains a…

  5. Criteria Underlying the Formation of Alternative IMS Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Ashok

    To assist the formation of IMS (Instructional Management System) configurations, three categories of characteristics are developed and explained. Categories 1 and 2 emphasize automation, and the necessity of forming workable configurations to carry out instructional management for Southwest Regional Laboratory developed instructional and/or…

  6. VLBI for Gravity Probe B: the guide star, IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Ransom, R. R.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2015-11-01

    We review the radio very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the guide star, IM Peg, and three compact extragalactic reference sources, made in support of the NASA/Stanford gyroscope relativity mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B). The main goal of the observations was the determination of the proper motion of IM Peg relative to the distant Universe. VLBI observations made between 1997 and 2005 yield a proper motion of IM Peg of -20.83 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in α and -27.27 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in δ in a celestial reference frame of extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars virtually identical to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2). They also yield a parallax for IM Peg of 10.37 ± 0.07 mas, corresponding to a distance of 96.4 ± 0.7 pc. The uncertainties are standard errors with statistical and estimated systematic contributions added in quadrature. These results met the pre-launch requirements of the GP-B mission to not discernibly degrade the estimates of the geodetic and frame-dragging effects.

  7. Adolescent Subtest Norms for the ImPACT Neurocognitive Battery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Luke C; Sandel, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive testing of sports concussion for injury management and return-to-play decisions has long been considered the gold standard in evaluation of the injury. Computerized testing batteries are frequently employed, with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms to evaluate concussion. ImPACT's clinical report yields four normed composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, and Reaction Time) and another composite score that is not normed but is used as a validity measure (Impulse Control), as well as their corresponding subtest scores, which are not normed. The current study provides normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 13 to 21 years old and are stratified by the norm age brackets already employed by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:25412432

  8. Static corrections for enhanced signal detection at IMS seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Neil; Wookey, James; Selby, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Seismic monitoring forms an important part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Analysis of seismic data can be used to discriminate between nuclear explosions and the tens of thousands of natural earthquakes of similar magnitude that occur every year. This is known as "forensic seismology", and techniques include measuring the P-to-S wave amplitude ratio, the body-to-surface wave magnitude ratio (mb/Ms), and source depth. Measurement of these seismic discriminants requires very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, and this has led to the development and deployment of seismic arrays as part of the IMS. Array processing methodologies such as stacking can be used, but optimum SNR improvement needs an accurate estimate of the arrival time of the particular seismic phase. To enhance the imaging capability of IMS arrays, we aim to develop site-specific static corrections to the arrival time as a function of frequency, slowness and backazimuth. Here, we present initial results for the IMS TORD array in Niger. Vespagrams are calculated for various events using the F-statistic to clearly identify seismic phases and measure their arrival times. Observed arrival times are compared with those predicted by 1D and 3D velocity models, and residuals are calculated for a range of backazimuths and slownesses. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement in signal fidelity provided by these corrections.

  9. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history, as well…

  10. IM Set to Talk with You with Text!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses text messaging and instant messaging (IM). In a nutshell, text messaging is another name for Short Message Service (SMS). SMS is a service available on most digital mobile phones that permits the sending of short messages (also known as SMSes, text messages, messages, or more colloquially texts or even txts)…

  11. Choosing the Right Free IM Providers and Clients for Your Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izenstark, Amanda K.

    2009-01-01

    With virtual library services increasing, public services librarians may find themselves with questions such as: What instant messaging services (IM) are available? Which IM service would best suit my patrons' needs? Which IM service best suits my library's technology profile? This column describes the features and functionality of major instant…

  12. Overview of the IMS Version 3 Computer Software Considerations in the 1971-72 System Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Howard

    Hardware and software components employed in the 1971-72 tryout of a research-based, computer-operated Instructional Management System (IMS) are listed and described. Purposes of the tryout are given, and the communications system detailed. Source-input and output documents are listed, along with the IMS computer programs and IMS files.…

  13. ImERSE (Improving Experience through Regular Shadowing Events)

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, William; Minford, Joanne; Platt, Carol; Chatfield, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Systematic operational quality improvement strategies within the NHS are hard to find, although there are numerous published reports of sporadic departmental models and methods resulting in improvements in clinical care. We describe the experience of devising a tool to provide large data collection of patient care experiences by using medical students to shadow patient journeys. This combines patient and family centred care (PFCC) and quality improvement approaches to create a systematic organisational strategy for improving care. The ImERSE (improving experience through regular shadowing events) approach could be applied to any area of health care to generate population specific improvement priorities. It can be used to promote patient and family centred care and provide a unique medical education experience. We describe its evolution in its first year of use and suggest that using the ImERSE approach delivers beneficial characteristics to patients and their families, those undergoing a shadowing experience, and provider organisations. PMID:26734410

  14. 12 CFR 404.35 - Procedures for requests for Ex-Im Bank employees to provide expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for requests for Ex-Im Bank... OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Demands for Testimony of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.35 Procedures for requests for Ex-Im Bank...

  15. 12 CFR 404.35 - Procedures for requests for Ex-Im Bank employees to provide expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for requests for Ex-Im Bank... OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Demands for Testimony of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.35 Procedures for requests for Ex-Im Bank...

  16. Achieving E-learning with IMS Learning Design--Workflow Implications at the Open University of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim; Brouns, Francis; Pannekeet, Kees; Janssen, Jose; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the Open University of the Netherlands as an instructive case for the introduction of e-learning based on the IMS Learning Design specification (IMS LD). The IMS LD specification, as approved by the IMS Global Learning Consortium in 2003, enables the specification and encoding of learning scenarios that describe any design of a…

  17. Expertise bewerben und finden im Social Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polleres, Axel; Mochol, Malgorzata

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag diskutieren wir Rahmenbedingungen zur Kombination, Wiederverwendung und Erweiterung bestehender RDFVokabulare im Social Semantic Web. Hierbei konzentrieren wir uns auf das Anwendungsszenario des Auffindens und Bewerbens von Experten im Web oder Intranet. Wir präsentieren, wie RDF-Vokabulare einerseits und de facto Standardformate andererseits, die von täglich verwendeten Applikationen benutzt werden (z. B. vCard, iCal oder Dublin Core), kombiniert werden können, um konkrete Anwendungsfälle der Expertensuche und zum Management von Expertise zu lösen. Unser Fokus liegt darauf aufzuzeigen, dass für praktische Anwendungsszenarien nicht notwendigerweise neue Ontologien entwickelt werden müssen, sondern der Schlüssel vielmehr in der Integration von bestehenden, weit verbreiteten und sich ergänzenden Formaten zu einem kohärenten Netzwerk von Ontologien liegt. Dieser Ansatz garantiert sowohl direkte Anwendbarkeit von als auch niedrige Einstiegsbarrieren in Semantic Web-Technologien sowie einfache Integrierbarkeit in bestehende Applikationen. Die im Web verfügbaren und verwendeten RDFFormate decken zwar einen großen Bereich der Aspekte zur Beschreibung von Personen und Expertisen ab, zeigen aber auch signifikante Überlappungen. Bisher gibt es wenig systematische Ansätze, um diese Vokabulare zu verbinden, sei es in Form von allgemeingültigen Praktiken, die definieren, wann welches Format zu benutzen ist, oder in Form von Regeln, die Überlappungen zwischen einzelnen Formaten formalisieren. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert, wie bestehende Formate zur Beschreibung von Personen, Organisationen und deren Expertise kombiniert und, wo nötig, erweitert werden können. Darüber hinaus diskutieren wir Regelsprachen zur Beschreibung von Formatüberlappungen sowie deren praktische Verwendbarkeit zur Erstellung eines Ontologie-Netzwerks zur Beschreibung von Experten.

  18. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  19. Building Adaptive Game-Based Learning Resources: The Integration of IMS Learning Design and

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgos, Daniel; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a specification to create units of learning (UoLs), which express a certain pedagogical model or strategy (e.g., adaptive learning with games). However, the authoring process of a UoL remains difficult because of the lack of high-level authoring tools for IMS-LD, even more so when the focus is on specific topics,…

  20. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. ODE/IM correspondence and modified affine Toda field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Katsushi; Locke, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    We study the two-dimensional affine Toda field equations for affine Lie algebra gˆ modified by a conformal transformation and the associated linear equations. In the conformal limit, the associated linear problem reduces to a (pseudo-)differential equation. For classical affine Lie algebra gˆ, we obtain a (pseudo-)differential equation corresponding to the Bethe equations for the Langlands dual of the Lie algebra g, which were found by Dorey et al. in study of the ODE/IM correspondence.

  2. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  3. The measurements of Prognoz-4, -5, -6, -7 during IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, A. A.

    1984-09-01

    During the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) from 1975 to 1978 four satellites of the Prognoz series were launched, equipped with scientific instruments for measuring plasma and magnetic fields in the near-earth and interplanetary space as well as solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation. The paper describes the modes of plasma and field measurements of these satellites. The paper gives also a brief review of original results on plasmasphere heating, ion composition of the plasma mantle and penetration of solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere.

  4. PREFACE: 3rd International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    Silicene, the new supernova material Silicon is formed in a large amount during supernova nucleo-synthesis and it is the 8th most common chemical element in the universe. Today modern electronics make large use of bulk silicon, which has consequently an extremely large impact on the world industry and economy. The need for more powerful, faster and less energy-consuming integrated circuits requires in the future the use of nanotechnologies. The ultimate step concerning silicon is silicene (the 2D silicon-based analogue of graphene). This material is of paramount importance as it requires the use of the same technologies and production lines as silicon. Even if theoreticians had predicted its possible existence, it is only in 2010 that a team of pioneers from CINAM-France, ISMO-France and UCF-USA has presented for the first time the experimental evidence of the formation of silicene. Since then research is exploding (like a supernova!) both on the experimental and theoretical sides, with the main aim of replacing bulk silicon with this potentially revolutionary material. However, before any possible industrial use, it has first to be prepared or synthesized in various stripe and sheet shapes on insulating surfaces on which its physical and chemical properties have to be analyzed in detail. A second step is its chemical functionalization through various dopants to achieve different tasks, expected or not yet imagined. Chemists and physicists, experimentalists and theoreticians are involved in this thrilling work. A wide array of techniques, from the subtle chemistry reaction networks, to all those of experimental surface science (from synchrotron radiation to scanning tunneling microscopy) as well as those of theoretical chemistry (from {\\it ab initio} to density functional theory calculations) are involved. Big progress has been made since 2010 and the success of this third International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3) is demonstrated by the present proceedings

  5. Aberrant phenotype and transcriptome expression during fiber cell wall thickening caused by the mutation of the Im gene in immature fiber (im) mutant in Gossypium hirsutum L

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The immature fiber (im) mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. is a special cotton fiber mutant with non-fluffy fibers. It has low dry weight and fineness of fibers due to developmental defects in fiber secondary cell wall (SCW). Results We compared the cellulose content in fibers, thickness of fiber cell wall and fiber transcriptional profiling during SCW development in im mutant and its near-isogenic wild-type line (NIL) TM-1. The im mutant had lower cellulose content and thinner cell walls than TM-1 at same fiber developmental stage. During 25 ~ 35 day post-anthesis (DPA), sucrose content, an important carbon source for cellulose synthesis, was also significantly lower in im mutant than in TM-1. Comparative analysis of fiber transcriptional profiling from 13 ~ 25 DPA indicated that the largest transcriptional variations between the two lines occurred at the onset of SCW development. TM-1 began SCW biosynthesis approximately at 16 DPA, whereas the same fiber developmental program in im mutant was delayed until 19 DPA, suggesting an asynchronous fiber developmental program between TM-1 and im mutant. Functional classification and enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two NILs indicated that genes associated with biological processes related to cellulose synthesis, secondary cell wall biogenesis, cell wall thickening and sucrose metabolism, respectively, were significantly up-regulated in TM-1. Twelve genes related to carbohydrate metabolism were validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and confirmed a temporal difference at the earlier transition and SCW biosynthesis stages of fiber development between TM-1 and im mutant. Conclusions We propose that Im is an important regulatory gene influencing temporal differences in expression of genes related to fiber SCW biosynthesis. This study lays a foundation for cloning the Im gene, elucidating molecular mechanism of fiber SCW development and further

  6. IM7/LARC(tm) MPEI-1 Polymide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.; Cano, R. J.; Jensen, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    LARC(Trademark) MPEI-1 (Langley Research Center(Trademark) modified phenylethynyl imide-1) phenylethynyl containing aromatic polymide, is based on the reaction of biphenyl dianhydride (BPDA), 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene (APB), 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) and 4-phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride (PEPA), presumably resulting in a mixture of linear, branched and star shaped phenylethynyl containing imides which was evaluated as a matrix for high-performance composites. The poly(amid acid) solution of MPEI-1 in N-methypyrrolidinone was synthesized at 35% and 42% solids. Unidirectional prepreg was fabricated from these solutions and Hercules IM7 carbon fiber utilizing NASA- Langley's multipurpose prepreg machine. The temperature-dependent volatile depletion rates, thermal crystallization behavior and resin theology were characterized. Based on this information, a composite molding cycle was developed which yielded well consolidated, void-free laminates. Composite mechanical properties such as short beam shear strength, longitudinal and transverse flexural strength and flexural modulus, longitudinal tensile strength and notched and unnotched compression strengths were measured at room temperature (RT) and elevated temperatures. These mechanical properties are compared with those of IM7/LARC(Trademark) PETI-5 composites.

  7. MG II h&k line diagnostics of IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olah, K.; Marik, D.; Houdebine, E. R.; Dempsey, R. C.; Budding, E.

    1998-02-01

    We have analysed the Mgii h&k resonance lines of IM Peg (KII-III) on 14 high resolution IUE LWR spectra and compared the results coming from visual spectroscopic and UBV(RI)_C photometric data. The `clean' spectra (free from interstellar absorption) were modelled using a convolution of the rotational profile with a Gaussian profile, that represents macroturbulence and broadenings of other origin, the former dominating. Significant variations in the h&k line fluxes and widths were found throughout the orbital phase range. A line broadening effect is found at maximum spot visibility both in the k and h lines. The Mgii line widths increase linearly with the flux of the transition region lines as a function of rotational phase. Anticorrelations as a function of phase were found between the Mgii line fluxes and the higher temperature lines. The k line is broader than the h line, correlated with a slope greater than unity, in keeping with a greater radiation transfer effect in the k line, and a non-optically thin medium at all phases. We observe a systematic asymmetry in the ratio of the h to k line profiles at all phases. The spectral diagnostics thus suggest the appearance of a plage region on the stellar disc. We obtained new orbital elements of the IM Peg system, deriving a small, but non-zero eccentricity. The authors would like to dedicate this paper to their late referee, Dr. P.B. Byrne.

  8. Completing and sustaining IMS network for the CTBT Verification Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, N.

    2015-12-01

    The CTBT International Monitoring System is to be comprised of 337 facilities located all over the world for the purpose of detecting and locating nuclear test explosions. Major challenges remain, namely the completion of the network where most of the remaining stations have either environmental, logistical and/or political issues to surmont (89% of the stations have already been built) and the sustainment of a reliable and state-of the-art network covering 4 technologies - seismic, infrasound , hydroacoustic and radionuclide. To have a credible and trustworthy verification system ready for entry into force of the Treaty, the CTBTO is protecting and enhancing its investment of its global network of stations and is providing effective data to the International Data Centre (IDC) and Member States. Regarding the protection of the CTBTO's investment and enhanced sustainment of IMS station operations, the IMS Division is enhancing the capabilities of the monitoring system by applying advances in instrumentation and introducing new software applications that are fit for purpose. Some examples are the development of noble gas laboratory systems to process and analyse subsoil samples, development of a mobile noble gas system for onsite inspection purposes, optimization of Beta Gamma detectors for Xenon detection, assessing and improving the efficiency of wind noise reduction systems for infrasound stations, development and testing of infrasound stations with a self-calibrating capability, and research into the use of modular designs for the hydroacoustic network.

  9. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Lipatov, A.; Mahaffy, P.; Paterson, W.; Paschalidis, N.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4n surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged.

  10. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake sequences detected by IMS hydroacoustic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Lee, W.

    2011-12-01

    A Mw 9.1 thrust-fault earthquake has been occurred in the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. It is the fourth largest earthquake ever recorded since modern seismographs installed, and hundreds of strong aftershocks (M > 5) have been accompanied. We applied a cross-correlation method to the continuous data recorded in the Hawaii hydroacoustic array operated by International Monitoring System (IMS), and calculated back-azimuths of T-waves generated by the earthquake sequences. The back-azimuth values of the major events show somewhat scattered pattern, which is a different feature from that of the Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake. This may imply that the rupture is not likely to propagate linearly through the thrust fault line. Several aftershocks, however, clearly show gradual back-azimuthal change toward North. These differences might be caused by complex and diverse source mechanisms of the earthquakes. Combining hydroacoustic data obtained by other IMS hydroacoustic stations, if available, we could resolve a better azimuthal change regarding the earthquake sequence.

  11. IMS Version 3 1971-72 Tryout: Initial Report on COMSYS 1 and 2 Computer Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flournoy, Nancy

    Instructional Management System (IMS) information cycles from participating schools to the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) for processing, returning again to the school in the form of summarized reports of pupil data. One segment of this cycle is managed by the IMS pupil data base processing program. The program generates reports from…

  12. User Training for the 1971-72 Tryout of IMS, Version 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Gordon L.

    Proposed training procedures and materials, and participants' questions on the use of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) student monitoring system data base in the Instructional Management System (IMS) are described. The training sessions were undertaken because IMS Version 3 requires classroom teachers to use special materials and…

  13. Procedures for COMSYS 3 for the 1971-72 IMS Tryout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Gordon L.

    During the 1971-72 pilot test of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS), three alternative procedures were used to gather data within the classroom, transmit those data to SWRL for processing, and send IMS output to the appropriate recipients in the schools. ComSys 3--one of the three…

  14. The Conceptual Structure of IMS Learning Design Does Not Impede Its Use for Authoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derntl, M.; Neumann, S.; Griffiths, D.; Oberhuemer, P.

    2012-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (LD) is the only available interoperability specification in the area of technology enhanced learning that allows the definition and orchestration of complex activity flows and resource environments in a multirole setting. IMS LD has been available since 2003, and yet it has not been widely adopted either by practitioners or by…

  15. Crystal Structure of the 25 kDa Subunit of Human Cleavage Factor I{m}

    SciTech Connect

    Coseno,M.; Martin, G.; Berger, C.; Gilmartin, G.; Keller, W.; Doublie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cleavage factor Im is an essential component of the pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing machinery in higher eukaryotes, participating in both the polyadenylation and cleavage steps. Cleavage factor Im is an oligomer composed of a small 25 kDa subunit (CF Im25) and a variable larger subunit of either 59, 68 or 72 kDa. The small subunit also interacts with RNA, poly(A) polymerase, and the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein. These protein-protein interactions are thought to be facilitated by the Nudix domain of CF Im25, a hydrolase motif with a characteristic {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} fold and a conserved catalytic sequence or Nudix box. We present here the crystal structures of human CF Im25 in its free and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) bound forms at 1.85 and 1.80 Angstroms, respectively. CF Im25 crystallizes as a dimer and presents the classical Nudix fold. Results from crystallographic and biochemical experiments suggest that CF Im25 makes use of its Nudix fold to bind but not hydrolyze ATP and Ap4A. The complex and apo protein structures provide insight into the active oligomeric state of CF Im and suggest a possible role of nucleotide binding in either the polyadenylation and/or cleavage steps of pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing.

  16. Computer-Aided Teaching Using MATLAB/Simulink for Enhancing an IM Course With Laboratory Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentounsi, A.; Djeghloud, H.; Benalla, H.; Birem, T.; Amiar, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic procedure using MATLAB software to plot the circle diagram for two induction motors (IMs), with wound and squirrel-cage rotors, from no-load and blocked-rotor tests. The advantage of this approach is that it avoids the need for a direct load test in predetermining the IM characteristics under reduced power.…

  17. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.

    2014-03-01

    The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) are highly diverse in size and configuration, with apertures ranging from under 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high-frequency phases lacking coherence between sensors. Pipeline detection algorithms often miss such phases, since they only consider frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing, and phases that are detected are often attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates. This can result in missed events, due to either a lack of contributing phases or by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. It has been demonstrated previously that continuous spectral estimation can both detect and estimate phases on the largest aperture arrays, with arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity, as is the case for classical f-k analysis, and the ability to estimate slowness vectors requires sufficiently large inter-sensor distances to resolve time-delays between pulses with a period of the order 4-5 s. Spectrogram beampacking works well on five IMS arrays with apertures over 20 km (NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK) without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with 10-20 km aperture (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 s period signal. Even for medium aperture arrays which can provide high-quality coherent slowness estimates, a complementary spectrogram beampacking procedure could act as a quality control by providing non-aliased estimates when the coherent slowness grids display

  18. Ultrawideband SAR processing with the Range Migration Algorithm and the ImSyn processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Louis C.; Eichel, Laurence A.; Evanko, Stephen M.

    1996-11-01

    The ImSynTM Processor is an optoelectronic signal processor developed by Essex Corporation to accelerate coherent imaging processes. This paper focuses on the application of the ImSyn Processor to SAR imaging where severe range differential curvature is present. This occurs in SAR systems imaging large scenes with fine resolution, foliage penetrating (FOPEN) radar and ground penetrating radar. Application of the range migration algorithm removes the differential range curvature but results in a non- uniform or warped frequency space. The ImSyn processor operates directly on the frequency data permitting a discrete Fourier transform in warped frequency space without data interpolation. Both the range migration algorithm and the standard polar formatting algorithm benefit from the increased speed and resolution available from the ImSyn processor. A discussion of the ImSyn processor, the range migration algorithm and an example of a FOPEN image processed on our prototype system are presented.

  19. [((Cl)Im(Dipp))P=P(Dipp)][GaCl4]: a polarized, cationic diphosphene.

    PubMed

    Schwedtmann, Kai; Holthausen, Michael H; Sala, Chris H; Hennersdorf, Felix; Fröhlich, Roland; Weigand, Jan J

    2016-01-25

    The reaction of the neutral diphosphanide [((Cl)Im(Dipp))P-P(Cl)(Dipp)] (6) ((Cl)Im(Dipp) = 4,5-dichloro-1,3-bis(Dipp)-imidazol-2-yl; Dipp = 2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl) with methyl triflate (MeOTf) leads to the formation of cationic diphosphane [((Cl)Im(Dipp))(Me)P-P(Cl)(Dipp)](+) (8+) in a stereoselective methylation. In contrast, reacting with the Lewis acid GaCl3 yields cationic diphosphene [((Cl)Im(Dipp))P=P(Dipp)](+) (7+), which is explained by a low P-Cl bond dissociation energy. The significantly polarized P=P double bond in 7+ allows for its utilization as an acceptor for nucleophiles - the reaction with Cl(-) regenerates diphosphanide and the reaction with PMe3 gives cation [((Cl)Im(Dipp))P-P(PMe3)(Dipp)] (9+). In depth DFT investigation provides detailed insights into the bonding situation of the reported compounds. PMID:26627185

  20. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Smith, R. Theodore; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm–650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device. PMID:22254167

  1. Berechnung verkehrlicher Substitutionseffekte im Personenverkehr bei Online-Shopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter; Rauh, Jürgen; Breidenbach, Petra

    Für Güter des täglichen, mittelfristigen und langfristigen Bedarfs sowie für das Beispiel Baumarktartikel wird das Potenzial für Personenverkehrsaufwand von Einkaufsaktivtäten quantitativ abgeschätzt. Die entwickelten Algorithmen behandeln die einkaufsvorbereitende Information und den eigentlichen Einkauf, d.h. den Erwerb eines Gutes, separat. Informationsaktivitäten haben insbesondere bei höherwertigen Gütern einen hohen Stellenwert und damit auch verkehrliche Relevanz. Wie Berechnungen zeigen, spart Online-Shopping Informations- und Einkaufsverkehrsaufwand im Pkw-Verkehr ein. Die notwendigen Eingangsdaten wie differenzierte Informations- und Einkaufshäufigkeiten sowie verkehrliche Parameter zu Verkehrsmittelwahl, Entfernungen und Wegekopplungen wurden aus eigenen Erhebungen gewonnen.

  2. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carolyn; DeMuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians’ expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  3. Wie viel Schwermetall ist im Trinkwasser?: Optische Spektroskopie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehus, Christina; Trull, Thomas; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Die moderne optische Spektroskopie kann geringste Substanzmengen nachweisen. Für schnelle Routinemessungen reichen konventionelle Zweistrahl-Spektralphotometer. Eine wesentlich höhere Nachweisempfindlichkeit im ppm- oder sogar ppb-Bereich ermöglichen das Atomabsorptions-Spektrometer (AAS) und das Fourier-Transformations-Infrarot-Spektrometer (FTIR). Ein AAS atomisiert die Probe vollständig und weist dann einzelne Elemente nach. Deshalb ist es zum Beispiel für die Schwermetall-Analyse geeignet. Bei der Analyse von Molekülen dominieren heute FTIR-Geräte. Ihr Herzstück ist meist ein Michelson-Interferometer. Zusammen mit schnellen Fourier-Algorithmen erlaubt es, sehr schnell breite Spektren aufzunehmen. Stationäre und mobile FTIR-Geräte können vielfältig eingesetzt werden.

  4. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Southworth, John E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  5. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carolyn; Demuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians' expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  6. Software enhancements to the IVSEM model of the CTBTO IMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) developed the Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model (IVSEM) to estimate the performance of the International Monitoring System (IMS) operated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). IVSEM was developed in several phases between 1995 and 2000. The model was developed in FORTRAN with an IDL-based user interface and was compiled for Windows and UNIX operating systems. Continuing interest in this analysis capability, coupled with numerous advances in desktop computer hardware and software since IVSEM was written, enabled significant improvements to IVSEM run-time performance and data analysis capabilities. These improvements were implemented externally without modifying the FORTRAN executables, which had been previously verified. This paper describes the parallelization approach developed to significantly reduce IVSEM run-times and the new test setup and analysis tools developed to facilitate better IVSEM operation.

  7. Cleavage factor Im (CFIm) as a regulator of alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Jessica G; Norbury, Chris J

    2016-08-15

    Most mammalian protein coding genes are subject to alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), which can generate distinct mRNA 3'UTRs with differing regulatory potential. Although this process has been intensely studied in recent years, it remains unclear how and to what extent cleavage site selection is regulated under different physiological conditions. The cleavage factor Im (CFIm) complex is a core component of the mammalian cleavage machinery, and the observation that its depletion causes transcriptome-wide changes in cleavage site use makes it a key candidate regulator of APA. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of the CFIm complex, and explores the evidence surrounding its potential contribution to regulation of APA. PMID:27528751

  8. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Daily summary for IMS high-altitude satellites, days 182-365 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The orbital positions of a number of high-altitude satellites, capable of making magnetospheric measurements in the second half of 1977, are described. The following satellites are considered: Vela 5A, Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Solrad 11A, Solrad 11B, Hawkeye 1, Prognoz 5, Explorer 47, Explorer 50, and ISEE-A/-B. The orbit elements used for generating the satellite ephemeris are shown. Complete presentations of the positions of these satellites for the second half of 1977 are given, as well as the IMS/SSC special periods. Detailed plots illustrating these periods are provided. Time-ordered tables of magnetopause crossings, bow shock crossings, neutral sheet passes, midlatitude magnetotail passes, high-latitude magnetotail passes, and Hawkeye 1 northern cusp passes are presented. Bar charts covering the second half of 1977 are given which identify thirteen special periods (Nos. 10-22) based upon certain conjunctions of the high-altitude satellites.

  9. Different enzyme requirements for the synthesis of biodiesel: Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, Estela; Otero, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of biodiesel via alcoholysis of different vegetable oils (sunflower, borage, olive and soybean) have been studied. Loss of lipase activity induced by the nucleophile is greater with methanol than with ethanol, and is greater for Lipozyme TL IM than for Novozym 435. The optimum volume of ethanol depends on the loading of solid biocatalyst and is higher for preparations of Novozym 435 than for Lipozyme TL IM. Maximum rates were obtained with Lipozyme TL IM, for a molar ratio of alcohol to FA residues of 0.33. By contrast, Novozym 435 requires at least a 2:1 ratio. Alcoholysis of the vegetable oils is faster with Lipozyme TL IM than with Novozym 435. Use of a high loading of Novozym 435 (50% w/w) and a large molar excess of ethanol are required to obtain an initial rate similar to that obtained with Lipozyme TL IM at a lower enzyme loading (10% w/w) and an equimolar ratio of ethanol and FA residues. Novozym 435 produces quantitative conversions in only 7h at 25 degrees C, but complete conversions are not obtained with Lipozyme TL IM. Three stage stepwise addition of ethanol yields 84% conversion to ethyl esters for Lipozyme TL IM. Hence use of Novozym 435 is preferred. After nine cycles in a batch reactor Novozym 435 retained 85% of its initial activity. PMID:17321130

  10. Platoon Interactions and Real-World Traffic Simulation and Validation Based on the LWR-IM.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Platoon based traffic flow models form the underlying theoretical framework in traffic simulation tools. They are essentially important in facilitating efficient performance calculation and evaluation in urban traffic networks. For this purpose, a new platoon-based macroscopic model called the LWR-IM has been developed in [1]. Preliminary analytical validation conducted previously has proven the feasibility of the model. In this paper, the LWR-IM is further enhanced with algorithms that describe platoon interactions in urban arterials. The LWR-IM and the proposed platoon interaction algorithms are implemented in the real-world class I and class II urban arterials. Another purpose of the work is to perform quantitative validation to investigate the validity and ability of the LWR-IM and its underlying algorithms to describe platoon interactions and simulate performance indices that closely resemble the real traffic situations. The quantitative validation of the LWR-IM is achieved by performing a two-sampled t-test on queues simulated by the LWR-IM and real queues observed at these real-world locations. The results reveal insignificant differences of simulated queues with real queues where the p-values produced concluded that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Thus, the quantitative validation further proved the validity of the LWR-IM and the embedded platoon interactions algorithm for the intended purpose. PMID:26731745

  11. Applied Doppler Imaging: Can The Magnetic Activity Of IM Pegasi Affect The Gravity Probe B Mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, S. C.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2006-08-01

    IM Pegasi is a single-lined spectroscopic RS CVn binary, with the primary being a rapidly-rotating (vsini = 27 km/s) early-K giant. Magnetic activity of the primary is evident as dark spot features covering 15% or more of the stellar surface. Since the system is bright in both optical and radio bands, IM Pegasi was chosen as a guide star for the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite mission. The mission is designed to verify two predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity, the geodetic effect and "frame-dragging", based on measurements of mean gyroscope drift with respect to the optical centroid of IM Pegasi. The requested standard error of 0.5 milliarcseconds/year implies that even small contributions to the shift of the optical centroid of IM Pegasi due to surface magnetic activity must be determined. In support of the GP-B mission we are undertaking an intensive Doppler imaging survey of the primary component of IM Pegasi to determine the effect of spot features on the optical centroid of IM Pegasi. We present an overview of our role in GP-B and report initial results from this support project, including the first magnetic maps of the IM Pegasi primary, created using Least-Squares Deconvolution and Zeeman Doppler Imaging.

  12. Platoon Interactions and Real-World Traffic Simulation and Validation Based on the LWR-IM

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Platoon based traffic flow models form the underlying theoretical framework in traffic simulation tools. They are essentially important in facilitating efficient performance calculation and evaluation in urban traffic networks. For this purpose, a new platoon-based macroscopic model called the LWR-IM has been developed in [1]. Preliminary analytical validation conducted previously has proven the feasibility of the model. In this paper, the LWR-IM is further enhanced with algorithms that describe platoon interactions in urban arterials. The LWR-IM and the proposed platoon interaction algorithms are implemented in the real-world class I and class II urban arterials. Another purpose of the work is to perform quantitative validation to investigate the validity and ability of the LWR-IM and its underlying algorithms to describe platoon interactions and simulate performance indices that closely resemble the real traffic situations. The quantitative validation of the LWR-IM is achieved by performing a two-sampled t-test on queues simulated by the LWR-IM and real queues observed at these real-world locations. The results reveal insignificant differences of simulated queues with real queues where the p-values produced concluded that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Thus, the quantitative validation further proved the validity of the LWR-IM and the embedded platoon interactions algorithm for the intended purpose. PMID:26731745

  13. CDDO-Im protects from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity through induction of Nrf2-dependent genes

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, Scott A.; Buckley, David B.; Tanaka, Yuji; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-04-01

    CDDO-Im is a synthetic triterpenoid recently shown to induce cytoprotective genes through the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, an important mechanism for the induction of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Upon oxidative or electrophilic insult, the transcription factor Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins, and binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the upstream promoter regions of various cytoprotective genes. To further elucidate the hepatoprotective effects of CDDO-Im, wild-type and Nrf2-null mice were pretreated with CDDO-Im (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO), and then administered acetaminophen (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment of wild-type mice with CDDO-Im reduced liver injury caused by acetaminophen. In contrast, hepatoprotection by CDDO-Im was not observed in Nrf2-null mice. CDDO-Im increased Nrf2 protein expression and Nrf2-ARE binding in wild-type, but not Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, CDDO-Im increased the mRNA expression of the Nrf2 target genes NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1); glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (Gclc); and heme-oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conversely, CDDO-Im did not induce Nqo1, Gclc, and Ho-1 mRNA expression in Nrf2-null mice. Collectively, the present study shows that CDDO-Im pretreatment induces Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes and protects the liver from acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury.

  14. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    , they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

  15. Large meteoroid detection using the global IMS infrasound system

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D. O.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous signals will be routinely detected using the 60 array, global IMS (International Monitoring System) infrasound network. Infrasonic signals are sub-audible quasi longitudinal, atmospheric waves in the frequency band from about 10 Hz to -5 minutes in period (limited by human acoustic audibility in the high frequency limit and by the wave-guide acoustic cut-off frequency and the Brunt Vaisalla frequency in the low frequency limit) These small amplitude waves are a natural subset of the well-known atmospheric acoustic-gravity wave regime which has been identified from the linearized equations of geophysical fluid mechanics in the flat earth approximation, neglecting the earth's rotation, etc. For the IMS network the instrumental pressure sensor response was chosen to range from -4 to 0.02 Hz. These are ground-based arrays of typically 4 to 9 sensors with separations of about 1-2 km between the array elements. Examples of naturally occurring impulsive sources of infrasound include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, bolides (large meteor-fireballs entering the atmospheric at very high speeds up to -300 times faster than ground-level sound waves), microbaroms (the 'voice of the sea' due to the interaction of atmospheric storms and surface ocean waves) and the supersonic motion of the auroral electrojet at about 100 km altitude (auroral infrasonic waves), etc. In this paper we will briefly summarize our current state of knowledge of infrasound signals from bolides. This summary will include the generation of the signals at the complex, quasi-cylindrical line source, to the refraction and diffraction of the propagating waves by the middle atmospheric and tropospheric temperature and wind systems and finally, the detection of the signals and their interpretation by inferring the source properties, Le., source altitude, blast radius (see below) and the source energy, etc. In addition, we will use infrasound from energetic bolides to estimate the expected steady state

  16. IM-133N - A Useful Herbal Combination for Eradicating Disease-triggering Pathogens in Mice via Immunotherapeutic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Firashathulla, Syed; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Rafiq, Mohamed; Viswanatha, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry; Sharath Kumar, Lakkavalli Mohan; Babu, Uddagiri Venkanna; Ramakrishnan, Shyam; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunomodulatory (IM) activity of IM-133N, a herbal combination in various immunotherapeutic experimental models. Methods: The IM activity of IM-133N was evaluated against three experimental models namely, effect of IM- 133N against Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced abdominal sepsis in mice, and carbon clearance test was performed in Wistar albino rats to evaluated the phagocytic potential of IM-133N, in addition IM-133N was evaluated for its immunoglobulin enhancing potential in rats, where the immunoglobulin levels were measured by zinc sulphate turbity (ZST) test. Further, IM-133N was subjected for detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS analysis to identify the probable active constituents present in it. Results: The findings of the present study has demonstrated very promising IM property of IM-133N in all the experimental models. Briefly, pretreatment with IM-133N at 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg, p.o. doses had protected the mice against E. coli-induced abdominal sepsis and mortality, further the effect of IM- 133N was found to be significant and dose-dependent. In support of this, in another study administration of IM-133N showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in serum immunoglobulin levels, estimated by ZST test. In line with the above findings, in the carbon clearance test the low doses (125 and 250 mg/ kg, p.o.) of IM-133N increased the rate of carbon clearance, whereas the higher doses (500 and 1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) did not sustain the response, and saturation effect was considered as one of the possible reason for futility of higher doses for IM-133N. In addition, A detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of IM-133N showed 17 bioactive phytochemical constituents: namely, apigenin, chaulmoogric acid, mesquitol, quercetin, symphoxanthone, salireposide, β-sitosterol, nonaeicosanol, β-amyrin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, symplososide, symponoside, symploveroside, symplocomoside

  17. A structural comparison of the colicin immunity proteins Im7 and Im9 gives new insights into the molecular determinants of immunity-protein specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, C A; Videler, H; Pauptit, R A; Wallis, R; James, R; Moore, G R; Kleanthous, C

    1998-01-01

    We report the first detailed comparison of two immunity proteins which, in conjunction with recent protein engineering data, begins to explain how these structurally similar proteins are able to bind and inhibit the endonuclease domain of colicin E9 (E9 DNase) with affinities that differ by 12 orders of magnitude. In the present work, we have determined the X-ray structure of the Escherichia coli colicin E7 immunity protein Im7 to 2.0 A resolution by molecular replacement, using as a trial model the recently determined NMR solution structure of Im9. Whereas the two proteins adopt similar four-helix structures, subtle structural differences, in particular involving a conserved tyrosine residue critical for E9 DNase binding, and the identity of key residues in the specificity helix, lie at the heart of their markedly different ability to bind the E9 DNase. Two other crystal structures were reported recently for Im7; in one, Im7 was a monomer and was very similar to the structure reported here, whereas in the other it was a dimer to which functional significance was assigned. Since this previous work suggested that Im7 could exist either as a monomer or a dimer, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to investigate this question further. Under a variety of solution conditions, we found that Im7 only ever exists in solution as a monomer, even up to protein concentrations of 15 mg/ml, casting doubt on the functional significance of the crystallographically observed dimer. This work provides a structural framework with which we can understand immunity-protein specificity, and in addition we believe it to be the first successfully refined crystal structure solved by molecular replacement using an NMR trial model with less than 100% sequence identity. PMID:9639578

  18. Ccd Photometry of Neglected Eclipsing Binaries Kz Dra, Lr Cam and Im Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Motl, David; Zejda, Miloslav; Koss, Karel; Kudrnáčová, Jitka; Hájek, Petr; Šmelcer, Ladislav; Dubovský, Pavol A.; Šafářová, Eva; Wolf, Marek

    2005-04-01

    We present ephemerides and solutions of one Algol-type (KZ Dra) and two overcontact systems (LR Cam and IM Vul) based on V(RI)C CCD observations obtained in the project Prosper (network of amateur observers).

  19. A structural equation model relating physical function, pain, impaired mobility (IM), and falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dai, Boyi; Ware, William B; Giuliani, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a structural equation model to investigate the interrelationships among physical function, pain, IM, and falls in 511 American older adults. The model included 11 measurement variables (tandem stance, single leg stance, 360° turn, chair stand, arm curl, sit and reach, back scratch, normative score of 6-min walk or 2-min step, timed up and go, pain, and fall) and four latent variables (balance, strength, flexibility, and IM). The final model with the combined sample demonstrated good fit with the participant data (χ(2)(31)=30.0, N=499, p=0.52; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.99). Balance had a significant and the largest effect on IM (standardized regression weights=-1.05, p<0.001). Strength, endurance, flexibility, and pain had small effects on IM (standardized regression weights<0.2). The findings suggest that balance and mobility testing should be a priority in fall screening and prevention programs. PMID:22766209

  20. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623: EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate...

  1. The IMS Satellite Situation Center. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Following a brief historical review of the SSC (Satellite Situation Center), created by the U.S. for the IMS (International Magnetospheric Study), its main functions are discussed. The services of the SSC include the accurate orbit determination of the satellites, 12-18 months in advance and the coordination of simultaneous observations by a multispacecraft system, which are essential for the optimization of the scientific gains from experiments conducted with limited resources. For 1976 SSC generated plots of the satellites Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Hawkeye 1, Imp H (7), Imp J (8) by computing certain projections of the solar ecliptic, solar magnetospheric, and solar magnetic coordinate systems. The SSC system was automated by the addition of a computer system capable of interactive graphics. The SSC can also provide the ground-based campaigns with a graphical or tabular information about the position low-altitude satellites in any coordinate system. The possible participation of the SSC in future Electrodynamics Explorer mission, Space Shuttle programs is also being explored.

  2. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2003-01-01

    The international ImMunoGeneTics database (IMGT) (http://imgt.cines.fr), is a high quality integrated information system specializing in Immunoglobulins (IG), T cell Receptors (TR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, created in 1989, by the Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire (LIGM), at the Université Montpellier II, CNRS, Montpellier, France. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data which include nucleotide and protein sequences, oligonucleotide primers, gene maps, genetic polymorphisms, specificities, 2D and 3D structures. IMGT includes three sequence databases (IMGT/LIGM-DB, IMGT/MHC-DB, IMGT/PRIMER-DB), one genome database (IMGT/GENE-DB) with different interfaces (IMGT/GeneSearch, IMGT/GeneView, IMGT/LocusView), one 3D structure database (IMGT/3Dstructure-DB), Web resources comprising 8000 HTML pages ('IMGT Marie-Paule page') and interactive tools for sequence analysis (IMGT/V-QUEST, IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, IMGT/Allele-Align, IMGT/PhyloGene). IMGT data are expertly annotated according to the rules of the IMGT Scientific chart, based on IMGT-ONTOLOGY. IMGT tools are particularly useful for the analysis of the IG and TR repertoires in physiological normal and pathological situations. IMGT has important applications in medical research (autoimmune diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas, myelomas), biotechnology related to antibody engineering (phage displays, combinatorial libraries) and thera-peutic approaches (graft, immunotherapy). IMGT is freely available at http://imgt.cines.fr. PMID:12520009

  3. Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS--Clinical trial interim report.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Katarina; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Besch, Dorothea; Chee, Caroline K; Cottriall, Charles L; Gekeler, Florian; Groppe, Markus; Jackson, Timothy L; MacLaren, Robert E; Koitschev, Assen; Kusnyerik, Akos; Neffendorf, James; Nemeth, Janos; Naeem, Mohamed Adheem Naser; Peters, Tobias; Ramsden, James D; Sachs, Helmut; Simpson, Andrew; Singh, Mandeep S; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wong, David; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2015-06-01

    A subretinal visual implant (Alpha IMS, Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) was implanted in 29 blind participants with outer retinal degeneration in an international multicenter clinical trial. Primary efficacy endpoints of the study protocol were a significant improvement of activities of daily living and mobility to be assessed by activities of daily living tasks, recognition tasks, mobility, or a combination thereof. Secondary efficacy endpoints were a significant improvement of visual acuity/light perception and/or object recognition (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01024803). During up to 12 months observation time twenty-one participants (72%) reached the primary endpoints, of which thirteen participants (45%) reported restoration of visual function which they use in daily life. Additionally, detection, localization, and identification of objects were significantly better with the implant power switched on in the first 3 months. Twenty-five participants (86%) reached the secondary endpoints. Measurable grating acuity was up to 3.3 cycles per degree, visual acuities using standardized Landolt C-rings were 20/2000, 20/2000, 20/606 and 20/546. Maximal correct motion perception ranged from 3 to 35 degrees per second. These results show that subretinal implants can restore very-low-vision or low vision in blind (light perception or less) patients with end-stage hereditary retinal degenerations. PMID:25812924

  4. Evaluation of infrasonic detection capability for the CTBT/IMS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.T.; Whitaker, R.W.; Olson, J.V.

    1996-09-01

    Evaluation of infrasonic detection capability for the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (IMS/CTBT) is made with respect to signal analysis and global coverage. Signal analysis is anecdotally reviewed with respect to composite power, correlation and F-statistic detection algorithms. In the absence of adaptive pre-filtering, either cross-correlation or F-statistic detection is required. As an unbounded quantity, the F-statistic offers potentially greater sensitivity to signals of interest. With PURE state pre-filtering, power detection begins to become competitive with correlation and F-statistic detection. Additional application of simple post-filters of minimum duration and maximum bearing deviation results in unique positive detection of an identified impulsive infrasonic signal. Global coverage estimates are performed as a useful deterministic evaluation of networks, offering an easily interpreted network performance, which compliments previous probabilistic network evaluations. In particular, adequate coverage (2 sites), uniform coverage, and redundant coverage (3 to 4 sites) provide figures of merit in evaluating detection, location and vulnerability, respectively. Coverage estimates of the I60 network have been performed which indicate generally adequate coverage for the majority of the globe. Modest increase of station gain (increase of number of elements from 4 to 7) results in significant increase in coverage for mean signal values. Ineffective sites and vulnerability sites are identified which suggest further refinement of the network is possible.

  5. Analyzing Electric Field Morphology Through Data-Model Comparisons of the GEM IM/S Assessment Challenge Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Gallagher, Dennis L.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Henderson, Michael G.; Denton, Michael H.; Brandt, Pontus C.; Goldstein, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    The storm-time inner magnetospheric electric field morphology and dynamics are assessed by comparing numerical modeling results of the plasmasphere and ring current with many in situ and remote sensing data sets. Two magnetic storms are analyzed, April 22,2001 and October 21-23,2001, which are the events selected for the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Inner Magnetosphere/Storms (IM/S) Assessment Challenge (IMSAC). The IMSAC seeks to quantify the accuracy of inner magnetospheric models as well as synthesize our understanding of this region. For each storm, the ring current-atmosphere interaction model (RAM) and the dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM) were run together with various settings for the large-scale convection electric field and the nightside ionospheric conductance. DGCPM plasmaspheric parameters were compared with IMAGE-EUV plasmapause extractions and LANL-MPA plume locations and velocities. RAM parameters were compared with Dst*, LANL-MPA fluxes and moments, IMAGE-MENA images, and IMAGE-HENA images. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons were made to determine the electric field morphology that allows the model results to best fit the plasma data at various times during these events. The simulations with self-consistent electric fields were, in general, better than those with prescribed field choices. This indicates that the time-dependent modulation of the inner magnetospheric electric fields by the nightside ionosphere is quite significant for accurate determination of these fields (and their effects). It was determined that a shielded Volland-Stern field description driven by the 3-hour Kp index yields accurate results much of the time, but can be quite inconsistent. The modified Mcllwain field description clearly lagged in overall accuracy compared to the other fields, but matched some data sets (like Dst*) quite well. The rankings between the simulations varied depending on the storm and the individual data sets, indicating that

  6. NMR investigation of the interaction of the inhibitor protein Im9 with its partner DNase.

    PubMed

    Boetzel, R; Czisch, M; Kaptein, R; Hemmings, A M; James, R; Kleanthous, C; Moore, G R

    2000-09-01

    The bacterial toxin colicin E9 is secreted by producing Escherichia coli cells with its 9.5 kDa inhibitor protein Im9 bound tightly to its 14.5 kDa C-terminal DNase domain. Double- and triple-resonance NMR spectra of the 24 kDa complex of uniformly 13C and 15N labeled Im9 bound to the unlabeled DNase domain have provided sufficient constraints for the solution structure of the bound Im9 to be determined. For the final ensemble of 20 structures, pairwise RMSDs for residues 3-84 were 0.76 +/- 0.14 A for the backbone atoms and 1.36 +/- 0.15 A for the heavy atoms. Representative solution structures of the free and bound Im9 are highly similar, with backbone and heavy atom RMSDs of 1.63 and 2.44 A, respectively, for residues 4-83, suggesting that binding does not cause a major conformational change in Im9. The NMR studies have also allowed the DNase contact surface on Im9 to be investigated through changes in backbone chemical shifts and NOEs between the two proteins determined from comparisons of 1H-1H-13C NOESY-HSQC spectra with and without 13C decoupling. The NMR-defined interface agrees well with that determined in a recent X-ray structure analysis with the major difference being that a surface loop of Im9, which is at the interface, has a different conformation in the solution and crystal structures. Tyr54, a key residue on the interface, is shown to exhibit NMR characteristics indicative of slow rotational flipping. A mechanistic description of the influence binding of Im9 has on the dynamic behavior of E9 DNase, which is known to exist in two slowly interchanging conformers in solution, is proposed. PMID:11045617

  7. NMR investigation of the interaction of the inhibitor protein Im9 with its partner DNase.

    PubMed Central

    Boetzel, R.; Czisch, M.; Kaptein, R.; Hemmings, A. M.; James, R.; Kleanthous, C.; Moore, G. R.

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial toxin colicin E9 is secreted by producing Escherichia coli cells with its 9.5 kDa inhibitor protein Im9 bound tightly to its 14.5 kDa C-terminal DNase domain. Double- and triple-resonance NMR spectra of the 24 kDa complex of uniformly 13C and 15N labeled Im9 bound to the unlabeled DNase domain have provided sufficient constraints for the solution structure of the bound Im9 to be determined. For the final ensemble of 20 structures, pairwise RMSDs for residues 3-84 were 0.76 +/- 0.14 A for the backbone atoms and 1.36 +/- 0.15 A for the heavy atoms. Representative solution structures of the free and bound Im9 are highly similar, with backbone and heavy atom RMSDs of 1.63 and 2.44 A, respectively, for residues 4-83, suggesting that binding does not cause a major conformational change in Im9. The NMR studies have also allowed the DNase contact surface on Im9 to be investigated through changes in backbone chemical shifts and NOEs between the two proteins determined from comparisons of 1H-1H-13C NOESY-HSQC spectra with and without 13C decoupling. The NMR-defined interface agrees well with that determined in a recent X-ray structure analysis with the major difference being that a surface loop of Im9, which is at the interface, has a different conformation in the solution and crystal structures. Tyr54, a key residue on the interface, is shown to exhibit NMR characteristics indicative of slow rotational flipping. A mechanistic description of the influence binding of Im9 has on the dynamic behavior of E9 DNase, which is known to exist in two slowly interchanging conformers in solution, is proposed. PMID:11045617

  8. IM-133N modulates cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, R Sandeep; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kumar, L M Sharath; Babu, U Venkanna; Patki, S Pralhad

    2016-01-01

    An indigenous herbal extract IM-133N containing extracts of Prosopis glandulosa Torr and Symplocos racemosa Roxb were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory effects using RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The incubation of the cells for 24 h with IM-133N over a dose range 0-125 µg/ml did not cause cytotoxicity that exceeded 10%. The results indicated that non-cytotoxic doses of IM-133N effectively up-regulated iNOS, TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and IFNγ gene expression in both the RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The results also indicated IM-133N elicited dose-related increases in nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells. These results demonstrated that IM-133N could stimulate NO and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by monocytes/macrophages. As clinical studies have shown IM-133N to be an effective immunomodulator without any adverse effects, the results of the present study provide further support for the potential use of this agent as an immunostimulant or as an immunotherapy adjuvant. PMID:25975427

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Human Blood by High Resolution Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IM-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Prabha; Schultz, Albert J.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization source (ESI-IM-MS) was evaluated as an analytical method for rapid analysis of complex biological samples such as human blood metabolome was investigated. The hybrid instrument (IM-MS) provided an average ion mobility resolving power of ~90 and a mass resolution of ~1500 (at m/z 100). A few µL of whole blood was extracted with methanol, centrifuged and infused into the IM-MS via an electrospray ionization source. Upon IM-MS profiling of the human blood metabolome approximately 1,100 metabolite ions were detected and 300 isomeric metabolites separated in short analyses time (30 minutes). Estimated concentration of the metabolites ranged from the low micromolar to the low nanomolar level. Various classes of metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, purines and pyrimidines etc) were found to form characteristic mobility-mass correlation curves (MMCC) that aided in metabolite identification. Peaks corresponding to various sterol derivatives, estrogen derivatives, phosphocholines, prostaglandins, and cholesterol derivatives detected in the blood extract were found to occupy characteristic two dimensional IM-MS space. Low abundance metabolite peaks that can be lost in MS random noise were resolved from noise peaks by differentiation in mobility space. In addition, the peak capacity of MS increased six fold by coupling IMS prior to MS analysis. PMID:21113320

  10. Determination of volatile compounds by GC-IMS to assign the quality of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, María del Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-11-15

    The characterisation of different olive oil categories (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was improved by replacing the multicapillary column (MCC) with a capillary column (CC). The data obtained with MCC-IMS and CC-IMS were evaluated, studying both the global and the specific information obtained after the analysis of the volatile fraction of olive oils. A better differentiation of the oil categories was obtained employing CC vs MCC, since the classification percentage obtained with the CC-IMS was 92% as opposed to 87% obtained with MCC-IMS; although in productivity analytical terms, MCC offer a faster analysis than GC. The specific information obtained was also used to build a database, with a view to facilitating the characterization of specific attributes of olive oils. A total of 26 volatile metabolites (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and esters) were identified. Finally, as revealed by an ANOVA test, some volatiles differed markedly in content among the different categories of oil. The data obtained confirms the potential of IMS as a reliable analytical screening technique, which can be used to assign the correct category to an olive oil sample. PMID:25977065

  11. Improved Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Bovine Lymph Node Tissue Using Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS)-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Linda D.; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Gordon, Alan; Grant, Irene R.

    2013-01-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR) or culture (IMS-MGIT). This study describes application of these novel IMS-based methods to test for M. bovis in a survey of 280 bovine lymph nodes (206 visibly lesioned (VL), 74 non-visibly lesioned (NVL)) collected at slaughter as part of the Northern Ireland bovine TB eradication programme. Their performance was evaluated relative to culture. Overall, 174 (62.1%) lymph node samples tested positive by culture, 162 (57.8%) by IMS-PCR (targeting IS6110), and 191 (68.2%) by IMS-MGIT culture. Twelve (6.9%) of the 174 culture positive lymph node samples were not detected by either of the IMS-based methods. However, an additional 79 M. bovis positive lymph node samples (27 (13.1%) VL and 52 (70.3%) NVL) were detected by the IMS-based methods and not by culture. When low numbers of viable M. bovis are present in lymph nodes (e.g. in NVLs of skin test reactor cattle) decontamination prior to culture may adversely affect viability, leading to false negative culture results. In contrast, IMS specifically captures whole M. bovis cells (live, dead or potentially dormant) which are not subject to any deleterious treatment before detection by PCR or MGIT culture. During this study only 2.7% of NVL lymph nodes tested culture positive, whereas 70.3% of the same samples tested M. bovis positive by the IMS-based tests. Results clearly demonstrate that not only are the IMS-based methods more rapid but they have greater detection sensitivity than the culture approach currently used for the detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. Adoption of the IMS-based methods for lymph node testing would have the potential to improve M. bovis detection in clinical samples. PMID:23469275

  12. Data collection in IMS: It's not as easy as it looks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis M.; Maswadeh, Waleed; Shoff, Donald B.; Harden, Charles S.; Snyder, A. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data collection in Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is not as easy an endeavor as it appears. Despite the advent of high speed personal computers and fast analog-to-digital converters (ADC's), care must be taken to ensure that reliable data are obtained in a timely fashion. This is especially true in hyphenated techniques, e.g. GC-IMS, where the amount of data increases dramatically when gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) data is being collected. Using the Graseby GC-IMS, with a gate repetition rate of 33 Hz, it is theoretically possible to collect 33 spectra per second. This collection rate is not realistically obtained due to a number of factors. Among these factors are inaccuracy of the timing signal from the IMS, the necessity to store the data, disk input/output limitations, disk operating system limitations, and program overhead. Taking these factors into account, we have achieved a data collection rate of 20 spectra per second. This paper will describe these problems, demonstrate the practical effects these problems present, and present methods for minimizing these effects.

  13. Applied Doppler Imaging: Can Magnetic Activity of IM Pegasi Affect the Gravity Probe B Mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Marsden, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    IM Peg is a single-lined, spectroscopic RS CVn binary, with a rapidly rotating (v sin i=27 km/s), early K-type, giant primary. Magnetic activity of the primary is indicated by dark spots covering > 15% of the surface. The system is bright in both optical and radio, and was chosen as a guide star for the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite mission. The goal of GP-B is to verify two predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity (geodetic effect and ``frame dragging''), based on measurements of mean gyroscopic drift with respect to the optical centroid of IM Peg. The requested precision of 0.5×10-3 arcsec/yr implies that even small shifts of the optical centroid of IM Peg due to surface magnetic activity must be determined. In support of the GP-B mission, we are undertaking an intensive Doppler imaging survey of the primary component of IM Peg, to determine the effect of spot features on its optical centroid. We present an overview of our work for GP-B, and report initial results from this support project, including the first magnetic maps of the IM~Peg primary, created using Least-Squares Deconvolution and Zeeman Doppler Imaging.

  14. imCast: Studio-Quality Digital Media Platform Exploiting Broadband IP Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jinyong; Kim, Jongwon

    The recent growth in available network bandwidth envisions the wide-spread use of broadband applications such as uncompressed HD-SDI (High-definition serial digital interface) over IP. These cutting-edge applications are also driving the development of a media-oriented infrastructure for networked collaboration. This paper introduces imCast, a high-quality digital media platform dealing with uncompressed HD-SDI over IP, and discusses its internal architecture in depth. imCast mainly provides cost-effective hardware-based approaches for high-quality media acquisition and presentation; flexible software-based approaches for presentation; and allows for economical network transmission. Experimental results (taken over best-effort IP networks) will demonstrate the functional feasibility and performance of imCast.

  15. Multiwavelength Observations of Two Moderate Rotation RS CVn Systems: V815 Herculis and IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Neff, James E.; O'Neal, Douglas; Olah, Katalin

    1996-03-01

    Near-to-simultaneous ultraviolet and visual spectroscopy of two moderate v sin i RS CVn systems, V815 Herculis (v sin i=27 km s-1) and IM Pegasi (v sin i=24 km s-1), are presented along with contemporaneous UBV(RI)c photometry. These data were used to probe inhomogeneities in the chromospheres and photospheres, and the possible relationship between them. Variability is observed at all wavelengths, some indicators showing rotationally modulated fluctuations. We use UBVRI photometry and TiO spectra to estimate temperatures, area, and locations of photospheric spots on IM Peg. Evidence is presented that the spot temperature in IM Peg has changed over a possible solar-like spot cycle. Radial velocities of V815 Her indicates that the system is actually triple.

  16. An IMS Station life cycle from a sustainment point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brely, Natalie; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Foster, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is to consist of 321 monitoring facilities, composed of four different technologies with a variety of designs and equipment types, deployed in a range of environments around the globe. The International Monitoring System is conceived to operate in perpetuity through maintenance, replacement and recapitalization of IMS facilities' infrastructure and equipment when the end of service life is reached [CTBT/PTS/INF.1163]. Life Cycle techniques and modellization are being used by the PTS to plan and forecast life cycle sustainment requirements of IMS facilities. Through historical data analysis, Engineering inputs and Feedback from experienced Station Operators, the PTS currently works towards increasing the level of confidence on these forecasts and sustainment requirements planning. Continued validation, feedback and improvement of source data from scientific community and experienced users is sought and essential in order to ensure limited effect on data availability and optimal costs (human and financial).

  17. Down-conversion IM-DD RF photonic link utilizing MQW MZ modulator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longtao; Jin, Shilei; Li, Yifei

    2016-04-18

    We present the first down-conversion intensity modulated-direct detection (IM-DD) RF photonic link that achieves frequency down-conversion using the nonlinear optical phase modulation inside a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator. The nonlinear phase modulation is very sensitive and it can enable high RF-to-IF conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the link linearity is enhanced by canceling the nonlinear distortions from the nonlinear phase modulation and the MZ interferometer. Proof-of-concept measurement was performed. The down-conversion IM-DD link demonstrated 28dB improvement in distortion levels over that of a conventional IM-DD link using a LiNbO3 MZ modulator. PMID:27137278

  18. Sequence and properties of pIM13, a macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance plasmid from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Monod, M; Denoya, C; Dubnau, D

    1986-01-01

    We initiated a study of pIM13, a multicopy, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) plasmid first isolated from a strain of Bacillus subtilis and described by Mahler and Halvorson (J. Gen. Microbiol. 120:259-263, 1980). The copy number of this plasmid was about 200 in B. subtilis and 30 in Staphylococcus aureus. The MLS resistance determinant of pIM13 was shown to be highly homologous to ermC, an inducible element on the S. aureus plasmid pE194. The product of the pIM13 determinant was similar in size to that of ermC and immunologically cross-reactive with it. The MLS resistance of pIM13 was expressed constitutively. The complete base sequence of pIM13 is presented. The plasmid consisted of 2,246 base pairs and contained two open reading frames that specified products identified in minicell extracts. One was a protein of 16,000 molecular weight, possibly required for replication. The second was the 29,000-molecular-weight MLS resistance methylase. The regulatory region responsible for ermC inducibility was missing from pIM13, explaining its constitutivity. The remainder of the pIM13 MLS determinant was nearly identical to ermC. The ends of the region of homology between pIM13 and pE194 were associated with hyphenated dyad symmetries. A segment partially homologous to one of these termini on pIM13 and also associated with a dyad was found in pUB110 near the end of a region of homology between that plasmid and pBC16. The entire sequence of pIM13 was highly homologous to that of pE5, an inducible MLS resistance plasmid from S. aureus that differs from pIM13 in copy control. Images PMID:3087948

  19. An LC-IMS-MS Platform Providing Increased Dynamic Range for High-Throughput Proteomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Livesay, Eric A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Danielson, William F.; Prior, David C.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; LaMarche, Brian L.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2010-01-01

    A high-throughput approach and platform using 15 minute reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (RPLC) separations in conjunction with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) measurements was evaluated for the rapid analysis of complex proteomics samples. To test the separation quality of the short LC gradient, a sample was prepared by spiking twenty reference peptides at varying concentrations from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL into a tryptic digest of mouse blood plasma and analyzed with both a LC-Linear Ion Trap Fourier Transform (FT) MS and LC-IMS-TOF MS. The LC-FT MS detected thirteen out of the twenty spiked peptides that had concentrations ≥100 ng/mL. In contrast, the drift time selected mass spectra from the LC-IMS-TOF MS analyses yielded identifications for nineteen of the twenty peptides with all spiking levels present. The greater dynamic range of the LC-IMS-TOF MS system could be attributed to two factors. First, the LC-IMS-TOF MS system enabled drift time separation of the low concentration spiked peptides from the high concentration mouse peptide matrix components, reducing signal interference and background, and allowing species to be resolved that would otherwise be obscured by other components. Second, the automatic gain control (AGC) in the linear ion trap of the hybrid FT MS instrument limits the number of ions that are accumulated to reduce space charge effects and achieve high measurement accuracy, but in turn limits the achievable dynamic range compared to the IMS-TOF instrument. PMID:20000344

  20. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-21

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles. PMID:26750519

  1. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  2. Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density is developed for hyperspectral microscopy, measuring a datacube of dimensions 285 × 285 × 60 (x, y, λ). The spatial resolution is ~0.45 µm with a FOV of 100 × 100 µm2. The measured spectrum is from 450 nm to 650 nm and is sampled by 60 spectral channels with average sampling interval ~3.3 nm. The channel’s spectral resolution is ~8nm. The spectral imaging results demonstrate the potential of the IMS for real-time cellular fluorescence imaging. PMID:20639917

  3. Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in forensic chemistry and toxicology with focus on biological matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Werner; Keller, Thomas; Regenscheit, Priska

    1995-01-01

    The IMS (Ion Mobility Spectroscopy) instrument 'Ionscan' takes advantage of the fact that trace quantities of illicit drugs are adsorbed on dust particles on clothes, in cars and on other items of evidence. The dust particles are collected on a membrane filter by a special attachment on a vacuum cleaner. The sample is then directly inserted into the spectrometer and can be analyzed immediately. We show casework applications of a forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratory. One new application of IMS in forensic chemistry is the detection of psilocybin in dried mushrooms without any further sample preparation.

  4. Power-efficient method for IM-DD optical transmission of multiple OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Frank; Liu, Xiang

    2015-05-18

    We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM signals under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical transmission and OFDM signaling are important. PMID:26074605

  5. A C-14 labeled Py-Im polyamide localizes to a subcutaneous prostate cancer tumor

    PubMed Central

    Raskatov, Jevgenij A.; Puckett, James W.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to quantitate Py-Im polyamide concentrations in vivo, we synthesized the C-14 radioactively labeled compounds 1-3, and investigated their tumor localization in a subcutaneous xenograft model of prostate cancer (LNCaP). Tumor concentrations were compared with representative host tissues, and exhibited a certain degree of preferential localization to the xenograft. Compound accumulation upon repeated administration was measured. Py-Im polyamide 1 was found to accumulate in LNCaP tumors at concentrations similar to the IC50 value for this compound in cell culture experiments. PMID:24780272

  6. NMR characterization of a heterocomplex formed by distamycin and its analog 2-ImD with d(CGCAAGTTGGC):d(GCCAACTTGCG). Preference for the 1:1:1 2-ImD:Dst:DNA complex over the 2:1 2-ImD:DNA and the 2:1 Dst:DNA complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Geierstanger, B.H.; Dwyer, T.J.; Wemmer, D.E. ); Bathini, Y.; Lown, J.W. )

    1993-06-02

    The minor-groove binder distamycin (Dst), its pyrrole-imidazole-pyrrole analog, 2-imidazole-distamycin (2-ImD), and the oligonucleotide d(CGCAAGTTGGC):d(GCCAACTTGCG) were found to form a 1:1:1 2-ImD-Dst:DNA complex. As characterized by 2D NOE spectroscopy combined with molecular modeling, one 2-ImD and one Dst molecule bind simultaneously in a head-to-tail orientation contacting the minor groove of the central AAGTT:AACTT site. The 2-ImD ligand lies along the AAGTT strand with the imidazole nitrogen of the ligand specifically interacting with the guanine amino group. The distamycin ligand lies along the AACTT strand. The molecular structure of the 1:1:1 2-ImD:Dst:DNA complex is very similar to those of the complexes formed between two 2-ImD molecules (2:1 2-ImD:DNA complex) or two distamycin molecules (2:1 Dst:DNA complex) and the same oligonucleotide duplex. Competition titrations confirm that the 1:1:1 2-ImD:Dst:DNA complex forms preferentially over the 2:1 2-ImD:DNA complex, as well as over the newly discovered 2:1 Dst:DNA complex. These results indicate that (i) the hydrogen-bond-accepting imidazole nitrogen of the 2-ImD ligand in the 1:1:1 2-ImD:Dst:DNA complex is responsible for the strand-specific recognition of a GC base pair, (ii) the availability of a single hydrogen bond acceptor on the ligand molecule per guanine amino group enhanced both specificity and affinity of DNA binding, and (iii) different distamycin-like ligands can be combined in the 2:1 binding motif to expand the range of DNA sequences that can be specifically recognized through the minor groove. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Alcohol Use and Problem Drinking among Male Mexican and Central American Im/migrant Laborers: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worby, Paula A.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses a growing concern regarding alcohol use in adult male Latino im/migrant laborers in the United States. The review draws from alcohol studies focusing on "Hispanic" populations, and from health behavior studies of Latino im/migrant laborers, research that includes alcohol use. Specifically, this review addresses (a) alcohol…

  8. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  10. Forms Development for the 1971-72 Tryout of IMS Version 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Pamela; Gibbs, Gordon L.

    For the 1971-72 tryout of IMS Version 3, special-purpose, optically scannable materials were developed and designed. Purpose, design considerations, and developmental stages are described for each form. Adapted formats for use with the Xerox 660 Scanner/Copier are explained. The forms are appended. (SK)

  11. A Suggested Approach for a Cost Analysis of Alternative IMS Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besel, Ronald

    An approach to a cost analysis of pilot, prototype, model and operational versions of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS) is described. Five classes of systems (conceptual, pilot, prototype, model and operational) are defined, and a system development process relating classes of systems in presented.…

  12. School Evaluation Using the CASE-IMS Model and Improvement Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James

    1994-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments Information Management System (CASE-IMS) is described as a model and as a school improvement process that can provide schools with a framework and research-based tools for achieving a vision. Development of the model, its 34 variables, and the computerized information management system are…

  13. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two measures…

  14. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced I/M performance standard. 51.351 Section 51.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.351 Enhanced...

  15. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced I/M performance standard. 51.351 Section 51.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.351 Enhanced...

  16. The Aries Program with emphasis on the International Magnetospherics Studies /IMS/-Porcupine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecker, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper will discuss the present state of the development of the Aries Sounding Rocket System with particular emphasis on the configuration and subsystems required to support the IMS Program. A brief history of the development program will be presented. The results of the first five flights, three successes and two failures, will be presented and the observed performance compared to theoretical performance.

  17. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... both in operation and for SIP approval. (1) Network type. Centralized testing. (2) Start date. For areas with existing I/M programs, 1983. For areas newly subject, 1994. (3) Test frequency. Annual... specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart W. (8) Emission control device inspections. None. (9) Stringency. A...

  18. The Role of Ki 'Im in Orchestrating Contrastive Focus in Biblical Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Grace Jeongyeon

    2011-01-01

    The so-called compound use of ki 'im has been interpreted mainly either with exceptive ("except" or "unless") or adversative meaning ("but" or "rather"), although it has sometimes also been interpreted in other ways such as "only" or "surely". These various meanings have been applied…

  19. Combining IM and Vendor-Based Chat: A Report from the Frontlines of an Integrated Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David; Kern, M. Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Driven by studies showing that Millennials (ages 18-24) have adopted IM (instant messaging) as a standard communications medium, many libraries are reaching out to their own patrons in this way. At the same time, some of these libraries have invested thousands of dollars in vendor-based chat reference solutions that provide duplicate…

  20. imDEV: a graphical user interface to R multivariate analysis tools in Microsoft Excel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interactive modules for data exploration and visualization (imDEV) is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet embedded application providing an integrated environment for the analysis of omics data sets with a user-friendly interface. Individual modules were designed to provide toolsets to enable interactive ...

  1. I'm a Scientist, Get Me out of Here! (Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The May event of I'm a Scientist, Get Me Out of Here! harnessed fifteen scientists in three general zones, engaging almost 800 students from twenty two schools across the country, generating 624 answered questions, 406 comments and fifty three live-chat sessions. (Contains 4 photos.)

  2. Engineering and development projects for the sustainment and enhancement of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Martysevich, P.; Kramer, A.; Haralabus, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in infrasound source localization and characterization. This capability is based on the processing of data recorded by the infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This infrasound network consists of sixty stations, among which forty-five are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. It is the responsibility of the Engineering and Development Section of the IMS Division to ensure the highest quality for IMS infrasound data. This includes the design of robust and reliable infrasound stations, the use of accurate and calibrated infrasound measuring chains, the installation of efficient wind noise reduction systems and the implementation of quality-control tools. The purpose of this paper is to present ongoing PTS infrasound engineering and development projects related to the testing and validation of wind noise reduction system models, the implementation of infrasound data QC tools, the definition of guidelines for the design of IMS power supply systems and the development of a portable infrasound calibrator and of field kits for site survey and certification.

  3. A novel delta-endotoxin gene cryIM from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. wuhanensis.

    PubMed

    Shevelev, A B; Kogan YaN; Bushueva, A M; Voronina, E J; Rebrikov, D V; Novikova, S I; Chestukhina, G G; Kuvshinov, V; Pehu, E; Stepanov, V M

    1997-03-10

    A new cryI-related sequence designated cryIM was cloned using an immunoscreening technique from ssp. wuhanensis of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), previously reported to produce multiple Cry proteins [Chestukhina et al. (1994) Can. J. Microbiol. 240, 1026-1034]. Analysis of the cryIM nucleotide sequence revealed an ORF, BTII-type promoter-like sequence, peculiar for such genes, a translation initiation element and a putative transcription terminator. Nevertheless, its product was not previously found in the crystals of the host strain [Chestukhina et al. (1994) Can. J. Microbiol. 240, 1026-1034] which shows its weak or absent natural expression. The amino acid sequence of 1151 residues encoded by the continuous reading frame of cryIM is not identical but is essentially similar to the other delta-endotoxins of the CryI class. An IS231-like sequence was found 400 bp downstream of the cryIM stop codon and a fragment of the cryIAb gene was located 3 kb upstream of its initiator codon in the same orientation. Artificial expression of the cloned gene in E. coli under the control of the lacZ promoter allowed us to obtain its hypothetical protein product. PMID:9119053

  4. I'm Sorry "About That": Apologies, Indexicals, and (Unnamed) Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margutti, Piera; Traverso, Véronique; Pugliese, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an apology format, "I'm sorry about it/that," where indexical terms (pronouns) refer to the offense rather than naming it. We identified two subsets in our collection of indexical apologies. In one, indexicals are subsequent either to the offense formulation or to an apology-relevant event; in the second, indexicals are…

  5. Out-Life Characteristics of IM7/977-3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Sutter, James K.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Martin, Richard E.; Maryanski, Michael; Schlea, Michelle; Gardner, John M.; Schiferl, Zack R.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to manufacture large structures leads to weight savings and reduced risk relative to joining smaller components. However, manufacture of increasingly large composite components is pushing the out-time limits of epoxy/ carbon fiber prepreg. IM7/977-3 is an autoclave processable prepreg material, commonly used in aerospace structures. The out-time limit is reported as 30 days by the manufacturer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the material processability and composite properties of 977-3 resin and IM7/977-3 prepreg that had been aged at room temperature for up to 60 days. The effects of room temperature aging on the thermal and visco-elastic properties of the materials were investigated. Neat resin was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry to characterize thermal properties and change in activation energy of cure. Neat resin was also evaluated by rheometry to characterize its processability in composite fabrication. IM7/977-3 prepreg was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis to characterize the curing behavior. Prepreg tack was also evaluated over 60 days. The overall test results suggested that IM7/977-3 was a robust material that offered quality laminates throughout this aging process when processed by autoclave.

  6. W8...b4 IM, how did u rite??! Digital Writing in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    From word processing computers, to mobile telephones, to the advent of the Internet, and finally to online communication venues like Instant Messenger (IM), the past four decades have brought an increasing prevalence of technology into our culture that is altering the English language. While decried by parents and lamented by teachers, these…

  7. "I'm Sorry + Naming the Offense": A Format for Apologizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Letizia; Colón de Carvajal, Isabel; Ticca, Anna Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The present article focuses on "I'm sorry + naming the offense"-formatted apologies occurring in phone calls in English. Apologies of this kind "emerge" and are oriented to as relevant actions when addressing an apologizable that is not the main business in ongoing talk. The sequential analysis of apologies and responses to…

  8. The (Im)possibility of Poststructuralist Ethnography--Researching Identities in Borrowed Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The notion of site is critical to ethnography and provides a sense of spatial stability--somewhere the researcher enters in order to research what is contained within. Using contemporary understandings of space, the author reflects on two studies to explore the (im)possibility of poststructuralist ethnography. The first study was undertaken in a…

  9. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart W. (8) Emission control device inspections. None. (9) Stringency. A 20... vehicles. (7) Emission standards. Those specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart W. (8) Emission control device... date. Basic I/M program areas subject to the provisions of this paragraph (e) shall be shown to...

  10. "Chemie im Kontext": A Symbiotic Implementation of a Context-Based Teaching and Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Baer, Anja; Nentwig, Peter; Demuth, Reinhard; Ralle, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    "Chemie im Kontext" (ChiK) is a project that aims at the improvement of chemistry teaching at secondary school in Germany. Based on a framework that was derived from theories and empirical data on the teaching and learning of science, science education researchers and teachers work together on learning communities to transform this framework into…

  11. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart W. (8) Emission control device inspections. None. (9) Stringency. A 20... vehicles. (7) Emission standards. Those specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart W. (8) Emission control device... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic I/M performance standard....

  12. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  13. Knowledge Base for Automatic Generation of Online IMS LD Compliant Course Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina Giacomini; Trigano, Philippe; Alupoaie, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Our article presents a pedagogical scenarios-based web application that allows the automatic generation and development of pedagogical websites. These pedagogical scenarios are represented in the IMS Learning Design standard. Our application is a web portal helping teachers to dynamically generate web course structures, to edit pedagogical content…

  14. InstanceCollage: A Tool for the Particularization of Collaborative IMS-LD Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villasclaras-Fernandez, Eloy D.; Hernandez-Gonzalo, Julio A.; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    Current research work in e-learning and more specifically in the field of CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) deals with design of collaborative activities, according to computer-interpretable specifications, such as IMS Learning Design, and their posterior enactment using LMSs (Learning Management Systems). A script that describes…

  15. The (Im)Materiality of Literacy: The Significance of Subjectivity to New Literacies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Cathy; Merchant, Guy; Pahl, Kate; Rowsell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article deconstructs the online and offline experience to show its complexities and idiosyncratic nature. It proposes a theoretical framework designed to conceptualise aspects of meaning-making across on- and offline contexts. In arguing for the "(im)materiality" of literacy, it makes four propositions which highlight the complex…

  16. Using the Personal Competence Manager as a Complementary Approach to IMS Learning Design Authoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Martens, Harrie; van Bruggen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In this article TENCompetence will be presented as a framework for lifelong competence development. More specifically, the relationship between the TENCompetence framework and the IMS Learning Design (LD) specification is explored. LD authoring has proven to be challenging and the toolset currently available is targeting expert users mostly…

  17. Generic Service Integration in Adaptive Learning Experiences Using IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Fuente-Valentin, Luis; Pardo, Abelardo; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    IMS Learning Design is a specification to capture the orchestration taking place in a learning scenario. This paper presents an extension called Generic Service Integration. This paradigm allows a bidirectional communication between the course engine in charge of the orchestration and conventional Web 2.0 tools. This communication allows the…

  18. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  19. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. V. PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE GUIDE STAR, IM PEGASI

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, M. I.; Lebach, D. E.; Shapiro, I. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Ransom, R. R.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    We present the principal astrometric results of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program undertaken in support of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. VLBI observations of the GP-B guide star, the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi (HR 8703), yielded positions at 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005. We discuss the statistical assumptions behind these results and our methods for estimating the systematic errors. We find the proper motion of IM Peg in an extragalactic reference frame closely related to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2) to be -20.83 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.09 mas yr{sup -1} in right ascension and -27.27 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.09 mas yr{sup -1} in declination. For each component, the first uncertainty is the statistical standard error and the second is the total standard error (SE) including plausible systematic errors. We also obtain a parallax of 10.37 {+-} 0.07 mas (distance: 96.4 {+-} 0.7 pc), for which there is no evidence of any significant contribution of systematic error. Our parameter estimates for the {approx}25 day period orbital motion of the stellar radio emission have SEs corresponding to {approx}0.10 mas on the sky in each coordinate. The total SE of our estimate of IM Peg's proper motion is {approx}30% smaller than the accuracy goal set by the GP-B project before launch: 0.14 mas yr{sup -1} for each coordinate of IM Peg's proper motion. Our results ensure that the uncertainty in IM Peg's proper motion makes only a very small contribution to the uncertainty of the GP-B relativity tests.

  20. An LC-IMS-MS Platform Providing Increased Dynamic Range for High-Throughput Proteomic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Livesay, Eric A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Danielson, William F.; Prior, David C.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2010-02-05

    A high-throughput approach and platform using 15 minute reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (RPLC) separations in conjunction with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) measurements was evaluated for the rapid analysis of complex proteomics samples. To test the separation quality of the short LC gradient, a sample was prepared by spiking twenty reference peptides at varying concentrations from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL into a tryptic digest of mouse blood plasma and analyzed with both a LC-Linear Ion Trap Fourier Transform (FT) MS and LC-IMS-TOF MS. The LC-FT MS detected thirteen out of the twenty spiked peptides that had concentrations ≥100 ng/mL. In contrast, the drift time selected mass spectra from the LC-IMS-TOF MS analyses yielded identifications for nineteen of the twenty peptides with all spiking level present. The greater dynamic range of the LC-IMS-TOF MS system could be attributed to two factors. First, the LC-IMS-TOF MS system enabled drift time separation of the low concentration spiked peptides from the high concentration mouse peptide matrix components, reducing signal interference and background, and allowing species to be resolved that would otherwise be obscured by other components. Second, the automatic gain control (AGC) in the linear ion trap of the hybrid FT MS instrument limits the number of ions that are accumulated to reduce space charge effects, but in turn limits the achievable dynamic range compared to the TOF detector.

  1. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  2. Electrocardiogram-gated coronary CT angiography dose estimates using ImPACT.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Haba, Tomonobu; Kawaguchi, Ai; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi

    2016-01-01

    The primary study objective was to assess radiation doses using a modified form of the Imaging Performance Assessment of Computed Tomography (CT) scanner (ImPACT) patient dosimetry for cardiac applications on an Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner, including the Ca score, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA, continuous CTA/cardiac function analysis (CFA), and CTA/CFA modulation. Accordingly, we clarified the CT dose index (CTDI) to determine the relationship between heart rate (HR) and X-ray exposure. As a secondary objective, we compared radiation doses using modified ImPACT, a whole-body dosimetry phantom study, and the k-factor method to verify the validity of the dose results obtained with modified ImPACT. The effective dose determined for the reference person (4.66 mSv at 60 beats per minute (bpm) and 33.43 mSv at 90bpm) were approximately 10% less than those determined for the phantom study (5.28 mSv and 36.68 mSv). The effective doses according to the k-factor (0.014 mSv•mGy-1•cm-1; 2.57 mSv and 17.10 mSv) were significantly lower than those obtained with the other two methods. In the present study, we have shown that ImPACT, when modified for cardiac applications, can assess both absorbed and effective doses. The results of our dose comparison indicate that modified ImPACT dose assessment is a promising and practical method for evaluating coronary CTA. PMID:27455500

  3. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder. Detecting Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography, Ion Mobility, and Mass Spectrometry Features in Complex Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Kevin L.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Lamarche, Brian L.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-09-05

    We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time, and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension.

  4. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Study design Retrospective cohort study Methods Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. Results There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury

  5. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P R.; Paschalidis, N.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keY, wide field-of-view (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for 10. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from 10 to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  6. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Paterson ,W.; Christian, E.; Mahaffy, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Lipatov, A.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter s magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keV, wide field-ofview (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter s magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for Io. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from Io to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  7. Contaminant screening of wastewater with HPLC-IM-qTOF-MS and LC+LC-IM-qTOF-MS using a CCS database.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Susanne; Hippler, Joerg; Köhler, Timo; Deeb, Ahmad A; Schmidt, Torsten C; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Non-target analysis has become an important tool in the field of water analysis since a broad variety of pollutants from different sources are released to the water cycle. For identification of compounds in such complex samples, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are often used. The introduction of ion mobility spectrometry provides an additional separation dimension and allows determining collision cross sections (CCS) of the analytes as a further physicochemical constant supporting the identification. A CCS database with more than 500 standard substances including drug-like compounds and pesticides was used for CCS data base search in this work. A non-target analysis of a wastewater sample was initially performed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an ion mobility-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (IM-qTOF-MS). A database search including exact mass (±5 ppm) and CCS (±1 %) delivered 22 different compounds. Furthermore, the same sample was analyzed with a two-dimensional LC method, called LC+LC, developed in our group for the coupling to IM-qTOF-MS. This four dimensional separation platform revealed 53 different compounds, identified over exact mass and CCS, in the examined wastewater sample. It is demonstrated that the CCS database can also help to distinguish between isobaric structures exemplified for cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Graphical Abstract Scheme of sample analysis and database screening. PMID:27497965

  8. Theoretical predictor for candidate structure assignment from IMS data of biomolecule-related conformational space

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Emily R.; Nau, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The ability to correlate experimental ion mobility data with candidate structures from theoretical modeling provides a powerful analytical and structural tool for the characterization of biomolecules. In the present paper, a theoretical workflow is described to generate and assign candidate structures for experimental trapped ion mobility and H/D exchange (HDX-TIMS-MS) data following molecular dynamics simulations and statistical filtering. The applicability of the theoretical predictor is illustrated for a peptide and protein example with multiple conformations and kinetic intermediates. The described methodology yields a low computational cost and a simple workflow by incorporating statistical filtering and molecular dynamics simulations. The workflow can be adapted to different IMS scenarios and CCS calculators for a more accurate description of the IMS experimental conditions. For the case of the HDX-TIMS-MS experiments, molecular dynamics in the “TIMS box” accounts for a better sampling of the molecular intermediates and local energy minima. PMID:27330407

  9. Evaluation of SDS depletion using an affinity spin column and IMS-MS detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hengel, Shawna M.; Floyd, Erica A.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Si; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-11-01

    While the use of detergents is necessary for a variety of protein isolation preparation protocols, often prior to mass spectral (MS) analysis, they are not compatible with MS analysis due to ion suppression and adduct formation. This manuscript describes optimization of detergent removal, using commercially available SDS depletion spin columns containing an affinity resin, providing for both increased protein recovery and thorough SDS removal. Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) allowed for a concurrent analysis of both analyte and detergent. In the case of both proteins and peptides, higher detergent concentrations than previously reported provided an increase of sample recovery; however there was a limit as SDS was detected by IMS-MS at higher levels of SDS indicating incomplete detergent depletion. The results also suggest optimal conditions for SDS removal are dependent on the sample concentration. Overall, this study provides a useful guide for proteomic studies where SDS is required for efficient sample preparation.

  10. EVALUATION OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE FOR USE WITH METHOD 1622: DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA Method 1623 is used to detect and quantify Cruptosporidum spp. oocysts in ater. The protocol consists of filtration, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), staining with a fluorescent antibody, and microscopic analysis. Microscopic analysis includes detection by fluorescent ...

  11. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. 5-7 These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conju...

  12. MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS)—Application of Spatial Proteomics for Ovarian Cancer Classification and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Johan O. R.; Oehler, Martin K.; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; McColl, Shaun R.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) allows acquisition of mass data for metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins directly from tissue sections. IMS is typically performed either as a multiple spot profiling experiment to generate tissue specific mass profiles, or a high resolution imaging experiment where relative spatial abundance for potentially hundreds of analytes across virtually any tissue section can be measured. Crucially, imaging can be achieved without prior knowledge of tissue composition and without the use of antibodies. In effect MALDI-IMS allows generation of molecular data which complement and expand upon the information provided by histology including immuno-histochemistry, making its application valuable to both cancer biomarker research and diagnostics. The current state of MALDI-IMS, key biological applications to ovarian cancer research and practical considerations for analysis of peptides and proteins on ovarian tissue are presented in this review. PMID:21340013

  13. A Sun in the Spectroscopic Binary IM Pegasi, the Guide Star for the Gravity Probe B Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, S. C.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Donati, J.-F.; Eaton, J. A.; Williamson, M. H.; Ilyin, I.; Fischer, D. A.; Muñoz, M.; Isaacson, H.; Ratner, M. I.; Semel, M.; Petit, P.; Carter, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    We present the first detection of the secondary of the spectroscopic binary system IM Pegasi (HR 8703), the guide star for the NASA-Stanford relativity gyroscope mission Gravity Probe B. In support of this mission, high-resolution echelle spectra of IM Peg have been obtained on an almost nightly basis. Applying the technique of least-squares deconvolution, we achieve very high signal-to-noise ratio line profiles and detect the orbit of the secondary of the system. Combining almost 700 new radial velocity measurements of both the primary and secondary of the system with previous measurements, we derive improved orbital parameters of the IM Peg system. Using these estimates along with the previously determined range of orbital inclination angles for the system, we find that the primary of IM Peg is a giant of mass 1.8+/-0.2 Msolar, while the secondary is a dwarf of mass 1.0+/-0.1 Msolar.

  14. Bewertung der Informationsqualität im Enterprise 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlheid, Sven; Graefe, Gernot; Krebs, Alexander; Schuster, Dirk

    Die Entwicklungen zum Web 2.0 haben das World Wide Web (WWW) grundlegend verändert. Nachdem die meisten Nutzer im WWW zunächst "nur" nach Informationen suchten stellen Nutzer inzwischen sehr ausgiebig Informationen über sich selbst oder ihnen vertraute Themen in Blogs und Communities bereit. Facebook und Wikipedia sind zwei prominente Webseiten. Ihre Attraktivität entstammt allein den Informationen, welche die Nutzer selber zur Verfügung stellen.

  15. Processing IMS data automatically: A case study of the Chelyabinsk bolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Whitaker, R. W.; Randall, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    We present automatic algorithms for detection, association, and location of infrasound events using the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network. Each algorithm is based on probabilistic considerations that formally account for uncertainties at both the station and network levels. Our method is applied to two days of data that include infrasound signals from the Chelyabinsk bolide. We summarize the automatic detections, global association and localization of the bolide and discuss steps we are taking to improve the methodology based on these results.

  16. The coherent field of infrasound - a global view with the IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceranna, Lars; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    In this study we are going to present preliminary results of global coherent infrasound measured at IMS infrasound stations and its correlation with atmospheric dynamics. A new implementation of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) algorithm has been used, which enables a better characterization of all received signals in their wave parameter space (e.g., frequency-azimuth space, frequency-trace-velocity space). This, in-turn, allows an accurate signal discrimination, as well as source and propagation studies. For instance, we are using the processing for microbarom source and propagation studies and for analysing the occurrence of mountain associated waves. We are currently performing re-processing of the entire previous IMS infrasound database covering the time period from January 2003 to December 2015; whereas the number of stations has increased from 6 to 48. Results so far indicate a continuous spectrum of coherent signals at IMS stations within the 0.02 to 5.0 Hz band. Moreover, these results could be used for estimating network detection capability based on empirical station coherent infrasound noise models.

  17. Evaluation of Preproduction Hardware Components for IMS Station Upgrades to Reduce Manufacturers Development Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Darren; Pearce, Nathan; Starovoit, Yuri; Guralp, Cansun

    2014-05-01

    Since the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was opened for signature in 1996, nearly 80% of the network has been certified as operational, and those stations are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. Several International Monitoring System (IMS) monitoring facilities have been in operation for close to 15 years, and several certified stations are facing equipment obsolescence issues. The search for engineering solutions to replace obsolete hardware components is guided by two primary goals: 1) be compliant with IMS minimum technical requirements and 2) be able to be integrated with the existing system. To reduce the development and verification time necessary to address obsolescence in equipment, the PTS has requested the preproduction testing of the recently revised Guralp CMG-DM24AM digitizer. Performing preproduction testing has helped in identifying issues, which Guralp Systems has resolved. In our poster, we will review the reasons for the digitizer updates, present results of the preproduction testing of the Guralp digitizer, and comment on the value this process has provided to the IMS operation.

  18. Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) for on- and offline analysis of atmospheric gas and aerosol species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechmer, Jordan E.; Groessl, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Junninen, Heikki; Massoli, Paola; Lambe, Andrew T.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Graf, Stephan; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Budisulistiorini, Sri H.; Zhang, Haofei; Surratt, Jason D.; Knochenmuss, Richard; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Canagaratna, Manjula R.

    2016-07-01

    Measurement techniques that provide molecular-level information are needed to elucidate the multiphase processes that produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) species in the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate the application of ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to the simultaneous characterization of the elemental composition and molecular structures of organic species in the gas and particulate phases. Molecular ions of gas-phase organic species are measured online with IMS-MS after ionization with a custom-built nitrate chemical ionization (CI) source. This CI-IMS-MS technique is used to obtain time-resolved measurements (5 min) of highly oxidized organic molecules during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) ambient field campaign in the forested SE US. The ambient IMS-MS signals are consistent with laboratory IMS-MS spectra obtained from single-component carboxylic acids and multicomponent mixtures of isoprene and monoterpene oxidation products. Mass-mobility correlations in the 2-D IMS-MS space provide a means of identifying ions with similar molecular structures within complex mass spectra and are used to separate and identify monoterpene oxidation products in the ambient data that are produced from different chemical pathways. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) constituents of fine aerosol particles that are not resolvable with standard analytical separation methods, such as liquid chromatography (LC), are shown to be separable with IMS-MS coupled to an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The capability to use ion mobility to differentiate between isomers is demonstrated for organosulfates derived from the reactive uptake of isomers of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) onto wet acidic sulfate aerosol. Controlled fragmentation of precursor ions by collisionally induced dissociation (CID) in the transfer region between the IMS and the MS is used to validate MS peak assignments, elucidate structures of oligomers, and confirm the

  19. Im10A, a short conopeptide isolated from Conus imperialis and possesses two highly concentrated disulfide bridges and analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuo; Du, Tianpeng; Liu, Zhuguo; Wu, Qiaoling; Feng, Guixue; Dong, Mingxin; Zhou, Xiaowei; Jiang, Ling; Dai, Qiuyun

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we isolated, synthesized and NMR structurally characterized a novel conopeptide Im10A consisting of 11 amino acids (NTICCEGCMCY-NH2) from Conus imperialis. Unlike other conopeptides with four cysteine residues, Im10A had only two residues in loop 1 and one residue in loop 2 (CC-loop1-C-loop2-C), which formed a stable disulfide connectivity "I-IV, II- III" (framework X) with a type I β-turn. Interestingly, Im10A exhibited 50.7% analgesic activity on rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PNL) at 2h after Im10A administration. However, 10μM Im10A exhibited no apparent effect on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and it did not target DRG voltage-dependent sodium, potassium and calcium ion channels and opioid receptor. To our knowledge, Im10A had the most concentrated disulfide bridges among conopeptides with four cysteine residues. This finding provided a new motif for the future development of biomimetic compounds. PMID:27131596

  20. Determination of acetamiprid and IM-1-2 in postmortem human blood, liver, stomach contents by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Yeter, Oya; Aydın, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    An HPLC-DAD method was developed to detect and quantify a neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (ATP) and its metabolite IM-1-2 in autopsy samples of a fatal intoxication case. The postmortem blood and tissue distribution of ATP and IM-1-2 was determined for the first time. The method showed acceptable precisions and recoveries with relative standard deviations of <10% for ATP level and 1.38 % for IM-1-2. The detection and quantification limits for ATP were 0.015 μg/mL and 0.030 μg/mL for blood and were 0.035 μg/g and 0.050 μg/g for liver samples, respectively. The mean contents of ATP were 0.79 μg/g in the liver, 47.35 μg/g in the stomach contents and 2.7 μg/mL in the blood. IM-1-2 content was 17.0 μg/g in the stomach contents. ATP and IM-1-2 were not detected in the urine. The presence of ATP and IM-1-2 in the samples was confirmed by GC-MS. The method can be exploited in future forensic casework. PMID:24329162

  1. A study of volcanic eruption characteristics using infrasound data recorded on the global IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowa, Amy; Green, David; Phillips, Jeremy; Rust, Alison

    2010-05-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions have the capability to generate sound waves with infrasonic frequencies (<20Hz). As such waves can propagate over distances of thousands of kilometres within the atmosphere, they present an opportunity to remotely monitor volcanic eruptions and potentially constrain eruptive characteristics. Though most volcanoes in sensitive areas of the world are monitored individually, many volcanoes in remote locations are not monitored directly but can still pose a threat, especially to aviation. The growing International Monitoring System (IMS) network of infrasound stations provides an opportunity to monitor these remote volcanoes. Currently comprising of 43 arrays, the network is designed to achieve global coverage for surface explosions equivalent to a few hundred tonnes of chemical explosive. In recent years work has been published on the detection of specific volcanic eruptions at IMS stations, primarily at regional ranges (< 1000 km from volcano to receiver). In contrast, work presented here looks to create a catalogue of volcanic eruptions that have been detected at IMS stations, with the aim of assessing the capability of the IMS network for use in global volcano monitoring. At this time 40 eruptive events at 19 volcanoes have been investigated from the period 2004 - 2009; however the work is on-going and it is planned to extend this catalogue. In total we document 61 individual detections that have been made on the IMS network. These range from Strombolian activity at Mount Erebus (Antarctica) recorded at a range of 25 km distance, to the Plinian eruption of Manam Volcano (Papua New Guinea) recorded at ranges of over 10,000 km distance. The observed signal frequencies for different eruptions range from less than 0.01 Hz to greater than 5 Hz, and in general, lower frequencies are generated by the larger eruptions. We provide examples of analyses for eruptions recorded at multiple stations (e.g., Manam, October 2004; Kasatochi, August 2008

  2. Developing integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system in studying biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ligang

    Using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) techniques (including TOF-SIMS and MALDI IMS) to study biological systems is a relatively new concept and quickly gained popularity in recent years. Imaging mass spectrometry is a discovery technology that utilizes a focused ion beam or laser beam to desorb ions from sample surface. By detecting the desorbed ions, the chemical distributions and biological changes of a sample surface can be analyzed. These techniques offer a new analytical imaging approach to investigate biological processes at the cellular and tissue level. In this research, a novel integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system as well as IMS based biological-sample-preparation techniques and data-reduction methods are developed. We then demonstrate the power of these techniques in studying different biological systems, including monosaccharides isomers, human breast cancer cell lines, mouse embryo tissues and mouse kidney sections. Using TOF-SIMS and statistical analysis methods, seven monosaccharide isomers are fully differentiated by analyzing their characteristic spectral pattern. In addition, a deep understanding of the fragmentation pathway of these isomers under ion bombardment is gained. In an application of TOF-SIMS to the differentiation of three human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231, we show that principal component analysis (PCA) data reduction of TOF-SIMS spectra can differentiate cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and particulate) within the cell types, as well as homogenates from among the three cell lines. In a tissue-specific application, we extend the analytical capabilities of TOF-SIMS and PCA by imaging and differentiating Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mouse embryo tissues. We demonstrate reproducible differentiation of six tissue types based on the remaining small molecules after paraffin-embedding and the fragments of the cellular proteins. In a unique study of fresh frozen mouse kidney tissues, both TOF

  3. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic

  4. E9-Im9 Colicin DNase−Immunity Protein Biomolecular Association in Water: A Multiple-Copy and Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Protein−protein transient and dynamic interactions underlie all biological processes. The molecular dynamics (MD) of the E9 colicin DNase protein, its Im9 inhibitor protein, and their E9-Im9 recognition complex are investigated by combining multiple-copy (MC) MD and accelerated MD (aMD) explicit-solvent simulation approaches, after validation with crystalline-phase and solution experiments. Im9 shows higher flexibility than its E9 counterpart. Im9 displays a significant reduction of backbone flexibility and a remarkable increase in motional correlation upon E9 association. Im9 loops 23−31 and 54−64 open with respect to the E9-Im9 X-ray structure and show high conformational diversity. Upon association a large fraction (∼20 nm2) of E9 and Im9 protein surfaces become inaccessible to water. Numerous salt bridges transiently occurring throughout our six 50 ns long MC-MD simulations are not present in the X-ray model. Among these Im9 Glu31−E9 Arg96 and Im9 Glu41−Lys89 involve interface interactions. Through the use of 10 ns of Im9 aMD simulation, we reconcile the largest thermodynamic impact measured for Asp51Ala mutation with Im9 structure and dynamics. Lys57 acts as an essential molecular switch to shift Im9 surface loop towards an ideal configuration for E9 inhibition. This is achieved by switching Asp60−Lys57 and Asp62−Lys57 hydrogen bonds to Asp51−Lys57 salt bridge. E9-Im9 recognition involves shifts of conformational distributions, reorganization of intramolecular hydrogen bond patterns, and formation of new inter- and intramolecular interactions. The description of key transient biological interactions can be significantly enriched by the dynamic and atomic-level information provided by computer simulations. PMID:19053689

  5. Alkaline earth imidazolate coordination polymers by solvent free melt synthesis as potential host lattices for rare earth photoluminescence: (x)(∞)[AE(Im)2(ImH)(2-3)], Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, x = 1-2.

    PubMed

    Zurawski, Alexander; Rybak, J-Christoph; Meyer, Larissa V; Matthes, Philipp R; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Dannenbauer, Nicole; Würthner, Frank; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2012-04-14

    The series of alkaline earth elements magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium yields single crystalline imidazolate coordination polymers by reactions of the metals with a melt of 1H-imidazole: (1)(∞)[Mg(Im)(2)(ImH)(3)] (1), (2)(∞)[AE(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)], AE = Ca (2), Sr (3), and (1)(∞)[Ba(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)] (4). No additional solvents were used for the reactions. Co-doping experiments by addition of the rare earth elements cerium, europium and terbium were carried out. They indicate (2)(∞)[Sr(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)] as a possible host lattice for cerium(III) photoluminescence showing a blue emission and thus a novel blue emitting hybrid material phosphor 3:Ce(3+). Co-doping with europium and terbium is also possible but resulted in formation of (3)(∞)[Sr(Im)(2)]:Ln, Ln = Eu and Tb (5), with both exhibiting green emission of either Eu(2+) or Tb(3+). The other alkaline earth elements do not show acceptance of the rare earth ions investigated and a different structural chemistry. For magnesium and barium one-dimensional strand structures are observed whereas calcium and strontium give two-dimensional network structures. Combined with an increase of the ionic radii of AE(2+) the coordinative demand is also increasing from Mg(2+) to Ba(2+), reflected by four different crystal structures for the four elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba in 1-4. Different linkages of the imidazolate ligands result in a change from complete σ-N coordination in 1 to additional η(5)-π coordination in 4. The success of co-doping with different lanthanide ions is based on a match in the chemical behaviour and cationic radii. The use of strontium for host lattices with imidazole is a rare example in coordination chemistry of co-doping with small amounts of luminescence centers and successfully reduces the amount of high price rare earth elements in hybrid materials while maintaining the properties. All compounds are examples of pure N-coordinated coordination polymers of the alkaline earth metals and were

  6. Bisthienylethene Th2im and its complex (Th2imH)2[ReCl6]: crystalline-phase photochromism, and photochemical regulation of luminescence and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dan-Ping; Chen, Jun-Feng; Zhao, Yue; Cao, Deng-Ke

    2016-02-16

    Molecular assembly of bisthienylethene Th2im () and [ReCl6](2-) anions leads to the complex (Th2imH)2[ReCl6] (), in which a [ReCl6](2-) anion connects two equivalent Th2imH(+) cations through ClN/C hydrogen bonds. Crystal structures of and indicate that two thiophene groups of each Th2im/Th2imH(+) molecule adopt a photoactive antiparallel conformation. Thus, two compounds show crystalline-phase photochromism (CPP), i.e. reversible structural transformation between the open form and the closed form upon alternately irradiating the sample with UV light (365 nm) and visible light (574 nm for , 624 nm for ). It was found that the CPP behaviors of and could regulate their luminescence and/or magnetic properties. Their solid-state emissions (433, 448, 482, 531 and 570 nm for , and 460, 489, 535 and 593 nm for ) exhibited weaker intensities after UV irradiation with 365 nm light. Besides CPP and luminescence, compound shows field-induced slow magnetic relaxation. Before and after UV irradiation, this compound revealed different magnetic behaviors, including the differences in the shape of the χMT vs. T plot, D parameter, and the values of the relaxation barrier Ueff and the preexponential factor τ0. PMID:26790478

  7. 2 CFR 3513.137 - Who in Ex-Im Bank may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who in Ex-Im Bank may grant an exception to... NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION General § 3513.137 Who in Ex-Im Bank may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? (a) The Ex-Im Bank agency head or designee may...

  8. 2 CFR 3513.137 - Who in Ex-Im Bank may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in Ex-Im Bank may grant an exception to... NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION General § 3513.137 Who in Ex-Im Bank may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? (a) The Ex-Im Bank agency head or designee may...

  9. MALDI FTICR IMS of intact proteins: Using mass accuracy to link protein images with proteomics data

    PubMed Central

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive and selective tool used to visualize biomolecules in tissue. However, identification of detected proteins remains a difficult task. Indirect identifications strategies have been limited by insufficient mass accuracy to confidently link ion images to proteomics data. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of MALDI FTICR MS for imaging intact proteins. MALDI FTICR IMS provides an unprecedented combination of mass resolving power (∼75,000 at m/z 5,000) and accuracy (<5 ppm) for proteins up to ∼12 kDa enabling identification based on correlation with LC-MS/MS proteomics data. Analysis of rat brain tissue was performed as a proof-of-concept highlighting the capabilities of this approach by imaging and identifying a number of proteins including N-terminally acetylated Thymosin β4 (m/z 4,963.502, 0.6 ppm) and ATP Synthase subunit ε (m/z 5,636.074, −2.3 ppm). MALDI FTICR IMS was also used to differentiate a series of oxidation products of S100A8 (m/z 10,164.03, −2.1 ppm), a subunit of the heterodimer calprotectin, in kidney tissue from mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. S100A8 – M37O/C42O3 (m/z 10228.00, −2.6 ppm) was found to co-localize with bactierial microcolonies at the center of infectious foci. The ability of MALDI FTICR IMS to distinguish S100A8 modifications is critical to understanding calprotectin’s roll in nutritional immunity. PMID:25904064

  10. MALDI FTICR IMS of Intact Proteins: Using Mass Accuracy to Link Protein Images with Proteomics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive and selective tool used to visualize biomolecules in tissue. However, identification of detected proteins remains a difficult task. Indirect identification strategies have been limited by insufficient mass accuracy to confidently link ion images to proteomics data. Here, we demonstrate the capabilities of MALDI FTICR MS for imaging intact proteins. MALDI FTICR IMS provides an unprecedented combination of mass resolving power (~75,000 at m/z 5000) and accuracy (<5ppm) for proteins up to ~12kDa, enabling identification based on correlation with LC-MS/MS proteomics data. Analysis of rat brain tissue was performed as a proof-of-concept highlighting the capabilities of this approach by imaging and identifying a number of proteins including N-terminally acetylated thymosin β4 ( m/z 4,963.502, 0.6ppm) and ATP synthase subunit ɛ ( m/z 5,636.074, -2.3ppm). MALDI FTICR IMS was also used to differentiate a series of oxidation products of S100A8 ( m/z 10,164.03, -2.1ppm), a subunit of the heterodimer calprotectin, in kidney tissue from mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. S100A8 - M37O/C42O3 ( m/z 10228.00, -2.6ppm) was found to co-localize with bacterial microcolonies at the center of infectious foci. The ability of MALDI FTICR IMS to distinguish S100A8 modifications is critical to understanding calprotectin's roll in nutritional immunity.

  11. Daily summary for IMS high-altitude satellites, days 1-181 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the orbital positions is provided for a number of high altitude satellites capable of making magnetospheric measurements in the first half of 1977 as part of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Six artificial satellites -- Vela 5B, IMP-H, IMP-J, Solrad 11A, Solrad 11B, and Hawkeye 1 -- have been chosen along with the moon. The daily position summary of the satellites includes data tables which provide the crossing times of the bow shock and magnetopause, as well as the entry and exit times from the cusp, the high latitude tail, the midlatitude tail, and the neutral sheet region.

  12. The effects of CO2 on the negative reactant ions of IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Glenn E.

    1995-01-01

    In the presence of CO2, the negative reactant ions of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) are ion clusters of CO4(-) and CO3(-). Methyl salicylate is ionized by the CO4(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions, but not by the CO3(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions. While the CO4(-) ions are formed by direct association, the CO3(-) ions require additional energy to be formed. The additional energy is provided by either excited neutral gas molecules in a metastable state or UV (ultraviolet) radiation.

  13. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Predicted orbit plots for Vela 5B, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Predicted orbit plots for the Vela 5B satellite are presented for the time period January-December 1976. This satellite has been identified as an important possible contributor to the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) project. The predicted orbit plots are shown in three projections. The time period covered by each set of projections is 4 days 16 hours, corresponding approximately to the period of Vela 5B. The three coordinate systems used are the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic system (GSE), the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric system (GSM), and the Solar Magnetic system (SM).

  14. Complete genome sequence of a novel badnavirus, banana streak IM virus.

    PubMed

    Geering, Andrew D W; Parry, Judith N; Thomas, John E

    2011-04-01

    In 1999, banana streak disease outbreaks occurred at two locations in Australia in new banana hybrids that were being screened for fusarium wilt resistance. Two different badnaviruses, banana streak GF virus and a newly discovered virus called banana streak IM virus (BSIMV), were detected in these plants. The complete nucleotide sequence of the BSIMV genome was determined and comprised 7768 nt. Three open reading frames were detected, the first beginning with a non-conventional start codon (CUG). A 55-nt repetition in the putative pregenomic RNA promoter was also identified. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that BSIMV is most closely related to banana streak VN virus. PMID:21347843

  15. Layered and segmented system organization (LASSO) for highly reliable inventory monitoring systems (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mangan, Dennis L.; Matter, John C.; Waddoups, I.; Abhold, M. E.; Chiaro, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Trilateral Initiative is preparing for International Atomic Energy Agency (LUiA) verification of excess fissile material released itom the defense programs of the United States and the Russian Federation. Following acceptance of the material using an Attribute Verification System, the IAEA will depend on an Inventory Monitoring System to maintain Continuity of Knowledge of the large inventory of thousands of items. Recovery fiom a total loss of Continuity of Knowledge in such a large storage facility would involve an extremely costly inventory re-verification This paper presents the framework for a Layered and Segmented System Organization that is the basis for a highly reliable IMS with protection-in-depth.

  16. Glycopeptide Site Heterogeneity and Structural Diversity Determined by Combined Lectin Affinity Chromatography/IMS/CID/MS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feifei; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Clemmer, David E.

    2015-07-01

    Glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of chicken ovomucoid were enriched using a simplified lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) platform, and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as well as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS. The LAC platform effectively enriched the glycoproteome, from which a total of 117 glycopeptides containing 27 glycan forms were identified for this protein. IMS-MS analysis revealed a high degree of glycopeptide site heterogeneity. Comparison of the IMS distributions of the glycopeptides from different charge states reveals that higher charge states allow more structures to be resolved. Presumably the repulsive interactions between charged sites lead to more open configurations, which are more readily separated compared with the more compact, lower charge state forms of the same groups of species. Combining IMS with collision induced dissociation (CID) made it possible to determine the presence of isomeric glycans and to reconstruct their IMS profiles. This study illustrates a workflow involving hybrid techniques for determining glycopeptide site heterogeneity and evaluating structural diversity of glycans and glycopeptides.

  17. Mindful Parenting Assessed Further: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P).

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Esther I; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Geurtzen, Naline; van Zundert, Rinka M P; van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Hartman, Esther E; Nieuwesteeg, Anke M; Duncan, Larissa G; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n=866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the original IM-P was that aspects of compassion and emotional awareness were separated into different factors for the self and the child, instead of combined into one factor. In a second general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n=.99), the six-factor structure was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2). The proposed 29-item version of the IM-P and its subscales were shown to have good internal consistencies, apart from the sixth factor. As expected, a high correlation was found with general mindfulness questionnaires (FFMQ and FMI). Furthermore, the IM-P correlated positively as expected with quality of life and optimism and negatively with depression and dysfunctional parenting styles. These expected indications of construct validity were found in study 2, as well as in mothers (n=112) of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (study 3) which was added to examine whether the Dutch version of the IM-P was also valid in a pediatric population. Overall, these three studies present good psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the first measure of mindful parenting. PMID:25126133

  18. Glycopeptide Site Heterogeneity and Structural Diversity Determined by Combined Lectin Affinity Chromatography/IMS/CID/MS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feifei; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Clemmer, David E

    2015-07-01

    Glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of chicken ovomucoid were enriched using a simplified lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) platform, and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as well as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS. The LAC platform effectively enriched the glycoproteome, from which a total of 117 glycopeptides containing 27 glycan forms were identified for this protein. IMS-MS analysis revealed a high degree of glycopeptide site heterogeneity. Comparison of the IMS distributions of the glycopeptides from different charge states reveals that higher charge states allow more structures to be resolved. Presumably the repulsive interactions between charged sites lead to more open configurations, which are more readily separated compared with the more compact, lower charge state forms of the same groups of species. Combining IMS with collision induced dissociation (CID) made it possible to determine the presence of isomeric glycans and to reconstruct their IMS profiles. This study illustrates a workflow involving hybrid techniques for determining glycopeptide site heterogeneity and evaluating structural diversity of glycans and glycopeptides. PMID:25840811

  19. An IMS-Based Middleware Solution for Energy-Efficient and Cost-Effective Mobile Multimedia Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellavista, Paolo; Corradi, Antonio; Foschini, Luca

    Mobile multimedia services have recently become of extreme industrial relevance due to the advances in both wireless client devices and multimedia communications. That has motivated important standardization efforts, such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) to support session control, mobility, and interoperability in all-IP next generation networks. Notwithstanding the central role of IMS in novel mobile multimedia, the potential of IMS-based service composition for the development of new classes of ready-to-use, energy-efficient, and cost-effective services is still widely unexplored. The paper proposes an original solution for the dynamic and standard-compliant redirection of incoming voice calls towards WiFi-equipped smart phones. The primary design guideline is to reduce energy consumption and service costs for the final user by automatically switching from the 3G to the WiFi infrastructure whenever possible. The proposal is fully compliant with the IMS standard and exploits the recently released IMS presence service to update device location and current communication opportunities. The reported experimental results point out that our solution, in a simple way and with full compliance with state-of-the-art industrially-accepted standards, can significantly increase battery lifetime without negative effects on call initiation delay.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding and cytotoxic properties of Ru(II) complexes: [Ru(MeIm)4L]2+ (MeIm = 1-methylimidazole, L = phen, ip and pip)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Leli; Xiao, Yue; Liu, Jing; Tan, Lifeng

    2012-07-01

    Three new ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(MeIm)4phen]2+ (1), [Ru(MeIm)4ip]2+ (2) and [Ru(MeIm)4pip]2+ (3), have been synthesized and characterized. The binding properties of the three complexes towards calf-thymus DNA were investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. In addition, the cytotoxicity of these complexes has been evaluated by MTT method and Giemsa staining experiment. The main results reveal that the plane area and hydrophobicity of intercalative ligands have a significant effect on the DNA-binding behaviors and the IC50 value of complex 2 against MCF-7 cells is close to that of cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2.

  1. The Development of Cockpit Display and Alerting Concepts for Interval Management (IM) in a Near-Term Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Shay, Richard F.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) Interval Management (IM) research team has conducted a wide spectrum of work in the recent past, ranging from development and testing of the concept, procedures, and algorithm. This document focuses on the research and evaluation of the IM pilot interfaces, cockpit displays, indications, and alerting concepts for conducting IM spacing operations. The research team incorporated knowledge of human factors research, industry standards for cockpit design, and cockpit design philosophies to develop innovative displays for conducting these spacing operations. The research team also conducted a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments with commercial pilots and air traffic controllers, in as realistic a high-density arrival operation environment as could be simulated, to evaluate the spacing guidance display features and interface requirements needed to conduct spacing operations.

  2. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM: post-synthesis functionalization of a Cd(ii)-MOF as a triphase transfer catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Liu, Qi-Kui; Hu, Yu-Hong; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2016-05-19

    A robust and porous Cd(ii)-MOF based on a bent imidazole-bridged ligand was synthesized and post-synthetically functionalized with linear alkyl chains to afford imidazolium salt (IM)-type triphase transfer catalysts for organic transformations. The imidazolium salt decorated Cd(ii)-MOF-IM exhibits typical solid phase transfer catalytic behavior for the azidation and thiolation of bromoalkane between aqueous/organic phases. Moreover, they can be easily recovered and reused under the PTC conditions. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM herein created a versatile family of solid phase transfer catalysts for promoting a broad scope of reactions carried out in a biphasic mixture of two immiscible solvents. PMID:27039710

  3. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. VII. THE EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO STRUCTURE OF IM PEGASI

    SciTech Connect

    Bietenholz, M. F.; Bartel, N.; Ransom, R. R.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2012-07-01

    We present measurements of the total radio flux density as well as very long baseline interferometry images of the star, IM Pegasi, which was used as the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B. We obtained flux densities and images from 35 sessions of observations at 8.4 GHz ({lambda} = 3.6 cm) between 1997 January and 2005 July. The observations were accurately phase-referenced to several extragalactic reference sources, and we present the images in a star-centered frame, aligned by the position of the star as derived from our fits to its orbital motion, parallax, and proper motion. Both the flux density and the morphology of IM Peg are variable. For most sessions, the emission region has a single-peaked structure, but 25% of the time, we observed a two-peaked (and on one occasion perhaps a three-peaked) structure. On average, the emission region is elongated by 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mas (FWHM), with the average direction of elongation being close to that of the sky projection of the orbit normal. The average length of the emission region is approximately equal to the diameter of the primary star. No significant correlation with the orbital phase is found for either the flux density or the direction of elongation, and no preference for any particular longitude on the star is shown by the emission region.

  4. Lipozyme TL IM as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Eugenyl Acetate in Solvent-Free Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Silva, María José A; Loss, Raquel A; Laroque, Denise A; Lerin, Lindomar A; Pereira, Gabriela N; Thon, Élise; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Ninow, Jorge L; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, Débora

    2015-06-01

    The ability of commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) to catalyze the acetylation of essential clove oil with acetic anhydride in a solvent-free system was studied, and the antimicrobial activity of the ester formed was evaluated as well. Experimental design based on two variables (eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio and temperature) was employed to evaluate the experimental conditions of eugenyl acetate ester production. The maximum conversion yield (92.86 %) was obtained using Lipozyme TL IM (5 wt%, based on the total amount of substrates), with eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:5 at 70 °C. The chemical structure of the eugenyl acetate ester obtained at the optimized condition, and purified, was confirmed by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. The antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate ester was proven effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with means of 16.62 and 17.55 mm of inhibition halo. PMID:25875787

  5. Signal Processing for Indian and Pakistan Nuclear Tests Recorded at IMS Stations Located in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Pinsky, V.; Hofstetter, R.

    - In compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) the International Monitoring System (IMS) was designed for detection and location of the clandestine Nuclear Tests (NT). Two auxiliary IMS seismic stations MRNI and EIL, deployed recently, were subjected to detectability, travel-time calibration and discrimination analysis. The study is based on the three recent 1998 underground nuclear explosions: one of India and two of Pakistan, which provided a ground-truth test of the existing IMS. These events, attaining magnitudes of 5.2, 4.8 and 4.6 correspondingly, were registered by many IMS and other seismic stations.The MRNI and EIL broadband (BB) stations are located in Israel at teleseismic distances (from the explosions) of 3600, 2800 and 2700km, respectively, where the signals from the tests are already weak. The Indian and the second Pakistan NT were not detected by the short-period Israel Seismic Network (ISN), using standard STA/LTA triggering. Therefore, for the chosen IMS stations we compare the STA/LTA response to the results of the more sensitive Murdock-Hutt (MH) and the Adaptive Statistically Optimal Detector (OD) that showed triggering for these three events. The second Pakistan NT signal arrived at the ISN and the IMS stations in the coda of a strong Afghanistan earthquake and was further disturbed by a preceding signal from a local earthquake. However, the NT signal was successfully extracted at EIL and MRNI stations using MH and OD procedures. For comparison we provide the signal analysis of the cooperating BB station JER, with considerably worse noise conditions than EIL and MRNI, and show that OD can detect events when the other algorithms fail. Using the most quiet EIL station, the most sensitive OD and different bandpass filters we tried in addition to detect the small Kazakh chemical 100-ton calibration explosion of 1998, with magnitude 3.7 at a distance approaching 4000km. The detector response curve showed uprising in the

  6. A Helium GC/IMS for the Analysis of Extraterrestrial Volatiles in Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Humphry, Donald E.; Shao, Maxine; Takeuchi, Nori

    1995-01-01

    For exobiology experiments on board spacecraft or space probes, a wide range of chemical species often must be detected and identified. The limited amount of power and space available for flight instruments severely limits the number of instruments that can be flown on any given mission. It is important then, that these experiments utilize instrumentation with universal response, so that all species of interest can be analyzed. Instrumentation to fulfill the analytical requirements of exobiology experiments has been developed utilizing Gas Chromatography - Ion Mobility Spectrometry. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) combines columns developed specifically for the complex mixtures anticipated with highly sensitive Metastable Ionization Detectors (a type of Helium Ionization Detector). To satisfy the limitations placed on resources, the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) uses the same ultra high purity helium as the GC. This GC-MS provides the analytical capability to fulfill a wide range of exobiology flight experiment applications and has been included on a proposed Discovery Mission and proposals for both Lander and Orbiter of the European Space Agency's Rosetta Comet Mission. A data base of helium IMS spectra is now being built for these future applications.

  7. Data-Mining für die Angebotsoptimierung im Handel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcke, Jochen; Griebel, Michael; Thess, Michael

    Der Handel ist weltweit durch gravierenden Wettbewerbsdruck gekennzeichnet. Deutschland gilt im Einzelhandel sogar als der wettbewerbsintensivste Markt der Welt. Um in diesem Wettbewerb zu bestehen, vertrauen die meisten Händler auf extensive Formen ungezielten Massenmarketings. Hierbei werden alle potentielle Kunden mit den gleichen riesigen Katalogen, ungezählten Werbebroschüren, aufdringlichen Lautsprecherdurchsagen und schrillen Bannerwerbungen bearbeitet. Im Ergebnis sind nicht nur die Kunden genervt, sondern auch die Rücklaufraten von Marketingkampagnen seit Jahren fallend. Um dies zu vermeiden, ist eine Individualisierung des Massenmarketings empfehlenswert, in der Kunden auf sie zugeschnittene, individuelle Angebote erhalten. Die Aufgabe besteht darin, dem richtigen Kunden zum richtigen Zeitpunkt zum richtigen Preis das richtige Angebot zu unterbreiten. Dies stellt sich primär als eine mathematische Aufgabenstellung heraus, die die Bereiche Statistik, Optimierung, Analysis und Numerik betrifft. Die hierbei auftretenden Aufgabenstellungen der Regressionsanalyse, des Clusterings und der Optimalen Steuerung sind durch hohe Dimensionen und riesige Datenmengen gekennzeichnet und erfordern neue mathematische Konzepte und Verfahren.

  8. Positive corona discharge ion source with IMS/MS to detect impurities in high purity Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, M.; Klas, M.; Wang, H.; Huang, C.; Chu, Y.; Matejčík, Š.

    2011-07-01

    We have applied the Ion Mobility Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (IMS/MS) and the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation/Mass Spectrometry (APCI/MS) techniques to study the formation of the ions in the positive corona discharge (CD) in highly purified nitrogen with impurities at 100 ppt level. The main products observed were H3O+(H2O)n ions (reduced ion mobility of 2.15 cm2 V-1 s-1). Additionally, we have observed ions with reduced mobilities 2.42 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.30 cm2 V-1 s-1. The intensity of these ions was increasing with the increasing discharge current. We associated these peaks with NH4+ and NO+(H2O)n. The formation of these ions results from trace amounts of O2 and NH3 in nitrogen. The time evolution of the ions in corona discharge has been studied using the APCI/MS technique in the time windows ranging from 100 μs to 2 ms. The present work indicates the ability of the IMS technique equipped with CD ions source to detect impurities below 100 ppt level.

  9. Creating High-Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes Using IM-CRDS and IRMS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Since the development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), the applications of water isotope analysis have been increasing. Here, we present a new protocol to create high-resolution maps of leaf water isotopes 18O and 2H. We use the Picarro induction module (IM-CRDS) combined with an isotope analyzer (L2130-i) to sample up to 25 locations in one half of each leaf. Each sampling location corresponds to four samples (6 mm outside diameter punched-holes) punched next to each other. In the induction module, an induction coil heats a metal holder containing the leaf sample. The sample will release water vapor that is then sent to the isotope analyzer. The IM-CRDS allows us to significantly reduce the sample size and therefore increase the sample density, compared to the traditional cryogenic extraction method. Using spatial analysis tools, we create high-resolution spatial maps of each isotope as well as d-excess maps. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The isotopic composition of the extracted water is compared to the average composition calculated from the maps and used for calibration. We present applications of this protocol to the analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution of foliar uptake in Colocasia esculenta under laboratory conditions.

  10. IM-TORNADO: A Tool for Comparison of 16S Reads from Paired-End Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Jeraldo, Patricio; Kalari, Krishna; Chen, Xianfeng; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Mangalam, Ashutosh; White, Bryan; Nelson, Heidi; Kocher, Jean-Pierre; Chia, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Motivation 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing has become the de facto method for accessing microbial diversity. Illumina paired-end sequencing, which produces two separate reads for each DNA fragment, has become the platform of choice for this application. However, when the two reads do not overlap, existing computational pipelines analyze data from read separately and underutilize the information contained in the paired-end reads. Results We created a workflow known as Illinois Mayo Taxon Organization from RNA Dataset Operations (IM-TORNADO) for processing non-overlapping reads while retaining maximal information content. Using synthetic mock datasets, we show that the use of both reads produced answers with greater correlation to those from full length 16S rDNA when looking at taxonomy, phylogeny, and beta-diversity. Availability and Implementation IM-TORNADO is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/imtornado and produces BIOM format output for cross compatibility with other pipelines such as QIIME, mothur, and phyloseq. PMID:25506826

  11. ImTK: an open source multi-center information management toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Adil; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Padh, Shilpa; Dorobantu, Mihai; Desai, Mihir; Cleary, Kevin; Mun, Seong K.

    2008-03-01

    The Information Management Toolkit (ImTK) Consortium is an open source initiative to develop robust, freely available tools related to the information management needs of basic, clinical, and translational research. An open source framework and agile programming methodology can enable distributed software development while an open architecture will encourage interoperability across different environments. The ISIS Center has conceptualized a prototype data sharing network that simulates a multi-center environment based on a federated data access model. This model includes the development of software tools to enable efficient exchange, sharing, management, and analysis of multimedia medical information such as clinical information, images, and bioinformatics data from multiple data sources. The envisioned ImTK data environment will include an open architecture and data model implementation that complies with existing standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications (DICOM), Health Level 7 (HL7), and the technical framework and workflow defined by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Information Technology Infrastructure initiative, mainly the Cross Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) specifications.

  12. 'I'm really glad this is developmental': autism and social comparisons - an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Huws, Jaci C; Jones, Robert S P

    2015-01-01

    The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: 'I'm really glad this is developmental'; (b) Degrees of autism: 'They've got it really bad'; and (c) Degrees of ability: 'I'm not really disabled-disabled'. Such comparisons were not explicitly sought at the outset of the study, and instead emerged from their conceptualisations of the autism concept. When comparing how they perceived themselves now, and how they perceived themselves in the past, the young people viewed themselves more positively in the present. In addition, when making comparisons with other people with autism, they tended to locate themselves as being in a better position than others were. The perspective of being in a more fortunate position because of heightened abilities also emerged from the comparisons made with people who did not have autism. Furthermore, similar comparisons were made when autism was compared to disability, with autism being evaluated as being more favourable than what was termed 'proper' disability. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the existent social comparison literature. PMID:24335114

  13. The mini-CIDEX GC/IMS: Analysis of cometary ice and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Humphry, Donald E.; Shao, Maxine; Takeuchi, Nori

    1995-01-01

    Comets are recognized as among the most scientifically important objects in the solar system. They are presumed relics of the early primitive material in the solar nebula and are believed to have provided a general enrichment of volatiles to the inner solar system. The Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, a proposed Discovery-Class Mission, will analyze materials released into the coma, providing information leading to the understanding of the chemical composition and make-up of the cometary nucleus. As one of two scientific instruments in the C4 spacecraft, an advanced and streamlined version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX, will employ an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine bulk elemental composition of cometary dust grains and a Gas Chromatograph/Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC/IMS) for determination of the molecular composition of dust and ices following stepwise pyrolysis and combustion. A description of the mini-CIDEX IMS will be provided as well as data from analyses conducted using the mini-CIDEX breadboard instrument.

  14. Contamination monitoring for ammonia, amines, and acid gases utilizing ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Tad; Webber, Kurt; Carpio, Ronald A.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of ammonia (NH3) and n-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) contamination on chemically amplified DUV resists is well documented. Other amines and related compounds are under suspicion as well. In addition, the concentration levels that are of concern have steadily decreased from approximately 10 ppbv down to levels as low as 0.1 ppbv. While some techniques such as ion chromotagraphy (IC) have been demonstrated to have limits of detection at these levels, the analysis times are rather long and cumbersome. This paper describes the use of IMS to perform these measurements, in a totally automated, continuous instrument. IMS is a simplified time-of-flight technique that requires no liquid reagents and has been demonstrated to be a reliable method for monitoring for ammonia and NMP in cleanrooms. This paper demonstrates the ability of the technique to monitor for amines such as dimethylamine, methylamine, methanolamine, ethanolamine, diethanolamine, butylamine and others. Detection limits of 0.1 ppbv and below are clearly demonstrated. Also discussed are methods of monitoring multiple points with a single analyzer. Ability to detect corrosive gases such as hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur trioxide (SO3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorine (Cl2), bromine (Br2), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) are also demonstrated.

  15. Activity of a Py-Im Polyamide Targeted to the Estrogen Response Element

    PubMed Central

    Nickols, Nicholas G.; Szablowski, Jerzy O.; Hargrove, Amanda E.; Li, Benjamin C.; Raskatov, Jevgenij A.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are a class of programmable DNA minor groove binders capable of modulating the activity of DNA-binding proteins and affecting changes in gene expression. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated hormone receptor that binds as a homodimer to estrogen response elements (EREs) and is a driving oncogene in a majority of breast cancers. We tested a selection of structurally similar Py-Im polyamides with differing DNA sequence specificity for activity against 17β-estadiol (E2) induced transcription and cytotoxicity in ERα positive, E2 stimulated T47D-KBLUC cells, which express luciferase under ERα control. The most active polyamide targeted the sequence: 5’-WGGWCW-3’ (W = A or T), which is the canonical ERE-half site. Whole transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq revealed that treatment of E2-stimulated breast cancer cells with this polyamide reduced the effects of E2 on the majority of those most strongly affected by E2, but had much less effect on the majority of E2 induced transcripts. In vivo, this polyamide circulated at detectable levels following subcutaneous injection and reduced levels of ER-driven luciferase expression in xenografted tumors in mice after subcutaneous compound administration without significant host toxicity. PMID:23443804

  16. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton fiber maturity is an important factor for determining the commercial value of cotton. How fiber cell wall development affects fiber maturity is not well understood. A comparison of fiber cross-sections showed that an immature fiber (im) mutant had lower fiber maturity than its near isogenic wild type, Texas marker-1 (TM-1). The availability of the im mutant and TM-1 provides a unique way to determine molecular mechanisms regulating cotton fiber maturity. Results Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the im mutant fibers grown under normal stress conditions were similar to those in wild type cotton fibers grown under severe stress conditions. The majority of these DEGs in the im mutant were related to stress responses and cellular respiration. Stress is known to reduce the activity of a classical respiration pathway responsible for energy production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Both energy productions and ROS levels in the im mutant fibers are expected to be reduced if the im mutant is associated with stress responses. In accord with the prediction, the transcriptome profiles of the im mutant showed the same alteration of transcriptional regulation that happened in energy deprived plants in which expressions of genes associated with cell growth processes were reduced whereas expressions of genes associated with recycling and transporting processes were elevated. We confirmed that ROS production in developing fibers from the im mutant was lower than that from the wild type. The lower production of ROS in the im mutant fibers might result from the elevated levels of alternative respiration induced by stress. Conclusion The low degree of fiber cell wall thickness of the im mutant fibers is associated with deregulation of the genes involved in stress responses and cellular respiration. The reduction of ROS levels and up-regulation of the genes involved in alternative respirations suggest that

  17. Promoters of the CATG-Specific Methyltransferase Gene hpyIM Differ between iceA1 and iceA2 Helicobacter pylori Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Blaser, Martin J.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains can be divided into two groups, based on the presence of two unrelated genes, iceA1 and iceA2, that occupy the same genomic locus. hpyIM, located immediately downstream of either gene, encodes a functional CATG-specific methyltransferase. Despite the strong conservation of the hpyIM open reading frame (ORF) among all H. pylori strains, the sequences upstream of the ORF in iceA1 and iceA2 strains are substantially different. To explore the roles of these upstream sequences in hpyIM regulation, promoter analysis of hpyIM was performed. Both deletion mutation and primer extension analyses demonstrate that the hpyIM promoters differ between H. pylori strains 60190 (iceA1) and J188 (iceA2). In strain 60190, hpyIM has two promoters, Pa or PI, which may function independently, whereas only one hpyIM promoter, Pc, was found in strain J188. The XylE assay showed that the hpyIM transcription level was much higher in strain 60190 than in strain J188, indicating that regulation of hpyIM transcription differs between the H. pylori iceA1 strain (60190) and iceA2 strains (J188). Since the iceA1 and iceA2 sequences are highly conserved within iceA1 or iceA2 strains, we conclude that promoters of the CATG-specific methylase gene hpyIM differ between iceA1 and iceA2 strains, which leads to differences in regulation of hpyIM transcription. PMID:11395450

  18. Phase I Randomized Clinical Trial of VRC DNA and rAd5 HIV-1 Vaccine Delivery by Intramuscular (IM), Subcutaneous (SC) and Intradermal (ID) Administration (VRC 011)

    PubMed Central

    Enama, Mary E.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Novik, Laura; Nason, Martha C.; Gordon, Ingelise J.; Holman, LaSonji; Bailer, Robert T.; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Graham, Barney S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phase 1 evaluation of the VRC HIV DNA and rAd5 vaccines delivered intramuscularly (IM) supported proceeding to a Phase 2 b efficacy study. Here we report comparison of the IM, subcutaneous (SC) and intradermal (ID) routes of administration. Methods Sixty subjects were randomized to 6 schedules to evaluate the IM, SC or ID route for prime injections. Three schedules included DNA primes (Wks 0,4,8) and 3 schedules included rAd5 prime (Wk0); all included rAd5 IM boost (Wk24). DNA vaccine dosage was 4 mg IM or SC, but 0.4 mg ID, while all rAd5 vaccinations were 1010 PU. All injections were administered by needle and syringe. Results Overall, 27/30 subjects completed 3 DNA primes; 30/30 subjects completed rAd5 primes. Mild local pruritus (itchiness), superficial skin lesions and injection site nodules were associated with ID and SC, but not IM injections. All routes induced T-cell and antibody immune responses after rAd5 boosting. Overall, >95% had Env antibody and >80% had Env T-cell responses. Conclusions The pattern of local reactogenicity following ID and SC injections differed from IM injections but all routes were well-tolerated. There was no evidence of an immunogenicity advantage following SC or ID delivery, supporting IM delivery as the preferred route of administration. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00321061 PMID:24621858

  19. Luminescent Copper(I) Halide Butterfly Dimers Coordinated to [Au(CH3imCH2py)2]BF4 and [Au(CH3imCH2quin)2]BF4

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, V.; Moore, A; Shearer, J; Kim, J

    2009-01-01

    The coordination chemistry of copper(I) halides to the homoleptic, N-heterocyclic carbene Au(I) complexes [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} and [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} was explored. The reaction of CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) with either [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} or [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} produces trimetallic complexes containing Cu{sub 2}X{sub 2}-butterfly copper clusters coordinated to the two imine moieties. The triangular arrangement of the metals places the gold(I) center in close proximity ({approx}2.5-2.6 {angstrom}) to the centroid of the Cu-Cu vector. The Cu-Cu separations vary as a function of bridging halide with the shortest Cu-Cu separations of {approx}2.5 {angstrom} found in the iodo-complexes and the longest separations of 2.9 {angstrom} found in the bridging chloride complexes. In all six complexes the Au-Cu separations range from {approx}2.8 to 3.0 {angstrom}. In the absence of halides, the dimetallic complex [AuCu(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, containing a long Au-Cu distance of {approx}4.72 {angstrom} is formed. Additionally, as the byproduct of the reaction of CuBr with [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} the deep-red, dimetallic compound, AuCuBr{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}, was isolated in very low yield. All of these complexes were studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and the copper containing species were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In solution the copper centers dissociate from the gold complexes, but as shown by XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy, at low temperature the Cu-Cu linkage is broken, and the individual copper(I) halides reposition themselves to opposite sides of the gold complex while remaining coordinated to one imine moiety. In the solid state all of the complexes are photoluminescent, though the nature of the excited state was not determined.

  20. Luminescent copper(I) halide butterfly dimers coordinated to [Au(CH3imCH2py)2]BF4 and [Au(CH3imCH2quin)2]BF4.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Vincent J; Moore, Adam L; Shearer, Jason; Kim, Jineun

    2009-12-01

    The coordination chemistry of copper(I) halides to the homoleptic, N-heterocyclic carbene Au(I) complexes [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2)]BF(4) and Au(CH(3)imCH(2)py)(2)]BF(4) was explored. The reaction of CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) with either [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2)]BF(4) or [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)py)(2)]BF(4) produces trimetallic complexes containing Cu(2)X(2)-butterfly copper clusters coordinated to the two imine moieties. The triangular arrangement of the metals places the gold(I) center in close proximity (approximately 2.5-2.6 A) to the centroid of the Cu-Cu vector. The Cu-Cu separations vary as a function of bridging halide with the shortest Cu-Cu separations of approximately 2.5 A found in the iodo-complexes and the longest separations of 2.9 A found in the bridging chloride complexes. In all six complexes the Au-Cu separations range from approximately 2.8 to 3.0 A. In the absence of halides, the dimetallic complex [AuCu(CH(3)imCH(2)py)(2)(NCCH(3))(2)](BF(4))(2), containing a long Au-Cu distance of approximately 4.72 A is formed. Additionally, as the byproduct of the reaction of CuBr with [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2)]BF(4) the deep-red, dimetallic compound, AuCuBr(2)(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2), was isolated in very low yield. All of these complexes were studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and the copper containing species were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In solution the copper centers dissociate from the gold complexes, but as shown by XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy, at low temperature the Cu-Cu linkage is broken, and the individual copper(I) halides reposition themselves to opposite sides of the gold complex while remaining coordinated to one imine moiety. In the solid state all of the complexes are photoluminescent, though the nature of the excited state was not determined. PMID:19899779

  1. 75 FR 35088 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Correction The document appearing on June 4, 2010, 75 FR 31816,...

  2. 77 FR 54611 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  3. 78 FR 37571 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 30, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  4. 76 FR 65536 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2011-26426 appearing on page 63659 in...

  5. 75 FR 51114 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 13, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  6. 76 FR 4723 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2011-78 appearing on page 1460 the issue of Monday, January 10, 2011 make the...

  7. 75 FR 64694 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 33E; DNP IMS America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 6635-6636, 2/10/2010) and the application has been... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 33E; DNP IMS America Corporation (Thermal Transfer Ribbon Printer Roll Manufacturing); Mount Pleasant,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  11. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  12. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  13. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  14. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  15. Investigations in the solar wind and near the magnetopause during the IMS from the Prognoz 4, 5, and 6 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gringauz, K. I.; Bezrukikh, V. V.; Verigin, M. I.; Kotova, G. A.; Remizov, A. P.

    Prognoz 4-6 measurements of plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particles in the solar wind and near the magnetopause were carried out during the IMS (International Magnetospheric Studies). It is found that the outer radiation belt is a source of energetic (1 MeV) electrons in the magnetosheath near the magnetopause.

  16. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S.EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are used for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporium. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purificaiton by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis for oocysts stained by a fluorescent monoclonal antibody and counter stai...

  17. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  18. Unentbehrlich in Natur, Technik und Forschung: Flüssigkristalle im Überblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathelitsch, Leopold; Repnik, Robert; Bradac, Zlatko; Vilfan, Mojca; Kralj, Samo

    2003-05-01

    Flüssigkristalle können wie eine Flüssigkeit fließen und zugleich eine innere Ordnung besitzen, die an Festkörper erinnert. Sie begegnen uns im Alltag in vielen technischen Anwendungen, beispielsweise in Displays von elektronischen Geräten. Seit Millionen von Jahren sind sie schon zentrale Bausteine von biologischen Systemen. Dazu zählen zum Beispiel die DNS, viele Proteine und die Membran, die lebende Zellen umschließt. Wegen ihrer besonderen Eigenschaften eignen sich Flüssigkristalle gut als Analogien für andere physikalische Systeme: zum Beispiel die Teilchen-Antiteilchen-Annihilation oder kosmologische Modelle des Universums kurz nach dem Urknall.

  19. Hetgs Spectroscopy of the Long-Period Active Binary, im Pegasi.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenemoerder, David

    2001-09-01

    RS CVn binary systems are well known for their activity, interpreted as large-scale versions of Solar phenomena: spots, prominences, coronae, all with dynamic behavior. Stellar X-ray luminosity is well known to correlate with rotation and RS CVn stars are among the most luminous of late-type sources; they are prime candidates for X-ray spectroscopy. IM Peg is a long-period system (25d), and relatively X-ray luminous. We propose to obtain 8 HETGS spectra sampled several times during 2-3 rotations. Each exposure will well expose strong lines and also provide an integrated flux. Summed spectra will be used for deriviation of emission measure and abundances. Both long and short-term variability will be examined and correlated with activity diagnostics.

  20. Cure effects on microcracking in IM7 fiber/Matrimid 5292{reg_sign} BMI composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wilenski, M.S.; Shin, E.; Morgan, R.J.; Drzal, L.T.

    1995-12-31

    Initial results from a study of the microcracking behavior of the Matrimid 5292{reg_sign} BMI/IM7 carbon fiber system are presented. Studies were performed to determine the composite`s Stress Free Temperature (SFT) which is seen to control the presence and extent of microcracking. The SFT was determined using asymmetric laminates [0{sub 2}/90{sub 2}]. Varied post-cure cycles were utilized and it was found that until complete cure is obtained, the SFT is a function of the highest temperature experienced by the laminate, with little effect of previous thermal history. The reactions necessary to fully cure this system are not active at temperatures below 250 C, ruling out the possibility of obtaining a fully cured composite with a low SFT through extended post-cures at lower temperatures.

  1. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  2. A flare event of the long-period RS Canum Venaticorum system IM Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Huenemoerder, David P.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a flare event detected on the long-period RS CVn system IM Pegasi are reported. The low-resolution spectrum show enhancements of up to a factor of five in some emission lines. All of the ultraviolet emission lines normally visible are enhanced significantly more than the normal 30 rotational modulation. Emission fluxes of both the quiescent and flare event are used to construct models of the density and temperature variation with height. These models reveal a downward shift of the transition region during the flare. Scaled models of the quiet and flaring solar outer atmosphere are used to estimate the filling factor of the flare event at about 30 percent of the stellar surface. The pattern of line enhancements in the flare is the same as a previous event in Lambda Andromeda observed previously.

  3. PAPR reduction based on chaos combined with SLM technique in optical OFDM IM/DD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yaoqiang; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Tang, Jin; Liu, Yi; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to decrease the PAPR of 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16QAM) orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal. The method is to combine chaos with selected mapping (CSLM) technique so that the chaotic sequences are able to control generation of phase rotation factors. The research has utilized this method to transmit OFDM signal along 100 km long single-mode fiber in an IM/DD system to test OFDM signal performance. Our experimental results show that the receiver sensitivity is improved by about 1.4 dB when a 3.28 GB/s OFDM signal at a bit error rate of 1 × 10-3 is launched by transmission power at 2, 6, 8 and 10 dBm, respectively. Moreover, comparison with traditional SLM technique, the CSLM technique can improve the BER of the system.

  4. Cometary ion flow variations at Comet P/Halley as observed by the Giotto IMS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Balsiger, H.; Meier, A.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1990-01-01

    The moments of the cometary-ion distributions are determined through a three-dimensional analysis of the Giotto IMS high-intensity spectrometer (HIS) data. The spectrometer is described, with emphasis on its angle analyzer and mass analyzer. The method of data analysis is outlined, with ion-flow vectors and temperatures being addressed. The results of the water group ion-flow profile are presented, and it is noted that, after crossing the cometopause region, the ions become gradually colder. At cometocentric distances larger than 130,000 km, the cometary-ion temperature is found to be in the area of 100 eV or higher, and derivations of the flow parameters are uncertain. The ion temperature and the flow speed become lower by about 50 eV after crossing the magnetic pile-up boundary. It is concluded that the observed velocity and temperature profiles can be explained on the basis of charge exchange processes.

  5. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of IM7/977-3 with Micro-Sized Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G.; Jegley, D. C.; Siochi, E. J.; Wells, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based hypervelocity imapct testing was conducted on IM7/977-3 quasi-isotropic flat panels at normal incidence using micron-sized particles (i.e. less than or equal to 100 microns) of soda lime glass and olivine. Testing was performed at room temperature (RT) and 175 C with results from the 175 C test compared to those obtained at RT. Between 10 and 30 particles with velocities ranging from 5 to 13 km/s impacted each panel surface for each test temperature. Panels were ultrasonically scanned prior to and after impact testing to assess internal damage. Post-impact analysis included microscopic examination of the surface, determination of particle speed and location, and photomicroscopy for microcrack assessment. Internal damage was observed by ultrasonic inspection on panels impacted at 175 C, whereas damage for the RT impacted panels was confined to surface divets/craters as determined by microscopic analysis.

  6. Miniature GC: Minicell ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for astrobiology planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or longer mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. We describe here the development of a miniature GC - Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) under development through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  7. Regional and Global Atmospheric CO2 Measurements Using 1.57 Micron IM-CW Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Harrison, F. Wallace; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Kooi, Susan; Meadows, Byron; Fan, Tai-Fang; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate, and knowledge of its distribution and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Accurate observations of atmospheric CO2 are also crucial to improving our understanding of CO2 sources, sinks and transports. To meet these science needs, NASA is developing technologies for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, which is aimed at global CO2 observations. Meanwhile an airborne investigation of atmospheric CO2 distributions as part of the NASA Suborbital Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America (ACT-America) mission will be conducted with lidar and in situ instrumentation over the central and eastern United States during all four seasons and under a wide range of meteorological conditions. In preparing for the ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center and Exelis Inc./Harris Corp. have jointly developed and demonstrated the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar. Since 2005, a total of 14 flight campaigns have been conducted. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved, and the lidar CO2 measurements also agree well with in-situ observations. Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales have been observed during these campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200A-300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Results from recent flight campaigns are presented in this paper. The ability to achieve the science objectives of the ASCENDS mission with an IM-CW lidar is also discussed in this paper, along with the plans for the ACT-America aircraft investigation that begins in the winter of 2016.

  8. P2IMS depth profile analysis of high temperature boron oxynitride dielectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badi, N.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Benqaoula, A.; Tempez, A.; Tauziède, C.; Chapon, P.

    2014-02-01

    Existing silicon oxynitride (SiON) dielectric can only provide a very near term solution for the metal oxide semiconductor technology. The emerging high-k dielectric materials have a limited thermal stability and are prone to electrical behavior degradation which is associated with unwanted chemical reactions with silicon (Si). We investigated here applicability of amorphous boron oxynitride (BON) thin films as an emerging dielectric for high temperature capacitors. BON samples of thickness varying from 200 nm down to 10 nm were deposited in a high vacuum reactor using ion source assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. Plasma profiling ion mass spectrometry (P2IMS) was utilized to specifically determine the interface quality and best capacitor performance as a function of growth temperatures of a graded sample with alternate layers of deposited titanium (Ti) and BON layers on Si. P2IMS depth profiling of these layers were also performed to evaluate the stability of the dielectric layers and their efficacy against B dopant diffusion simulating processes occurring in activated polySi-based devices. For this purpose, BON layers were deposited on boron-isotope 10 (B10) implanted Si substrates and subsequently annealed at high temperatures up to 1050 °C for about 10 s. Results comparing inter-diffusion of B10 intensities at the interfaces of BON-Si and SiON-Si samples suggest suitability of BON as barrier layers against boron diffusion at high temperature. Stable Ti/BON/Ti capacitor behavior was achieved at optimum growth temperature of 600 °C of the BON dielectric layer. Capacitance change with frequency (10 kHz to 2 MHz) and temperature up to 400 °C is about 1% and 10%, respectively.

  9. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids. PMID:27264676

  10. Die neogene Hebungsgeschichte der Patagonischen Anden im Kontext der Subduktion eines aktiven Spreizungszentrums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warkus, Frank

    2002-05-01

    Das Phänomen der Subduktion eines aktiven Spreizungszentrums an der Südspitze Südamerikas ist seit langem bekannt. Eine Vielzahl von geologischen Beobachtungen wurden mit diesem Phänomen in Verbindung gebracht, trotzdem ist der genaue Mechanismus der Beeinflussung des aktiven Kontinentalrandes weitgehend unbekannt. Die Zusammenhänge zwischen den Subduktionsprozessen und der Entwicklung der patagonischen Anden zwischen 47°S und 48°S stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchungen. Um eine detaillierte zeitliche Auflösung der zugrunde liegenden Prozesse untersuchen zu können, wurde die Entwicklung der Vorlandsedimentation, die thermische Entwicklung und die Heraushebung der Oberkruste des andinen Orogens untersucht und diese in Bezug zur Subduktion des Chile-Rückens gesetzt. Im Bereich von 47°30′S wurden die synorogenen Vorlandsedimente der Santa Cruz Formation sedimentologisch untersucht. Diese fluviatilen Sedimente wurden in einem reliefarmen Vorlandgebiet durch häufige Rinnenverlagerung und dem Aufbau von Rinnenumlagerungsgürteln in Kombination mit assoziierten groräumigen Überflutungsablagerungen akkumuliert. Sie stehen in einem engen Zusammenhang mit der orogenen Entwicklung im andinen Liefergebiet. Dies spiegelt sich in dem nach oben gröber werdenden Zyklus der Santa Cruz Formation wider. Die magnetostratigraphischen Untersuchungen einer 270 m mächtigen Sequenz aus der Basis der Santa Cruz Formation, die mit 329 Einzelproben aus 96 Probenpunkten beprobt wurde, ergab 7 Umkehrungen der geomagnetischen Feldrichtung. Mit Hilfe der geomagnetischen Polaritätszeitskala (CANDE AND KENT, 1995) konnte der untersuchte Abschnitt der Santa Cruz Formation zwischen 16.2 und 18.5 Ma datiert werden. Als Träger der Sedimentations-Remanenz konnten überwiegend Pseudoeinbereichs-Magentitpartikel und untergeordnet Hämatitpartikel identifiziert werden. An drei Profilen der Santa Cruz Formation wurden aus Sandsteinlagen unterschiedlicher stratigraphischer Position

  11. Measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using closed gas loop GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Allers, M; Langejuergen, J; Gaida, A; Holz, O; Schuchardt, S; Hohlfeld, J M; Zimmermann, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, compact size and low cost ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has the potential to become a point-of-care breath analyzer. Therefore, we developed a prototype of a compact, closed gas loop IMS with gas chromatographic (GC) pre-separation and high resolving power of R  =  90. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this GC-IMS under clinical conditions in a COPD study to find correlations between VOCs (10 ppbv to 1 ppmv) and COPD. Furthermore, in order to investigate possible correlations between ultra-low concentrated breath VOCs (0.1 pptv to 1 ppbv) and COPD, a modified mass spectrometer (MS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and GC pre-separation (GC-APCI-MS) was used. The GC-IMS has been used in 58 subjects (21 smokers with moderate COPD, 12 ex-smokers with COPD, 16 healthy smokers and 9 non-smokers). GC-APCI-MS data were available for 94 subjects (21 smokers with moderate COPD, 25 ex-smokers with COPD, 25 healthy smokers and 23 non-smokers). For 44 subjects, a comparison between GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS data could be performed. Due to service intervals, subject availability and corrupt data, patient numbers were different for GC-APCI-MS and GC-IMS measurements. Using GC-IMS, three VOCs have been found showing a significant difference between healthy controls and patients with COPD. In the GC-APCI-MS data, we only observed one distinctive VOC, which has been identified as 2-pentanone. This proof-of-principle study shows the potential of our high-resolution GC-IMS in the clinical environment. Due to different linear dynamic response ranges, the data of GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS were only comparable to a limited extent. PMID:27058460

  12. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  13. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4 pi surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  14. The importance of polarizability: comparison of models of carbon disulphide in the ionic liquids [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2].

    PubMed

    Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Quitevis, Edward L

    2016-06-28

    The local environment of CS2 and in solution in two ionic liquids ([C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated by atomistic simulation and compared with that in neat CS2. The intermolecular vibrational densities of states of CS2 are calculated and compared with experimental OHD-RIKES spectra. The fair agreement of the results from solutions but poor agreement of the results from neat CS2 suggest that while collective effects are unimportant in solutions, they have a major effect on the OHD-RIKES spectrum of neat CS2. Comparing polarizable and unpolarizable models for CS2 emphasizes the importance of polarizability in determining local structure. PMID:27273458

  15. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  16. Development of a human-specific B. thetaiotaomicron IMS/ATP assay for measuring viable human contamination in surface waters in Baja California, Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) assays utilize paramagnetic beads and target-specific antibodies to isolate target organisms. Following isolation, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is extracted from the target population and quantified. An inversely-couple...

  17. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (µFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (µFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The µFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by “chemical noise” and other interfering peaks.

  18. Die Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Ein Beispiel für erfolgreiche „Track-II-Diplomacy“ der Naturwissenschaftler im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    "Kein Zeitalter der Geschichte ist stärker von den Naturwissenschaften durchdrungen und abhängiger von ihnen als das 20. Jahrhundert" schreibt Eric Hobsbawn im Kapitel "Zauberer und Lehrlinge: Die Naturwissenschaften" seines Buches "Zeitalter der Extreme".

  19. Tandem overproduction and characterisation of the nuclease domain of colicin E9 and its cognate inhibitor protein Im9.

    PubMed

    Wallis, R; Reilly, A; Barnes, K; Abell, C; Campbell, D G; Moore, G R; James, R; Kleanthous, C

    1994-03-01

    We report the overproduction of the non-specific endonuclease domain of the bacterial toxin colicin E9 and its preliminary characterisation in vitro. The enzymatic colicins (61 kDa) are normally released from producing cells in a complex with their cognate inhibitors, known as the immunity proteins (9.5 kDa). Tryptic digestion of the purified ColE9 complex was found to generate two major components, a monomer derived from the N-terminal and central regions of the toxin and a heterodimer comprising the catalytically active C-terminal domain of the colicin bound to its intact immunity protein, Im9. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, in conjunction with electrospray mass spectrometry, shows that preparations of the DNase domain isolated by this method are heterogeneous, thus making subsequent mechanistic and structural analysis difficult. This problem was circumvented by selectively overexpressing the C-terminal 15-kDa nuclease domain of colicin E9 in tandem with its cognate inhibitor in Escherichia coli. This tandem overexpression strategy allowed high-level production of a 25-kDa protein complex comprising the C-terminal DNase domain of colicin E9 tightly bound to its specific inhibitor Im9, thus masking the anticipated toxicity of the nuclease. The DNase domain was then separated from Im9 under denaturing conditions, refolded by removal of the denaturant and the renatured protein shown to possess both endonuclease and Im9 binding activity. These results describe a novel method for the overproduction of a nuclease in bacteria by co-expressing its specific inhibitor and lay the foundations for a full mechanistic, biophysical and structural characterization of the isolated DNase domain of the colicin E9 toxin. PMID:8125102

  20. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  1. Double DCO+ Rings Reveal CO Ice Desorption in the Outer Disk Around IM Lup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Furuya, Kenji; Loomis, Ryan; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1.4 mm continuum, C18O 2–1, H13CO+ 3–2 and DCO+ 3–2 emission at ∼0.″5 resolution. The images of these dust and gas tracers are clearly resolved. The DCO+ line exhibits a striking pair of concentric rings of emission that peak at radii of ∼0.″6 and 2″ (∼90 and 300 AU, respectively). Based on disk chemistry model comparison, the inner DCO+ ring is associated with the balance of CO freeze-out and thermal desorption due to a radial decrease in disk temperature. The outer DCO+ ring is explained by non-thermal desorption of CO ice in the low-column-density outer disk, repopulating the disk midplane with cold CO gas. The CO gas then reacts with abundant H2D+ to form the observed DCO+ outer ring. These observations demonstrate that spatially resolved DCO+ emission can be used to trace otherwise hidden cold gas reservoirs in the outmost disk regions, opening a new window onto their chemistry and kinematics.

  2. The primary transcriptome of the marine diazotroph Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    PubMed Central

    Pfreundt, Ulrike; Kopf, Matthias; Belkin, Natalia; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-01-01

    Blooms of the dinitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium considerably contribute to new nitrogen inputs into tropical oceans. Intriguingly, only 60% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 genome sequence codes for protein, compared with ~85% in other sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. The extensive non-coding genome fraction suggests space for an unusually high number of unidentified, potentially regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). To identify the transcribed fraction of the genome, here we present a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites (TSS) at single nucleotide resolution, revealing the activity of 6,080 promoters. We demonstrate that T. erythraeum has the highest number of actively splicing group II introns and the highest percentage of TSS yielding ncRNAs of any bacterium examined to date. We identified a highly transcribed retroelement that serves as template repeat for the targeted mutation of at least 12 different genes by mutagenic homing. Our findings explain the non-coding portion of the T. erythraeum genome by the transcription of an unusually high number of non-coding transcripts in addition to the known high incidence of transposable elements. We conclude that riboregulation and RNA maturation-dependent processes constitute a major part of the Trichodesmium regulatory apparatus. PMID:25155278

  3. The primary transcriptome of the marine diazotroph Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundt, Ulrike; Kopf, Matthias; Belkin, Natalia; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-08-01

    Blooms of the dinitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium considerably contribute to new nitrogen inputs into tropical oceans. Intriguingly, only 60% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 genome sequence codes for protein, compared with ~85% in other sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. The extensive non-coding genome fraction suggests space for an unusually high number of unidentified, potentially regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). To identify the transcribed fraction of the genome, here we present a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites (TSS) at single nucleotide resolution, revealing the activity of 6,080 promoters. We demonstrate that T. erythraeum has the highest number of actively splicing group II introns and the highest percentage of TSS yielding ncRNAs of any bacterium examined to date. We identified a highly transcribed retroelement that serves as template repeat for the targeted mutation of at least 12 different genes by mutagenic homing. Our findings explain the non-coding portion of the T. erythraeum genome by the transcription of an unusually high number of non-coding transcripts in addition to the known high incidence of transposable elements. We conclude that riboregulation and RNA maturation-dependent processes constitute a major part of the Trichodesmium regulatory apparatus.

  4. The long-period RS CVn binary IM Pegasi --- II. First surface images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Ilyin, I.; Tuominen, I.

    2000-08-01

    New high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations and UBV photometry carried out in 1996-1999 were analysed with the surface imaging technique. A total of 8 images of IM Peg was obtained for the first time. A huge high-latitude active region was found to dominate the stellar surface and decreased in area during the period of the observations. At the same time, on the opposite hemisphere (in longitudes), smaller spots were developing. The spots were migrating in the orbital reference frame, the period of spot rotation being of 24.d73∓0.d02. The spots constitute two active longitudes on opposite stellar hemispheres, similar to other RS CVn stars. The evolution of the spot areas within the active longitudes indicates a stellar activity cycle, during which one active longitude dominates the stellar activity, to be about 6.5 years. Then, a total cycle, comprising two consecutive periods of activity of both active longitudes, is about 13 years. In 1999, the activity switched to the other active longitude. This declared the beginning of a new (half-) cycle. based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain; the 2.6 m and 1.25 m telescopes of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine; the 2m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory, Rozhen, Bulgaria.

  5. Time reversed test particle calculations at Titan, based on CAPS-IMS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebesi, Zsofia; Erdos, Geza; Szego, Karoly; Young, David T.

    2013-04-01

    We used the theoretical approach of Kobel and Flückiger (1994) to construct a magnetic environment model in the vicinity of Titan - with the exception of placing the bow shock (which is not present at Titan) into infinity. The model has 4 free parameters to calibrate the shape and orientation of the field. We investigate the CAPS-IMS Singles data to calculate/estimate the location of origin of the detected cold ions at Titan, and we also use the measurements of the onboard Magnetometer to set the parameters of the model magnetic field. A 4th order Runge-Kutta method is applied to calculate the test particle trajectories in a time reversed scenario, in the curved magnetic environment. Several different ion species can be tracked by the model along their possible trajectories, as a first approach we considered three particle groups (1, 2 and 16 amu ions). In this initial study we show the results for some thoroughly discussed flybys like TA, TB and T5, but we consider more recent tailside encounters as well. Reference: Kobel, E. and E.O. Flückiger, A model of the steady state magnetic field in the magnetosheath, JGR 99, Issue A12, 23617, 1994

  6. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council`s capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period.

  7. Physical aging effects on the compressive linear viscoelastic creep of IM7/K3B composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to establish the viscoelastic behavior of 1M7/K3B composite in compression at elevated temperature. Creep compliance, strain recovery and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The IM7/K3B composite is a graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide with a T(g) of approximately 240 C. In a composite, the two matrix dominated compliance terms associated with time dependent behavior occur in the transverse and shear directions. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. Creep strain was converted to compliance and measured as a function of test time and aging time. Results included creep compliance master curves, physical aging shift factors and shift rates. The description of the unique experimental techniques required for compressive testing is also given.

  8. ``Chemie im Kontext'': A symbiotic implementation of a context-based teaching and learning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parchmann, Ilka; Gräsel, Cornelia; Baer, Anja; Nentwig, Peter; Demuth, Reinhard; Ralle, Bernd

    2006-07-01

    “Chemie im Kontext” (ChiK) is a project that aims at the improvement of chemistry teaching at secondary school in Germany. Based on a framework that was derived from theories and empirical data on the teaching and learning of science, science education researchers and teachers work together on learning communities to transform this framework into teaching and learning practice. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and the participating federal states, such learning communities have developed and tried units for almost all topics for upper and lower secondary education. The accompanying research studies show different effects on students’ motivation: The ChiK units point out the relevance of chemistry, but the student-oriented learning approach can also lead to a feeling of getting lost in the context. One reason might be seen in the result that teachers have put more emphasis on the realization of a good context than on the second important principle of ChiK—the development of basic concepts. However, data also showed that the learning communities have indeed inspired and supported the teachers to change their teaching towards a more context-based and student-oriented teaching. The continuing work will now especially focus on the improvement of facilitating the students with a better guideline, and on the development and assessment of different science competencies.

  9. High strain rate mechanical properties of IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.M.; Vinson, J.R.; Hall, I.W.

    1995-12-31

    Polymer matrix composites offer excellent mechanical properties such as high specific strength and stiffness which make them attractive for many naval, aerospace and automotive structural components. Although they are candidate materials for many applications where high strain rate loading is probable, little is known of the material responses to shock loading for most composite materials. Because mechanical properties vary significantly with strain rate, the use of static properties in the analysis and design of structures which undergo dynamic loadings can on one hand lead to a very conservative overweight design, or on the other hand can lead to designs which fail prematurely and unexpectedly. The use of dynamic material properties will ensure the design of composite structures which are weight efficient and structurally sound when they are subjected to dynamic loads. In this study, a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar is used to obtain compressive mechanical properties of a unidirectional IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite. For each of the three principal directions, the yield stress, yield strain, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity, elastic strain energy function and the total strain energy to failure are presented for strain rates varying from 49 sec{sup {minus}1} to 1430 sec{sup {minus}1}. The data from 72 tests are statistically analyzed, represented by equations, and discussed in some detail.

  10. Discrimination of epimeric glycans and glycopeptides using IM-MS and its potential for carbohydrate sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, P.; Green, A. P.; Gray, C. J.; Šardzík, R.; Voglmeir, J.; Fontana, C.; Austeri, M.; Rejzek, M.; Richardson, D.; Field, R. A.; Widmalm, G.; Flitsch, S. L.; Eyers, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is the primary analytical technique used to characterize the complex oligosaccharides that decorate cell surfaces. Monosaccharide building blocks are often simple epimers, which when combined produce diastereomeric glycoconjugates indistinguishable by mass spectrometry. Structure elucidation frequently relies on assumptions that biosynthetic pathways are highly conserved. Here, we show that biosynthetic enzymes can display unexpected promiscuity, with human glycosyltransferase pp-α-GanT2 able to utilize both uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine and uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine, leading to the synthesis of epimeric glycopeptides in vitro. Ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) was used to separate these structures and, significantly, enabled characterization of the attached glycan based on the drift times of the monosaccharide product ions generated following collision-induced dissociation. Finally, ion-mobility mass spectrometry following fragmentation was used to determine the nature of both the reducing and non-reducing glycans of a series of epimeric disaccharides and the branched pentasaccharide Man3 glycan, demonstrating that this technique may prove useful for the sequencing of complex oligosaccharides.

  11. The Hummingbird GC-IMS: In Situ Analysis of a Cometary Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Cohen, Martin J.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Stimac, Robert M.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Comets are of enormous scientific interest for many reasons. They are primitive bodies that date back to the earliest stages of solar system formation and, because of their small size and because they have been stored in the outer reaches of the solar system, their pristine nature has been preserved better than for any other class of body. They are extremely rich in highly volatile elements, many in the form of ices, and are richer in organic matter than any other known solar system body. It is strongly suspected that in addition to their content of primordial solar nebular material, they also incorporate unprocessed matter from the interstellar medium. Impacts by comets occur onto all the planets and satellites, often with major consequences (e.g., the dinosaur extinction event at the KIT boundary), or sometimes just providing a spectacular cosmic event (e.g., the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter). A mission to analyze a cometary nucleus must be capable of detecting and identifying over 30 molecular species among several different chemical groups. The Hummingbird Mission will rendezvous with, orbit, characterize, and make multiple descents to the nucleus of a comet. Hummingbird will employ a Gas Chromatograph - Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS) as part-of a suite of sophisticated instruments for a comprehensive in situ elemental, molecular, and isotopic analysis of the comet.

  12. Agent-Based Support for Context-Aware Provisioning of IMS-Enabled Ubiquitous Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petric, Ana; Trzec, Krunoslav; Jurasovic, Kresimir; Podobnik, Vedran; Jezic, Gordan; Kusek, Mario; Ljubi, Igor

    Multimedia applications executed on mobile devices allow users to be present and communicate with other users, anywhere and anytime, through wide area cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLAN), or fixed networks. In order to enable ubiquitous personalized services, communication systems should allow users to specify their context, or their mobile devices and network infrastructures should automatically sense their context and offer enhanced service provisioning solutions. In this paper, we propose an agent-based solution that supports context-aware provisioning of IP multimedia subsystem (IMS)-enabled ubiquitous services. Using agent technology, multimedia communication, controlled by SIP and enriched with context-related events delivered by SIP's event mechanism, can be seamlessly provisioned, taking into account not only mobility issues and context-awareness, but also the semantics of exchanged events. This paper proposes a multi-agent system that will enable users to consume context-aware ubiquitous services in a seamless (i.e., automated) way, providing optimal provisioning of SIP-based multimedia services according to user preferences.

  13. IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® 25 years on

    PubMed Central

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Jabado-Michaloud, Joumana; Folch, Géraldine; Aouinti, Safa; Carillon, Emilie; Duvergey, Hugo; Houles, Amélie; Paysan-Lafosse, Typhaine; Hadi-Saljoqi, Saida; Sasorith, Souphatta; Lefranc, Gérard; Kossida, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®(http://www.imgt.org) is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989 by Marie-Paule Lefranc (Université de Montpellier and CNRS), IMGT® marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH) and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT® is built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and 3D structures. The concepts include the IMGT® standardized keywords (identification), IMGT® standardized labels (description), IMGT® standardized nomenclature (classification), IMGT unique numbering and IMGT Colliers de Perles (numerotation). IMGT® comprises 7 databases, 17 online tools and 15 000 pages of web resources, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses, including NGS high-throughput data. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma) and in antibody engineering and humanization. The IMGT/mAb-DB interface was developed for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immunological applications (FPIA). IMGT® is freely available at http://www.imgt.org. PMID:25378316

  14. IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® 25 years on.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Jabado-Michaloud, Joumana; Folch, Géraldine; Aouinti, Safa; Carillon, Emilie; Duvergey, Hugo; Houles, Amélie; Paysan-Lafosse, Typhaine; Hadi-Saljoqi, Saida; Sasorith, Souphatta; Lefranc, Gérard; Kossida, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    IMGT(®), the international ImMunoGeneTics information system(®)(http://www.imgt.org) is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989 by Marie-Paule Lefranc (Université de Montpellier and CNRS), IMGT(®) marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT(®) is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH) and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT(®) is built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and 3D structures. The concepts include the IMGT(®) standardized keywords (identification), IMGT(®) standardized labels (description), IMGT(®) standardized nomenclature (classification), IMGT unique numbering and IMGT Colliers de Perles (numerotation). IMGT(®) comprises 7 databases, 17 online tools and 15,000 pages of web resources, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses, including NGS high-throughput data. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma) and in antibody engineering and humanization. The IMGT/mAb-DB interface was developed for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immunological applications (FPIA). IMGT(®) is freely available at http://www.imgt.org. PMID:25378316

  15. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt

  16. Giotto IMS measurements of the production rate of hydrogen cyanide in the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Kettmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The ion composition measurements in the ionosphere of Comet Halley by the ion mass spectrometer (IMS) experiment on the Giotto spacecraft are used to estimate the relative abundance of HCN. From a comparison of the normalized number density of ions with mass-to-charge (M/q) ratio of 28 AMU/e with steady-state photochemical models, it can be determined that the production rate of HCN directly from the central nucleus is Q(HCN) is less than about 0.0002 Q(H2O) at the time of Giotto encounter. The related photochemical- model calculations also indicate that Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) at the time of Giotto encounter. The related photo-chemical model calculations also indicate that Q(HN3)/Q(H2O) equals about 0.005, in agreement with recent determination from ground-based observations. The estimated value of Q(HCN) is lower than the relative abundance of Q(HCN)/Q(H2O) of about 0.001, as derived from radio observations of the 88.6 GHz emission of the J = 1 - 0 transition of HCN. The difference may be the result of time variations of the coma composition and dynamics, as well as other model-dependent effects.

  17. Automated Fiber Placement of PEEK/IM7 Composites with Film Interleaf Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulcher, A. Bruce; Banks, William I., III; Pipes, R. Byron; Tiwari, Surendra N.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Clinton, R. G., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The incorporation of thin discrete layers of resin between plies (interleafing) has been shown to improve fatigue and impact properties of structural composite materials. Furthermore, interleafing could be used to increase the barrier properties of composites used as structural materials for cryogenic propellant storage. In this work, robotic heated-head tape placement of PEEK/IM7 composites containing a PEEK polymer film interleaf was investigated. These experiments were carried out at the NASA Langley Research Center automated fiber placement facility. Using the robotic equipment, an optimal fabrication process was developed for the composite without the interleaf. Preliminary interleaf processing trials indicated that a two-stage process was necessary; the film had to be tacked to the partially-placed laminate then fully melted in a separate operation. Screening experiments determined the relative influence of the various robotic process variables on the peel strength of the film-composite interface. Optimization studies were performed in which peel specimens were fabricated at various compaction loads and roller temperatures at each of three film melt processing rates. The resulting data were fitted with quadratic response surfaces. Additional specimens were fabricated at placement parameters predicted by the response surface models to yield high peel strength in an attempt to gage the accuracy of the predicted response and assess the repeatability of the process. The overall results indicate that quality PEEK/lM7 laminates having film interleaves can be successfully and repeatability fabricated by heated head automated fiber placement.

  18. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system, http://imgt.cines.fr.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2003-01-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (http://imgt.cines.fr), is a high quality integrated knowledge resource specializing in immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR) and major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) and related proteins of the immune system (RPI) of human and other vertebrates, created in 1989 by LIGM at the Université Montpellier II, CNRS, Montpellier, France. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data which include nucleotide and protein sequences, oligonucleotide primers, gene maps, genetic polymorphisms, specificities, and 2D and 3D structures. IMGT includes five databases (IMGT/LIGM-DB, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB, IMGT/MHC-DB, IMGT/PRIMER-DB, IMGT/GENE-DB) Web resources ('IMGT Marie-Paule page') and interactive tools (IMGT/V-QUEST, IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, IMGT/PhyloGene, IMGT/LocusView, IMGT/GeneView, IMGT/GeneSearch, IMGT/StructureQuery). IMGT data are expertly annotated according to the rules of the IMGT Scientific chart based on IMGTONTOLOGY. IMGT tools are particularly useful for the analysis of the IG and TR repertoires in physiological normal and pathological situations. IMGT has important applications in medical research (autoimmune diseases, AIDS, leukaemias, lymphomas, myelomas), biotechnology related to antibody engineering (phage displays, combinatorial libraries) and therapeutic approaches (graft, immunotherapy). IMGT is freely available at http://imgt.cines.fr. PMID:14712935

  19. Analytical formulation of directly modulated OOFDM signals transmitted over an IM/DD dispersive link.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Tang, J; Capmany, J

    2013-03-25

    We provide an analytical study on the propagation effects of a directly modulated OOFDM signal through a dispersive fiber and subsequent photo-detection. The analysis includes the effects of the laser operation point and the interplay between chromatic dispersion and laser chirp. The final expression allows to understand the physics behind the transmission of a multi-carrier signal in the presence of residual frequency modulation and the description of the induced intermodulation distortion gives us a detailed insight into the diferent intermodulation products which impair the recovered signal at the receiver-end side. Numerical comparisons between transmission simulations results and those provided by evaluating the expression obtained are carried out for different laser operation points. Results obtained by changing the fiber length, laser parameters and using single mode fiber with negative and positive dispersion are calculated in order to demonstrate the validity and versatility of the theory provided in this paper. Therefore, a novel analytical formulation is presented as a versatile tool for the description and study of IM/DD OOFDM systems with variable design parameters. PMID:23546148

  20. Study of Out-Time on the Processing and Properties of IM7/977-3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Sutter, James K.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Maryanski, Michael; Schlea, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The capability to manufacture large structures leads to weight savings and reduced risk relative to joining smaller components. However, manufacture of increasingly large composite components is pushing the out-life limits of epoxy/ carbon fiber prepreg. IM7/977-3 is an autoclave processable prepreg material, commonly used in aerospace structures. The out-life limit is reported as 30 days by the manufacturer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the material processability and composite properties of 977-3 resin and IM7/977-3 prepreg that had been aged at room temperature for up to 60 days. The neat resin was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, to characterize cure behavior of the aged material, as well as any change in activation energy. The rise in the modulus of the uncured prepreg was monitored throughout the 60 days by dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA. Composite panels made of the fresh and aged prepreg material were also characterized by DMA. The overall test results suggested that IM7/977-3 was a robust material that offered quality laminates throughout this aging process when processed by autoclave.

  1. Post-installation activities in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas Veloso, J. A.; Christie, D. R.; Hoffmann, T. L.; Campus, P.; Bell, M.; Langlois, A.; Martysevich, P.; Demirovik, E.; Carvalho, J.; Kramer, A.; Wu, Sean F.

    2002-11-01

    The provisional operation and maintenance of IMS infrasound stations after installation and subsequent certification has the objective to prepare the infrasound network for entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The goal is to maintain and fine tune the technical capabilities of the network, to repair faulty equipment, and to ensure that stations continue to meet the minimum specifications through evaluation of data quality and station recalibration. Due to the globally dispersed nature of the network, this program constitutes a significant undertaking that requires careful consideration of possible logistic approaches and their financial implications. Currently, 11 of the 60 IMS infrasound stations are transmitting data in the post-installation Testing & Evaluation mode. Another 5 stations are under provisional operation and are maintained in post-certification mode. It is expected that 20% of the infrasound network will be certified by the end of 2002. This presentation will focus on the different phases of post-installation activities of the IMS infrasound program and the logistical challenges to be tackled to ensure a cost-efficient management of the network. Specific topics will include Testing & Evaluation and Certification of Infrasound Stations, as well as Configuration Management and Network Sustainment.

  2. Analytical/Operational Requirements for the In Situ Chemical Analysis of Cometary and Planetary Environments Using GC-IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for the in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. The miniCIDEX instrument was developed for the chemical analysis of a cemetery environment. It combined a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with a helium based Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) to fulfill the analytical requirements of a cemetery exobiology mission: universal response; ppb sensitivity; low mass, volume and consumable MiniCIDEX is now a candidate for the chemical analysis instrument of a Titan Aero-rover Mission. The complexity of the analyses will be similar to the comet application with a heavier emphasis on organic molecules. Because the Titan Aero-Rover will be a balloon powered rover, much more attention is placed on the total mass of the instrument package. The GC will likely be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) design, smaller than the initial miniCIDEX GC by a factor of ten (with a similar reduction in consumable use). Similar miniaturization of the helium-based IMS will be necessary while maintaining the analytical capabilities. The two mission applications, the analytical requirements, and the evolution of the IMS design to accommodate these requirements will be presented.

  3. IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units

    SciTech Connect

    Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias; Paillaud, Jean-Louis Caullet, Philippe; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Ersen, Ovidiu; Bats, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.

  4. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples. PMID:26920773

  5. Organization into Higher Ordered Ring Structures Counteracts Membrane Binding of IM30, a Protein Associated with Inner Membranes in Chloroplasts and Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Jennifer; Wulf, Verena; Hennig, Raoul; Saur, Michael; Markl, Jürgen; Sönnichsen, Carsten; Schneider, Dirk

    2016-07-15

    The IM30 (inner membrane-associated protein of 30 kDa), also known as the Vipp1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1), has a crucial role in thylakoid membrane biogenesis and maintenance. Recent results suggest that the protein binds peripherally to membranes containing negatively charged lipids. However, although IM30 monomers interact and assemble into large oligomeric ring complexes with different numbers of monomers, it is still an open question whether ring formation is crucial for membrane interaction. Here we show that binding of IM30 rings to negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol membrane surfaces results in a higher ordered membrane state, both in the head group and in the inner core region of the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, by using gold nanorods covered with phosphatidylglycerol layers and single particle spectroscopy, we show that not only IM30 rings but also lower oligomeric IM30 structures interact with membranes, although with higher affinity. Thus, ring formation is not crucial for, and even counteracts, membrane interaction of IM30. PMID:27226585

  6. Using IMS hydrophone data for detecting submarine volcanic activity: Insights from Monowai, 26°S Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony B.; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Rodgers, Mel; Paulatto, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Only little is known on active volcanism in the ocean. As eruptions are attenuated by seawater and fallout does not regularly reach the sea surface, eruption rates and mechanisms are poorly understood. Estimations on the number of active volcanoes across the modern seas range from hundreds to thousands, but only very few active sites are known. Monowai is a submarine volcanic centre in the northern Kermadec Arc, Southwest Pacific Ocean. During May 2011, it erupted over a period of five days, with explosive activity directly linked to the generation of seismoacoustic tertiary waves ('T-phases'), recorded at three broadband seismic stations in the region. We show, using windowed cross-correlation and time-difference-of-arrival techniques, that T-phases associated with this eruption are detected as far as Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean, where two bottom-moored hydrophone arrays are operated as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). We observe a high incidence of T-phase arrivals during the time of the eruption, with the angle of arrival stabilizing at the geodesic azimuth between the IMS arrays and Monowai. T-phases from the volcanic centre must therefore have propagated through the Sound Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) channel in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans and over a total geodesic range of approximately 15,800 km, one of the longest source-receiver distances of any naturally occurring underwater signal ever observed. Our findings, which are consistent with observations at regional broadband stations and two dimensional, long-range, parabolic equation modelling, highlight the exceptional capabilities of the hydroacoustic waveform component of the IMS for remotely detecting episodes of submarine volcanic activity. Using Monowai and the hydrophone arrays at Ascension Island as a natural laboratory, we investigate the long-term eruptive record of a submarine volcano from

  7. Prehospital Use of IM Ketamine for Sedation of Violent and Agitated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scheppke, Kenneth A.; Braghiroli, Joao; Shalaby, Mostafa; Chait, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violent and agitated patients pose a serious challenge for emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. Rapid control of these patients is paramount to successful prehospital evaluation and also for the safety of both the patient and crew. Sedation is often required for these patients, but the ideal choice of medication is not clear. The objective is to demonstrate that ketamine, given as a single intramuscular injection for violent and agitated patients, including those with suspected excited delirium syndrome (ExDS), is both safe and effective during the prehospital phase of care, and allows for the rapid sedation and control of this difficult patient population. Methods We reviewed paramedic run sheets from five different catchment areas in suburban Florida communities. We identified 52 patients as having been given intramuscular ketamine 4mg/kg IM, following a specific protocol devised by the EMS medical director of these jurisdictions, to treat agitated and violent patients, including a subset of which would be expected to suffer from ExDS. Twenty-six of 52 patients were also given parenteral midazolam after medical control was obtained to prevent emergence reactions associated with ketamine. Results Review of records demonstrated that almost all patients (50/52) were rapidly sedated and in all but three patients no negative side effects were noted during the prehospital care. All patients were subsequently transported to the hospital before ketamine effects wore off. Conclusion Ketamine may be safely and effectively used by trained paramedics following a specific protocol. The drug provides excellent efficacy and few clinically significant side effects in the prehospital phase of care, making it an attractive choice in those situations requiring rapid and safe sedation especially without intravenous access. PMID:25493111

  8. Thermal Effects on the Compressive Behavior of IM7/PET15 Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sandra Polesky

    2003-01-01

    The effect of changing operating temperature on the compressive response of IM7/PETI5 composite laminates is investigated within this paper. The three temperatures evaluated for this study were 129 C, 21 C, and 177 C, a spectrum from cryogenic to an elevated operating temperature. Laminate compressive strength property testing was conducted using the Wyoming Combined Load Compression fixture to generate strength data at the three operating temperatures of interest for several lay-ups. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of a [90/0]8s composite laminate subject to compressive loading is developed. The model is used to study the key attributes of the laminate that significantly influence the state of stress in the laminate. Both the resin rich layer located between lamina and the thermal residual stresses present in the laminate due to curing are included in the analysis model. For the laminate modeled, the effect of modeling temperature dependent material properties was determined to be insignificant for the operating temperatures studied. Simply using the material properties measured at the operating temperature of interest was sufficient for predicting stresses accurately in a linear analysis for the current problem. The three-dimensional analysis results revealed that the application of an applied compressive axial load in the 0-degree direction decreased the interlaminar stresses present in the laminate initially due to curing. Therefore, failure was concluded not be attributable to the interlaminar stresses in the composite laminate being studied when a compressive load is applied. The magnitude of the measured laminate compressive strength change with a change in temperature is concluded to be dominated by the change in the lamina compressive axial strength with a change in temperature.

  9. SN 2012im/2013ek: A Supernova Double Take in NGC 6984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An unprecedented transient event has just been detected in a spiral arm of NGC 6984. Two H-poor supernovae - SN 2012im and 2013ek - both originating from massive stripped-envelope progenitor stars have been found at virtually the same location {< 0.4 arcsec}. Interpretations have varied widely. Chance alignment of two completely independent supernovae of the same Type Ib/c class exploding within one year of each other from the same stellar cluster is statistically improbable. Thus, the two explosions are most likely physically related, and this has important ramifications in areas of high-mass binary star evolution and explosion mechanisms of core-collapse supernovae.High resolution HST images are the only means by which to probe the stellar environment of the progenitor system. To this end, we request WFC3/UVIS imaging in F336W, F475W, F555W, and F814W of SN 2013ek in the next month while SN 2013ek is still bright to pin down its precise location within a nearby cluster of stars visible in an archival plate of NGC 6984. Complementary follow-up images will be requested during regular GO proposals in Cycle 22 when the fading supernova reveals what is left behind. The proposed suite of images will allow us to model the cluster's broadband colors to determine properties of the progenitor star system's environment {e.g., mass, age, luminosity, star formation rate, metallicity} that will be used to constrain possible explosion scenarios.We request Director's Discretionary time for these observations as a non-disruptive TOO.

  10. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-05-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4? surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height ~ 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  11. Stable and unstable accretion in the classical T Tauri stars IM Lup and RU Lup as observed by MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, Michal; Ogloza, Waldemar; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Cameron, Chris; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2016-03-01

    Results of the time variability monitoring of the two classical T Tauri stars, RU Lup and IM Lup, are presented. Three photometric data sets were utilized: (1) simultaneous (same field) MOST satellite observations over four weeks in each of the years 2012 and 2013, (2) multicolour observations at the South African Astronomical Observatory in April-May of 2013, (3) archival V-filter All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data for nine seasons, 2001-2009. They were augmented by an analysis of high-resolution, public-domain VLT-UT2 Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectra from the years 2000 to 2012. From the MOST observations, we infer that irregular light variations of RU Lup are caused by stochastic variability of hotspots induced by unstable accretion. In contrast, the MOST light curves of IM Lup are fairly regular and modulated with a period of about 7.19-7.58 d, which is in accord with ASAS observations showing a well-defined 7.247 ± 0.026 d periodicity. We propose that this is the rotational period of IM Lup and is due to the changing visibility of two antipodal hotspots created near the stellar magnetic poles during the stable process of accretion. Re-analysis of RU Lup high-resolution spectra with the broadening function approach reveals signs of a large polar coldspot, which is fairly stable over 13 years. As the star rotates, the spot-induced depression of intensity in the broadening function profiles changes cyclically with period 3.710 58 d, which was previously found by the spectral cross-correlation method.

  12. Angular Velocity's Neural Network Observer of the Electric Drive of TVR - IM Type Implemented in Software Environment LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, L.; Bolovin, E.; Payuk, L.

    2016-06-01

    One of the common ways to manage a smooth starting and stopping of asynchronous motors are soft-start system. For this provision is necessary to use a closed speed asynchronous electric drive of tiristor voltage regulator - induction motor (TVR-IM) type. Using real sensors significantly increases the cost of installation and also introduces a number of inconveniences in the operation of the actuator. Observer has clear advantages that are created on artificial neural network. Creating a neural network observer in program graphic programming LabVIEW will allow to evaluate the speed of rotation of the asynchronous electric.

  13. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  14. Brief Communication: 2014 velocity and flux for five major Greenland outlet glaciers using ImGRAFT and Landsat-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerli, A.; Karlsson, N. B.; Grinsted, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents average velocity fields, mass flux estimates and central flowline profiles for five major Greenland outlet glaciers; Jakobshavn Isbræ, Nioghalvfjerdsbræ, Kangerdlugssuaq, Helheim and Petermann glaciers, spanning the period (August) 2013-(September) 2014. The results are produced by the feature tracking toolbox, ImGRAFT using Landsat-8, panchromatic data. The resulting velocity fields agree with the findings of existing studies. Furthermore, our results show an unprecedented speed of over 50 m day-1 at Jakobshavn Isbræ as it continues to retreat. All the processed data will be freely available for download at http://imgraft.glaciology.net.

  15. Could the IMS Infrasound Stations Support a Global Network of Small Aperture Seismic Arrays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Gibbons, Steven; Kværna, Tormod; Mykkeltveit, Svein

    2015-04-01

    The infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System are arrays consisting of up to 15 sites and with apertures of up to 3 km. The arrays are distributed remarkably uniformly over the globe and provide excellent coverage of South America, Africa, and Antarctica. This is to say that there are many infrasound arrays in regions many thousands of kilometers from the closest seismic array. Several infrasound arrays are in the immediate vicinity of existing 3-component seismic stations and these provide us with examples of how typical seismic signals look at these locations. We can make idealized estimates of the predicted performance of seismic arrays, consisting of seismometers at each site of the infrasound arrays, by duplicating the signals from the 3-C stations at all sites of the array. However, the true performance of seismic arrays at these sites will depend both upon Signal-to-Noise Ratios of seismic signals and the coherence of both signal and noise between sensors. These properties can only be determined experimentally. Recording seismic data of sufficient quality at many of these arrays may require borehole deployments since the microbarometers in the infrasound arrays are often situated in vaults placed in soft sediments. The geometries of all the current IMS infrasound arrays are examined and compared and we demonstrate that, from a purely geometrical perspective, essentially all the array configurations would provide seismic arrays with acceptable slowness resolution for both regional and teleseismic phase arrivals. Seismic arrays co-located with the infrasound arrays in many regions would likely enhance significantly the seismic monitoring capability in parts of the world where only 3-component stations are currently available. Co-locating seismic and infrasound sensors would facilitate the development of seismic arrays that share the infrastructure of the infrasound arrays, reducing the development and operational costs. Hosting countries might

  16. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA03, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access

  17. Development of CPV solar receiver based on insulated metal substrate (IMS): Comparison with receiver based on the direct bonded copper substrate (DBC) - A reliability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabille, Loïc; Mangeant, Christophe; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2012-10-01

    Most of the CPV solar receivers are based on III-V multijunction cells die-attached to a direct bonded copper (DBC) substrate. An alternative to DBC resides in the insulated metal substrate (IMS). This paper presents the behavior of IMS and DBC receivers when tested under accelerated aging conditions such as described in the IEC 62108. Characterization tools involved in the monitoring of potential degradation are electroluminescence (EL), dark-I (V) (DIV), spectral response (EQE), diode factor measurements (VIM), RX tomography (RX-T), and, of course, illuminated I (V) under various concentration factors. Based on EL, DIV and EQE first results, IMS and DBC age in a similar way. Study is ongoing.

  18. Direct Infusion Electrospray Ionization - Ion Mobility - High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (DIESI-IM-HRMS) for Rapid Characterization of Potential Bioprocess Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munisamy, Sharon M.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Becker, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Direct infusion electrospray ionization - ion mobility - high resolution mass spectrometry (DIESI-IM-HRMS) has been utilized as a rapid technique for the characterization of total molecular composition in "whole-sample" biomass hydrolysates and extracts. IM-HRMS data reveal a broad molecular weight distribution of sample components (up to 1100 m/z) and provide trendline isolation of feedstock components from those introduced "in process." Chemical formulas were obtained from HRMS exact mass measurements (with typical mass error less than 5 ppm) and were consistent with structural carbohydrates and other lignocellulosic degradation products. Analyte assignments are supported via IM-MS collision-cross-section measurements and trendline analysis (e.g., all carbohydrate oligomers identified in a corn stover hydrolysate were found to fall within 6 % of an average trendline). These data represent the first report of collision cross sections for several negatively charged carbohydrates and other acidic species occurring natively in biomass hydrolysates.

  19. Processing and Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Matrix Composites. Part 2; Processing Robustness of IM7/PETI Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    1996-01-01

    The processability of a phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) resin matrix composite was investigated. Unidirectional prepregs were made by coating an N-methylpyrrolidone solution of the amide acid oligomer onto unsized IM7. Two batches of prepregs were used: one was made by NASA in-house, and the other was from an industrial source. The composite processing robustness was investigated with respect to the effect of B-staging conditions, the prepreg shelf life, and the optimal processing window. Rheological measurements indicated that PETI's processability was only slightly affected over a wide range of B-staging temperatures (from 250 C to 300 C). The open hole compression (OHC) strength values were statistically indistinguishable among specimens consolidated using various B-staging conditions. Prepreg rheology and OHC strengths were also found not to be affected by prolonged (i.e., up to 60 days) ambient storage. An optimal processing window was established using response surface methodology. It was found that IM7/PETI composite is more sensitive to the consolidation temperature than to the consolidation pressure. A good consolidation was achievable at 371 C/100 Psi, which yielded an OHC strength of 62 Ksi at room temperature. However, processability declined dramatically at temperatures below 350 C.

  20. ESI-IMS-MS: A method for rapid analysis of protein aggregation and its inhibition by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Young, Lydia M; Saunders, Janet C; Mahood, Rachel A; Revill, Charlotte H; Foster, Richard J; Ashcroft, Alison E; Radford, Sheena E

    2016-02-15

    Electrospray ionisation-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS) is a powerful method for the study of conformational changes in protein complexes, including oligomeric species populated during protein self-aggregation into amyloid fibrils. Information on the mass, stability, cross-sectional area and ligand binding capability of each transiently populated intermediate, present in the heterogeneous mixture of assembling species, can be determined individually in a single experiment in real-time. Determining the structural characterisation of oligomeric species and alterations in self-assembly pathways observed in the presence of small molecule inhibitors is of great importance, given the urgent demand for effective therapeutics. Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of ESI-IMS-MS to identify small molecule modulators of amyloid assembly and to determine the mechanism by which they interact (positive, negative, non-specific binding, or colloidal) in a high-throughput format. Here, we demonstrate these advances using self-assembly of Aβ40 as an example, and reveal two new inhibitors of Aβ40 fibrillation. PMID:26007606

  1. Determination of Interlaminar Toughness of IM7/977-2 Composites at Temperature Extremes and Different Thicknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Pavlick, M. M.; Oliver, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Composite materials are being used in the aerospace industry as a means of reducing vehicle weight. In particular, polymer matrix composites (PMC) are good candidates due to their high strength-to-weight and high stiffness-to-weight ratios. Future reusable space launch vehicles and space exploration structures will need advanced light weight composites in order to minimize vehicle weight while demonstrating robustness and durability, guaranteeing high factors of safety. In particular, the implementation of composite cryogenic propellant fuel tanks (cryotanks) for future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) could greatly reduce the vehicle's weight versus identically sized cryotanks constructed of metallic materials. One candidate composite material for future cryotank designs is IM7/977-2, which is a graphite/epoxy system. A successful candidate must demonstrate reasonable structural properties over a wide range of temperatures. Since the matrix material is normally the weak link in the composite, tests that emphasize matrix-dominated behavior need to be conducted. Therefore, the objective of this work is to determine the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of "unidirectional" 8-ply and 16-ply IM7/977-2 through experimental testing. Tests were performed at -196 degrees Celsius (-320 degrees Fahrenheit), 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit), 93 degrees Celsius (200 degrees Fahrenheit) and 160 degrees C (320 degrees Fahrenheit). Low temperature testing was completed while the specimen was submerged in a liquid nitrogen bath. High temperature testing was completed in a temperature-controlled oven.

  2. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics. PMID:27306514

  3. Immunogenicity of IMS 1113 plus soluble subunit and chimeric proteins containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 C-terminal repeat regions.

    PubMed

    Barate, Abhijit K; Cho, Youngjae; Truong, Quang Lam; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2014-03-01

    The surface adhesin P97 mediates the adherence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Two reiterated repeats R1 and R2 are located at the C-terminus of P97. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of Montanide adjuvant IMS 1113 plus soluble subunit proteins rR1, rR1R2 and their chimeric forms coupled with B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB). Each recombinant protein in this study was capable of eliciting anti-R1 specific humoral antibodies (IgG), mucosal antibodies (IgG and IgA) and IFN-γ production. The chimeric protein rLTBR1R2 elicited the quickest humoral antibody response among the recombinant proteins. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis revealed that each recombinant protein was capable of inducing both Th1 and Th2 responses. Importantly, all of the proteins induced an anti-R1-specific Th2-biased response in both humoral and mucosal compartments, similar to the response observed in a natural infection or vaccination process. These observations indicate that rR1, rR1R2, rLTBR1 and rLTBR1R2 with IMS 1113 might represent a promising subunit vaccine strategy against porcine enzootic pneumonia in pigs. PMID:24461070

  4. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  5. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. VI. THE ORBIT OF IM PEGASI AND THE LOCATION OF THE SOURCE OF RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, R. R.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    We present a physical interpretation for the locations of the sources of radio emission in IM Pegasi (IM Peg, HR 8703), the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B. This emission is seen in each of our 35 epochs of 8.4 GHz very long baseline interferometry observations taken from 1997 to 2005. We found that the mean position of the radio emission is at or near the projected center of the primary to within about 27% of its radius, identifying this active star as the radio emitter. The positions of the radio brightness peaks are scattered across the disk of the primary and slightly beyond, preferentially along an axis with position angle, P.A. = -38 Degree-Sign {+-} 8 Degree-Sign , which is closely aligned with the sky projections of the orbit normal (P.A. = -49.{sup 0}5 {+-} 8.{sup 0}6) and the expected spin axis of the primary. Comparison with simulations suggests that brightness peaks are 3.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.7} times more likely to occur (per unit surface area) near the pole regions of the primary (latitude, |{lambda}| {>=} 70 Degree-Sign ) than near the equator (|{lambda}| {<=} 20 Degree-Sign ), and to also occur close to the surface with {approx}2/3 of them at altitudes not higher than 25% of the radius of the primary.

  6. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics. PMID:27306514

  7. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  8. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Array Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    nuclear tests but, due to signal incoherence, failed to contribute to the automatic event detections. It is demonstrated that the smoothed incoherent slowness estimates for the MJAR Pn phases for both tests indicate unambiguously the correct type of phase and a backazimuth estimate within 5 degrees of the great-circle backazimuth. The detection part of the algorithm is applicable to all IMS arrays, and spectrogram-based processing may offer a reduction in the false alarm rate for high frequency signals. Significantly, the local maxima of the scalar functions derived from the transformed spectrogram beams provide good estimates of the signal onset time. High frequency energy is of greater significance for lower event magnitudes and in, for example, the cavity decoupling detection evasion scenario. There is a need to characterize propagation paths with low attenuation of high frequency energy and situations in which parameter estimation on array stations fails.

  9. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and

  10. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOFLUORESCENT ANTIBODY ASSAY (IFA) AND IMMUNOMAGNETIC ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENCE (IM-ECL) IN DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN KARST WATER SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) and immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence (IM-ECL) were used for comparison of the percent of recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental water samples obtained from a spring draining a karst basin. The monoclonal antibodies to C. parvum, isotype IgG3...

  11. 78 FR 22260 - Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank); Notice of Open Special Meeting SUMMARY: The Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee was established by Public Law... Africa under the loan, guarantee, and insurance programs of the Bank. Further, the Committee shall...

  12. Less Words, More Action: Using On-the-Fly Videos and Screenshots in Your Library's IM/Chat and Email Reference Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekyere, Kwabena

    2010-01-01

    Email and chat/IM reference services have become a convenient and easily accessible option for the online community and libraries, particularly with increasing amounts of library resources now available electronically. This article gives an overview of Jing, which can be used to produce videos and screenshots on-the-fly, and demonstrates how to…

  13. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  14. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  15. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  16. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  17. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  18. Mission I'm Possible: Effects of a Community-Based Project on the Basic Literacy Skills of At-Risk Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Wan Har; Moore, Dennis W.; Nonis, Karen P.; Tang, Hui Nee; Koh, Patricia; Wee, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This study used a nonequivalent group design to evaluate the impact of an emergent literacy intervention on preschool children identified with early reading difficulties. Thirty-five children were compared with 39 typically developing classroom peers on various reading measures in a community-based project--"Mission I'm Possible" (MIP),…

  19. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  20. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  1. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  2. Evaluation of organ doses and effective dose according to the ICRP Publication 110 reference male/female phantom and the modified ImPACT CT patient dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Katada, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Shouichi

    2014-01-01

    We modified the Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) to evaluate the organ doses and the effective dose based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 110 reference male/female phantom with the Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner. To select the new CT scanner, the measurement results of the CTDI100,c and CTDI100,p for the 160 (head) and the 320 (body) mm polymethylmethacrylate phantoms, respectively, were entered on the Excel worksheet. To compute the organ doses and effective dose of the ICRP reference male/female phantom, the conversion factors obtained by comparison between the organ doses of different types of phantom were applied. The organ doses and the effective dose were almost identical for the ICRP reference male/female and modified ImPACT. The results of this study showed that, with the dose assessment of the ImPACT, the difference in sex influences only testes and ovaries. Because the MIRD-5 phantom represents a partially hermaphrodite adult, the phantom has the dimensions of the male reference man including testes, ovaries, and uterus but no female breasts, whereas the ICRP male/female phantom includes whole-body male and female anatomies based on high-resolution anatomical datasets. The conversion factors can be used to estimate the doses of a male and a female accurately, and efficient dose assessment can be performed with the modified ImPACT. PMID:25207566

  3. A Preliminary Report on a New Measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and Its Psychological Correlates among Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…

  4. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) is involved in the anti-cancer mechanism of dovitinib in human multiple myeloma IM-9 cells.

    PubMed

    Chon, Hae Jung; Lee, Yura; Bae, Kyoung Jun; Byun, Byung Jin; Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jiyeon

    2016-07-01

    Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) is a member of the germinal center kinase family. TNIK was first identified as a kinase that is involved in regulating cytoskeletal organization in many types of cells, and it was recently proposed as a novel therapeutic target in several types of human cancers. Although previous studies suggest that TNIK plays a pivotal role in cancer cell survival and prognosis, its function in hematological cancer cell survival has not been investigated. Here we investigated the relationship between TNIK function and cell viability in multiple myeloma IM-9 cells using TNIK small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection and dovitinib treatment. Treatment of IM-9 cells with TNIK siRNA and dovitinib treatment reduced cell proliferation. The ATP competing kinase assay and western blot analysis showed that dovitinib strongly inhibited both the interaction of TNIK with ATP (K i, 13 nM) and the activation of Wnt signaling effectors such as β-catenin and TCF4. Dovitinib also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in IM-9 cells without significant cytotoxicity in PBMCs. Our results provide new evidence that TNIK may be involved in the proliferation of multiple myeloma IM-9 cells and in the anti-cancer activity of dovitinib via inhibition of the endogenous Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:26995282

  5. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  6. The effects of physical aging at elevated temperatures on the viscoelastic creep on IM7/K3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Physical aging at elevated temperature of the advanced composite IM7/K3B was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short term isothermal, creep/recovery with the creep segments performed at constant load. The matrix dominated transverse tensile and in-plane shear behavior were measured at temperatures ranging from 200 to 230 C. Through the use of time based shifting procedures, the aging shift factors, shift rates and momentary master curve parameters were found at each temperature. These material parameters were used as input to a predictive methodology, which was based upon effective time theory and linear viscoelasticity combined with classical lamination theory. Long term creep compliance test data was compared to predictions to verify the method. The model was then used to predict the long term creep behavior for several general laminates.

  7. Errores fotométricos debido al uso del filtro anular de mediana en imágenes CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada, M.; Noel, N.

    El filtro anular de mediana tiene la importante propiedad de tener una escala claramente definida, lo que permite remover de una imagen CCD todos los objetos con tamaños menores a esta escala, independientemente de su morfología particular, y reemplazarlos por el correspondiente ``background" local. Este filtro es de gran utilidad para remover gradientes de fondo, ``fringing" y halos de objetos extendidos mediante el simple procedimiento de restar a la imagen original una imagen filtrada, repitiendo el proceso las veces que sea necesario. En este trabajo se presentan resultados sobre los errores que introduce este filtro en la fotometría de objetos con diferente relación S/N y su aplicación a imágenes con gradientes de fondo y ``fringing".

  8. Milliarcsecond Change of IM Pegasi Radio Position in 1 Hour Coincident with Sharp Rise in Flux Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Ransom, R. R.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Bartel, N.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    1999-05-01

    Continuum VLBI observations at 3.6 cm of the RS CVn binary star IM Pegasi (HR 8703) for ~16 hr beginning on 1997 January 16 revealed an apparent motion of the star's radio position that coincided temporally with a large relative change in its flux density. Specifically, a rise in flux density from 18 to 46 mJy in 1.4 hr coincided with a detected position change over that interval of (Δα, Δδ)=(-0.68+/-0.15, 0.55+/-0.20) mas. The magnitude of this position change is much larger than can be explained by parallax, proper motion, and orbital motion and is about two-thirds the estimated angular diameter of the primary component of the binary.

  9. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    PubMed

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance. PMID:27410115

  10. Experimental Verification of a Progressive Damage Model for IM7/5260 Laminates Subjected to Tension-Tension Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The durability and damage tolerance of laminated composites are critical design considerations for airframe composite structures. Therefore, the ability to model damage initiation and growth and predict the life of laminated composites is necessary to achieve structurally efficient and economical designs. The purpose of this research is to experimentally verify the application of a continuum damage model to predict progressive damage development in a toughened material system. Damage due to monotonic and tension-tension fatigue was documented for IM7/5260 graphite/bismaleimide laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables to predict stiffness loss in unnotched laminates. A damage dependent finite element code predicted the stiffness loss for notched laminates with good agreement to experimental data. It was concluded that the continuum damage model can adequately predict matrix damage progression in notched and unnotched laminates as a function of loading history and laminate stacking sequence.

  11. A comparative study between a high-gain interconnected observer and an adaptive observer applied to IM-based WECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naifar, Omar; Boukettaya, Ghada; Oualha, Abdelmajid; Ouali, Abderrazak

    2015-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of the potentialities of induction motor sensorless strategies in speed control applications. A comparison study is carried out between two observation approaches dedicated to speed control strategies of induction machine (IM)-based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) under parametric variations, such as: i) the adaptive observer approach, which is based on the speed adaptation law and ii) the interconnected observer, that offers robustness and stability of the system with reduced CPU time. The comparison study is achieved considering four performance criteria: stability, robustness with respect to the variations of the machine inductances, robustness with respect to the variations of the machine resistances, feasibility of the torque estimation. It has been found that the introduced interconnected observer exhibits a higher performance than the traditional adaptive one, with respect to the above-cited comparison criteria.

  12. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes. PMID:25934125

  13. Carbon nanotube sensor thread for distributed strain and damage monitoring on IM7/977-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi; Hehr, Adam; Shanov, Vesselin; Alvarez, Noe; Kienzle, Nicholas; Cummins, Joshua; Koester, Dave; Schulz, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Laminated composite materials are used in applications where light weight is a key requirement. However, minor delamination damage in composites can propagate and lead to the failure of components. Failure occurs because delamination reduces the local bending stiffness and increases bending stress, which leads to the propagation of damage and eventual failure. These failures may be avoided if the damage could be detected early and repaired. Although many damage detection methods have been investigated, none are in widespread use today to prevent the failure of composites. This paper describes the use of carbon nanotube sensor thread to monitor strain and damage in composite materials. Sensor thread was bonded onto an IM7-laminated composite coupon to measure surface strain in a quasi-static uniaxial tensile test. The sensor thread was calibrated against a strain gage, which was also mounted to the coupon. The sensor thread measured the average strain over the length of the sample and indicated when the strain exceeded a nominal safe level. Sensor thread was also bonded to the surface of laminated composite panels in different patterns and detected, located and partially characterized the damage caused by multiple impacts to the panel. The new findings in this paper can be summarized as; (1) carbon nanotube sensor thread was tested as a distributed sensor for the first time on IM7/977-3 composites; (2) the sensor thread was found to monitor strain and detect damage in the composites with a potential sensitivity down to the micro-crack level; (3) the sensor thread was barely visible on the composite and did not add significant mass or affect the integrity of the composite; (4) the data acquisition system developed was simple and reliable.

  14. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Urinary Pathogens by Mobile IMS-Based Electronic Nose: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Oksala, Niku K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) –based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. In conclusion: These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI. PMID:25526592

  15. ABSOLUTE DIMENSIONS OF THE G7+K7 ECLIPSING BINARY STAR IM VIRGINIS: DISCREPANCIES WITH STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Juan Carlos; Marschall, Laurence A.; Brehm, William

    2009-12-10

    We report extensive spectroscopic and differential photometric BVRI observations of the active, detached, 1.309-day double-lined eclipsing binary IM Vir, composed of a G7-type primary and a K7 secondary. With these observations, we derive accurate absolute masses and radii of M {sub 1} = 0.981 +- 0.012 M {sub sun}, M {sub 2} = 0.6644 +- 0.0048 M {sub sun}, R {sub 1} = 1.061 +- 0.016 R {sub sun}, and R {sub 2} = 0.681 +- 0.013 R {sub sun} for the primary and secondary, with relative errors under 2%. The effective temperatures are 5570 +- 100 K and 4250 +- 130 K, respectively. The significant difference in mass makes this a favorable case for comparison with stellar evolution theory. We find that both stars are larger than the models predict, by 3.7% for the primary and 7.5% for the secondary, as well as cooler than expected, by 100 K and 150 K, respectively. These discrepancies are in line with previously reported differences in low-mass stars, and are believed to be caused by chromospheric activity, which is not accounted for in current models. The effect is not confined to low-mass stars: the rapidly rotating primary of IM Vir joins the growing list of objects of near-solar mass (but still with convective envelopes) that show similar anomalies. The comparison with the models suggests an age of 2.4 Gyr for the system, and a metallicity of [Fe/H] approx-0.3 that is consistent with other indications, but requires confirmation.

  16. Using focus groups to understand causes for morale decline after introducing change in an IM residency program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although program evaluation is a core requirement of Internal Medicine residencies, little is reported in the literature regarding resident satisfaction with training. Most program evaluation consists of numerical rating scales from which it is often difficult to pinpoint exact sources of dissatisfaction. Methods Our goal in this work is to evaluate the utility of focus group methodology to uncover in detail the reasons for residents’ deteriorating morale in an IM residency program, as well as to solicit suggestions for correction. This study employed focus groups (FG) in a qualitative research design, in which descriptive statistics from a resident program evaluation survey served to guide an intensive focus group process. Participants were 40 of 45 2nd and 3rd year internal medicine residents enrolled in the IM residency training program. Five chief residents were trained to conduct 5 focus groups with 8 residents in each group. The focus groups examined possible issues contributing to the deterioration of morale noted in the quantitative survey. Results Many unexpected themes were uncovered by the FGs. Residents identified the following factors as the major contributors to deteriorating morale: 1) Pace of change 2) Process of change 3) The role of chief residents in change 4) Fear of intimidation and retaliation. Groups also suggested practical recommendations for improving the culture of the residency. Conclusion Introducing change in residency training is a challenging process. Respectful attention to resident frustrations and solution-focused discussions are necessary to understand and improve morale. Focus groups proved to be a useful tool in revealing the precise source of pervasive resident concerns as well as providing potential solutions. In addition, FGs methodology can be adapted in a practical manner to residency evaluation. PMID:24994046

  17. Multiband Photometry of the Chromospherically Active & Spotted Binary System IM Peg—the Guide Star for the Gravity Probe B Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert; Guinan, Edward F.; Messina, Sergio; Lanza, Antonino F.; Wasatonic, Richard; McCook, George P.

    2010-06-01

    We report on the starspot properties of IM Pegasi—the guide star of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite. GP-B's mission is to measure two predicted consequences of general relativity—the frame-dragging and geodetic effects—via its extremely precise onboard gyroscopes. However, IM Peg is a chomospherically active binary system with a luminous K2 III primary star showing rotationally modulated (Prot ≈ 24.5 days) light variations from starspots. The starspots can potentially cause problems as GP-B can erroneously interpret a change in starspot coverage (and corresponding shifts in the light center) as the star's movement. This apparent shift can also be exacerbated by possible changes in the light center (photocenter) of the binary system arising from changes in the light balance with the fainter ~1 Msolar (main-sequence early G-type star) component. Since 2000, we have carried out multiband high-precision photoelectric photometry of IM Peg to determine its activity and starspot coverage. Our photometry uses Strömgren uvby intermediate-band filters, VRI filters, and TiO (720/750 nm) narrowband filter sets. Measurements were made relative to nearby comparison and check stars using 0.8 m and 0.25 m telescopes. Analysis of TiO and multiband continuum photometry constrains the starspot areas, temperatures, and surface distributions. The photometry has been modeled using the maximum entropy and Tikhonov regularizations to determine the properties of starspots and to evaluate the effects of changing starspot areas and distributions on the light center of the binary. Our results indicate that IM Peg's activity should not affect the GP-B mission. We also present a study of IM Peg's long-term starspot cycle, which shows evidence of being 20 yr long. Lastly, we have determined the intrinsic (unspotted) brightness of the star to be V mag = 5.62 ± 0.03.

  18. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer

  19. The use of α-conotoxin ImI to actualize the targeted delivery of paclitaxel micelles to α7 nAChR-overexpressing breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mei, Dong; Lin, Zhiqiang; Fu, Jijun; He, Bing; Gao, Wei; Ma, Ling; Dai, Wenbing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Wanliang; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), a ligand-gated ion channel, is increasingly emerging as a new tumor target owing to its expression specificity and significancy for cancer. In an attempt to increase the targeted drug delivery to the α7 nAChR-overexpressing tumors, herein, α-conotoxin ImI, a disulfide-rich toxin with highly affinity for α7 nAChR, was modified on the PEG-DSPE micelles (ImI-PMs) for the first time. The DLS, TEM and HPLC detections showed the spherical nanoparticle morphology about 20 nm with negative charge and high drug encapsulation. The ligand modification did not induce significant differences. The immunofluorescence assay confirmed the expression level of α7 nAChR in MCF-7 cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that the α7 nAChR-targeted nanomedicines could deliver more specifically and faster into α7 nAChR-overexpressing MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, fluo-3/AM fluorescence imaging technique indicated that the increased specificity was attributed to the ligand-receptor interaction, and the inducitivity for intracellular Ca(2+) transient by ImI was still remained after modification. Moreover, paclitaxel, a clinical frequently-used anti-tumor drug for breast cancer, was loaded in ImI-modified nanomedicines to evaluate the targeting efficacy. Besides of exhibiting greater cytotoxicity and inducing more cell apoptosis in vitro, paclitaxel-loaded ImI-PMs displayed stronger anti-tumor efficacy in MCF-7 tumor-bearing nu/nu mice. Finally, the active targeting system showed low systemic toxicity and myelosuppression evidenced by less changes in body weight, white blood cells, neutrophilic granulocyte and platelet counts. In conclusion, α7 nAChR is also a promising target for anti-tumor drug delivery and in this case, α-conotoxin ImI-modified nanocarrier is a potential delivery system for targeting α7 nAChR-overexpressing tumors. PMID:25542793

  20. I37NO: an IMS infrasound array in northern Norway for optimal monitoring of infrasound on global and regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Gibbons, Steven; Fyen, Jan; Roth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The IMS infrasound array I37NO near Bardufoss in northern Norway became operational in October 2013 and was certified on December 19, 2013. The 10-element array has an aperture of approximately 1.5 km and is deployed in low-lying woodland about 2.5 degrees north of the Arctic Circle. Its location in the European Arctic means that the array fills an important gap in the global IMS infrasound monitoring network. In addition, I37NO extends significantly the network of infrasound stations in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia: operated by NORSAR, the Swedish Institute for Space Physics, and the Kola Regional Seismological Center in Apatity. The geometry is based on the highly successful classical design for regional seismic arrays with sensors arranged in two approximately concentric rings surrounding a central site. A 4-site subarray with an aperture of approximately 450 meters, comprising the central element and the inner ring of 3 sites, provides an excellent array response function and detection capability for relatively high frequency (2-4 Hz) signals. Such signals are usually generated by events at distances within 1000 km and often lack energy in the lower frequency bands for which the larger aperture arrays provide signal coherence. These so-called regional signals are of increasing importance in civil applications and the need to characterize the infrasonic wavefield over these distances is increasingly important in the remote monitoring of natural hazards. I37NO will provide good characterization of Ground Truth industrial and military explosions in the region which are well-constrained by seismic data. The full array aperture provides excellent backazimuth and slowness resolution for lower frequency signals and it is anticipated that I37NO will contribute significantly to the detection and association of signals on a global scale. Already within the first few months of operation, we have examples of high-quality recordings from meteors, accidental

  1. GT0 Explosion Sources for IMS Infrasound Calibration: Charge Design and Yield Estimation from Near-source Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Three large-scale on-surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) at the Sayarim Military Range, Negev desert, Israel: about 82 tons of strong high explosives in August 2009, and two explosions of about 10 and 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources, monitored by extensive observations, for calibration of International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In all shots, the explosives were assembled like a pyramid/hemisphere on dry desert alluvium, with a complicated explosion design, different from the ideal homogenous hemisphere used in similar experiments in the past. Strong boosters and an upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide more energy radiated to the atmosphere. Under these conditions the evaluation of the actual explosion yield, an important source parameter, is crucial for the GT0 calibration experiment. Audio-visual, air-shock and acoustic records were utilized for interpretation of observed unique blast effects, and for determination of blast wave parameters suited for yield estimation and the associated relationships. High-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. The yield estimators, based on empirical scaled relations for well-known basic air-blast parameters—the peak pressure, impulse and positive phase duration, as well as on the crater dimensions and seismic magnitudes, were analyzed. A novel empirical scaled relationship for the little-known secondary shock delay was developed, consistent for broad ranges of ANFO charges and distances, which facilitates using this stable and reliable air-blast parameter as a new potential

  2. From Ions to Bits - Developing the IT infrastructure around the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR SIMS lab at GFZ Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, A.; Klump, J.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) is an highly sensitive technique for analyzing the surfaces of solids and thin film samples, but has the major drawback that such instruments are both rare and expensive. The Virtual SIMS project aims to design, develop and operate the IT infrastructure around the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR SIMS at GFZ Potsdam. The system will cover the whole spectrum of the procedures in the lab - from the online application for measurement time, to the remote access to the instrument and finally the maintenance of the data for publishing and future re-use. A virtual lab infrastructure around the IMS 1280 will enable remote access to the instrument and make measurement time available to the broadest possible user community. Envisioned is that the IT infrastructure would consist of the following: web portal, data repository, sample repository, project management software, communication arrangements between the lab staff and distant researcher and remote access to the instruments. The web portal will handle online applications for the measurement time. The data from the experiments, the monitoring sensor logs and the lab logbook entries are to be stored and archived. Researchers will be able to access their data remotely in real time, thus imposing a user rights management strucuture. Also planned is that all samples and the standards will be assigned a unique International GeoSample Number (IGSN) and that the images of the samples will be stored and made accessible in addition to any additional documents which might be uploaded by the researcher. The project management application will schedule the application process, the measurements times, notifications and alerts. A video conference capability is forseen for communication between the Potsdam staff and the remote researcher. The remote access to the instruments requires a sophisticated client-server solution. This highly sensitive instrument has to be controlled in real-time with latencies

  3. Performance of the primary seismic array stations of the IMS network for the year 2015 Part II): An Analyst's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonathan, Ezekiel; Kebede, Fekadu

    2016-04-01

    Verification of the CTBT is partly dependent on the ability of the automatic system to detect and present correct attributes for all phases that are detected at the stations. This helps in building of more accurate automatic event solutions and thus reducing the work load and time for interactive analysis whilst increasing the quality of bulletins issued out to member states so that they can decide if there are any treaty violations. During interactive analysis automatic event solutions are refined and/or re-estimated by checking the correctness of the associated phase identity, phase arrival time, azimuth and slowness using raw waveform data. This refinement procedure leads analysts to rename, associate, disassociate and manually add seismic arrivals. The final event solution is accepted or rejected based on the existing rules, guidelines and procedures. In addition, new event solutions are built using unassociated signal detections and the raw waveform data during scanning. In this study differences between seismic phases associated to automatically produced SEL3 bulletin and the Late Event Bulletin (LEB) obtained through interactive analysis are investigated using data from all primary seismic array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) network during the year 2015. The performance of the network is evaluated from an analyst's perspective by looking at the number of phases that are renamed, manually added, associated, and disassociated by analysts during interactive analysis. The observed differences do shed some light on analysts workload as well as the performance of the primary seismic array of the IMS network. For example, the results indicate that for the Waramunga array station in Australia (WRA) out of a total of 41175 detections associated to saved events in 2015, 13305 (32.3%) of them were renamed during interactive analysis and 7667 were automatic detections that were associated to events by analysts. 1174 detections were manually added

  4. The Dependence of the Change in the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polyimide IM7-K3B on Microcracking due to Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Melissa C.

    1995-01-01

    Composite IM7-K3B was subjected to a simulated high speed aircraft thermal environment to determine the effects of microcracking on the change in CTE. IM7-K3B is a graphite fiber reinforced polyimide laminate, manufactured by Dupont. The lay-up for the material was (0.90((Sub 3)(Sub s))). The specimens were placed in a laser-interferometric dilatometer to obtain thermal expansion measurements and were then repeatedly cycled between -65 F and 350 F up to 1000 cycles. After cycling they were scanned for microcracks at a magnification of 400x. The material was expected not to crack and to have a near zero CTE. Some microcracking did occur in all specimens and extensive microcracking occurred in one specimen. Further testing is required to determine how closely the CTE and microcracking are related.

  5. Increasing conclusiveness of clinical breath analysis by improved baseline correction of multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) data.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Ewa; Tinnevelt, Gerjen H; Brodrick, Emma; Williams, Mark; Davies, Antony N; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2016-08-01

    Current challenges of clinical breath analysis include large data size and non-clinically relevant variations observed in exhaled breath measurements, which should be urgently addressed with competent scientific data tools. In this study, three different baseline correction methods are evaluated within a previously developed data size reduction strategy for multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) datasets. Introduced for the first time in breath data analysis, the Top-hat method is presented as the optimum baseline correction method. A refined data size reduction strategy is employed in the analysis of a large breathomic dataset on a healthy and respiratory disease population. New insights into MCC-IMS spectra differences associated with respiratory diseases are provided, demonstrating the additional value of the refined data analysis strategy in clinical breath analysis. PMID:26879424

  6. Fragenkatalog zur Begrundung und Beurteilung von Einfuhrungskurskonzeptionen im Rahmen der Germanistik (Question-Catalog on the Establishment and Evaluation of Introductory-Course-Conceptions in the Area of Germanic Studies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linguistik und Didaktik, 1973

    1973-01-01

    From a session of the Arbeitskreis fur Hochschuldidaktik im Germanistenverband (Workshop for College Teaching in German Departments), Loccum, West Germany, July 3-6, 1972; compiled by the Initiativgruppe Studienreform Hamburg (Proposals Committee for Curriculum Reform in Hamburg). (DD)

  7. Analysis of recordings from underwater controlled sources in the Pacific Ocean received by the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tomoaki; Zampolli, Mario; Haralabus, Georgios; Heaney, Kevin; Prior, Mark; Isse, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Controlled impulsive scientific underwater sound sources in the Northwestern Pacific were observed at two IMS hydroacoustic stations in the Pacific Ocean. Although these experiments were conducted with the aim of studying the physical properties of the plate boundaries inside the Earth, they are also suitable for the investigation of long range underwater acoustic detections. In spite of the fact that the energy of these controlled impulsive scientific sources is significantly smaller than that of nuclear explosions, the signals were obtained by IMS hydrophone stations thousands of kilometres away and also by distant ocean bottom instruments operated by various Institutes, such as the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. These experiments provide calibrated (yield, time, location) long-range acoustic transmissions, which enable one to examine the physics of long-range acoustic propagation and to verify the capabilities of the CTBTO IMS network to detect even small explosions.The two IMS stations used are H03 (Juan Fernandez Island, Chile) off the coast of Chile in the Southeastern Pacific and H11 (Wake Island, USA) in the Western Pacific. Both stations consist of two triplets of hydrophones in the SOFAR channel, which monitor the oceans for signs of nuclear explosions. H03 detected low-yield explosions above flat terrain at distances of 15,000 km across the Pacific as well as explosions above the landward slope off the coast of Japan at distances above 16,000 km across the Pacific. These records showed that source signatures, such as short duration and bubble pulses, were preserved over the long propagation distances. It was found that the observed maximum amplitudes from each source exhibit order of magnitude variations even when the yield and detonation depth are the same. The experimental data and transmission loss simulations suggest that bathymetric features around the sources and between the sources and the receivers are the main causes for

  8. Establishing a Dynamic Database of Blue and Fin Whale Locations from Recordings at the IMS CTBTO hydro-acoustic network. The Baleakanta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, R. J.; Kuzma, H.

    2013-12-01

    Falling as they do into the frequency range of continuously recording hydrophones (15-100Hz), blue and fin whale songs are a significant source of noise on the hydro-acoustic monitoring array of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). One researcher's noise, however, can be a very interesting signal in another field of study. The aim of the Baleakanta Project (www.baleakanta.org) is to flag and catalogue these songs, using the azimuth and slowness of the signal measured at multiple hydrophones to solve for the approximate location of singing whales. Applying techniques borrowed from human speaker identification, it may even be possible to recognize the songs of particular individuals. The result will be a dynamic database of whale locations and songs with known individuals noted. This database will be of great value to marine biologists studying cetaceans, as there is no existing dataset which spans the globe over many years (more than 15 years of data have been collected by the IMS). Current whale song datasets from other sources are limited to detections made on small, temporary listening devices. The IMS song catalogue will make it possible to study at least some aspects of the global migration patterns of whales, changes in their songs over time, and the habits of individuals. It is believed that about 10 blue whale 'cultures' exist with distinct vocal patterns; the IMS song catalogue will test that number. Results and a subset of the database (delayed in time to mitigate worries over whaling and harassment of the animals) will be released over the web. A traveling museum exhibit is planned which will not only educate the public about whale songs, but will also make the CTBTO and its achievements more widely known. As a testament to the public's enduring fascination with whales, initial funding for this project has been crowd-sourced through an internet campaign.

  9. Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mizukoshi, Izumi; Hanawa, Masanori

    2015-01-26

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate wireless transmission of optical intensity modulation/direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IM/DD-OFDM) signals in an underwater channel using a field programmable gate array based real-time transmitter. The real-time transmission of a 405 nm 1.45 Gbit/s optical OFDM signal through a 4.8 m underwater channel with an error vector magnitude of approximately 10% was successfully achieved. PMID:25835913

  10. Processing and properties of fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composites: I. IM7/LARC(TM)-PETI-7 polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    1995-01-01

    A phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomer formed from the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, an 75:25 molar ratio of 4,4'-oxydianiline and meta-phenylenediamine and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride as the endcapper at a theoretical number average molecular weight (Mn) of approximately 3,700 g/mol was evaluated as a composite resin matrix. A glass transition temperature (Tg) of 315 deg C was reached after 250 deg C/1 hr annealing of the matrix resin. Unidirectional prepreg was made by coating an N-methylpyrrolidinone solution of the amide acid oligomer onto unsized IM7 graphite fibers. The thermal and rheological properties and the solvent/volatile depletion rates of the amide acid/NMP system were determined. This information was used to successfully design a molding cycle for composite fabrication. Composites molded under 800 Psi at 371 C consistently yielded good consolidation as measured by C-scan and optical photomicrography. The composite's short beam shear strength (SBS), longitudinal and transverse flexural strengths and moduli were measured at various temperatures. These composites exhibited excellent room temperature (RT) longitudinal flexural strength and modulus and RT SBS strength retention at 177 C.

  11. Design and implementation of a prototype graphical environment for (IMS/VS) hierarchical data-base application development (HIDAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, T.

    1987-01-01

    In order to alleviate the existing software crisis, data-base application developers require a revolutionary approach for developing their applications. A graphical environment is suggested for this purpose. This dissertation describes and demonstrates a design and implementation of a prototype graphical environment for hierarchy data-base application development (HIDAD). The HIDAD graphical environment is composed of a graphic tool box, a graphic language, a graphic editor, a macro generator, and an application organizer. The graphic tool box contains a set of tools for generating the vocabulary of HIDAD graphic language. The graphic language is designed for representing data base applications. The microcomputer-based graphic editor is used to input and maintain the graphical representation of the system. This can generate intermediate code from graphical specifications. The macro generator uses the intermediate code in the mainframe computer and produces macros in COBOL, IMS, JCL and WYLBUR from primitive templates. The application organizer organizes the above macros from the respective libraries into an executable application program.

  12. Effects of Aging-Time Reference on the Long Term Behavior of the IM7/K3B Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the time-based shift reference on the long term behavior of the graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide composite IM7/K3B at elevated temperature. Creep compliance and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(sub g). Two matrix dominated loading modes, shear and transverse, were investigated in tension and compression. The momentary sequenced creep/aging curves were collapsed through a horizontal (time) shift using the shortest, middle and longest aging time curve as the reference curve. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. The use of effective time expressions in a laminated plate model allowed for the prediction of long term creep compliance. The effect of using different reference curves with time/aging-time superposition was most sensitive to the physical aging shift rate at lower test temperatures. Depending on the loading mode, the reference curve used can result in a more accurate long term prediction, especially at lower test temperatures.

  13. Comparison of Intralaminar and Interlaminar Mode-I Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional IM7/8552 Graphite/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Ratcliffe, James

    2012-01-01

    The intralaminar and interlaminar mode-I fracture-toughness of a unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite/epoxy composite were measured using compact tension (CT) and double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens, respectively. Two starter crack geometries were considered for both the CT and DCB specimen configurations. In the first case, starter cracks were produced by 12.5 micron thick, Teflon film inserts. In the second case, considerably sharper starter cracks were produced by fatigue precracking. For each specimen configuration, use of the Teflon film starter cracks resulted in initially unstable crack growth and artificially high initiation fracture-toughness values. Conversely, specimens with fatigue precracks exhibited stable growth onset and lower initiation fracture toughness. For CT and DCB specimens with fatigue precracks, the intralaminar and interlaminar initiation fracture toughnesses were approximately equal. However, during propagation, the CT specimens exhibited more extensive fiber bridging, and rapidly increasing R-curve behavior as compared to the DCB specimens. Observations of initiation and propagation of intralaminar and interlaminar fracture, and the measurements of fracture toughness, were supported by fractographic analysis using scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Joint CO2 state and flux estimation with the 4D-Var system EURAD-IM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpt, Johannes; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 inversion studies seek to improve CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes with the usage of adjoint transport models and CO2 concentration measurements. Terrestrial CO2 fluxes -anthropogenic emissions, photosynthesis, and respiration- bear large spatial and temporal variability and are highly uncertain. Additionally to the high uncertainty of the three CO2 fluxes itself, regional inversion studies suffer from uncertainty of the boundary layer height and atmospheric transport especially during night, leading to uncertainty of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios during sunrise. This study assesses the potential of the 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) method to estimate CO2 fluxes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations jointly at each grid cell on a regional scale. Identical twin experiments are executed with the nested EURopean Air pollution Dispersion-Inverse Model (EURAD-IM) with 5 km resolution in Central Europe with synthetic half hourly measurements from eleven concentration towers. The assimilation window is chosen to start from sunrise for 12 hours. We find that joint estimation of CO2 fluxes and initial states requires a more careful balance of the background error covariance matrices but enables a more detailed analysis of atmospheric CO2 and the surface-atmosphere fluxes.

  15. Level of education and multiple sclerosis risk after adjustment for known risk factors: The EnvIMS study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnevik, Kjetil; Riise, Trond; Cortese, Marianna; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Magalhaes, Sandra; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Wolfson, Christina; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several recent studies have found a higher risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) among people with a low level of education. This has been suggested to reflect an effect of smoking and lower vitamin D status in the social class associated with lower levels of education. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between level of education and MS risk adjusting for the known risk factors smoking, infectious mononucleosis, indicators of vitamin D levels and body size. Methods: Within the case-control study on Environmental Factors In MS (EnvIMS), 953 MS patients and 1717 healthy controls from Norway reported educational level and history of exposure to putative environmental risk factors. Results: Higher level of education were associated with decreased MS risk (p trend = 0.001) with an OR of 0.53 (95% CI 0.41–0.68) when comparing those with the highest and lowest level of education. This association was only moderately reduced after adjusting for known risk factors (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44–0.83). The estimates remained similar when cases with disease onset before age 28 were excluded. Conclusion: These findings suggest that factors related to lower socioeconomic status other than established risk factors are associated with MS risk. PMID:26014605

  16. A novel power-efficient scheme asymmetrically and symmetrically clipping optical (ASCO)-OFDM for IM/DD optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Bar-Ness, Yeheskel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. By using this novel scheme of an OFDM optical system, not only odd subcarriers but also even subcarriers can be modulated to transmit a clipping optical signal. A conventional asymmetrically clipping optical (ACO)-OFDM is applied to modulate odd subcarriers while even subcarriers are modulated by a novel technique called a symmetrically clipping optical (SCO)-OFDM. Although both the asymmetrically clipping noise caused by ACO-OFDM and the symmetrically clipping noise caused by SCO-OFDM fall onto the even subcarriers, the former interference can be estimated and removed at the receiver. Thus, SCO-OFDM symbols carried on the even subcarriers can be recovered by subtracting the estimated ACO-OFDM clipping noise from the received signal. Then the SCO-OFDM clipping noise can be removed by subtraction due to its special transmission format. Note that no DC bias added on all subcarriers makes this novel scheme achieve better performance in terms of both power efficiency and symbol error rate (SER).

  17. Testing the interactive computer method (IM) for producing K indices with the data of the Hurbanovo and Budkov magnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, Fridrich; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, Miloš; Bochníček, Josef; Váczyová, Magdaléna

    2016-09-01

    It is generally accepted that the geomagnetic K indices derived by experienced observers are of great value. The interactive method (IM) based on the traditional hand-scaling methodology is tested in this study. The tests are performed utilising the data from the Hurbanovo and Budkov magnetic observatories. These data include both digital records of the geomagnetic field and hand-scaled K indices that had been derived by experienced observers. The authentic K indices from Hurbanovo cover the year 1997 and the same kind of data from Budkov covers the years 1994-1999. In addition to these data, hand-scaled K indices are used which were derived by the experienced observer from printed digital magnetograms for both of the observatories for the years 2000-2003. The results of this study indicate that for high values of K indices (the values being at least 5) the tested method follows the traditional hand-scaling better than the widely used computer methods FMI and AS. On the other hand, for the K indices less than 5 the tested method turns out to be the worst when compared with the FMI and AS methods. For very low geomagnetic activity (K-index values equal to 0) the performance of the tested method is comparable to the two computer methods.

  18. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database: a high-quality information system for comparative immunogenetics and immunology.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2002-10-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database (http://imgt.cines.fr), is a high quality integrated information system specializing in Immunoglobulins (IG), T cell Receptors (TR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, created in 1989, by LIGM, at the Université Montpellier II, CNRS, Montpellier, France. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data, which include nucleotide and protein sequences, oligonucleotide primers, gene maps, genetic polymorphisms, specificities, 2D and 3D structures. IMGT includes several databases (IMGT/LIGM-DB, IMGT/HLA-DB, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB), Web resources ('IMGT Marie-Paule page') which comprise IMGT Scientific Chart, IMGT Repertoire, IMGT Bloc-notes, IMGT Education, IMGT Aide-mémoire and IMGT Index, and interactive tools (IMGT/V-QUEST, IMGT/JunctionAnalysis). These expertly annotated data on the genome, proteome, genetics and structure of the IG, TR and MHC are of high value for comparative genome evolution studies of the adaptative immune response. PMID:12206833

  19. Diagnostic efficiency of ImPACT and CogSport in concussed rugby union players who have not undergone baseline neurocognitive testing.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew; Shores, E Arthur; Batchelor, Jennifer; Honan, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    The current study endeavored to replicate the approach to sports-related concussion management adopted by some community-based sporting organizations by examining the diagnostic efficiency of CogSport and ImPACT in athletes without baseline test data and assessed only once postinjury. Recently concussed nonelite-level rugby union players (N = 51) were tested within 72 hours of sustaining a concussion and were compared to nonconcussed matched controls (N = 41). Demographic information and history of recent concussion were also collected. Logistic regression analysis and receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted to evaluate the most accurate scores at identifying group membership. Overall, the classification accuracy of CogSport and ImPACT represented only very minimal improvements over a demographic-only (age, estimated premorbid Full-Scale IQ, and number of previous concussions) model. Positive predictive power and negative predictive power of composite scores were modest. The ImPACT postconcussion symptoms total (severity) score was most accurate at classifying concussed athletes. Where neuropsychological tests are utilized on a single occasion postconcussion and in the absence of baseline testing, postinjury testing does not improve diagnostic utility beyond the demographic model. These results do not validate this approach as a useful method of managing sports-related concussion. PMID:23373575

  20. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed. PMID:26658477

  1. A PAPR reduction technique using Hadamard transform combined with clipping and filtering based on DCT/IDCT for IM/DD optical OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangone, Fall; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Chen, Lin

    2014-08-01

    In Intensity Modulator/Direct Detection (IM/DD) optical OFDM systems, the high peak-to-power average ratio (PAPR) will cause signal impairments through the nonlinearity of modulator and fiber. In this paper, a joint PAPR reduction technique based on Hadamard transformation and clipping and filtering using DCT/IDCT transform has been proposed for mitigating the impairments in IM/DD optical OFDM system. We then experimentally evaluated the effect of PAPR reduction on the bit error rate (BER) performance and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. At a bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivity of the proposed 2.5 Gb/s IM/DD optical OFDM system after 100-km standard single-mode fiber transmission has been improved by 0.8 dB, 1.3 dB and 3.1 dB for a launch power of 6.4 dBm, 8 dBm and 10 dBm respectively when compared with the classical system.

  2. A preliminary report on a new measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its psychological correlates among Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S; Steger, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans' greater success than other racial minority groups associated with their stronger work ethics, perseverance, and drives to succeed. The Model Minority Myth of Unrestricted Mobility referred to the myth of Asian Americans' greater success than other racial minority groups associated with their stronger belief in fairness of treatment and lack of perceived racism or barriers at school or work. The 2-subscale structure of the IM-4 was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, with support of discriminant, convergent, and incremental validity, as well as internal reliability and stability over 2 weeks. The IM-4 is a new measure that taps into a uniquely racialized experience of Asian Americans with research and clinical implications. PMID:21133563

  3. Characterization of IM virus, which is frequently isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, J L; Wang, S S; Seidel, E; Muchinik, G; Zhang, L B; Lanford, R E

    1984-01-01

    A transmissible agent, the IM virus, antigenically related to the Japanese subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy virus, has been isolated from several human cerebrospinal fluids obtained from American patients with multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. The isolates were propagated in human diploid fibroblast (MRC5) cells, and virus was released into the culture medium in the absence of overt cytolysis. Infection of MRC5 cells resulted in a subtle alteration in the normal growth pattern of the cells. In unstained cultures, the cell changes were so mild that it was necessary to carry out all virus assays under code to eliminate bias. Cells in late passages were more susceptible than vigorously growing cells in early passages. Analysis of the kinetics of replication revealed that newly synthesized progeny virus was first detected about 12 h postinfection, that maximal virus release occurred by 48 h postinfection, and that virus production was persistent throughout an 8-day period. Several inhibitors of DNA synthesis were effective in blocking viral replication, including cytosine arabinoside, iododeoxyuridine, and phosphonoacetic acid. A substantial decrease in infectivity was observed upon treatment of IM virus with ether, suggesting that a lipid-containing structure is essential for infectivity. Ultrafiltration studies approximated the size (diameter) of IM virus to be between 100 and 200 nm. Images PMID:6492261

  4. Mixed-Isotope Labeling with LC-IMS-MS for Characterization of Protein-Protein Interactions by Chemical Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Eric D.; Baker, Erin S.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Taverner, Thomas; Ansong, Charles; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Burnet, Meagan C.; Cort, John R.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking of proteins followed by proteolysis and mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting cross-linked peptides provides powerful insight into the quaternary structure of protein complexes. Mixed-isotope cross-linking (a method for distinguishing intermolecular cross-links) was coupled with liquid chromatography and ion mobility separations and mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) to provide an additional separation dimension to the traditional cross-linking approach. This method produced multiplet m/z peaks that are aligned in the IMS drift time dimension and serve as signatures of intermolecular cross-linked peptides. We developed an informatics tool to use the amino acid sequence information inherent in the multiplet spacing for accurate identification of the cross-linked peptides. Because of the separation of peptides and cross-linked peptides in drift time, our LC-IMS-MS approach was able to confidently detect more intermolecular cross-linked peptides than LC-MS alone. PMID:23423792

  5. Concentration and temperature induced dual-responsive wormlike micelle to hydrogel transition in ionic liquid-type surfactant [C₁₆imC₉]Br aqueous solution without additives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yimin; Ge, Lingling; Han, Jie; Guo, Rong

    2015-07-28

    A highly viscoelastic fluid formed by the ionic liquid-type surfactant 1-hexadecyl-3-nonyl imidazolium bromide ([C16imC9]Br) in water in the absence of any additive was studied. The phase behavior and morphology of aggregates were studied by a combination of rheological techniques, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), cryo-etch-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-etch-SEM) and freeze-fractured transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM). [C16imC9]Br aqueous solutions showed interesting rheological behavior as a function of both concentration and temperature, which invoked a transition between wormlike micelles and hydrogels. With the increase in [C16imC9]Br concentration, the aqueous solution could form viscoelastic wormlike micelles (50-80 mM), hydrogels (90-110 mM) and wormlike micelles (120-180 mM). As the temperature increased, the hydrogels (90-110 mM) could also transit to wormlike micelles. The unusual phase transition between wormlike micelles and elastic hydrogels was postulated to be the change of the average micellar length. PMID:26059909

  6. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-12-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed.

  7. Compensatory role of double mutation N348I/M184V on nevirapine binding landscape: insight from molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Karubiu, Wilson; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-10-01

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) have emerged as gold standards in current anti-AIDS drug discovery and development by allosterically inhibiting HIV reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT). Connection sub-domain mutation, N348I and the M184V active site mutation decreases HIV-1 RT susceptibility to NNRTI, nevirapine (NVP), whereas concurrence of both mutations improves enzyme susceptibility to NVP. Molecular dynamics simulation and enhanced post-dynamics analyses were applied to gain molecular insight into occurrence of N348I, M184V and N348I/M184V double mutations and their effect on NVP binding landscape. Results showed that the presence of the double mutation (N348I/M184V) ameliorates the drastic effects of connection sub-domain mutation, N348I alone on NVP binding, which correlates with experimental findings. We showed that the binding of NVP to the NNRTI binding pocket (NNIBP) is drastically distorted in the presence of connection sub-domain mutation, N348I and may further explain the impaired motions of mutant RTs compared to the wild type. The residue based fluctuation further suggested that the occurrence of N348I decreased the overall flexibility of NVP-HIV-RT complex whereas concurrence of N348I/M184V double mutation restored the conformational flexibility as compared to single mutant. This phenomenon was further validated by the trends of binding free energy as well as the per-residue footprints which showed an increased ∆Gbind in case of N348I/M184V double mutant as compared to N348I variant. Further, for the first time residue interaction network highlighted the structural changes due to occurrence of M184V and N348I mutations which gives a conclusive evidence of these mutations. This work provides the most comprehensive analysis of NVP resistance and the impact of double (N348I/M184V) mutation to date from a dynamics perspective and provides information that should prove useful for understanding the drug resistance mechanism against

  8. The Guiding Light: Vri/uvby & Tio Photometry Of The Chromospherically Active & Spotted Binary System Im Peg - The Guide-star For The Gravity Probe-b Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert; Guinan, E.; Messina, S.; Wasatonic, R.; McCook, G.

    2007-12-01

    We report on the starspot and chromospheric properties of IM Pegasi - the guide star of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite. GP-B's mission is to measure two predicted consequences of General Relativity - frame-dragging and geodetic effects, via its extremely precise onboard gyroscopes. IM Peg was selected as the mission's guide star as it is not only bright enough to be seen with GP-B's onboard optical telescope but it is also a bright radio source. Thus, ground-based radio telescope observations can easily and accurately correct for IM Peg's motions in space. However, IM Peg is a chomospherically active binary system with a luminous K2 III primary star showing rotationally modulated (Prot 24.5 days) light variations from starspots. The starspots can cause problems as GP-B can erroneously interpret a change in starspot coverage (and corresponding shifts in the light center) as the star's movement. This apparent shift can also be exacerbated by possible changes in the light-center of the binary system arising from changes in the light balance with the fainter dK component. Since 2000 we have carried out multi-band high-precision photoelectric photometry of IM Peg to determine its activity and starspot coverage. Our photometry uses Strömgren uvby filters, VRCIC filters and TiO (719/755 nm ) narrow-band filter sets. Measurements were made relative to neaby comparsion & check stars using a robotic 0.8-m telescope (located in AZ) and 0.25-m telescope (located in PA). The TiO- and multi-band continuum photometry constrains the starspot areas, temperatures and distributions. The photometry is being modeled to determine the effects of changing starspot areas and distributions on the light center of the binary. The results of our analysis and possible impacts on the GP-B Mission will be discussed. This research is supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST- 0507536 and AST- 0507542 which we gratefully acknowledge.

  9. Reaktive Tracer zur Bestimmung der sedimentären Aquifer-Oxidationskapazität im Labor- und Feldversuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, Frank; Bliss, Fabian; Wachter, Thorsten; Dahmke, Andreas

    Kurzfassung Mikrobiell reduzierbares Eisen(III) im Aquifer kann als Elektronenakzeptor von großer Bedeutung für Natural Attenuation (NA) von aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen sein und bildet den Hauptbestandteil der sedimentären Oxidationskapazität (OXC) des Aquifers. Untersuchungsgegenstand war der Vergleich traditioneller, nasschemischer Methoden mit neuentwickelten, reaktiven Tracerverfahren zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC. Die innovativen Tracermethoden haben gegenüber nasschemischen Extraktionsverfahren den prinzipiellen Vorteil, dass sie einen integralen Ansatz zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC bilden, weil geochemische und hydraulische Heterogenitäten des Aquifers berücksichtigt werden. Daher wurden am RETZINA-Standort Zeitz einerseits herkömmliche Säure-Extraktionsmethoden (bestimmter Eisen(III)-Gehalt: 0,43 +/- 0,07 mg/g Aquifermaterial) und andererseits reaktive Tracertests mit Phosphat-(Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) und Sulfidtracern (Eisen(III): 0,31 +/- 0,02 mg/g) in Laborversuchen sowie Bioabbauversuche mit Toluol als Kohlenstoffquelle undGeobacter metallireducensals Eisen(III)-Reduzierer (Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) durchgeführt. Sulfid als reaktiver Tracer wurde in Form eines 〝Push-Pull-Tests`` im Feldversuch eingesetzt (Eisen(III): 1,1 mg/g). Zudem bedeutet die Anwendung des Feld-Tracerverfahrens deutlich weniger Zeitaufwand in der Durchführung als die Anwendung traditioneller Extraktionsmethoden. Microbially reducible iron(III) is important as a terminal electron acceptor for the Natural Attenuation (NA) of aromatic hydrocarbons and forms the balance of the aquifer's sedimentary oxidation capacity (OXC). It was the aim of this investigation to compare traditional acid extraction methods to reactive tracer methods in quantifying the sedimentary OXC. The sedimentary OXC at the RETZINA test site in Zeitz was therefore determined through traditional acid extraction methods (determined Iron(III)-content: 0.43 +/- 0.07 mg/g aquifer material) and

  10. A Comparison of Potential IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Ismail, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  11. Validation of the onboard radiometric calibration of the GOES I-M visible channel by reflectance-based vicarious methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, Nathan P.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.

    2007-09-01

    The current generation of the Geostationary Operations Environmental Satellite (GOES) platform employs a total of 5 sensors to monitor and record atmospheric conditions used in predictions of upcoming weather events. Included in this package is a 5-band imager that, from the 36,000-km geosynchronous orbit inhabited by GOES platform, enables multiple fixed full-disc surface images of the earth during the course of a 24-hour day. There is currently no on-board radiometric calibration for the visible bands of the imager and radiometric calibration relies on vicarious approaches. The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona uses a vicarious approach that relies on ground-based measurements to determine the radiometric calibration for multiple sun-synchronous and airborne visible and near-infrared sensors. The current work extends the approach to the GOES I-M series of sensor. The paper presents the methods and results of the reflectance-based method applied to the 1-km visible channel of GOES-11using large North American high-desert test sites. Modifications to the RSG's methods to take into account the location of the test sites at large zenith angles within the full-disk GOES image. The work provides an opportunity to evaluate uncertainties of the spectral BRF of the test sites at large view angles and resulting importance to the accurate radiometric calibration of a sensor. In addition, the impact of increased path length caused by the large view angle is evaluated with an emphasis on the increased effect of the atmospheric characterization.

  12. Timing of use of cod liver oil, a vitamin D source, and multiple sclerosis risk: The EnvIMS study

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Marianna; Riise, Trond; Bjørnevik, Kjetil; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Magalhaes, Sandra; Pugliatti, Maura; Wolfson, Christina; Myhr, Kjell-Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), although it remains unknown whether this relationship varies by age. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between vitamin D3 supplementation through cod liver oil at different postnatal ages and MS risk. Methods: In the Norwegian component of the multinational case-control study Environmental Factors In Multiple Sclerosis (EnvIMS), a total of 953 MS patients with maximum disease duration of 10 years and 1717 controls reported their cod liver oil use from childhood to adulthood. Results: Self-reported supplement use at ages 13–18 was associated with a reduced risk of MS (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52–0.86), whereas supplementation during childhood was not found to alter MS risk (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.81–1.26), each compared to non-use during the respective period. An inverse association was found between MS risk and the dose of cod liver oil during adolescence, suggesting a dose-response relationship (p trend = 0.001) with the strongest effect for an estimated vitamin D3 intake of 600–800 IU/d (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.31–0.70). Conclusions: These findings not only support the hypothesis relating to low vitamin D as a risk factor for MS, but further point to adolescence as an important susceptibility period for adult-onset MS. PMID:25948625

  13. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system, http://imgt.cines.fr: the reference in immunoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Giudicelli, Véronique; Ginestoux, Chantal; Chaume, Denys

    2003-01-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (http://imgt.cines.fr), is a high quality integrated information system specializing in immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and related proteins of the immune system of human and other vertebrates, created in 1989, by the Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire (LIGM), at the Université Montpellier II, CNRS, Montpellier, France. IMGT is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics and provides a common access to standardized data which include nucleotide and protein sequences, oligonucleotide primers, gene maps, genetic polymorphisms, specificities, 2D and 3D structures. IMGT includes three sequence databases (IMGT/LIGM-DB, IMGT/MHC-DB hosted at EBI, IMGT/PRIMER-DB), one genome database (IMGT/GENE-DB), one 3D structure database (IMGT/3Dstructure-DB), Web resources comprising 8000 HTML pages ("IMGT Marie-Paule page") and interactive tools for sequence (IMGT/V-QUEST, IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, IMGT/Allele-Align, IMGT/PhyloGene) and genome (IMGT/GeneSearch, IMGT/GeneView, IMGT/LocusView) analysis. IMGT data are expertly annotated according to the rules of the IMGT Scientific chart, based on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY concepts. IMGT tools are particularly useful for the analysis of the IG and TR repertoires in physiological normal and pathological situations. IMGT has important applications in medical research (repertoire analysis in autoimmune diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas, myelomas), biotechnology related to antibody engineering (phage displays, combinatorial libraries) and therapeutic approaches (graft, immunotherapy). IMGT is freely available at http://imgt.cines.fr. PMID:14663966

  14. Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

    El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 σ y ~3 σ por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

  15. Aqueous phase oligomerization of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and acids investigated using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Pascal; Tlili, Sabrine; Ravier, Sylvain; Quivet, Etienne; Monod, Anne

    2016-04-01

    One of the current essential issues to unravel our ability to forecast future climate change and air quality, implies a better understanding of natural processes leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, and in particular the formation and fate of oligomers. The difficulty in characterizing macromolecules is to discern between large oxygenated molecules from series of oligomers containing repeated small monomers of diverse structures. In the present study, taking advantage from previously established radical vinyl oligomerization of methyl vinylketone (MVK) in the aqueous phase, where relatively simple oligomers containing up to 14 monomers were observed, we have investigated the same reactivity on several other unsaturated water soluble organic compounds (UWSOCs) and on a few mixtures of these precursor compounds. The technique used to characterize the formed oligomers was a traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a hybrid quadrupole - time of flight mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) fitted with an electrospray source and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The technique allows for an additional separation, especially for large ions, containing long carbon chains. We have shown the efficiency of the IMS-mass spectrometry technique to detect oligomers derived from MVK photooxidation in the aqueous phase. The results were then compared to other oligomers, derived from ten other individual biogenic UWSOCs. The technique allowed distinguishing between different oligomers arising from different precursors. It also clearly showed that compounds bearing a non-conjugated unsaturation did not provide oligomerization. Finally, it was shown that the IMS-mass spectrometry technique, applied to mixtures of unsaturated conjugated precursors, exhibited the ability of these precursors to co-oligomerize, i.e. forming only one complex oligomer system bearing monomers of different structures. The results are discussed in terms of atmospheric

  16. Integrated Annotation and Analysis of In Situ Hybridization Images Using the ImAnno System: Application to the Ear and Sensory Organs of the Fetal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth. PMID:25706271

  17. A comparative study of APLI and APCI in IMS at atmospheric pressure to reveal and explain peak broadening effects by the use of APLI.

    PubMed

    Ihlenborg, Marvin; Raupers, Björn; Gunzer, Frank; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2015-11-21

    The details of the ionization mechanism in atmospheric pressure are still not completely known. In order to obtain further insight into the occurring processes in atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) a comparative study of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APLI is presented in this paper. This study is carried out using similar experimental condition at atmospheric pressure employing a commercial ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Two different peak broadening mechanisms can then be assigned, one related to a range of different species generated and detected, and furthermore for the first time a power broadening effect on the signals can be identified. PMID:26421367

  18. Singular vector-based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the large-dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has proven effective for targeted observations in numerical weather prediction, is implemented in the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) chemical transport model, yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0 has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. For the sake of brevity, we concentrate our attention on the following chemical compounds, O3, NO, NO2, HCHO, CO, HONO, and OH, and focus on their influence on selected O3 profiles. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determines the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimization with growing

  19. Presence Service in IMS

    PubMed Central

    Petras, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the presence service, which is located in the IP multimedia subsystem. This service allows making many applications for different groups of people. The paper describes differences between a network without the service and with the service. The biggest change is an increased number of transmitted messages. The presence uses some part of the IP multimedia subsystem control layer, which is shown in communication between the user and the server. The paper deals with the number of generated messages depending on the behaviour of the users. This is described by a mathematical model using discrete Markov chains. PMID:23970836

  20. Akustische Fernmessung im Meer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, P.

    1981-08-01

    Remote sensing by ocean acoustics can hardly make use of spectrum analysis methods and must rely almost exclusively on the analysis of geometrical structure and motion. The problems of the environmental dependence of detection conditions in the sea and the state of development of their prediction are described. Resolution methods for direction, frequency and propagation time and their application in the remote sensing of properties of the sea surface, volume and sea bottom are discussed.

  1. Hello IM, Goodbye TTY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lori; Peters, Tom

    2006-01-01

    According to the National Association of the Deaf, there are approximately 28 million deaf and hearing-impaired people in the U.S.--roughly 10 percent of the total population. This hearing-impaired population may be even more isolated than the visually impaired community. Although technology is making it easier for libraries to provide effective…

  2. Capacity to consent to sex reframed: IM, TZ (no 2), the need for an evidence-based model of sexual decision-making and socio-sexual competence.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Robin; Watts, John

    2015-01-01

    Recent English cases have set a very low threshold for the capacity to consent to sexual activity, and the Court of Appeal in IM v LM (2014) has held that "the ability to use and weigh information is unlikely to loom large in the evaluation of consent to sexual relations." Such cases significantly affect the legal status of such activities involving persons diagnosed with a learning disability (LD), an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) or other neurodiverse (ND) conditions. A principal focus on two cases in particular-IM v LM (2014) and A Local Authority v TZ (no 2) (2014)-supports the argument that the current test needs reframing from a relationship-centred perspective, in order to reflect an evidence-based model of sexual decision-making. Relevant training for persons diagnosed as LD, ASD, or ND is essential in order to promote socio-sexual competence. This is critical for resolving existing tensions between (1) sexual rights guaranteed in international agreements; (2) criminal law provisions and local authorities' obligations to protect the vulnerable; and (3) sexual health concerns. PMID:26001538

  3. Vacuum collection of gunpowder residues from clothing worn by shooting suspects, and their analysis by GC/TEA, IMS, and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Arie; Eldar, Baruch; Glattstein, Baruch; Koffman, Avi; Tamiri, Tsippy; Muller, Dan

    2003-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to collect gunpowder (propellant) residues from shooters' clothing by vacuum and to analyze them by gas chromatography/thermal energy analyzer (GC/TEA), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The residues were collected on fiberglass and Teflon filters using the portable vacuum sampler, all supplied with the IMS instrument. Several solvents were examined for the extraction of the propellant components from the filters. The extracts were centrifuged and/or filtered, concentrated by evaporation, and analyzed without any additional clean-up procedure. Based on the results of the study, an operational method for analysis of gunpowder residues was introduced into casework without changing the present operational technique for gunshot (primer) residue (GSR) analysis on clothing implemented by the Israel Police. In the modified method, the clothing is first sampled by double-side adhesive-coated aluminum stubs (the tape-lift method) for GSR analysis (the existing method), followed by vacuum collection for propellant residue examination. The issue of interpretation of the analytical results is discussed. PMID:14535660

  4. SDS-PAGE analysis of Aβ oligomers is disserving research into Alzheimer´s disease: appealing for ESI-IM-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol-Pina, Rosa; Vilaprinyó-Pascual, Sílvia; Mazzucato, Roberta; Arcella, Annalisa; Vilaseca, Marta; Orozco, Modesto; Carulla, Natàlia

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) oligomer forms and structures is crucial to the advancement in the field of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Here we report a critical evaluation of two methods used for this purpose, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), extensively used in the field, and ion mobility coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), an emerging technique with great potential for oligomer characterization. To evaluate their performance, we first obtained pure cross-linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 oligomers of well-defined order. Analysis of these samples by SDS-PAGE revealed that SDS affects the oligomerization state of Aβ42 oligomers, thus providing flawed information on their order and distribution. In contrast, ESI-IM-MS provided accurate information, while also reported on the chemical nature and on the structure of the oligomers. Our findings have important implications as they challenge scientific paradigms in the AD field built upon SDS-PAGE characterization of Aβ oligomer samples.

  5. SDS-PAGE analysis of Aβ oligomers is disserving research into Alzheimer´s disease: appealing for ESI-IM-MS.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Pina, Rosa; Vilaprinyó-Pascual, Sílvia; Mazzucato, Roberta; Arcella, Annalisa; Vilaseca, Marta; Orozco, Modesto; Carulla, Natàlia

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) oligomer forms and structures is crucial to the advancement in the field of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Here we report a critical evaluation of two methods used for this purpose, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), extensively used in the field, and ion mobility coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), an emerging technique with great potential for oligomer characterization. To evaluate their performance, we first obtained pure cross-linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 oligomers of well-defined order. Analysis of these samples by SDS-PAGE revealed that SDS affects the oligomerization state of Aβ42 oligomers, thus providing flawed information on their order and distribution. In contrast, ESI-IM-MS provided accurate information, while also reported on the chemical nature and on the structure of the oligomers. Our findings have important implications as they challenge scientific paradigms in the AD field built upon SDS-PAGE characterization of Aβ oligomer samples. PMID:26450154

  6. Decreased level of phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4) in multiple myeloma cells compared to plasma cells: a single-cell MALDI-IMS approach.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Md Amir; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Waki, Michihiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Takei, Shiro; Fukano, Hana; Romero-Perez, Gustavo A; Tajima, Shogo; Yao, Ikuko; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Lipid metabolic changes under diseased conditions, particularly in solid tumors, are attracting increased attention. However, in non-solid tumors, including most hematopoietic tumors, lipid analyses are scarce. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder arising from bone marrow, and the lipid status of MM cells has not been reported yet. In this study, we analyzed flow cytometry-sorted single MM cells and normal plasma cells (NPCs) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), a two-dimensional label-free mass spectrometry technique for biomolecular analysis, to obtain specific lipid information. We isolated 1.31-5.77% of MM cells and 0.03-0.24% of NPCs using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Analysis of purified cells using MALDI-IMS at the single-cell level revealed that the peak intensity and ion signals of phosphatidylcholine [PC (16:0/20:4) + H](+) at m/z 782.5 were significantly decreased in MM cells compared to NPCs. By examining particular cell populations rather than cell mixtures, our method can become a suitable tool for the analysis of rare cell populations at the single-cell level and advance the understanding of MM progression. PMID:25957845

  7. 1D μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain in complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n and ferromagnetic interactions among copper (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lu; Lv, Xue-Chuan; Luo, Guan-Hua; Gao, Xiao-Han; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n(Im = imidazole, and Gly = glycine) with μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain, containing six-coordination distorted elongated octahedron, was synthesized and characterized. The complex belongs to space group P 21/c measured by X-ray single crystal diffraction. In the cluster, each Cu2+ ion are six-coordination by one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms of glycine, one nitrogen atoms of imidazole, and two of oxygen atoms of two perchlorate. Each Cu2+ ion has an N2O4 donor set, which forms the distorted elongated octahedron due to the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties were researched. Magnetic susceptibilities of the complex showed that ferromagnetic interactions occurred between the Cu (II) atoms. The Curie-Weiss constant C = 0.565 cm3 K·mol-1 and the Weiss constant θ = 1.0585 K were given by the Curie-Weiss law The ferromagnetic nature of the interaction could be deduced as the exchange pathway of Cusbnd Osbnd Csbnd Osbnd Cu, which involved an equatorial position at one copper (II) ion and an axial position of the nearest copper (II). The complex decomposed from 511 to 538 K as two steps.

  8. Detection of aqueous phase chemical warfare agent degradation products by negative mode ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry [IM(tof)MS].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Wes E; Harden, Charles S; Hong, Feng; Klopsch, Steve J; Hill, Herbert H; McHugh, Vincent M

    2006-02-01

    The use of negative ion monitoring mode with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer [IM(tof)MS] to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products from aqueous phase samples has been determined. Aqueous phase sampling used a traditional electrospray ionization (ESI) source for sample introduction and ionization. Certified reference materials (CRM) of CWA degradation products for the detection of Schedule 1, 2, or 3 toxic chemicals or their precursors as defined by the chemical warfare convention (CWC) treaty verification were used in this study. A mixture of six G-series nerve related CWA degradation products (EMPA, IMPA, EHEP, IHEP, CHMPA, and PMPA) and their related collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions (MPA and EPA) were found in each case to be clearly resolved and detected using the IM(tof)MS instrument in negative ion monitoring mode. Corresponding ions, masses, drift times, K(o) values, and signal intensities for each of the CWA degradation products are reported. PMID:16413205

  9. SDS-PAGE analysis of Aβ oligomers is disserving research into Alzheimer´s disease: appealing for ESI-IM-MS

    PubMed Central

    Pujol-Pina, Rosa; Vilaprinyó-Pascual, Sílvia; Mazzucato, Roberta; Arcella, Annalisa; Vilaseca, Marta; Orozco, Modesto; Carulla, Natàlia

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) oligomer forms and structures is crucial to the advancement in the field of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Here we report a critical evaluation of two methods used for this purpose, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), extensively used in the field, and ion mobility coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), an emerging technique with great potential for oligomer characterization. To evaluate their performance, we first obtained pure cross-linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 oligomers of well-defined order. Analysis of these samples by SDS-PAGE revealed that SDS affects the oligomerization state of Aβ42 oligomers, thus providing flawed information on their order and distribution. In contrast, ESI-IM-MS provided accurate information, while also reported on the chemical nature and on the structure of the oligomers. Our findings have important implications as they challenge scientific paradigms in the AD field built upon SDS-PAGE characterization of Aβ oligomer samples. PMID:26450154

  10. Recent Research and Progress in Food, Feed and Nutrition with Advanced Synchrotron-based SR-IMS and DRIFT Molecular Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-04-25

    Ultraspatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy is able to detect the structure features of a food or feed tissue at cellular and molecular levels. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is almost unknown to food and feed scientists. The objective of this article was to introduce this novel analytical technology, ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) to food, feed, conventional nutrition, and molecular nutrition scientists. The emphasis of this review focused on the following areas: (1) Principles of molecular spectroscopy for food and feed structure research, such as protein molecular structure, carbohydrate conformation, heating induced protein structure changes, and effect of gene-transformation on food and feed structure; (2) Molecular spectral analysis methodology; (3) Biological applications of synchrotron SR-IMS and DRIFT spectroscopy; and (4) Recent progress in food, feed and nutrition research program. The information described in this article gives better insight in food structure research progress and update. PMID:25148108

  11. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. PMID:25198414

  12. Metabolomic analysis of normal (C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) mice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: detection of strain and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Qian; Li, Tonghua; Sun, Jiangming; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Jianke; Fei, Jian

    2011-07-15

    Previous studies have shown that the C57 and 129 strains of mice display marked differences in behavioural performance, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and synaptic plasticity. However, few metabolomic studies of their biofluids have been performed. As part of a series of metabolic phenotyping, the effects of gender and strain upon serum metabolite composition and variation are examined in this study using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in normal C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ strains of mice. The 129S1/SvImJ strain is phenotypically distinct from the C57BL/6J strain and characteristic metabotypes are produced for both male and female mice of each strain. These data demonstrate that the C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ strains of mice show a wide range of metabolic differences across glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis; and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways. Remarkably, the concentration of glyceric acid in the 129S1/SvImJ strain is significantly increased compared to the C57BL/6J mouse strain, reflecting important considerations for studies that use the 129S1/SvImJ mouse as the human d-glycericaciduria model. We infer that a deficiency of d-glycerate kinase would explain such a glyceric acid accumulation in the 129S1/SvImJ strain. More importantly, this differential metabolite level data provide insight into specific metabolic pathways and lay the groundwork for integrated studies of the mouse models. PMID:21645764

  13. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  14. Identification of oxidized organic atmospheric species during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) using a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (IMS-ToF-CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechmer, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Kimmel, J.; Junninen, H.; Knochenmuss, R.; Cubison, M.; Massoli, P.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Surratt, J. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from the field deployment of a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CI-IMS-TOF) during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). IMS-TOF is a 2-dimensional analysis method, which separates gas-phase ions by mobility prior to determination of mass-to-charge ratio by mass spectrometry. Ion mobility is a unique physical property that is determined by the collisional cross section of an ion. Because mobility depends on size and shape, the IMS measurement is able to resolve isomers and isobaric compounds. Additionally, trends in IMS-TOF data space can be used to identify relationships between ions, such as common functionality or polymeric series. During SOAS we interfaced the IMS-TOF to a nitrate ion (NO3-) chemical ionization source that enables the selective ionization of highly oxidized gas phase species (those having a high O:C ratio) through clustering with the reagent ion. Highly oxidized products of terpenes and isoprene are important secondary organic aerosol precursors (SOA) that play an uncertain but important role in particle-phase chemistry. We present several case studies of atmospheric events during SOAS that exhibited elevated concentrations of sulfuric acid and/or organics. These events exhibited a rise in particle number and provide an opportunity to examine the role that organic species may have in local atmospheric new particle formation events. We also present the results from the field deployment and subsequent laboratory studies utilizing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor as the inlet for the CI-IMS-TOF. The reactor draws in ambient air and exposes it to high concentrations of the OH radical, created by photolysis O3 in the presence of water. The highly oxidized products are then sampled directly by the CI-IMS-TOF. We performed several experiments including placing pine and deciduous plants directly in front of the reactor opening and observed large increases in the number and

  15. Rates and predictors of invalid baseline test performance in high school and collegiate athletes for three computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs): ANAM, Axon, and ImPACT

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsay D.; Pfaller, Adam Y.; Rein, Lisa E.; McCrea, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preseason baseline testing is increasingly performed on athletes using computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs). Adequate effort is critical to establish valid estimates of ability, yet many users do not evaluate performance validity, and the conditions that impact validity are not well understood across the available CNTs. Purpose We examined the rates and predictors of invalid baseline performance for three popular CNTs: ANAM (Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics), Axon Sports, and ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Cognitive Assessment and Testing). Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods High school and collegiate athletes (N = 2,063) completed two of three CNTs each during pre-season evaluations. All possible pairings were present across the sample, and order of administration was randomized. Examiners gave one-on-one, scripted pre-test instructions emphasizing the importance of good effort. Profile validity was determined by the manufacturers’ standard criteria. Results The overall percentage of tests flagged as of questionable validity was lowest for ImPACT (2.7%) and higher for ANAM and Axon (10.8% and 11.3%, respectively). The majority of invalid baselines were flagged as such due to failure on only one validity criterion. Several athlete and testing factors (e.g., attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder/ADHD, estimated general intellectual ability, administration order) predicted validity status for one or more CNTs. Considering only first CNT administrations and participants without ADHD and/or learning disability (n = 1,835) brought the rates of invalid baselines to 2.1%, 8.8%, and 7.0%, for ImPACT, ANAM, and Axon, respectively. Invalid profiles on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) were rare (1.8% of subjects) and demonstrated poor correspondence to CNT validity outcomes. Conclusion These CNTs’ validity criteria may not identify the same causes of invalidity or be equally sensitive to effort. The validity indicators

  16. Probing the interplay between electrostatic and dispersion interactions in the solvation of nonpolar nonaromatic solute molecules in ionic liquids: An OKE spectroscopic study of CS2/[CnC1im][NTf2] mixtures (n = 1-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lianjie; Tamas, George; Gurung, Eshan; Quitevis, Edward L.

    2014-04-01

    The intermolecular dynamics of dilute solutions of CS2 in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]amide ([CnC1im][NTf2] for n = 1-4) were studied at 295 K using femtosecond optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy. The OKE spectra of the CS2/ionic liquid (IL) mixtures were analyzed using an additivity model to obtain the CS2 contribution to the OKE spectrum from which information about the intermolecular modes of CS2 in these mixtures was gleaned. The intermolecular spectrum of CS2 in these mixtures is lower in frequency and narrower than that of neat CS2, as found previously for CS2 in [C5C1im][NTf2]. Moreover, a dependence of the spectra on alkyl chain length is observed that is attributed to the interplay between electrostatic and dispersion interactions. The surprising result in this study is the solubility of CS2 in [C1C1im][NTf2], which involves the interaction of a nonpolar nonaromatic molecular solute and only the charged groups of the IL. We propose that the solubility of CS2 in [C1C1im][NTf2] is determined by three favorable factors - (1) large polarizability of the solute molecule; (2) small size of the solute molecule; and (3) low cohesive energy in the high-charge density regions of the IL.

  17. Preliminary Effectiveness of Project ImPACT: A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered in a Community Program.

    PubMed

    Stadnick, Nicole A; Stahmer, Aubyn; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2015-07-01

    This is a pilot study of the effectiveness of Project ImPACT, a parent-mediated intervention for ASD delivered in a community program. The primary aim was to compare child and parent outcomes between the intervention group and a community comparison for 30 young children with ASD at baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary aim was to identify parent factors associated with changes in child outcomes. Results indicated significant improvement in child communication skills and a strong trend for parent intervention adherence for the intervention group from baseline to 12 weeks. Higher baseline parenting stress was negatively related to child social gains from baseline to 12 weeks. Findings provide further support for delivering parent-mediated interventions in community settings to children with ASD. PMID:25633920

  18. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  19. Preliminary Effectiveness of Project ImPACT: A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered in a Community Program

    PubMed Central

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Stahmer, Aubyn; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This is a pilot study of the effectiveness of Project ImPACT, a parent-mediated intervention for ASD delivered in a community program. The primary aim was to compare child and parent outcomes between the intervention group and a community comparison for 30 young children with ASD at baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary aim was to identify parent factors associated with changes in child outcomes. Results indicated significant improvement in child communication skills and a strong trend for parent intervention adherence for the intervention group from baseline to 12 weeks. Higher baseline parenting stress was negatively related to child social gains from baseline to 12 weeks. Findings provide further support for delivering parent-mediated interventions in community settings to children with ASD. PMID:25633920

  20. Neurotoxins from snake venoms and α-conotoxin ImI inhibit functionally active ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Shelukhina, Irina V; Son, Lina V; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Zhmak, Maxim N; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Ivanov, Igor A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Starkov, Vladislav G; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-09-11

    Ionotropic receptors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAAR) regulate neuronal inhibition and are targeted by benzodiazepines and general anesthetics. We show that a fluorescent derivative of α-cobratoxin (α-Ctx), belonging to the family of three-finger toxins from snake venoms, specifically stained the α1β3γ2 receptor; and at 10 μm α-Ctx completely blocked GABA-induced currents in this receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes (IC50 = 236 nm) and less potently inhibited α1β2γ2 ≈ α2β2γ2 > α5β2γ2 > α2β3γ2 and α1β3δ GABAARs. The α1β3γ2 receptor was also inhibited by some other three-finger toxins, long α-neurotoxin Ls III and nonconventional toxin WTX. α-Conotoxin ImI displayed inhibitory activity as well. Electrophysiology experiments showed mixed competitive and noncompetitive α-Ctx action. Fluorescent α-Ctx, however, could be displaced by muscimol indicating that most of the α-Ctx-binding sites overlap with the orthosteric sites at the β/α subunit interface. Modeling and molecular dynamic studies indicated that α-Ctx or α-bungarotoxin seem to interact with GABAAR in a way similar to their interaction with the acetylcholine-binding protein or the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. This was supported by mutagenesis studies and experiments with α-conotoxin ImI and a chimeric Naja oxiana α-neurotoxin indicating that the major role in α-Ctx binding to GABAAR is played by the tip of its central loop II accommodating under loop C of the receptors. PMID:26221036

  1. Analysis of the IMS Location Accuracy in Northern Eurasia and North America Using Regional and Global Pn Travel-time Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    United States Calibration Working Group, Russian Federation/

    - Joint Research Program of Seismic Calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in Northern Eurasia and North America has been signed by the Nuclear Treaty Programs Office (NTPO), Department of Defense USA, and the Special Monitoring Service (SMS) of the Ministry of Defense, Russian Federation (RF). Under the Program historical data from nuclear and large chemical explosions of known location and shot time, together with appropriate geological and geophysical data, has been used to derive regional Pn/P travel-time tables for seismic event location within the lower 48 States of the USA and the European part of the RF. These travel-time tables are up to 5seconds faster in shields than the IASPEI91 tables, and up to 5seconds slower in the Western USA. Relocation experiments using the regional Pn travel-time curves and surrogate networks for the IMS network generally improved locations for regional seismic events. The distance between true and estimated location (mislocation) was decreased from an average of 18.8km for the IASPEI91 tables to 10.1km for the regional Pn travel-time tables. However, the regional travel-time table approach has limitations caused by travel-time variations inside major tectonic provinces and paths crossing several tectonic provinces with substantially different crustal and upper mantle velocity structure.The RF members of the Calibration Working Group (WG): Colonel Vyacheslav Gordon (chairman); Dr. Prof. Marat Mamsurov, and Dr. Nikolai Vasiliev. The US members of the WG: Dr. Anton Dainty (chairman), Dr. Douglas Baumgardt, Mr. John Murphy, Dr. Robert North, and Dr. Vladislav Ryaboy.

  2. Luminescent copper(I) halide adducts of [Au(im(CH2py)2)2]PF6 exhibiting short Au(I)···Cu(I) separations and unusual semibridging NHC ligands.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Christoph E; Catalano, Vincent J

    2011-11-01

    The picolyl-substituted NHC complex [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)]PF(6) (1) reacts with two equivalents of copper(I) halides, affording compounds [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)(CuX)(2)]PF(6) (X = Cl, 2; Br, 3; I, 4). Each complex contains a nearly linearly coordinated [Au(NHC)(2)](+) center where the two picolyl groups on each im(CH(2)py)(2) ligand chelate a single copper atom. The Cu(I) center resides in a distorted tetrahedral environment and is coordinated to two pyridyl groups, a halide ion, and a gold metalloligand. The Au(I)-Cu(I) separations measure 2.7030(5), 2.6688(9), and 2.6786(10) Å for 2-4, respectively. Additionally, each Cu(I) center is further coordinated by a semibridging NHC ligand with short Cu-C separations of ~2.3 Å. In solution, these complexes dissociate the Cu(I) ion. In the solid state, 2-4 are photoluminescent with respective emission maxima of 512, 502, and 507 nm. The reaction of [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)]PF(6) with four equivalents of CuBr afforded the coordination polymer {[AuCu(2)Br(2)(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)]Br·3CH(3)CN}(n) (5). This polymeric complex contains [Au(NHC)(2)](+) units interconnected by Cu(2)Br(2) dimers. In 5, the Au-Cu separations are long at 4.23 and 4.79 Å, while the Cu-Cu distance is considerably shorter at 2.9248(14) Å. In the solid state, 5 is photoluminescent with a broad band appearing at 533 nm. PMID:21977976

  3. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  4. Simulating the propagation of sulphur dioxide emissions from the fissure eruption in the Holuhraun lava field (Iceland) with the EURAD-IM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, Luise; Franke, Philipp; Friese, Elmar; Haas, Sarah; Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    In the emergency case of a volcano eruption accurate forecasts of the transport of ash and gas emissions are crucial for health protection and aviation safety. In the frame of Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) near real-time forecasts of ash and SO2 dispersion emitted by active volcanoes are simulated by the European Air pollution Dispersion Inverse Model (EURAD-IM). The model is driven by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and includes detailed gas phase and particle dynamics modules, which allow for quantitative estimates of measured volcano releases. Former simulations, for example related to the Eyjafjallajökull outbreak in 2010, were in good agreement with measurement records of particle number and SO2 at several European stations. At the end of August 2014 an fissure eruption has begun on Iceland in the Holuhraun lava field to the north-east of the Bardarbunga volcano system. In contrast to the explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, the Holuhraun eruption is rather effusive with a large and continuous flow of lava and a significant release of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the lower troposphere, while ash emissions are insignificant. Since the Holuhraun fissure eruption has started, daily forecasts of SO2 dispersion are produced for the European region (15 km horizontal resolution grid) and published on our website (http://apps.fz-juelich.de/iek-8/RIU/vorhersage_node.php). To simulate the transport of volcanic emissions, realistic source terms like mass release rates of ash and SO2 or plume heights are required. Since no representative measurements are currently available for the simulations, rough qualitative assumptions, based on reports from the Icelandic Met Office (IMO), are used. However, frequent comparisons with satellite observations show that the actual propagation of the volcanic emissions is generally well reflected by the model. In the middle of September 2014 several European measurement sides recorded extremely high

  5. From binary presumptive assays to probabilistic assessments: Differentiation of shooters from non-shooters using IMS, OGSR, neural networks, and likelihood ratios.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Seitzinger, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Screening tests are used in forensic science for field testing and directing laboratory analysis of physical evidence. These tests are often binary in that the data produced is interpreted as yes/no or present/absent. The utility of screening assays can be improved by evaluating a relevant background population and incorporating prior knowledge to refine the decision boundary. This paper describes the results of using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and hand swab samples collected from 73 individuals to differentiate shooters from non-shooters by targeting organic constituents of firearms discharge residues. Each individual completed a questionnaire helpful in analyzing positive results when they did occur. Pattern matching was undertaken using neural networks, and decision thresholds were established using likelihood ratios derived from the population study. This approach significantly reduced the background positive rates compared to an arbitrary decision threshold technique. This methodology could be extended to other pattern-recognition algorithms used with instrumental data. This paper also reports the largest population study to date focused on the organic residues of firearms discharge. The proportion of positives found in the population sample were less than 5%; when a likelihood ratio of 10:1 (shooter/not shooter) was used, the frequency of positives fell below 2%. The results suggest that background levels of organic gunshot residue will not be a significant analytic concern for assay development. PMID:27131217

  6. "A different kind of beauty": scientific and architectural style in I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Stuart W

    2008-01-01

    I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory for the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, are rare examples of laboratories as celebrated for their architecture as for their scientific contributions. Completed in the mid-1960s, these signature buildings still express the scientific style of their founding directors, Walter Roberts and Jonas Salk. yet in commissioning their laboratories, Roberts and Salk had to work with architects as strong-willed as themselves. A close reading of the two laboratories reveals the ongoing negotiations and tensions in collaborations between visionary scientist and visionary architect. Moreover, Roberts and Salk also had to become architects of atmospheric and biomedical sciences. For laboratory architecture, however flexible in theory, necessarily stabilizes scientific practice, since a philosophy of research is embedded in the very structure of the building and persists far longer than the initial vision and mission that gave it life. Roberts and Salk's experiences suggest that even the most carefully designed laboratories must successfully adapt to new disciplinary configurations, funding opportunities, and research priorities, or risk becoming mere architectural icons. PMID:20069758

  7. Molecular Basis for Structural Heterogeneity of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Bound to a Partner by Combined ESI-IM-MS and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urzo, Annalisa; Konijnenberg, Albert; Rossetti, Giulia; Habchi, Johnny; Li, Jinyu; Carloni, Paolo; Sobott, Frank; Longhi, Sonia; Grandori, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) form biologically active complexes that can retain a high degree of conformational disorder, escaping structural characterization by conventional approaches. An example is offered by the complex between the intrinsically disordered NTAIL domain and the phosphoprotein X domain (PXD) from measles virus (MeV). Here, distinct conformers of the complex are detected by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ion mobility (IM) techniques yielding estimates for the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) in solution and the average collision cross-section (CCS) in the gas phase. Computational modeling of the complex in solution, based on experimental constraints, provides atomic-resolution structural models featuring different levels of compactness. The resulting models indicate high structural heterogeneity. The intermolecular interactions are predominantly hydrophobic, not only in the ordered core of the complex, but also in the dynamic, disordered regions. Electrostatic interactions become involved in the more compact states. This system represents an illustrative example of a hydrophobic complex that could be directly detected in the gas phase by native mass spectrometry. This work represents the first attempt to modeling the entire NTAIL domain bound to PXD at atomic resolution.

  8. Time-series photometric spot modelling VI. A new computer code and its application to 23 years of photometry of the active giant IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribárik, G.; Oláh, K.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    We present and apply a new computer program named SpotModeL to analyze single and multiple bandpass photometric data of spotted stars. It is based on the standard analytical formulae from Budding and Dorren. The program determines the position, size, and temperature of up to three spots by minimizing the fit residuals with the help of the Marquardt-Levenberg non-linear least-squares algorithm. We also expand this procedure to full time-series analysis of differential data, just as real observations would deliver. If multi-bandpass data are available, all bandpasses can be treated simultaneously and thus the spot temperature is solved for implicitly. The program may be downloaded and used by anyone. In this paper, we apply our code to an ~23 year long photometric dataset of the spotted RS CVn giant IM Peg. We extracted and modelled 33 individual light curves, additionally, we fitted the entire V dataset in one run. The resulting spot parameters reflect the long term light variability and reveal two active longitudes on the substellar point and on the antipode. The radius and longitude of the dominant spot show variations with 29.8 and 10.4 years period, respectively. Our multicolour data suggests that the spot temperature is increasing with the brightening of the star. The average spot temperature from V,I_C is 3550+/- 150 K or approximately 900 K below the effective temperature of the star.

  9. 1 λ × 1.44 Tb/s free-space IM-DD transmission employing OAM multiplexing and PDM.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zheng, Zhennan; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-22

    We report the experimental demonstration of single wavelength terabit free-space intensity modulation direct detection (IM-DD) system employing both orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing and polarization division multiplexing (PDM). In our experiment, 12 OAM modes with two orthogonal polarization states are used to generate 24 channels for transmission. Each channel carries 30 Gbaud Nyquist PAM-4 signal. Therefore an aggregate gross capacity record of 1.44 Tb/s (12 × 2 × 30 × 2 Gb/s) is acheived with a modulation efficiency of 48 bits/symbol. After 0.8m free-space transmission, the bit error rates (BERs) of all the channels are below the 20% hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 1.5 × 10-2. After applying the decision directed recursive least square (DD-RLS) based filter and post filter, the BERs of two polarizations can be reduced from 5.3 × 10-3 and 7.3 × 10-3 to 2.2 × 10-3 and 3.4 × 10-3, respectively. PMID:26907049

  10. Polarity, viscosity, and ionic conductivity of liquid mixtures containing [C4C1im][Ntf2] and a molecular component.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J N Canongia; Gomes, Margarida F Costa; Husson, Pascale; Pádua, Agílio A H; Rebelo, Luis Paulo N; Sarraute, Sabine; Tariq, Mohammad

    2011-05-19

    In this study, we have focused on binary mixtures composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide, [C(4)C(1)im][Ntf(2)], and a selection of six molecular components (acetonitrile, dichloromethane, methanol, 1-butanol, t-butanol, and water) varying in polarity, size, and isomerism. Two Kamlet-Taft parameters, the polarizability π* and the hydrogen bond acceptor β coefficient were determined by spectroscopic measurements. In most cases, the solvent power (dipolarity/polarizability) of the ionic liquid is only slightly modified by the presence of the molecular component unless large quantities of this component are present. The viscosity and electrical conductivity of these mixtures were measured as a function of composition and the relationship between these two properties were studied through Walden plot curves. The viscosity of the ionic liquid dramatically decreases with the addition of the molecular component. This decrease is not directly related to the volumetric properties of each mixture or its interactions. The conductivity presents a maximum as a function of the composition and, except for the case of water, the conductivity maxima decrease for more viscous systems. The Walden plots indicate enhanced ionic association as the ionic liquid gets more diluted, a situation that is the inverse of that usually found for conventional electrolyte solutions. PMID:21517046

  11. Characteristics and Feasibility of Trans-Free Plastic Fats through Lipozyme TL IM-Catalyzed Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Akebia trifoliata Variety Australis Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shi-Qiang; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Bai, Chun-Qing; Peng, Hai-Long; Xiong, Hua; Hu, Ju-Wu; Zhao, Qiang

    2014-03-31

    Akebia trifoliata var. australis seed oil (ASO) was used as an edible oil in China. However, in-depth research studies on ASO have yet to be conducted for production of plastic fats in food industry. In this work, an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL IM) was employed to catalyze palm stearin (PS) with different ratios of ASO in a laboratory-scale operation at 60 °C. The physical properties [e.g., fatty acid profile, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), polymorphic form, and microstructure] of physical blends (PBs) were analyzed and compared with those of the interesterified products (IPs). Results showed that SMPs of IPs (33.20-37.60 °C) decreased compared with those of PBs (48.03-49.30 °C). Meanwhile, IPs showed a good SFC range from 16.11% to 28.29% at 25 °C with mostly β' polymorphic forms determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFAs) were detected in any products, suggesting much more health-benefits of IPs. Texture tests showed that PBs (3318.19 ± 86.67 g) were markedly harder than IPs (557.02 ± 12.75 g). Conclusively, our study demonstrated that ASO can be utilized to produce trans-free plastic fats with good qualities through lipase-catalyzed interesterification. PMID:24655125

  12. Test-retest, retest, and retest: Growth curve models of repeat testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT).

    PubMed

    Maerlender, Arthur C; Masterson, Caitlin J; James, Tiffany D; Beckwith, Jonathan; Brolinson, Per Gunner; Crisco, Joe; Duma, Stefan; Flashman, Laura A; Greenwald, Rick; Rowson, Steven; Wilcox, Beth; McAllister, Tom W

    2016-10-01

    Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Growth curve modeling showed that the two memory composite scores increased significantly with successive administrations: Change in Verbal Memory was best represented with a quadratic model, while a linear model best fit Visual Memory. Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time composites showed no significant linear or quadratic growth. The results demonstrate the effect of repeated test administrations for memory composite scores, while speed composites were not significantly impacted by repeat testing. Acceptable test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all four composites as well. PMID:27266563

  13. Estimating peak skin and eye lens dose from neuroperfusion examinations: Use of Monte Carlo based simulations and comparisons to CTDIvol, AAPM Report No. 111, and ImPACT dosimetry tool values

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Cagnon, Chris H.; Villablanca, J. Pablo; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Cody, Dianna D.; Zankl, Maria; Demarco, John J.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: CT neuroperfusion examinations are capable of delivering high radiation dose to the skin or lens of the eyes of a patient and can possibly cause deterministic radiation injury. The purpose of this study is to: (a) estimate peak skin dose and eye lens dose from CT neuroperfusion examinations based on several voxelized adult patient models of different head size and (b) investigate how well those doses can be approximated by some commonly used CT dose metrics or tools, such as CTDIvol, American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report No. 111 style peak dose measurements, and the ImPACT organ dose calculator spreadsheet. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate peak skin and eye lens dose on voxelized patient models, including GSF's Irene, Frank, Donna, and Golem, on four scanners from the major manufacturers at the widest collimation under all available tube potentials. Doses were reported on a per 100 mAs basis. CTDIvol measurements for a 16 cm CTDI phantom, AAPM Report No. 111 style peak dose measurements, and ImPACT calculations were performed for available scanners at all tube potentials. These were then compared with results from Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The dose variations across the different voxelized patient models were small. Dependent on the tube potential and scanner and patient model, CTDIvol values overestimated peak skin dose by 26%–65%, and overestimated eye lens dose by 33%–106%, when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. AAPM Report No. 111 style measurements were much closer to peak skin estimates ranging from a 14% underestimate to a 33% overestimate, and with eye lens dose estimates ranging from a 9% underestimate to a 66% overestimate. The ImPACT spreadsheet overestimated eye lens dose by 2%–82% relative to voxelized model simulations. Conclusions: CTDIvol consistently overestimates dose to eye lens and skin. The ImPACT tool also overestimated dose to eye lenses. As such they are still

  14. Comparison of Montanide adjuvants, IMS 3012 (Nanoparticle), ISA 206 and ISA 35 (Emulsion based) along with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for hyperimmunization of equines used for production of polyvalent snake antivenom.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Arun; Deopurkar, R L; Salvi, Nitin; Khadilkar, Milind; Kalolikar, Milind; Gade, S K

    2009-02-11

    The use of adjuvant is of fundamental importance in vaccines formulations and antisera production. Currently selection and use of adjuvant systems in snake antivenom preparation has become a major issue in terms of animal welfare as well as economics. In order to minimize disadvantages associated with traditionally used Freund's adjuvant (FA) in equines and to produce potent polyvalent antivenom against four Indian snake venoms in minimum possible period, a comparison was made between various commercially available non-emulsion/emulsion based adjuvants like IMS 3012, ISA 206 and ISA 35 with Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) for their immunopotentiation capacity and safety in donor animals. The present study was conducted in 33 new horses, randomly divided into four groups and hyperimmunized using crude mixture of snake venoms, viz.; Cobra venom (CV), Russell's viper venom (RV), Krait venom (KV) and Saw-scaled viper (EV) along with four above mentioned adjuvants through subcutaneous (s.c.) route at intervals of two weeks. Periodic standard safety assessments were done. Immunopotentiation ability of each adjuvant group in terms of percent responders were estimated at 14th, 21st, 30th and 43rd week. The neutralization activity (ED(50)) of pooled sera samples by 43(rd) week, obtained with IMS 3012 group for CV, RV, KV and EV venoms were 0.133, 0.143, 0.070 and 0.270 mg venom/ml of serum respectively. The antivenom potency with IMS 3012 and overall responding horses (100%) even against weak immunogen like CV was significantly higher (p<0.05) than other three adjuvants studied. The horses of IMS 3012 group showed minimum local reactions at injection site, while horses from other three groups exhibited moderate (++) reactions; 66.7% in ISA 206, 12.5% in ISA 35 and 14.3% in IFA respectively, however these were transient and reabsorbed or healed subsequently. Finally, we conclude that, nanoparticle adjuvant IMS 3012 could be a possible alternative to the emulsion adjuvants

  15. Levels of Daily Light Doses Under Changed Day-Night Cycles Regulate Temporal Segregation of Photosynthesis and N2 Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaoni; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    While the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is known to display inverse diurnal performances of photosynthesis and N2 fixation, such a phenomenon has not been well documented under different day-night (L-D) cycles and different levels of light dose exposed to the cells. Here, we show differences in growth, N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation as well as photochemical performances of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under 12L:12D, 8L:16D and 16L:8D L-D cycles at 70 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (LL) and 350 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (HL). The specific growth rate was the highest under LL and the lowest under HL under 16L:8D, and it increased under LL and decreased under HL with increased levels of daytime light doses exposed under the different light regimes, respectively. N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation were affected differentially by changes in the day-night regimes, with the former increasing directly under LL with increased daytime light doses and decreased under HL over growth-saturating light levels. Temporal segregation of N2 fixation from photosynthetic carbon fixation was evidenced under all day-night regimes, showing a time lag between the peak in N2 fixation and dip in carbon fixation. Elongation of light period led to higher N2 fixation rate under LL than under HL, while shortening the light exposure to 8 h delayed the N2 fixation peaking time (at the end of light period) and extended it to night period. Photosynthetic carbon fixation rates and transfer of light photons were always higher under HL than LL, regardless of the day-night cycles. Conclusively, diel performance of N2 fixation possesses functional plasticity, which was regulated by levels of light energy supplies either via changing light levels or length of light exposure. PMID:26258473

  16. The 25 kDa Subunit of Cleavage Factor Im Is a RNA-Binding Protein That Interacts with the Poly(A) Polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Ramírez-Moreno, María Esther; Orozco, Esther; Charcas-López, Socorro; Soto-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; López-Casamicha, Mavil; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3´ end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25) from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X) domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25) was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A) tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3´ end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite. PMID:23840799

  17. The 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im Is a RNA-binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Ramírez-Moreno, María Esther; Orozco, Esther; Charcas-López, Socorro; Soto-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; López-Casamicha, Mavil; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25) from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X) domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25) was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A) tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite. PMID:23840799

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies on the DNA-binding and spectral properties of water-soluble complex [Ru(MeIm) 4(dpq)] 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan-Mei; Liu, Jie; Chen, Jin-Can; Shi, Shuo; Tan, Cai-Ping; Zheng, Kang-Cheng; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2008-06-01

    A new water-soluble Ru(II) complex [Ru(MeIm) 4(dpq)] 2+1, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, ESI-MS and UV-Vis. The interaction of the complex with CT-DNA has been explored by using electronic absorption titration, competitive binding experiment, circular dichroic (CD) spectra, thermal denaturation and viscosity measurements. The experimental results show that: the title complex can bind to DNA in an intercalative mode and its DNA-binding affinity is weaker ( Kb = 1.2 × 10 4 M -1) than that of the complex [Ru(bpy) 2(dpq)] 2+2 with bidentate co-ligands ( Kb = 4.7 × 10 4 M -1). Here a very interesting finding is that the hypochromism of the title complex is not linear relation to its DNA-binding affinity. In addition, some significant thermodynamic parameters of the binding of the title complex to DNA, e.g., the changes of free energy at melting temperature, standard enthalpy, and standard entropy ( ΔGT0, Δ H0, and Δ S0), were determined and calculated. In order to deeply explain the experimental findings, the DFT/TDDFT computations were carried out. On the basis of the DFT/TDDFT results and the frontier molecular orbital theory, the trend in DNA-binding affinities and the spectral properties as well as the interesting phenomena of larger extent of hypochromism but relatively smaller Kb value for the title complex 1 compared with complex 2 were reasonably explained.

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Transverse Tension Fatigue Characterization of IM6/3501-6 Composite Materials Using a Three-Point Bend Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Ann W.

    1998-01-01

    As composites are introduced into more complex structures with out-of-plane loadings, a better understanding is needed of the out-of-plane, matrix-dominated failure mechanisms. This work investigates the transverse tension fatigue characteristics of IM6/3501 composite materials. To test the 90 degree laminae, a three-point bend test was chosen, potentially minimizing handling and gripping issues associated with tension tests. A finite element analysis was performed of a particular specimen configuration to investigate the influence of specimen size on the stress distribution for a three-point bend test. Static testing of 50 specimens of 9 different sized configurations produced a mean transverse tensile strength of 61.3 Mpa (8.0 ksi). The smallest configuration (10.2 mm wide, Span-to-thickness ratio of 3) consistently exhibited transverse tensile failures. A volume scale effect was difficult to discern due to the large scatter of the data. Static testing of 10 different specimens taken from a second panel produced a mean transverse tensile strength of 82.7 Mpa (12.0 ksi). Weibull parameterization of the data was possible, but due to variability in raw material and/or manufacturing, more replicates are needed for greater confidence. Three-point flex fatigue testing of the smallest configuration was performed on 59 specimens at various levels of the mean static transverse tensile strength using an R ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 20 Hz. A great deal of scatter was seen in the data. The majority of specimens failed near the center loading roller. To determine whether the scatter in the fatigue data is due to variability in raw material and/or the manufacturing process, additional testing should be performed on panels manufactured from different sources.

  20. Levels of daily light doses under changed day-night cycles regulate temporal segregation of photosynthesis and N2 Fixation in the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoni; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    While the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is known to display inverse diurnal performances of photosynthesis and N2 fixation, such a phenomenon has not been well documented under different day-night (L-D) cycles and different levels of light dose exposed to the cells. Here, we show differences in growth, N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation as well as photochemical performances of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under 12L:12D, 8L:16D and 16L:8D L-D cycles at 70 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (LL) and 350 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (HL). The specific growth rate was the highest under LL and the lowest under HL under 16L:8D, and it increased under LL and decreased under HL with increased levels of daytime light doses exposed under the different light regimes, respectively. N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation were affected differentially by changes in the day-night regimes, with the former increasing directly under LL with increased daytime light doses and decreased under HL over growth-saturating light levels. Temporal segregation of N2 fixation from photosynthetic carbon fixation was evidenced under all day-night regimes, showing a time lag between the peak in N2 fixation and dip in carbon fixation. Elongation of light period led to higher N2 fixation rate under LL than under HL, while shortening the light exposure to 8 h delayed the N2 fixation peaking time (at the end of light period) and extended it to night period. Photosynthetic carbon fixation rates and transfer of light photons were always higher under HL than LL, regardless of the day-night cycles. Conclusively, diel performance of N2 fixation possesses functional plasticity, which was regulated by levels of light energy supplies either via changing light levels or length of light exposure. PMID:26258473

  1. Column Path Length Measurements Using a Multi-Frequency, Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F. W.; Lin, B.; Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J.; McGregor, D.; Kooi, S. A.; Collins, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate understanding of carbon balance in the environment is critical to projections of the future evolution of the Earth's climate. As a result, the NRC Decadal Survey (DS) of Earth Science and Applications from Space identified Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term (Tier II) mission. The active space remote measurement of the column CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) for the ASCENDS mission requires the simultaneous measurement of the CO2 and O2 number density and the column path length over which they are measured in order to derive the average XCO2 column. This paper presents methods for measuring the path lengths of the CO2 and O2 measurements that are inherent to the Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) system under development for the ASCENDS mission. The MFLL is a multi-frequency intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) LAS operating near 1.57 and 1.26 μm that uses a range-encoded modulation technique to minimize bias from thin clouds in the CO2 and O2 column measurements while simultaneously measuring the path length to the surface and to intervening cloud layers. This paper discusses the latest MFLL ground and flight test results. During these tests, range-encoded modulation techniques were demonstrated for path length measurements and the MFLL remote CO2 column measurements were evaluated against in situ CO2 measurements. This paper describes the encoding techniques employed, presents an approach for obtaining column path length measurements during CO2 retrievals, and presents the accuracy and precision of the technique. Measurement of path length meeting ASCENDS requirements of approximately 2-m precision were obtained in ground testing and demonstrated during flights over Railroad Valley, NV.

  2. Determination of human insulin and its analogues in human blood using liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative determination of insulin from human blood samples is an emerging topic in doping controls as well as in other related disciplines (e.g. forensics). Beside the therapeutic use, insulin represents a prohibited, performance enhancing substance in sports drug testing. In both cases accurate, sensitive, specific, and unambiguous determination of the target peptide is of the utmost importance. The challenges concerning identifying insulins in blood by liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS) are detecting the basal concentrations of approximately 0.2 ng/mL and covering the hyperinsulinaemic clamps at > 3 ng/mL simultaneously using up to 200 μL of plasma or serum. This is achieved by immunoaffinity purification of the insulins with magnetic beads and subsequent separation by micro-scale liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility / high resolution mass spectrometry. The method includes human insulin as well as the synthetic or animal analogues insulin aspart, glulisine, glargine, detemir, lispro, bovine, and porcine insulin. The method validation shows reliable results considering specificity, limit of detection (0.2 ng/mL except for detemir: 0.8 ng/mL), limit of quantification (0.5 ng/mL for human insulin), precision (CV < 20%), linearity (r > 0.99), recovery, accuracy (>90%), robustness (plasma/serum), and ion suppression. For quantification of human insulin a labelled internal standard ([[(2) H10 ]-Leu(B6,B11,B15,B17) ] - human Insulin) is introduced. By means of the additional ion mobility separation of the different analogues, the chromatographic run time is shortened to 8 min without losing specificity. As proof-of-concept, the procedure was successfully applied to different blood specimens from diabetic patients receiving recombinant synthetic analogues. PMID:25219675

  3. The use of waveform cross correlation for creation of an accurate catalogue of mining explosions within the Russian platform using joint capabilities of seismic array Miknevo and IMS arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, M.; Kitov, I.; Sanina, I.

    2014-12-01

    For seismic monitoring, the task of finding and indentifying the sources of various seismic events is getting more and more difficult when the size (magnitude, yield, energy) of these events decreases. Firstly, the number of seismic events dramatically increases with falling magnitude - approximately by an order of magnitude per unit of seismic magnitude. Secondly, mining explosions become detectable and represent one of the biggest challenges for monitoring for magnitudes below 3.5 to 4.0. In the current study of mining activity within the Russian platform, we use the advantages of location and historical bulletins/catalogues of mining explosions recorded by small-aperture seismic array Mikhnevo (MHVAR) and extensive data from several IMS arrays at regional and far regional distances from the studied area. The Institute of Geosphere Dynamics (IDG) of the Russian Academy of Sciences runs seismic array MHVAR (54.950 N; 37.767 E) since 2004. Approximately 50 areas with different levels of mining activity have been identified by MHVAR and reported in the IDG catalogue as mining events. Signals from select mining events detected by MHVAR are sought at IMS arrays. Continuous data from MHVAR and IMS arrays (e.g. AKASG) are processed jointly using waveform cross correlation technique. This technique allows reducing the detection threshold of repeated events by an order of magnitude as well as accurately locating and identifying mining explosions. To achieve the highest performance of cross correlation, we have selected the best sets of waveform templates recorded from a carefully tested set of master events for each of the studied mines. We also test the possibility to use the Principal and Independent Component Analysis to produce sets of synthetic templates, which best fit the whole set of master events for a given mine.

  4. Postoperative pain control using continuous i.m. bupivacaine infusion plus patient-controlled analgesia compared with epidural analgesia after major hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Lun-Hing, Edgar M; van Dam, Ronald M; Welsh, Fenella K S; Wells, John K G; John, Timothy G; Cresswell, Adrian B; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Rees, Myrddin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is debate concerning the best mode of delivery of analgesia following liver resection, with continuous i.m. infusion of bupivacaine (CIB) plus patient-controlled i.v. analgesia (PCA) suggested as an alternative to continuous epidural analgesia (CEA). This study compares these two modalities. Methods A total of 498 patients undergoing major hepatectomy between July 2004 and July 2011 were included. Group 1 received CIB + PCA (n = 429) and Group 2 received CEA (n = 69). Groups were analysed on baseline patient and surgical characteristics. Primary endpoints were pain severity scores and total opioid consumption. Secondary endpoints were pain management failures, need for rescue medication, postoperative (opioid-related) morbidity and hospital length of stay (LoS). Results In both groups pain was well controlled and >70% of patients had no or minimal pain on PoDs 1 and 2. The numbers of patients experiencing severe pain were similar in both groups: PoD 1 at rest: 0.3% in Group 1 and 0% in Group 2 (P = 1.000); PoD 1 on movement: 8% in Group 1 and 2% in Group 2 (P = 0.338); PoD 2 at rest: 0% in Group 1 and 2% in Group 2 (P = 0.126), and PoD 2 on movement: 5% in Group 1 and 5% in Group 2 (P = 1.000). Although the CIB + PCA group required more opioid rescue medication on PoD 0 (53% versus 22%; P < 0.001), they used less opioids on PoDs 0–3 (P ≤ 0.001), had lower morbidity (26% versus 39%; P = 0.018), and a shorter LoS (7 days versus 8 days; P = 0.005). Conclusions The combination of CIB + PCA provides pain control similar to that provided by CEA, but facilitates lower opioid consumption after major hepatectomy. It has the potential to replace epidural analgesia, thereby avoiding the occurrence of rare but serious complications. PMID:24151899

  5. InSAR Time Series Analysis and Geophysical Modeling of City Uplift Associated with Geothermal Drillings in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, M.; Lubitz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Geothermal energy is of increasing importance as alternative, environmentally friendly technology for heat management. Direct interaction with the subsurface requires careful implementation, in particular in geological complex regions. The historical city Staufen im Breisgau, SW Germany, has attracted national attention as a case of implementation failure with severe consequences, causing debates on the applicability and security of this sustainable technique. Located at the eastern transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif, the geothermal potential is high at Staufen due to strong temperature gradients. In September 2007, seven boreholes for geothermal probes were drilled up to a depth of 140 m to provide a new heat management for the city hall. Within five years an uplift phenomenon has been observed in Staufen reaching more than 40 cm in places and 269 buildings were damaged. Hydro-chemical driven anhydrite-gypsum transformation in the subsurface was identified as the cause leading to volume increase that is observable as surface uplift. This process is associated with the geothermal drilling activities that have crossed several groundwater levels. In this work, we summarize and present the findings of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) analysis of the uplift in Staufen over the last five years from July 2008 through July 2013. By applying the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method, we find a localized elliptical-shaped deformation field in NE-SW orientation. Area of maximum uplift is located 50 m NNE of the drilling zone. At this location, we observe a cumulative uplift of approx. 13.7 cm ± 0.34 cm (mean value within an area of 30 m by 30 m) from July 2008 to July 2009, which reduced to cumulative uplift of 3 cm ± 0.25 cm from July 2012 to July 2013. The deceleration can be related to applied countermeasures as borehole sealing and groundwater pumping. The observed ground surface response was compared to

  6. Numerical Modelling of circulation and internal tides on the Crozet plateau in support of the IMS/CTBTO hydroacoustic installation HA04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyard, Florent Henri; Zampolli, Mario; Marsaleix, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS), with the exception of one in Australia, comprise two triplets of submerged moored hydrophones, one North and one South of the island from which the respective system is deployed. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 100 km kilometres from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system. The re-establishment of hydrophone monitoring station HA04 at Crozet (French Southern and Antarctic Territories) in the South-Western Indian Ocean is currently being investigated. The highly dynamic ocean environment at Crozet is governed by strong winds and generally high sea states at the surface, local circulation emanating from the sub-Antarctic front (SAF) and the Agulhas return current (ARC), moderate surface tides and strong internal tides. Deploying the submarine cables and triplets in such an environment requires careful evaluation of all risks and in particular the minimization of the exposure of the deployed system to excessively strong currents. This issue has been addressed by two studies which are briefly introduced here. In the first study, a linear spectral model was used to study and characterize the barotropic tide-driven currents on the Crozet plateau in three spatial dimensions. The M2 semi-diurnal component was shown to dominate in the area, driving sizeable internal tides. The estimate was quantitatively and spatially refined in the second study, in which a time stepping model was used taking into account the local ocean climatology and stratification, as well as the interplay between the seasonally varying

  7. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und Veränderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten über Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische Erklärung irreversibler Vorgänge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri Poincaré). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung über die Beziehungen zwischen Relativitätstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. Weizsäcker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rückwärts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische Größe in der Relativitätstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  8. I'm like ... Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyburz, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    "Given that my film is exploring a punk ethos that attends DIY filmmaking, I decided that the rough nature of the video created appropriate content... these are the sorts of details that reveal the complex, cinema verite nature of the DIY experience."

  9. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  10. Selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil with Lipozyme RM IM, an immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase, to obtain a biodiesel-like biofuel, which avoids glycerol production through the monoglyceride formation.

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Luna, Diego; Sancho, Enrique D; Luna, Carlos; Posadillo, Alejandro; Bautista, Felipa M; Romero, Antonio A

    2014-12-25

    The obtaining of Ecodiesel, a biofuel applicable to diesel engines which keeps the glycerin as monoglyceride (MG), was achieved through a selective ethanolysis process of sunflower oil, by application of Lipozyme RM IM, a Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilized on macroporous anion exchange resins. This biocatalyst that was already described in the synthesis of conventional biodiesel has also shown its efficiency in the present selective enzymatic process, after optimization of the influence of various reaction parameters. Thus, an adequate activity is obtained that is maintained throughout five successive reuses. Quantitative conversions of triglycerides (TG) with high yields to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were obtained under mild reaction conditions that correspond to the transformation of TG in a mixture of two moles of FAEE and a mole of MG, thus avoiding the glycerol production. Thus, the selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with absolute ethanol can be carried out under standard conditions with oil/ethanol volume ratio 12/3.5 (mL), at constant pH obtained by the addition of 50 μl of aqueous solution of 10 N NaOH, reaction temperature of 40 °C and 40 mg of Lipozyme RM IM. Under these experimental conditions six successive reactions can be efficiently carried out. PMID:24594272

  11. ";... Physica autem sine omni experimento instituta sicca sit et sterilis`` Warum im Jahr 1771 trotz guter Argumente der Plan, in Melk eine Sternwarte zu errichten, nicht zur Ausführung kam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Gottfried; Preiner, Christine

    2009-06-01

    Am 20. August 1771 weilte der namhafte Wiener Universitätsprofessor, Astronom der Kaiserin und Mitarbeiter der Wiener Universitätssternwarte P. Joseph Liesganig SJ zu Gast im Stift Melk. Gegenüber Abt Urban Hauer (1763-1785) äußerte er die Idee, auf dem Pulverturm im Norden der Klosteranlage eine Sternwarte zu errichten. Den Aufzeichnungen in den Tagebüchern des Priorats ist zu entnehmen, dass der Abt an dem Vorschlag sofort Gefallen fand, weil er meinte, dass eine Physik mit Experimenten und eine Astronomie mit Beobachtungsmöglichkeiten die Freude am Lernen fördere. Aber am 2. Dezember 1771, als das Projekt auf der Tagesordnung des Kapitels stand, endete die Diskussion zwischen Gegnern und Befürwortern des Sternwarte-Projekts in einem Eklat, noch ehe es zu einer Abstimmung kommen konnte. Der Abt, der als wichtigste Voraussetzung für ein Gelingen des Projektes die Freude der Beteiligten gesehen hatte, ließ darauf verkünden, dass das Thema "um des lieben Friedens willen“ nicht mehr zur Diskussion stehe.

  12. Mn-Cr relative sensitivity factor in ferromagnesian olivines defined for SIMS measurements with a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe: Implications for dating secondary fayalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2016-02-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53Mn, which decays to 53Cr with a half-life of ∼3.7 Myr, is useful for sequencing objects that formed within the first 20 Myr of Solar System evolution. 53Mn-53Cr relative chronology enables aqueously formed secondary minerals such as fayalite and various carbonates in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites to be dated, thereby providing chronological constraints on aqueous alteration processes. In situ measurements of Mn-Cr isotope systematics in fayalite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) require consideration of the relative sensitivities of the 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, for which a relative sensitivity factor [RSF = (55Mn+/52Cr+)SIMS/(55Mn/52Cr)true] is defined using appropriate standards. In the past, San Carlos olivine (Fa∼10) was commonly used for this purpose, but a growing body of evidence suggests that it is an unsuitable standard for meteoritic fayalite (Fa>90). Natural fayalite also cannot be used as a standard because it contains only trace amounts of chromium, which makes determining a true 55Mn/52Cr ratio and its degree of heterogeneity very difficult. To investigate the dependence of the Mn-Cr RSF on ferromagnesian olivine compositions, we synthesized a suite of compositionally homogeneous Mn,Cr-bearing liquidus-phase ferromagnesian olivines (Fa31-99). Manganese-chromium isotopic measurements of San Carlos olivine and synthesized ferromagnesian olivines using the University of Hawai'i Cameca ims-1280 SIMS show that the RSF for Fa10 is ∼0.9; it increases rapidly between Fa10 and Fa31 and reaches a plateau value of ∼1.5 ± 0.1 for Fa>34. The RSF is time-dependent: it increases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content <30 and decreases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content >50. The RSF measured on ferroan olivine (Fa>90) is influenced by pit shape, whereas the RSF measured on magnesian olivine (Fa10) is less sensitive to changes in pit shape. For these reasons, 53Mn-53Cr

  13. Europas Röntgenobservatorium XMM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, N.; Dahlem, M.

    2000-02-01

    In den letzten 25 Jahren haben sich Beobachtungen im Röntgenlicht, neben optischen und Radiobeobachtungen, zum dritten wichtigen Standbein der Astronomie entwickelt. Die Dynamik dieser Entwicklung zeigt sich darin, dass den Astronomen seit dem Start von ROSAT immer wenigstens zwei Röntgensatelliten zur selben Zeit zur Verfügung standen. Im nächsten Jahr wird mit drei neuen Teleskopen ein vorläufiger Höhepunkt dieser Entwicklung erreicht. Obwohl die Instrumente jedes Observatorium ihre spezifischen Stärken aufweisen, wird die X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM) der Europäischen Raumfahrt-Organisation (ESA) schon aufgrund ihrer im Vergleich zu allen anderen Teleskopen riesigen Spiegelfläche einen entscheidenden Eckstein bilden.

  14. Hochproduktive Werkzeugbeschichtungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszynski, Jacek

    Trotz vielfältiger Bemühungen, die Near Net Shape Technologie in weiten Produktionsbereichen zu etablieren, ist die spanabhebende Bearbeitung nach wie vor ein wesentlicher Faktor im Produktionsprozess und kann als solcher die Produktivität entscheidend beeinflussen. Allerdings haben sich die Anforderungen an den Zerspanungsprozess im Laufe der letzten Jahre stark gewandelt. Die Reduktion von Taktzeiten und die Erhöhung der Schnittgeschwindigkeiten bedeuten eine verstärkte mechanische und thermische Belastung für die Schneidstoffe. Hinzu kommt die Forderung nach Einengung der Toleranzen und Einsparung von Arbeitsgängen. Diese neuen Rahmenbedingungen führen dazu, dass eine stetige Anpassung der Werkzeuge sowohl hinsichtlich der Schneidengeometrie als auch im Bereich der Schneidstoffe selbst notwendig ist.

  15. Herausforderungen für künftige Lernumgebungen am Beispiel der Fakultät für Medizin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergintchev, Ivan; Graf, Stephan

    Nach der weit reichenden Etablierung von eLearning in den letzten Jahren stehen nahezu alle deutschen Hochschulen vor der Aufgabe, wettbewerbsfähige hochschulübergreifende Mechanismen sowie entsprechende organisatorische Rahmenbedingungen zu schaffen. Vor allem die Umsetzung von EBologna und die Unterstützung kooperativer Bildungsangebote verstärken diese Notwendigkeit. Motiviert durch die Veränderungen im Bereich der Hochschullehre und die Herausforderungen für künftige Lernumgebungen schlagen wir eine Integrationslösung im Sinne eines Learning Gateway vor, die zur webgestützten Abwicklung von kooperativen Bildungsangeboten in heterogen Lernumgebungen eingesetzt werden kann. Ihre Praxisanwendung verdeutlichen wir anschließend im komplexen Szenario der Medizin an der TUM. Die Evaluierung der Umsetzung belegt den deutlichen Mehrwert des Ansatzes.

  16. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  17. Interpretation of the ion mass spectra in the mass range 25-35 obtained in the inner coma of Halley's comet by the HIS-sensor of the Giotto IMS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Altwegg, K.; Anders, E.; Balsiger, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E. G.

    1991-01-01

    The IMS-HIS double-focussing mass spectrometer that flew on the Giotto spacecraft covered the mass per charge range from 12 to 56 (AMU/e). By comparing flight data, calibration data, and results of model calculations of the ion population in the inner coma, the absolute mass scale is established, and ions in the mass range 25 to 35 are identified. Ions resulting from protonation of molecules with high proton affinity are relatively abundant, enabling us to estimate relative source strengths for H2CO, CH3OH, HCN, and H2S, providing for the first time a positive in situ measurement of methanol. Also, upper limits for NO and some hydrocarbons are derived.

  18. Interpretation of the ion mass spectra in the mass per charge range 25-35 amu/e obtained in the inner coma of Halley's comet by the HIS-sensor of the Giotto IMS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Altwegg, K.; Anders, E.; Balsiger, H.; Meier, A.; Shelley, E. G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Neugebauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The IMS-HIS double-focusing mass spectrometer that flew on the Giotto spacecraft covered the mass per charge range from 12 to 56 (amu/e). By comparing flight data, calibration data and results of model calculations of the ion population in the inner coma, the absolute mass scale is established, and ions in the mass range 25 to 35 are identified. Ions resulting from protonation of molecules with high proton affinity are relatively abundant, enabling us to estimate relative source strengths for H2CO, CH3OH, HCN, and H2S, providing for the first time a positive in situ measurement of methanol. Also, upper limits for NO and some hydrocarbons are derived.

  19. Dramatic Changes in the Solubilities of Ions Induced by Ligand Addition in Biphasic System D2O/DNO3//[C1C4im][Tf2N]: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Ternova, Dariia; Boltoeva, Maria; Cointeaux, Laure; Gaillard, Clotilde; Kalchenko, Vitaly; Mazan, Valérie; Miroshnichenko, Stanislav; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Ouadi, Ali; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Petrova, Maria; Billard, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    The solubilities of C1C4im(+) and Tf2N(-) in nitric aqueous phases have been measured for several ligand types and concentrations (0.04 M tributylphosphine oxide, 0.05 M N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dibutylmalonamide, 0.10 M 1-methyl-3-[4-(dibutylphosphinoyl)butyl]-3H-imidazol-1-ium bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imidate, and 1.1 M N,N-dihexyloctanamide). The data evidence a significant difference between the solubilities of the cations and anions of the ionic liquid as a consequence of several ion-exchange and/or ion-pairing mechanisms involving all ions present in the system as well as the protonation/nitric-extraction ability of the ligand. PMID:27392276

  20. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther-Klaus, Ellen

    Deutschland hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten den internationalen Ruf erworben, auf dem Gebiet der Technologie führend zu sein. Große, weitreichende Erfindungen sind in Deutschland gemacht worden. Viele Nobelpreise gehen nach Deutschland: Robert Bosch, Nikolaus Otto und Konrad Zuse gehören genauso zu den großen Erfindern, wie Melitta Bentz und Emmy Noether. 85 % aller Nobelpreise, die seit 1901 nach Deutschland gingen, sind in den Kategorien Chemie, Physik und Medizin vergeben worden. Allein im Jahr 2007 wurden in Deutschland fast 50.000 Patente angemeldet.

  1. Spatial anti-aliasing for T-phase directivity estimation using data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) hydroacoustic network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Haralabus, Georgios; Zampolli, Mario; Yamada, Tomoaki; Prior, Mark

    2016-04-01

    IMS hydrophone stations are used to estimate the T-phase back-azimuth from a mega-thrust earthquake. Each IMS hydrophone station consists of two triplets (except for HA01 Cape Leeuwin, Australia, which has only one triplet). The hydrophones of each triplet are suspended in the water, at a depth near the SOFAR channel axis, and form an approximately equilateral triangle with each side 2 kilometers long. With such an arrangement, it is possible to process incoming waves by a technique similar to seismic array analysis. The frequency range applied in the array analysis is chosen to be 0.4 Hz, by assuming the target phase velocity to be 1.5 km/s for T phases. In the present study, data from the recent Chile earthquake on 16 September 2015 is analyzed. The waveforms were received at HA03 and HA11, which are located off Juan Fernández Island (Southeastern Pacific) and off Wake Island (Western Pacific), respectively. The signals from the T-phase originated at the seismic source show peaks in the frequency band up to a few Hz. However, spatial aliasing is observed in the frequency-wavenumber analysis (F-K analysis) if the entire 100 Hz bandwidth of the hydrophones is used, because the distance between hydrophones in the triplet becomes large in comparison to the ratio between phase velocity of T-phase and the frequency. To circumvent the spatial aliasing problem, a three-step processing is applied: (1) high-pass filtering above 1 Hz to retrieve the T-phase, followed by (2) extraction of the envelope to highlight the T-phase contribution, and finally (3) low-pass filtering below 0.4 Hz. The recordings processed in this manner show a good cross-correlation across the triplet. The F-K analysis provides useful back-azimuth and slowness estimations with spatial anti-aliasing. The resulting seismic beamforming both from the HA03 and HA11 sites points towards the earthquake epicenter.

  2. Crystal structure and properties of complexes [Ln(Gly)4Im·(ClO4)4]n (Ln:Nd, Sm) constructed from eight-coordination containing square antiprism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lu; Gao, Xiao-han; Lv, Xue-chuan; Tan, Zhi-cheng; Cao, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Two eight-coordination containing square antiprism polyhedra, [Ln(Gly)4Im·(ClO4)4]n (Ln:Nd, Sm) were synthesized through the self-assembly of Ln3+ (Ln:Nd, Sm) ions, glycine and imidazole in aqueous solution and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Both of the complexes crystallized in the C2/c space group. In the cluster, each Ln3+ ions was eight-coordination by eight oxygen atoms of the glycine. The coordination sphere of each Ln3+ ions could be described as a distorted square antiprism. Two central Ln3+ ions were connected by four bridging carboxyl groups from four glycine molecules. The Ln-O bond distances were related to the coordination geometries of the ligands. The complexes had two special solid-solid phase transitions at 224 K and 248 K, which were interpreted as a freezing-in phenomenon of the reorientational motion of perchlorate ions ClO4- and the orientational order/disorder process of ClO4- ions. The decomposition mechanism of the complexes was deduced to be three stages from 300 to 700 K. The fluorescent excitation and emission spectra showed that the complexes had strong fluorescent property.

  3. Renaturierung von subalpinen und alpinen Ökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautzer, B.; Klug, Brigitte

    Die große Vielfalt an alpinen und subalpinen Ökosystemen auf waldfreien Standorten stellt besonders hohe Anforderungen an Planung und Durchführung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen. Zunehmende Meereshöhe, starke Hangneigungen und extreme klimatische Verhältnisse im Gebirge bedingen zudem seit jeher natürliche Erosionsprozesse. Die zahllosen menschlichen Aktivitäten der letzten Jahrzehnte, gepaart mit unzureichenden Begrünungsmaßnahmen, erhöhen dieses Risiko noch um ein Vielfaches: Geländekorrekturen im Zuge von Skipistenbauten, Almrevitalisierungen, Forst- und Almwegebauten, Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der touristischen Infrastruktur oder Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauungen. Nur durch Verwendung von hochwertigem, dem Standort angepasstem Pflanzen-oder Saatgutmaterial in Kombination mit der passenden Begrünungstechnik kann dieser Bedrohung dauerhaft entgegengewirkt werden. Dabei sind folgende limitierende Faktoren besonders zu beachten.

  4. Gauß' Theoria motus: Entstehung, Quellen, Rezeption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, K.

    Die Entstehung von Gauß' Theoria motus steht in engem Zusammenhang mit den Ereignissen der Jahre 1801 und 1802: Giuseppe Piazzi hatte erstmals die Ceres beobachtet; diese konnte auf Grund der Berechnungen von Gauß um die Jahreswende 1801/2 sowohl von Franz Xaver von Zach als auch von Wilhelm Olbers wiederentdeckt werden. Gauß hatte seine Theoria motus auf der Basis der Keplerschen Gesetze, als Zweikörperproblem, behandelt. Er war sich aber sehr wohl darüber im klaren, daß diese Betrachtungsweise nur Bahnen liefern würde, die nur für relativ kurze Zeit mit den Beobachtungen übereinstimmen würden. Um den so errechneten Bahnen dennoch eine länger währende Gültigkeit zu ermöglichen, berücksichtigte er im letzten Kapitel seiner Theoria motus die unweigerlich auftretenden Störungen.

  5. HMG-CoA reductase regulation: use of structurally diverse first half-reaction squalene synthetase inhibitors to characterize the site of mevalonate-derived nonsterol regulator production in cultured IM-9 cells.

    PubMed

    Petras, S F; Lindsey, S; Harwood, H J

    1999-01-01

    The activity of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) is tightly regulated, in part through post-transcriptional mechanisms that are mediated by nonsterol products of mevalonate metabolism. Previous reports have suggested that these mediators are derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). Recent studies have implicated FPP hydrolysis products (e.g., farnesol), the squalene synthetase (SQS) reaction products presqualene pyrophosphate (PSQPP) and squalene, or their metabolites. To distinguish among these possible mediators, we evaluated the ability of HMGR and SQS inhibitors to induce compensatory increases in HMGR activity in cultured IM-9 cells. Mevinolin (HMGR inhibitor) produced predicted increases in HMGR activity that were related to the degree of cholesterolgenesis inhibition (e.g., 4-fold, 9-fold, and 17-fold increases relative to 50%, 76%, and 90% inhibition, respectively). By contrast, a variety of structurally distinct reversible, competitive, first half-reaction SQS inhibitors all reduced cholesterolgenesis by up to 90% with no appreciable increases in HMGR activity. These observations strongly suggest that nonsterol-mediated post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating HMGR activity remain intact after SQS first half-reaction inhibition, indicating that nonsterol regulator production is independent of SQS action and ruling out PSQPP, squalene and their metabolites as possible mediators. Unexpectedly, the SQS mechanism-based irreversible inactivator, zaragozic acid A (ZGA) exhibited the greatest degree of HMGR modulation, producing 5-fold, 11-fold, and 40-fold increases in HMGR activity at concentrations that produced 25%, 50%, and 75% cholesterolgenesis inhibition, respectively. The markedly greater magnitude of HMGR stimulation by ZGA versus mevinolin at similar levels of cholesterolgenesis inhibition suggests that ZGA may directly interfere with the production or action of the nonsterol regulator. PMID:9869647

  6. Enzymatic production of zero-trans plastic fat rich in α-linolenic acid and medium-chain fatty acids from highly hydrogenated soybean oil, Cinnamomum camphora seed oil, and perilla oil by lipozyme TL IM.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man-Li; Tang, Liang; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Hong-Yan; Luo, Li-Ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2013-02-13

    In the present study, zero-trans α-linolenic acid (ALA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA)-enriched plastic fats were synthesized through enzymatic interesterification reactions from highly hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO), Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO), and perilla oil (PO). The reactions were performed by incubating the blending mixtures of HSO, CCSO, and PO at different weight ratios (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100) using 10% (total weight of substrate) of Lipozyme TL IM at 65 °C for 8 h. After reaction, the physical properties (fatty acids profile, TAG composition, solid fat content, slip melting point, contents of tocopherol, polymorphic forms, and microstructures) of the interesterified products and their physical blends were determined, respectively. Results showed that the fatty acid compositions of the interesterified products and physical blends had no significant changes, while the content of MCFA in both interesterified products and physical blends increased to 8.58-18.72%. Several new types of TAG species were observed in interesterified products (SSL/SLS, PLO/LLS, and OLLn/LnLO/LOLn). It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFA) were detected in all products. As the temperature increased, the solid fat content (SFC) of interesterified products was obviously lower than that of physical blends. The SFCs of interesterified products (60:40:100, 70:30:100, and 80:20:100, HSO:CCSO:PO) at 25 °C were 6.5%, 14.6%, and 16.5%, respectively, whereas the counterparts of physical blends were 32.5%, 38.5%, and 43.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, interesterified products showed more β' polymorphs than physical blends, in which β' polymorph is a favorite form for production of margarine and shortening. Such zero-trans ALA and MCFA-enriched fats may have desirable physical and nutritional properties for shortenings and margarines. PMID:23350869

  7. Comparison of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis susceptibility upon single-dose i.m. depot versus long-acting i.v. triamcinolone acetonide therapy: a direct pharmacokinetic correlation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Getu; Demiraj, Fioralba; Ungemach, Fritz Rupert

    2006-11-01

    The effects of single injections of glucocorticoid (GC) depot suspension and of long-acting GC were studied in conscious dogs. Both the depot suspension GC triamcinolone-16,17-alpha-acetonide (TAA) and the long-acting triamcinolone acetonide-21-dihydrogen phosphate (TAA-DHP) decreased basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol levels and in a specific time-dependent way. Before treatment, all dogs had normal basal and peak cortisol responses to ACTH challenge (13-15 and > 120 nmol/l at 1 h respectively). Intravenous TAA-DHP reduced cortisol levels for 12 h, i.m. TAA reduced cortisol levels as of 1.5 h and the effect lasted for at least 4 weeks. Both treatments blunted the peak response to ACTH. ACTH elevated cortisol levels to or above baseline values within 10 days following TAA-DHP treatment, but the TAA treatment suppressed an ACTH response for at least 4 weeks. Kinetic analysis of both the preparations demonstrated rapid absorption (tmax, 0.6-1.5 h) and low maximum plasma concentrations (peak Cmax, 2.99-5.51 nmol/l) of the steroids; indeed, the terminal half-life of TAA-DHP (13.9 +/- 1.3 h) was very much shorter than that of TAA (125.9 +/- 15.8 h). In addition, the mean residence time differed very much (11 vs 160 h for TAA-DHP and TAA respectively), in line with a delayed elimination of the depot compared with the long-acting formulation. Application of these TAA formulations needs careful evaluation for their surprisingly different effects on endocrine stress axis activity. PMID:17088419

  8. Potent inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase display a two-step, slow-binding inhibition mechanism which is absent in a drug-resistant T66I/M154I mutant.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Edward P; Schwartz, Benjamin; Gartland, Margaret J; Lang, Scott; Halsey, Wendy; Sathe, Ganesh; Carter, H Luke; Weaver, Kurt L

    2009-02-24

    Two-metal binding HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (INIs) are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 in vitro and in patients. We report here for the first time the kinetics of inhibition of integrase-catalyzed strand transfer. First, the IC(50) values for each of six structurally distinct INIs decreased when a preincubation was included: S-1360 (1.3 microM vs 0.12 microM), L-731,988 (130 nM vs 9 nM), L-870,810 (130 nM vs 4 nM), raltegravir (300 nM vs 9 nM), elvitegravir (90 nM vs 6 nM), and GSK364735 (90 nM vs 6 nM). When reactions with these INIs were initiated with integrase, progress curve analyses indicated time-dependent inhibition, which could be fitted to a two-step mechanism of binding. Overall fitted K(i) values matched the IC(50) values measured with a preincubation: S-1360 (0.17 microM), L-731,988 (34 nM), L-870,810 (2.4 nM), raltegravir (10 nM), elvitegravir (4.0 nM), and GSK364735 (2.5 nM). To begin to understand the mechanism for this slow onset of inhibition and its possible impact on drug resistance, studies of resistance mutations were initiated. T66I/M154I exhibited little if any time-dependent inhibition by any of the six INIs, as measured by differences in potency upon preincubation or by progress curve analysis. These data demonstrate that slow binding is a signature of two-metal binding INIs, and that the second slow step is required for full potency. We discuss a possible structural explanation of the second slow step of inhibition and also the relationship between loss of time-dependent inhibition and drug resistance of this important new class of HIV-1 antiretroviral drugs. PMID:19178153

  9. Phase behavior, diffusion, structural characteristics, and pH of aqueous hydrophobic ionic liquid confined media: insights into microviscosity and microporsity in the [C4C4im][NTf2] + water system.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Raju; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-29

    We present our studies on the physicochemical properties of water confined in Dibutylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide) ([C4C4im][NTf2]) reverse micelles through the NMR relaxation measurements that provide us an understanding of microviscosity and pH in the confined condition. We present experimental results on phase behavior, diffusion, structural characteristics and pH in aqueous ionic liquid-confined media. The ternary phase diagram was constructed by the cloud point measurements and the microheterogeneous regions were detected by the measurement of bulk viscosity and diffusion coefficients of K4[Fe(CN)6] inside the homogeneous microemulsion systems through the cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements. The size of the microemulsion systems was characterized by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. The (1)H NMR spectra of homogeneous microemulsion systems were taken which indicates the presence of bound and free water molecules inside the microemulsion system. The NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of water molecules in its homogeneous microemulsion systems were measured and the reorientational correlation time (τc) of water molecules obtained from it indicates that the fluidity of homogeneous confined media decreases with the decrease in the composition of water. Microviscosity of the aqueous confined media was calculated from the measured T1 relaxation time values by applying the Debye-Stokes equation and correlated with the bulk viscosity of the samples. It was observed that both the microviscosity and bulk viscosity show inverse relationship. The fraction of bound and free water molecules were calculated from the measured T1 values. NMR spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of water molecules in its homogeneous microemulsion systems were measured with the varying pH of the aqueous core. A change in the T2 relaxation time of the water proton was observed proposing an exchange of proton between the H2O and -OH group of the TX-100 molecules. Finally

  10. (Im)moral Education in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Moral relativism, spearheaded by values clarification techniques, has transformed the ethos of South Australian schools. The theory and practice of innovative pedagogy in the realm of moral values is critiqued. Suggestions as to how a secular system of education can avoid moral anarchy without relapsing into ideological indoctrination are made.…

  11. Pardon Me, I'm New Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Meredith R.

    1979-01-01

    A new trustee discusses the task ahead of her including: problems when a trustee is a woman, public's view that trustees are largely honorary and ineffective, two extreme views of trustee responsibilities, changing role of the university, and the advantages of being a new trustee. (MLW)

  12. IM and SMS for the Circulation Desk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2012-01-01

    It's been well documented in a number of articles regarding the contemporary library patron that with the rise in mobile computing and smart phone technology, patrons are looking for fast and easy service from whichever technological avenue they are using to access library services. Libraries are responding with increasing numbers of online…

  13. "Hey, I'm Learning This"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics games are often used in the classroom as a reward or warm-up activity before the "real" learning takes place. Many teachers have witnessed how useful games are for tuning-in students to the impending mathematics lesson. However, have teachers considered playing games as the central part of the lesson? This article explores the benefits…

  14. Where I'm Coming From

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Frank

    1976-01-01

    Asserts that Asian American kids are looking for Asian American characters with a style that commands attention and respect in terms they can understand. Only in the works of Taro Yashima and Lawrence Yep are the literary sensibility, language and vision of Asian and Asian American culture. We need a body of Asian American myth to form and express…

  15. I'm not a genius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Helen

    2015-03-01

    In reply to the news story "New survey casts light on gender balance", which reported on a study claiming that the lack of women in certain fields is due to the notion that natural brilliance is required to excel in them (February p8).

  16. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Services planned by the Satellite Situation Center during the International Magnetospheric Study are briefly described. User requirements are emphasized. The following data are presented: orbital parameters for ISIS 2, ESRO 4, and HEOS 2; entry exit times for highly elliptical satellites; plots for highly elliptical earth satellites; and plots and flux tube intersection for low altitude satellites.

  17. Planuncspkobleme im Öffentlichen Verkehr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borndörfer, Ralf; Grötschel, Martin; Jaeger, Ulrich

    Millionen von Menschen werden allein in Deutschland täglich von Bussen, Bahnen und Flugzeugen transportiert. Der öffentliche Personenverkehr (ÖV) ist von großer Bedeutung für die Lebensqualität einzelner, aber auch für die Leistungsfähigkeit ganzer Regionen. Qualität und Effizienz von ÖV-Systemen hängen ab von politischen Rahmenbedingungen (staatlich geplant, wettbewerblich organisiert) und der Eignung der Infrastruktur (Schienensysteme, Flughafenstandorte), vom vorhandenen Verkehrsangebot (Fahr- und Flugplan), von der Verwendung angemessener Technologien (Informations-, Kontroll-und Buchungssysteme) und dem bestmöglichen Einsatz der Betriebsmittel (Energie, Fahrzeuge und Personal). Die hierbei auftretenden Entscheidungs-, Planungs- und Optimierungsprobleme sind z.T. gigantisch und "schreien“ aufgrund ihrer hohen Komplexität nach Unterstützung durch Mathematik.

  18. I'm Glad Someone Does It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Remaining motivated requires that educators believe in the essential goodness of humankind and in each person's capacity for self-examination and change. They must also have faith that they can make a positive difference by challenging students, offering resources to support them, and approaching all of their interactions with them with care and…

  19. Help! I'm Lost in Cyberspace!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranning, Antoinette; Ehman, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Describes a collaborative project called "Mystery from History" involving a rural Indiana elementary class and a computer education college class at Indiana University. Explains that the university students sent a mystery via e-mail to the elementary students in which they continued to send clues and questions until the mystery was solved. (CMK)

  20. Sandsturm kontra Wassersturm: Physik im Alltag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Sandstürme ereignen sich oft, Wasserstürme hingegen so gut wie nie. Eine Abschätzung zeigt, dass man beim Herauslösen eines Wassertropfens beispielsweise aus dem Meer eine sehr große Kraft benötigt und sehr viel Arbeit verrichten muss. Das scheint die Erklärung zu sein. Führt man eine entsprechende Energiebetrachtung durch, so könnte es durchaus Wasserstürme geben. Diese Überlegung ist zwar mathematisch richtig, aber unvollständig.

  1. Pinch Me - I'm Fusing!

    SciTech Connect

    DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-07-19

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, ,is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Honestly - this is true. There does seem to be something going on here; I just don't know what. Apparently some experimenters get energy out of a process many call cold fission but no one seems to know what it is, or how to do it reliably. It is not getting much attention from the mainline physics community. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article 1 will point out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and may one day generate electrical power for mankind.

  2. Snapshot: I'm a "Real" Teacher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummert, Darlos K.; Conover, Lynda A.

    2004-01-01

    Making the transition from college student to classroom teacher is certainly a life-changing event, and, whether the transition is smooth or rocky, many kinds of adjustments are inevitable. Even those who bring considerable maturity to the process can find it difficult to suddenly be the person in charge for an entire class for an entire day, day…

  3. "I'm Not Good at Math."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Gayle; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Contends that increased retention occurs when students become actively involved in determining what they need to know. Cites evidence of the success of San Joaquin Delta College's developmental education program, which involves student self-evaluation and revitalization. Provides student testimonials to the problems of math illiteracy and the…

  4. [History of German-Baltic relations in medicine].

    PubMed

    Tankler, H; Laschinski, G; Roots, I

    2004-04-30

    Today, the three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have well-known medical faculties with international standing. Their individual histories are briefly outlined. However, relations of the German academic world were closest with the university of Dorpat (today: Tartu). It was re-opened in 1802 by tsar Alexander I in order to keep young Baltic people from studying abroad. The medical faculty was its biggest faculty. The university was Russian, but the official language was German. So many a German professor came to Dorpat and many professors from Dorpat were offered a chair at a German university. The scientific imports connected Dorpat with other centres of West-European science, they brought knowledge and ideas and an exchange of information. The standard was high, and among the teaching staff was a handsome number of medical celebrities, e.g. the anatomist August Rauber and the surgeon Ernst von Bergmann. In Dorpat, Rudolf Buchheim brought a new science, experimental pharmacology, into being, which his pupil and successor, Oswald Schmiedeberg, fully established and propagated all over the world. PMID:15133742

  5. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of

  6. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little research available on the…

  7. "I'm 70 and I'm a Community Activist"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a project that turns residents of some of South Leeds' most deprived neighbourhoods into community researchers and is giving people an opportunity to make concrete, positive changes to their communities. Armed with homemade tools, some coloured pens, and masses of post-it notes, the "Community Experts" took to…

  8. Assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of Rhodococcus equi-secreted proteins combined with either a liquid nanoparticle (IMS 3012) or a polymeric (PET GEL A) water-based adjuvant in adult horses and foals--identification of promising new candidate antigens.

    PubMed

    Cauchard, S; Bertrand, F; Barrier-Battut, I; Jacquet, S; Laurentie, M; Barbey, C; Laugier, C; Deville, S; Cauchard, J

    2014-02-15

    Rhodococcus equi is the most common infectious cause of mortality in foals between 1 and 6 months of age. Because of an increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains, the optimization of a prophylactic strategy is a key factor in the comprehensive management of R. equi pneumonia. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and immunogenicity of R. equi-secreted proteins (ReSP) co-administered with either the nanoparticular adjuvant Montanide™ IMS 3012 VG, or a new polymeric adjuvant Montanide™ PET GEL A, and to further investigate the most immunogenic proteins for subsequent immunization/challenge experiments in the development of a vaccine against rhodoccocal pneumonia. The approach involved two phases. The first phase aimed to investigate the safety of vaccination in six adult horses. The second phase aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination in twelve 3-week-old foals. We set out to develop a method based on ultrasound measurements for safety assessment in adult horses in order to evaluate any in situ changes at the injection site, in the skin or the underlying muscle, with quantitative and qualitative data revealing that administration of ReSP combined with the Pet Gel A adjuvant led to an increase in local inflammation, associated with 4- to 7-fold higher levels of anti-R. equi IgGa, IgGb and IgGT, compared to administration of ReSP associated with IMS 3012 adjuvant, but without any impact on animal demeanor. Investigations were then performed in foals with serological and clinical follow-up until 6 months of age. Interestingly, we observed in foals a much lower incidence of adverse local tissue reactions at the injection site than in adult horses, with transient and moderate swelling for the group that received ReSP combined with Pet Gel A. Immunized foals with Pet Gel A adjuvant exhibited a similar response in both IgGa and IgGT levels, but a lower response in IgGb levels, compared to adult horses, with a

  9. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter. PMID:27160086

  10. Backlund, Jöns Oskar (1846-1916)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Sweden, worked in Russia, at the Dorpat (now Tartu) Observatory, became director of Pulkovo Observatory, and the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Petrograd. He employed a large staff to compute the orbit of Comet Encke, eventually concluding that the comet's motion was affected by non-gravitational forces (now known to be light pressure and magnetic forces from the Sun)....

  11. Daddy, I'm Scared: A Prophetic Parable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Although some small liberal arts colleges feature developmentally appropriate programs, most postsecondary institutions are more like factories that process students. This article describes limitations of the current college-admissions model and discusses the need to create common expectations and develop performance-based admission standards…

  12. Physik im Beruf Physiker bei der Deutschen Börse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Seine wissenschaftlichen Wirkungsstätten sind schnell aufgezählt: Basel, St. Petersburg, Berlin. Und wieder St. Petersburg. Mit seiner Arbeit ist das schon schwieriger.Insgesamt zählt man ungefähr 900 Arbeiten und zwanzig Bücher aus seiner Feder.

  13. Visuelle Kommunikation im Fremdsprachenunterricht (Visual Communication in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehring, Klaus H.

    1975-01-01

    Starts with a critique of the skill-oriented, teacher-centered concept of language learning: teacher as director and explainer, giving purely verbal training. Presents then a communication-oriented, learner-centered, "all-pragmatic" concept, emphasizing "social events." Suggests, with examples, reforming practice to develop learners'"signal…

  14. Worldviews, Humanism and the (Im)possibility of Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Cooling identifies two starting-points from which to approach the question of the place of religion in education. He calls them "the Argument from Fairness" and "the Argument from Objectivity". He attributes both of them to humanists and to me personally. He says that he accepts the Argument from Fairness, but rejects the Argument from…

  15. "I'm about Giving Power to Those without It"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    John Hayes, Conservative Shadow Minister for Lifelong Learning, Further and Higher Education, is unstinting in his enthusiasm for what adult learning, in all its forms, can achieve. Adult learning has many virtues, he enthuses, not all of them economic. Learning for its own sake is "a noble purpose" while education can help build "a cohesive…

  16. I'm Going Where Everyone Knows My Name

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayton, Bonner; Meadows, Meleah

    2012-01-01

    In today's high-stakes educational environment, students need to see more than standards, bubble sheets, rules, and regulations. It is possible for teachers and schools to build positive, productive relationships with students while maintaining a culture of excellence. Students of all ages need to learn from someone who is not only an expert in…

  17. (Im)Politeness in Cross-Cultural Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will first discuss the notions of "politeness" and "impoliteness" including a multilevel model of politeness and impoliteness that relates universal levels to culture- and language-specific ones. Given this framework and my earlier postulation of a set of parameters along which members of two linguacultures differ in terms of…

  18. I'm Not a Chili Pepper: Are You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciosi, Rob

    2006-01-01

    RateMyProfessors.com helps students rank their professors using a five-point rating scale in three areas, namely, helpfulness, clarity, and easiness. A college professor finds himself addicted to the site, which is rather low on substance and rates professors with a smiley face to indicate "good quality" and a red hot chili pepper to indicate the…

  19. Rethinking Institutional Secularization as an (Im)possible "Policy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Caride, Ezequiel

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes through a genealogical discourse analysis how religion as a cultural practice escapes into the borders of state institutions. While most studies about secularization focus on institutional aspects, such approaches tend to link state secularist policies with cultural secularization. This essay argues that state promotion of…

  20. Three years of photometry of IM Pegasi = HR 8703

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.; Lovell, L. P.; Stephan, C. A.; Chambliss, C. R.; Detterline, P. K.; Landis, H. J.; Louth, H.; Renner, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    Differential photometry of this K1 IV-III p RS CVn-type binary in 1978-79, 1979-80, and 1980-81 at eight different observatories shows that the variability, discovered originally by Herbst, is periodic. The mean of three different determinations of the photometric period was 24(d).39 + or 0(d).03, about 1 percent shorter than the orbital period of 24(d).649 determined spectroscopically by Harper. The total range observed during these three years was for V from 5(m).60 to 5(m).85. The light curve was nearly sinusoidal but always noticieably asymmetric, with the sense reversing sometime between 1979-80 and 1980-81.