Science.gov

Sample records for dos juristas brasileiros

  1. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  2. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  3. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors. PMID:25002970

  4. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors. PMID:25002970

  5. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  6. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dos Rios. 9.175 Section 9.175 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.175 Dos Rios. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...

  7. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  8. DOS Batch Files As Control Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyk, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-programming technique circumvents maximum of 640K imposed on random-access memory (RAM) by DOS (Disk Operating System) software. Involves breaking application program into smaller programs. Each resulting subprogram, when compiled and linked, must be small enough to fit within 640K of RAM. Retrieved from storage on disk as needed. In terms of DOS software, each subprogram ".EXE" file executed in "stand-alone" manner.

  9. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  10. "DOS for Managers." Management Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A plan is provided for a lesson on disk operating systems (DOS) for managers. Twenty-five lesson objectives are listed, followed by suggestions for learning activities and special resources. In the presentation section, key points and content are provided for 25 instructional topics that correspond to the 25 lesson objectives. The topics are as…

  11. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  12. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  13. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  14. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  15. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  16. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  17. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct assess to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to a 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  18. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  19. The Heme-Based Oxygen-Sensor Phosphodiesterase Ec DOS (DosP): Structure-Function Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli Direct Oxygen Sensor (Ec DOS, also known as Ec DosP) is a heme-based O2-sensing phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli that catalyzes the conversion of cyclic-di-GMP to linear di-GMP. Cyclic-di-GMP is an important second messenger in bacteria, highlighting the importance of understanding structure-function relationships of Ec DOS. Ec DOS is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound O2-sensing PAS domain and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase catalytic domain. Notably, its activity is markedly enhanced by O2 binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in the PAS sensor domain. X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic and catalytic characterization of the wild-type and mutant proteins have provided important structural and functional clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of intramolecular catalytic regulation by O2 binding. This review summarizes the intriguing findings that have obtained for Ec DOS. PMID:25586128

  20. Xenon spallation systematics in Angra dos Reis. [meteoritic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Hudson, B.; Kennedy, B. M.; Podosek, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Literature Xe data for the Angra dos Reis meteorite have been resolved into constituent spallation, fission and trapped components. The spallation Xe compositions vary over a range wider than observed in any other samples, including lunar samples. These variations are due to the mixing of spallation Xe from Ba and rare earth element targets. It is possible to infer the Ba and rare earth spallation Xe compositions. Angra dos Reis spallation Xe compositions are systematically different from those observed in lunar samples, possibly because of differences in the irradiation conditions (geometry and shielding). Thus the Angra dos Reis data appear to be superior to lunar data for predicting spallation Xe compositions in other meteorites.

  1. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  2. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para ev

  3. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vos, Marten H; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; Liebl, Ursula

    2012-01-10

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding. To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O(2), NO, and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O(2) escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds time scale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O(2) trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O(2). We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intraprotein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  4. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Marten H.; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Liebl, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding, To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O2, NO and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O2 escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds timescale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O2 trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O2. We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intra-protein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  5. Deceiving entropy-based DoS detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özçelik, Ä.°lker; Brooks, Richard R.

    2014-06-01

    Denial of Service (DoS) attacks disable network services for legitimate users. A McAfee report shows that eight out of ten Critical Infrastructure Providers (CIPs) surveyed had a significant Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack in 2010.1 Researchers proposed many approaches for detecting these attacks in the past decade. Anomaly based DoS detection is the most common. In this approach, the detector uses statistical features; such as the entropy of incoming packet header fields like source IP addresses or protocol type. It calculates the observed statistical feature and triggers an alarm if an extreme deviation occurs. However, intrusion detection systems (IDS) using entropy based detection can be fooled by spoofing. An attacker can sniff the network to collect header field data of network packets coming from distributed nodes on the Internet and fuses them to calculate the entropy of normal background traffic. Then s/he can spoof attack packets to keep the entropy value in the expected range during the attack. In this study, we present a proof of concept entropy spoofing attack that deceives entropy based detection approaches. Our preliminary results show that spoofing attacks cause significant detection performance degradation.

  6. Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and DosR-DNA Complex Involved in Gene Activation during Adaptation to Hypoxic Latency

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Rice, Adrian E; Roberts, David M; Sherman, David R; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-07-20

    On encountering low oxygen conditions, DosR activates the transcription of 47 genes, promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a non-replicating state. Here, we report the crystal structures of the DosR C-terminal domain and its complex with a consensus DNA sequence of the hypoxia-induced gene promoter. The DosR C-terminal domain contains four {alpha}-helices and forms tetramers consisting of two dimers with non-intersecting dyads. In the DNA-bound structure, each DosR C-terminal domain in a dimer places its DNA-binding helix deep into the major groove, causing two bends in the DNA. DosR makes numerous protein-DNA base contacts using only three amino acid residues per subunit: Lys179, Lys182, and Asn183. The DosR tetramer is unique among response regulators with known structures.

  7. Creating presentation graphics with MS-DOS computer technology.

    PubMed

    Van Hoozer, H; Warner, S; Felton, G

    1989-01-01

    This article describes how The University of Iowa College of Nursing Instructional Design Services uses MS-DOS computer technology to create presentation graphics to support nursing education, research, scholarly productivity, and service. Hardware and software are described and examples are presented to illustrate the use of software to create alphanumeric, schematic, and freeform pictures. The authors stress that the use of computer-aided design and production does not eliminate the use of traditional principles of visual design, but rather necessitates their application. PMID:2752333

  8. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, June 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Melendez, Frank; Bonnet, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Dos Bocas reservoir, in central Puerto Rico, was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the capacity of the reservoir has declined from 30,420 acre-ft in 1942 to about 19,620 acre-ft. Sediment is accumulating in the reservoir at an average rate of about 251 acre-ft/yr, or about 0.83%/yr of the original capacity. The expected usable life of the reservoir on the basis of the long-term sedimentation rate is about 78 years. However, the sedimentation rate appears to have increased significantly since 1979. During the last six years, the average sedimentation rate has exceeded 600 acre-ft/yr. If this rate is maintained, the expected usable life of the reservoir would be about 32 years. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Dynamic crystallization experiments on the Angra dos Reis achondritic meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Lanier, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The types of cooling histories necessary to produce the porphyritic texture and the observed mineral assemblage in Angra dos Reis (ADOR) achondritic meteorite, which, on the basis of its trace element characteristics was considered to be a cumulate with a recrystallized texture, while a recent model suggested that ADOR is a porphyry. Dynamic crystallization experiments were conducted with nucleation conditions varied by melting the starting material at different degrees of superheat. The results show that, at low pressure, a volcanic or hypabyssal history of ADOR is possible. The most likely history involved cooling from a slightly subliquidus temperature with a relatively high and irregular nucleation density resulting in a granular texture with the poikilitic fassaite growing late; accumulation of some crystal is tought to be probable.

  10. Document image archive transfer from DOS to UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Gill, Michael J.; Thoma, George R.

    1994-01-01

    An R&D division of the National Library of Medicine has developed a prototype system for automated document image delivery as an adjunct to the labor-intensive manual interlibrary loan service of the library. The document image archive is implemented by a PC controlled bank of optical disk drives which use 12 inch WORM platters containing bitmapped images of over 200,000 pages of medical journals. Following three years of routine operation which resulted in serving patrons with articles both by mail and fax, an effort is underway to relocate the storage environment from the DOS-based system to a UNIX-based jukebox whose magneto-optical erasable 5 1/4 inch platters hold the images. This paper describes the deficiencies of the current storage system, the design issues of modifying several modules in the system, the alternatives proposed and the tradeoffs involved.

  11. The Mycobacterium DosR regulon structure and diversity revealed by comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; He, Liming; Deng, Wanyan; Xie, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which claims approximately two million people annually, remains a global health concern. The non-replicating or dormancy like state of this pathogen which is impervious to anti-tuberculosis drugs is widely recognized as the culprit for this scenario. The dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon, composed of 48 co-regulated genes, is held as essential for Mtb persistence. The DosR regulon is regulated by a two-component regulatory system consisting of two sensor kinases-DosS (Rv3132c) and DosT (Rv2027c), and a response regulator DosR (Rv3133c). The underlying regulatory mechanism of DosR regulon expression is very complex. Many factors are involved, particularly the oxygen tension. The DosR regulon enables the pathogen to persist during lengthy hypoxia. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the DosR regulon is widely distributed among the mycobacterial genomes, ranging from the pathogenic strains to the environmental strains. In-depth studies on the DosR response should provide insights into its role in TB latency in vivo and shape new measures to combat this exceeding recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:22833514

  12. DosS Is Required for the Complete Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice with Classical Granulomatous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Uma S.; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Kissee, Ryan S.; Golden, Nadia A.; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs. PMID:25322074

  13. DosS Is required for the complete virulence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice with classical granulomatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Uma S; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J; Midkiff, Cecily C; Kissee, Ryan S; Golden, Nadia A; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs. PMID:25322074

  14. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  15. America Inc.: John Dos Passos'"USA" as Professional Writing Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Renzo, Anthony

    While working as a special consultant for General Mills in 1948, John Dos Passos wrote a report explaining the latest scientific research and technological advancements and how the postwar economy was affecting General Mills and the cereal market. General Mills, using a real writer for a corporate freelance, profited from Dos Passos' expertise and…

  16. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology. PMID:21225153

  17. The DosR Regulon Modulates Adaptive Immunity and Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Smriti; Foreman, Taylor W.; Didier, Peter J.; Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Hudock, Teresa A.; Kissee, Ryan; Golden, Nadia A.; Gautam, Uma S.; Johnson, Ann-Marie; Alvarez, Xavier; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Doyle, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.; Niu, Tianhua; Blanchard, James L.; Khader, Shabaana A.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Hypoxia promotes dormancy by causing physiologic changes to actively replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosR controls the response of M. tuberculosis to hypoxia. Objectives: To understand DosR's contribution in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, we compared the phenotype of various DosR regulon mutants and a complemented strain to M. tuberculosis in macaques, which faithfully model M. tuberculosis infection. Methods: We measured clinical and microbiologic correlates of infection with M. tuberculosis relative to mutant/complemented strains in the DosR regulon, studied lung pathology and hypoxia, and compared immune responses in lung using transcriptomics and flow cytometry. Measurements and Main Results: Despite being able to replicate initially, mutants in DosR regulon failed to persist or cause disease. On the contrary, M. tuberculosis and a complemented strain were able to establish infection and tuberculosis. The attenuation of pathogenesis in animals infected with the mutants coincided with the appearance of a Th1 response and organization of hypoxic lesions wherein M. tuberculosis expressed dosR. The lungs of animals infected with the mutants (but not the complemented strain) exhibited early transcriptional signatures of T-cell recruitment, activation, and proliferation associated with an increase of T cells expressing homing and proliferation markers. Conclusions: Delayed adaptive responses, a hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection, not only lead to persistence but also interfere with the development of effective antituberculosis vaccines. The DosR regulon therefore modulates both the magnitude and the timing of adaptive immune responses in response to hypoxia in vivo, resulting in persistent infection. Hence, DosR regulates key aspects of the M. tuberculosis life cycle and limits lung pathology. PMID:25730547

  18. Measurements of degree of sensitization (DoS) in aluminum alloys using EMAT ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Xiang, Dan; Qin, Yexian; Pond, Robert B; Slusarski, Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Sensitization in 5XXX aluminum alloys is an insidious problem characterized by the gradual formation and growth of beta phase (Mg(2)Al(3)) at grain boundaries, which increases the susceptibility of alloys to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The degree of sensitization (DoS) is currently quantified by the ASTM G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test, which is destructive and time consuming. A fast, reliable, and non-destructive method for rapid detection and the assessment of the condition of DoS in AA5XXX aluminum alloys in the field is highly desirable. In this paper, we describe a non-destructive method for measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). AA5083 aluminum alloy samples were sensitized at 100°C with processing times varying from 7days to 30days. The DoS of sensitized samples was first quantified with the ASTM 67 test in the laboratory. Both ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in sensitized specimens were then measured using EMAT and the results were correlated with the DoS data. We found that the longitudinal wave velocity was almost a constant, independent of the sensitization, which suggests that the longitudinal wave can be used to determine the sample thickness. The shear wave velocity and especially the shear wave attenuation are sensitive to DoS. Relationships between DoS and the shear velocity, as well as the shear attenuation have been established. Finally, we performed the data mining to evaluate and improve the accuracy in the measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with EMAT. PMID:21232777

  19. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  20. Documenting 35 Years of Land Cover Change: Lago Cachet Dos Drainage, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Nimick, D.; McGrath, D.; Cole, C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million m3) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of lake-bed and valley-fill deposits, and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno. Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum thickness and extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 km2 in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits at its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  1. Documenting 35 years of land cover change: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Nimick, David A.; Mcgrath, Daniel; Cole, Christopher J.; Wilson, Earl M.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Fahey, Mark J.; Leidich, Jonathan; O'Kuinghttons Villena, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million cubic meters) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of valley-fill deposits and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno.  Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 square kilometers (km2) in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits upstream of its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  2. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

  3. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  4. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  5. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  6. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  7. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  8. MIIS to MS-DOS: Microcomputer Options for Online Catalog Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotophorst, Clyde W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes use of personal computer at George Mason University to provide support to the online catalog. Merging of bibliographic information in MS-DOS format into database management system and experimentation with full-text retrieval packages (ZyIndex and SIRE) are discussed. Addresses and price information for hardware and software packages…

  9. Function, regulation and pathological roles of the Gab/DOS docking proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery a little more than a decade ago, the docking proteins of the Gab/DOS family have emerged as important signalling elements in metazoans. Gab/DOS proteins integrate and amplify signals from a wide variety of sources including growth factor, cytokine and antigen receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules. They also contribute to signal diversification by channelling the information from activated receptors into signalling pathways with distinct biological functions. Recent approaches in protein biochemistry and systems biology have revealed that Gab proteins are subject to complex regulation by feed-forward and feedback phosphorylation events as well as protein-protein interactions. Thus, Gab/DOS docking proteins are at the centre of entire signalling subsystems and fulfil an important if not essential role in many physiological processes. Furthermore, aberrant signalling by Gab proteins has been increasingly linked to human diseases from various forms of neoplasia to Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the structure, effector functions, regulation and evolution of the Gab/DOS family. We also summarize recent findings implicating Gab proteins, in particular the Gab2 isoform, in leukaemia, solid tumours and other human diseases. PMID:19737390

  10. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Programa en Dos Lenguas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, R. P.; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the "Programa en Dos Lenguas" of Fort Worth, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic…

  11. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  12. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  13. Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and

  14. Models that Teach about the Computer: AppleWorks and ProDOS, the Computer's Memory and Disk Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret L.

    1989-01-01

    This final article in a series on creating models for teaching about computer memory and disk storage and retrieval focuses on AppleWorks software and the Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS). Instructions for creating a paper model of the AppleWorks menu system and the ProDOS disk file are given. (LRW)

  15. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  16. 76 FR 25733 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program Application. OMB.... Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of Respondents: 7160 (For...

  17. 76 FR 58074 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange..., DS-7005. Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of...

  18. Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted μa and μs' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

  19. ACONF DOS

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul; Symons, Phlip; & Corey, Garth

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. The routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.

  20. ACONF DOS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. Themore » routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.« less

  1. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  2. Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    The angrites are a small and enigmatic group of basaltic achondrites that possess unique mineralogical and chemical properties. The dominant mineralogy of the seven angrite members (Angra dos Reis, LEW 86010, LEW 87051, Asuka 881371, Sahara 99555, D Orbigny, and a new Moroccan member) is fassaite, olivine, and plagioclase. Angrites display a wide range of thermal histories, with Angra dos Reis (AdoR) exhibiting a cooling history different from that of the rapidly cooled members and from LEW86010, a more slowly cooled member. AdoR could represent either a cumulate or a porphyritic igneous rock that was later altered by metamorphism. We are re-examining the thermal history of AdoR in light of the more recently described angrite members. Our emphasis is a trace element study of low-Ca olivine, which we refer to as olivine, and high-Ca olivine, which we refer to as kirschsteinite, in AdoR.

  3. Reagent-based DOS: developing a diastereoselective methodology to access spirocyclic- and fused heterocyclic ring systems.

    PubMed

    Damerla, V Surendra Babu; Tulluri, Chiranjeevi; Gundla, Rambabu; Naviri, Lava; Adepally, Uma; Iyer, Pravin S; Murthy, Y L N; Prabhakar, Nampally; Sen, Subhabrata

    2012-10-01

    Herein, we report a diversity-oriented-synthesis (DOS) approach for the synthesis of biologically relevant molecular scaffolds. Our methodology enables the facile synthesis of fused N-heterocycles, spirooxoindolones, tetrahydroquinolines, and fused N-heterocycles. The two-step sequence starts with a chiral-bicyclic-lactam-directed enolate-addition/substitution step. This step is followed by a ring-closure onto the built-in scaffold electrophile, thereby leading to stereoselective carbocycle- and spirocycle-formation. We used in silico tools to calibrate our compounds with respect to chemical diversity and selected drug-like properties. We evaluated the biological significance of our scaffolds by screening them in two cancer cell-lines. In summary, our DOS methodology affords new, diverse scaffolds, thereby resulting in compounds that may have significance in medicinal chemistry. PMID:22887684

  4. Mitigating DoS Attacks on the Paging Channel by Efficient Encoding in Page Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang; Maganis, Gabriel; Zang, Hui; Chen, Hao

    Paging is an important mechanism for network bandwidth efficiency and mobile terminal battery life. It has been widely adopted by mobile networks, such as cellular networks, WiMax, and Mobile IP. Due to certain mechanisms for achieving paging efficiency and the convergence of wireless voice and data networks, the paging channel is vulnerable to inexpensive DoS attacks. To mitigate these attacks, we propose to leverage the knowledge of the user population size, the slotted nature of the paging operation, and the quick paging mechanism to reduce the length of terminal identifiers. In the case of a CDMA2000 system, we can reduce each identifier from 34 bits down to 7 bits, effectively doubling the paging channel capacity. Moreover, our scheme incurs no paging latency, missed pages, or false pages. Using a simulator and data collected from a commercial cellular network, we demonstrate that our scheme doubles the cost for DoS attackers.

  5. An alternate hypothesis for the origin of Angra dos Reis - Porphyry, not cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Angra dos Reis achondrite is a unique meteorite of potentially great importance for understanding the origins of the solar system and of the terrestrial planets. It is proposed that the meteorite, which consists of megacrysts of Al-Ti augite (fassaite) in skeletal or cellular shapes, olivine, and possibly whitlockite in a fine-grained groundmass of the same materials plus spinel, is a porphyritic igneous rock modified by metamorphism. In this interpretation, the megacrysts represent cellular-textured phenocrysts, and the fine-grain groundmass represents crystallized or devitrified magma. Phase equilibria suggest that Angra dos Reis-like compositions could grow phenocrysts of fassaite pyroxene, olivine, and whitlockite. These same compositions could crystallize, without crystal sorting or accumulation, to an almost monomineralic fassaite pyroxenite.

  6. A Comparison of Three LISP Interpreters for MS-DOS-Based Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Stephen N.; Johannes, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    We report a comparison of three commercially available LISP interpreters running on MS-DOS-based microcomputers. Marked differences were found between the different products' memory addressing abilities, error handling and debugging facilities. Editing tools, tutoring environments, windowing, graphic capabilities, operating system and port call facilities are also contrasted. Speed was tested via a group of LISP functions (benchmarks) that attempt to isolate list manipulation, iteration, function calling, recursion and mathematical calculation performance.

  7. Distal Hydrogen-bonding Interactions in Ligand Sensing and Signaling by Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosS.

    PubMed

    Basudhar, Debashree; Madrona, Yarrow; Yukl, Erik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Nishida, Clinton R; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-07-29

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosS is critical for the induction of M. tuberculosis dormancy genes in response to nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), or hypoxia. These environmental stimuli, which are sensed by the DosS heme group, result in autophosphorylation of a DosS His residue, followed by phosphotransfer to an Asp residue of the response regulator DosR. To clarify the mechanism of gaseous ligand recognition and signaling, we investigated the hydrogen-bonding interactions of the iron-bound CO and NO ligands by site-directed mutagenesis of Glu-87 and His-89. Autophosphorylation assays and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Glu-87 has an important role in ligand recognition, whereas His-89 is essential for signal transduction to the kinase domain, a process for which Arg-204 is important. Mutation of Glu-87 to Ala or Gly rendered the protein constitutively active as a kinase, but with lower autophosphorylation activity than the wild-type in the Fe(II) and the Fe(II)-CO states, whereas the E87D mutant had little kinase activity except for the Fe(II)-NO complex. The H89R mutant exhibited attenuated autophosphorylation activity, although the H89A and R204A mutants were inactive as kinases, emphasizing the importance of these residues in communication to the kinase core. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of the wild-type and H89A mutant indicates the mutation does not alter the heme coordination number, spin state, or porphyrin deformation state, but it suggests that interdomain interactions are disrupted by the mutation. Overall, these results confirm the importance of the distal hydrogen-bonding network in ligand recognition and communication to the kinase domain and reveal the sensitivity of the system to subtle differences in the binding of gaseous ligands. PMID:27235395

  8. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  9. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  10. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks.

    PubMed

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  11. DevS/DosS sensor is bifunctional and its phosphatase activity precludes aerobic DevR/DosR regulon expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kohinoor; Kumari, Priyanka; Sharma, Saurabh; Sehgal, Snigdha; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-08-01

    Two-component systems, comprising histidine kinases and response regulators, empower bacteria to sense and adapt to diverse environmental stresses. Some histidine kinases are bifunctional; their phosphorylation (kinase) and dephosphorylation (phosphatase) activities toward their cognate response regulators permit the rapid reversal of genetic responses to an environmental stimulus. DevR-DevS/DosR-DosS is one of the best-characterized two-component systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The kinase function of DevS is activated by gaseous stress signals, including hypoxia, resulting in the induction of ~ 48-genes DevR dormancy regulon. Regulon expression is tightly controlled and lack of expression in aerobic Mtb cultures is ascribed to the absence of phosphorylated DevR. Here we show that DevS is a bifunctional sensor and possesses a robust phosphatase activity toward DevR. We used site-specific mutagenesis to generate substitutions in conserved residues in the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain of DevS and determined their role in kinase/phosphatase functions. In vitro and in vivo experiments, including a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, collectively establish that these conserved residues are critical for regulating kinase/phosphatase functions. Our findings establish DevS phosphatase function as an effective control mechanism to block aerobic expression of the DevR dormancy regulon. Asp-396 is essential for both kinase and phosphatase functions, whereas Gln-400 is critical for phosphatase function. The positive and negative functions perform opposing roles in DevS: the kinase function triggers regulon induction under hypoxia, whereas its phosphatase function prevents expression under aerobic conditions. A finely tuned balance in these opposing activities calibrates the dormancy regulon response output. PMID:27327040

  12. Using 4DOS Batch Files To Create an Infrastructure That Makes It Easy for Students To Create and Maintain HTML Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper describes the use of simple 4DOS batch files to automate the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure to assist students in creating and maintaining HTML World Wide Web pages. Background is provided on Web pages, DOS, 4DOS, and batch files. The assumptions made in creating the infrastructure are summarized, and program statements…

  13. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  14. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  15. Volcanic and structural controls of mineralization in the Dos Cabezas Mountains of southeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, H.; Klein, D.P.; Birmingham, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geological features suggests that a central part of the Dos Cabezas Mountains probably has considerable potential for blind deposits, chiefly base metals. The area exposes the root zone of a Paleocene( ) volcanic complex and its underlying granitic stocks, which were emplaced next to a major northwest-trending, much reactivated fault zone. The new data, combined with the knowledge of past mining activity in the area, lead them to propose several exploration targets that may lead to ore bodies in breccia pipes along the base of the volcanic pile and along a possible concealed fault or caldera margin.

  16. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  17. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  18. Use of Remote Sensing and Local Knowledge for Geoconservation of Regiao dos Lagos, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, S.; Vasconcelos, G.; Mansur, K. L.; Anjos, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    A series of lagoons can be found along the coastline of Rio de Janeiro, in the so-called Regiao dos Lagos. The lagoons differ in size, physicochemical, sedimentological and biological characteristics. Rare examples of litifying microbialites that produce stromatolites, the oldest fossils on Earth, can be found living in this lagoon system. The occurrence of stromatolites in the region is of great scientific interest because it enables the study of possible analogues of the earliest life on Earth. However, this region has been suffering from intense human activities and degradations. Geoconservation planning requires an assessment of the characteristics of the region and its potential threats. The primary goal of this study is to assess physical environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos. Using a broad integrative assessment combining remote sensing, GIS, field studies and local knowledge of communities, land-cover and land-use classes were identified, as well as the main human activities impacting the environment. The seasonal and weekend tourism and urban sprawl in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro triggers the occupation of new areas and the removal of natural vegetation, especially on lagoon margins. This disorderly occupation by an ever increasing population, with both legal and illegal constructions and the subsequent overload of the local infrastructure, e.g. increase of electrical energy consumption, volume of vehicles, pollution in air, water and soil and problems with water supply and wastewater treatment, are hastening the gradual degradation of the lake ecosystem. The main driving forces to environmental changes over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos were the change of dense vegetation, saline and bare soil classes into built-up areas, adding to the poor waste treatment and inadequate sewage disposal. This analysis provides a basis for a better control of anthropogenic impacts and

  19. Dosimetry and Vibration measurements in BIOLAB and EMCS (Dos-ViBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideström, Johan Olof; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Hauslage, Jens; Schuber, Marianne; Fossum, Knut R.; Vanhavere, Filip

    Space irradiation and vibrations in even small dosages can impact biological experiments and have not yet been measured in the biological payloads of the Columbus module at the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). Installing active dosimeters and accelerometers in the Experiment Containers (EC) of Biolab and the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), to sur-vey in-situ the radiation and vibrations in these facilities, should be performed to serve as a reference of the space conditions to future experiments. To monitor the radiation field, the space radiation should be measured with an active dosime-ter inside the Multi-User-Facilities, as close to the actual shielding conditions of the biological experiments as possible. To measure the full spectrum of vibration frequencies, several instru-ments with different measurement ranges and sensitivity should be combined. The radiation and vibrations should be measured simultaneously in Biolab and EMCS to compare their radiation shielding and sensitivities to vibrations from the ISS. The radiation could also be measured with passive dosimeters. On the one hand this would be a back-up to the active dosimeter and on the other hand it would provide additional data since the passive dosimeters can give additional information on the radiation LET spectrum. As a response to ESA's Announcement of Opportunity (ILSRA-2009), a joint experiment in Biolab and EMCS, entitled Dos-ViBE, was proposed by the co-authors. The objectives and experimental flow of Dos-ViBE are outlined in this presentation.

  20. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  1. Quality control and assurance for validation of DOS/I measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Kwong, Richard; Quang, Timothy; Hill, Brian; Tromberg, Bruce J.; MacKinnon, Nick; Mantulin, William W.

    2010-02-01

    Ongoing multi-center clinical trials are crucial for Biophotonics to gain acceptance in medical imaging. In these trials, quality control (QC) and assurance (QA) are key to success and provide "data insurance". Quality control and assurance deal with standardization, validation, and compliance of procedures, materials and instrumentation. Specifically, QC/QA involves systematic assessment of testing materials, instrumentation performance, standard operating procedures, data logging, analysis, and reporting. QC and QA are important for FDA accreditation and acceptance by the clinical community. Our Biophotonics research in the Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) program for breast cancer characterization focuses on QA/QC issues primarily related to the broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging (DOS/I) instrumentation, because this is an emerging technology with limited standardized QC/QA in place. In the multi-center trial environment, we implement QA/QC procedures: 1. Standardize and validate calibration standards and procedures. (DOS/I technology requires both frequency domain and spectral calibration procedures using tissue simulating phantoms and reflectance standards, respectively.) 2. Standardize and validate data acquisition, processing and visualization (optimize instrument software-EZDOS; centralize data processing) 3. Monitor, catalog and maintain instrument performance (document performance; modularize maintenance; integrate new technology) 4. Standardize and coordinate trial data entry (from individual sites) into centralized database 5. Monitor, audit and communicate all research procedures (database, teleconferences, training sessions) between participants ensuring "calibration". This manuscript describes our ongoing efforts, successes and challenges implementing these strategies.

  2. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Hélio Augusto Alves; Branco, Joaquim Olinto; Efe, Márcio Amorim

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm = 167.91 (1 − e−0.062t−(−0.23)) to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006), whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks' main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil. PMID:24977100

  3. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  4. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 10(17)-10(21)/(cm(3)·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  6. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-06-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications.

  7. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  8. Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

  9. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  10. The Secret List of Dos and Don'ts for Filmmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, N.

    2012-12-01

    Science is a massive black box to billions of people who walk the streets. However, the process of filmmaking can be equally as mystifying. As with the development of many scientific experiments, the process starts on a napkin at a restaurant…but then what? The road to scientific publication is propelled by a canonical list of several dos and don't that fit most situations. An equally useful list exists for up-and-coming producers. The list streamlines efforts, optimizes your use of the tools at your fingertips and enhances impact. Many fundamentals can be learned from books, but during this talk we will project and discuss several examples of best practices, from honing a story, to identifying audience appeal, filming, editing and the secrets of inexpensively acquiring expert help. Whether your goal is a two-minute webisode or a 90 minute documentary, these time-tested practices, with a little awareness, can give life to your films.;

  11. On securing wireless sensor network--novel authentication scheme against DOS attacks.

    PubMed

    Raja, K Nirmal; Beno, M Marsaline

    2014-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks are generally deployed for collecting data from various environments. Several applications specific sensor network cryptography algorithms have been proposed in research. However WSN's has many constrictions, including low computation capability, less memory, limited energy resources, vulnerability to physical capture, which enforce unique security challenges needs to make a lot of improvements. This paper presents a novel security mechanism and algorithm for wireless sensor network security and also an application of this algorithm. The proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against Denial of Service Attacks (DOS). The scheme is simulated using network simulator2 (NS2). Then this scheme is analyzed based on the network packet delivery ratio and found that throughput has improved. PMID:25106827

  12. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  13. Cell cycle-dependent deposition of CENP-A requires the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Sun, Siyu; Li, Chen; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Centromeric histone CENP-A, a variant of canonical histone H3, plays a central role in proper chromosome segregation. Loading of CENP-A at centromeres is cell cycle-regulated: parental CENP-A is deposited at centromeres during S phase, whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is deposited during later stages of the cell cycle. The mechanisms involved in deposition of CENP-A at centromeres during S phase remain poorly understood. In fission yeast, loading of CENP-A during S phase is regulated by the GATA-type factor, Ams2. Here we show that the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex, previously characterized as a silencing complex essential for inheritance of H3K9 methylation during S phase, is also required for localization of CENP-A(cnp1) at centromeres at this stage. Disruption of Dos1 (also known as Raf1/Clr8/Cmc1), Dos2 (also known as Raf2/Clr7/Cmc2), or Cdc20, a DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, results in dissociation of CENP-A from centromeres and mislocalization of the protein to noncentromeric sites. All three mutants display spindle disorganization and mitotic defects. Inactivation of Dos1 or Cdc20 also results in accumulation of noncoding RNA transcripts from centromeric cores, a feature common to mutants affecting kinetochore integrity. We further find that Dos1 physically associates with Ams2 and is required for the association of Ams2 with centromeric cores during S phase. Finally, we show that Dos2 associates with centromeric cores during S phase and that its recruitment to centromeric cores depends on Cdc20. This study identifies a physical link between DNA replication and CENP-A assembly machinery and provides mechanistic insight into how CENP-A is faithfully inherited during S phase. PMID:23267073

  14. Cell cycle-dependent deposition of CENP-A requires the Dos1/2–Cdc20 complex

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Sun, Siyu; Li, Chen; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Centromeric histone CENP-A, a variant of canonical histone H3, plays a central role in proper chromosome segregation. Loading of CENP-A at centromeres is cell cycle-regulated: parental CENP-A is deposited at centromeres during S phase, whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is deposited during later stages of the cell cycle. The mechanisms involved in deposition of CENP-A at centromeres during S phase remain poorly understood. In fission yeast, loading of CENP-A during S phase is regulated by the GATA-type factor, Ams2. Here we show that the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex, previously characterized as a silencing complex essential for inheritance of H3K9 methylation during S phase, is also required for localization of CENP-Acnp1 at centromeres at this stage. Disruption of Dos1 (also known as Raf1/Clr8/Cmc1), Dos2 (also known as Raf2/Clr7/Cmc2), or Cdc20, a DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, results in dissociation of CENP-A from centromeres and mislocalization of the protein to noncentromeric sites. All three mutants display spindle disorganization and mitotic defects. Inactivation of Dos1 or Cdc20 also results in accumulation of noncoding RNA transcripts from centromeric cores, a feature common to mutants affecting kinetochore integrity. We further find that Dos1 physically associates with Ams2 and is required for the association of Ams2 with centromeric cores during S phase. Finally, we show that Dos2 associates with centromeric cores during S phase and that its recruitment to centromeric cores depends on Cdc20. This study identifies a physical link between DNA replication and CENP-A assembly machinery and provides mechanistic insight into how CENP-A is faithfully inherited during S phase. PMID:23267073

  15. Open Cluster Radial Velocity determination from observations at Observatório Pico Dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, M. A. F.; Monteiro, H.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2014-10-01

    In studies of the dynamics of the Galactic disk, such as the determination of the speed of the spiral pattern and the permanence of stars in the spiral arms, it is crucial to know orbits obtained from proper motions, radial velocities and the potential of the Galaxy. Aiming to improve the statistics of our catalog of open clusters, maintained by our research group, we determined the radial velocity of stars belonging to a group of open clusters using spectra with a resolution of 4000, obtained at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (LNA) with the 1.60 m telescope and the Coudé spectrograph. We observed the open cluster's member stars and calculated their radial speeds using standard techniques. The stars were selected from our own database based on relevant information concerning the clusters, obtained by statistical analysis of their proper motions and/or their position in the HR's diagram. In this work, we present the detailed analysis of the data reduction and radial velocity determination using synthetic spectra from different libraries. Finally we present the open cluster's radial (and spacial) velocities.

  16. Hydra: a C-language environment for real-time DOS multitasking at the bedside.

    PubMed

    DeGaetano, A; Coleman, W P; Pizzi, R; Tomasella, E; Castagneto, M; Greco, A V

    1993-10-01

    Patient monitoring at the bedside is an inherently parallel job, best handled by multiple individual tasks running concurrently. Cost and diffusion considerations strongly favor the use of PC's at the bedside, but their most widespread operating system, DOS, is not built for multitasking. Hence, a software platform in C language has been prepared, allowing the intermediate programmer to easily write independent modules which will then run simultaneously without conflicts. Such a platform aims at allowing effortless sharing of data among concurrently running processes, while providing strong insulation between tasks, enough to allow multiple copies of any one task to run simultaneously unknown to each other. A cooperative, memory sharing multitasking paradigm has been chosen, which offers fine granularity of timeslicing and low execution overhead at the price of some loss in generality of design. Speed, data exchange capability and number of stackable windows are greater than with commercial packages like Windows or LabWindows. Dynamical reprioritization of tasks is built in, allowing the computerized monitor to focus its attention and resources on urgent tasks. PMID:8254227

  17. Buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios subdivision, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a plan for water quality monitoring at the Dos Rios subdivision (Units 2, 3, and the Island Unit) that is intended to satisfy the informational needs of residents who live southwest (downgradient) of the former Gunnison processing site. Water quality monitoring activities described in this report are designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of previous uranium milling operations. Requirements presented in this monitoring plan are also included in the water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) for the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The Gunnison WSAP is a site-specific document prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that provides background, guidance, and justification for future ground water sampling and analysis activities for the UMTRA Project Gunnison processing and disposal sites. The WSAP will be updated annually, as additional water quality data are collected and interpreted, to provide ongoing protection for public health and the environment.

  18. ECHARPE: a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph for the Pico dos Dias Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Tania P.; Castilho, Bruno; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Macanhan, Vanessa B. P.; de Arruda, Marcio V.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Melendez, Jorge; Vaz, Luiz P. R.; Corradi, Wagner J. B.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; do Nascimento, Jose D.; Quast, Germano R.; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.

    2012-09-01

    At least during the last ten years, the Brazilian astronomical community has been asking for an echelle spectrograph for the 1.6 m telescope installed at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazópolis, MG, Brazil, OPD/MCTI/LNA). Among the scientific cases are topics related to the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, asteroseismology, chemical composition and chromospheric activities of solar type stars and the relations between solar analogues and terrestrial planets. During 2009 the project finally got started. The called ECHARPE spectrograph (Espectrógrafo ECHelle de Alta Resolução para o telescópio Perkin-Elmer) is being projected to offer a spectral resolution of R ~ 50000, in the range 390-900 nm and with a single exposition. It will be a bench spectrograph with two channels: blue and red, fed by two optical fibers (object, sky or calibration) with aperture of 1.5 or 2.0 arcseconds. The instrument will be placed in one of the telescope pillar ramification, in the originals installations of a Coudé spectrograph and in a specially created environment controlled room. In this work we will present the scientific motivations, the conceptual optical design, the expected performance of the spectrograph, and the status of its development. ECHARPE is expected to be delivered to the astronomical community in 2014, fully prepared and optimized for remote operations.

  19. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  20. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  1. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources. PMID:26270219

  2. Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the Tracy-Dos Palos area, San Joaquin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Balding, G.O.

    1971-01-01

    The Tracy-Dos Palos area includes about 1,800 square miles on the northwest side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Tulare Formation of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, and alluvium and flood-basin deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age constitute the fresh ground-water reservoir Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary sedimentary and crystalline rocks, undifferentiated, underlie the valley and yield saline water. Hydrologically most important, the Tulare Formation is divided into a lower water-bearing zone confined by the Corcoran Clay Member and an upper zone that is confined, semiconfined, and unconfined in different parts of the area. Alluvium and flood-basin deposits are included in the upper zone. Surficial alluvium and flood-basin deposits contain a shallow water-bearing zone. Lower zone wells were flowing in 1908, but subsequent irrigation development caused head declines and land subsidence. Overdraft in both zones ended in 1951 with import of surface water. Bicarbonate water flows into the area from the Sierra Nevada and Diablo Range. Diablo Range water is higher in sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Upper zone water averages between 400 and 1,200 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and water hardness generally exceeds 180 mg/l as calcium carbonate. Nitrate, fluoride, iron, and boron occur in excessive concentrations in water from some wells. Dissolved constituents in lower zone water generally are sodium chloride and sodium sulfate with higher dissolved solids concentration than water from the upper zone. The foothills of the Diablo Range provide favorable conditions for artificial recharge, but shallow water problems plague about 50 percent of the area and artificial recharge is undesirable at this time.

  3. Lessons Learned from Sleep Education in Schools: A Review of Dos and Don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. Methods: A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Results: Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Conclusions: Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. Citation: Blunden S, Rigney G. Lessons learned from sleep education in schools: a review of dos and don'ts. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):671–680. PMID:25766709

  4. Video movie making using remote procedure calls and 4BSD Unix sockets on Unix, UNICOS, and MS-DOS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.W.; Johnston, W.E.; Hall, D.E.; Rosenblum, M.

    1990-03-01

    We describe the use of the Sun Remote Procedure Call and Unix socket interprocess communication mechanisms to provide the network transport for a distributed, client-server based, image handling system. Clients run under Unix or UNICOS and servers run under Unix or MS-DOS. The use of remote procedure calls across local or wide-area networks to make video movies is addressed.

  5. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS) Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dong Il; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS) detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed. PMID:22163475

  6. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  7. Ligand dynamics and early signaling events in the heme domain of the sensor protein Dos from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taku; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Liebl, Ursula; Vos, Marten H

    2008-01-25

    In the heme-based sensor Dos from Escherichia coli, the ferrous heme is coordinated by His-77 and Met-95. The latter residue is replaced upon oxygen binding or oxidation of the heme. Here we investigate the early signaling processes upon dissociation of the distal ligand using ultrafast spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. Geminate CO rebinding to the heme domain DosH appears insensitive to replacement of Met-95, in agreement with the notion that this residue is oriented out of the heme pocket in the presence of external ligands. A uniquely slow 35-ps phase in rebinding of the flexible methionine side chain after dissociation from ferrous DosH is completely abolished in rebinding of the more rigid histidine side chain in the M95H mutant protein, where only the 7-ps phase, common to all 6-coordinate heme proteins, is observed. Temperature-dependence studies indicate that all rebinding of internal and external ligands is essentially barrierless, but that CfigsO escape from the heme pocket is an activated process. Solvent viscosity studies combined with molecular dynamics simulations show that there are two configurations in the ferrous 6-coordinate protein, involving two isomers of the Met-95 side chain, of which the structural changes extend to the solvent-exposed backbone, which is part of the flexible FG loop. One of these configurations has considerable motional freedom in the Met-95-dissociated state. We suggest that this configuration corresponds to an early signaling intermediate state, is responsible for the slow rebinding, and allows small ligands in the protein to efficiently compete for binding with the heme. PMID:18039668

  8. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  9. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  10. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region. PMID:25806985

  11. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  12. NGC 2287: Un cúmulo abierto rico en binarias espectroscópicas de dos espectros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.; Malaroda, S.; García, B.; Grosso, M.

    NGC 2287 contiene 100 estrellas con buena fotometría y 40 con tipos MK. En 1979 Levato et al., usando la técnica de la clasificación espectral, descubrieron que la mayoría de las estrellas en el rango B8-A0 eran binarias espectroscópicas con una inusual proporción de binarias con dos espectros. El presente proyecto tuvo el propósito de confirmar la naturaleza binaria de los miembros del cúmulo. Hemos obtenido espectros con resolución 14000 de 15 estrellas clasificadas como binarias. Los espectros, que abarcan la región λ 3500-λ 6000 Å, permitieron confirmar la naturaleza binaria de varias de las estrellas en la muestra. Hacemos notar el considerable interés astrofísico de este cúmulo abierto.

  13. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  14. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered. PMID:27394563

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR is Required for Activity of the PmbtB and PmbtI Promoters under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Lise J.; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive for extended periods of time under conditions of low oxygen, low pH, low iron and low nutrients. The mycobactins (M. tuberculosis siderophores) play a key role in scavenging iron from the environment and are induced in response to low iron in an IdeR-regulated manner. We demonstrate that the promoters of two mycobactin gene (mbt) operons are also expressed during adaptation to low oxygen, and that this expression is dependent on the DosR regulator. Up-regulation of mbt operons induced by low iron was not DosR-dependent. DosR is a member of a two component regulatory system which responds to oxygen availability. Deletion of the DosR regulator led to increased expression of bacterioferritin and increased capacity to grow under iron depletion. These data provide a link between the mycobacterial response to two conditions likely to be encountered in vivo, low iron and low oxygen. PMID:25211224

  16. Dynamics of the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and Rpf antigens in a Colombian population of household contacts of recently diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Ortíz, Blanca L; Franken, Kees L M C; García, Luis F; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Barrera, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Immune response to DosR and Rpf antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) seems to be important for latency maintenance. Little is known about the dynamics of the immune response to these antigens in an endemic community. Thus, the IFNγ response and cytokine production in response to PPD, Esat6-Cfp10 (E6-C10), DosR and Rpf antigens in healthy HHC of tuberculosis (TB) patients over a 12 (T12) months period (short-term, stLTBI) was investigated. This response was compared with a group of LTBI, who have remained healthy for 5-7 years (long-term, ltLTBI). According to the IFNγ response, two groups of HHCs were identified in stLTBI in response to E6-C10. At T12, E6-C10(+) HHCs displayed a decrease in the IFNγ levels and a generalized decrease in cytokines production. The E6-C10(-) HHC showed an increase in the IFNγ response and cytokine levels. In stLTBI, the responses to E6-C10, DosR, and Rpf may be interpreted as a protective immune response controlling Mtb infection and may be leading to a state of latent infection. Comparing the response of stLTBI and ltLTBI, we observed significant changes in the proportions of CD45RO(+)CD27(+) T cells to specific DosR and Rpf, which may indicate a persistent immune response to Mtb antigens in ltLTBI. PMID:26980501

  17. Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2013-05-01

    The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity. PMID:23486471

  18. MprA and DosR coregulate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence operon encoding Rv1813c and Rv1812c.

    PubMed

    Bretl, Daniel J; He, Hongjun; Demetriadou, Crystalla; White, Mark J; Penoske, Renee M; Salzman, Nita H; Zahrt, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection. PMID:22689819

  19. Immunogenicity of Novel DosR Regulon-Encoded Candidate Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Three High-Burden Populations in Africa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Black, Gillian F.; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Ota, Martin O.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Adegbola, Richard; Boom, W. Henry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemiek H.; Hill, Philip C.; Klein, Michel R.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Mayanja, Harriet; Schoolnik, Gary; Stanley, Kim; Weldingh, Karin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult household contacts of active pulmonary TB cases from South Africa (n = 56), The Gambia (n = 26), and Uganda (n = 49) were tested for gamma interferon responses to 7 classical and 51 DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis recombinant protein antigens. ESAT-6/CFP10 fusion protein evoked responses in >75% of study participants in all three countries. Of the DosR regulon-encoded antigens tested, Rv1733c was the most commonly recognized by participants from both South Africa and Uganda and the third most commonly recognized antigen in The Gambia. The four most frequently recognized DosR regulon-encoded antigens in Uganda (Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c) included the three most immunogenic antigens in South Africa. In contrast, Rv3131 induced the highest percentage of responders in Gambian contacts (38%), compared to only 3.4% of Ugandan contacts and no South African contacts. Appreciable percentages of TB contacts with a high likelihood of latent M. tuberculosis infection responded to several novel DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis proteins. In addition to significant similarities in antigen recognition profiles between the three African population groups, there were also disparities, which may stem from genetic differences between both pathogen and host populations. Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity. PMID:19553548

  20. Power-efficiency trade-off due to density of states (DOS) distortion in a molecular thermoelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Priyanka; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2013-03-01

    The issue of how a distortion in the electronic DOS affects nanoscale thermoelectric performance is addressed within an ``electrical engineering'' perspective. This view point is based on the direct evaluation of the overall efficiency and power from device current-voltage characteristics and gives a more complete picture of the thermoelectric performance in comparison to the traditional ``figure of merit'' based material science approach. We use representative examples from molecular conduction to study the trade-off between maximum efficiency and the maximum power generated within the set up. The trade-off is maximum for the well known example of a sharply resonant molecular level which represents the ultimate distortion in the electronic density of states. As the distortion is reduced via contact induced broadening, we obtain a smaller trade-off between maximum power and efficiency. We then present the effects of self consistent charging, contact induced asymmetry and the HOMO-LUMO gap on the thermoelectric performance. In all cases we compare our non-equilibrium calculations with zT calculations, and our results depict that zT is not the sole metric for the assessment of nanoscale thermoelectric performance.

  1. Dos Amigos... (Two Friends...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Rosalie M.

    Intended for supplementary reading material for Spanish speaking children in elementary grades, this illustrated Spanish text was developed by students in the Bilingual Teacher Aide Program at Mesa Community College. Both language and content have been controlled to provide linguistically and culturally sensitive material relevant to the…

  2. Exposure pathways to HCH and DDT in Cidade dos Meninos and its surrounding districts of Amapa, Figueiras and Pilar, metropolitan regions of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Ogenis M; Franco, Robson

    2006-06-01

    In 1989, the Rio de Janeiro State environmental agency (FEEMA) after a preliminary survey of the site known as Cidade dos Meninos, collected and disposed in a safe area tons of a pesticide that was spread in and around the ruins of an old hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) factory. The aim of this article is three-fold: (i) To investigate the existing HCH and DDT contamination levels in soil, water, air, vegetables and grasses at the Cidade dos Meninos site and the surrounding districts of Amapa, Figueiras and Pilar; (ii) To identify the main environmental exposure pathways present in the study area, and (iii) To propose a health hazard classification for this area. The results showed the presence of high levels of total HCH and DDT in the environmental media samples, especially in those collected in the district Cidade dos Meninos. This district is also the one that produces more food (vegetables, milk and meat) for local and outside population. The environmental data correlated to the socio-economic, food diet and local health conditions led to the identification of four complete exposure pathways to HCH and DDT (surface soil, access road, food chain and ambient air). Using the ATSDR (1996) and Magalhães (2000) criteria the site was classified in two public health hazard categories: Category II - hazard for public health, and category III - indeterminate hazard for public health. PMID:16611565

  3. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  4. Influência da presença de endossimbionte em Brevipalpus phoenicis na aquisição e transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leprose dos citros destaca-se como uma fitovirose de grande impacto econômico e ambiental à citricultura, elevando o custo de produção para o controle do vetor B. phoenicis. É conhecido que a presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium em ácaros Brevipalpus spp. causa a feminilização dos ácaro...

  5. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  6. Ultrafast ligand rebinding in the heme domain of the oxygen sensors FixL and Dos: general regulatory implications for heme-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Ursula; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Negrerie, Michel; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2002-10-01

    Heme-based oxygen sensors are part of ligand-specific two-component regulatory systems, which have both a relatively low oxygen affinity and a low oxygen-binding rate. To get insight into the dynamical aspects underlying these features and the ligand specificity of the signal transduction from the heme sensor domain, we used femtosecond spectroscopy to study ligand dynamics in the heme domains of the oxygen sensors FixL from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (FixLH) and Dos from Escherichia coli (DosH). The heme coordination with different ligands and the corresponding ground-state heme spectra of FixLH are similar to myoglobin (Mb). After photodissociation, the excited-state properties and ligand-rebinding kinetics are qualitatively similar for FixLH and Mb for CO and NO as ligands. In contrast to Mb, the transient spectra of FixLH after photodissociation of ligands are distorted compared with the ground-state difference spectra, indicating differences in the heme environment with respect to the unliganded state. This distortion is particularly marked for O(2). Strikingly, heme-O(2) recombination occurs with efficiency unprecedented for heme proteins, in approximately 5 ps for approximately 90% of the dissociated O(2). For DosH-O(2), which shows 60% sequence similarity to FixLH, but where signal detection and transmission presumably are quite different, a similarly fast recombination was found with an even higher yield. Altogether these results indicate that in these sensors the heme pocket acts as a ligand-specific trap. The general implications for the functioning of heme-based ligand sensors are discussed in the light of recent studies on heme-based NO and CO sensors. PMID:12271121

  7. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  8. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  9. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  10. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS).

    PubMed

    Du, Yongming; Liu, Gefei; Yan, Yinxia; Huang, Dongyang; Luo, Wenhong; Martinkova, Marketa; Man, Petr; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-10-01

    The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)-SH and heme Fe(II)-O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23736976

  11. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be ‘pre-adapted’ to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under ‘non-inducing’ conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be 'pre-adapted' to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under 'non-inducing' conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to the

  14. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  15. A putative nitroreductase from the DosR regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces pro-inflammatory cytokine expression via TLR2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Doddam, Sankara Narayana; Qureshi, Insaf A; Yerra, Priyadarshini; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global encumbrance and it is estimated that nearly one third population of the world acts as a reservoir for this pathogen without any symptoms. In this study, we attempted to characterise one of the genes of DosR regulon, Rv3131, a FMN binding nitroreductase domain containing protein, for its ability to alter cytokine profile, an essential feature of M. tuberculosis latency. Recombinant Rv3131 stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time and dose dependent manner. In silico analyses using docking and simulations indicated that Rv3131 could strongly interact with TLR2 via a non-covalent bonding which was further confirmed using cell based colorimetric assay. In THP-1 cells treated with Rv3131 protein, a significant upsurge in the surface expression, overall induction and expression of mRNA of TLR2 was observed when analysed by flow cytometry, western blotting and real time PCR, respectively. Activation of TLR2 by Rv3131 resulted in the phosphorylation of NF- κβ. Results of this study indicate a strong immunogenic capability of Rv3131 elicited via the activation of TLR2 signalling pathway. Therefore, it can be surmised that cytokine secretion induced by Rv3131 might contribute to establishment of M. tuberculosis in the granulomas. PMID:27094446

  16. The ethnocategory ''insect'' in the conception of the inhabitants of Tapera County, São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Magalhães, Henrique F

    2007-06-01

    This article deals with the construction of the "insect" ethnozoological dominium by the inhabitants of Tapera County, which is located in the municipality of São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia State. Data were obtained from March to May 2005 through open-ended interviews carried out with 23 men and 8 women, whose ages ranged from 6 to 66 years old. Interviewees were asked about how they perceived and defined the animals considered as "insects", which types they knew, and if they used them as food resource. Most of the interviews were tape-recorded, and semi-literal transcriptions are kept at the Ethnobiology Laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Considering the ethnozoological classification system of the inhabitants of Tapera, the term "insect" is a broad semantic category that brings together animals of different and not systematically related taxonomic groups. Apparently, these animals are culturally perceived and categorized as "insects" because they are usually considered as noxious, disgusting, and disease carrier creatures. True insects can be excluded from this ethnocategory due to the perception people have that such animals do not cause "injuries" or because they are useful. Perceptions toward these animals imply ambiguous behavior and feelings, which range from more positive attitudes (conservative) to more negative (destructive). PMID:17625679

  17. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  18. A putative nitroreductase from the DosR regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces pro-inflammatory cytokine expression via TLR2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Doddam, Sankara Narayana; Qureshi, Insaf A.; Yerra, Priyadarshini; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global encumbrance and it is estimated that nearly one third population of the world acts as a reservoir for this pathogen without any symptoms. In this study, we attempted to characterise one of the genes of DosR regulon, Rv3131, a FMN binding nitroreductase domain containing protein, for its ability to alter cytokine profile, an essential feature of M. tuberculosis latency. Recombinant Rv3131 stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time and dose dependent manner. In silico analyses using docking and simulations indicated that Rv3131 could strongly interact with TLR2 via a non-covalent bonding which was further confirmed using cell based colorimetric assay. In THP-1 cells treated with Rv3131 protein, a significant upsurge in the surface expression, overall induction and expression of mRNA of TLR2 was observed when analysed by flow cytometry, western blotting and real time PCR, respectively. Activation of TLR2 by Rv3131 resulted in the phosphorylation of NF- κβ. Results of this study indicate a strong immunogenic capability of Rv3131 elicited via the activation of TLR2 signalling pathway. Therefore, it can be surmised that cytokine secretion induced by Rv3131 might contribute to establishment of M. tuberculosis in the granulomas. PMID:27094446

  19. The influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a low-income community of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A P M F; Alencar, M F L; Cohen, S C; Souza-Júnior, P R B; Cecchetto, F; Mathias, L S; Santos, C P; Almeida, J C A; de Moraes Neto, A H A

    2012-05-01

    In a recent study by our group on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of local residents of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we observed that about 50% of the inhabitants were parasitized and had some knowledge of intestinal parasitic infections but did not apply this knowledge in daily practice. We were thus motivated to implement strategies in health education to promote preventive measures in the locality. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the region in an effort to strengthen public policies for controlling these diseases in Brazil. The methodology adopted was based on action-research and a theoretical framework of health promotion. Our results demonstrate that the study population exhibited an enhanced awareness of the importance of disease from intestinal parasitic infections. Attitudes and practices related to prevention were significantly improved after the shared health education. In conclusion, this study allowed the shared construction of knowledge that reflected the true needs of the residents. PMID:22313520

  20. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  1. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of basalts of the Grao Para Group, Serra dos Carajas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gibbs, A.K.; Wirth, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Grao Para Group at Serra dos Carajas in the Guapore Shield of Brazil is a 6 km thick sequence of bimodal metavolcanic rock with interbedded iron formations. Rhyolites are a minor part of the low grade meta-volcanic section, with the bulk consisting of subalkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and shoshonite. Rb-Sr whole rock analyses of 7 basalts yield an age of 2687 +/- 54 Ma. This agrees well with an age of 2758 +/- 39 Ma from zircon U-Pb analyses of the interbedded rhyolites. Except for the allocthonous Imataca Complex of Venezuela, these dates for the Grao Para Group are the first well-constrained Archean ages from the Amazonian Craton. An even older age for the basement to the Grao Para Group is also implied. Sm-Nd whole-rock analyses of four of these basalts did not yield an isochron because of the limited range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd values, but element of/sub Nd/ values relative to CHUR were calculated using the Rb-Sr age. The typical LREE-enrichment, lack of Ce depletion or spilitic alteration of alkalies, and the high Sr initial ratios, may indicate that these isotopic patterns were derived by incorporation of some older continental crust in the mafic melts. These data together with an element of/sub Sr/ of +63.6 might indicate significant seawater exchange with volcanic rocks derived from mantle with chondritic REE patterns. This demonstrates the presence of significant continental crust in the Archean and seawater-volcanic rock interaction in a rifting environment similar to modern analogs.

  2. Evaluation of the chromium contamination at Ribeirão dos Bagres, Franca (SP), Brazil, by the ²¹⁰Pb method.

    PubMed

    Matamet, F R M; Bonotto, D M

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a chronological study focusing the use of ²¹⁰Pb in four sediment cores collected at Ribeirão dos Bagres in the region of Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. When evaluating the sedimentation rate by using the ²¹⁰Pb method, it was possible to monitor historical changes occurring in the concentrations of chromium present in the sediments. In order to do so, several specific parameters were determined in sediments, as chromium concentration, major oxides, organic matter, grain size, and chemical and physical-chemical parameters of waters. The sediments possessed a Cr concentration range of 0.83-26.25mg/kg that is below the world's average of shales. The sedimentation rates obtained from the ²¹⁰Pb analysis were between 0.07 and 0.77 g cm⁻²year⁻¹, while the linear sedimentation rate was from 0.6 to 3.2 cm/year. The adoption of the CIC (Constant Initial Concentration) ²¹⁰Pb model allowed characterize older sediments, aged 177 years, and younger sediments, aged 4 years. The organic matter in the sediments was more abundant in the first few centimeters of practically all profiles, and the analysis of oxides showed that silica is the major constituent of the sediments, in which there is predominance of sand and silt. In addition, the analysis of the physical and chemical parameters of waters indicated that they are suitable for navigation and natural harmony landscape. PMID:24184739

  3. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites versus knowledge, attitudes, and practices of inhabitants of low-income communities of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, Antonio Henrique A; Pereira, Adriana P M F; Alencar, Maria de Fátima L; Souza, Paulo R B; Dias, Rodrigo C; Fonseca, Juliana G; Santos, Clóvis P; Almeida, João C A

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of common infections responsible for significant public health problems in developing countries and generally linked to lack of sanitation, safe water, and improper hygiene. More than two billion people throughout the world live with unrelenting illness due to intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). The purposes of this study are to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on IPIs and investigate the relationship with prevalence of intestinal parasites among a low-income group of inhabitants from two communities of the Travessão District area, Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The two communities are known as "Parque Santuário," which is an urban slum with miserable living conditions, and "Arraial," where the socioeconomic and educational levels are better, neither having a sanitary infrastructure with an excreta collection system. Questionnaires revealed that both communities had local and specific codification to denominate the intestinal parasites and present correct knowledge on the theme but ignored some aspects of IPI transmission, with the Arraial population being better informed (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of IPIs in Parque Santuário (49.7%) was greater than in Arraial (27.2%) (p < 0.001; prevalence ratio/95% confidence interval 1.83/1.50-2.23). This study reports the real IPI situation in the Travessão District and also reinforces the need to continue the investigation on the impact of combined prophylactic methods, educational measures, and socioeconomic and sanitary improvements by governmental authorities and the local popular organization. PMID:20407910

  5. Discovery of the base of the Pinal Schist and the Bear Canyon sequence below it in the eastern Metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains, Cochise County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.C. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains is underlain by Pinal Schist (PS). Recent detailed mapping along the western edge of this terrane shows that a flat planar regional unconformity (UC) bounds this Pinal body at its western stratigraphic base. Below the UC lies 8 km[sup 2] of greenschist facies metapelites and metafelsites here given the provisional name of the Bear Canyon sequence (BCS). The PS above the UC is over 10 stratigraphic km, grading from 1 km conglomerate at the base (clasts are metafelsites and metasediments with very minor quartz and granite) up into 3 km of sandstones and then pelite, all with greenschist facies overprint. Relict bedding with abundant crossbedding is common; the sequence is upright. Foliation parallels bedding. Lineation is absent. The UC itself is well exposed in two places, on both sides of Happy Camp Canyon (HCC). On the west of HCC, the surface is exposed at the mouth of Bear Canyon (NW1/4 Sec. 31, T13S R28E) striking south and then southwest about 4 km, ending in the N center of Sec. 12, T14S R27E. The unconformity and the Pinal above it lie NS 30E in the north and smoothly swing to NE 50 SE in the south. Below the UC are 6 km[sup 2] of metasandstone and metafelsites of the BCS. The metasandstone is quartz-sericite schist with strong lineation ([minus]50 S70E) in its northern km of exposure. Bedding and foliation are NS 60 E in N, and NE 70 SE in S. This schist body is intruded on the E by a dike of quartz-phyric metafelsite to 1 km wide which underlies the UC along its entire length. The felsite shows strong relict flow layering and no foliation. Flow layering is NS 90 in the N, and strikes and dips variably in the S. A 1/4 km[sup 2] metafelsite plug intrudes the schist on the W, with flow layering NE 90. The two exposures of the UC are separated by a Precambrian normal fault striking N45E and dipping moderately SE under HCC alluvial fill; it has about a km of dip slip.

  6. Stratigraphy of fluvial sediment sequences and their palaeoenvironmental information in the foreland of the Serra dos Órgãos, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, André; Nehren, Udo; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro city the rivers Guapiaçu, Macacu and Iconha originate in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Since their channelization in the 1950s, higher flow velocities caused an incision of the rivers into the valley fills. These circumstances provide the possibility to study the alluvial deposits along the streams during low water level and allow conclusions on palaeoenvironmental change and landscape history. Sedimentological investigations of 13 exposures as well as AMS 14C measurements were carried out to investigate sediment properties and reconstruct the sedimentation history within the floodplains. These results enable to distinguish three different facies units. A late Pleistocene Unit I can be detected at the base of the observed exposures and consists of clast-supported fine to coarse gravels. It can be assumed that the gravel bodies were formed by a climatically induced erosional-depositional cycle within a braided river system. The gravels are overlaid by Unit II, a grayish to bluish loam mainly of mid-Holocene age. During generally drier climates these loams have been deposited during high water stages or flooding events as a splay facies proximal to the rivers. A reduced flow competence and relatively stable morphodynamic conditions are assumed for that period. Unit III accumulated in the late Holocene typically consists of several meters of planar or cross bedded sands to fine gravels, interfingered by loamy inclusions, buried peat bogs and organic debris. Fining-upward sequences can be frequently studied within Unit III which were completed by loamy sediments in the uppermost parts of the exposures. The increased flow competence from Unit II to Unit III seems to be a fluvial response to the increased humidity of the late Holocene as well as the enhancement of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Heavy rainfall likely caused higher sediment supply from the steep slopes as well as a

  7. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Mesoarchean granites from the Canaã dos Carajás area, Carajás Province, Brazil: Implications for the origin of Archean granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feio, G. R. L.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    2012-12-01

    Four Mesoarchean (2.93 to 2.83 Ga) granite units, which encompass the Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus, Cruzadão and Serra Dourada granites, were recognized in the Canaã dos Carajás area of the Archean Carajás Province. The Mesoarchean units are composed dominantly of biotite leucomonzogranites. They are compared with the Neoarchean Planalto suite (2.73 Ga) which encompasses biotite-hornblende monzogranites to syenogranites. The Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus and the variety of the Cruzadão granite with higher (La/Yb)N are geochemically more akin to the calc-alkaline granites, whereas the other varieties of the Cruzadão granite are transitional between calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. The Serra Dourada granite has an ambiguous geochemical character with some features similar to those of calc-alkaline granites and other peraluminous granites. The Planalto granites have ferroan character, are similar geochemically to reduced A-type granites and show a strong geochemical contrast with the Mesoarchean studied granites. The Mesoarchean granites described in the Canaã dos Carajás area are geochemically distinct to those of the Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province. The Canaã dos Carajás and Bom Jesus granites are similar to the high-Ca granites, whereas the Cruzadão and Serra Dourada are more akin to the low-CaO granites of the Yilgarn craton. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean studied granites approach those of the biotite granite group of Dharwar but the latter are enriched in HFSE and HREE compared to the Canaã dos Carajás granites. The Neoarchean Planalto suite granite has no counterpart in the Mesoarchean Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province, neither in the Yilgarn and Dharwar cratons. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting of a source similar in composition to an Archean basaltic andesite of the Carajás Province could give origin to the Bom Jesus and Cruzadão granites. In the case of the Bom Jesus granite the

  8. Geochronological data from TTG-type rock associations of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex and implications for crustal evolution of southernmost Brazil in Paleoproterozoic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Tiago Rafael; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll; Florisbal, Luana Moreira; Chemale, Farid, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    U-Pb isotope analyses by LA-MC-ICPMS (Laser Ablation - Multi Collector - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) in zircon crystals from metatonalites, tonalites and granodiorite gneiss from the Arroio dos Ratos Complex (ARC) early magmatism in southernmost Brazil are presented. The ARC is located in the eastern portion of the Sul-rio-grandense Shield, occurring as septa and roof pendants on granitoids emplaced along the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt (SBSB). The SBSB corresponds to a translithospheric structure composed of several anastomosed shear zones of dominantly transcurrent kinematics whose syntectonic magmatism, of Neoproterozoic age, is characteristic of post-collisional environments. The studied rocks comprise TTG-type associations with coeval mafic magmatism, deformed and metamorphosed within a ductile shear zone. Zircon crystals obtained from six samples are interpreted as igneous given that the crystals are subhedral to euhedral, bipyramidal, with concentric zonation, have ratios Th/U between 0.13 and 0.81 and have restricted evidence of overgrowth. The oldest Association 1 (A1) has structures compatible with recrystallization under conditions of high temperature and an igneous age of 2148 ± 33 Ma, obtained in a metatonalite. The rocks of Association 2 (A2) have similar compositions, although with a more significant coeval mafic fraction. They are intrusive into A1 and also show high-temperature recrystallization features. However, they are less deformed and partly preserve their primary, igneous fabric. The igneous ages obtained from two A2 tonalites are 2150 ± 28 Ma and 2136 ± 27 Ma. Association 3 (A3) is represented by tonalitic to granodioritic gneisses whose structure, composition and metamorphic features are similar to those of A1 rocks, except for the absence of coeval mafic magmas in the former. Local features resulting from partial melting are present in A3 rocks. Three samples from A3 were dated. A tonalitic gneiss gives igneous age

  9. Identification of familial clustering for cancer through the family health strategy program in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Daniela Koeller Rodrigues; Attianezi, Margareth; Esposito, Ana Carolina; Barth, Anneliese; Sequeira, Cecília; Krause, Nathália; Oliveira, Vivian; Lucidi, Alexandre; Serao, Cassio; Llerena, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Identification of families with history of cancer in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), through the Brazilian Unified Primary Health Care System was explored based in the Community Health Agents (CHA) program. This study was divided into two phases: a descriptive one with a cross-sectional epidemiological data of families with history of cancer based on CHA-collected data from home visits in four primary health care units. The second phase consisted in identifying familial clustering of three or more individuals with cancer through construction of a three-generation pedigree and revisited by an itinerant group of medical geneticists. Genetic counseling was carried out with the intent of selecting potential families at risk for hereditary familial cancers. In the first phase of the study, 1,581 families were interviewed by the CHA at their homes. A positive history for cancer was present in 42.3 % of families, comprising 22.3 % with only one case per family, 11.2 % with two cases, and 8.6 % with three or more cases in the family. The informant reported that 15 % of the cases were from the father lineage, 12 % from the mother lineage, and 12.1 % within siblings. In the remaining 60.9 % families, cancer was present in both sides of the family. The types of cancer reported were uterus 8.7 % (n = 137), stomach 7.7 % (n = 122), breast 6.9 % (n = 109), throat 6.8 % (n = 99), prostate 5.4 % (n = 85), lung 5.6 % (n = 88), bowel 3.7 % (n = 59), and unspecified sites in 6.8 % (n = 108) of families. No statistical differences were noted between the data collected on each primary care unit. In the second phase of the study, 136 families (2.9 %) from the total of families interviewed in phase 1 were selected due to the presence of three or more individuals with cancer in the family. Among those, only 73 families attended genetic counseling. Comparison between the data obtained by the CHA and the medical

  10. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  11. Characterization of a cAMP responsive transcription factor, Cmr (Rv1675c), in TB complex mycobacteria reveals overlap with the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Bai, Guangchun; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Knapp, Gwendowlyn S; Peterson, Matthew W; Gazdik, Michaela; C Gomes, Antonio L; Galagan, James E; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Cmr (Rv1675c) is a CRP/FNR family transcription factor known to be responsive to cAMP levels and during macrophage infections. However, Cmr's DNA binding properties, cellular targets and overall role in tuberculosis (TB) complex bacteria have not been characterized. In this study, we used experimental and computational approaches to characterize Cmr's DNA binding properties and identify a putative regulon. Cmr binds a 16-bp palindromic site that includes four highly conserved nucleotides that are required for DNA binding. A total of 368 binding sites, distributed in clusters among ~200 binding regions throughout the Mycobacterium bovis BCG genome, were identified using ChIP-seq. One of the most enriched Cmr binding sites was located upstream of the cmr promoter, and we demonstrated that expression of cmr is autoregulated. cAMP affected Cmr binding at a subset of DNA loci in vivo and in vitro, including multiple sites adjacent to members of the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon. Our findings of cooperative binding of Cmr to these DNA regions and the regulation by Cmr of the DosR-regulated virulence gene Rv2623 demonstrate the complexity of Cmr-mediated gene regulation and suggest a role for Cmr in the biology of persistent TB infection. PMID:26358810

  12. Characterization of a cAMP responsive transcription factor, Cmr (Rv1675c), in TB complex mycobacteria reveals overlap with the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Bai, Guangchun; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Knapp, Gwendowlyn S.; Peterson, Matthew W.; Gazdik, Michaela; C. Gomes, Antonio L.; Galagan, James E.; McDonough, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Cmr (Rv1675c) is a CRP/FNR family transcription factor known to be responsive to cAMP levels and during macrophage infections. However, Cmr's DNA binding properties, cellular targets and overall role in tuberculosis (TB) complex bacteria have not been characterized. In this study, we used experimental and computational approaches to characterize Cmr's DNA binding properties and identify a putative regulon. Cmr binds a 16-bp palindromic site that includes four highly conserved nucleotides that are required for DNA binding. A total of 368 binding sites, distributed in clusters among ∼200 binding regions throughout the Mycobacterium bovis BCG genome, were identified using ChIP-seq. One of the most enriched Cmr binding sites was located upstream of the cmr promoter, and we demonstrated that expression of cmr is autoregulated. cAMP affected Cmr binding at a subset of DNA loci in vivo and in vitro, including multiple sites adjacent to members of the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon. Our findings of cooperative binding of Cmr to these DNA regions and the regulation by Cmr of the DosR-regulated virulence gene Rv2623 demonstrate the complexity of Cmr-mediated gene regulation and suggest a role for Cmr in the biology of persistent TB infection. PMID:26358810

  13. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  14. O Romantismo Brasileiro: Leitura e Transformacao Social (Brazilian Romanticism: Reading and Social Transformation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusti, Valeria

    1997-01-01

    Considers the set of representations that configure the images of the literature of Brazilian Romanticism. Notes the capacity of this literature to transform both values and social patterns of behavior. (PA)

  15. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  16. A terD Domain-Encoding Gene (SCO2368) Is Involved in Calcium Homeostasis and Participates in Calcium Regulation of a DosR-Like Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, François; Lerat, Sylvain; Bucca, Giselda; Sanssouci, Édith; Smith, Colin P.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptomyces coelicolor is not resistant to tellurite, it possesses several TerD domain-encoding (tdd) genes of unknown function. To elucidate the function of tdd8, the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor strain M145 and of a tdd8 deletion mutant derivative (the Δtdd8 strain) were compared. Several orthologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes involved in dormancy survival were upregulated in the deletion mutant at the visual onset of prodiginine production. These genes are organized in a putative redox stress response cluster comprising two large loci. A binding motif similar to the dormancy survival regulator (DosR) binding site of M. tuberculosis has been identified in the upstream sequences of most genes in these loci. A predicted role for these genes in the redox stress response is supported by the low NAD+/NADH ratio in the Δtdd8 strain. This S. coelicolor gene cluster was shown to be induced by hypoxia and NO stress. While the tdd8 deletion mutant (the Δtdd8 strain) was unable to maintain calcium homeostasis in a calcium-depleted medium, the addition of Ca2+ in Δtdd8 culture medium reduced the expression of several genes of the redox stress response cluster. The results shown in this work are consistent with Tdd8 playing a significant role in calcium homeostasis and redox stress adaptation. PMID:25535276

  17. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling. PMID:24959753

  18. DevR (DosR) mimetic peptides impair transcriptional regulation and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under hypoxia by inhibiting the autokinase activity of DevS sensor kinase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two-component systems have emerged as compelling targets for antibacterial drug design for a number of reasons including the distinct histidine phosphorylation property of their constituent sensor kinases. The DevR-DevS/DosT two component system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is essential for survival under hypoxia, a stress associated with dormancy development in vivo. In the present study a combinatorial peptide phage display library was screened for DevS histidine kinase interacting peptides with the aim of isolating inhibitors of DevR-DevS signaling. Results DevS binding peptides were identified from a phage display library after three rounds of panning using DevS as bait. The peptides showed sequence similarity with conserved residues in the N-terminal domain of DevR and suggested that they may represent interacting surfaces between DevS and DevR. Two DevR mimetic peptides were found to specifically inhibit DevR-dependent transcriptional activity and restrict the hypoxic survival of M. tb. The mechanism of peptide action is majorly attributed to an inhibition of DevS autokinase activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that DevR mimetic peptides impede DevS activation and that intercepting DevS activation at an early step in the signaling cascade impairs M. tb survival in a hypoxia persistence model. PMID:25048654

  19. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  20. DOS/Russian - US program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pifer, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the organization and describes the objectives for the science and technology agreements between the U.S.A. and Russia. The Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission objectives and the Civilian Research and the Development Foundation for the Independent States of the former Soviet Union (CRDF) are discussed.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Human Pathogenic Bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola Virus Groups Leads to the Genetic Identification of Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groseth, Allison; Mampilli, Veena; Weisend, Carla; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Russell, Brandy J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV) and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV), as well as Nyando virus (NDV), are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2), PGAV (n = 2) and NDV (n = 4), as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV) and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV). Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu) and mosquito (C6/36) cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated. PMID:25188437

  2. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  3. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  4. [Marcus Barros talks about the environment and tropical diseases in the Amazon. Interview by Stella Oswaldo Cruz Penido. Introduction by Ruth B. Martins].

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcus

    2007-12-01

    Marcus Barros talks about how tropical diseases influenced his decision to study medicine. He tells a number of stories about his family, which moved from Alto Juruá to Manaus to escape malaria and other fevers. He says it is essential to adopt homeopathy, acupuncture, and other indigenous knowledge and practices in treating disease. Barros also talks about measures taken when he was president of Brazil's national environmental institute, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Ibama)--all part of an effort to prevent and combat these diseases and halt deforestation and burn-offs. PMID:18783153

  5. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  6. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  7. Divorce Matters: Visitation Dos and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    ... your former spouse. • Don’t question your children’s loyalty. • Help make the transition from one home to ... Don’t spoil your children to buy their loyalty and love • Don’t let your children blackmail ...

  8. Dos and Don'ts for a Fabulous Pedicure

    MedlinePlus

    ... be done frequently to not only keep feet looking good, but also to ensure proper foot health. Here are a few pointers to keep in mind the next time you get a pedicure at home or in the salon: Don’t shave your ...

  9. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter describes field…

  10. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don’ts

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V. N.; Devanshi

    2011-01-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  11. Dos and don’ts in response priming research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Filipp; Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Response priming is a well-understood but sparsely employed paradigm in cognitive science. The method is powerful and well-suited for exploring early visuomotor processing in a wide range of tasks and research fields. Moreover, response priming can be dissociated from visual awareness, possibly because it is based on the first sweep of feedforward processing of primes and targets. This makes it a theoretically interesting device for separating conscious and unconscious vision. We discuss the major opportunities of the paradigm and give specific recommendations (e.g., tracing the time-course of priming in parametric experiments). Also, we point out typical confounds, design flaws, and data processing artifacts. PMID:22253674

  12. Dos and Don'ts of Writing Presidential Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, an employment agreement between a university president and a governing board was often nothing more than a handshake. Today, formal contracts are requirements for presidents, with boards and presidents typically relying on lawyers to extensively document terms of employment, salary and benefits, and, perhaps most…

  13. Web-Based Mathematics: Some "Dos" and "Don'ts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loong, Esther Yook-Kin

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes an "out of field" teacher's use of the Internet to teach a range of mathematical topics in a modified Year 8 mathematics class. It highlights the importance of three factors for implementing a discernible web-based teaching strategy: appropriate choice of web objects, effective "virtual" pedagogy, and technical support…

  14. Writing at Work; Dos, Don'ts, and How Tos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Ernst

    Intended for the adult who needs writing skills for career purposes, this three-part book presents principles rather than mechanical rules for achieving effective communication through writing. The first section of the book offers specific guidelines on communicative attitude, content, perspective, theme, organization, and revision. The middle…

  15. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1993-01-01

    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  16. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  17. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  18. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  19. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  20. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  1. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

  2. Análise dos Resultados da VII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Preta Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta; de Medeiros, José Renan; Dantas, Márcia Pragano; Roque da Silva, Adriana; Martins, Roberto Vieira; Dottori, Horácio Alberto; Maia, Márcio Antonio Geimba; Da Rocha Poppe, Paulo César; Rodrigues da Costa, Antônio Carlos

    2006-06-01

    In this work we show the results of the VII Brazilian Astronomy Olympiad (VII OBA), that occurred on 15/05/2004, in all previous registered elementary and high schools, public and/or private, urban and/or rural. Took part in this Olympiad 123.001 students (60,7 % more than VI OBA), distributed over 2.721 schools (increasing of 73% if compared with the VI OBA), belonging to all Brazilian states. The public schools are 75,5% and the private are 24,5%. The team of 4 students selected in the VI OBA (2003) represented the Brazil in the IX International Astronomy Olympiad (IX IAO), that occurred on October of 2004, in Ukraine and won a silver medal and two bronze medals.

  3. Conditions of Collaboration: A Dean's List of Dos and Don'ts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glotzbach, Philip A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents relational and structural conditions necessary to successful collaboration between college faculty and administrators. Relational conditions include "refuse to play zero-sum games" and "the most important power in a college is the power to persuade." Structural conditions include "clarify the roles of players" and "prefer a matrix…

  4. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

    This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more…

  5. A social media primer for professionals: digital dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Alber, Julia; Gold, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    Social media sites have become powerful and important tools for health education, promotion, and communication activities as they have dramatically grown in popularity. Social media sites also offer many features that can be used for professional development and advancement. When used wisely and prudently, social media sites and platforms offer great potential for professional development by building and cultivating professional networks, as well as sharing information to increase one's recognition and improve one's reputation. They also provide a medium for increasing one's knowledge and awareness of timely news and trends by following important organizations, opinion leaders, and influential professionals. When used unwisely and imprudently, there is the potential to delay, damage, or even destroy one's professional and personal life. In this commentary, we offer recommendations for using Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter for professional development and caution against online behaviors that may have negative professional consequences. In summary, we believe that the strengths and benefits of social media for professional advancement and development far outweigh the risks and encourage health promotion professionals to properly engage these powerful tools. PMID:24396119

  6. The "Dos and Don'ts" of Writing a Journal Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Tauno; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra; Cervai, Sara; Borelli, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: During work as reviewers and editors of journals authors are often faced the same types of problems in many articles. The purpose of this piece is to give some guidelines on typical problems that lead to rejection, and how to avoid these. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses journal article design and offers some methodology…

  7. Aspectos linguisticos dos emprestimos em portugues (Linguistic Aspects of Adaptation into Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Ronald M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process through which modern Portuguese borrows from other languages, mainly French and English. Portuguese adapts these derivatives to conform to its own rules of phonology, morphology, and semantics. (four references) (Author/CK)

  8. Vibration DOS of 57Fe and Zn doped rutile Sn(Sb) oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Rykov, Alexandre; Németh, Zoltán; Yoda, Yoshitaka

    2012-03-01

    Sn oxides co-doped with Zn, Sb and 57Fe were prepared by sol-gel method, and especially the doping effect of non-magnetic Zn ions was studied. The bulk saturation magnetization is in accordance with the intensity of the magnetic component in Mössbauer spectra. The nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of these compounds were measured in SPring 8. The vibration density of states (VDOS) of 57Fe doped Sn(Sb) oxides showed that the softening peaks around 15-20 meV appeared by doping less than 10% Zn ions. The clusters of non-magnetic ZnFe2O4 may be most probably formed under the limit of XRD detections. The results suggest that the strengthening of ferromagnetism, which appears in the dilute Zn doping, may occur due to the spin arrangement of dilute Fe3 + through magnetic defects rather than the formation of magnetic iron oxides.

  9. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  10. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  11. How to write an EEG report: dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter W; Benbadis, Selim R

    2013-01-01

    The EEG report is structured to include demographics of the patient studied and reason for the EEG; specifics of the EEG techniques used; a description of the patterns, frequencies, voltages, and progression of the EEG pattern that were recorded; and finally a clinical impression of the EEG significance. The interpretation should be concise, clear and to the point, avoid jargon and EEG specifics, and should be understandable by any health care practitioner. PMID:23267044

  12. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  13. Influencias africanas na lingua brasileira dos terreiros (African Influences in Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how determination of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in songs of voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in southern and northeastern Brazil is complicated by factors like existence of phonological correspondence without accompanying semantic correspondence, difficulty of determining meaning of word in a given text, and high…

  14. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  15. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  16. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  17. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  18. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  19. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Bicultural Development in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacallao, Martica L.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    How do Mexican immigrant adolescents balance different, and often oppositional, cultural influences in the acculturation process? In this article, we explore how acculturating adolescents absorb cultural messages and go about creating their (multiple) identities. Guided by Alternation Theory, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12…

  20. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  2. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Un Paso pa'lante y dos pa'tras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Joseph, Jr.

    This book presents an in-depth examination of 142 U.S. school districts (containing at least 5,000 students and 5 percent Hispanic enrollment) in order to understand Hispanic inequities in education and what can be done to correct these inequities. Chapter 1 presents political theory of educational policy. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the…

  3. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert; Borglin, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.

  4. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered aspirations…

  5. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  6. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... packages to keep track of important labels and expiration dates. Do store all medicines up and away, out ... prevent them from becoming less effective before their expiration dates. Don’ts Don’t give OTC cough and ...

  7. "Being Present in the World": A Conversation with Professor Jose Marques dos Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.; Dodds, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The University of Porto was awarded the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Elite Award for its innovative application of information technology to a European university. This university--nearly one hundred years old--is pressing hard, on a number of fronts, to place itself in the top rank of European universities. The Rector of the…

  8. Unidad: Las influencias culturales en el arte mexicana (Unit: Cultural Influences in Mexican Art). Dos semanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finere, Neal

    This two-week unit, appropriate for bilingual education settings as well as foreign language programs, deals with the three primary cultural influences found in Mexican contemporary art. The multisensory materials, pragmatic focus, and direct creative student involvement are designed to make it a microcosmic, real-life experience. The first part…

  9. Incorporando a variabilidade no processo de identificação do modelo de máximo global no Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Siviero, Pamila Cristina Lima; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A disponibilidade de bases de dados cada vez mais complexas e multidimensionais é um dos principais motivadores para o aumento do número de estudos que utilizam análises multivariadas baseadas em lógica de conjuntos nebulosos. Apesar da disseminação do método Grade of Membership nos trabalhos empíricos brasileiros da área de ciências sociais e saúde, questões relativas à identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros finais estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4 não foram suficientemente aprofundadas. Dada a relevância de se obterem parâmetros únicos e estáveis, Guedes et al. (2010) propuseram um procedimento empírico para localizar um modelo de máximo global (MG) com parâmetros estáveis. Entretanto, seu localizador de MG não incorpora qualquer medida de variabilidade. Neste artigo, tal limitação é contornada por meio da utilização de uma estatística de ponderação – Máximo Global Ponderado (MGP) – semelhante ao coeficiente de variação. Esse indicador busca não penalizar de forma desproporcional situações nas quais os desvios médios, apesar de diferentes de zero, são muito pequenos. Apresentam-se evidências de que o localizador MGP reduz a distância do modelo identificado à real estrutura latente dos dados em análise, quando comparados ao modelo identificado pelo localizador não ponderado, MG. PMID:23293402

  10. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  11. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  12. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Dos Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Two-Month-Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the second month of life. The pamphlet outlines typical infant behavior at 2 months of age, the need for regular visits to a physician, health insurance,…

  13. Spatial distribution of metals in sediments of the Ribeira Bay, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freret-Meurer, N V; Andreata, J V; Meurer, B C; Manzano, F V; Baptista, M G S; Teixeira, D E; Longo, M M

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to analyze the spatial distributions of several metals in sediments from five sites in Ribeira Bay, Brazil. Ribeira Bay is a very important area to the local community, due to its artisan fishery, and it also has a biological relevance for many marine species that use mangroves as nursery and feeding sites. According to the results, the area was not considered a metal polluted area. Despite not having a significant source of metals inside the Bay nowadays, Ilha Grande Bay harbors a shipyard, an oil terminal, and a commercial port, as well as two thermonuclear power plants (Angra I e II), all of which indirectly influence the study area. PMID:20188384

  14. The Dos and Don'ts of how to Build a Planet, Using the Moon as an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The bulk chemical compositions of planets may yield important clues concerning planetary origins. Failing that, bulk compositions are still important, in that they constrain calculation of planetary mineralogies and also constrain the petrogenesis of basaltic magmas. In the case of the Earth, there is little or no debate about the composition of the Earth's upper mantle. This is because our sample collections contain peridotitic xenoliths of that mantle. The most fertile of these are believed to have been little modified from their primary compositions. Using these samples and chondritic meteorites as a starting point, small perturbations on the compositions of existing samples allow useful reconstruction of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Elsewhere, I have argued that the next simplest case is the Eucrite Parent Body (EPB). Reconstructions based on Sc partitioning indicate that the EPB can be well approximated by a mixture of 20% eucrite and 80% equilibrium olivine. This leads to a parent body that is similar to CO (or devolatilized CM) chondrites. Partial melting experiments on CM chondrites confirm this model, because the residual solids in these experiments are dominated by olivine with minor pigonite [3]. The most difficult bodies to reconstruct are those that have undergone the most differentiation. Both the Moon and Mars may have passed through a magma ocean stage. In any event, lunar and martian basalts, unlike eucrites, were not derived from undifferentiated source regions. Reconstructions are primarily based on compositional trends within the basalts themselves with some critical assumptions: (i) Refractory lithophile elements (Ca, Al, REE, actinides) are presumed to be in chondritic relative abundances; and (ii) some major element ratio is believed to exist in a chondritic ratio (e.g., Mg/Si, Mg/Al). The most commonly used parameter is Mg/Si.

  15. The DOS 1 neutron dosimetry experiment at the HB-4-A key 7 surveillance site on the HFIR pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, K.; Kam, F.B.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive neutron dosimetry experiment was made at one of the prime surveillance sites at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel to aid radiation embrittlement studies of the vessel and to benchmark neutron transport calculations. The thermal neutron flux at the key 7, position 5 site was found, from measurements of radioactivation of four cobalt wires and four silver wires, to be 2.4 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux derived from two helium accumulation monitors was 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux estimated by neutron transport calculations was 3.7 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The fast flux, >1 MeV, determined from two nickel activation wires, was 1.5 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, in keeping with values obtained earlier from stainless steel surveillance monitors and with a computed value of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The fast fluxes given by two reaction-product-type monitors, neptunium-237 and beryllium, were 2.6 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s {sup {minus}1} and 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Follow-up experiments indicate that these latter high values of fast flux are reproducible but are false; they are due to the creation of greater levels of reaction products by photonuclear events induced by an exceptionally high ratio of gamma flux to fast neutron flux at the vessel.

  16. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  17. Cornell Produces a Video of Safety Dos and Don'ts for the YouTube Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Don't drink too much, download pirated files, light candles, or prop open doors. Warnings like those pervade the weighty work of admonition known as the student handbook. However, Allen J. Bova wonders, "Who ever reads that?" So Mr. Bova, director of risk management and insurance at Cornell University, tried to reach students with a video. This…

  18. Hybrid Identity in Academic Writing: "Are There Two of Me?" (Identidad híbrida: "¿hay dos yo?")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Troy; Lengeling, Martha; Mora Pablo, Irasema; Heredia Ocampo, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of identity in an academic learning environment in Central Mexico, and shows how identity may be linked to non-language factors such as emotions or family. These issues are associated with elements of hybrid identity. To analyze this we draw on language choice as a tool used for the construction of identity and…

  19. (BARS) -- Bibliographic Retrieval System, Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database Shock Physics Index (SPHINX). PC/DOS version 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.; Parker, T.J.; Mulholland, K.

    1993-09-01

    The Bibliographic Retrieval System (BARS) is a database management system specially designed to retrieve bibliographic references. Two databases are available, (i) the Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database which contains over 5600 references to the literature related to stress waves in solids and their applications, and (ii) the Shock Physics Index (SPHINX) which includes over 6200 further references to stress waves in solids, material properties at intermediate and low rates, ballistic and hypervelocity impact, and explosive or shock fabrication methods. There is some overlap in the information in the two data bases.

  20. First approach to studies of sulphur electron DOS in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues studied by XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Czapla, Joanna; Podgórczyk, Magdalena; Kisiel, Andrzej; Konior, Jerzy; Balerna, Antonella

    2011-10-01

    Urological cancers comprise approximately one-third of all cancers diagnosed in men worldwide and out of these, prostate cancer is the most common one ( WHO World Cancer Report, 2008). Several risk factors such as age, hormone levels, environmental conditions and family history are suspected to play a role in the onset of this disease of otherwise obscure aetiology. It is therefore the medical need that drives multidisciplinary research in this field, carried out by means of various experimental and theoretical techniques. Out of many relevant factors, it is believed that sulphur can take an important part in cancer transformations. We have investigated the prostate cancer cell lines and tissues, along with selected organic and inorganic compounds used as references, by the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy near the sulphur edge energy region. Particularly, the comparison of the experimental results collected during XANES measurements and theoretical calculations of electron density of states with use of the FEFF8 code and LAPW (linearised augmented plane-wave) method has been performed and in this work the first results of our studies are presented.

  1. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 2. PC DOS Compatible Programs. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews eight IBM-compatible software packages that are available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Software packages to be considered were selected following reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and recommendations of teachers. The packages were then rated by…

  2. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #9: ORD PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO EPA/OIA & DOS INITIATIVE IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ninth edition reports on a workshop on global climate change that was held in Cairo, Egypt, on May 10-12, 1999. The workshop represented a successful partnership between EPA's Office of International Affairs, Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Air and Radiat...

  3. HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors as promising compounds against Candida albicans André Luis Souza dos Santos

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, André Luis Souza

    2010-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade humans and may lead to mucosal and skin infections or to deep-seated mycoses of almost all inner organs, especially in immunocompromised patients. In this context, both the host immune status and the ability of C. albicans to modulate the expression of its virulence factors are relevant aspects that drive the candidal susceptibility or resistance; in this last case, culminating in the establishment of successful infection known as candidiasis. C. albicans possesses a potent armamentarium consisting of several virulence molecules that help the fungal cells to escape of the host immune responses. There is no doubt that the secretion of aspartyl-type proteases, designated as Saps, are one of the major virulence attributes produced by C. albicans cells, since these hydrolytic enzymes participate in a wide range of fungal physiological processes as well as in different facets of the fungal-host interactions. For these reasons, Saps clearly hold promise as new potential drug targets. Corroborating this hypothesis, the introduction of new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs of the aspartyl protease inhibitor-type (HIV PIs) have emerged as new agents for the inhibition of Saps. The introduction of HIV PIs has revolutionized the treatment of HIV disease, reducing opportunistic infections, especially candidiasis. The attenuation of candidal infections in HIV-infected individuals might not solely have resulted from improved immunological status, but also as a result of direct inhibition of C. albicans Saps. In this article, we review updates on the beneficial effects of HIV PIs against the human fungal pathogen C. albicans, focusing on the effects of these compounds on Sap activity, growth behavior, morphological architecture, cellular differentiation, fungal adhesion to animal cells and abiotic materials, modulation of virulence factors, experimental candidiasis infection, and their synergistic actions with classical antifungal agents. PMID:21537366

  4. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  5. PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2010-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade - soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  6. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of land snails in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, G K M; Santos, S B

    2012-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of terrestrial molluscs are affected by environmental factors, but data are lacking for Brazilian land snails. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between measured environmental factors and the land-snail species composition of two hillsides covered with Atlantic Rain Forest on Ilha Grande. On each hillside, five plots located at 100 m intervals between 100 to 500 m asl were chosen. Each plot was sampled by carrying out timed searches and collecting and sorting litter samples from ten quadrats of 25 × 75 cm. A range of environmental data was measured for each of the quadrats in a plot. A Cluster Analysis was carried out for the richness and abundance data. The environmental variables were analysed using a Pearson Correlation Matrix and Discriminant Analysis. Our results show that the two mountains are similar in species richness, but species composition and abundance are different, probably reflecting observed differences in environmental conditions. The environmental factors associated with compositional variation between the two mountains were: atmospheric temperature, soil temperature, litter depth, and relative air humidity. Distinct luminosity and canopy closure conditions were related to the composition of the land-snail community of one hillside. PMID:22437388

  7. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  8. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  9. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  10. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  11. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  12. El Proyecto Cunningham: Dos Idiomas; Muchos Paises, 1995-96 (The Cunningham Project: Two Languages, Many Countries, 1995-96). Research Report on Educational Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This report presents an evaluation of a two-way bilingual program in English and Spanish at the Cunningham Elementary School (Texas). The program was designed to extend and expand educational reform by shifting the instructional program at the school over the 5-year time span from a transitional bilingual program to a two-way bilingual, or dual…

  13. Sanchez and Metz Elementary Schools: Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII First-Year Evaluation Report, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria

    The first-year evaluation of a two-way Spanish/English bilingual education program at two Austin (Texas) elementary schools is presented. The developmental program has as its objectives the development of students' oral proficiency in Spanish and English, development of grade-level appropriate literacy in both languages, increase in academic…

  14. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo Dual Language Project Title VII Third-Year Evaluation Report, 1997-98. Publication Number 97.21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberty, Paul; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria

    An evaluation was conducted of the third year of a 5-year comprehensive bilingual education grant funded by Title VII of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994. The grant funds a program of developmental bilingual education at two elementary schools in the Austin Independent School District (Texas). More than 25% of the students at each…

  15. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  16. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  17. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  18. Neodymium, strontium and chromium isotopic studies of the LEW86010 and Angra dos Reis meteorites and the chronology of the angrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Neodymium, stontium, and chromium isotopic studies of the LEW86010 angrite established its absolute age and the formation interval between its crystallization and condensation of Allende CAIs from the solar nebula. Pyroxene and phosphate were found to contain approximately 8% of its Sm and Nd inventory. A conventional Sm-147-Nd-143 isochron yielded an age of 4.53 +/- 0.04 Ga (2 sigma and Epsilon(sub Nd sup 143)) = 0.45 +/- 1.1. An Sm-146-Nd-142 isochron gives initial Sm-146/Sm-144 = 0.0076 +/- 0.0009 and Epsilon (sub Nd sup 142) = -2.5 +/- 0.4. The Rb-Sr analyses give initial Sr-87/Sr-86 Iota(sub Sr sup 87) = 0.698972 +/- 8 and 0.698970 +/- 18 for LEW and ADOR, respectively, relative to Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.71025 for NBS987. The difference, Delta Iota(sub Sr Sup 87), between Iota (sub sr sup 87) for the angrites and literature values for Allende CAIs, corresponds to approximately Ma of growth in a solar nebula with a CI chondrite value of Rb-87/Sr-86 = 0.91, or approximately 5 Ma in a nebula with solar photospheric Rb-87/Sr-86 = 1.51. Excess Cr-53 from extinct Mn-53(t(sub 1/2) = 3.7 Ma)in LEW86010 corresponds to initial Mn-53/Mn-55 = 4.4 +/- 1.0 x 10(exp -5) for the inclusions as previously reported by the Paris group (Birck and Allegre, 1988). The Sm-146/Sm-144 value found for LEW86010 corresponds to solar system initial (Sm-146/Sm-144) = 0.0080 +/- 0.0009 for crystallization 8 Ma after Allende, the difference between Pb-Pb ages of angrites and Allende, or 0.0086 +/- 0.0009 for crystallation 18 Ma after Allende, using the Mn-Cr formation interval. The isotopic data are discussed in the context of a model in which an undifferentiated 'chondritic' parent body formed from the solar nebula approximately Ma after Allende CAIs and subsequently underwent differentiation accompanied by loss of volatiles. Parent bodies with Rb/Sr similar to that of CI, CM, or CO chondrites could satisfy the Cr and Sr isotopic systematics. If the angrite parent body had Rb/Sr similar to that of CV meteorites, it would have to form slightly later, approximately 2.6 Ma after the CAIs, to satisfy the Sr and CR isotopic systematics.

  19. Determinación fotométrica de parámetros fundamentales de dos cúmulos abiertos del cuarto cuadrante Galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcionni, N.; Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Palma, T.; Piatti, A. E.

    We present preliminary results obtained from a photometric analysis in the Washington system C and T_{1} passbands of two poorly known open clusters (OCs) located in the fourth Galactic quadrant: BH 84 and BH 211. Based on the best fits of theoretical isochrones to the (T_1,C-T_1) colour- magnitude diagrams, we derive the fundamental cluster parameters. The present results are part of a major project which aims to characterize almost a hundred OCs observed and analyzed in a homogeneous way. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Plug in to the Utah Library Network, Reach Out to the World. Utah Library Network and Internet Training Handbook [for DOS]. Information Forum Publication #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinwand, Louis; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Utah in their use of the Internet. Many of the examples used were created specifically to explain the use of products that the Utah Library Network provides for public libraries in Utah. The introduction provides background history and general information about the Internet and general…

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  6. How Do You Say "Twos" in Spanish, if "Two" Is "Dos"? Language as Means and Object in a Bilingual Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Naomi Mulvihill uses vignettes from her bilingual kindergarten classroom to explore the dynamic processes by which young children make sense of language, focusing on instances in which she asks her students to compare texts presented in English and Spanish. Using Piaget's concept of disequilibrium as a guiding framework,…

  7. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  8. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  9. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os

  10. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa