Science.gov

Sample records for dose evaluation program

  1. Evaluation of High Performance Converters Under Low Dose Rate Total Ionizing Dose (TID) Testing for NASA Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Sahu, Kusum

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of low dose rate (0.01-0.18 rads(Si)/sec) total ionizing dose (TID) tests performed on several types of high performance converters. The parts used in this evaluation represented devices such as a high speed flash converter, a 16-bit ADC and a voltage-to-frequency converter.

  2. Development of a patient-specific 3D dose evaluation program for QA in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suk; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Cao, Yuan Jie; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Chul Yong

    2015-03-01

    We present preliminary results for a 3-dimensional dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient-specific 3-dimensional dose real evaluation system). Scanned computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using dosimetry were transferred to the radiation treatment planning system (ECLIPSE, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) where the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) nasopharynx plan was designed. We used a 10 MV photon beam (CLiX, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) to deliver the nasopharynx treatment plan. After irradiation, the TENOMAG dosimeter was scanned using a VISTA ™ scanner. The scanned data were reconstructed using VistaRecon software to obtain a 3D dose distribution of the optical density. An optical-CT scanner was used to readout the dose distribution in the gel dosimeter. Moreover, we developed the P DRESS by using Flatform, which were developed by our group, to display the 3D dose distribution by loading the DICOM RT data which are exported from the radiotherapy treatment plan (RTP) and the optical-CT reconstructed VFF file, into the independent P DRESS with an ioniz ation chamber and EBT film was used to compare the dose distribution calculated from the RTP with that measured by using a gel dosimeter. The agreement between the normalized EBT, the gel dosimeter and RTP data was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods, such as the isodose distribution, dose difference, point value, and profile. The profiles showed good agreement between the RTP data and the gel dosimeter data, and the precision of the dose distribution was within ±3%. The results from this study showed significantly discrepancies between the dose distribution calculated from the treatment plan and the dose distribution measured by a TENOMAG gel and by scanning with an optical CT scanner. The 3D dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient specific dose real evaluation system), which were developed in this study evaluates the accuracies of the three-dimensional dose

  3. Program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings from the panel on program evaluation. Some of the papers included are the following: Seattle City Light's Industrial Retrofit Demonstration Project Uses Quasi-Experimental Research Design and Metering to Measure Savings, Evaluation for PUCs, and The Takeback Effect Low-income Weatherizations Fact or Fiction

  4. Standardized radiological dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1996-05-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

  5. SU-E-T-86: Comparison of Two Commercially Available Programs for the Evaluation of Delivered Daily Dose Using Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuohy, R; Bosse, C; Mavroidis, P; Shi, Z; Crownover, R; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, two commercially available programs were compared for the evaluation of delivered daily dose using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: Thirty (n=30) patients previously treated in our clinic (10 prostate, 10 SBRT lung and 10 abdomen) were used in this study. The patients' plans were optimized and calculated using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. The daily CBCT scans were imported into Velocity and RayStation along with the corresponding planning CTs, structure sets and 3D dose distributions for each patient. The organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on each CBCT by the prescribing physician and were included in the evaluation of the daily delivered dose. Each CBCT was registered to the planning CT, once with rigid registration and then again, separately, with deformable registration. After registering each CBCT, the dose distribution from the planning CT was overlaid and the dose volume histograms (DVH) for the OAR and the planning target volumes (PTV) were calculated. Results: For prostate patients, we observed daily volume changes for the OARs. The DVH analysis for those patients showed variation in the sparing of the OARs while PTV coverage remained virtually unchanged using both Velocity and RayStation systems. Similar results were observed for abdominal patients. In contrast, for SBRT lung patients, the DVH for the OARs and target were comparable to those from the initial treatment plan. Differences in organ volume and organ doses were also observed when comparing the daily fractions using deformable and rigid registrations. Conclusion: By using daily CBCT dose reconstruction, we proved PTV coverage for prostate and abdominal targets is adequate. However, there is significant dosimetric change for the OARs. For lung SBRT patients, the delivered daily dose for both PTV and OAR is comparable to the planned dose with no significant differences.

  6. A dose error evaluation study for 4D dose calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milz, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.; Ullrich, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that respiration induced motion is not negligible for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. The intrafractional breathing induced motion influences the delivered dose distribution on the underlying patient geometry such as the lung or the abdomen. If a static geometry is used, a planning process for these indications does not represent the entire dynamic process. The quality of a full 4D dose calculation approach depends on the dose coordinate transformation process between deformable geometries. This article provides an evaluation study that introduces an advanced method to verify the quality of numerical dose transformation generated by four different algorithms. The used transformation metric value is based on the deviation of the dose mass histogram (DMH) and the mean dose throughout dose transformation. The study compares the results of four algorithms. In general, two elementary approaches are used: dose mapping and energy transformation. Dose interpolation (DIM) and an advanced concept, so called divergent dose mapping model (dDMM), are used for dose mapping. The algorithms are compared to the basic energy transformation model (bETM) and the energy mass congruent mapping (EMCM). For evaluation 900 small sample regions of interest (ROI) are generated inside an exemplary lung geometry (4DCT). A homogeneous fluence distribution is assumed for dose calculation inside the ROIs. The dose transformations are performed with the four different algorithms. The study investigates the DMH-metric and the mean dose metric for different scenarios (voxel sizes: 8 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm 9 different breathing phases). dDMM achieves the best transformation accuracy in all measured test cases with 3-5% lower errors than the other models. The results of dDMM are reasonable and most efficient in this study, although the model is simple and easy to implement. The EMCM model also achieved suitable results, but the approach requires a more complex

  7. Analysis program based on finite element method, MULTI(FEM), for evaluation of dose-dependent local disposition of drug in liver.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, K; Yamaoka, K; Higashimori, M; Nakagawa, T

    1999-05-01

    A curve-fitting program based on the Finite Element Method, MULTI(FEM), was developed to model nonlinear local disposition of a drug in the liver under non-steady-state conditions. The program was written in FORTRAN on an IBM-compatible personal computer. The validity of MULTI(FEM) was confirmed by analyzing the outflow kinetics of oxacillin (a model drug) following a pulse input to isolated, perfused rat livers, according to both linear and nonlinear dispersion models. Four dose levels (300, 1000, 3000, and 5000 microg) of oxacillin were administered to observe the dose-dependency in the hepatic local disposition. First, the individual outflow time-profiles at the same dose were averaged, and the average time-profile was analyzed by MULTI(FEM) based on linear dispersion models to yield a single curve fit. The fitted parameters at each dose level were compared with parameters estimated using MULTI(FILT), a program based on fast inverse Laplace transform, to analyze linear pharmacokinetics. The estimated parameters by MULTI(FEM) were in good agreement with those by MULTI(FILT). The apparent elimination rate constant (ke) decreased with an increase in dose, whereas other parameters showed no discernible dependency on an increase of dose. Second, the average outflow time-profiles at the four dose levels were simultaneously analyzed by MULTI(FEM) based on dispersion models featuring Michaelis-Menten elimination. The outflow time-profiles of oxacillin were well approximated by a two-compartment dispersion model with central Michaelis-Menten elimination. The maximum elimination rate constant (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km) were estimated to be 1520 microg/mL/min and 41.3 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, the capability of MULTI(FEM) was demonstrated in evaluating capacity-limited local disposition in the liver. PMID:10229646

  8. UNIT CURIE DOSE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, P

    2008-04-14

    The development of radiological consequence lookup tables for postulated releases of radionuclides commonly used at Savannah River Site (SRS) and other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires the use of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)/MACCS2. MACCS2 users input site-specific data: such as stack or ground release, building wake effects, boundary distance from release source, and site-specific meteorological data. MACCS2 also allows the input of more general data such as plume rise and wet and/or dry deposition. The acceptance of such inputs gives the MACCS2 program a broad spectrum of uses at participating DOE facilities. The MACCS2 outputs are converted to an excel spreadsheet to facilitate fast and accurate results for various accident scenarios. Consequence lookup tables can be employed to determine the effects of radiological accident scenarios before they occur. The data is then used by DOE facilities to create regulations and controls to prepare for worst-case scenarios.

  9. Dose tracking and dose auditing in a comprehensive computed tomography dose-reduction program.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh; Little, Brent P

    2014-08-01

    Implementation of a comprehensive computed tomography (CT) radiation dose-reduction program is a complex undertaking, requiring an assessment of baseline doses, an understanding of dose-saving techniques, and an ongoing appraisal of results. We describe the role of dose tracking in planning and executing a dose-reduction program and discuss the use of the American College of Radiology CT Dose Index Registry at our institution. We review the basics of dose-related CT scan parameters, the components of the dose report, and the dose-reduction techniques, showing how an understanding of each technique is important in effective auditing of "outlier" doses identified by dose tracking. PMID:25129210

  10. [PIC Program Evaluation Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, N. J.

    These 4 questionnaires are designed to elicit teacher and parent evaluations of the Prescriptive Instruction Center (PIC) program. Included are Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (14 items), M & M Evaluation of Program Implementation (methods and materials specialists; 11 items), Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness--Case Study…

  11. Developing reimbursable clinical pharmacy programs: pharmacokinetic dosing service.

    PubMed

    Moore, T D; Schneider, P J; Nold, E G

    1979-11-01

    The development, operation and evaluation of a pharmacy-conducted pharmacokinetic dosing service is described. Pharmacists recommend individualized drug dosing regimens based on pharmacokinetic models and equations clinically tested for accuracy by the pharmacy department. Pharmacokinetic values are determined with the aid of online computer programs developed by the department. Drug assays are provided by the hospital's laboratory. All of the department's pharmacists were trained to provide the 24-hour service. The pharmacy department's $20 pharmacokinetic dosing service fee is reimbursed by Blue Cross. The pharmacokinetic dosing service is the first nonteaching, nonproduct-oriented pharmaceutical service whose cost-effectiveness has been recognized by a third-party payer. PMID:517538

  12. Evaluating Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses the importance of evaluating occupational programs on a regular basis. Offers a brief explanation of the approaches to program evaluation taken at the Dallas County Community College District (TX), South Puget Sound Community College (WA), and Triton College (IL). Offers a list of references on program evaluation. (CBC)

  13. Gifted Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeister, Kristie Speirs; Burney, Virginia Hays

    2012-01-01

    Faced with significant budget challenges, many districts cannot afford to hire an outside consultant to conduct a formal evaluation of their gifted programs. As an interim solution, districts may wish to conduct their own in-house program evaluation. "Gifted Program Evaluation: A Handbook for Administrators and Coordinators" is designed to assist…

  14. Evaluating social marketing programs.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing programs (CSM) which use commercial marketing techniques and distribution networks to sell contraceptives at subsidized prices, have become an important source of contraceptives in many developing countries. However, research is needed to determine the extent to which CSM programs are recruiting new users or simply serving as an alternate source for those who already use contraceptives. 1st begun in India in 1967, today CSM programs are selling contraceptives in more than 20 countries, mostly selling condoms because they do not require medical supervision or usually have to be registered with governments as a pharmaceutical product. Most also sell oral contraceptives. Advertising is used to promote the program, both brand and generic, about family planning and the advantages of small families. In some countries only generic promotion is permitted. A CSM program begins with research on the marketplace and needs of potential customers, including baseline studies, group discussions, and personal interviews. Monitoring is done by market research on usage, acceptability and adequacy of distribution. Focus groups and surveys are also used. Evaluation methodologies are similar to those used in program planning and monitoring, including consumer intercept surveys and tracking studies. Program impact is an area often neglected, probably because of the unusual relationship between the private and public sectors that occurs in CSM. Couple-years of protection is the common measurement of impact, estimated from sales data (13 cycles of pills or 100 condoms or doses of spermicide/year is assumed to prevent conception). This method can be used to assess the contributions of different methods and distribution systems and to compare their cost-effectiveness by calculating the cost per couple-year of protection provided. Limitations on this measurement method are inability to discriminate sporadic use from careful compliance; sales may be substitutes

  15. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  16. Evaluating Court Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudzik, John K.; Wakeley, John H.

    1981-01-01

    Careful evaluation of court training programs can use two approaches, program monitoring and training/learning. Four areas of inquiry include: reactions to the program, learning, behavior, and results (behavior measured against organizational goals). The Michigan Judicial Institute program is noted. Journal availability: 200 W. Monroe, Suite 1606,…

  17. Evaluating Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Mitchell

    In eight chapters, this document offers guidelines for school administrators on evaluating schools and school programs, based on a poll of administrators and consultants. The introduction discusses the purpose of evaluation, especially school improvement, and presents a list of evaluation standards. Chapter 1 outlines steps in evaluation planning,…

  18. Evaluating Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2014-01-01

    Well-implemented afterschool programs can promote a range of positive learning and developmental outcomes. However, not all research and evaluation studies have shown the benefits of participation, in part because programs and their evaluation were out of sync. This chapter provides practical guidance on how to foster that alignment between…

  19. Staff Development Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashur, Nina E.; And Others

    An evaluation of the staff development program at College of the Canyons (California) was conducted in 1991 to provide information applicable to program improvement. Questionnaires were distributed to all faculty, classified staff, and flexible calendar program committee and staff development advisory committee members, resulting in response rates…

  20. SU-E-J-92: Validating Dose Uncertainty Estimates Produced by AUTODIRECT, An Automated Program to Evaluate Deformable Image Registration Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Chen, J; Pouliot, J; Pukala, J; Kirby, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) is a powerful tool with the potential to deformably map dose from one computed-tomography (CT) image to another. Errors in the DIR, however, will produce errors in the transferred dose distribution. We have proposed a software tool, called AUTODIRECT (automated DIR evaluation of confidence tool), which predicts voxel-specific dose mapping errors on a patient-by-patient basis. This work validates the effectiveness of AUTODIRECT to predict dose mapping errors with virtual and physical phantom datasets. Methods: AUTODIRECT requires 4 inputs: moving and fixed CT images and two noise scans of a water phantom (for noise characterization). Then, AUTODIRECT uses algorithms to generate test deformations and applies them to the moving and fixed images (along with processing) to digitally create sets of test images, with known ground-truth deformations that are similar to the actual one. The clinical DIR algorithm is then applied to these test image sets (currently 4) . From these tests, AUTODIRECT generates spatial and dose uncertainty estimates for each image voxel based on a Student’s t distribution. This work compares these uncertainty estimates to the actual errors made by the Velocity Deformable Multi Pass algorithm on 11 virtual and 1 physical phantom datasets. Results: For 11 of the 12 tests, the predicted dose error distributions from AUTODIRECT are well matched to the actual error distributions within 1–6% for 10 virtual phantoms, and 9% for the physical phantom. For one of the cases though, the predictions underestimated the errors in the tail of the distribution. Conclusion: Overall, the AUTODIRECT algorithm performed well on the 12 phantom cases for Velocity and was shown to generate accurate estimates of dose warping uncertainty. AUTODIRECT is able to automatically generate patient-, organ- , and voxel-specific DIR uncertainty estimates. This ability would be useful for patient-specific DIR quality assurance.

  1. Evaluating Federal Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L., Ed.

    A series of papers was developed by the authors as part of their deliberations as members of the National Research Council's Committee of Program Evaluation in Education. The papers provide a broad range of present evaluative thinking. The conflict between preferences in evaluation methodology comes through in these papers. The selections include:…

  2. Evaluation of Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    Evaluation in its true concept should be a process for collecting information to make better decisions. The author discusses in detail four planning stages to evaluate programs. The first stage of the process is to ascertain the decision areas of concern. In the second stage, the evaluator must select the appropriate information-gathering…

  3. Evaluation of Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lorne

    This paper discusses the use of process-oriented research in early childhood programs. Process analysis is contrasted with outcome-oriented evaluation, the latter seen as prevalent in current research practice. Four functions of process analysis are: to describe current teaching practices, to train teachers, to monitor instructional programs, and…

  4. WRAP program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrey, S. and Associates, Newton, MA )

    1990-01-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This evaluation of the WRAP program is designed to: (1) Review the continuing relevance of the demand-side management option screening methodology for determining program configuration for services delivery, including rural populations; (2) locate and analyze recent additions to the energy conservation literature, data and information that bear on design of the WRAP program; and (3) through interviews assess participant impressions of the collaborative process used to plan, develop and implement the WRAP process.

  5. MRM Evaluation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James C.

    1998-01-01

    This is an interim report on the current output of the MRM evaluation research program. During 1998 this research program has used new and existing data to create an important tool for the development and improvement of "maintenance resource management" (MRM). Thousands of surveys completed by participants in airline MRM training and/or behavior change programs have, for the first time, been consolidated into a panel of "MRM Attitudes and Opinion Profiles." These profiles can be used to compare the attitudes about decision making and communication in any given company at any stage in its MRM program with attitudes of a large sample of like employees during a similar period in their MRM involvement. This panel of comparison profiles for attitudes and opinions is a tool to help audit the effectiveness of a maintenance human factors program. The profile panel is the first of several tools envisioned for applying the information accumulating in MRM databases produced as one of the program's long range objectives.

  6. A Program for Calculating Radiation Dose Rates.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-01-27

    Version 00 SMART calculates radiation dose rate at the center of the outer cask surface. It can be applied to determine the radiation dose rate on each cask if source conditions, characteristic function, and material conditions in the bottle regions are given. MANYCASK calculates radiation dose rate distribution in a space surrounded by many casks. If the dose rate on each cask surface can be measured, MANYCASK can be applied to predict dose spatial dosemore » rate distribution for any case of cask configuration.« less

  7. Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…

  8. Model Program Evaluations. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2002

    2002-01-01

    There are probably thousands of programs and courses intended to prevent or reduce violence in this nation's schools. Evaluating these many programs has become a problem or goal in itself. There are now many evaluation programs, with many levels of designations, such as model, promising, best practice, exemplary and noteworthy. "Model program" is…

  9. Measuring Success: Evaluating Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Yael

    2010-01-01

    This paper reveals a new evaluation model, which enables educational program and project managers to evaluate their programs with a simple and easy to understand approach. The "index of success model" is comprised of five parameters that enable to focus on and evaluate both the implementation and results of an educational program. The integration…

  10. Social Program Evaluation: Six Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Directions for Program Evaluation, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Representative models of program evaluation are described by their approach to values, and categorized by empirical style: positivism versus humanism. The models are: social process audit; experimental/quasi-experimental research design; goal-free evaluation; systems evaluation; cost-benefit analysis; and accountability program evaluation. (CP)

  11. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED{sub adj}). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED{sub adj} between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED{sub adj} that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates

  12. Two Feathers Endowment Scholarship Program: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Paul Foundation contracted with the Wilder Research Center to conduct an evaluation of their Two Feathers Scholarship Program. The Two Feathers Scholarship Program is funded through the Two Feathers Endowment, which is one part of the Foundation's SpectrumTrust. SpectrumTrust is a unique partnership between communities of color and The…

  13. Stress Management. Program Evaluation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IOX Assessment Associates, Culver City, CA.

    Intended as a resource for individuals wishing to evaluate stress management programs, this handbook, one of a series of seven, provides a collection of measuring devices that can improve the quality of such evaluations. Chapter 1 introduces the handbook's contents and outlines evaluation related issues specific to stress management programs.…

  14. French Immersion Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanaimo School District #68 (British Columbia).

    The Nanaimo (British Columbia) school district's French immersion program is evaluated. An introductory section gives background on the evaluation, outlines the evaluation process used, and offers brief comments on its outcome. The second section describes the immersion program's history and its current status in terms of enrollment, class size,…

  15. Directory of Evaluation Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Ralph M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Descriptions of 48 evaluation training programs offered by colleges and universities are organized into five major divisions: postdoctoral training, doctoral training, master's training, specialist training, and multiple programs. Essential characteristics, placement statistics, admission requirements, and curriculum descriptions are listed. (BS)

  16. Level of radiation dose in university hospital noninsured private health screening programs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation exposure resulting from the comprehensive health examinations of selected university hospital programs and to present basic data for research and management strategies on the health effects of medical radiation exposure. Methods Radiation-based diagnostic studies of the comprehensive health examination programs of ten university hospitals in Seoul, Korea, as introduced in their websites, were analyzed. The medical radiation studies of the programs were reviewed by radiologists. Only the effective doses of the basic studies were included in the analysis. The optional studies of the programs were excluded. Results Among the 190 comprehensive health examination programs, 132 programs (69.5%) included computed tomography studies, with an average of 1.4 scans. The average effective dose of radiation by program was 3.62 mSv for an intensive program for specific diseases; 11.12 mSv for an intensive program for cancer; 18.14 mSv for a premium program; and 24.08 mSv for an overnight program. A higher cost of a programs was linked to a higher effective dose (r=0.812). The effective doses of the examination programs for the same purposes differed by as much as 2.1 times by hospital. Inclusion of positron emission tomography–computed tomography was the most critical factor in determining the level of effective dose. Conclusions It was found that radiation exposure dose from comprehensive health exam programs targeted for an asymptomatic, healthy public reached between 3.6 and 24 times the annual dose limit for the general public. Relevant management policies at the national level should be provided to minimize medical radiation exposure. PMID:27032387

  17. American Airlines LOFT evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, D.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a test program to evaluate recurrent training LOFT and a three-legged scenario used for the evaluation are highlighted. The test guidelines set up and the questionnaires sent to crew member participants are examined.

  18. Hanford Dose Overview Program: standardized methods and data for Hanford environmental dose calculations. Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, W.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Napier, B.A.

    1984-05-01

    This document serves as a guide to Hanford contractors for obtaining or performing Hanford-related environmental dose calculations. Because environmental dose estimation techniques are state-of-the-art and are continually evolving, the data and standard methods presented herein will require periodic revision. This document is scheduled to be updated annually, but actual changes to the program will be made more frequently if required. For this reason, PNL's Occupational and Environmental Protection Department should be contacted before any Hanford-related environmental dose calculation is performed. This revision of the Hanford Dose Overview Program Report primarily reflects changes made to the data and models used in calculating atmospheric dispersion of airborne effluents at Hanford. The modified data and models are described in detail. In addition, discussions of dose calculation methods and the review of calculation results have been expanded to provide more explicit guidance to the Hanford contractors. 19 references, 30 tables.

  19. Negotiated Program Evaluation in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez Brezmes, Maria J.; Carretero, Antonio J.

    A concise overview is provided of the history of evaluation, focusing on educational evaluation, followed by some observations on program evaluation in Spain and possible future developments. Evaluation was a new concept in Spain at the end of the Franco era, at a time when its development was beginning to gain momentum in the United States. The…

  20. Transportation Department Program Evaluation, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    In addition to the regular transportation of students to school, the Transportation Department of the Des Moines (Iowa) Independent Community School District provides transportation for alternative and special education programs, field trips, and after-school activities. The context evaluation (program description), input evaluation (staffing and…

  1. Academic Challenge Program: Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harty, Harold; And Others

    The evaluation report by Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation (Columbus, Indiana) describes findings concerning what works and what does not work in the Academic Challenge Program, a gifted and talented education program at the elementary and middle school levels. A corollary purpose of the report is to share the evaluation plan itself,…

  2. Guidance for training program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    An increased concern about the training of nuclear reactor operators resulted from the incident at TMI-2 in 1979. Purpose of this guide is to provide a general framework for the systematic evaluation of training programs for DOE Category-A reactors. The primary goal of such evaluations is to promote continuing quality improvements in the selection, training and qualification programs.

  3. Employer Evaluation of Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.; Piland, William E.

    In an effort to meet the need for a more comprehensive program evaluation, staff at Moraine Valley Community College developed a questionnaire and interview schedule to obtain feedback from employers concerning career programs. Questionnaires were sent to all employers who hired graduates of occupational programs between 1969-71; over 80% returned…

  4. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  5. Systems effectiveness evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicely, H. P., Jr.; Givens, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Eight integrated computer programs provide needed capability to reduce man-hours needed to perform routine monitoring and assessment of effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability of large electronic equipment systems.

  6. Developmental Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesapeake Public Schools, VA. Office of Program Evaluation.

    The Developmental Program of the Chesapeake Public School Division (Virginia) is designed to provide a year between kindergarten and first grade for the academically able student who is not ready for the structure of the regular first grade because of physical, emotional, or social (developmental) immaturity. It is an all-day, full-year program…

  7. Evaluating Programs for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rog, Debra J., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Six articles provide an overview of the multiple approaches to evaluating the problems of homelessness and introduce the challenges of evaluating interventions for the homeless. The first part focuses on research about homelessness, and the second part describes major demonstration programs and their evaluations. (SLD)

  8. [Evaluation of radiation doses in mammography].

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Hwang, S K; Lee, L N; Lou, G C; Wang, C A; Hsu, W J

    1993-03-01

    A dedicated X-ray mammography was introduced to our hospital from 1987 and an imaging receptor of xeroradiography was applied. We reported previously that the average air exposure was 0.79R and that the absorption dose of skin was 1.00 rad. These data are similar to literature reports. Screen-film mammography was introduced recently. To select the best breast imaging and the least radiation exposure, diverse methods were investigated. A dosimetry (Capintec model 192) and a PS-033 parallel ionization chamber were applied to compare the absorption dose on polystyrene phantom between various exposure factors, the application of breast clamp and the size of exposure field. Retrospective estimation of the radiation dose was obtained from the exposure factors of previous mammography since July, 1990 to May, 1992. There were 1035 xeromammographic examinations and 358 examinations with medium-speed screen-film mammography. Another 61 craniocaudal and 96 mediolateral projections with high-speed screen-film mammography were recruited during the recent two months. An ionization chamber (Exradin, Shonka-Wyckoff A5) with an electrometer (Keithley 617) wer selected to obtain the dose equivalent from air exposure between selected exposure factors. The radiation dose of mammography is linearly correlated with voltage/kV and current/mAs. The application of a breast clump reduces 10% of the skin dose. The average exposure factors of xeromammography are 45.6 kV, 163.5 mAs. These results remain the same as in our previous report. Xeromammography has a greater exposure to air, estimated average glandular dose and absorbed dose than screen-film mammography. The mean exposure factor of rapid screen-film mammography gains half the value of medium screen-film mammography, ie. 26.6 kV, 87.0 mAs vs. 26.0 kV, 164.5 mAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8490794

  9. Energy Conservation Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, John G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Seven papers suggest ways in which theory informs evaluation research in the area of energy conservation. Perspectives of epistemology and methodology and political and bureaucratic issues are addressed. Examples show how theoretically informed concepts and propositions about personal choice and organizational process contribute to knowledge about…

  10. FY08 VPP Program Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Dossett, Sharon D.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) is a recognized third-party certification of worker safety and health program excellence, based on industry best practices that focus on management leadership and employee involvement, as well as other safety and health program elements. This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) VPP Program Evaluation is the FY-2008 report of the PNNL VPP Steering Committee regarding the status of VPP at PNNL. It is an update of the previous annual report dated January, 2007 and was completed in January 2008. An annual evaluation of the status of VPP is required of all sites that participate in the DOE-VPP. This report provides a detailed summary of the PNNL VPP Steering Committee’s evaluation of program performance and documents both strengths and improvement opportunities related to the various aspects of the VPP model.

  11. Evaluating an employee wellness program.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Wendel, Jeanne

    2013-12-01

    What criteria should be used to evaluate the impact of a new employee wellness program when the initial vendor contract expires? Published academic literature focuses on return-on-investment as the gold standard for wellness program evaluation, and a recent meta-analysis concludes that wellness programs can generate net savings after one or two years. In contrast, surveys indicate that fewer than half of these programs report net savings, and actuarial analysts argue that return-on-investment is an unrealistic metric for evaluating new programs. These analysts argue that evaluation of new programs should focus on contract management issues, such as the vendor's ability to: (i) recruit employees to participate and (ii) induce behavior change. We compute difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates of the impact of a wellness program implemented by a mid-sized employer. The analysis includes one year of pre-implementation data and three years of post-implementation data. We find that the program successfully recruited a broad spectrum of employees to participate, and it successfully induced short-term behavior change, as manifested by increased preventive screening. However, the effects on health care expenditures are positive (but insignificant). If it is unrealistic to expect new programs to significantly reduce healthcare costs in a few years, then focusing on return-on-investment as the gold standard metric may lead to early termination of potentially useful wellness programs. Focusing short-term analysis of new programs on short-term measures may provide a more realistic evaluation strategy. PMID:23749214

  12. Developmental Kindergarten Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, George T.; Cushing, Katherine S.

    The evaluation of the Developmental Kindergarten (DK) Program at the Harrison School District #2, Colorado Springs, Colorado, involved pre- and post-testing of student academic gains and interviewing of principals and teachers. The program aimed to provide developmentally appropriate activities for students believed to be "at risk" of failure in a…

  13. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  14. A Strategy for Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinhardt, Gaea

    This paper proposes a strategy for in-house evaluations in the context of an educational research and development facility. The obstacles in conducting an evaluation of colleagues' programs are discussed; these fall into two categories. First, there is a set of problems that relate to conflicts inherent in judging the work of a colleague without…

  15. National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program is a continuation of ongoing USDA collaboration with the U.S. dairy industry on genetic evaluation of dairy cattle since 1908. Data are provided by dairy records processing centers (yield, health, pedigree, and reproduction traits), breed registry societ...

  16. Evaluation of image and dose according to I-dose technique when performing a CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S. W.; Lee, H. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we applied the iterative reconstruction technique to improve image quality (I-dose) and evaluated its usability by analyzing the quality of the resulting image and evaluating the dose. To perform the scans, we fixed the uniform module (CTP 486's section) 4 on the table of the computed tomography (CT) device with the American association of physicists in medicine (AAPM) phantom and located it in the center where the X-rays could be generated by using a razor beam. Then, we set up the conditions of 120 kilovoltage peak (kVp), 150 milliampere second (mAs), collimation 4 × 0.625 mm, and a standard YA (Y-Sharp) filter. Next, we formed two groups: Group A in which I-dose was not applied and Group B in which I-dose was applied. According to the rod in the middle, after fixing the location of (A) at 12 o'clock, (B) at 3 o'clock, (C) at 6 o'clock, and (D) at 9 o'clock to evaluate the image quality, the CT number was measured and the noise level was analyzed. Using the AAPM phantom with doses of 50, 100, 200, 250, and 300 mAs by 80, 100, and 120 kVp, a dose analysis was performed. After scanning, the CT numbers and noise level were measured 20 times as a function of the I-dose levels (1-7). After applying I-dose at 6, 9, 12, and 3 o'clock, when a higher I-dose was applied, a lower noise level was measured. As a result, it was found that when applying I-dose to the AAPM phantom, the higher the level of I-dose, the lower the level of noise. When applying I-dose, the dose can be reduced by 60%. When I-dose is applied when taking CT scans in a clinical study, it is possible to lower the dose and lower the noise level.

  17. Prekindergarten Program Evaluation. Summer, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayllon, Teodoro; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The Atlanta Public School System conducted four major programs during the summer of 1971. These were Youth-Tutoring-Youth, Community Schools, Handicapped Children, and Prekindergarten Instruction. Evaluation of the Prekindergarten (Pre-K) project was contracted to the Laboratory for Applied Behavior Research at Georgia State University. The…

  18. Evaluating Experiences in Adolescent Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt-Seele, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that in developing Erdkinder, Montessori programs for adolescents, practitioners should use Montessori's principles of scientific pedagogy to establish methods for evaluating existing adolescent experiments. Suggests ways to apply criterion of normalization, and that "healing of deviations" comes from observing aspects like inner harmony…

  19. Program Evaluation Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadco Rehabilitation Center, Inc., Stryker, OH.

    The purpose of the project was to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of those rehabilitation facilities which were utilized by the Ohio Rehabilitation Services Commission (RSC) through the development, installation, and utilization of a program evaluation system and a management information system. The two systems were developed and…

  20. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  1. A method to evaluate dose errors introduced by dose mapping processes for mass conserving deformations

    PubMed Central

    Yan, C.; Hugo, G.; Salguero, F. J.; Saleh-Sayah, N.; Weiss, E.; Sleeman, W. C.; Siebers, J. V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present a method to evaluate the dose mapping error introduced by the dose mapping process. In addition, apply the method to evaluate the dose mapping error introduced by the 4D dose calculation process implemented in a research version of commercial treatment planning system for a patient case. Methods: The average dose accumulated in a finite volume should be unchanged when the dose delivered to one anatomic instance of that volume is mapped to a different anatomic instance—provided that the tissue deformation between the anatomic instances is mass conserving. The average dose to a finite volume on image S is defined as dS¯=es/mS, where eS is the energy deposited in the mass mS contained in the volume. Since mass and energy should be conserved, when dS¯ is mapped to an image R(dS→R¯=dR¯), the mean dose mapping error is defined as Δdm¯=|dR¯-dS¯|=|eR/mR-eS/mS|, where the eR and eS are integral doses (energy deposited), and mR and mS are the masses within the region of interest (ROI) on image R and the corresponding ROI on image S, where R and S are the two anatomic instances from the same patient. Alternatively, application of simple differential propagation yields the differential dose mapping error, Δdd¯=|∂d¯∂e*Δe+∂d¯∂m*Δm|=|(eS-eR)mR-(mS-mR)mR2*eR|=α|dR¯-dS¯| with α=mS/mR. A 4D treatment plan on a ten-phase 4D-CT lung patient is used to demonstrate the dose mapping error evaluations for a patient case, in which the accumulated dose, DR¯=∑S=09dS→R¯, and associated error values (ΔDm¯ and ΔDd¯) are calculated for a uniformly spaced set of ROIs. Results: For the single sample patient dose distribution, the average accumulated differential dose mapping error is 4.3%, the average absolute differential dose mapping error is 10.8%, and the average accumulated mean dose mapping error is 5.0%. Accumulated differential dose mapping errors within the gross tumor volume (GTV) and planning target volume (PTV) are lower, 0

  2. Evaluation of effective dose with chest digital tomosynthesis system using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohyeon; Jo, Byungdu; Lee, Youngjin; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-03-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) system has recently been introduced and studied. This system offers the potential to be a substantial improvement over conventional chest radiography for the lung nodule detection and reduces the radiation dose with limited angles. PC-based Monte Carlo program (PCXMC) simulation toolkit (STUK, Helsinki, Finland) is widely used to evaluate radiation dose in CDT system. However, this toolkit has two significant limits. Although PCXMC is not possible to describe a model for every individual patient and does not describe the accurate X-ray beam spectrum, Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) simulation describes the various size of phantom for individual patient and proper X-ray spectrum. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate effective dose in CDT system with the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit using GATE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effective dose in virtual infant chest phantom of posterior-anterior (PA) view in CDT system using GATE simulation. We obtained the effective dose at different tube angles by applying dose actor function in GATE simulation which was commonly used to obtain the medical radiation dosimetry. The results indicated that GATE simulation was useful to estimate distribution of absorbed dose. Consequently, we obtained the acceptable distribution of effective dose at each projection. These results indicated that GATE simulation can be alternative method of calculating effective dose in CDT applications.

  3. A Handbook for Gifted Program Evaluation. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    Intended for gifted program coordinators, the booklet (in draft form) contains information on the relationship of evaluation to program development and the process steps in program evaluation. Topics examined include decision questions in gifted program evaluation, sample evaluation designs, and process measurement. Approximately one-half of the…

  4. Hanford Site Annual Report Radiological Dose Calculation Upgrade Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2010-02-28

    Operations at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, result in the release of radioactive materials to offsite residents. Site authorities are required to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed offsite resident. Due to the very low levels of exposure at the residence, computer models, rather than environmental samples, are used to estimate exposure, intake, and dose. A DOS-based model has been used in the past (GENII version 1.485). GENII v1.485 has been updated to a Windows®-based software (GENII version 2.08). Use of the updated software will facilitate future dose evaluations, but must be demonstrated to provide results comparable to those of GENII v1.485. This report describes the GENII v1.485 and GENII v2.08 dose exposure, intake, and dose estimates for the maximally exposed offsite resident reported for calendar year 2008. The GENII v2.08 results reflect updates to implemented algorithms. No two environmental models produce the same results, as was again demonstrated in this report. The aggregated dose results from 2008 Hanford Site airborne and surface water exposure scenarios provide comparable dose results. Therefore, the GENII v2.08 software is recommended for future offsite resident dose evaluations.

  5. Evaluation of Programs: Reading Carol H. Weiss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msila, Vuyisile; Setlhako, Angeline

    2013-01-01

    Carol Weiss did much to enhance the role of evaluation in her writings. Her work shows evaluators what affects their roles as they evaluate programs. Furthermore, her theory of change spells out the complexities involved in program evaluation. There are various processes involved in the evaluation of programs. The paper looks at some of the…

  6. The Spiral-Interactive Program Evaluation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu

    1988-01-01

    Describes the spiral interactive program evaluation model, which is designed to evaluate vocational-technical education programs in secondary schools in Nigeria. Program evaluation is defined; utility oriented and process oriented models for evaluation are described; and internal and external evaluative factors and variables that define each…

  7. The Evaluation Handbook: Guidelines for Evaluating Dropout Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay; Stank, Peg

    This manual, developed in an effort to take the mysticism out of program evaluation, discusses six phases of the program evaluation process. The introduction discusses reasons for evaluation, process and outcome evaluation, the purpose of the handbook, the evaluation process, and the Sequoia United School District Dropout Prevention Program. Phase…

  8. An Evaluation Model for Innovative Individualized Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Margaret B.

    1977-01-01

    Program evaluation is a tri-level process: evaluation of the learners, of the program against its own objectives, and as compared against a criterion program. Evaluation of innovative programs is primarily an issue of definition, and they should be judged in terms of the needs they were designed to satisfy. (Author/CTM)

  9. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  10. Radiobiological evaluation of low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaup, Courtney James

    Low dose-rate brachytherapy is a radiation therapy treatment for men with prostate cancer. While this treatment is common, the use of isotopes with varying dosimetric characteristics means that the prescription level and normal organ tolerances vary. Additionally, factors such as prostate edema, seed loss and seed migration may alter the dose distribution within the prostate. The goal of this work is to develop a radiobiological response tool based on spatial dose information which may be used to aid in treatment planning, post-implant evaluation and determination of the effects of prostate edema and seed migration. Aim 1: Evaluation of post-implant prostate edema and its dosimetric and biological effects. Aim 2: Incorporation of biological response to simplify post-implant evaluation. Aim 3: Incorporation of biological response to simplify treatment plan comparison. Aim 4: Radiobiologically based comparison of single and dual-isotope implants. Aim 5: Determine the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of seed disappearance and migration.

  11. A Synoptic Framework for School Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    A broad-based conceptual scheme, termed the Synoptic Evaluation Framework (SEF), provides school program evaluation services. The SEF allows for the design and conduct of a range of program evaluation studies within the school context, and has been used as a basis for training doctoral school psychology students in program evaluation. (Author)

  12. 42 CFR 491.11 - Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program evaluation. 491.11 Section 491.11 Public... Certification; and FQHCs Conditions for Coverage § 491.11 Program evaluation. (a) The clinic or center carries out, or arranges for, an annual evaluation of its total program. (b) The evaluation includes review...

  13. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  14. Can Economic Development Programs Be Evaluated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Bingham, Richard D.

    The question of whether economic development programs can be evaluated seems simple, but the answer is not simple because of the nature of evaluation. Determining a program's effectiveness requires the evaluator to distinguish changes due to the program from changes due to nonprogram factors. The evaluator must focus on outcomes caused by the…

  15. A Cross Program Evaluation of Major Intensive English Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Lubell, Dawna

    An evaluation and comparison of college and university intensive English programs in the United States focuses on program structure, organization, curriculum, faculty, program strengths, and areas for development. The evaluation instrument was a five-page questionnaire returned by directors of 41 of the 51 qualifying programs. It was determined…

  16. Evaluation of lens absorbed dose with Cone Beam IGRT procedures.

    PubMed

    Palomo, R; Pujades, M C; Gimeno-Olmos, J; Carmona, V; Lliso, F; Candela-Juan, C; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the absorbed dose to the eye lenses due to the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system used to accurately position the patient during head-and-neck image guided procedures. The on-board imaging (OBI) systems (v.1.5) of Clinac iX and TrueBeam (Varian) accelerators were used to evaluate the imparted dose to the eye lenses and some additional points of the head. All CBCT scans were acquired with the Standard-Dose Head protocol from Varian. Doses were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed in an anthropomorphic phantom. TLDs were calibrated at the beam quality used to reduce their energy dependence. Average dose to the lens due to the OBI systems of the Clinac iX and the TrueBeam were 0.71  ±  0.07 mGy/CBCT and 0.70  ±  0.08 mGy/CBCT, respectively. The extra absorbed dose received by the eye lenses due to one CBCT acquisition with the studied protocol is far below the 500 mGy threshold established by ICRP for cataract formation (ICRP 2011 Statement on Tissue Reactions). However, the incremental effect of several CBCT acquisitions during the whole treatment should be taken into account. PMID:26457404

  17. ENergy and Power Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    In the late 1970s, national and international attention began to focus on energy issues. Efforts were initiated to design and test analytical tools that could be used to assist energy planners in evaluating energy systems, particularly in developing countries. In 1984, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory`s Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) to incorporate a set of analytical tools into a personal computer-based package for distribution in developing countries. The package developed by DIS staff, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), covers the range of issues that energy planners must face: economic development, energy demand projections, supply-and-demand balancing, energy system expansion, and environmental impact analysis. Following the original DOE-supported development effort, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the assistance from the US Department of State (DOS) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), provided ENPEP training, distribution, and technical support to many countries. ENPEP is now in use in over 60 countries and is an international standard for energy planning tools. More than 500 energy experts have been trained in the use of the entire ENPEP package or some of its modules during the international training courses organized by the IAEA in collaboration with Argonne`s Decision and Information Sciences (DIS) Division and the Division of Educational Programs (DEP). This report contains the ENPEP program which can be download from the internet. Described in this report is the description of ENPEP Program, news, forums, online support and contacts.

  18. Avertable dose intervention applied in emergency response dose evaluation system for nuclear emergency preparedness in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chung-hsin; Teng, Jen-hsin; Yang, Yung-muh; Chang, Bor-jing

    2010-06-01

    In Taiwan the new guides for the nuclear emergency public protective action were laid down by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC on July 15th, 2005. The main modifications of the guides are that the avertable dose is applied as the intervention levels and suggests the public protective actions. The emergency response dose evaluation system named RPDOSE, which was developed in 2005, was employed in this work to enhance the capability of the avertable dose evaluation for the villages in the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The period of the long-term weather forecasting data was extended from 4 to 8 days to satisfy the requirement of avertable dose computing. According to the intervention levels, the RPDOSE system is used to calculate the avertable dose and suggest appropriate public protective actions such as sheltering, evacuation or iodine prophylaxis as well as the proposed acting times for each village in the EPZ. This system was employed and examined in the annual nuclear emergency exercise of 2008 in the Maanshan nuclear power plant.

  19. Legal and Professional Standards in Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Paul W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four legal considerations involved in program evaluation are briefly described: defamation, contract, evaluation malpractice, and confidentiality of sources. Two hypothetical evaluation problems illustrate these legal issues. Suggestions for evaluation practice, based on these legal issues, are presented. (BW)

  20. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Omar; Mejia, Jorge; Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye; Toussaint, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints).

  1. A Program Evaluation of a Seminar Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Robert Dale, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    When students do not score well on standardized tests, their school can suffer. In an attempt to improve standardized test scores, a district placed students into a program called Seminar to help them work on weak areas of content through personalized instruction. The purpose of this project study was to assess if the Seminar program had a…

  2. Making Evaluation "Operational" in Functional Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    Steps to be taken to "operationalize" evaluation, i.e., to make evaluation work, are discussed and applied to the Unesco program of functional literacy. Evaluation is seen as an important social concern, as well as a field of study and an area of competence. Four types of evaluation applied to the Unesco program are context evaluation, input…

  3. A Four-step Approach for Evaluation of Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four step approach was developed for evaluating toxicity data on a chemical mixture for consistency with dose addition. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture guidance (EPA 2000), toxicologic interaction for a defined mixture (all components known) is departure from a c...

  4. Comparison of effective radiation doses from X-ray, CT, and PET/CT in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma using a dose monitoring program

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeun Yoon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the use of a dose monitoring program for calculating and comparing the diagnostic radiation doses in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed diagnostic and therapeutic imaging studies performed on pediatric patients with neuroblastoma from 2003 to 2014. We calculated the mean effective dose per exam for X-ray, conventional computed tomography (CT), and CT of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) from the data collected using a dose monitoring program (DoseTrack group) since October 2012. Using the data, we estimated the cumulative dose per person and the relative dose from each modality in all patients (Total group). The effective dose from PET was manually calculated for all patients. RESULTS We included 63 patients with a mean age of 3.2±3.5 years; 28 had a history of radiation therapy, with a mean irradiated dose of 31.9±23.2 Gy. The mean effective dose per exam was 0.04±0.19 mSv for X-ray, 1.09±1.11 mSv for CT, and 8.35±7.45 mSv for CT of PET/CT in 31 patients of the Dose-Track group. The mean estimated cumulative dose per patient in the Total group was 3.43±2.86 mSv from X-ray (8.5%), 7.66±6.09 mSv from CT (19.1%), 18.35±13.52 mSv from CT of PET/CT (45.7%), and 10.71±10.05 mSv from PET (26.7%). CONCLUSION CT of PET/CT contributed nearly half of the total cumulative dose in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma. The radiation dose from X-ray was not negligible because of the large number of X-ray images. A dose monitoring program can be useful for calculating radiation doses in patients with cancer. PMID:27306659

  5. Program evaluation of Protovation Camp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Laurel Lynell Martin

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine the extent to which Protovation Camp utilized the combined resources of multiple institutions to impact student learning in science, technology, engineering, and math. The partnership consisted of multiple institutions: the university, providing graduate students to facilitate inquiry-based lessons; the science center, allowing the use of their facilities and resources; and the elementary school, contributing rising third through fifth grade campers. All of these components were examined. The mixed-methods approach used post hoc quantitative data for campers, which consisted of pre-test and post-test scores on the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA), the Draw-A-Scientist Test, and content tests based on the camp activities. Additionally, TOSRA scores and current survey results for the graduate students were used along with qualitative data collected from plusdelta charts to determine the impact of participation in Protovation Camp on teachers and students. Results of the program evaluation indicated that when students were taught inquiry-based lessons that ignite wonder, both their attitudes toward science and their knowledge about science improved. An implication for teacher preparation programs was that practicing inquiry-based lessons on actual students (campers) was an important component for teachers (graduate students) as they prepare to positively impact student learning in their own classrooms. Immediate feedback from the campers in the form of pre-test and post-test scores and from peers on plusdelta charts allowed the graduate students the opportunity to make needed adjustments to improve effectiveness before using the lesson with a new set of campers or later in their own classrooms. Keywords. Teacher preparation, Inquiry-based instruction, STEM instructions, University and museum partnerships

  6. A randomized controlled trial of a multi-dose bystander intervention program using peer education theater.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah; Winter, Samantha C; Palmer, Jane E; Postmus, Judy L; Peterson, N Andrew; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, RuthAnne

    2015-08-01

    This article reports findings from a longitudinal, experimental evaluation of a peer education theater program, Students Challenging Realities and Educating Against Myths (SCREAM) Theater. This study examines the impact of SCREAM Theater on a range of bystander-related outcomes (i.e. bystander intentions, bystander efficacy, perception of friend norms and bystander behaviors) in situations involving sexual violence and whether there was a differential impact of the program by participant sex. First-year college students completed three waves of surveys (pretest, first post-test and second post-test). All participants received one dose of the intervention during summer orientation after the pretest. After the first post-test, participants were randomly assigned to receive two additional doses, or to a control condition, in which they received no additional doses. Students in both one- and three-dose groups reported a number of positive increases. Overall, an intent-to-treat analysis (n = 1390) indicated three doses of the intervention during the first semester of college resulted in better outcomes than the one-time intervention during summer orientation alone. Although both male and female students' scores increased during the study period, female students consistently scored higher than male students on each outcome. The findings suggest that peer education theater holds promise for bystander intervention education on college campuses. PMID:26135957

  7. LEA Title VII Program Evaluations. Panel Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balu, Raj

    These panel presentations focus on LEA Title VII Program Evaluations. Raj Balu, an administrator of bilingual programs in Chicago presents information regarding the bilingual education program in the Chicago public schools, as well as information on Title VII programs and what kind of evaluation is being done. Jesus Salazar, who is currently…

  8. The Three Phases of Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    The emphasis on and the importance of evaluation have been addressed by program planners for the past 60 years. Evaluation strategies have broadened from the Tylerian approach, which focuses on specific objectives, to more investigation using indicators as measures of program success. Evaluation is important during the development of a program and…

  9. Issues in Higher Education Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Melvin

    A comparative case study of seven universities initially focused on: (1) whether and how program evaluation systems differ from other systems approaches, such as management information and program budgeting; (2) desirable degree of overlap between evaluative recommendations and administrative action; and (3) limitations of program evaluation. Site…

  10. Summary of the National Toxicology Program's report of the endocrine disruptors low-dose peer review.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Ronald; Lucier, George; Wolfe, Mary; Hall, Roxanne; Stancel, George; Prins, Gail; Gallo, Michael; Reuhl, Kenneth; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Brown, Terry; Moore, John; Leakey, Julian; Haseman, Joseph; Kohn, Michael

    2002-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), the National Toxicology Program organized an independent and open peer review to evaluate the scientific evidence on low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose-response relationships for endocrine-disrupting chemicals in mammalian species. For this peer review, "low-dose effects" referred to biologic changes that occur in the range of human exposures or at doses lower than those typically used in the standard testing paradigm of the U.S. EPA for evaluating reproductive and developmental toxicity. The demonstration that an effect is adverse was not required because in many cases the long-term health consequences of altered endocrine function during development have not been fully characterized. A unique aspect of this peer review was the willing submission of individual animal data by principal investigators of primary research groups active in this field and the independent statistical reanalyses of selected parameters prior to the peer review meeting by a subpanel of statisticians. The expert peer-review panel (the panel) also considered mechanistic data that might influence the plausibility of low-dose effects and identified study design issues or other biologic factors that might account for differences in reported outcomes among studies. The panel found that low-dose effects, as defined for this review, have been demonstrated in laboratory animals exposed to certain endocrine-active agents. In some cases where low-dose effects have been reported, the findings have not been replicated. The shape of the dose-response curves for reported effects varied with the end point and dosing regimen and were low-dose linear, threshold-appearing, or nonmonotonic. The findings of the panel indicate that the current testing paradigm used for assessments of reproductive and developmental toxicity should be revisited to see whether changes are needed regarding dose selection, animal-model selection, age when

  11. Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

  12. Evaluation of MatriXX for IMRT and VMAT dose verifications in peripheral dose regions

    SciTech Connect

    Han Zhaohui; Ng, Sook Kien; Bhagwat, Mandar S.; Lyatskaya, Yulia; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2010-07-15

    conversion of the raw signals to MatriXX software data for low doses. Angular dependence is defined as the dose response of MatriXX at different gantry angles. Up to 8% difference in detector response has been observed between 0 deg. and 180 deg. Possible sources of these errors are discussed and a correction method is suggested. With corrections, MatriXX shows good agreement with the ion chamber in all cases involving different gantry and/or MLC dynamics, as well as the clinical plans. For both primary and peripheral doses, MatriXX shows dose linearity down to 2 cGy with an accuracy of within 1% of the local dose. Conclusions: The performance of MatriXX has been systematically evaluated in the peripheral dose regions. Major sources of error associated with MatriXX are identified and a correction method is suggested. This method has been successfully tested using both experimental and clinical plans. In all cases, good agreements between MatriXX and an ion chamber are achieved after corrections. The authors conclude that with proper corrections, MatriXX can be reliably used for peripheral dose measurements within the ranges studied.

  13. Apollo Photograph Evaluation (APE) programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the programming techniques used to implement the equations of the Apollo Photograph Evaluation (APE) program on the UNIVAC 1108 computer and contains detailed descriptions of the program structure, a User's Guide section to provide the necessary information for proper operation of the program, and information for the assessment of the program's adaptability to future problems.

  14. SSME Streamtube Evaluation Program (SSTEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D.; Vaughan, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) called SSME Streamtube Evaluation Program (SSTEP) has been developed based upon the assumption that the propellant flows through the main combustion chamber can be represented by a bundle of parallel streamtubes. The motivation for the development of SSTEP lies in the desire to gain a basic understanding of the engine performance effects of several common SSME hardware modifications. Specifically, this model has been used to evaluate the changes in performance due to boundary layer coolant hole enlargement, LOX post plugging, acoustic cavity elimination, baffle removal, and main combustion chamber coolant leakage. The results show a good general agreement with the available test data suggesting at least a qualitative agreement between SSTEP modeling and actual engine performance. Through the use of several adjustment factors, which represent relaxations of the SSTEP formulation assumptions, it is shown that the test data can be very closely matched and that SSTEP can be used as a performance prediction tool.

  15. SSME Streamtube Evaluation Program (SSTEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, William D.; Vaughan, David A.

    1992-07-01

    An analytical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) called SSME Streamtube Evaluation Program (SSTEP) has been developed based upon the assumption that the propellant flows through the main combustion chamber can be represented by a bundle of parallel streamtubes. The motivation for the development of SSTEP lies in the desire to gain a basic understanding of the engine performance effects of several common SSME hardware modifications. Specifically, this model has been used to evaluate the changes in performance due to boundary layer coolant hole enlargement, LOX post plugging, acoustic cavity elimination, baffle removal, and main combustion chamber coolant leakage. The results show a good general agreement with the available test data suggesting at least a qualitative agreement between SSTEP modeling and actual engine performance. Through the use of several adjustment factors, which represent relaxations of the SSTEP formulation assumptions, it is shown that the test data can be very closely matched and that SSTEP can be used as a performance prediction tool.

  16. Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Kana; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image

  17. Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 2: Evaluation summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.

    1997-04-01

    This document presents summaries of code and utility building program evaluations reviewed as the basis for the information presented in Energy-Efficient Buildings Program Evaluations, Volume 1: Findings and Recommendations, DOE/EE/OBT-11569, Vol. 1. The main purpose of this volume is to summarize information from prior evaluations of similar programs that may be useful background for designing and conducting an evaluation of the BSGP. Another purpose is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a resource for program designers, mangers, and evaluators.

  18. Right timing in formative program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jori; Freeman, Melissa; Roulston, Kathy

    2014-08-01

    Since many educational researchers and program developers have limited knowledge of formative evaluation, formative data may be underutilized during the development and implementation of an educational program. The purpose of this article is to explain how participatory, responsive, educative, and qualitative approaches to formative evaluation can facilitate a partnership between evaluators and educational researchers and program managers to generate data useful to inform program implementation and improvement. This partnership is critical, we argue, because it enables an awareness of when to take appropriate action to ensure successful educational programs or "kairos". To illustrate, we use examples from our own evaluation work to highlight how formative evaluation may facilitate opportune moments to (1) define the substance and purpose of a program, (2) develop understanding and awareness of the cultural interpretations of program participants, and (3) show the relevance of stakeholder experiences to program goals. PMID:24836997

  19. Special Education. Program Quality Evaluation (PQE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    The manual, intended for local education agency administrators, outlines Program Quality Evaluation (PQE), North Carolina's approach to measuring special education programs. Chapter 2 establishes the rationale of evaluation and advocates the goal-based approach. Chapter 3 lists three program goal areas (determining learner gains/outcomes, locating…

  20. Maryland Community Colleges 1980 Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.

    This report contains qualitative evaluations of 48 programs throughout the Maryland community college system, as well as a statewide evaluation of Teacher Education transfer programs. A summary of the Teacher Education programs is presented first, in which the purpose and role of teacher education in the community college, enrollment trends,…

  1. FLES Program Evaluation: Rationale and Procedural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heining-Boynton, Audrey L.

    Evaluation of foreign languages in the elementary school (FLES) programs is needed to provide feedback (descriptive data about a school's offerings) and accountability (program accomplishments). Thorough program evaluation verifies both a district's thoughtful, written philosophy of foreign language education and local goals. Some FLES program…

  2. Evaluation of GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification

    SciTech Connect

    Todorovic, M.; Fischer, M.; Cremers, F.; Thom, E.; Schmidt, R.

    2006-05-15

    The capability of the new GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification is investigated in this paper. First the general characteristics of this film (dose response, postirradiation coloration, influence of calibration field size) were derived using a flat-bed scanner. In the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy, the sensitivity of the EBT prototype B film is ten times higher than the response of the GafChromic HS, which so far was the GafChromic film with the highest sensitivity. Compared with the Kodak EDR2 film, the response of the EBT is higher by a factor of 3 in the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy. The GafChromic EBT almost does not show a temporal growth of the optical density and there is no influence of the chosen calibration field size on the dose response curve obtained from this data. A MatLab program was written to evaluate the two-dimensional dose distributions from treatment planning systems and GafChromic EBT film measurements. Verification of external beam therapy (SRT, IMRT) using the above-mentioned approach resulted in very small differences between the planned and the applied dose. The GafChromic EBT prototype B together with the flat-bed scanner and MatLab is a successful approach for making the advantages of the GafChromic films applicable for verification of external beam therapy.

  3. Evaluating Existing Programs Using the Accountability Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanberry, Anne M.

    J. Vella, P. Berardinelli, and J. Burrow (1998) described the "accountability process" of program evaluation. This process was implemented to evaluate a Parents as Teachers program after a year of operation. Evaluation included determining goals, identifying objectives, and determining the focus. Critical elements were identified for educational…

  4. Strategies for Evaluating Undergraduate Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating higher education degree programs is an arduous task. This paper suggests innovative strategies for addressing four types of challenges that commonly occur during program evaluation: identifying theoretical models for evaluation, balancing potentially conflicting standards, accommodating faculty differences, and aligning courses.…

  5. Peter H. Rossi: Formative for Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsey, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the significant contributions of Peter H. Rossi to the field of program evaluation. It was the publication of "Evaluation: A Systematic Approach" by Peter Rossi, Howard Freeman, and Sonia Rosenbaum in 1979 that most emphatically marked the point at which program evaluation had clearly consolidated as a distinct field of…

  6. 5 CFR 9901.107 - Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program evaluation. 9901.107 Section 9901.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) General Provisions § 9901.107 Program evaluation. The Secretary will evaluate...

  7. Program Evaluation Skills for Busy Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.; Evans, Warren D.

    This manual was designed for the administrator who has the responsibility for conducting all or part of an evaluation or is responsible for using evaluation results in program planning. The manual provides step-by-step guidelines to help: identify the purposes and audiences of an evaluation; prepare a basic description of the program or activity;…

  8. Program Evaluation: Two Management-Oriented Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Kenneth Ray

    2010-01-01

    Two Management-Oriented Samples details two examples of the management-oriented approach to program evaluation. Kenneth Alford, a doctorate candidate at the University of the Cumberlands, details two separate program evaluations conducted in his school district and seeks to compare and contrast the two evaluations based upon the characteristics of…

  9. Evaluating Federal Social Programs: An Uncertain Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Wurzburg, Gregory K.

    This study of the federal government's evaluation of social programs indicates that it is virtually impossible to establish a bias-free, valid, and reliable system of inquiry to determine the effects of social programs. Divided into five chapters, the document examines the aspirations and limitations of evaluations, methodology, evaluation in the…

  10. An Ethnographic Evaluation of a FLES Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, Judith L.

    Evaluation of a French and Spanish second language program in grades four through seven of a rural school system has begun with a formative evaluation for the first three years and will conclude with a one-year summative evaluation. The research questions focus on four concerns: (1) school personnel and parent perceptions of the program during its…

  11. Design of the EXercise Intervention after Stem cell Transplantation (EXIST) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individualized high intensity physical exercise program on fitness and fatigue in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-) Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of high-dose chemotherapy combined with autologous stem cell transplantation has improved the outcome of hematologic malignancies. Nevertheless, this treatment can cause persistent fatigue and a reduced global quality of life, role and physical function. Physical exercise interventions may be beneficial for physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life. However, the trials conducted so far to test the effects of physical exercise interventions in this group of patients were of poor to moderate methodological quality and economic evaluations are lacking. Hence there is need for a rigorous, appropriately controlled assessment of the effectiveness of exercise programs in these patients. The aims of the present study are (1) to determine the effectiveness of an individualized high intensity strength and interval training program with respect to physiological and psychological health status in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-)Hodgkin's lymphoma who have recently undergone high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation; and (2) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program. Methods A multicenter, prospective, single blind randomized controlled trial will be performed. We aim to recruit 120 patients within an inclusion period of 2 years at 7 hospitals in the Netherlands. The patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) intervention plus usual care; or (2) usual care. The intervention consists of an 18-week individualized supervised high-intensity exercise program and counselling. The primary outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and fatigue) and secondary outcomes are assessed at baseline, at completion of the intervention and at 12 months follow-up. Discussion The strengths of this study include the solid trial design with clearly defined research groups and standardized outcome measures, the inclusion of an economic evaluation and the inclusion of both resistance and endurance

  12. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System(ERDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Lambert, Winifred C.; Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    The emergency response dose assessment system (ERDAS) is a protype software and hardware system configured to produce routine mesoscale meteorological forecasts and enhanced dispersion estimates on an operational basis for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) region. ERDAS provides emergency response guidance to operations at KSC/CCAS in the case of an accidental hazardous material release or an aborted vehicle launch. This report describes the evaluation of ERDAS including: evaluation of sea breeze predictions, comparison of launch plume location and concentration predictions, case study of a toxic release, evaluation of model sensitivity to varying input parameters, evaluation of the user interface, assessment of ERDA's operational capabilities, and a comparison of ERDAS models to the ocean breeze dry gultch diffusion model.

  13. Library Programs. Evaluating Federally Funded Public Library Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    Following an introduction by Betty J. Turock, nine reports examine key issues in library evaluation: (1) "Output Measures and the Evaluation Process" (Nancy A. Van House) describes measurement as a concept to be understood in the larger context of planning and evaluation; (2) "Adapting Output Measures to Program Evaluation" (Douglas L. Zweizig)…

  14. Evaluation of a Cardiovascular Education Pilot Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Wei Li

    1980-01-01

    A Virginia elementary-secondary school blood pressure education program is described and evaluated. Evidence presented indicates that participants' cardiovascular knowledge levels increased significantly as a result of program participation. (JMF)

  15. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  16. Evaluating Doctoral Programs in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Skalski, Paul D.; Atkin, David

    The present study was designed to assess perceptions of (1) the quality of American graduate programs in communication; (2) the qualities that communication scholars deem important in a communication Ph.D. program; and (3) the adequacy of the number of Ph.D. programs stressing specific specialties in communication. An online survey of 221 United…

  17. Evaluation of Summer Bridge Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Lisa D.; Paz, Chiara C.

    2009-01-01

    Many colleges and universities in the United States offer summer programs for their incoming students. While programs are structured and administered in a variety of ways and target various student populations, the most common type of summer bridge program aims to serve historically underrepresented students and students of low socioeconomic…

  18. Evaluation of Florida's STEP Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    Project STEP (Short Term Elective Program) is an outdoor-educational program that, through teaching wilderness survival skills and affording a necessity for their use, provides juvenile delinquents with a feeling of self-reliance and self-worth. The program is designed for committed youths, primarily males, at least 13 to 14 years of age, but…

  19. Dose-Response Effects of the Text4baby Mobile Health Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Peter E; Szekely, Daniel R; Bihm, Jasmine W; Murray, Elizabeth A; Snider, Jeremy; Abroms, Lorien C

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) is growing rapidly, but more studies are needed on how to optimize programs, including optimal timing of messaging, dose of exposure, and value of interactive features. This study evaluates final outcomes of text4baby (a text message service for pregnant and postpartum women) from a randomized trial performed in a population of pregnant female soldiers and family members. Objective The study aims were to evaluate (1) treatment effects and (2) dose-response effects of text4baby on behavioral outcomes compared to control (no text4baby) condition. Methods The study was a randomized trial of text4baby at Madigan Army Medical Center. Female military health beneficiaries who met inclusion criteria were eligible for the study. Participants provided consent, completed a baseline questionnaire, and then were randomized to enroll in text4baby or not. They were followed up at 3 time points thereafter through delivery of their baby. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate outcomes. We examined treatment effects and the effects of higher doses of text4baby messages on outcomes. Results We report descriptive statistics including dosage of text messages delivered. The main finding was a significant effect of high exposure to text4baby on self-reported alcohol consumption postpartum (OR 0.212, 95% CI 0.046-0.973, P=.046), as measured by the question “Since you found out about your pregnancy, have you consumed alcoholic beverages?” The text4baby participants also reported lower quantities of alcohol consumed postpartum. Conclusions Studies of text4baby have helped to build the mHealth evidence base. The effects of text4baby offer lessons for future scalable mHealth programs and suggest the need to study dose-response effects of these interventions. PMID:25630361

  20. SU-E-T-161: Evaluation of Dose Calculation Based On Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, T; Nakazawa, T; Saitou, Y; Nakata, A; Yano, M; Tateoka, K; Fujimoto, K; Sakata, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to convert pixel values in cone-beam CT (CBCT) using histograms of pixel values in the simulation CT (sim-CT) and the CBCT images and to evaluate the accuracy of dose calculation based on the CBCT. Methods: The sim-CT and CBCT images immediately before the treatment of 10 prostate cancer patients were acquired. Because of insufficient calibration of the pixel values in the CBCT, it is difficult to be directly used for dose calculation. The pixel values in the CBCT images were converted using an in-house program. A 7 fields treatment plans (original plan) created on the sim-CT images were applied to the CBCT images and the dose distributions were re-calculated with same monitor units (MUs). These prescription doses were compared with those of original plans. Results: In the results of the pixel values conversion in the CBCT images,the mean differences of pixel values for the prostate,subcutaneous adipose, muscle and right-femur were −10.78±34.60, 11.78±41.06, 29.49±36.99 and 0.14±31.15 respectively. In the results of the calculated doses, the mean differences of prescription doses for 7 fields were 4.13±0.95%, 0.34±0.86%, −0.05±0.55%, 1.35±0.98%, 1.77±0.56%, 0.89±0.69% and 1.69±0.71% respectively and as a whole, the difference of prescription dose was 1.54±0.4%. Conclusion: The dose calculation on the CBCT images achieve an accuracy of <2% by using this pixel values conversion program. This may enable implementation of efficient adaptive radiotherapy.

  1. Construction of Taiwanese Adult Reference Phantoms for Internal Dose Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Jun; Hung, Shih-Yen; Liu, Yan-Lin; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    In the internal dose evaluation, the specific absorbed fraction (SAF) and S-value are calculated from the reference phantom based on Caucasian data. The differences in height and weight between Caucasian and Asian may lead to inaccurate dose estimation. In this study, we developed the Taiwanese reference phantoms. 40 volunteers were recruited. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained, and the contours of 15 organs were drawn. The Taiwanese reference man (TRM) and Taiwanese reference woman (TRW) were constructed. For the SAF calculation, the differences in the self-absorption SAF (self-SAF) between the TRM, TRW, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) adult phantom were less than 10% when the difference in organ mass was less than 20%. The average SAF from liver to pancreas of TRM was 38% larger than that of the ORNL adult phantom, and the result of TRW was 2.02 times higher than that of the ORNL adult phantom. For the S-value calculation, the ratios of TRW and ORNL adult phantom ranged from 0.91 to 1.57, and the ratios of TRM and ORNL adult phantom ranged from 1.04 to 2.29. The SAF and S-value results were dominantly affected by the height, weight, organ mass, and geometric relationship between organs. By using the TRM and TRW, the accuracy of internal dose evaluation can be increased for radiation protection and nuclear medicine. PMID:27618708

  2. Special Education Instructional Programs. Program Evaluation 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA. Dept. of Student Services.

    This 1990-91 program evaluation reports on the special education instructional programs of the Des Moines, Iowa, public schools which serve approximately 3,600 students daily and over 5,000 students per year with special education services as prescribed in their Individualized Education Plans. The three primary sources of program funding are: (1)…

  3. 5 CFR 9701.107 - Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the design and results of program evaluations. (b) Involvement of employee representatives under this section will occur at the following stages: (1) Identification of the scope, objectives, and...

  4. Problems in evaluating radiation dose via terrestrial and aquatic pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, B E; Soldat, J K; Schreckhise, R G; Watson, E C; McKenzie, D H

    1981-01-01

    This review is concerned with exposure risk and the environmental pathways models used for predictive assessment of radiation dose. Exposure factors, the adequacy of available data, and the model subcomponents are critically reviewed from the standpoint of absolute error propagation. Although the models are inherently capable of better absolute accuracy, a calculated dose is usually overestimated by from two to six orders of magnitude, in practice. The principal reason for so large an error lies in using "generic" concentration ratios in situations where site specific data are needed. Major opinion of the model makers suggests a number midway between these extremes, with only a small likelihood of ever underestimating the radiation dose. Detailed evaluations are made of source considerations influencing dose (i.e., physical and chemical status of released material); dispersal mechanisms (atmospheric, hydrologic and biotic vector transport); mobilization and uptake mechanisms (i.e., chemical and other factors affecting the biological availability of radioelements); and critical pathways. Examples are shown of confounding in food-chain pathways, due to uncritical application of concentration ratios. Current thoughts of replacing the critical pathways approach to calculating dose with comprehensive model calculations are also shown to be ill-advised, given present limitations in the comprehensive data base. The pathways models may also require improved parametrization, as they are not at present structured adequately to lend themselves to validation. The extremely wide errors associated with predicting exposure stand in striking contrast to the error range associated with the extrapolation of animal effects data to the human being. PMID:7037381

  5. Comp Plan: A computer program to generate dose and radiobiological metrics from dose-volume histogram files

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Lois Charlotte; Miller, Julie-Anne; Kumar, Shivani; Whelan, Brendan M.; Vinod, Shalini K.

    2012-10-01

    Treatment planning studies often require the calculation of a large number of dose and radiobiological metrics. To streamline these calculations, a computer program called Comp Plan was developed using MATLAB. Comp Plan calculates common metrics, including equivalent uniform dose, tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability from dose-volume histogram data. The dose and radiobiological metrics can be calculated for the original data or for an adjusted fraction size using the linear quadratic model. A homogeneous boost dose can be added to a given structure if desired. The final output is written to an Excel file in a format convenient for further statistical analysis. Comp Plan was verified by independent calculations. A lung treatment planning study comparing 45 plans for 7 structures using up to 6 metrics for each structure was successfully analyzed within approximately 5 minutes with Comp Plan. The code is freely available from the authors on request.

  6. Transplantation Dose Alters the Differentiation Program of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Casey; Chu, Elizabeth; Chin, Mike; Lu, Rong

    2016-05-24

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the most prevalent stem cell therapy, but it remains a risky procedure. To improve this treatment, it is important to understand how transplanted stem cells rebuild the blood and immune systems and how this process is impacted by transplantation variables such as the HSC dose. Here, we find that, in the long term following transplantation, 70%-80% of donor-HSC-derived clones do not produce all measured blood cell types. High HSC doses lead to more clones that exhibit balanced lymphocyte production, whereas low doses produce more T-cell-specialized clones. High HSC doses also produce significantly higher proportions of early-differentiating clones compared to low doses. These complex differentiation behaviors uncover the clonal-level regeneration dynamics of hematopoietic regeneration and suggest that transplantation dose can be exploited to improve stem cell therapy. PMID:27184851

  7. Intensive Time Out Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Mary; Parks, Stephen

    The New Brunswick (Canada) Youth Treatment Program is a community-based intervention strategy for conduct disordered youth in New Brunswick. The Program's Intensive Time Out (ITO) is a strategy to eliminate unacceptable behaviors. It is recommended within the school setting for children from 6 to 11 years of age, and is designed to reverse the…

  8. An Interactive Point Kernel Program For Photon Dose Rate Prediction of Cylindrical Source/Shield Arrangements.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-10-26

    Version 00 The program ZYLIND is an interactive point kernel program for photon dose rate prediction of a homogeneous cylindrical source shielded by cylindrical (radial) or plane (axial) layered shields.

  9. Industrial R&D Program Evaluation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, David P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The history of research and development (R&D) and its evaluation within the 3M Company are traced as an example of the progression of the use of evaluation and evaluation techniques. Scoring methods, cost-benefit analysis, and risk analysis have been among the most frequently used program evaluation methods. (SLD)

  10. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology

  11. A study evaluating the dependence of the patient dose on the CT dose change in a SPECT/CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jae-Woo

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed ways of reducing the patient dose by examining the dependence of the patient dose on the CT (computed tomography) dose in a SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT scan. To measure the patient dose, we used Precedence 16 SPECT/CT along with a phantom for the CT dose measurement (CT dose phantom kit for adult's head and body, Model 76-414-4150), a 100-mm ionization chamber (CT Ion Chamber) and an X-ray detector (Victoreen Model 4000M+). In addition, the patient dose was evaluated under conditions similar to those for an actual examination using an ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) dosimetry calculator in the Monte Carlo simulation method. The experimental method involved the use of a CT dose phantom to measure the patient dose under different CT conditions (kVp and mAs) to determine the CTDI (CT dose index) under each condition. An ImPACT dosimetry calculator was also used to measure CTDIw (CT dose index water ), CTDIv (CT dose index volume ), DLP (dose-length product), and effective dose. According to the patient dose measurements using the CT dose phantom, the CTDI showed an approximately 54 fold difference between when the maximum (140 kVp and 250 mAs) and the minimum dose (90 kVp and 25 mAs) was used. The CTDI showed a 4.2 fold difference between the conditions (120 kVp and 200 mAs) used mainly in a common CT scan and the conditions (120 kVp and 50 mAs) used mainly in a SPECT/CT scan. According to the measurement results using the dosimetry calculator, the effective dose showed an approximately 35 fold difference between the conditions for the maximum and the minimum doses, as in the case with the CT dose phantom. The effective dose showed a 4.1 fold difference between the conditions used mainly in a common CT scan and those used mainly in a SPECT/CT scan. This study examined the patient dose by reducing the CT dose in a SPECT/CT scan. As various examinations can be conducted due to the development of

  12. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs. Status 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE`s nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers`` and PNL-6577 ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.`` The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility.

  13. Evaluation of a College Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, June Justice

    The reading program developed at Niagara University in New York has undergone a number of changes in response to long term evaluation. In the early 1970s, the only program evaluation tools used were pretests and posttests. These were misleading, as they measured only short term gains, not retention after completion of the course. Based on ideas…

  14. The Whys and Hows of Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tener, Robert

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation is designed to judge the worth of a program in regards to whether or not it should be continued, modified, or eliminated. Program evaluations can be performed either by those inside or outside of the organization, and can occur pre-implementation, during implementation, or at the end of a time period. There are many models or methods…

  15. [Developing Effective Program Evaluations: Fact Pack].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmyer, David B.; Huntington, Gail S.

    This information package offers guidelines on conducting program evaluations to improve services. Though the examples relate specifically to respite care services for families of individuals with disabilities, the information is more generally applicable. In the first of four factsheets, titled "Local Program Evaluation," the form of evaluation…

  16. Establishing and Evaluating Library Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Shelley; Soolman, Roberta

    1986-01-01

    Offers overview of reasons why libraries may choose to begin volunteer literacy program in their communities and the design and evaluation methodology that will enable them to make successful evaluation of programs. Highlights include soul-searching questions, planning guidelines and suggestions, and delineation of responsibilities (library staff,…

  17. Evaluation Project of a Postvention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert; And Others

    A student suicide or parasuicide increases the risk that potentially suicidal teenagers see suicide as an enviable option. The "copycat effect" can be reduced by a postvention program. This proposed evaluative research project will provide an implementation and impact evaluation of a school's postvention program following a suicide or parasuicide.…

  18. Evaluating School Violence Programs. Urban Diversity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaxman, Erwin, Ed.

    The essays in this collection review information, resources, and guidelines on the basic principles of internal evaluations of school violence programs. This information can help staff with program definition, planning, implementation, continuous improvement, and measurement of outcomes. "Introduction" (Erwin Flaxman) examines types of evaluation,…

  19. Evaluation Report: School of Nursing Outreach Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen R.; And Others

    The University of Virginia's Outreach Nursing Program is described and evaluated. Information is provided on the results of a needs assessment, a feasibility study, and the early history of the off-campus program. Attention is directed to the geography of the outreach program area, the group of nurses from which the first class was selected,…

  20. Evaluation of the FEL+ Program, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    An external evaluation of the Family English Literacy, Plus (FEL+) program of the Sweetwater Union High School District (California) is presented. Program objectives included: (1) development and implementation of curriculum and activities integrating technology-assisted instruction into the existing literacy program; (2) increasing parent/child…

  1. Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Kimberly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated sexual assault prevention program in which 181 female college students participated and 165 female students served as controls. Program was effective in decreasing incidence of sexual assault among women without sexual assault history but was not effective among women with sexual assault history. Program led to decrease in dating…

  2. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard; And Others

    This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

  3. Miramar College Program Evaluation: Aviation Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriyama, Bruce; Brumley, Leslie

    Qualitative and quantitative data are presented in this evaluation of the curricular, personnel, and financial status of Miramar College's program in aviation maintenance. The report first provides the results of an interview with the program chairperson, which sought information on program objectives and goals and their determination, the extent…

  4. Evaluating the BK 21 Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2008-01-01

    The Brain Korea 21 program (BK21), an effort to improve Korean universities and research, has attracted a great deal of attention in Korea, producing the need to understand how well the program is meeting its goals. RAND developed a logic model for identifying program goals and dynamics, suggested quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods,…

  5. Continuing evaluation of bipolar linear devices for total dose bias dependency and ELDRS effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Gorelick, Jerry L.; Yui, Candice; Rax, Bernard G.; Wiedeman, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of continuing efforts to evaluate total dose bias dependency and ELDRS effects in bipolar linear microcircuits. Several devices were evaluated, each exhibiting moderate to significant bias and/or dose rate dependency.

  6. Evaluation of Vancomycin Dosing in Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hewlett, Jennifer L.; Moonnumakal, Siby P.; Baker, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients' sputa is associated with a decline in pulmonary function and increased mortality. Vancomycin is the preferred treatment for MRSA pneumonia in children. No published studies have evaluated the vancomycin dose needed to achieve goal vancomycin trough concentrations (VTCs; 15–20 mg/L) in pediatric patients with CF. The primary objective is to determine whether a vancomycin dosage of 60 mg/kg/day achieves a goal VTC in pediatric CF patients. Secondary objectives include determining the average dosage required to reach a goal VTC and the impact of achieving a goal VTC on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and pulmonary function. METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric patients with CF who received vancomycin was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 90 vancomycin treatment courses were analyzed. Standard vancomycin dosing (60 mg/kg/day) achieved goal VTC in 11 courses (12.2%). The mean dosage required to achieve a goal VTC for all courses was 70.6 ± 16.7 mg/kg/day. Patients who achieved goal VTCs were more often older, weighed more, and had higher serum creatinine concentrations at therapy initiation. On average, a dosage of 70.6 mg/kg/day was required to achieve a goal VTC. Despite dosages up to 120 mg/kg/day, no significant changes in renal function occurred. Achieving a goal VTC had no significant impact on eGFR or pulmonary function during therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin dosing of 60 mg/kg/day does not reliably achieve a VTC of 15 to 20 mg/L in pediatric CF patients. Younger CF patients may require higher vancomycin doses. PMID:27199623

  7. Use of Responsive Evaluation in Statewide Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Marjorie

    1976-01-01

    A summer school program stressing basic skills for migrant children in a rural Illinois community was assessed according to Stake's responsive evaluation model. Informal communication, program activities, audience needs, and participant values were emphasized in this case study. This evaluation method provided useful information for the state's…

  8. Use of Responsive Evaluation in Statewide Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Marjorie

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the utilization of Stake's theory of responsive evaluation by a unit in state government charged with the evaluation of the Illinois Migrant Program. Through interviews with state and local Title I staff, we were able to discover program purposes and concerns and to later conceptualize these concerns into…

  9. Process evaluation of European 'Healthy Stadia' program.

    PubMed

    Roncarolo, F; Lanati, N; Philpott, M; Drygas, W; Ruszkowska, J; Ireland, R; Tenconi, M T

    2015-12-01

    Healthy Stadia (HS) is a European public health pilot-program started in 2007 to support sports stadia in promoting the health of people who work and visit sports stadia, as well as inhabitants of the surrounding communities. The aim of this study is to describe the process evaluation of the program, from its beginning in July 2007 to December 2009, in order to assess the feasibility and sustainability of an HS network across Europe. The program involved nine associate partners involved in the coordination of activities at a local level, in the recruitment of stadia, in the development of specific program tasks and in the dissemination of the program at a national level. The activities of associate partners were evaluated through structured questionnaires administered every 6 months. The questionnaire response rate from associate partners was 77.8% for the first and third evaluations and 88.9% for the second and fourth evaluations. According to the evaluation's results, several good practices such as alcohol prevention policies and those supporting people with disabilities were implemented in stadia over the course of the program. Conversely, practices supporting mental health and green transport were generally not achieved. The implemented activities mainly involved staff and visitors. Lack of human and economic resources, especially toward the end of the program, was considered the principal challenge for program development. In conclusion, the process evaluation presented the feasibility of the HS program and the development of health promoting practices in sport stadia over time. PMID:24770581

  10. Maximizing the Impact of Program Evaluation: A Discrepancy-Based Process for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This paper describes a formative/summative process for educational program evaluation, which is appropriate for higher education programs and is based on M. Provus' Discrepancy Evaluation Model and the principles of instructional design. The Discrepancy Based Methodology for Educational Program Evaluation facilitates systematic and detailed…

  11. Scoping calculation for components of the cow-milk dose pathway for evaluating the dose contribution from iodine-131. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows.

  12. Hanford Dose Overview Program. Comparison of AIRDOS-EPA and Hanford site dose codes

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-11-01

    Radiation dose commitments for persons in the Hanford environs calculated using AIRDOS-EPA were compared with those calculated using a suite of Hanford codes: FOOD, PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. Dose commitments to the population and to the maximally exposed individual (MI) based on annual releases of eight radionuclides from the N-Reactor, were calculated by these codes. Dose commitments from each pathway to the total body, lung, thyroid, and lower large intestine (LLI) are given for the population and MI, respectively. 11 refs., 25 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, Rajib Lochan; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri; Rao, Ramakrishna; Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2011-01-01

    High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

  14. Program Development through Formative Evaluation: The SWRL Instructional Concepts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger O.

    The SWRL Instructional Concepts Program has been developed to help kindergarten children quickly learn conceptual skills which are fundamental to academic achievement. Formative evaluation procedures employed in the 1968-69 tryout were primarily responsible for the changes incorporated into the present program. These procedures included teacher…

  15. QUEST: A Model Transfer Program and Evaluation of QUEST Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holohan, Ronald J.

    These reports describe and evaluate Illinois Central College's Quality Undergraduate Education for Student Transfers (QUEST) program. The core of the program is to develop in students 15 competencies identified as essential to an educated person: communication skills, mathematics skills, appreciation of physical well-being, understanding of the…

  16. Strategies for Evaluating Complex Environmental Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, V.

    2011-12-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of environmental education programs has been difficult to establish for many reasons. Chief among them are the lack of clear program objectives and an inability to conceptualize how environmental education programs work. Both can lead to evaluations that make claims that are difficult to substantiate, such as significant changes in student achievement levels or behavioral changes based on acquisition of knowledge. Many of these challenges can be addressed by establishing the program theory and developing a logic model. However, claims of impact on larger societal outcomes are difficult to attribute solely to program activities. Contribution analysis may offer a promising method for addressing this challenge. Rather than attempt to definitively and causally link a program's activities to desired results, contribution analysis seeks to provide plausible evidence that can reduce uncertainty regarding the 'difference' a program is making to observed outcomes. It sets out to verify the theory of change behind a program and, at the same time, takes into consideration other influencing factors. Contribution analysis is useful in situations where the program is not experimental-there is little or no scope for varying how the program is implemented-and the program has been funded on the basis of a theory of change. In this paper, the author reviews the feasibility of using contribution analysis as a way of evaluating the impact of the GLOBE program, an environmental science and education program. Initially conceptualized by Al Gore in 1995, the program's implementation model is based on worldwide environmental monitoring by students and scientists around the globe. This paper will make a significant and timely contribution to the field of evaluation, and specifically environmental education evaluation by examining the usefulness of this analysis for developing evidence to assess the impact of environmental education programs.

  17. Online Evaluation Programs: Benefits and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Richard E.; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Petereit, Daniel G.; Eschiti, Valerie; Krebs, Linda U.; Pingatore, Noel L.

    2012-01-01

    Patient navigation programs are increasing throughout the USA, yet some evaluation measures are too vague to determine what and how navigation functions. Through collaborative efforts an online evaluation program was developed. The goal of this evaluation program is to make data entry accurate, simple, and efficient. This comprehensive program includes major components on staff, mentoring, committees, partnerships, grants/studies, products, dissemination, patient navigation, and reports. Pull down menus, radio buttons, and check boxes are incorporated whenever possible. Although the program has limitations, the benefits of having access to current, up-to-date program data 24/7 are worth overcoming the challenges. Of major benefit is the ability of the staff to tailor summary reports to provide anonymous feedback in a timely manner to community partners and participants. The tailored data are useful for the partners to generate summaries for inclusion in new grant applications. PMID:22447646

  18. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  19. Effective Evaluation for CETA Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Paul W.; McGough, Robert L.

    This monograph is one of 12 that address various topics in the area of CETA/education linkages. They were designed to provide those individuals interested in the development and implementation of CETA/education linkages with information that will serve to enhance the quality of existing programs and facilitate the efficient and effective…

  20. Theory Underlying a National Teacher Evaluation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Santelices, Veronica; Araya, Carolina; Manzi, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a study conducted to explicate the multiple theories underlying Chile's national teacher evaluation program. These theories will serve as the basis for evaluating the intended consequences of this evaluation system, while not losing sight of emerging unintended consequences. We first analyzed legal and policy documents and then…

  1. Computer Aided Instruction in Teaching Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, David A.; Binette, Holly A. Lizotte

    This paper reports the results of two semesters of experience using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach topics in program evaluation to undergraduate and graduate psychology students at California State University, Long Beach. (The topics addressed are models of evaluation, evaluability assessment, needs assessment, experimental and…

  2. Establishing Essential Competencies for Program Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevahn, Laurie; King, Jean A.; Ghere, Gail; Minnema, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive taxonomy of essential competencies for program evaluators. First, the authors provide a rationale for developing evaluator competencies, along with a brief history of the initial development and validation of the taxonomy of essential evaluator competencies in King, Stevahn, Ghere, and Minnema (2001). Second,…

  3. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-04-15

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  4. Dose evaluation of an NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter using gamma index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Jen; Lin, Jing-Quan; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Chin-Hsing

    2014-11-01

    An N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeter has great potential in clinical applications. However, its three-dimensional dose distribution must be assessed. In this work, a quantitative evaluation of dose distributions was performed to evaluate the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter using gamma analysis. A cylindrical acrylic phantom filled with NIPAM gel measuring 10 cm (diameter) by 10 cm (height) by 3 mm (thickness) was irradiated by a 4×4 cm2 square light field. The irradiated gel phantom was scanned using an optical computed tomography (optical CT) scanner (OCTOPUS™, MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT, USA) at 1 mm resolution. The projection data were transferred to an image reconstruction program, which was written using MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). The program reconstructed the image of the optical density distribution using the algorithm of a filter back-projection. Three batches of replicated gel phantoms were independently measured. The average uncertainty of the measurements was less than 1%. The gel was found to have a high degree of spatial uniformity throughout the dosimeter and good temporal stability. A comparison of the line profiles of the treatment planning system and of the data measured by optical CT showed that the dose was overestimated in the penumbra region because of two factors. The first is light scattering due to changes in the refractive index at the edge of the irradiated field. The second is the edge enhancement caused by free radical diffusion. However, the effect of edge enhancement on the NIPAM gel dosimeter is not as significant as that on the BANG gel dosimeter. Moreover, the dose uncertainty is affected by the inaccuracy of the gel container positioning process. To reduce the uncertainty of 3D dose distribution, improvements in the gel container holder must be developed.

  5. PNNL FY2005 DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Patrick A.; Madson, Vernon J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Haney, Janice M.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Gulley, Susan E.; Reck, John J.; Collins, Drue A.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, Landon A.; Wynn, Clifford L.

    2005-01-31

    This document reports the results of the FY 2005 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  6. FY-2007 PNNL Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Patrick A.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Isern, Nancy G.; Madson, Vernon J.; Meicenheimer, Russell L.; Pugh, Ray; Schneirla, Keri A.; Shockey, Loretta L.; Tinker, Mike R.

    2008-08-15

    This document reports the results of the FY-2007 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  7. Programming software for usability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Allen, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the work completed for a portion of the User Interface Testbed for Technology Packaging (UseIT) project. The authors present software methods for programming systems to record and view interactions with a graphical user interface. A brief description of the human factors design process is presented. The software methods exploit features available in the X Window System and the operating system for Windows{trademark} 95 and Windows{trademark} NT{reg_sign}.

  8. Evaluating Voucher Programs: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first summary of two studies and 10 years of evaluating the Milwaukee Parental Choice (voucher) Program (MPCP). This paper discusses school voucher evaluations in general terms and how these studies are carried out. The paper outlines the types of studies completed in "Study I" and "Study II" and the results…

  9. A software technology evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novaes-Card, David N.

    1985-01-01

    A set of quantitative approaches is presented for evaluating software development methods and tools. The basic idea is to generate a set of goals which are refined into quantifiable questions which specify metrics to be collected on the software development and maintenance process and product. These metrics can be used to characterize, evaluate, predict, and motivate. They can be used in an active as well as passive way by learning form analyzing the data and improving the methods and tools based upon what is learned from that analysis. Several examples were given representing each of the different approaches to evaluation. The cost of the approaches varied inversely with the level of confidence in the interpretation of the results.

  10. Radiation pneumonitis following large single dose irradiation: a re-evaluation based on absolute dose to lung

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, J.; Keane, T.J.; Kan, S.; Rider, W.D.; Fryer, C.J.H.

    1981-04-01

    The acute radiation pneumonitis syndrome is a major complication for patients receiving total thoracic irradiation in a large single dose. Previous studies have evaluated the onset of radiation pneumonitis on the basis of radiation doses calculated assuming unit density tissues. In this report, the incidence of radiation pneumonitis is determined as a function of absolute dose to lung. A simple algorithm relating dose correction factor to anterior-posterior patient diameter has been derived using a CT-aided treatment planning system. This algorithm was used to determine, retrospectively, the dose to lung for a group of 303 patients who had been treated with large field irradiation techniques. Of this group, 150 patients had no previous lung disease and had virtually no additional lung irradiation prior or subsequent to their large field treatment. The actuarial incidence of radiation pneumonitis versus dose to lung was evaluated using a simplified probit analysis. The resultant best fit sigmoidal complication curve demonstrates the onset of radiation pneumonitis to occur at about 750 rad with the 5% actuarial incidence occurring at approximately 820 rad. The errors associated with the dose determination procedure as well as the actuarial incidence calculations are considered. The time of onset of radiation pneumonitis occurs between 1 to 7 months after irradiation for 90% of the patients who developed pneumonitis with the peak incidence occurring at 2 at 3 months. No correlation was found between time of onset and the dose to lung over a dose range of 650 to 1250 rad.

  11. Development of an online automatic computed radiography dose data mining program: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Curtise K C; Sun, Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the computed radiography (CR) dose creep problem and therefore the need to have monitoring processes in place in clinical departments. The objective of this study is to provide a better technological solution to implement a regular CR dose monitoring process. An online automatic CR dose data mining program which can be applied to different systems was developed based on freeware and existing softwares in the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) server. The program was tested with 69 CR images. This preliminary study shows that the program addresses the major weaknesses of some existing studies including involvement of manual procedures in the monitoring process and being only applicable to a single manufacturer's CR images. The proposed method provides an efficient and effective solution to implement a CR dose monitoring program regularly in busy clinical departments to regulate the dose creep problem so as to reinforce the 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principle. PMID:19640604

  12. A linear programming model for optimizing HDR brachytherapy dose distributions with respect to mean dose in the DVH-tail

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, Åsa; Larsson, Torbjörn; Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Recent research has shown that the optimization model hitherto used in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy corresponds weakly to the dosimetric indices used to evaluate the quality of a dose distribution. Although alternative models that explicitly include such dosimetric indices have been presented, the inclusion of the dosimetric indices explicitly yields intractable models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for optimizing dosimetric indices that is easier to solve than those proposed earlier.Methods: In this paper, the authors present an alternative approach for optimizing dose distributions for HDR brachytherapy where dosimetric indices are taken into account through surrogates based on the conditional value-at-risk concept. This yields a linear optimization model that is easy to solve, and has the advantage that the constraints are easy to interpret and modify to obtain satisfactory dose distributions.Results: The authors show by experimental comparisons, carried out retrospectively for a set of prostate cancer patients, that their proposed model corresponds well with constraining dosimetric indices. All modifications of the parameters in the authors' model yield the expected result. The dose distributions generated are also comparable to those generated by the standard model with respect to the dosimetric indices that are used for evaluating quality.Conclusions: The authors' new model is a viable surrogate to optimizing dosimetric indices and quickly and easily yields high quality dose distributions.

  13. Lessons learned from IRIS EPO program evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the overall impact of EPO programs that include activities ranging from formal education through broad public outreach, is a complex issue. The impact of education activities targeted at narrowly defined audiences is generally easier to quantify than the national impact of outreach activities conducted by a relatively small program. For educational activities, our approach has been to leverage the best-practices identified through research and to continuously assess the individual elements internally with the intention of making improvements based on the data generated and the existing research. By constructing our elements on the best practices identified by the research community we feel that internal formative evaluation is a valid means to determine if an activity is effective, particularly when the results are compared to similar programs. For example, effective practices of professional development are well documented in the literature. As a result, this allows us to shape our programs and our evaluations to monitor elements that have been identified as key by the educational research community. Further, such actions allow us to avoid allocating significant resources with the intention of pinning down direct causal relationships between our programs and consumers, when similar interventions (conducted by others) have already shown such relationships. Ongoing review by an EPO advisory committee also provides regular oversight of program impact. While we find internal and external formative evaluation extremely useful in shaping the program and documenting its impact, we also recognize the value of a summative evaluation process. For example, an external summative evaluation of the IRIS EPO program was conducted in 2009, followed by an external panel review, as part of the regular review of IRIS programs. We found that the most valuable part of the external evaluation was our preparation, including clarifying the goals of each of the elements of the

  14. Challenges in evaluating rural health programs.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Joyce; Webb, John

    2002-01-01

    Complex community-based prevention programs are being held to scientific evidence of their effectiveness and rural public health departments that implement such programs often are not equipped to evaluate them. Rural public health departments are fettered by small budgets, small staffs, and less access to evaluation experts and similar resources. Community-based health promotion programs can include complex designs that may work differently in rural areas and evaluation of rural programs can be hampered by lack of control groups and the instability of results from small populations. The University of Kentucky has entered into a contract with the state Department for Public Health to implement an internal, participatory model of evaluation. In this model, the university evaluation expert trains local public health department staff in technical skills for program evaluation and acts as mentor and technical consultant to local public health departments on an ongoing basis. Through training and site visits, this model is one approach to addressing the challenges of evaluating rural health promotion programs. PMID:12135148

  15. The Process of Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maanen, John

    1979-01-01

    The model presented forces us to view evaluation from two interdependent perspectives: conceptual and operational. Conceptual processes consist of planning, implementation, measurement, and decision making; operational processes consist of specifying, measuring and comparing objectives against a standard. (Available from: Grantsmanship Center,…

  16. Evaluating Infant-Family Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Compiling articles from participants of the Leadership Development Initiative Class of 2001-2002, this issue focuses on evaluation of…

  17. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  18. A Program to Evaluate Quantitative Analysis Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Larry; Brown, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a computer batch program that will not only perform routine grading using several grading algorithms, but will also calculate various statistical measures by which the class performance can be evaluated and cumulative data collected. ( Author/CP)

  19. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  20. The human dimension of program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.L.

    1993-05-01

    Social science issues play an important role in the evaluation of demand-side management (DSM) programs. In the very early years of DSM program evaluation in the United States, there was a fair amount of social science research applied to the behavioral aspects of energy efficiency. Since the mid-1980s, however, there has been a heavy emphasis on impact evaluation, technical measurement, and engineering methodologies. Although some have articulated the need to integrate behavioral research into energy evaluation, most emphasis has tended to center on the technical/engineering aspects. Increasingly, however, the realization is growing that it is necessary to integrate important behavioral variables into impact evaluation techniques. In addition, it is being further recognized that behavioral research questions are central to a number of critical evaluation issues: e.g., design of samples for evaluation studies, net energy savings, self-selection bias, free riders and free drivers, persistence of energy savings, process evaluation, and market impact evaluation. Finally, it is increasingly being realized that the utilization of evaluation results relies heavily on behavioral factors. Social science researchers should be poised to expect a greatly expanded role of behavioral research in evaluation. As new techniques are developed and perfected, as the results of impact evaluations become more abundant, and as the gap between technical energy savings potential and realized savings becomes more visible, research regarding the ``human dimension`` of program evaluation will be crucial. This paper provides an overview of the human dimension of program evaluation and focuses on key evaluation issues in demand-side management which will require the use of social science research for addressing these issues.

  1. Evaluating and Selecting Sport Management Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneen, Jacquelyn; Sidwell, M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    States that the accelerated growth of sport management undergraduate programs that began in the 1980s has continued into the current decade. There are currently 180 sport management major programs in American colleges and universities. Describes the sports management approval process and suggests useful strategies to evaluate sport management…

  2. Program Review/Evaluation Policy and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Northwestern Community Coll., Rangely.

    At Colorado Northwestern Community College (CNCC), all educational programs, as well as student services and support functions, are formally reviewed/evaluated in depth at least once every five years. This nine-part outline, providing a step-by-step description of the program review process at CNCC, includes the following sections: (1) the value…

  3. Economic Evaluation of Home Visiting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven

    1993-01-01

    Reviews important factors relevant to measuring the costs and outcomes of home visiting programs and examines six cost-benefit studies of such programs. Concludes that these studies demonstrate the feasibility of economic evaluation of home visiting and the importance of the insights it can produce. (MDM)

  4. Evaluating the Georgia Master Naturalist Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, Lauren; Mengak, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the Georgia Master Naturalist Program using an online survey. Survey participation was voluntary, and the survey addressed areas such as satisfaction, volunteerism, and future training. The program received high scores from survey respondents. They appreciated training on native plants, environmental awareness, and ecological…

  5. Evaluating Individualized Reading Programs: A Bayesian Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Martha

    Simple Bayesian approaches can be applied to answer specific questions in evaluating an individualized reading program. A small reading and study skills program located in the counseling center of a major research university collected and compiled data on student characteristics such as class, number of sessions attended, grade point average, and…

  6. Negotiating Researcher Roles in Ethnographic Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harklau, Linda; Norwood, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    We argue for the value of postmodernism in illuminating the roles or subject positions of ethnographic program evaluators. Drawing upon data from an ethnographic study of a summer college readiness program for African American, Asian American, and Anglo youth, we explore how postmodern theories can provide insights into the multiple roles of…

  7. DITTY - a computer program for calculating population dose integrated over ten thousand years

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    The computer program DITTY (Dose Integrated Over Ten Thousand Years) was developed to determine the collective dose from long term nuclear waste disposal sites resulting from the ground-water pathways. DITTY estimates the time integral of collective dose over a ten-thousand-year period for time-variant radionuclide releases to surface waters, wells, or the atmosphere. This document includes the following information on DITTY: a description of the mathematical models, program designs, data file requirements, input preparation, output interpretations, sample problems, and program-generated diagnostic messages.

  8. Evaluating the Online Pathway to Graduation Program. Evaluation Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huafang; McGaughey, Trisha A.

    2013-01-01

    This brief describes an evaluation of the "Online Pathway to Graduation" (OPTG) program in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) during the 2012-2013 school year. The OPTG program provides students who participate in an alternative learning opportunity to earn course credits and graduate from high school. The purposes of the…

  9. Maryland Community Colleges 1982 Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.

    As part of an annual statewide evaluation process, quantitative information on community college programs is reviewed by the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges. Subsequently, a qualitative assessment is conducted by individual community colleges in response to specific questions raised by the Board. This report contains evaluations of 48…

  10. Organizational Structures that Support Internal Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambur, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores how the structure of large complex organizations such as Cooperative Extension affects their ability to support internal evaluation of their programs and activities. Following a literature review of organizational structure and its relation to internal evaluation capacity, the chapter presents the results of interviews with…

  11. Evaluation Model for Career Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Richard L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to provide and test an evaluative model that could be utilized in providing curricular evaluation of the various career programs. Two career fields, dental assistant and auto mechanic, were chosen for study. A questionnaire based upon the actual job performance was completed by six groups connected with the auto mechanics and…

  12. Program Evaluation: Who Should Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Richard N.

    A central question to evaluative research at all levels is, Who should do it? In evaluating drug abuse programs three groups might be involved: treatment personnel, administrative or research personnel, and outside research professionals. This paper presents some advantages and disadvantages to the involvement of each of these groups within the…

  13. Evaluation of Training Programs for Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indira, A.

    2008-01-01

    An Evaluation of the "Impact Assessment of the Training Programs" of a National Level Training Institution in India was conducted using the Kirkpatrick Method (KP Method). The studied Institution takes up research, provides training, offers consultancy and initiates action in the rural sector of India. The evaluation study used a detailed…

  14. Evaluation of the Stochastic Effects of Low-Dose Radiation: Dose Reconstruction for the Techa River Cohort in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M O.; Kozheurov, V P.; Tolstykh, E I.; Vorobiova, M I.; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. )

    2001-06-01

    Persons traveling in space can accumulate fairly large doses of radiation, up to several Sv, at low-to-moderate dose rates. In general these dose rates are low enough so that deterministic effects can be avoided, although shielding may be necessary. An important question, however, is the stochastic effects (induction of cancer and genetic defects) of these doses. Most radiation-risk estimates are based on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic follow-up of the survivors of the atomic bombings on Japan, events that delivered doses nearly instantaneously. It has been hoped that stochastic effects would be less probable for radiation delivered at lower dose rates, but few opportunities have been available to examine this question in humans. The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were high occupational doses as well as technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste (about 10^17 Bq of liquid wastes) into the rather small Techa River. Residents along the Techa River were exposed to external radiation, and they ingested foods contaminated with 90Sr and other radionuclides. The?Techa River Cohort? has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM). The purpose of the project considered here is to improve the dose-reconstruction system for the Techa River Cohort that has been under development for many years by Russian scientists at the URCRM. This, and the companion epidemiologic studies, are deemed to be unique and important, as members of the Techa River Cohort received red bone marrow doses of up to 3 Gy, but at low-to-moderate-dose rates. An increase in leukemia and cancer mortality has already been noted for this population, and further study should allow the evaluation of dose-rate-reduction factors for this situation.

  15. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  16. A Commentary on: "A History of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 1998-2008".

    PubMed

    Brooks, Antone L

    2015-04-01

    This commentary provides a very brief overview of the book "A History of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 1998-2008" ( http://lowdose.energy.gov ). The book summarizes and evaluates the research progress, publications and impact of the U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program over its first 10 years. The purpose of this book was to summarize the impact of the program's research on the current thinking and low-dose paradigms associated with the radiation biology field and to help stimulate research on the potential adverse and/or protective health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. In addition, this book provides a summary of the data generated in the low dose program and a scientific background for anyone interested in conducting future research on the effects of low-dose or low-dose-rate radiation exposure. This book's exhaustive list of publications coupled with discussions of major observations should provide a significant resource for future research in the low-dose and dose-rate region. However, because of space limitations, only a limited number of critical references are mentioned. Finally, this history book provides a list of major advancements that were accomplished by the program in the field of radiation biology, and these bulleted highlights can be found in last part of chapters 4-10. PMID:25768839

  17. Evaluating the accuracy of technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Peter J; Saya, Frank G; Lovett, Larry T; Tan, Sandy; Adams, Dale W; Shane, Rita

    2002-06-15

    The accuracy rates of board-registered pharmacy technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes in the inpatient setting at two separate institutions were examined. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, both in Los Angeles county, petitioned the California State Board of Pharmacy to approve a waiver of the California Code of Regulations to conduct an experimental program to compare the accuracy of unit dose medication cassettes checked by pharmacists with that of cassettes checked by trained, certified pharmacy technicians. The study consisted of three parts: assessing pharmacist baseline checking accuracy (Phase I), developing a technician-training program and certifying technicians who completed the didactic and practical training (Phase II), and evaluating the accuracy of certified technicians checking unit dose medication cassettes as a daily function (Phase III). Twenty-nine pharmacists and 41 technicians (3 of whom were pharmacy interns) participated in the study. Of the technicians, all 41 successfully completed the didactic and practical training, 39 successfully completed the audits and became certified checkers, and 2 (including 1 of the interns) did not complete the certification audits because they were reassigned to another work area or had resigned. In Phase II, the observed accuracy rate and its lower confidence limit exceeded the predetermined minimum requirement of 99.8% for a certified checker. The mean accuracy rates for technicians were identical at the two institutions (p = 1.0). The difference in mean accuracy rates between pharmacists (99.52%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 99.44-99.58%) and technicians, (99.89%; 95% CI 99.87-99.90%) was significant (p < 0.0001). Inpatient technicians who had been trained and certified in a closely supervised program that incorporated quality assurance mechanisms could safely and accurately check unit dose medication cassettes filled by other technicians

  18. Handbook of evaluation of utility DSM programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Reed, J.; Bronfman, B.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Hicks, E.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, M.; Keating, K.; Michaels, H.; Nadel, S.; Peters, J.; Reed, J.; Saxonis, W.; Schoen, A.; Violette, D.

    1991-12-01

    Program evaluation has become a central issue in the world of utility integrated resource planning. The DSM programs that utilities were operating to meet federal requirements or to improve customer relations are now becoming big business. DSM is being considered an important resource in a utility`s portfolio of options. In the last five years, the amount of money that utilities have invested in DSM has grown exponentially in most regulatory jurisdictions. Market analysts are now talking about DSM being a $30 billion industry by the end of the decade. If the large volume of DSM-program investments was not enough to highlight the importance of evaluation, then the introduction of regulatory incentives has really focused the spotlight. This handbook was developed through a process that involved many of those people who represent the diverse constituencies of DSM-program evaluation. We have come to recognize the many technical disciplines that must be employed to evaluate DSM programs. An analysis might start out based on the principles of utility load research to find out what happened, but a combination of engineering and statistical methods must be used to ``triangulate`` an estimate of what would have happened without the program. The difference, of course, is that elusive but prized result of evaluation: what happened as the direct result of the DSM program. Technical performance of DSM measures is not the sole determinant of the answer, either. We also recognize the importance of such behavioral attributes of DSM as persistence and free ridership. Finally, DSM evaluation is meaningless without attention to planning an approach, communicating results to relevant decision-makers, and focusing as much on the process as the impacts of the program. These topics are all covered in this handbook.

  19. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro dose detection limits for different radionuclides and measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Bitar, A; Maghrabi, M; Doubal, A W

    2016-07-01

    Personal monitoring programs for workers handling radioactive materials are influenced by numerous factors as the measurements of radioactivity in tissues or/and in excreta can be carried out using different techniques. This paper summaries the basic procedures needed for accurate and fast measurement of different radionuclides like (235)U, (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Po, (131)I, (99m)Tc, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (57)Co, (58)Co, and (60)Co. Overviews of in vitro and in vivo monitoring methods are provided as well as methods used to calculate detection limits and internal radiation dose. For the radionuclides of interest, in vivo and in vitro detection limits were converted into committed effective doses to evaluate the applicability and limitations of the systems used at the laboratory. The results proved that the systems' sensitivity is suitable for use in routine monitoring of workers subject to risk of internal exposure from such radionuclides. Consequently, monitoring programs suggested by the Syrian internal dosimetry laboratory are suitable to detect committed effective doses even below 1mSv in most cases. PMID:27108068

  20. OVERVIEW OF EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE AND SOURCE-TO-DOSE MODELING PROGRAM: HEADSUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's human exposure and source-to-dose modeling program is designed to provide a scientifically sound approach to understanding how people are actually exposed to pollutants and the magnitude of predicted exposures and dose. The objective of this research project is to develo...

  1. Planning for Evaluation's Future: Undergraduate Students' Interest in Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVelle, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students are a potential pool of future evaluators, but little is known about their level of interest in pursuing a career in program evaluation (PE). This two-stage study collected survey data on 249 undergraduate students' knowledge, interest, and attitudes toward various descriptions of PE. Qualitative analysis indicated…

  2. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  3. Evaluation of Effective Dose During Abdominal Three-Dimensional Imaging for Three Flat-Panel-Detector Angiography Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kidouchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Asako; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Ozaki, Yutaka

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose during abdominal three-dimensional (3D) imaging on phantoms and estimate the dose-area product (DAP) for effective dose conversion factors for three types of angiographic units. Three-dimensional imaging was performed for three sizes (small, medium, large) of human-shaped phantoms using three types of angiographic units (Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, AXIOM Artis dTA). We calculated 25 organ doses and effective doses using Monte Carlo technique for the three phantoms with a program for a personal computer. As benchmark studies to back up the results by Monte Carlo technique, we measured the organ doses directly on the small phantom using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters. The DAP value increased as the phantom size increased. The organ doses and the effective doses during the 3D imaging increased as the phantom size increased. The effective doses for the small phantom by Monte Carlo technique were 1.9, 2.2, and 2.1 mSv for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively, while those by direct measurement were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.6 mSv. The effective doses to DAP ratios by Monte Carlo technique were 0.37-0.45, 0.26-0.32, and 0.13-0.15 (mSv Gy{sup -1}cm{sup -2}) for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively. In conclusion, the effective doses during 3D imaging and the dose-to-DAP ratios differ among angiographic units, and the effective dose can be estimated using a proper conversion factor for each angiographic unit.

  4. PACKAGING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.

    2012-05-09

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials, under both normal and accident conditions, to perform the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within the specified limits. By placing the contents in a helium leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large dose rate outside the package. Quantifying the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings provides bounding shielding calculations that define mass limits compliant with 10 CFR 71.47 for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. The approach is based on energy superposition with dose response calculated for a set of spectral groups for a baseline physical packaging configuration. The methodology includes using the MCNP radiation transport code to evaluate a family of neutron and photon spectral groups using the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers as the base case. This results in a set of multipliers for 'dose per particle' for

  5. Evaluation of the Occupational Doses of Interventional Radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Velders, Xandra L.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Piek, Jan J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a linear relation between the doses measured above and those measured under the lead apron of the radiologists performing interventional procedures. To monitor radiation exposure the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of a single dosimeter under the protective apron. To determine the exposure more accurately an additional dosimeter is recommended above the protective apron. The exposure of eight radiologists was monitored with two personal dosimeters during 3 consecutive years. To measure the doses uniformly the two dosimeters were worn in a special holder attached to the lead apron. The two personal dosimeters were replaced every 4 weeks on the same day. The doses above and under the protective aprons of seven radiologists did not differ significantly. A significant lower dose above and under the protective apron was measured for one of the radiologists. During a 4-week period the average dose measured above the lead apron was 3.44 mSv (median, 3.05 mSv), while that under the 0.25-mm lead apron was 0.12 mSv (median, 0.1 mSv). The coefficients of the regression line result in the equation Y = 0.036X − 0.004, with Y as the dose under the lead apron and X as the dose above the lead apron. The statistical analysis of the data established a linear relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron (R2 = 0.59). Before the special holder was introduced it was not possible to derive a relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron, as the doses were measured at varying places above and under the lead apron. There is no evidence that the effective dose can be estimated more accurately when an additional dosimeter is used. The present study revealed a threshold before doses under the lead apron were measured. Due to the threshold it can be concluded that the doses under the lead apron will not be underestimated easily when doses

  6. Programs Help Create And Evaluate Markov Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Pade Approximation With Scaling (PAWS) and Scaled Taylor Exponential Matrix (STEM) computer programs provide flexible, user-friendly, language-based interface for creation and evaluation of Markov models describing behaviors of fault-tolerant reconfigurable computer systems. Produce exact solution for probabilities of system failures and provide conservative estimates of numbers of significant digits in solutions. Also offer as part of bundled package with SURE and ASSIST, two other reliable analysis programs developed by Systems Validation Methods group at Langley Research Center.

  7. Lessons Learned: The Evaluation of a Drug Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royse, David; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in evaluating a mass drug education program including instrument selection, logistical constraints, and data analysis. Offers suggestions as to program evaluation improvement. (Author/RC)

  8. Evaluation of enzyme dose and dose-frequency in ameliorating substrate accumulation in MPS IIIA Huntaway dog brain.

    PubMed

    King, Barbara; Marshall, Neil; Beard, Helen; Hassiotis, Sofia; Trim, Paul J; Snel, Marten F; Rozaklis, Tina; Jolly, Robert D; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M

    2015-03-01

    Intracerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infusion of replacement enzyme is under evaluation for amelioration of disease-related symptoms and biomarker changes in patients with the lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA; www.clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT#01155778; #01299727). Determining the optimal dose/dose-frequency is important, given the invasive method for chronically supplying recombinant protein to the brain, the main site of symptom generation. To examine these variables, we utilised MPS IIIA Huntaway dogs, providing recombinant human sulphamidase (rhSGSH) to young pre-symptomatic dogs from an age when MPS IIIA dog brain exhibits significant accumulation of primary (heparan sulphate) and secondary (glycolipid) substrates. Enzyme was infused into CSF via the cisterna magna at one of two doses (3 mg or 15 mg/infusion), with the higher dose supplied at two different intervals; fortnightly or monthly. Euthanasia was carried out 24 h after the final injection. Dose- and frequency-dependent reductions in heparan sulphate were observed in CSF and deeper layers of cerebral cortex. When we examined the amount of immunostaining of the general endo/lysosomal marker, LIMP-2, or quantified activated microglia, the higher fortnightly dose resulted in superior outcomes in affected dogs. Secondary lesions such as accumulation of GM3 ganglioside and development of GAD-reactive axonal spheroids were treated to a similar degree by both rhSGSH doses and dose frequencies. Our findings indicate that the lower fortnightly dose is sub-optimal for ameliorating existing and preventing further development of disease-related pathology in young MPS IIIA dog brain; however, increasing the dose fivefold but halving the frequency of administration enabled near normalisation of disease-related biomarkers. PMID:25421091

  9. Evaluation of absorbed dose in Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaeva, Gayane; Djuraeva, Gulnara; Kim, Andrey; Koblik, Yuriy; Kulabdullaev, Gairatulla; Rakhmonov, Turdimukhammad; Saytjanov, Shavkat

    2015-02-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is used for treatment of radioresistant malignant tumors. The absorbed dose in GdNCT can be divided into four primary dose components: thermal neutron, fast neutron, photon and natural gadolinium doses. The most significant is the dose created by natural gadolinium. The amount of gadolinium at the irradiated region is changeable and depends on the gadolinium delivery agent and on the structure of the location where the agent is injected. To de- fine the time dependence of the gadolinium concentration ρ(t) in the irradiated region the pharmacokinetics of gadolinium delivery agent (Magnevist) was studied at intratumoral injection in mice and intramuscular injection in rats. A polynomial approximation was applied to the experimental data and the influence of ρ(t) on the relative change of the absorbed dose of gadolinium was studied.

  10. Evaluation plan for the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Beschen, D.A. ); Brown, M.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) was completed in 1984 based on consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. WAP regulations and operations have changed substantially over the last decade, and new opportunities are on the horizon. DOE recognizes the need for a more current national level evaluation of the program and has developed a plan for conducting the evaluation with the support of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The national WAP evaluation as currently proposed has seven major goals: (1) estimate the energy saved by the program -- one, two, and three years after participation; (2) assess nonenergy impacts, such as comfort, safety, and housing affordability; (3) assess program cost effectiveness; (4) analyze factors which influence energy savings, nonenergy impacts, and cost effectiveness; (5) describe the WAP network's capabilities and the innovative weatherization technologies and procedures it has employed; (6) characterize the WAP-eligible population and the federal and non-federal funds that haven been used to meet its weatherization needs; and, (7) identify promising WAP opportunities for the future. The data collection, analyses, and reports are to be completed in phases between 1991 and 1993. The evaluation methodologies vary by fuel type, housing type, and climate zone. The analysis of energy savings and cost effectiveness will be based primarily on weather-normalized, retrospective utility billing records (collected for pre- and postretrofit years). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Guide to Program Evaluation K-4. New York State Program Evaluation Test in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This guide provides information on conducting a detailed program analysis using the New York State Program Evaluation Test in Science. The test consists of two required components (Objective Test and Manipulative Skills Test) and five optional components (Student Science Attitudes Survey; Student Science Program Environment Survey; Administrator…

  12. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  13. [Evaluation and examination of accuracy for the conversion factors of effective dose per dose-length product].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Ootsuka, Tomoko; Suzuki, Syoichi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reappraise the accuracy of a conversion coefficient (k) reported by International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 102 Table A.2. The effective doses of the routine head computed tomography (CT), the routine chest CT, the perfusion CT, and the coronary CT were evaluated using the conversion coefficient (adult head: 0.021 mSv·mGy⁻¹·cm⁻¹, adult chest: 0.014 mSv·mGy⁻¹·cm⁻¹). The dose length product (DLP) used the value displayed on the console on each scanning condition. The effective doses were evaluated using a human body type phantom (Alderson Rando phantom) and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) elements for comparison with the converted value. This paper reported that the effective doses evaluated from conversion coefficient became different by 0.3 mSv (17%) compared with measurements, the effective dose computed with the conversion coefficient of the adult chest may be underestimated by 45%, and the bolus-tracking which scans the narrow beams should not use a conversion coefficient. PMID:23358334

  14. Theory underlying a national teacher evaluation program.

    PubMed

    Taut, Sandy; Santelices, Verónica; Araya, Carolina; Manzi, Jorge

    2010-11-01

    The paper describes a study conducted to explicate the multiple theories underlying Chile's national teacher evaluation program. These theories will serve as the basis for evaluating the intended consequences of this evaluation system, while not losing sight of emerging unintended consequences. We first analyzed legal and policy documents and then interviewed fourteen representatives of the four stakeholder groups involved in the program's design and implementation, in order to gain insight into their respective conceptions of the program's functioning and intended effects. The results show that, as to be expected and despite the long and difficult negotiation process that preceded implementation of this program, multiple political stakeholders still view the program's intended effects differently. However, there was substantial overlap regarding a number of intended effects, such as building the capacity of, and triggering change in, teachers with shortcomings, and informing the selection of new teachers and facilitating the exit of unsatisfactory teachers from the system. It was difficult to get interviewees to talk about how exactly these intended effects are supposed to be achieved. The paper draws conclusions regarding theory elaboration process involving multiple stakeholders in a highly political context. PMID:20163858

  15. An Evaluation of Elementary Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.; Robinson, T. E.

    The Test of Logical Thinking in Science and tape recordings and notes from a scientific inquiry lesson were used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the regular and new science programs in developing scientific thinking among elementary school pupils. The findings, limited by sample size and short-term experimental design, indicated that the…

  16. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen- cy`s Offices of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), and the Office of Research and Develop- ment (ORD) established a technology research, dem- onstration, and evaluation program to promote the development and use of alterna...

  17. Maryland Community Colleges 1983 Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespoli, Lawrence A.

    As part of an annual statewide evaluation process, quantitative information on community college programs is reviewed by the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges. Subsequently, a qualitative assessment is conducted by a selected individual community colleges in response to specific questions raised by the Board. This report contains the…

  18. Mathematics Program Evaluation Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Raymond; Drake, Thomas; Cunningham, Judith; Arevalo, Cheryl L.

    This paper evaluates the mathematics program of the Des Moines (Iowa) Independent Community School district. The mathematics curricula in the Des Moines schools is in a state of transition to meet national standards in mathematics. The national standards are completely in agreement with the district's mission statement, which is to provide a…

  19. Evaluation of a Freshman Career Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branyon, Sandra; Piotrowski, Chris

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of a career development program entitled Career and Life Planning, which is a two-semester required course for freshmen at the University of West Florida. The career planning format included study and library skills and self-knowledge. Other course focuses were exploration of personal needs, vocational…

  20. An Evaluation of the NAMI Basics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brister, Teri; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Shen, Sa; Burns, Barbara J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2012-01-01

    This brief report describes results from an evaluation of NAMI Basics, a peer-delivered family education program for family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental illness. Over six classes, family members are given information (e.g. education about mental illness and treatments), skills training (e.g. family communication skills) and…

  1. An Evaluation of Houston's Magnet School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Claude H.

    A project-wide evaluation of the Houston, Texas magnet school program indicated that it successfully implemented four court-defined desegregation goals: (1) fewer schools which are 90% or more white or combined black and Mexican-American; (2) fewer students who attend such schools; (3) free transportation for magnet school students; and (4) an…

  2. The Emergency School Assistance Program: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report, prepared by a group of private organizations concerned with the problems of race, education, and poverty, is an evaluation of the first months of the administration of the Emergency School Assistance Program (ESAP). The report is based upon personal visits to nearly 300 school districts receiving ESAP grants by attorneys and other…

  3. Establishing Successful Faculty Evaluation and Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines obstacles to and errors in establishing faculty evaluation and development programs. Presents 12 guidelines for overcoming obstacles and avoiding errors, including the identification and enlistment of high-level administrative support; responsiveness to faculty concerns; and the establishment of development centers, advisory boards, and…

  4. Self-Assessment, Program Evaluation, and Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badiali, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Never before in the history of the teaching profession has there been such a need for comprehensive evaluation of all teacher preparation programs, most especially professional development schools (PDSs). This need is driven not only by the pressures of the age of accountability, but also by the need for the PDS movement to act ethically and…

  5. Evaluation of the Training Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Deborah C.; And Others

    Both formative and summative evaluations were used to guide development and appraise outcomes of a model college/public service agency collaborative effort to develop an inservice, onsite, volunteer training program for Office of Environmental Affairs (OEA) employees. Assessment procedures included interviews with Training Development Program…

  6. Program Evaluation in Cost Benefit Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, C. Kenneth

    This paper advances a model, called the expected opportunity loss model, for curriculum evaluation. This decision-making technique utilizes subjective data by ranking courses according to their expected contributions to the primary objective of the total program. The model also utilizes objective data in the form of component costs, and differs…

  7. Special Education: Program Evaluation, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeschke, Thomas A.

    This report evaluates the special education instructional programs of the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools. It begins with a school district mission statement and special education mission statement. The report examines Des Moines' history of serving students with disabilities, its policies and regulations, enrollment by disability, and types of…

  8. 5 CFR 9701.107 - Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program evaluation. 9701.107 Section 9701.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  9. State Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Inventory

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this inventory, some of which has been placed into a searchable spreadsheet, is to support the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and to research cost information in state-mandated energy efficiency program evaluations – e.g., for use in updating analytic and modeling assumptions used by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  10. 5 CFR 9701.107 - Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program evaluation. 9701.107 Section 9701.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.107 - Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program evaluation. 9701.107 Section 9701.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.107 - Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program evaluation. 9701.107 Section 9701.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  13. An Evaluation of the STRIVE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    This paper evaluates STRIVE, an alternative program designed to provide a nurturing, caring, and intensive academic environment for over-age, low-performing ninth grade students attending the Barbara Jordan High School for Careers in Houston (Texas). STRIVE operates in isolation from the regular student population and has a counselor and four…

  14. Child Day Care Program Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Marian

    In this document the Texas Department of Human Resources (DHR) presents criteria which day-care providers can use to evaluate their programs. The criteria can also be used by DHR staff to determine whether or not providers can deliver the services specified in their contracts with DHR. For each criterion, five achievement levels, clarification,…

  15. Evaluation of in vivo low-dose mouse irradiation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H.; Kye, Y.-U.; Kim, J. K.; Son, T. G.; Lee, M. W.; Jeong, D. H.; Yang, K. M.; Nam, S.-H.; Kang, Y.-R.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop a facility that can irradiate subjects with a desired low dose, which can be used to assess the biological effects of low-dose radiation. We develop a single-occupancy mouse-cage and shelf system with adjustable geometric parameters, such as the distances and angles of the cages relative to the collimator. We assess the irradiation-level accuracy using two measurement methods. First, we calculate the angle and distance of each mouse cage relative to the irradiator. We employ a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation for all of the cages at a given distance from the radiation source to calculate the air kerma and the relative absorbed dose in the in-house designed shelving system; these are found to be approximately 0.108 and 0.109 Gy, respectively. Second, we measure the relative absorbed dose using glass dosimeters inserted directly into the heads and bodies of the mice. For a conventional irradiation system, the irradiation measurements show a maximum discrepancy of 42% between the absorbed and desired doses, whereas a discrepancy of only 6% from the desired dose is found for the designed mouse apartment system. In addition, multi-mouse cages are shown to yield to significantly greater differences in the mouse head and body relative absorbed doses, compared to the discrepancies found for single-occupancy cages in the conventional irradiation system. Our findings suggest that the in-house shelving system has greater reliability for the biological analysis of the effects of low-dose radiation.

  16. Evaluation of low energy electron beam dose application by means of a portable optical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Winkler, Martin; Härtling, Thomas; Röder, Olaf; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-11-01

    We present our recent development concerning the evaluation of a low energy dose application to electron beam responding materials with a simple portable optical device. Electron beam irradiation is a promising option to sterilize sensitive and high performance products or surfaces at a low temperature and without moisture. Especially in the fields of the food industry and medicine, regulations regarding sterility are increasingly tightened. Because of this, a secure proof for electron-beam-assisted sterilization is required. However, no nondestructive and in situ method exists up until now. Our approach to provide a secure proof of sterilization is to place a suitable marker material based on rare-earth-doped phosphors inside or on the top of the packaging material of the respective product. Upon electron irradiation the marker material changes its luminescence properties as a function of the applied energy dose. We verified the energy dependence by means of time-resolved measurements of the luminescence decay of an upconversion phosphor with a portable optical device. In our experimental realization, short laser pulses in the near-infrared range are triggered by a microcontrol unit (MCU) and excite the marker material. The light emitted by the marker is collected in the range between 400 and 1100 nm via a silicon photodiode, processed by the MCU, and analyzed in a Labview program via a single-exponential fit. As a main result, we observe an increasing reduction of the luminescence lifetime with higher dose applications.

  17. Medical research and evaluation facility and studies supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program. Time and dose response characterization of the prevention of HD-induced NAD+ depletion and HD-induced cytotoxicity by niacinamide and niacin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.T.; Johnson, J.B.; Blank, J.A.; Menton, R.G.; Starner, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted under this task to Assess the time and concentration dependent nature of niacinamide (NM) protection against HD-induced NAD+ depletion and cytotoxicity. The HD concentrations used assess the time dependent nature of cytotoxicity and NAD+ depletion, and the impact of NM and niacin (NI) treatment were 13,62, 101, and 171 mu-M HD. Three concentrations of NM and NI were (0.01,0.1 and 1 mM) selected by USAMRICD for evaluation at 2, 4,8, 12, 16,20,24,48, and 72 hours after exposure to HD. Cytotoxicity and total culture NAD+ content were assessed. NAD+ concentrations following the addition of 1 mM NM frequently were significantly greater than those observed for the HD-exposed controls especially at 171mu-M HD. Multiple addition of NM had little protective effect relative to that by provided by pretreatment alone. At the 171mu-M HD concentration, the single addition of NM provided marginal but statistically significant (p<=0.05) protection. Comparisons of the different NM addition modes yielded mixed results, but usually the number of viable cells was greater with multiple additions of NM. NI did not provide protection against HD-induced NAD+ depletion or cytotoxicity.

  18. Evaluating Alternative High Schools: Program Evaluation in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Drew Samuel Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Alternative high schools serve some of the most vulnerable students and their programs present a significant challenge to evaluate. Determining the impact of an alternative high school that serves mostly at-risk students presented a significant research problem. Few studies exist that dig deeper into the characteristics and strategies of…

  19. Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project Building 2 public dose evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.

    1996-05-01

    Building 2 on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) site, which is operated by Rust Geotech, is part of the GJPO Remedial Action Program. This report describes measurements and modeling efforts to evaluate the radiation dose to members of the public who might someday occupy or tear down Building 2. The assessment of future doses to those occupying or demolishing Building 2 is based on assumptions about future uses of the building, measured data when available, and predictive modeling when necessary. Future use of the building is likely to be as an office facility. The DOE sponsored program, RESRAD-BUILD, Version. 1.5 was chosen for the modeling tool. Releasing the building for unrestricted use instead of demolishing it now could save a substantial amount of money compared with the baseline cost estimate because the site telecommunications system, housed in Building 2, would not be disabled and replaced. The information developed in this analysis may be used as part of an as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) cost/benefit determination regarding disposition of Building 2.

  20. Economic value evaluation in disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Reicher, Sima; Shani, Mordechai

    2008-05-01

    Chronic disease management has been a rapidly growing entity in the 21st century as a strategy for managing chronic illnesses in large populations. However, experience has shown that disease management programs have not been able to demonstrate their financial value. The objectives of disease management programs are to create quality benchmarks, such as principles and guidelines, and to establish a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. In order to illuminate the essence of disease management and its components, as well as the complexity and the problematic nature of performing economic calculations of their profitability and value, we collected data from several reports that dealt with the economic intervention of disease management programs. The disease management economic evaluation is composed of a series of steps, including the following major categories: data/information technology, information generation, assessment/recommendations, actionable customer plans, and program assessment/reassessment. We demonstrate the elements necessary for economic analysis. Disease management is one of the most innovative tools in the managed care environment and is still in the process of being defined. Therefore, objectives should include the creation of quality measures, such as principles and guidelines, and the establishment of a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. PMID:18605352

  1. Incorporation of functional imaging data in the evaluation of dose distributions using the generalized concept of equivalent uniform dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miften, Moyed M.; Das, Shiva K.; Su, Min; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2004-05-01

    Advances in the fields of IMRT and functional imaging have greatly increased the prospect of escalating the dose to highly active or hypoxic tumour sub-volumes and steering the dose away from highly functional critical structure regions. However, current clinical treatment planning and evaluation tools assume homogeneous activity/function status in the tumour/critical structures. A method was developed to incorporate tumour/critical structure heterogeneous functionality in the generalized concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD). The tumour and critical structures functional EUD (FEUD) values were calculated from the dose-function histogram (DFH), which relates dose to the fraction of total function value at that dose. The DFH incorporates flouro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) functional data for tumour, which describes the distribution of metabolically active tumour clonogens, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion data for critical structures. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the lung dose distributions of two non-small cell lung caner patients, who received 3D conformal external beam radiotherapy treatment with curative intent, were evaluated. Differences between the calculated lungs EUD and FEUD values of up to 50% were observed in the 3D conformal plans. In addition, a non-small cell lung cancer patient was inversely planned with a target dose prescription of 76 Gy. Two IMRT plans (plan-A and plan-B) were generated for the patient based on the CT, FDG-PET and SPECT treatment planning images using dose-volume objective functions. The IMRT plans were generated with the goal of achieving more critical structures sparing in plan-B than plan-A. Results show the target volume EUD in plan-B is lower than plan-A by 5% with a value of 73.31 Gy, and the FEUD in plan-B is lower than plan-A by 2.6% with a value of 75.77 Gy. The FEUD plan-B values for heart and lungs were lower than plan-A by 22% and 18%, respectively

  2. Integrating Program Theory and Systems-Based Procedures in Program Evaluation: A Dynamic Approach to Evaluate Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    The current study attempts to integrate parts of program theory and systems-based procedures in educational program evaluation. The educational program that was implemented, called the "Early Steps" project, proposed that physical education can contribute to various educational goals apart from the usual motor skills improvement. Basic elements of…

  3. Computer program for absorbed dose to the breast in mammography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, L.W.; Rosenstein, M.

    1985-07-01

    Two computer programs are used to generate absorbed dose to tissues in the breast from mammographic procedures. The first program calculates the absorbed dose to total breast tissue and glandular tissue for five reference breast sizes and several compositions, for a number of mammographic x-ray spectra. A data file is generated containing these data. The second program uses the data file generated by the first program, and produces for each reference breast and breast composition a mathematical curve fit as a function of beam quality (HVL, mm Al), using a polynomial expansion. Data tables are then produced by interpolation at discrete values of beam quality. The programs are in FORTRAN IV and run on an IBM 370/168 system using Multiple Virtual Storage. All input/output files are sequential.

  4. Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-11-01

    PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point

  5. K-12 Music Program Evaluation. Report Number 90-239.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svengalis, Judith N.; Johnson, Virginia

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of the kindergarten through grade 12 music program of the Des Moines (Iowa) Independent Community School District. Major topics include: the music program's purpose, context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation, product evaluation, and future plans. The music program offers required music in…

  6. Targeted Mentoring: Evaluation of a Program

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Carolyn A.; Harold, Rena D.; Ahmedani, Brian K.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    Targeted mentoring refers to mentoring aimed at a particular population. This article presents the evaluation of a mentoring program for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in social work education. Forty-three mentors and protégés responded to a survey regarding their program experiences. The results highlight the need for targeted mentoring, although some disparities of experience for mentors and protégés in this program are apparent. In general, mentors felt positive about participating, giving back to the LGBT community, and were more satisfied with their experiences than were the protégés, who were looking for more specific types of instrumental and psychosocial support. PMID:20046917

  7. Evaluation metrics of educational programs for teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Gwendolyn D.

    1995-01-01

    A system for evaluating the teacher programs and services in the Education Services Branch was developed. The primary stakeholder was interested in determining the worth or usefulness of these services to educators. Therefore, two instruments were developed to collect the data. One questionnaire was administered. Data was collected, analyzed and reported. The other questionnaire was pilot tested and will be administered to teachers during the school year.

  8. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Tonn, Bruce Edward; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program was created by Congress in 1976 under Title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act. The purpose and scope of the Program as currently stated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10CFR 440.1 is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, persons with disabilities, families with children, high residential energy users, and households with high energy burden' (Code of Federal Regulations, 2005). DOE sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of the Program in the early 1990's to provide policy makers and program implementers with up-to-date and reliable information they needed for effective decision making and cost-effective operations. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five part study which was based primarily on data from Program Year (PY) 1989 and supplemented by data from 1991-92 (Brown, Berry, and Kinney, 1994). In more recent years, ORNL has conducted four metaevaluations of the Program's energy savings using studies conducted by individual states between the years 1990-1996 (Berry, 1997), 1996-1998 (Schweitzer and Berry, 1999), 1993-2002 (Berry and Schweitzer, 2003), and 1993-2005 (Schweitzer, 2005). DOE announced through its Weatherization Program Notice 05-1 (DOE, 2004) that it would undertake a new national evaluation of the Program because the Program that was evaluated comprehensively in the early 1990's is vastly different from the Program of today. The Program has incorporated new funding sources, management principles, audit procedures, and energy-efficiency measures in response to findings and recommendations resulting from the 1989 National Evaluation, the Weatherization Plus strategic planning process, and other federal, state, and local initiatives

  9. Evaluation of a bystander education program.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick; Sutherland, Melissa; Kesler, Erin

    2012-12-01

    Sexual and partner violence are widespread problems on college campuses. By changing attitudes, beliefs, and behavior, bystander education programs have been found to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a bystander education program that was adapted to a specific university setting. A convenience sample of 202, full-time undergraduate students aged 18-22 years participated in the bystander education program and completed pre- and post-test measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine changes in scores between pre- and post-test conditions. After the program, participants' reported decreased rape myth acceptance and denial of interpersonal violence, and increased intention to act as a bystander and an increased sense of responsibility to intervene. Mental health nurses can use principles of bystander education in violence prevention programs and in providing support to survivors. PMID:23215986

  10. A Qualitative Program Evaluation of a Structured Leadership Mentoring Program at a Large Aerospace Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teller, Romney P.

    2011-01-01

    The researcher utilized a qualitative approach to conduct a program evaluation of the organization where he is employed. The study intended to serve as a program evaluation for the structured in-house mentoring program at a large aerospace corporation (A-Corp). This program evaluation clarified areas in which the current mentoring program is…

  11. 78 FR 19725 - Merchant Mariner Medical Evaluation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Merchant Mariner Medical Evaluation Program AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... mariner medical evaluation program. Section 718 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2012 directed the...'s merchant mariner medical evaluation program and alternatives to the program. Congress...

  12. Report of a National Evaluation of the Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Margaret

    In 1976 the Schools Commission (Australia) commenced a program of evaluation of its specific-purpose programs in order to obtain objective assessments of the impact of these programs and to determine ways in which they might be improved. One of the programs chosen for evaluation was the Development Program. This report discusses the design and…

  13. A two-stage sequential linear programming approach to IMRT dose optimization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao H; Meyer, Robert R; Wu, Jianzhou; Naqvi, Shahid A; Shi, Leyuan; D’Souza, Warren D

    2010-01-01

    The conventional IMRT planning process involves two stages in which the first stage consists of fast but approximate idealized pencil beam dose calculations and dose optimization and the second stage consists of discretization of the intensity maps followed by intensity map segmentation and a more accurate final dose calculation corresponding to physical beam apertures. Consequently, there can be differences between the presumed dose distribution corresponding to pencil beam calculations and optimization and a more accurately computed dose distribution corresponding to beam segments that takes into account collimator-specific effects. IMRT optimization is computationally expensive and has therefore led to the use of heuristic (e.g., simulated annealing and genetic algorithms) approaches that do not encompass a global view of the solution space. We modify the traditional two-stage IMRT optimization process by augmenting the second stage via an accurate Monte-Carlo based kernel-superposition dose calculations corresponding to beam apertures combined with an exact mathematical programming based sequential optimization approach that uses linear programming (SLP). Our approach was tested on three challenging clinical test cases with multileaf collimator constraints corresponding to two vendors. We compared our approach to the conventional IMRT planning approach, a direct-aperture approach and a segment weight optimization approach. Our results in all three cases indicate that the SLP approach outperformed the other approaches, achieving superior critical structure sparing. Convergence of our approach is also demonstrated. Finally, our approach has also been integrated with a commercial treatment planning system and may be utilized clinically. PMID:20071764

  14. Physical Education Grades K-12. Program Evaluation 1995-1996. Focus on Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    This document reports on an evaluation of physical education programs in grades K-12 in Des Moines (Iowa). The document is divided into seven parts. Part 1, "Introduction," reviews the mission and philosophies regarding teaching physical education. Part 2, "Context Evaluation," summarizes Iowa state policies, standards, and regulations; provides a…

  15. An aminoglycoside dosing program using the Casio FX-700P pocket computer.

    PubMed

    Yutani, R M

    1985-06-01

    The utilization of the desktop microcomputer, programmable calculator, and scientific calculator has simplified the management of formulas used in pharmacokinetic drug monitoring. However, each is limited by either high cost, lack of portability, or difficulty in operation. The pocket computer offers a solution to these problems. Using the CASIO FX-700P as an example, an aminoglycoside dosing program is presented together with a program listing and sample cases demonstrating its use. PMID:10278328

  16. Evaluation of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.

    2014-12-01

    From 2009-2014, NASA's Mars Public Engagement (MPE) Program developed and implemented project-level logic models and associated impacts and indicators tables using the NSF's "Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects" (Friedman, 2008) as a key guiding document. This Framework was selected given the national-expert-level evaluation committee who synthesized evaluation in a way that allows project-to-project comparisons in key areas of measurable change, while also allowing variation for appropriate project-specific measures and outcomes. These logic models, revisited and refined annually, provide guidance for all measures developed, tested, and implemented with MPE projects, including the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP), the Imagine Mars Project, and Mars Educator Professional Development. Project questionnaires were developed, tested, refined, retested, and finalized following standard procedures outlined in Converse & Presser (1986), Dillman, Smyth, & Christian (2009), Krosnick & Presser (2010), and Presser, et al. (2004). Interview questions were drafted, reviewed by project staff, and revised following established interview question development guidelines (e.g., Kvale, 1996; Maxwell, 2005; Maykut & Morehouse, 1994; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). For MSIP final projects, a rubric guided by Lantz (2004) was developed to evaluate systematically the quality and completeness of the final projects. We will discuss our instruments as well as the important issue of nonresponse error, which is relevant to a wide range of NASA programs because most data is collected from customers who are voluntary participants, as opposed to grantees who must report as a condition of their grant. NASA programs that consider data and report results from voluntary samples must be cautious about claims or decisions based on those data. We will discuss the ways in which we consider and address this challenge.

  17. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  18. Evaluation of radiation dose to neonates in a special care baby unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzimami, K.; Sulieman, A.; Yousif, A.; Babikir, E.; Salih, I.

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient entrance surface dose (ESD), organ dose and effective dose for neonates in the special care baby unit (SCBU) up to 28 days after birth. A total of 135 patients were examined during 4 months. ESDs were calculated from patient exposure parameters using DosCal software. Effective doses were calculated using software from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The mean patient ESD per procedure was 80±0.02 μGy. The mean and range of the effective dose per procedure were 0.02 (0.01-0.3) mSv. The radiation dose in this study was higher compared to previous studies. A dedicated X-ray machine with additional filtration is recommended for patient dose reductions.

  19. Evaluation of Patient Doses from Verification Techniques in Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Dufek, Vladimir; Horakova, Ivana; Novak, Leos; Koncek, Ondrej; Richter, Vit; Janeckova, Lenka

    2010-01-05

    The purpose of this work was an evaluation of organ doses and effective doses from kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans and from pairs of orthogonal kV image projections for two different treatment sites (a head and a pelvis). Measurements of organ doses were performed in an anthropomorphic rando phantom by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Irradiations were performed using on-board imager (OBI) and X-ray volume imaging (XVI) systems.

  20. Evaluation of Patient Doses from Verification Techniques in Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, Vladimir; Horakova, Ivana; Novak, Leos; Koncek, Ondrej; Richter, Vit; Janeckova, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was an evaluation of organ doses and effective doses from kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans and from pairs of orthogonal kV image projections for two different treatment sites (a head and a pelvis). Measurements of organ doses were performed in an anthropomorphic rando phantom by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Irradiations were performed using on-board imager (OBI) and X-ray volume imaging (XVI) systems.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation Program. Progress in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Dau, G.J.; Behravesh, M.M.; Liu, S.N.; Oldberg, T.; Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Scheibel, J.R.; Sharma, D.; Norris, D.M.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Griesbach, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoint is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R and D personnel, and utility representatives. As the seventh in a planned series of annual progress reports on EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the EPRI Joint NDE/Structural Mechanics information meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 20-21, 1986. It summarizes progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-3821-SR was issued in May 1985. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contains contractor-supplied progress reports of each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components - pipe, pressure vessel, steam generator and boiler tubes, and turbine. In addition, Part 6 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer.

  2. Minimum criticality dose evaluation for the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.S.

    1999-09-01

    The Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The mission of the facility is to provide safe dry storage for various types of irradiated fuels. Included are fuel elements such as irradiated ATR, EBR, MTR, Fort St. Vrain, TRIGA, and ROVER Parka fuels. Fuels requiring dry storage are received at the IFSF in fuel-shipping casks. At the facility receiving dock, the casks are removed from the transport vehicle, positioned in a cask transport car, and moved into the fuel-handling cave. Several functions are performed in the fuel-handling cave, including transferring fuel from shipping casks to storage canisters, preparing fuel elements for storage and processing. The minimum postulated criticality dose calculations were performed for the cask-receiving and fuel-handling areas to place criticality alarm system (CAS) detectors. The number of fissions for the minimum accident of concern is based on a dose of 20-rad air at 2 m in 1 min. The eigenvalue calculations were first performed to determine the size of the critical source. Then, two sets of fixed-source calculations were followed to calculate contributions from neutron and capture gamma rays and from prompt gamma rays. Two sets of MCNP calculations involved point and spherical critical sources. Validity of the Monte Carlo results was tested against ANISN deterministic calculations. The flux-to-dose conversion factors are based on ANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977. All of the MCNP runs used continuous-energy ENDF/B-V cross sections. The BUGLE-80 cross-section library was used for the ANISN calculations.

  3. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT brain tumor treatment based on voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeng-Ning; Lee, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    For BNCT treatments, in addition to tumor target doses, non-negligible doses will result in all the remaining organs of the body. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as the average absorbed doses of each of organs of patients with brain tumor treated in the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The effective doses were evaluated according to the definitions of ICRP Publications 60 and 103 for the reference male and female computational phantoms developed in ICRP Publication 110 by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code with the THOR-Y09 beam source. The effective dose acquired in this work was compared with the results of our previous work calculated for an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. It was found that the effective dose for the female voxel phantom is larger than that for the male voxel phantom by a factor of 1.2-1.5 and the effective dose for the voxel phantom is larger than that for the mathematical phantom by a factor of 1.3-1.6. For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51Sv and the average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07Gy. PMID:24411557

  4. A comparative evaluation of sequence classification programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A fundamental problem in modern genomics is to taxonomically or functionally classify DNA sequence fragments derived from environmental sampling (i.e., metagenomics). Several different methods have been proposed for doing this effectively and efficiently, and many have been implemented in software. In addition to varying their basic algorithmic approach to classification, some methods screen sequence reads for ’barcoding genes’ like 16S rRNA, or various types of protein-coding genes. Due to the sheer number and complexity of methods, it can be difficult for a researcher to choose one that is well-suited for a particular analysis. Results We divided the very large number of programs that have been released in recent years for solving the sequence classification problem into three main categories based on the general algorithm they use to compare a query sequence against a database of sequences. We also evaluated the performance of the leading programs in each category on data sets whose taxonomic and functional composition is known. Conclusions We found significant variability in classification accuracy, precision, and resource consumption of sequence classification programs when used to analyze various metagenomics data sets. However, we observe some general trends and patterns that will be useful to researchers who use sequence classification programs. PMID:22574964

  5. Evaluation of an automated FDG dose infuser to PET-CT patients.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Roberto M; Vano, Eliseo; Fernández, Jose M; Ginjaume, Mercè; Carreras, José L

    2015-07-01

    An experience with an automated infuser device at a university hospital is presented in this paper. Occupational doses at operators' fingertips were measured using optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters for two different scenarios: (i) using a semi-automatic system to prepare the fluorodesoxiglucose (FDG) injections that were delivered to the patient manually and (ii) using an automated infusion device that prepares and delivers the FDG dose. The accuracy of the activity prepared by the automatic system was also verified. Reductions in fingertip doses of 60 % using the fully automatic system have been measured. The difference between the programmed and the delivered activity was 2 %. The use of the automatic infuser in the authors' institution has led to a substantial reduction in hand radiation doses. But contamination risks, even though reduced, still exist; therefore, radioisotope manipulation should follow strict radiation protection rules to avoid incidents. Improved accuracy in dose delivery reduces chances of dose misadministration. PMID:25821215

  6. Evaluation using GEANT4 of the transit dose in the Tunisian gamma irradiator for insect sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mannai, K; Askri, B; Loussaief, A; Trabelsi, A

    2007-06-01

    A simulation study of the Tunisian Gamma Irradiation Facility for sterile insects release programs has been realized using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code of CERN. The dose was calculated and measured for high and low dose values inside the irradiation cell. The calculated high dose was in good agreement with measurements. However, a discrepancy between calculated and measured values occurs at dose levels commonly used for sterilization of insects. We argue that this discrepancy is due to the transit dose absorbed during displacement of targets from their initial position towards their irradiation position and displacement of radiation source pencils from storage towards their irradiation position. The discrepancy is corrected by taking into account the transit dose. PMID:17395474

  7. [Retrospective Cytogenetic Dose Evaluation. I. Chromosome Aberration Levels in Remote Periods after Acute External Exposure in Different Situations].

    PubMed

    Nugs, V Yu; Khvostunov, I K; Goloub, E V; Kozlova, M G; Nadejina, N M; Galstian, I A

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 22 persons was performed in remote terms after acute external γ-, γ-β- or γ-neutron irradiation as a result of various accidents using the classical me- thod. The initial dose estimates were obtained using physical calculations, the method of measuring the EPR signal in tooth enamel, according to haematological and/or cytogenetic parameters. The purpose of this study was to obtain evidence about the state of the lymphocyte chromosome apparatus of people approxi- mately 17-50 years after an accidental radiation exposure. In general, elevated levels of chromosome aberra- tions were detected. An average correlation was observed between the atypical chromosome frequency and absorbed dose. It is proposed to use the obtained results in the future to explore the possibility of retrospective dose evaluation on the basis of a special computer program. PMID:26601536

  8. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  9. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  10. Supporting parenting of infants: evaluating outcomes for parents and children in a community-based program.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Dasi, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-01

    This research presents an evaluation of the intervention dose-effect of the Parent-Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS). The PCPS is a universal community-based program to support parenting, during the first 18 months, and to promote protective adaptive systems in children through a schedule of quarterly office-based appointments, starting at 3 months of age. Generally children attend for six visits. When the Program opens in a particular area, parents of all children under 18 months are invited. The different ages of the children who are joining present a unique opportunity to obtain groups to evaluate the program dose-effect using a cohort-sequential design. This dose-effect on parent and infant outcomes was examined by: (1) self-report of parental sense of competence and factors negatively affecting their parenting and (2) the quality of the child's attachment, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation Test. The study was based on 594 families. Results showed dose effects for parental sense of competence, in the parental self-efficacy dimension. The proportion of securely attached children was significantly higher in groups with medium and high program dose. These results were obtained after considering the effect on the parent and child outcomes of two socio-demographic factors that showed differences among the groups under study: single parenthood and working at home. In the variables under study the PCPS, serving a socially deprived area, showed dose effects. The evaluation strategy can be useful for evaluators and planners working with universal programs that offer a longitudinal service. PMID:23298818

  11. [Characteristic evaluation and clinical usefulness of dose area product meter at radiography].

    PubMed

    Nakamae, Mitsuhiro; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Morioka, Shigeaki; Masuda, Seiichi; Kitanaka, Yasutomo

    2011-01-01

    Philips DigitalDiagnost, a digital radiographic system mounting flat panel detector (FPD), can display dose area data (DiDi dose) calculated by examination parameters. We evaluated its fundamental characteristics and compared the values of DiDi dose andactual measured data obtained by the area dose product meter (PD-4100L). Tendency of varied values of mAs, X-ray tube values and exposure area from both the area dose product meter and the DiDi dose were coincided. Further, in clinical images of chest PA 100 cases, chest lateral 50 cases and abdomen stand 25 cases, the determination coefficient was overly high as R(2)=0.99. Based on these results, it is clear that the DiDi dose can be treated the same as the area dose product meter. Under increasing of patient X-ray exposure dose is a concern in digital general radiography, this research indicates that maximum values of histogram obtained by DiDi dose contributes dose awareness for radiographer. PMID:22104238

  12. SU-E-P-03: Implementing a Low Dose Lung Screening CT Program Meeting Regulatory Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrance, M; Marsh, S; O'Donnell, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide information pertaining to IROC Houston QA Center's (RPC) credentialing process for institutions participating in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Purpose: Provide guidance to the Radiology Departments with the intent of implementing a Low Dose CT Screening Program using different CT Scanners with multiple techniques within the framework of the required state regulations. Method: State Requirements for the purpose of implementing a Low Dose CT Lung Protocol required working with the Radiology and Pulmonary Department in setting up a Low Dose Screening Protocol designed to reduce the radiation burden to the patients enrolled. Radiation dose measurements (CTDIvol) for various CT manufacturers (Siemens16, Siemens 64, Philips 64, and Neusoft128) for three different weight based protocols. All scans were reviewed by the Radiologist. Prior to starting a low dose lung screening protocol, information had to be submitted to the state for approval. Performing a Healing Arts protocol requires extensive information. This not only includes name and address of the applicant but a detailed description of the disease, the x-ray examination and the population to be examined. The unit had to be tested by a qualified expert using the technique charts. The credentials of all the operators, the supervisors and the Radiologists had to be submitted to the state. Results: All the appropriate documentation was sent to the state for review. The measured results between the Low Dose Protocol versus the default Adult Chest Protocol showed that there was a dose reduction of 65% for small (100-150 lb.) patient, 75% for the Medium patient (151-250 lbs.), and a 55% reduction for the Large patient ( over 250 lbs.). Conclusion: Measured results indicated that the Low Dose Protocol indeed lowered the screening patient's radiation dose and the institution was able to submit the protocol to the State's regulators.

  13. U.S. EPA Superfund Program's Policy for Risk and Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Stuart

    2008-01-15

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) has primary responsibility for implementing the long-term (non-emergency) portion of a key U.S. law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed 'Superfund'. The purpose of the Superfund program is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on risk and dose assessment policies and tools for addressing radioactively contaminated sites by the Superfund program. EPA has almost completed two risk assessment tools that are particularly relevant to decommissioning activities conducted under CERCLA authority. These are the: 1. Building Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides (BPRG) electronic calculator, and 2. Radionuclide Outdoor Surfaces Preliminary Remediation Goals (SPRG) electronic calculator. EPA developed the BPRG calculator to help standardize the evaluation and cleanup of radiologically contaminated buildings at which risk is being assessed for occupancy. BPRGs are radionuclide concentrations in dust, air and building materials that correspond to a specified level of human cancer risk. The intent of SPRG calculator is to address hard outside surfaces such as building slabs, outside building walls, sidewalks and roads. SPRGs are radionuclide concentrations in dust and hard outside surface materials. EPA is also developing the 'Radionuclide Ecological Benchmark' calculator. This calculator provides biota concentration guides (BCGs), also known as ecological screening benchmarks, for use in ecological risk assessments at CERCLA sites. This calculator is intended to develop ecological benchmarks as part of the EPA guidance 'Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk

  14. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  15. The Know Your Body program: a review of evaluation studies.

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, K.; Cross, D.; Wynder, E.

    1993-01-01

    Know Your Body is a comprehensive school health promotion program for kindergarten through six grades, initially developed in the 1970s by the American Health Foundation. The impact of the KYB program has been evaluated in three field trials, the results of which have been reviewed in this article. Across the three studies, at 3-year follow-up, consistent positive intervention effects were reported for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking, HDL-cholesterol, and health knowledge. Results for total blood cholesterol, fitness score, heart-healthy snacks, fruit/vegetable intake, whole milk intake, and health attitudes were mixed. For body mass index, triceps skinfold, all remaining dietary variables, self-esteem/self-efficacy, and locus of control no significant effects were observed. Overall, significant treatment effects were reported for 19 of the 40 variables assessed at 3-year follow-up, an effects ratio of 48%. Consistent positive results at 5-year follow-up were reported for smoking and health knowledge. Mixed results were obtained for total blood cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, and percent kilocalories from saturated fat. Consistent null results were reported for HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, triceps skinfold, fitness score, percentage kilocalories from fat, cholesterol intake, and fiber intake. Overall, significant treatment effects were reported for 7 of 36 variables at 5-year follow-up, an effects ratio of 19%. Although reported program effects were largely mixed, they seem consistent with other health education evaluations. Null results may have been related to insufficient teacher implementation as well as weaknesses in design and assessment. Additional research is needed to determine the effect of the program on a broader range of outcomes, to what degree increasing the "dose" produces larger and more enduring treatment effects, and the relative impact of the various components that comprise the

  16. Epidemiology of Varicella During the 2-Dose Varicella Vaccination Program - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adriana S; Zhang, John; Marin, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Before availability of varicella vaccine in the United States, an estimated 4 million varicella cases, 11,000-13,500 varicella-related hospitalizations, and 100-150 varicella-related deaths occurred annually. The varicella vaccination program was implemented in the United States in 1996 as a 1-dose routine childhood program. Based on data from two varicella active surveillance sites, the varicella vaccination program led to 90% decline in incidence over the next decade (1). However, because of continued varicella outbreaks, a routine 2-dose schedule (at ages 12-15 months and 4-6 years) was recommended and has been in place since 2006 (2). The declines in incidence (1,3-6) made it feasible for states to implement varicella case-based surveillance and to report varicella data to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). State data have become the primary source for monitoring trends in varicella incidence nationally (7). Using NNDSS data, CDC previously reported nationwide declines in varicella incidence of 72% from the end of the 1-dose to the early years of the 2-dose varicella vaccination program (2006-2010) (7). This report updates varicella incidence trends to include the most recent years in the 2-dose varicella vaccination program. Between the period 2005-2006 (before the 2-dose recommendation) and 2013-2014, overall varicella incidence declined 84.6%, with the largest declines reported in children aged 5-9 years (89.3%) and 10-14 years (84.8%). The availability of varicella-specific data varied over time. During the last 2 years examined (2013 and 2014), completeness of reporting of two critical variables monitored by CDC, vaccination status (receipt of at least 1 dose of varicella vaccine) of cases and severity of disease based on number of lesions, were 54.2% and 39.1%, respectively. State and local health departments, in collaboration with CDC, should continue working to improve reporting of cases and completeness of

  17. An Evaluation of State Energy Program Accomplishments: 2002 Program Year

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    2005-07-13

    SEP activities performed by the states during the 2002 program year, based on primary data provided by the states themselves. This is the second systematic evaluation of SEP accomplishments performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for DOE. A report documenting the findings of the first study was published in January 2003 (Schweitzer et.al., 2003).

  18. Small Commercial Program DOE Project: Impact evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bathgate, R.; Faust, S. )

    1992-08-12

    In 1991, Washington Electric Cooperative (WEC) implemented a Department of Energy grant to conduct a small commercial energy conservation project. The small commercial Mom, and Pop'' grocery stores within WEC's service territory were selected as the target market for the project. Energy Solid Waste Consultant's (E SWC) Impact Evaluation is documented here. The evaluation was based on data gathered from a variety of sources, including load profile metering, kWh submeters, elapsed time indicators, and billing histories. Five stores were selected to receive measures under this program: Waits River General Store, Joe's Pond Store, Hastings Store, Walden General Store, and Adamant Cooperative. Specific measures installed in each store and description of each are included.

  19. Foreign Language K-12. Program Evaluation, 1995-96. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Jerry M.

    An evaluation of the foreign language programs of the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools is presented. It is divided into six ares: (1) Introduction; (2) Context Evaluation; (3) Input Evaluation; (4) Process Evaluation; (5) Product Evaluation; and (6) the Future. Sections include: a statement of program mission and philosophy; notes on the context…

  20. MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based

  1. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay. Phase 2: dose-response studies.

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Jun; Onyon, Lesley; Peddada, Shyamal; Ashby, John; Jacob, Elard; Owens, William

    2003-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed phase 2 of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. The purpose of the validation program was to demonstrate the performance of two versions of the uterotrophic bioassay, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat, in four standardized protocols. This article reports the dose-response studies of the validation program; the coded single-dose studies are reported in an accompanying paper. The dose-response study design used five selected weak estrogen agonists, bisphenol A, genistein, methoxychlor, nonylphenol, and o,p -DDT. These weak agonists were administered in a prescribed series of doses to measure the performance and reproducibility of the protocols among the participating laboratories. All protocols successfully detected increases in uterine weights when the weak agonists were administered. Within each protocol, there was good agreement and reproducibility of the dose response among laboratories with each substance. Substance-specific variations were observed in the influence of the route of administration on the uterine response, the potency as related to the dose producing the first statistically significant increase in uterine weights, and the maximum increase in uterine weight. Substantive performance differences were not observed between the uterotrophic bioassay versions or among the standardized protocols, and these were judged to be qualitatively equivalent. It is noteworthy that these results were reproducible under a variety of different experimental conditions (e.g., animal strain, diet, housing, bedding, vehicle, animal age), indicating that the bioassay's performance as a screen is robust. In conclusion, both the intact, immature, and adult OVX versions, and all protocols appear to be reproducible and transferable across laboratories and are able to detect weak estrogen agonists. PMID:12948896

  2. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM - TECHNOLOGY PROFILES 4th Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new and promising treatment technologies for cleanup of hazardous waste sites. The program was created to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment technologies. As a result, the SI...

  3. The SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION program - Technology Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program was created to evaluate new and promising treatment technologies for cleanup at hazardous waste sites. The mission of the SITE program is to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment technologie...

  4. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM TECHNOLOGY PROFILES: SIXTH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new and promising treatment and monitoring and measurement technologies for cleanup of hazardous waste sites. The program was created to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment techn...

  5. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM - TECHNOLOGY PROFILES - SEVENTH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new and promising treatment and monitoring and measurement technologies for cleanup of hazardous waste sites. The program was created to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment techn...

  6. Error Reduction Program. [combustor performance evaluation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, S. A.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Gosman, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The details of a study to select, incorporate and evaluate the best available finite difference scheme to reduce numerical error in combustor performance evaluation codes are described. The combustor performance computer programs chosen were the two dimensional and three dimensional versions of Pratt & Whitney's TEACH code. The criteria used to select schemes required that the difference equations mirror the properties of the governing differential equation, be more accurate than the current hybrid difference scheme, be stable and economical, be compatible with TEACH codes, use only modest amounts of additional storage, and be relatively simple. The methods of assessment used in the selection process consisted of examination of the difference equation, evaluation of the properties of the coefficient matrix, Taylor series analysis, and performance on model problems. Five schemes from the literature and three schemes developed during the course of the study were evaluated. This effort resulted in the incorporation of a scheme in 3D-TEACH which is usuallly more accurate than the hybrid differencing method and never less accurate.

  7. Scoping calculation for components of the cow-milk dose pathway for evaluating the dose contribution from iodine-131

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows.

  8. Evaluation of nonrigid registration models for interfraction dose accumulation in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Fekkes, Stein; Dekker, Andre; Macq, Benoit; Lambin, Philippe; Elmpt, Wouter van

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: Interfraction dose accumulation is necessary to evaluate the dose distribution of an entire course of treatment by adding up multiple dose distributions of different treatment fractions. This accumulation of dose distributions is not straightforward as changes in the patient anatomy may occur during treatment. For this purpose, the accuracy of nonrigid registration methods is assessed for dose accumulation based on the calculated deformations fields. Methods: A phantom study using a deformable cubic silicon phantom with implanted markers and a cylindrical silicon phantom with MOSFET detectors has been performed. The phantoms were deformed and images were acquired using a cone-beam CT imager. Dose calculations were performed on these CT scans using the treatment planning system. Nonrigid CT-based registration was performed using two different methods, the Morphons and Demons. The resulting deformation field was applied on the dose distribution. For both phantoms, accuracy of the registered dose distribution was assessed. For the cylindrical phantom, also measured dose values in the deformed conditions were compared with the dose values of the registered dose distributions. Finally, interfraction dose accumulation for two treatment fractions of a patient with primary rectal cancer has been performed and evaluated using isodose lines and the dose volume histograms of the target volume and normal tissue. Results: A significant decrease in the difference in marker or MOSFET position was observed after nonrigid registration methods (p<0.001) for both phantoms and with both methods, as well as a significant decrease in the dose estimation error (p<0.01 for the cubic phantom and p<0.001 for the cylindrical) with both methods. Considering the whole data set at once, the difference between estimated and measured doses was also significantly decreased using registration (p<0.001 for both methods). The patient case showed a slightly underdosed planning target volume

  9. Dose evaluation of selective collimation effect in cephalography by measurement and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Shin, Gwisoon; Kang, Sunjung; Shin, Boram; Back, Ilhong; Park, Hyok; Park, Changseo; Lee, Jeongwoo; Lee, Wonho; Choi, Jonghak; Park, Ryeonghwang; Kim, Youhyun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, simulations based on the Monte Carlo code have been increasingly applied for physics phenomena, patient dose and quality assurance of radiation systems. The objective of this study was to use Monte Carlo simulation and measurement to verify dose and dose reduction in cephalography. The collimator was constructed with 3-mm thick lead plate, and attached to the tube head to remove regions of disinterest in the radiation field. A digital phantom patient was constructed to evaluate patient dose. In addition, detectors of pixel size 1×1 cm² and 0.1×0.1 cm² were constructed to check collimator location. The effective dose according to International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 was calculated with and without collimation. The effective doses for simulation with and without collimation were 5.09 and 11.32 µSv, respectively. The results of the calculated effective dose show 61.7 % reduction of field area and 55 % of effective dose. The Monte Carlo simulation is a good evaluation tool for patient dose. PMID:21335329

  10. Application of optical methods for dose evaluation in normoxic polyacrylamide gels irradiated at two different geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adliene, D.; Jakstas, K.; Vaiciunaite, N.

    2014-03-01

    Normoxic gels are frequently used in clinical praxis for dose assessment or 3-D dose imaging in radiotherapy due to their relative simple manufacturing process under normal atmospheric conditions, spatial stability and well expressed modification feature of physical properties which is related to radiation induced polymerization of gels. In this work we have investigated radiation induced modification of the optical properties of home prepared normoxic polyacrylamide gels (nPAG) in relation to polymerization processes that occur in irradiated gels. Two irradiation geometries were used for irradiation of gel samples: broad beam irradiation geometry of teletherapy unit ROKUS-M with a 60Co source and point source irradiation geometry using 192Ir source of high dose rate afterloading brachytherapy unit MicroSelectron v2 which was inserted into gel via 6 Fr (2 mm thick) catheter. Verification of optical methods: UV-VIS spectrometry, spectrophotometry, Raman spectroscopy for dose assessment in irradiated gels has been performed. Aspects of their application for dose evaluation in gels irradiated using different geometries are discussed. Simple pixel-dose based photometry method also has been proposed and evaluated as a potential method for dose evaluation in catheter based interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation Program: Progress in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Dau, G.J.; Edmonds, J.; Gehl, S.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Viswanathan, R.; Welty, C.S.

    1988-06-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondsetructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, RandD personnel, and utility representatives. As the ninth in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Eighth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 17-18, 1987. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-4902-SR was issued in July 1987. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components/emdash/pipe, pressure vessel, steam generator and boiler tubes, and turbine. In addition, Part 6 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer. The individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  12. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  13. [Evaluation of the dose-effect relationship of perindopril in the treatment of arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Luccioni, R; Frances, Y; Gass, R; Gilgenkrantz, J M

    1989-05-01

    To evaluate the dose-effect relationship of antihypertensive drugs is essential to a rational determination of their effective dosage. Two double-blind and strictly controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of perindopril 4 mg orally in the treatment of mild to moderate arterial hypertension (100 less than DAP less than 120 mmHg). The drug remained effective 24 hours after the last dose. The 2 mg dose proved insufficient to obtain a significant reduction of blood pressure. In case where the 4 mg dose was not sufficiently active, a better antihypertensive effect could be achieved with an 8 mg dose without major untoward reactions. The antihypertensive activity of perindopril was parallel to the percentage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition induced by the compound. This study also illustrates clearly the value of semi-automatic blood pressure recording with the Dinamap system in the determination of dose-effect relationship, compared with the conventional sphygmomanometric method. PMID:2505712

  14. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT treatment in the epithermal neutron beam at THOR.

    PubMed

    Wang, J N; Huang, C K; Tsai, W C; Liu, Y H; Jiang, S H

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as equivalent doses of several organs of an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom according to the definition of ICRP Publication 60 for BNCT treatments of brain tumors in the epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used for the calculation of the average absorbed dose of each organ. The effective doses for a typical brain tumor treatment with a tumor treatment dose of 20 Gy-eq were evaluated to be 0.59 and 0.35 Sv for the LLAT and TOP irradiation geometries, respectively. In addition to the stochastic effect, it was found that it is also likely to produce deterministic effects, such as cataracts and depression of haematopoiesis. PMID:21530281

  15. Dose evaluation in criticality accident conditions using transient critical facilities fueled with a fissile solution.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Tonoike, K; Miyoshi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Neutron dose measurement and evaluation techniques in criticality accident conditions using a thermo luminescence dosemeter (TLD) was studied at the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In the present approach, the absorbed dose is derived from the ambient dose equivalent measured with a TLD, using the appropriate conversion factor given by computation. Using this technique, the neutron dose around the SILENE reactor of the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) of France was measured in the Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise (June 10-21, 2002) organized by OECD/NEA and IRSN. In this exercise, the gamma dose was also measured with a TLD. In this report, measurements and evaluation results at TRACY and SILENE are presented. PMID:15353695

  16. Space station solar array technology evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischof, F. V.

    1973-01-01

    The results of all the major program phases of the program are reported. All goals of the program, which are listed were successfully accomplished and are briefly described. A complete list is included of all drawings generated during this program.

  17. Testing of a Program Evaluation Model: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagler, Phyllis J.; Marson, Arthur A.

    A program evaluation model developed by Moraine Park Technical Institute (MPTI) is described in this report. Following background material, the four main evaluation criteria employed in the model are identified as program quality, program relevance to community needs, program impact on MPTI, and the transition and growth of MPTI graduates in the…

  18. Computer-Assisted, Outcomes-Based Evaluation for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Roegge, Chris A.

    1991-01-01

    An outcomes-based model was developed to evaluate vocational education programs in Illinois. The model, which evaluates programs based on six vital signs of program quality, uses a series of computer technology expert systems to give local personnel assistance in exploring program problems and improvement. (SLD)

  19. The Cost-Income Compenent of Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    Cost-income studies are designed to serve two functions in instructional program evaluation. First, they act as the indicator of the economic value of a program. This economic value in conjunction with the other educational values needed in program evaluation allow for the most realistic appraisal of program worth. Second, if the studies show a…

  20. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Etieli C; da Rosa, Luiz Antonio R; Batista, Delano Valdivino S

    2015-06-01

    In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. A female anthropomorphic Alderson phantom was used and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated protecting the patient's abdomen with a 7cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The target volume dose was 50Gy. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and 0.88±0.052cGy. PMID:25620113

  1. Evaluation of the neutron spectrum and dose assessment around the venus reactor.

    PubMed

    Coeck, Michèle; Vermeersch, Fernand; Vanhavere, Filip

    2005-01-01

    An assessment of the neutron field near the VENUS reactor is made in order to evaluate the neutron dose to the operators, particularly in an area near the reactor shielding and in the control room. Therefore, a full MCNPX model of the shielding geometry was developed. The source term used in the simulation is derived from a criticality calculation done beforehand. Calculations are compared to routine neutron dose rate measurements and show good agreement. The MCNPX model developed easily allows core adaptations in order to evaluate the effect of future core configuration on the neutron dose to the operators. PMID:16381686

  2. Evaluation of radiation dose to anthropomorphic paediatric models from positron-emitting labelled tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-03-01

    PET uses specific molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides to provide valuable biochemical and physiological information. However, the administration of radiotracers to patients exposes them to low-dose ionizing radiation, which is a concern in the paediatric population since children are at a higher cancer risk from radiation exposure than adults. Therefore, radiation dosimety calculations for commonly used positron-emitting radiotracers in the paediatric population are highly desired. We evaluate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 19 positron-emitting labelled radiotracers in anthropomorphic paediatric models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old male and female. This is achieved using pre-calculated S-values of positron-emitting radionuclides of UF-NCI paediatric phantoms and published biokinetic data for various radiotracers. The influence of the type of anthropomorphic model, tissue weight factors and direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data on the effective dose for paediatric phantoms was also evaluated. In the case of 18F-FDG, dosimetry calculations of reference paediatric patients from various dose regimens were also calculated. Among the considered radiotracers, 18F-FBPA and 15O-water resulted in the highest and lowest effective dose in the paediatric phantoms, respectively. The ICRP 103 updated tissue-weighting factors decrease the effective dose in most cases. Substantial differences of radiation dose were observed between direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data. Moreover, the effect of using voxel- versus MIRD-type models on the calculation of the effective dose was also studied. The generated database of absorbed organ dose and effective dose for various positron-emitting labelled radiotracers using new generation computational models and the new ICRP tissue-weighting factors can be used for the assessment of radiation risks to paediatric patients in clinical practice. This work also contributes

  3. Annual Evaluation Report on Education Programs: Fiscal Year 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Planning, Budgeting, and Evaluation.

    A comprehensive report on the 82 Office of Education programs is provided in this evaluation of the programs for fiscal year 1972. The status of the evaluation function itself is briefly discussed; a general overview is made of the effectiveness of the Office of Education programs; the highlights of new findings from recent evaluation studies are…

  4. A MODEL FOR THE EVALUATION OF A TESTING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COX, RICHARD C.; UNKS, NANCY J.

    THE EVALUATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM TYPICALLY IMPLIES MEASUREMENT. MEASUREMENT, IN TURN, IMPLIES TESTING IN ONE FORM OR ANOTHER. IN ORDER TO CARRY OUT THE TESTING NECESSARY FOR THE EVALUATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, RESEARCHERS OFTEN DEVELOP A COMPLETE TESTING SUB-PROGRAM. THE EVALUATION OF THE TOTAL PROJECT MAY DEPEND UPON THE TESTING…

  5. Evaluation with an Experimental Design: The Emergency School Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.; York, Robert L.

    The Evaluation of the Emergency School Assistance Program (ESAP) for the 1971-72 school year is the first application of full-blown experimental design with randomized experimental and control cases in a federal evaluation of a large scale program. It is also one of the very few evaluations which has shown that federal programs can raise tested…

  6. Federal Requirements for the Evaluation of Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Walt

    In order to determine how vocational education programs should be evaluated, it is first necessary to define vocational education, to describe how vocational education programs are now being evaluated, to find out how other federal education programs are evaluated, and to suggest what criteria might reasonably be set out in future federal…

  7. An Introduction to Course and/or Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Program and/or course evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional program are explored. Program evaluation is an attempt in which different elements of a given curriculum are scrutinized in depth. To this end, an evaluator makes every effort to…

  8. A Program Evaluation Model for Migrant Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno.

    This technical report outlines the evaluation methodology used to conduct the 1984-85 High School Equivalency Programs/College Assistance for Migrant Programs (HEP/CAMP) National Evaluation Project, with special emphasis upon how this methodology might be adapted to meet evaluation requirements of local HEP and CAMP programs. Section 1 describes…

  9. Annual Evaluation Report on Education Programs, FY 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Program Planning and Evaluation (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    A comprehensive report on the approximately 100 Office of Education programs is provided in this evaluation of the programs for FY 1971. The status of the evaluation function itself is briefly discussed; a general overview is made of the effectiveness of the Office of Education programs; and short evaluation reports are provided for each of the…

  10. 76 FR 9786 - NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Program Ten-Year Review-Phase I Report on Customer Service; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Program Ten-Year... review and comment on the draft publication, ``NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Program Ten-Year Review--Phase...

  11. Percentage depth dose evaluation in heterogeneous media using thermoluminescent dosimetry.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, L A R; Cardoso, S C; Campos, L T; Alves, V G L; Batista, D V S; Facure, A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of lung heterogeneity inside a soft tissue phantom on percentage depth dose (PDD). PDD curves were obtained experimentally using LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent detectors and applying Eclipse treatment planning system algorithms Batho, modified Batho (M-Batho or BMod), equivalent TAR (E-TAR or EQTAR), and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for a 15 MV photon beam and field sizes of 1 x 1, 2 x 2, 5 x 5, and 10 x 10 cm 2 . Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the DOSRZnrc user code of EGSnrc. The experimental results agree with Monte Carlo simulations for all irradiation field sizes. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations show that the AAA algorithm provides the best simulations of PDD curves for all field sizes investigated. However, even this algorithm cannot accurately predict PDD values in the lung for field sizes of 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 cm 2 . An overdosage in the lung of about 40% and 20% is calculated by the AAA algorithm close to the interface soft tissue/lung for 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 cm 2 field sizes, respectively. It was demonstrated that differences of 100% between Monte Carlo results and the algorithms Batho, modified Batho, and equivalent TAR responses may exist inside the lung region for the 1 x 1 cm 2 field. PMID:20160687

  12. Maine Migrant Program: 1997-1998 Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazinet, Suzanne C., Ed.

    The Maine Department of Education contracts with local educational agencies to administer the Maine Migrant Education Program. The program's overall mission is to provide the support necessary for migrant children to achieve Maine's academic standards. In 1997-98, 73 local migrant programs served 9,838 students, and 63 summer programs served 1,769…

  13. Comparison of different MC techniques to evaluate BNCT dose profiles in phantom exposed tovarious neutron fields.

    PubMed

    Durisi, E; Koivunoro, H; Visca, L; Borla, O; Zanini, A

    2010-03-01

    The absorbed dose in BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) consists of several radiation components with different physical properties and biological effectiveness. In order to assess the clinical efficacy of the beams, determining the dose profiles in tissues, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are used. This paper presents a comparison between dose profiles calculated in different phantoms using two techniques: MC radiation transport code, MCNP-4C2 and BNCT MC treatment planning program, SERA (simulation environment for radiotherapy application). In this study MCNP is used as a reference tool. A preliminary test of SERA is performed using six monodirectional and monoenergetic beams directed onto a simple water phantom. In order to deeply investigate the effect of the different cross-section libraries and of the dose calculation methodology, monoenergetic and monodirectional beams directed toward a standard Snyder phantom are simulated. Neutron attenuation curves and dose profiles are calculated with both codes and the results are compared. PMID:19939825

  14. Radiation dose evaluation in 64-slice CT examinations with adult and paediatric anthropomorphic phantoms.

    PubMed

    Fujii, K; Aoyama, T; Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Koyama, S; Yamauchi, M; Ko, S; Akahane, K; Nishizawa, K

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the organ dose and effective dose to patients undergoing routine adult and paediatric CT examinations with 64-slice CT scanners and to compare the doses with those from 4-, 8- and 16-multislice CT scanners. Patient doses were measured with small (<7 mm wide) silicon photodiode dosemeters (34 in total), which were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within adult and 6-year-old child anthropomorphic phantoms. Output signals from photodiode dosemeters were read on a personal computer, from which organ and effective doses were computed. For the adult phantom, organ doses (for organs within the scan range) and effective doses were 8-35 mGy and 7-18 mSv, respectively, for chest CT, and 12-33 mGy and 10-21 mSv, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT. For the paediatric phantom, organ and effective doses were 4-17 mGy and 3-7 mSv, respectively, for chest CT, and 5-14 mGy and 3-9 mSv, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT. Doses to organs at the boundaries of the scan length were higher for 64-slice CT scanners using large beam widths and/or a large pitch because of the larger extent of over-ranging. The CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), dose-length product (DLP) and the effective dose values using 64-slice CT for the adult and paediatric phantoms were the same as those obtained using 4-, 8- and 16-slice CT. Conversion factors of DLP to the effective dose by International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 were 0.024 mSvmGy(-1)cm(-1) and 0.019 mSvmGy(-1)cm(-1) for adult chest and abdominopelvic CT scans, respectively. PMID:19934069

  15. The Significance of Definitions of Success in Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Mary E.; Harris, Philip W.; Jones, Peter R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program evaluation system in which the review of programs' definitions of success serve as indicators of stated goals and changes in programs. Review of definitions of success of eight programs suggests information that programs want to use in making decisions across the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, delinquency prevention services. (SLD)

  16. Evaluation of a Demonstration Program for Postsecondary Hospitality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.

    A three-phase program evaluation effort employing comparison groups and a pre-post test design indicate formative guidelines for programs revision and summative results indicative of the effectiveness of a demonstration associate degree program for hospitality education. Program effectiveness is defined in terms of the program's enrollment of…

  17. Evaluation of Three Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Morningstar, Mona

    This technical report is concerned with the evaluation of three Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Programs - The Drill-and practice Program in Elementary School Mathematics, The Brentwood Tutorial Mathematics Program, and the Russian Program. Among the results reported were (1) the drill-and-practice mathematics program used in Mississippi and…

  18. [Evaluation tests of computer systems concerning tri-dimensional dose calculations].

    PubMed

    Simonian-Sauve, M; Smart, C

    1998-01-01

    The development of irradiation techniques in radiotherapy shows a clear tendency towards the systematic use of three-dimensional (3D) information. Great efforts are being made to set up 3D conformal radiotherapy. Consequently, in the aim of greater coherence and accuracy, "the dosimetric tool" must also meet the requirements of 3D radiotherapy, as it plays a role in the treatment chain. To know if the treatment planning system is a "3D", "2D" or even "1D" system, one should not be satisfied with reading the technical documentation and the program algorithm description nor entirely trust the constructor's assertions. It is essential to clearly and precisely evaluate the possibilities of the treatment planning system. Even if it is proved not to satisfy perfectly all the tests which would qualify it as a real 3D calculation system, the study of the test results helps to give clear explanations of the dosimetric results. Two series of test cases are proposed. The first series allows us to understand in which conditions the treatment planning system takes into account the scatter influence in a volume. The second series is designed to inform us about the capability of the dose calculation algorithm when the medium encloses non-homogeneities. These test cases do not constitute an exhaustive "check-list" able to tackle completely the question of 3D calculation. They are submitted as examples and should be considered as an evaluation methodology for the software implanted in the treatment planning system. PMID:9749097

  19. Derivation of a screening methodology for evaluating radiation dose to aquatic and terrestrial biota.

    PubMed

    Higley, Kathryn A; Domotor, Stephen L; Antonio, Ernest J; Kocher, David C

    2003-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose standard for the protection of aquatic animals, and is considering additional dose standards for terrestrial biota. These standards are: 10 mGy/d for aquatic animals, 10 mGy/d for terrestrial plants, and, 1 mGy/d for terrestrial animals. Guidance on suitable approaches to the implementation of these standards is needed. A screening methodology, developed through DOE's Biota Dose Assessment Committee (BDAC), serves as the principal element of DOE's graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to aquatic and terrestrial biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment were derived for 23 radionuclides. Four organism types (aquatic animals; riparian animals; terrestrial animals; and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for development of the screening method. Internal doses for each organism type were calculated as the product of contaminant concentration, bioaccumulation factor(s) and dose conversion factors. External doses were calculated based on the assumption of immersion of the organism in soil, sediment, or water. The assumptions and default parameters used provide for conservative screening values. The screening methodology within DOE's graded approach should prove useful in demonstrating compliance with biota dose limits and for conducting screening assessments of radioecological impact. It provides a needed evaluation tool that can be employed within a framework for protection of the environment. PMID:12590069

  20. Program Evaluation Project Report, 1969-1973. Chapter Nine: Evaluation of the Adult Outpatient Program, Hennepin County Mental Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, James W.; Beaulieu, Dean E.

    The P.E.P. Report 1969-1973 focuses on the various findings of the Program Evaluation Project. This chapter deals with the first year development of an integrated program evaluation system for the Adult Outpatient Program, Hennepin County Mental Health Service, Minneapolis, Minnesota. This evaluation system is an extension of and expansion of the…

  1. Evaluation of target dose based on water-equivalent thickness in external beam radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Behnaz Ghanbar; Vahabi-Moghaddam, Masoud; Sadremomtaz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry was carried out for 152 patients receiving external beam radiotherapy and the treatment sites were divided into two main groups: Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic (120 fields) and Head and Neck (52 fields). Combined entrance and exit dose measurements were performed using LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Water-equivalent (effective) thicknesses and target dose were evaluated using dose transmission data. The ratio of measured to expected value for each quantity was considered as an indicator for the accuracy of the parameter. The average ratio of the entrance dose was evaluated as 1.01 ± 0.07. In the diameter measurement, the mean ratio of effective depth divided by the contour depth is 1.00 ± 0.13 that shows a wide distribution which reflects the influence of contour inaccuracies as well as tissue inhomogeneities. At the target level, the mean ratio of measured to the prescribed dose is 1.00 ± 0.07. According to our findings, the difference between effective depth and patient depth has a direct relation to target dose discrepancies. There are some inevitable sources which may cause the difference. Evaluation and application of effective diameter in treatment calculations would lead to a more reliable target dose, especially for fields which involve Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic. PMID:23532059

  2. Evaluation and comparison of absorbed dose for electron beams by LiF and diamond dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosia, G. J.; Chamberlain, A. C.

    2007-09-01

    The absorbed dose response of LiF and diamond thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in 60Co γ-rays, has been determined using the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code system in mono-energetic megavoltage electron beams from 5 to 20 MeV. Evaluation of the dose responses was done against the dose responses of published works by other investigators. Dose responses of both dosimeters were compared to establish if any relation exists between them. The dosimeters were irradiated in a water phantom with the centre of their top surfaces (0.32×0.32 cm 2), placed at dmax perpendicular to the radiation beam on the central axis. For LiF TLD, dose responses ranged from 0.945±0.017 to 0.997±0.011. For the diamond TLD, the dose response ranged from 0.940±0.017 to 1.018±0.011. To correct for dose responses by both dosimeters, energy correction factors were generated from dose response results of both TLDs. For LiF TLD, these correction factors ranged from 1.003 up to 1.058 and for diamond TLD the factors ranged from 0.982 up to 1.064. The results show that diamond TLDs can be used in the place of the well-established LiF TLDs and that Monte Carlo code systems can be used in dose determinations for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  3. Evaluation of dose distributions in gamma chamber using glass plate detector

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Bhatnagar, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    A commercial glass plate of thickness 1.75 mm has been utilized for evaluation of dose distributions inside the irradiation volume of gamma chamber using optical densitometry technique. The glass plate showed linear response in the dose range 0.10 Kilo Gray (kGy) to 10 kGy of cobalt-60 gamma radiation with optical sensitivity 0.04 Optical Density (OD) /kGy. The change in the optical density at each identified spatial dose matrix on the glass plate in relation to the position in the irradiation volume has been presented as dose distributions inside the gamma chamber. The optical density changes have been graphically plotted in the form of surface diagram of color washes for different percentage dose rate levels as isodose distributions in gamma chamber. The variation in dose distribution inside the gamma chamber unit, GC 900, BRIT India make, using this technique has been observed within ± 15%. This technique can be used for routine quality assurances and dose distribution validation of any gamma chamber during commissioning and source replacement. The application of commercial glass plate for dose mapping in gamma chambers has been found very promising due to its wider dose linearity, quick measurement, and lesser expertise requirement in application of the technique. PMID:19893695

  4. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Karin M.

    1998-02-28

    This report represents the results of the analyses for the second EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (August 1997). A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum and three sample spectra were included for each software format as part of the evaluation. The calibration spectrum contained nuclides covering the range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants were told fallout and fission product nuclides as well as naturally occurring nuclides could be present. The samples were designed to test the detection and quantification of very low levels of nuclides and the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Twenty-nine sets of results were reported from a total of 70 laboratories who received the spectra. The percentage of the results within 1 F of the expected value was 76, 67, and 55 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 12% of the results were more than 3 F from the expected value. Sixty-two nuclides out of a total of 580 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Sixty percent of these false negatives were due to nuclides which were present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 60% of the responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results indicate that the Program is beneficial to the participating laboratories in that it provides them with analysis problems that are difficult to create with spiked samples due to the unavailability of many nuclides and the short half-lives of others. EML will continue its annual distribution, the third is to be held in March 1999.

  5. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  6. Radiation dose evaluation in 64-slice CT examinations with adult and paediatric anthropomorphic phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, K; Aoyama, T; Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Koyama, S; Yamauchi, M; Ko, S; Akahane, K; Nishizawa, K

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the organ dose and effective dose to patients undergoing routine adult and paediatric CT examinations with 64-slice CT scanners and to compare the doses with those from 4-, 8- and 16-multislice CT scanners. Patient doses were measured with small (<7 mm wide) silicon photodiode dosemeters (34 in total), which were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within adult and 6-year-old child anthropomorphic phantoms. Output signals from photodiode dosemeters were read on a personal computer, from which organ and effective doses were computed. For the adult phantom, organ doses (for organs within the scan range) and effective doses were 8–35 mGy and 7–18 mSv, respectively, for chest CT, and 12–33 mGy and 10–21 mSv, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT. For the paediatric phantom, organ and effective doses were 4–17 mGy and 3–7 mSv, respectively, for chest CT, and 5–14 mGy and 3–9 mSv, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT. Doses to organs at the boundaries of the scan length were higher for 64-slice CT scanners using large beam widths and/or a large pitch because of the larger extent of over-ranging. The CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose–length product (DLP) and the effective dose values using 64-slice CT for the adult and paediatric phantoms were the same as those obtained using 4-, 8- and 16-slice CT. Conversion factors of DLP to the effective dose by International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 were 0.024 mSv⋅mGy−1⋅cm−1 and 0.019 mSv⋅mGy−1⋅cm−1 for adult chest and abdominopelvic CT scans, respectively. PMID:19934069

  7. Program Evaluation of Services for the Homeless: Challenges and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Celine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Research strategies, including types of evaluations, designs, and indicators, developed to assess programs for chronic alcoholics and mentally ill homeless people in Canada are reviewed. Findings from previous evaluations are summarized, and the implications for evaluation practice are considered. (SLD)

  8. Checklist for managing a general program evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    This checklist for managing a general program evaluation study provides action items covering the following topics: initial planning; evaluation design and procurement; implementation of study; and using evaluation results.

  9. SU-E-I-28: Evaluating the Organ Dose From Computed Tomography Using Monte Carlo Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, T; Araki, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate organ doses from computed tomography (CT) using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Methods: A Philips Brilliance CT scanner (64 slice) was simulated using the GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) based on the EGSnrc user code. The X-ray spectra and a bowtie filter for MC simulations were determined to coincide with measurements of half-value layer (HVL) and off-center ratio (OCR) profile in air. The MC dose was calibrated from absorbed dose measurements using a Farmer chamber and a cylindrical water phantom. The dose distribution from CT was calculated using patient CT images and organ doses were evaluated from dose volume histograms. Results: The HVLs of Al at 80, 100, and 120 kV were 6.3, 7.7, and 8.7 mm, respectively. The calculated HVLs agreed with measurements within 0.3%. The calculated and measured OCR profiles agreed within 3%. For adult head scans (CTDIvol) =51.4 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 23.2, 34.2, and 37.6 mGy, respectively. For pediatric head scans (CTDIvol =35.6 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 19.3, 24.5, and 26.8 mGy, respectively. For adult chest scans (CTDIvol=19.0 mGy), mean doses for lung, heart, and spinal cord were 21.1, 22.0, and 15.5 mGy, respectively. For adult abdominal scans (CTDIvol=14.4 mGy), the mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 17.4, 16.5, 16.8, 16.8, and 13.1 mGy, respectively. For pediatric abdominal scans (CTDIvol=6.76 mGy), mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 8.24, 8.90, 8.17, 8.31, and 6.73 mGy, respectively. In head scan, organ doses were considerably different from CTDIvol values. Conclusion: MC dose distributions calculated by using patient CT images are useful to evaluate organ doses absorbed to individual patients.

  10. Program Evaluation: Lessons To be Learned from a District-Wide Middle School Tutorial Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Candace; LeBlanc, Patrice; Collins, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates Palm Beach County School District's Safe School Center tutorial program, a summer-school program for middle-school students who failed subjects during the academic year. Describes program successes, failures, and lessons learned. (Contains 38 references.) (PKP)

  11. Analysis of the Education Program Approval Process: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountaine, Charles A.; And Others

    A study of the education program approval process involving the Veterans Administration (VA) and the State Approving Agencies (SAAs) had the following objectives: to describe the present education program approval process; to determine time and costs associated with the education program approval process; to describe the approval process at…

  12. A revision of the γ-evaluation concept for the comparison of dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodie, Trevor; Sykes, Jonathan; Gajewski, Romuald

    2014-12-01

    The Chi index described in the article ‘A revision of the γ-evaluation concept for the comparison of dose distributions’ by Bakai et al (Phys. Med. Biol. 2003 48 3543-53) indicates that smooth acceptance tubes, defining upper and lower limits of dose difference and distance to agreement, can be pre-defined for a given dose distribution based on the local dose gradient. Mathematical analysis and simulations indicate that the Chi index as described by Bakai et al does not produce smooth acceptance criteria in rapidly varying dose gradients. Instead, ‘horns’ are generated in the acceptance tubes which lead to the production of unacceptably large acceptance criteria and the possibility of false negatives.

  13. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Bonnie B.; Lundien, Barbara; Kaufman, Jeffrey; Kreczko, Adam; Ferrey, Steven; Morgan, Stephen

    1991-12-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with surveys, participant list, and computers program to examine and predict potential energy savings.

  14. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  15. A Monte Carlo study on dose distribution evaluation of Flexisource 192Ir brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Majid; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Haghparast, Abbas; Zare, Naser; Ahmadi Moghaddas, Toktam

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the dose distribution of the Flexisource 192Ir source. Background Dosimetric evaluation of brachytherapy sources is recommended by task group number 43 (TG. 43) of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate Flexisource 192Ir source. Dose rate constant and radial dose function were obtained for water and soft tissue phantoms and compared with previous data on this source. Furthermore, dose rate along the transverse axis was obtained by simulation of the Flexisource and a point source and the obtained data were compared with those from Flexiplan treatment planning system (TPS). Results The values of dose rate constant obtained for water and soft tissue phantoms were equal to 1.108 and 1.106, respectively. The values of the radial dose function are listed in the form of tabulated data. The values of dose rate (cGy/s) obtained are shown in the form of tabulated data and figures. The maximum difference between TPS and Monte Carlo (MC) dose rate values was 11% in a water phantom at 6.0 cm from the source. Conclusion Based on dosimetric parameter comparisons with values previously published, the accuracy of our simulation of Flexisource 192Ir was verified. The results of dose rate constant and radial dose function in water and soft tissue phantoms were the same for Flexisource and point sources. For Flexisource 192Ir source, the results of TPS calculations in a water phantom were in agreement with the simulations within the calculation uncertainties. Furthermore, the results from the TPS calculation for Flexisource and MC calculation for a point source were practically equal within the calculation uncertainties. PMID:25949224

  16. A Program Evaluation of the Lincoln School District Teacher Collaboration Time (TCT) Staff Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitterman, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Many investigators have documented the need for valid and credible program evaluation research of teacher professional development programs. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive program evaluation of the Lincoln School District's Teacher Collaboration Time (TCT) staff development program. The study questions…

  17. Program Evaluation of Graduate Education Programs in an American University in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Program evaluation in the fields of second language acquisition (SLA) and teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) has a history dating from the 1960's. The focus of previous program evaluations has been on language achievement at the end of the program of study (Lynch, 1996). However, to improve or maintain program quality,…

  18. The Value in Evaluating and Communicating Program Impact: The Ohio BR&E Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daivs, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Assessing program impact can provide useful program evaluation data. It also provides a basis for program development, marketing, and justification. This article discusses recent impact evaluation efforts and findings of a long-time Extension program; referred to as Business Retention and Expansion (BR&E). How such information can be…

  19. Dual integral glow analysis-evaluation of the method in determination of shallow dose and deep dose in selected beta radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.C.; Samei, E.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1996-06-01

    Since introduction of the shallow dose and deep dose by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) in 1985, many efforts have been made to measure these quantities. In an earlier study, we introduced a new method, termed Dual Integral Glow Analysis (DINGA), for evaluation of these quantities. The method is based on obtaining the integrals of the glow curves from opposite sides of a hot gas-heated single or pair of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of DINGA in determination of the shallow dose and deep dose in selected beta radiation fields using a computational algorithm. The depth-dose distributions in the TLDs are computed for 19 well-defined beta radiation fields using the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Using a mathematical description of depth-dose distribution in the TLD and given the thermophysical and optical parameters of the system, the Randall-Wilkins TL model is used in a computational routine to reconstruct the depth-dose distribution from which the deep dose and shallow dose are evaluated. Introducing a 5% fluctuation in response of the TL elements, the error in the computed deep dose and shallow dose is within {+-}20% for examined beta radiation fields.

  20. Addressing Evaluation Challenges of Grassroots Family Support Programs: The MIHOW Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Erin; Davis, Kenneth

    This paper describes the process used by the Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW), a program of the Center for Health Services at Vanderbilt University, to develop its program evaluation with limited evaluation resources. The evaluation addresses the empowerment of grassroots participants in two projects: the MIHOW Pre- and…

  1. Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner.

    PubMed

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

    2006-12-01

    Gafchromic XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP. PMID:17110757

  2. Evaluation of Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity in Discrete Bipolar Junction Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Ladbury Raymond; LaBel, Kenneth; Topper, Alyson; Ladbury, Raymond; Triggs, Brian; Kazmakites, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the low dose rate sensitivity in several families of discrete bipolar transistors across device parameter, quality assurance level, and irradiation bias configuration. The 2N2222 showed the most significant low dose rate sensitivity, with low dose rate enhancement factor of 3.91 after 100 krad(Si). The 2N2907 also showed critical degradation levels. The devices irradiated at 10 mrad(Si)/s exceeded specifications after 40 and 50 krad(Si) for the 2N2222 and 2N2907 devices, respectively.

  3. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars.

    PubMed

    Kircos, L T; Eakle, W S; Smith, R A

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography. PMID:3458783

  4. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars

    SciTech Connect

    Kircos, L.T.; Eakle, W.S.; Smith, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography.

  5. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies Appendix 1: Checklist for Managing a General Program Evaluation Study

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    This checklist for managing a general program evaluation study provides action items covering the following topics: initial planning; evaluation design and procurement; implementation of study; and using evaluation results.

  6. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  7. Evaluation of the Title I Program: ELementary Reading and Math Program; Middle School Reading Program; NIE Demonstration Project; Health Education Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1976-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuristics, Inc., Dedham, MA.

    This report presents the summative evaluation of four components of Boston's Title I project (1976-77). Areas in which three of the programs, the Elementary Reading and Math Program, the Middle School Reading Program, and the National Institute of Education (NIE) Demonstration Project (reading), were particularly successful were administration and…

  8. Evaluation of a new commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, Eric J. Cygler, Joanna E.; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; La Russa, Daniel J.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In this report the authors present the validation of a Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (XiO EMC from Elekta Software) for electron beams. Methods: Calculated and measured dose distributions were compared for homogeneous water phantoms and for a 3D heterogeneous phantom meant to approximate the geometry of a trachea and spine. Comparisons of measurements and calculated data were performed using 2D and 3D gamma index dose comparison metrics. Results: Measured outputs agree with calculated values within estimated uncertainties for standard and extended SSDs for open applicators, and for cutouts, with the exception of the 17 MeV electron beam at extended SSD for cutout sizes smaller than 5 × 5 cm{sup 2}. Good agreement was obtained between calculated and experimental depth dose curves and dose profiles (minimum number of measurements that pass a 2%/2 mm agreement 2D gamma index criteria for any applicator or energy was 97%). Dose calculations in a heterogeneous phantom agree with radiochromic film measurements (>98% of pixels pass a 3 dimensional 3%/2 mm γ-criteria) provided that the steep dose gradient in the depth direction is considered. Conclusions: Clinically acceptable agreement (at the 2%/2 mm level) between the measurements and calculated data for measurements in water are obtained for this dose calculation algorithm. Radiochromic film is a useful tool to evaluate the accuracy of electron MC treatment planning systems in heterogeneous media.

  9. Evaluation of the medical exposure doses regarding dental examinations with different X-ray instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Chi; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Yu, Cheng-Ching; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing; Hsu, Fang-Yuh

    2015-11-01

    Modern dental X-ray examination that consists of traditional form, panorama, and cone-beamed 3D technologies is one of the most frequent diagnostic applications nowadays. This study used the Rando Phantom and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) to measure the absorbed doses of radiosensitive organs recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and whole body effective doses which were delivered due to dental X-ray examination performed with different types of X-ray instrument. Besides, enamel samples which performed reading with Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) procedure were also used to estimate the tooth doses. EPR is a dose reconstruction method of measuring free radicals induced by radiation exposure to the calcified tissue (mainly in the tooth enamel or bone) to evaluate the accepted high dose. The tooth doses estimated by TLD and EPR methods were compared. Relationships between the tooth doses and effective doses by dental X-ray examinations with different types of X-ray equipment were investigated in this work.

  10. Evaluation of the dose-effect relationship of perindopril in the treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Luccioni, R; Frances, Y; Gass, R; Gilgenkrantz, J M

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of the dose-antihypertensive effect relationship of a drug is essential for the rational determination of the effective dose. The efficacy and safety of the dose of 4 mg of perindopril in the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension were demonstrated by means of two double-blind studies conducted according to a rigorous methodology. This efficacy was still present 24 hours after the last dose of perindopril. The dose of 2 mg appeared to be insufficient to exert a significant antihypertensive effect. In the case of inadequate efficacy of the dose of 4 mg of perindopril, the dose of 8 mg is able to exert a greater antihypertensive effect without any major harmful effects. The antihypertensive efficacy is parallel to the percentage of converting enzyme inhibition induced by perindopril. The contribution of the automated method of blood pressure recording using the Dinamap method to establish a dose-effect relationship with reference to the classical sphygmomanometric method is clearly illustrated. PMID:2605801

  11. Development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Narai, K; Aoyama, T; Katsu, T; Obara, S; Imai, K; Ikeda, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the authors developed age-specific physical head phantoms simulating the physique of Japanese children for dose evaluation in paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Anatomical structures at 99 places in 0-, 0.5-, 1- and 3-y-old Japanese patients were measured using DICOM viewer software from CT images, and the head phantom of each age was designed. For trial manufacture, a 3-y-old head phantom consisting of acrylic resin and gypsum was produced by machine processing. Radiation doses for the head phantom were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters and Si-pin photodiode dosemeters. To investigate whether the phantom shape was suitable for dose evaluation, organ doses in the same scan protocol were compared between the 3-y-old head and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms having approximately the same head size. The doses of organs in both phantoms were equivalent. The authors' designed paediatric head phantom will be useful for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations. PMID:24821932

  12. SU-E-T-67: Clinical Implementation and Evaluation of the Acuros Dose Calculation Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, C; Combine, T; Dickens, K; Wynn, R; Pavord, D; Huq, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the current study is to present a detailed description of the implementation of the Acuros XB Dose Calculation Algorithm, and subsequently evaluate its clinical impacts by comparing it with AAA algorithm. Methods: The source models for both Acuros XB and AAA were configured by importing the same measured beam data into Eclipse treatment planning system. Both algorithms were evaluated by comparing calculated dose with measured dose on a homogeneous water phantom for field sizes ranging from 6cm × 6cm to 40cm × 40cm. Central axis and off-axis points with different depths were chosen for the comparison. Similarly, wedge fields with wedge angles from 15 to 60 degree were used. In addition, variable field sizes for a heterogeneous phantom were used to evaluate the Acuros algorithm. Finally, both Acuros and AAA were tested on VMAT patient plans for various sites. Does distributions and calculation time were compared. Results: On average, computation time is reduced by at least 50% by Acuros XB compared with AAA on single fields and VMAT plans. When used for open 6MV photon beams on homogeneous water phantom, both Acuros XB and AAA calculated doses were within 1% of measurement. For 23 MV photon beams, the calculated doses were within 1.5% of measured doses for Acuros XB and 2% for AAA. When heterogeneous phantom was used, Acuros XB also improved on accuracy. Conclusion: Compared with AAA, Acuros XB can improve accuracy while significantly reduce computation time for VMAT plans.

  13. Project for Faculty Development Program Evaluation: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; And Others

    The project of faculty development program evaluation, developed by the Center for the Study of Higher Education of the University of Michigan, is described. Project thrusts were: to develop assessment instruments for judging the success of faculty development programs; to provide formative and summative evaluation for the programs of the 24…

  14. Parent Evaluation Form Summary - 1970 Summer Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Steven P.

    As part of the evaluation of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) 1970 Summer Reading Program, a Parent Evaluation Form was distributed at the conclusion of the program. This form was sent home with 342 pupils whose parents were invited to participate with them in the program. The summary given in this report includes information received…

  15. Evaluating Academic Technical Communication Programs: New Stakeholders, Diverse Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses three challenges (dealing with program diversity, accommodating conflicting emphases, and precipitating positive change) in evaluating academic technical communication programs. Outlines an approach to program evaluation that redefines the stakeholders to include a wide range of partners in both workplace and academy, and that uses a…

  16. 40 CFR 51.353 - Network type and program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Network type and program evaluation. 51... Requirements § 51.353 Network type and program evaluation. Basic and enhanced I/M programs can be centralized.... (a) Presumptive equivalency. A decentralized network consisting of stations that only...

  17. 40 CFR 51.353 - Network type and program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Network type and program evaluation. 51... Requirements § 51.353 Network type and program evaluation. Basic and enhanced I/M programs can be centralized.... (a) Presumptive equivalency. A decentralized network consisting of stations that only...

  18. Evaluating an English Language Teacher Education Program through Peacock's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Abdullah; Daloglu, Aysegul

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to draw attention to the importance of program evaluation for teacher education programs and to reveal the pre-service English teacher education program components that are in need of improvement or maintenance both from teachers' and students' perspectives by using Peacock's (2009) recent evaluation model in a…

  19. Program and Evaluation Planning Lite: Planning in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Eronen, Pasi J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although there are many high-quality models for program and evaluation planning, these models are often too intensive to be used in situations when time and resources are scarce. Additionally, there is little added value in using an elaborate and expensive program and evaluation planning procedure when programs are small or are planned…

  20. Teach Louisiana Consortium: A Fifth Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Stringer, Angelle

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a fifth year program evaluation of a private provider program for teacher certification in Louisiana. The study sought to evaluate the success of the Teach Louisiana Consortium program in terms of teacher placement, teacher retention, administrative satisfaction, teacher attitudes, and teacher pedagogical knowledge. Initial…

  1. Evaluation of a Research Mentorship Program in Community Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploeg, Jenny; de Witt, Lorna; Hutchison, Brian; Hayward, Lynda; Grayson, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of a qualitative case study evaluating a research mentorship program in community care settings in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of the program was to build evaluation and research capacity among staff of community care agencies through a mentorship program. Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured…

  2. Evaluating the Implementation of an Olympic Education Program in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument for evaluating how an education program has been implemented. Such evaluation can provide insight into the effectiveness of a program. Examined here was the Olympic Education Program used in Greek schools since 2000. In it, students learn the history of the Olympic games and the importance of…

  3. Evaluation of the Training Program for Greek Olympic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios; Papacharisis, Vasilios; Koustelios, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the educational program's training. The program used for this purpose was the Olympic Education Program, which has been implemented in Greek primary and secondary schools since 2000. First, the face validity of items was evaluated, second, the pool of the items selected was factor…

  4. Evaluation of a Community-Based Aging Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…

  5. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  6. A four-step approach to evaluate mixtures for consistency with dose addition.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Richard C; Pan, Yi; Li, Ruosha; Haber, Lynne T; Lyles, Robert H; Herr, David W; Moser, Virginia C; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2013-11-16

    Mixture risk assessment is often hampered by the lack of dose-response information on the mixture being assessed, forcing reliance on component formulas such as dose addition. We present a four-step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in supporting a component based mixture risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (U.S. EPA, 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (all components known) is departure from a clearly articulated definition of component additivity. For the common approach of dose additivity, the EPA guidance identifies three desirable characteristics, foremost of which is that the component chemicals are toxicologically similar. The other two characteristics are empirical: the mixture components have toxic potencies that are fixed proportions of each other (throughout the dose range of interest), and the mixture dose term in the dose additive prediction formula, which we call the combined prediction model (CPM), can be represented by a linear combination of the component doses. A consequent property of the proportional toxic potencies is that the component chemicals must share a common dose-response model, where only the dose coefficients depend on the chemical components. A further consequence is that the mixture data must be described by the same mathematical function ("mixture model") as the components, but with a distinct coefficient for the total mixture dose. The mixture response is predicted from the component dose-response curves by using the dose additive CPM and the prediction is then compared with the observed mixture results. The four steps are to evaluate: (1) toxic proportionality by determining how well the CPM matches the single chemical models regarding mean and variance; (2) fit of the mixture model to the mixture data; (3) agreement between the mixture data and the CPM prediction; and (4) consistency between the CPM and the

  7. Three-dimensional dose evaluation system using real-time wind field information for nuclear accidents in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jay; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Yung-Muh; Chang, Bor-Jing; Teng, Jen-Hsin

    2006-09-01

    In Taiwan, the three operating nuclear power plants are all built along the coast over complex terrain. Dose estimates after a nuclear accident with releases of radioactive materials, therefore, cannot be accurately calculated using simple dispersion models. We developed a three-dimensional dose evaluation system, which incorporates real-time prognostic wind field information with three-dimensional numerical models to predict dose results. The proposed system consists of three models: a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model (HOTMAC), a three-dimensional transport and diffusion model (RAPTAD), and a dose calculation model (DOSE). The whole-body dose and thyroid dose as well as dose rates can be rapidly estimated and displayed on the three-dimensional terrain model constructed by satellite images. The developed three-dimensional dose evaluation system could accurately forecast the dose results and has been used in the annual nuclear emergency response exercise to provide suggestions for protective measures.

  8. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Bonnie B.; Lundien, Barbara; Kaufman, Jeffrey; Kreczko, Adam

    1991-12-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with energy savings, consumption and socio-economic data for low income population in both urban and rural areas.

  9. Evaluation of the Meaning of Life Program in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; White, Gwyne W.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 academic year, 10 schools participated in the Meaning of Life educational program, an adaption of the popular U.S. Laws of Life program. The program sought to encourage each participant to develop a personal approach to finding meaning in life. To evaluate the success of the program, we conducted a study to compare measures of…

  10. Evaluation of Family Preservation and Reunification Programs: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report presents an evaluation of family preservation programs in Kentucky, New Jersey, and Tennessee, and a county program in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Key goals of these programs were reducing foster care placement, maintaining child safety, and improving family functioning. The statewide programs employed the Homebuilders program…

  11. P/G% of Analysis: An Evaluation-Aiding Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart; Long, John

    1985-01-01

    Policy Goal Percentaging Analysis is a microcomputer program which can perform a variety of useful decision-making analyses. The components of the program, its applications, and limitations are examined. The program is related to the field of multicriteria decision-making and is most useful to program evaluators. (DWH)

  12. 40 CFR 123.26 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for compliance evaluation programs. 123.26 Section 123.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.26 Requirements for...

  13. Simple Evaluation Method of Atmospheric Plasma Irradiation Dose using pH of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kazunori; Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Nakatsu, Yoshimichi; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric discharge plasmas are promising for agricultural productivity improvements and novel medical therapies, because plasma provides high flux of short-lifetime reactive species at low temperature, leading to low damage to living body. For the plasma-bio applications, various kinds of plasma systems are employed, thus common evaluation methods are needed to compare plasma irradiation dose quantitatively among the systems. Here we offer simple evaluation method of plasma irradiation dose using pH of water. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 300 μl of deionized water was prepared into the quartz 96 microwell plate at 3 mm below electrode. The pH value has been measured just after 10 minutes irradiation. The pH value was evaluated as a function of plasma irradiation dose. Atmospheric air plasma irradiation decreases pH of water with increasing the dose. We also measured concentrations of chemical species such as nitrites, nitrates and H2O2. The results indicate our method is promising to evaluate plasma irradiation dose quantitatively.

  14. Designing a phantom for dose evaluation in multi-slice CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Samir; Badal, Andreu; Stern, Stanley H.; Kyprianou, Iacovos S.

    2010-04-01

    Accurately representing radiation dose delivered in MSCT is becoming a concern as the maximum beam width of some modern CT scanners tends to become wider than the 100 mm charge-collection length of the pencil ionization chamber generally used in CT dosimetry. We investigate two alternative methods of dose evaluation in CT scanners. We investigate two alternative approaches for better characterization of CT dose than conventional evaluation of CTDI100. First, we simulate dose profiles and energy deposition in phantoms longer than the typically used 14-15 cm length right-circular cylinders. Second we explore the accuracy and practicality of applying mathematical convolution to a scatter kernel in order to generate dose profiles. A basic requirement for any newly designed phantom is that it be able to capture approximately the same dose as would an infinitely long cylinder, but yet be of a size and weight that a person could easily carry and position. Using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo package, we simulated dose profiles in cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms of 10, 16, 20, 24 and 32 cm diameter and 15, 30 and 300 cm length. Beam widths were varied from 1 cm to 60 cm. Lengths necessary to include within the dose integrals values associated with the scatter tails as well as with the primary radiation of the profile were then calculated as the full width at five percent of maximum dose. The resulting lengths suggest that to accommodate wide beam widths, phantoms longer than those currently used are necessary. The results also suggest that using a longer phantom is a relatively more accurate approach, while using mathematical convolution is simpler and more practical to implement than using the long phantoms designed according to direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Evaluation of low-dose limits in 3D-2D rigid registration for surgical guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneri, A.; Wang, A. S.; Otake, Y.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Gallia, G. L.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-09-01

    An algorithm for intensity-based 3D-2D registration of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy is evaluated for use in surgical guidance, specifically considering the low-dose limits of the fluoroscopic x-ray projections. The registration method is based on a framework using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to identify the 3D patient pose that maximizes the gradient information similarity metric. Registration performance was evaluated in an anthropomorphic head phantom emulating intracranial neurosurgery, using target registration error (TRE) to characterize accuracy and robustness in terms of 95% confidence upper bound in comparison to that of an infrared surgical tracking system. Three clinical scenarios were considered: (1) single-view image + guidance, wherein a single x-ray projection is used for visualization and 3D-2D guidance; (2) dual-view image + guidance, wherein one projection is acquired for visualization, combined with a second (lower-dose) projection acquired at a different C-arm angle for 3D-2D guidance; and (3) dual-view guidance, wherein both projections are acquired at low dose for the purpose of 3D-2D guidance alone (not visualization). In each case, registration accuracy was evaluated as a function of the entrance surface dose associated with the projection view(s). Results indicate that images acquired at a dose as low as 4 μGy (approximately one-tenth the dose of a typical fluoroscopic frame) were sufficient to provide TRE comparable or superior to that of conventional surgical tracking, allowing 3D-2D guidance at a level of dose that is at most 10% greater than conventional fluoroscopy (scenario #2) and potentially reducing the dose to approximately 20% of the level in a conventional fluoroscopically guided procedure (scenario #3).

  16. Evaluation of Quality in Social Care: Aplus Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrenit, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    France is not advanced regarding evaluation in social work, despite a law established in January 2002 making evaluation a legal obligation every 5 years. This article presents a software program to help social services evaluate on both individual and group levels. Automatic dashboard results of the program with special emphasis on the main…

  17. Practical Considerations in Evaluating Patient/Consumer Health Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Nancy H.

    This report contains brief descriptions of seven evaluative efforts and outcomes of health education programs, some considerations of problems encountered in evaluating the programs, and detailed descriptions of two case studies: (1) a process evaluation of preoperative teaching and (2) a retrospective study of visiting nurse association use by…

  18. An Evaluation of Urban Compass After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolberg, Todd Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study uses an existing evaluation model and previously established measurement tools to evaluate the quality and success of Urban Compass, a private non-profit after-school program for elementary school children in the Watts district of Los Angeles. This evaluation had two major objectives. The first objective was to assess program quality by…

  19. 38 CFR 1.15 - Standards for program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plan. The evaluation plan must clearly state the objectives of the program evaluation, the methodology... the data. (f) Each program evaluation requires a systematic research design to collect the data necessary to measure the objectives. This research design should conform to the following: (1)...

  20. 38 CFR 1.15 - Standards for program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan. The evaluation plan must clearly state the objectives of the program evaluation, the methodology... the data. (f) Each program evaluation requires a systematic research design to collect the data necessary to measure the objectives. This research design should conform to the following: (1)...

  1. 42 CFR 485.729 - Condition of participation: Program evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Program evaluation. 485... participation: Program evaluation. The organization has procedures that provide for a systematic evaluation of... with others. (a) Standard: Clinical-record review. A sample of active and closed clinical records...

  2. Institutional Needs and Teacher Education Program Evaluation. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Jerry B.; And Others

    The papers presented at this symposium offer discussions on the program evaluation needs of three categories of teacher education institutions. An introductory paper examines state-of-the-art teacher education program evaluation, the requirements of national and regional accreditation agencies, and the evaluation requirements involved in the state…

  3. A Professional Development Unit for Reflecting on Program Evaluator Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghere, Gail; King, Jean A.; Stevahn, Laurie; Minnema, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an interactive professional development unit that engages both novice and experienced evaluators in (a) learning about the Essential Competencies for Program Evaluators (ECPE), (b) applying the competencies to program evaluation contexts, and (c) using the ECPE to reflect on their own professional practices. The article…

  4. Radiation Pneumonitis After Hypofractionated Radiotherapy: Evaluation of the LQ(L) Model and Different Dose Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, Gerben R.; Ishikawa, Masayori; Nijkamp, Jasper

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the linear quadratic (LQ) model for hypofractionated radiotherapy within the context of predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP) and to investigate the effect if a linear (L) model in the high region (LQL model) is used. Methods and Materials: The radiation doses used for 128 patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy were converted to the equivalent doses given in fractions of 2 Gy for a range of {alpha}/{beta} ratios (1 Gy to infinity) according to the LQ(L) model. For the LQL model, different cut-off values between the LQ model and the linear component were used. The Lyman model parameters were fitted to the events of RP grade 2 or higher to derive the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The lung dose was calculated as the mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume (V) receiving doses higher than a threshold dose of xGy (V{sub x}). Results: The best NTCP fit was found if the mean lung dose, or V{sub x}, was calculated with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The NTCP fit of other {alpha}/{beta} ratios and the LQL model were worse but within the 95% confidence interval of the NTCP fit of the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The V{sub 50} NTCP fit was better than the NTCP fit of lower threshold doses. Conclusions: For high fraction doses, the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy was the best method for converting the physical lung dose to predict RP.

  5. A {gamma} dose distribution evaluation technique using the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching to improve the {gamma} calculation time for 2D and 3D dose distributions. Methods: The {gamma} calculation method has been widely used for comparisons of dose distributions in clinical treatment plans and quality assurances. By specifying the acceptable dose and distance-to-agreement criteria, the method provides quantitative measurement of the agreement between the reference and evaluation dose distributions. The {gamma} value indicates the acceptability. In regions where {gamma}{<=}1, the predefined criterion is satisfied and thus the agreement is acceptable; otherwise, the agreement fails. Although the concept of the method is not complicated and a quick naieve implementation is straightforward, an efficient and robust implementation is not trivial. Recent algorithms based on exhaustive searching within a maximum radius, the geometric Euclidean distance, and the table lookup method have been proposed to improve the computational time for multidimensional dose distributions. Motivated by the fact that the least searching time for finding a nearest neighbor can be an O(log N) operation with a k-d tree, where N is the total number of the dose points, the authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for the {gamma} evaluation in this work. Results: In the experiment, the authors found that the average k-d tree construction time per reference point is O(log N), while the nearest neighbor searching time per evaluation point is proportional to O(N{sup 1/k}), where k is between 2 and 3 for two-dimensional and three-dimensional dose distributions, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing with other algorithms such as exhaustive search and sorted list O(N), the k-d tree algorithm for {gamma} evaluation is much more efficient.

  6. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  7. The SWRL Kindergarten Program (An Evaluation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Frank; LaBay, Michael

    The SWRL Kindergarten Program was developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development (SWRL), a federally funded facility located in Inglewood, California. In Birmingham, interest in the SWRL program was stimulated and developed during the Fall of 1971. It was felt that this program would provide the children…

  8. EVALUATING THE FOREIGN-STUDY PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUPP, THEODORE H.

    A SUPERIOR STUDY-ABROAD PROGRAM SHOULD BE CONCERNED WITH THE BALANCE IN THE ACADEMIC PROGRAM BETWEEN FOREIGN UNIVERSITY COURSES AND THOSE ESPECIALLY PLANNED FOR AMERICAN STUDENTS, AND THE CAREFUL TRANSPOSITION OF GRADING AND CREDIT ALLOWANCES TO AMERICAN STANDARDS. OTHER AREAS TO CONSIDER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROGRAMS ARE A HIGHLY…

  9. Examining Criteria for Evaluating Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Edna

    The negative results to an assessment of a Bank Street-sponsored Follow Through program raised questions about conventional ways of assessing the effects of educational programs. Children in a Follow Through program using the developmental-interaction approach and children in conventional classrooms were observed and tested for comparison. The…

  10. Student Assistance Program Implementation and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Cass

    Recently, educators have initiated programs to help students address the social and emotional problems which can impair academic performance. This paper reviews current knowledge on one such program called a Student Assistance Program (SAP). SAPs were initially designed to intervene with chemically-dependent high school students, but more…

  11. SU-E-J-07: IGRT Gently: Evaluating Imaging Dose in Phantoms of Different Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, B; Duggar, W; Stanford, J; Yang, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: IGRT imaging procedures have emerged as a common method of patient position verification in radiotherapy, though imaging dose is generally neglected in the treatment plan. Consequently, evaluating and optimizing the dose from these procedures is worthwhile. This process is especially important for children, who are more radiosensitive than adults. The aim of this work was to gain some understanding of the relative doses involved with various XVI-preset parameters for an “adult” and “child” phantom set, with the hopes that imaging dose for a child can be reduced. Methods: 32 and 16cm CTDI-phantoms were used as surrogates for adult and child torsos, respectively. Dose was measured in the central and peripheral chamber positions of the phantoms. CBCT scans were made for both phantoms using Elekta’s Chest-preset to establish a dose baseline. The child-phantom was then scanned using the Elekta Head and Neck (HN) preset. A modified HN-preset (named Peds Abd-pelvis) was also created with a doubled mAs to maintain a reduction in dose to the child-phantom (relative to the baseline), while providing clinically-usable image quality. Results: The baseline dose to the child-phantom from the Chest-preset was 310% that of the adult-phantom for the center chamber position and 150% at the periphery. An average dose reduction of 97% was obtained in the childphantom by switching from the Chest-preset to the HN-preset, while the Peds Abd-pelvis-preset similarly reduced the dose by an average of 92%. Conclusion: XVI-preset parameters significantly affect dose, and should be optimized to reduce dose, while ensuring clinically-usable image quality. Using a modified imaging preset (Peds Abd-pelvis-preset) greatly reduced the dose to the child-phantom compared to the dose for the Chest-preset for both the child and adult-phantoms. This outcome provides support for the development of child-specific protocols for IGRT imaging in pediatric patients.

  12. A pre–postintervention study to evaluate the impact of dose calculators on the accuracy of gentamicin and vancomycin initial doses

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Anas; Cavell, Gillian; Hinton, James; Wade, Paul; Whittlesea, Cate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gentamicin and vancomycin are narrow-therapeutic-index antibiotics with potential for high toxicity requiring dose individualisation and continuous monitoring. Clinical decision support (CDS) tools have been effective in reducing gentamicin and vancomycin dosing errors. Online dose calculators for these drugs were implemented in a London National Health Service hospital. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these calculators on the accuracy of gentamicin and vancomycin initial doses. Methods The study used a pre–postintervention design. Data were collected using electronic patient records and paper notes. Random samples of gentamicin and vancomycin initial doses administered during the 8 months before implementation of the calculators were assessed retrospectively against hospital guidelines. Following implementation of the calculators, doses were assessed prospectively. Any gentamicin dose not within ±10% and any vancomycin dose not within ±20% of the guideline-recommended dose were considered incorrect. Results The intranet calculator pages were visited 721 times (gentamicin=333; vancomycin=388) during the 2-month period following the calculators’ implementation. Gentamicin dose errors fell from 61.5% (120/195) to 44.2% (95/215), p<0.001. Incorrect vancomycin loading doses fell from 58.1% (90/155) to 32.4% (46/142), p<0.001. Incorrect vancomycin first maintenance doses fell from 55.5% (86/155) to 33.1% (47/142), p<0.001. Loading and first maintenance vancomycin doses were both incorrect in 37.4% (58/155) of patients before and 13.4% (19/142) after calculator implementation, p<0.001. Conclusions This study suggests that gentamicin and vancomycin dose calculators significantly improved the prescribing of initial doses of these agents. Therefore, healthcare organisations should consider using such CDS tools to support the prescribing of these high-risk drugs. PMID:26044758

  13. Evaluation of organ doses in CT examinations with an infant anthropomorphic phantom.

    PubMed

    Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Miyazaki, O; Horiuchi, T; Shimada, A; Nagmatsu, H; Yamauchi, M; Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Kawasaki, T

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate organ doses in infant CT examinations with multi-detector row CT scanners. Radiation doses were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters set in various organ positions within a 1-y-old child anthropomorphic phantom and organ doses were evaluated from the measurement values. Doses for tissues or organs within the scan range were 28-36 mGy in an infant head CT, 3-11 mGy in a chest CT, 5-11 mGy in an abdominal-pelvic CT and 2-14 mGy in a cardiac CT. The doses varied by the differences in the types of CT scanners and scan parameters used at each medical facility. Compared with those for children of various ages, the doses in an infant CT protocol were found to be similar to or slightly smaller than those in a paediatric CT for 5- or 6-y-old children. PMID:21743079

  14. [Evaluation of an Experimental Production Wireless Dose Monitoring System for Radiation Exposure Management of Medical Staff].

    PubMed

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Murazaki, Hiroo; Kuramoto, Taku; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Ishigaki, Yung

    2015-08-01

    Because of the more advanced and more complex procedures in interventional radiology, longer treatment times have become necessary. Therefore, it is important to determine the exposure doses received by operators and patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an experimental production wireless dose monitoring system for pulse radiation in diagnostic X-ray. The energy, dose rate, and pulse fluoroscopy dependence were evaluated as the basic characteristics of this system for diagnostic X-ray using a fully digital fluoroscopy system. The error of 1 cm dose equivalent rate was less than 15% from 35.1 keV to 43.2 keV with energy correction using metal filter. It was possible to accurately measure the dose rate dependence of this system, which was highly linear until 100 μSv/h. This system showed a constant response to the pulse fluoroscopy. This system will become useful wireless dosimeter for the individual exposure management by improving the high dose rate and the energy characteristics. PMID:26289982

  15. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Connecticut low income weatherization program was developed in response to a 1987 rate docket order from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) to Connecticut Light Power Co., an operating subsidiary of Northeast Utilities (NU). (Throughout this report, NU is referred to as the operator of the program.) This program, known as the Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership, or WRAP, was configured utilizing input from a collaborative group of interested parties to the docket. It was agreed that this program would be put forth by the electric utility, but would not ignore oil and gas savings (thus, it was to be fuel- blind''). The allocated cost of conservation services for each fuel source, however, should be cost effective. It was to be offered to those utility customers at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty levels, and provide a wide array of energy saving measures directed toward heating, water heating and lighting. It was felt by the collaborative group that this program would raise the level of expenditures per participant for weatherization services provided by the state, and by linking to and revising the auditing process for weatherization, would lower the audit unit cost. The program plans ranged from the offering of low-cost heating, water heating and infiltration measures, increased insulation levels, carpentry and plumbing services, to furnace or burner replacement. The program was configured to allow for very comprehensive weatherization and heating system servicing.

  16. A path model for evaluating dosing parameters for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gannotti, Mary E; Christy, Jennifer B; Heathcock, Jill C; Kolobe, Thubi H A

    2014-03-01

    Dosing of pediatric rehabilitation services for children with cerebral palsy (CP) has been identified as a national priority. Establishing dosing parameters for pediatric physical therapy interventions is critical for informing clinical decision making, health policy, and guidelines for reimbursement. The purpose of this perspective article is to describe a path model for evaluating dosing parameters of interventions for children with CP. The model is intended for dose-related and effectiveness studies of pediatric physical therapy interventions. The premise of the model is: Intervention type (focus on body structures, activity, or the environment) acts on a child first through the family, then through the dose (frequency, intensity, time), to yield structural and behavioral changes. As a result, these changes are linked to improvements in functional independence. Community factors affect dose as well as functional independence (performance and capacity), influencing the relationships between type of intervention and intervention responses. The constructs of family characteristics; child characteristics (eg, age, level of severity, comorbidities, readiness to change, preferences); plastic changes in bone, muscle, and brain; motor skill acquisition; and community access warrant consideration from researchers who are designing intervention studies. Multiple knowledge gaps are identified, and a framework is provided for conceptualizing dosing parameters for children with CP. PMID:24231231

  17. Radiation dose evaluation of dental cone beam computed tomography using an anthropomorphic adult head phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jay; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Ho, Chang-hung; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Min Chao, Max; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2014-11-01

    Dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-resolution tomographic images and has been gradually used in clinical practice. Thus, it is important to examine the amount of radiation dose resulting from dental CBCT examinations. In this study, we developed an in-house anthropomorphic adult head phantom to evaluate the level of effective dose. The anthropomorphic phantom was made of acrylic and filled with plaster to replace the bony tissue. The contour of the head was extracted from a set of adult computed tomography (CT) images. Different combinations of the scanning parameters of CBCT were applied. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the absorbed doses at 19 locations in the head and neck regions. The effective doses measured using the proposed phantom at 65, 75, and 85 kVp in the D-mode were 72.23, 100.31, and 134.29 μSv, respectively. In the I-mode, the effective doses were 108.24, 190.99, and 246.48 μSv, respectively. The maximum percent error between the doses measured by the proposed phantom and the Rando phantom was l4.90%. Therefore, the proposed anthropomorphic adult head phantom is applicable for assessing the radiation dose resulting from clinical dental CBCT.

  18. A Path Model for Evaluating Dosing Parameters for Children With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Jennifer B.; Heathcock, Jill C.; Kolobe, Thubi H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Dosing of pediatric rehabilitation services for children with cerebral palsy (CP) has been identified as a national priority. Establishing dosing parameters for pediatric physical therapy interventions is critical for informing clinical decision making, health policy, and guidelines for reimbursement. The purpose of this perspective article is to describe a path model for evaluating dosing parameters of interventions for children with CP. The model is intended for dose-related and effectiveness studies of pediatric physical therapy interventions. The premise of the model is: Intervention type (focus on body structures, activity, or the environment) acts on a child first through the family, then through the dose (frequency, intensity, time), to yield structural and behavioral changes. As a result, these changes are linked to improvements in functional independence. Community factors affect dose as well as functional independence (performance and capacity), influencing the relationships between type of intervention and intervention responses. The constructs of family characteristics; child characteristics (eg, age, level of severity, comorbidities, readiness to change, preferences); plastic changes in bone, muscle, and brain; motor skill acquisition; and community access warrant consideration from researchers who are designing intervention studies. Multiple knowledge gaps are identified, and a framework is provided for conceptualizing dosing parameters for children with CP. PMID:24231231

  19. Independent Panel Evaluation of Dry Sludge PISA Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    1999-10-20

    Dr. Kirk Yeager and Mr. Marvin Banks from Energetic Material Research and Technology Center (EMRTC) evaluated the Savannah River Site (SRS) efforts in the Dry Sludge program. They evaluated four program areas: energetic material formation, stability, initiation, and propagation. The panel evaluation included a site visit (July 13, 1999 and July 14, 1999) as well as a review of various reports and presentations by researchers involved in the program.

  20. Review of evaluations of utility home-energy-audit programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, L.; Soderstrom, J.; Hirst, E.; Newman, B.; Weaver, R.

    1981-03-01

    Evaluation efforts of utilities with active home energy audit programs are reviewed to suggest methodologies, issues, and data that can contribute to the development of a comprehensive Residential Conservation Service evaluation plan. On the basis mainly of written reports received from the utilities, findings about customer response to programs are summarized. The topics discussed include: correlates of program penetration rates; use of financing; attitudes toward programs; actions taken; characteristics of participants; and energy savings due to programs. Particular attention is given to three studies (Tennessee Valley Authority, Seattle City Light, and Pacific Gas and Electric) that analyze fuel consumption records as part of the evaluation.

  1. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Karin M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the analyses for the third EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (October 1999). This program assists laboratories in providing more accurate gamma spectra analysis results and provides a means for users of gamma data to assess how a laboratory performed on various types of gamma spectrometry analyses. This is accomplished through the use of synthetic gamma spectra. A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum, and three sample spectra are sent to each participant in the spectral file format requested by the laboratory. The calibration spectrum contains nuclides covering the energy range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants are told fallout and fission product nuclides could be present. The sample spectra are designed to test the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets and to identify and quantify nuclides in a complicated fission product spectrum. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Thirty-one sets of results were reported from a total of 60 laboratories who received the spectra. Six foreign laboratories participated. The percentage of the results within 1 of the expected value was 68, 33, and 46 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 18% of the results were more than 3 from the expected value. Eighty-three (12%) values out of a total of 682 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Approximately 30% of these false negatives were due the laboratories not reporting 144Pr in sample 2 which was present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 25% of these responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results show improvement in the ability of the software or user to resolve peaks separated by 1 keV. Improvement is still needed either in the analysis report produced by the software or in the review of these

  2. 7 CFR 3405.22 - Evaluation of program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3405.22 Evaluation of..., academic standing, career patterns, age, race/ethnicity, gender, citizenship, and disability....

  3. 7 CFR 3405.22 - Evaluation of program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3405.22 Evaluation of..., academic standing, career patterns, age, race/ethnicity, gender, citizenship, and disability....

  4. 7 CFR 3405.22 - Evaluation of program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3405.22 Evaluation of... average, academic standing, career patterns, age, race/ethnicity, gender, citizenship, and disability....

  5. 7 CFR 3405.22 - Evaluation of program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3405.22 Evaluation of..., academic standing, career patterns, age, race/ethnicity, gender, citizenship, and disability....

  6. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model: A Systematic Approach for the Evaluation of Career Planning and Placement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Joan L.; Covert, Robert W.

    The Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), developed in 1966 by Malcolm Provus, provides information for program assessment and program improvement. Under the DEM, evaluation is defined as the comparison of an actual performance to a desired standard. The DEM embodies five stages of evaluation based upon a program's natural development: program…

  7. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús Aguiar, Pablo; Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor; Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, Álvaro

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  8. Use of a realistic breathing lung phantom to evaluate dose delivery errors

    SciTech Connect

    Court, Laurence E.; Seco, Joao; Lu Xingqi; Ebe, Kazuyu; Mayo, Charles; Ionascu, Dan; Winey, Brian; Giakoumakis, Nikos; Aristophanous, Michalis; Berbeco, Ross; Rottman, Joerg; Bogdanov, Madeleine; Schofield, Deborah; Lingos, Tania

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the effect of respiration-induced motion on delivered dose (the interplay effect) for different treatment techniques under realistic clinical conditions. Methods: A flexible resin tumor model was created using rapid prototyping techniques based on a computed tomography (CT) image of an actual tumor. Twenty micro-MOSFETs were inserted into the tumor model and the tumor model was inserted into an anthropomorphic breathing phantom. Phantom motion was programed using the motion trajectory of an actual patient. A four-dimensional CT image was obtained and several treatment plans were created using different treatment techniques and planning systems: Conformal (Eclipse), step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) (Pinnacle), step-and-shoot IMRT (XiO), dynamic IMRT (Eclipse), complex dynamic IMRT (Eclipse), hybrid IMRT [60% conformal, 40% dynamic IMRT (Eclipse)], volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) [single-arc (Eclipse)], VMAT [double-arc (Eclipse)], and complex VMAT (Eclipse). The complex plans were created by artificially pushing the optimizer to give complex multileaf collimator sequences. Each IMRT field was irradiated five times and each VMAT field was irradiated ten times, with each irradiation starting at a random point in the respiratory cycle. The effect of fractionation was calculated by randomly summing the measured doses. The maximum deviation for each measurement point per fraction and the probability that 95% of the model tumor had dose deviations less than 2% and 5% were calculated as a function of the number of fractions. Tumor control probabilities for each treatment plan were calculated and compared. Results: After five fractions, measured dose deviations were less than 2% for more than 95% of measurement points within the tumor model for all plans, except the complex dynamic IMRT, step-and-shoot IMRT (XiO), complex VMAT, and single-arc VMAT plans. Reducing the dose rate of the complex IMRT plans from 600 to 200 MU

  9. Developing and Implementing a Counselor Evaluation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Priscilla J.; Acker, Kathleen E.

    In the past several years, Tacoma Community College (TCC) has devoted increasing attention to evaluating faculty and staff performance. In recognition of the benefits of a growth-oriented evaluation process over a summative evaluation, the counselors and the Dean for Student Services at TCC developed a comprehensive evaluation system for…

  10. Evaluation of organ doses in adult and paediatric CT examinations based on Monte Carlo simulations and in-phantom dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Fujii, K; Nomura, K; Muramatsu, Y; Takahashi, K; Obara, S; Akahane, K; Satake, M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and organ doses evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations through comparisons with doses evaluated by in-phantom dosimetry. Organ doses were measured with radio-photoluminescence glass dosemeter (RGD) set at various organ positions within adult and 1-y-old anthropomorphic phantoms. For the dose simulations, the X-ray spectrum and bow-tie filter shape of a CT scanner were estimated and 3D voxelised data of the CTDI and anthropomorphic phantoms from the acquired CT images were derived. Organ dose simulations and measurements were performed with chest and abdomen-pelvis CT examination scan parameters. Relative differences between the simulated and measured doses were within 5 % for the volume CTDI and 13 % for organ doses for organs within the scan range in adult and paediatric CT examinations. The simulation results were considered to be in good agreement with the measured doses. PMID:25848103

  11. Evaluation of radiochromic gel dosimetry and polymer gel dosimetry in a clinical dose verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-09-01

    A quantitative comparison of two full three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry techniques was assessed in a clinical setting: radiochromic gel dosimetry with an in-house developed optical laser CT scanner and polymer gel dosimetry with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To benchmark both gel dosimeters, they were exposed to a 6 MV photon beam and the depth dose was compared against a diamond detector measurement that served as golden standard. Both gel dosimeters were found accurate within 4% accuracy. In the 3D dose matrix of the radiochromic gel, hotspot dose deviations up to 8% were observed which are attributed to the fabrication procedure. The polymer gel readout was shown to be sensitive to B0 field and B1 field non-uniformities as well as temperature variations during scanning. The performance of the two gel dosimeters was also evaluated for a brain tumour IMRT treatment. Both gel measured dose distributions were compared against treatment planning system predicted dose maps which were validated independently with ion chamber measurements and portal dosimetry. In the radiochromic gel measurement, two sources of deviations could be identified. Firstly, the dose in a cluster of voxels near the edge of the phantom deviated from the planned dose. Secondly, the presence of dose hotspots in the order of 10% related to inhomogeneities in the gel limit the clinical acceptance of this dosimetry technique. Based on the results of the micelle gel dosimeter prototype presented here, chemical optimization will be subject of future work. Polymer gel dosimetry is capable of measuring the absolute dose in the whole 3D volume within 5% accuracy. A temperature stabilization technique is incorporated to increase the accuracy during short measurements, however keeping the temperature stable during long measurement times in both calibration phantoms and the volumetric phantom is more challenging. The sensitivity of MRI readout to minimal temperature fluctuations is demonstrated which

  12. Evaluation of six TPS algorithms in computing entrance and exit doses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yun I; Metwaly, Mohamed; Glegg, Martin; Baggarley, Shaun; Elliott, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Entrance and exit doses are commonly measured in in vivo dosimetry for comparison with expected values, usually generated by the treatment planning system (TPS), to verify accuracy of treatment delivery. This report aims to evaluate the accuracy of six TPS algorithms in computing entrance and exit doses for a 6 MV beam. The algorithms tested were: pencil beam convolution (Eclipse PBC), analytical anisotropic algorithm (Eclipse AAA), AcurosXB (Eclipse AXB), FFT convolution (XiO Convolution), multigrid superposition (XiO Superposition), and Monte Carlo photon (Monaco MC). Measurements with ionization chamber (IC) and diode detector in water phantoms were used as a reference. Comparisons were done in terms of central axis point dose, 1D relative profiles, and 2D absolute gamma analysis. Entrance doses computed by all TPS algorithms agreed to within 2% of the measured values. Exit doses computed by XiO Convolution, XiO Superposition, Eclipse AXB, and Monaco MC agreed with the IC measured doses to within 2%-3%. Meanwhile, Eclipse PBC and Eclipse AAA computed exit doses were higher than the IC measured doses by up to 5.3% and 4.8%, respectively. Both algorithms assume that full backscatter exists even at the exit level, leading to an overestimation of exit doses. Despite good agreements at the central axis for Eclipse AXB and Monaco MC, 1D relative comparisons showed profiles mismatched at depths beyond 11.5 cm. Overall, the 2D absolute gamma (3%/3 mm) pass rates were better for Monaco MC, while Eclipse AXB failed mostly at the outer 20% of the field area. The findings of this study serve as a useful baseline for the implementation of entrance and exit in vivo dosimetry in clinical departments utilizing any of these six common TPS algorithms for reference comparison. PMID:24892349

  13. The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program SUMMARY AND CLOSURE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program promoted the development, commercialization, and implementation of innovative hazardous waste treatment technologies for 20 years. SITE offered a mechanism for conducting joint technology demonstration and evaluation ...

  14. Guidelines for evaluation of nuclear facility training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document establishes a single set of objectives and criteria for the evaluation of training programs developed to meet requirements of DOE Orders 5480.18A and 5480.20, and other directives that address training and qualification. The evaluation includes appraisals, surveillances, audits, reviews, assessments, and other activities intended to evaluate training. The standard is intended to assist personnel in performing evaluations of training and qualification programs.

  15. Four-dimensional dose evaluation using deformable image registration in radiotherapy for liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoon Jung, Sang; Min Yoon, Sang; Ho Park, Sung; Cho, Byungchul; Won Park, Jae; Jung, Jinhong; Park, Jin-hong; Hoon Kim, Jong; Do Ahn, Seung

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: In order to evaluate the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion on the dose delivered to the target volume and critical organs during free-breathing radiotherapy, a four-dimensional dose was evaluated using deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images were acquired for 11 patients who were treated for liver cancer. Internal target volume-based treatment planning and dose calculation (3D dose) were performed using the end-exhalation phase images. The four-dimensional dose (4D dose) was calculated based on DIR of all phase images from 4DCT to the planned image. Dosimetric parameters from the 4D dose, were calculated and compared with those from the 3D dose. Results: There was no significant change of the dosimetric parameters for gross tumor volume (p > 0.05). The increase D{sub mean} and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) for liver were by 3.1%{+-} 3.3% (p= 0.003) and 2.8%{+-} 3.3% (p= 0.008), respectively, and for duodenum, they were decreased by 15.7%{+-} 11.2% (p= 0.003) and 15.1%{+-} 11.0% (p= 0.003), respectively. The D{sub max} and gEUD for stomach was decreased by 5.3%{+-} 5.8% (p= 0.003) and 9.7%{+-} 8.7% (p= 0.003), respectively. The D{sub max} and gEUD for right kidney was decreased by 11.2%{+-} 16.2% (p= 0.003) and 14.9%{+-} 16.8% (p= 0.005), respectively. For left kidney, D{sub max} and gEUD were decreased by 11.4%{+-} 11.0% (p= 0.003) and 12.8%{+-} 12.1% (p= 0.005), respectively. The NTCP values for duodenum and stomach were decreased by 8.4%{+-} 5.8% (p= 0.003) and 17.2%{+-} 13.7% (p= 0.003), respectively. Conclusions: The four-dimensional dose with a more realistic dose calculation accounting for respiratory motion revealed no significant difference in target coverage and potentially significant change in the physical and biological dosimetric parameters in normal organs during free-breathing treatment.

  16. Using the Concept of "Population Dose" in Planning and Evaluating Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheadle, Allen; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Bourcier, Emily; Senter, Sandra; Spring, Rebecca; Beery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When planning and evaluating community-level initiatives focused on policy and environment change, it is useful to have estimates of the impact on behavioral outcomes of particular strategies (e.g., building a new walking trail to promote physical activity). We have created a measure of estimated strategy-level impact--"population dose"--based on…

  17. A Four Step Approach to Evaluate Mixtures for Consistency with Dose Addition

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a four step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in environmental health risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (EPA 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (...

  18. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICALLY BASED DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: A WORKSHOP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of biologically based dose-response modeling for developmental toxicity: a workshop report.

    Lau C, Andersen ME, Crawford-Brown DJ, Kavlock RJ, Kimmel CA, Knudsen TB, Muneoka K, Rogers JM, Setzer RW, Smith G, Tyl R.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL...

  19. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Space radiation effects mitigation has been identified as one of the highest priority technology development areas for human space flight in the NASA Strategic Space Technology Investment Plan (Dec. 2012). In this paper we review the special features of space radiation that lead to severe constraints on long-term (more than 180 days) human flight operations outside Earth's magnetosphere. We then quantify the impacts of human space radiation dose limits on spacecraft engineering design and development, flight program architecture, as well as flight program schedule and cost. A new Deep Space Habitat (DSH) concept, the hybrid inflatable habitat, is presented and shown to enable a flexible, affordable approach to long term manned interplanetary flight today.

  20. Evaluation of organ doses and effective dose according to the ICRP Publication 110 reference male/female phantom and the modified ImPACT CT patient dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Katada, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Shouichi

    2014-01-01

    We modified the Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) to evaluate the organ doses and the effective dose based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 110 reference male/female phantom with the Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner. To select the new CT scanner, the measurement results of the CTDI100,c and CTDI100,p for the 160 (head) and the 320 (body) mm polymethylmethacrylate phantoms, respectively, were entered on the Excel worksheet. To compute the organ doses and effective dose of the ICRP reference male/female phantom, the conversion factors obtained by comparison between the organ doses of different types of phantom were applied. The organ doses and the effective dose were almost identical for the ICRP reference male/female and modified ImPACT. The results of this study showed that, with the dose assessment of the ImPACT, the difference in sex influences only testes and ovaries. Because the MIRD-5 phantom represents a partially hermaphrodite adult, the phantom has the dimensions of the male reference man including testes, ovaries, and uterus but no female breasts, whereas the ICRP male/female phantom includes whole-body male and female anatomies based on high-resolution anatomical datasets. The conversion factors can be used to estimate the doses of a male and a female accurately, and efficient dose assessment can be performed with the modified ImPACT. PMID:25207566

  1. Efficacy of Extended-Interval Dosing of Micafungin Evaluated Using a Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study with Humanized Doses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lepak, A.; Marchillo, K.; VanHecker, J.; Azie, N.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) characteristics of the echinocandins favor infrequent administration of large doses. The in vivo investigation reported here tested the utility of a range of humanized dose levels of micafungin using a variety of prolonged dosing intervals for the prevention and therapy of established disseminated candidiasis. Humanized doses of 600 mg administered every 6 days prevented fungal growth in prophylaxis. Humanized doses of 300 to 1,000 mg administered every 6 days demonstrated efficacy for established infections. PMID:26552968

  2. Preserving and Enhancing Quality: Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale

    Following a brief description of the development of Florida's statewide program review process for community colleges, this booklet offers information on the campus-level review plan of the Mitchell Wolfson New World Center Campus. Introductory materials indicate that the purpose of the campus review process is to highlight exemplary programs and…

  3. Evaluation of Swedish Youth Labor Market Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Nonparametric matching was used to estimate the effects of two Swedish youth employment programs: youth practice (subsidized work experience, n=1,657) and labor market training (n=606). Results indicate either zero or negative effects on earnings, employment probability, or probability of entering an education program in the short term. Youth…

  4. Evaluation of ELT Program of Kathmandu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2008-01-01

    Kathmandu University is one of the leading universities in Nepal. There are different faculties and programs under it. One of schools, namely, School of Education is committed to produce quality academic workforce as per the demanding need of the nation in the field of teaching and learning. It runs English Language Teaching (ELT) Program as an…

  5. Evaluation of the BSCS Human Sciences Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James T.

    Designed for middle and junior high school students, the Human Sciences Program (HSP) represents a three year, interdisciplinary program which focuses on the role of the natural sciences in promoting the cognitive, psycho-social, and moral development of early adolescents. The materials consist of modules of activities designed around major themes…

  6. Educators Exchange Program, 1996. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.; Turingan, Maria R.; Bersentes, Gina H.

    Following an initial effort in 1994, the Educators Exchange Program 1996 (EEP-96) was the second project completed under a training and educational exchange agreement reached between California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In EEP-96, the district provided a five-week technological training program to…

  7. Ron Brown Scholar Program. Evaluation Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broton, Katie; Mueller, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Ron Brown Scholar Program aims to be a major force in producing this nation's next generation of leaders by providing academic scholarships, service opportunities, and leadership experiences to exemplary young African Americans. The program is highly selective, with several hundred applicants per scholarship awarded. Students are selected…

  8. Evaluating Alcoholism Treatment Programs: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronkite, Ruth C.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    1978-01-01

    Examined variables (social background, intake symptoms, program type, treatment experiences, and perceptions of environment) related to posttreatment functioning of alcoholic patients. Results showed the combined explanatory power of program-related variables was more than expected. Explained variance was shared between patient-related and…

  9. Evaluating a School Primary Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    Peer tutoring programs represent an innovative approach for optimally utilizing resources existing within classrooms. While most tutoring programs are aimed at helping tutees or tutors with academic difficulties, this study involved all children in two classrooms in a peer tutoring project. A multiple baseline design indicated that prompting was…

  10. Study Abroad Programs: An Evaluation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Washington, DC.

    A guide to help identify strengths and weaknesses of study abroad programs is presented. Questions about the major components of these programs are listed, along with answers illustrating the most positive and negative responses. The components are classified under four headings: basic information, academic aspects, interaction with the host…

  11. The MCH Training Program: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athey, Jean; Kavanagh, Laura; Bagley, Karen

    Multiple qualitative methodologies were used to describe and analyze the Maternal and Child Health Training Program (MCH), including a review of FY1999 continuation applications for all 101 projects; site visits to 31 training projects; focus groups with state Title V program staff and federal regional MCH consultants; and interviews with 110…

  12. An Evaluation of a Parent Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Quynh T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a parent training program whose children are diagnosed with autism. The sample consisted of families who are currently participating in a parent training program. The study examined the stress levels of parents utilizing the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress at the beginning of the study and then again…

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of School Instrumental Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Describes the analysis of "Strengths and Weaknesses and Opportunities and Threats" (SWOT). Discusses the study, "Gemeinhardt 4," that used the SWOT analysis to determine 13 different types of music programs. Addresses how music teachers can utilize this information. Includes other sections such as, "Possible Solution to Music Program Threats."…

  14. A School District Guide for Evaluating Programs for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of ESC Education Planning and Development.

    This manual is designed to help local school district personnel evaluate programs for gifted pupils. It is not intended to replace evaluation which relies on strict statistical analysis. It can, however, supplement the results of such evaluation or, in the absence of such evaluation, provide a picture of the coherence and consistency of the…

  15. Evaluating Results of Economic and Work Force Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses issues related to the evaluation of community colleges' economic development efforts, describing the context for evaluation in terms of the external environment and college management/governance; practical realities guiding evaluation; steps in designing an evaluation programs; and the application of results to decision making. (DMM)

  16. Symposium: Perspectives on Formative Evaluation of Children's Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    Evaluators of television programing and representatives of funding agencies discussed the impact of the perceptions of funding agencies on the evaluation of children's television. Participants also examined the interplay between the objectives of the television series and the evaluation, the relationship between production and evaluation, and the…

  17. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  18. Derivation of a Screening Methodology for Evaluating Radiation Dose to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Domotor, S L.; Antonio, Ernest J. ); Kocher, David

    2003-06-06

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose standard for the protection of aquatic organisms, and is considering proposing dose standards for both aquatic and terrestrial biota. These standards are: 10 mGy/d for aquatic animals; 10 mGy/d for terrestrial plants; and 1 mGy/d for terrestrial animals. Guidance on suitable approaches to implementation of these standards is needed. A screening methodology was developed as the first part of DOE's three-step graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to aquatic and terrestrial biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment media were derived for twenty-three target radionuclides. Four organism types (aquatic animals; riparian animals; terrestrial animals; and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for methods development. Internal doses for each organism type were calculated as the product of media concentration, bioaccumulation factors(s) and dose conversion factors. External doses were calculated based on the assumption of immersion of the organism in soil, sediment, or water. The assumptions and default parameters used provide for conservative screening values.

  19. Evaluation of Patient Residual Deviation and Its Impact on Dose Distribution for Proton Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan

    2011-10-01

    The residual deviations after final patient repositioning based on bony anatomy and the impact of such deviations on the proton dose distributions was investigated. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and kilovoltage (kV) 'portal verification' images from 10 patients treated with passively scattered proton radiotherapy was used to estimate the residual deviation. These changes were then applied to the location of isocenter points that, in effect, moved the isocenter relative to the apertures and compensators. A composite verification plan was obtained and compared with the original clinical treatment plan to evaluate any changes in dose distributions. The residual deviations were fitted to a Gaussian distribution with {mu} = -0.9 {+-} 0.1 mm and {sigma} = 2.55 {+-} 0.07 mm. The dose distribution showed under- and overcovered dose spots with complex dose distributions both in the target volumes and in the organs at risk. In some cases, this amounts to 63.5% above the intended clinical plan. Although patient positioning is carefully verified before treatment delivery and setup uncertainties are accounted for by using compensator smearing and aperture margins, a residual shift in a patient's position can considerably affect the dose distribution.

  20. Program Theory and Quality Matter: Changing the Course of Extension Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mary E.; Cater, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    As internal evaluators for the 4-H program in two states, we simultaneously yet independently began to change the way we approached our evaluation practices, turning from evaluation capacity building (ECB) efforts that prepared educators to define and measure program outcomes to strategies that engage educators in defining and measuring program…

  1. Human Services Program Evaluation: "How to Improve Your Accountability and Program Effectiveness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Thomas; Sorensen, James

    2015-01-01

    The term "outcome evaluation" has become one of the most popular terms among human service providers and those whose job it is to evaluate the impact of human service programs. In the public sector alone, there are over a hundred instruments in use to evaluate the impact of state human service programs. Most states, many providers, and…

  2. Evaluation: Rx for Counseling Program Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Kathleen MacIntosh; Stewart, Norman R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the basic issues faced, methods used, and problems encountered in evaluating school counseling services. Gives examples and suggestions to assist in learning about evaluation. Contends that counselors have the requisite skills and should be involved in evaluation of the services they provide. (NB)

  3. Dairy cattle genomics evaluation program update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of genomic evaluation has caused profound changes in dairy cattle breeding. All young bulls bought by major artificial-insemination organizations now are selected based on these evaluation. Evaluation reliability can reach ~75% for yield traits, which is adequate for marketing semen o...

  4. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean; and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Multi-Dose Bystander Intervention Program Using Peer Education Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Winter, Samantha C.; Palmer, Jane E.; Postmus, Judy L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, RuthAnne

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a longitudinal, experimental evaluation of a peer education theater program, Students Challenging Realities and Educating Against Myths (SCREAM) Theater. This study examines the impact of SCREAM Theater on a range of bystander-related outcomes (i.e. bystander intentions, bystander efficacy, perception of friend…

  6. SU-C-18C-04: Evaluation of Effective Dose During Ureteroscopy for Obese and Non-Obese Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C; Nguyen, G; Chung, Y; Yoshizumi, T; Cabrera, F; Lipkin, M; Shin, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Ureteroscopy involves fluoroscopy which potentially results in considerable amount of radiation dose to the patient. Purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to develop the effective dose computational model for obese and non-obese patients undergoing left and right ureteroscopy, and (b) to evaluate the utility of a commercial Monte Carlo software for dose assessment in ureteroscopy. Methods: Organ dose measurements were performed on an adult male anthropomorphic phantom, representing the non-obese patients, with 20 high-sensitivity MOSFET detectors and two 0.18cc ionization chambers placed in selected organs. Fat-equivalent paddings were placed around the abdominal region to simulate for obese patients. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors and normalized to the effective dose rate in miliSivert per second (mSv/s). In addition, a commercial Monte Carlo (MC) dose estimation program was used to estimate ED for the non-obese model, with table attenuation correction applied to simulate clinical procedure. Results: For the equipment and protocols involved in this study, the MOSFETderived ED rates for the obese patient model (‘Left’: 0.0092±0.0004 mSv/s; ‘Right’: 0.0086±0.0004 mSv/s) was found to be more than twice as much as that to the non-obese patient model (‘Left’: 0.0041±0.0003 mSv/s; ‘Right’: 0.0036±0.0007 mSv/s). The MC-derived ED rates for the non-obese patient model (‘Left’: 0.0041 mSv/s; ‘Right’: 0.0036 mSv/s; with statistical uncertainty of 1%) showed a good agreement with the MOSFET method. Conclusion: The significant difference in ED rate between the obese and non-obese patient models shows the limitation of directly applying commercial softwares for obese patients and leading to considerable underestimation of ED. Although commercial softwares offer a convenient means of dose estimation, but the utility may be limited to standard-man geometry as the software does not account for

  7. Student Mentoring Program 1989-1992. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Cate; And Others

    This report describes the evaluation process of Portland, Oregon's Student Mentoring Program (SMP), a program which brought college students from four private universities and at risk eighth grade students from four middle schools in mentoring relationships. The evaluation design is described, as are the various measurements used to assess program…

  8. Federally Mandated Evaluation of Vocational Programs: One College's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Mike; Walleri, R. Dan

    The process and findings of the evaluation of seven of the 52 vocational preparatory programs at Mount Hood Community College are described with a focus on demonstrating the feasibility, utility, and problems associated with making program evaluations meet both internal needs and federal requirements. Summaries of data collected are provided in…

  9. A Generalized Evaluation Model for Primary Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barling, Phillip W.; Cramer, Kathryn D.

    A generalized evaluation model (GEM) has been developed to evaluate primary prevention program impact. The GEM model views primary prevention dynamically; delineating four structural components (program, organization, target population, system) and four developmental stages (initiation, establishment, integration, continuation). The interaction of…

  10. Developing a Program Evaluation Plan: Options and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lubejko, Barbara G

    2016-09-01

    Planning how to evaluate educational programs needs to be a thoughtful process that begins early in program planning. By considering a series of questions and choosing between direct and indirect outcome measures, the evaluation process can provide useful data about successes and opportunities. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(9):388-389. PMID:27580502

  11. Fourth Generation Evaluation, Program Review and the Institutional Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    Program evaluation can be understood as the process of looking at how all aspects of a program or department have been functioning as the basis for informed planning and decision making. Although the objective dimensions used in evaluations can vary, methodologies can be categorized according to the four category framework (i.e., describing…

  12. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  13. Manipulator system man-machine interface evaluation program. [technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.; Kirkpatrick, M.; Shields, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    Application and requirements for remote manipulator systems for future space missions were investigated. A manipulator evaluation program was established to study the effects of various systems parameters on operator performance of tasks necessary for remotely manned missions. The program and laboratory facilities are described. Evaluation criteria and philosophy are discussed.

  14. An Alternative Feedback/Evaluation Model for Outdoor Wilderness Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, R.

    Project D.A.R.E. (Development through Adventure, Responsibility and Education), an adventure-based outdoor program, uses a feedback/evaluation model, combining a learning component with a two-part participant observational model. The first phase focuses on evaluation of the child and progress made while he is in the program (stages one to four);…

  15. Summative Evaluation of the Foreign Credential Recognition Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2010

    2010-01-01

    A summative evaluation of the Foreign Credential Recognition Program (FCRP) funded by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) was conducted during the spring, summer and fall of 2008. The main objective of the evaluation was to measure the relevance, impacts, and cost-effectiveness of the program. Given the timing of the evaluation…

  16. Creating a Minnesota Statewide SNAP-Ed Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Abby; Barno, Trina Adler; Sherman, Shelley; Lovett, Kathleen; Hurtado, G. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an essential tool for understanding program effectiveness. This article describes the pilot test of a statewide evaluation tool for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed). A computer algorithm helped Community Nutrition Educators (CNEs) build surveys specific to their varied educational settings…

  17. Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation of AIDS Education Programs for Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbert, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An office-based continuing education program on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) for dentists is described, including needs assessment, model development, local piloting, national implementation with 119 dentists, and evaluation phases. Program evaluation indicated an improvement in risk perception, knowledge, and practice resulted, but…

  18. State Programs for Migrant Children. Kansas Annual Evaluation Report, 1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Clyde J., Comp.

    The 1967 annual evaluation of Kansas's Title I (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) State Migratory Program is presented in this report. The program was in operation in 6 school districts during the summer; 447 children from kindergarten to the 7th grade were enrolled. The 5 educational needs of migrant children which were evaluated were (1)…

  19. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  20. Evaluation Methodologies for Estimating the Likelihood of Program Implementation Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Roger; Decker, Phillip J.; Kirkman, Dorothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite our best efforts as evaluators, program implementation failures abound. A wide variety of valuable methodologies have been adopted to explain and evaluate the "why" of these failures. Yet, typically these methodologies have been employed concurrently (e.g., project monitoring) or to the post-hoc assessment of program activities.…

  1. Student Assistance Program in Pennsylvania. Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertman, Carl I.; Schlesinger, Jo; Fichter, Cele; Tarasevich, Susan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wald, Holly

    This report contains the second year evaluation of the Student Assistance Program (SAP) in Pennsylvania. These school-based and school-linked programs address barriers to learning for youth at risk for social and emotional problems, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and depression. Second year evaluation focused on identifying essential components…

  2. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) seeks to improve the lives of cancer patients by finding better treatments, control mechanisms, and cures for cancer. CTEP funds a national program of cancer research, sponsoring clinical trials to evaluate new anti-cancer agents.

  3. Evaluation of a Televised Work-Along Program for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coller, Alan R.; Dusewicz, Russell A.

    An external evaluation was conducted of the Picturepages television work-along program in Kentucky. The program consisted of 100 televised lessons and booklets, and was given to 237 preschool children. The lessons presented "games" which were designed to develop cognitive concepts and skills. Both process and outcome evaluations were made. Process…

  4. 5 CFR 339.205 - Medical evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical evaluation programs. 339.205 Section 339.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS Physical and Medical Qualifications § 339.205 Medical evaluation programs....

  5. 5 CFR 339.205 - Medical evaluation programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Medical evaluation programs. 339.205 Section 339.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS Physical and Medical Qualifications § 339.205 Medical evaluation programs....

  6. A Program Evaluation of a Leadership Academy for School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kristi E.

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation focused on mid-range outcomes of a leadership academy for school principals. The mixed-methods evaluation included interviews, principals' instructional observation database, and teacher surveys. The Principal Academy program was designed to build principals' knowledge of high-yield instructional strategies (Hattie, 2009),…

  7. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  8. Moving Ahead: Program Review & Evaluation As Tools for Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Bruce

    This paper outlines purposes of program evaluation and provides practical information to help individuals from a wide spectrum of backgrounds use evaluation to move their program ahead in a purposeful manner. Wisely moving ahead requires an assessment of an organization's past and present as well as an examination of its assumptions about the…

  9. Summary of the Formative Evaluation Report of Self Incorporated Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockman, Saul; Auh, Taiksup

    Self Incorporated is a 15-program television/film series designed to stimulate classroom discussion of problems and issues of early adolescence. This document provides an overall summary of a formative evaluation project and summary results of the evaluations of each of eight programs in the series. (CH)

  10. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  11. Program Evaluation: Where Instruction and School Business Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Steven V.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about program evaluation, a strategy commonly used by instructional leaders that can help school business officials improve their budget process. As districts struggle to develop budgets in these challenging economic times, school business officials might consider turning to program evaluation for help. Program…

  12. Building Better English Language Programs: Perspectives on Evaluation in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the evaluation of college and university English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs, curricula, services, faculty, and administration. They include the following: "Developing Effective Evaluation Systems for Language Programs" (James D. Brown, Martha C. Pennington); "Self-Study and Self-Regulation for ESL…

  13. Learning and Leadership: Evaluation of an Australian Rural Leadership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Wendy; O'Mullan, Cathy; Keen-Dyer, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Leadership programs have been extensively promoted in rural communities in Australia. However, few have been evaluated. The results of the evaluation of a rural leadership program provided in this paper highlight the need for adult learning theories to be more overtly identified and utilised as the basis of planning and implementing leadership…

  14. Evaluating Organizational Training Programs: Alternatives and Criteria for Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marth, Joseph; And Others

    Managers and program sponsors are often unaware of possible alternatives to costly training evaluation procedures and do not have criteria for selecting alternatives. What is needed is an understanding of the various levels of evaluating training programs, feasible alternatives, and decision criteria for choosing the right system. It is proposed…

  15. Foreign Language K-12. Program Evaluation 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Jerry M.

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools foreign language program for K-12 is described and evaluated. The evaluation report focuses on six areas, including: (1) school district mission and philosophy of foreign language instruction; (2) context (state policies and standards, foreign language program overview and enrollment, fiber-optic communication…

  16. An Evaluation Guide for Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Alan B.; And Others

    An outcome of a study of adult basic education programs initiated three years ago by the Columbia University Center of Adult Education, the evaluation guide with its step-by-step instructions can be used for both formative and summative evaluations of adult basic education programs. Background research involved in this publication included direct…

  17. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  18. Evaluation of an electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Eve; Beaulieu, Luc; Lachance, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm included in a commercial treatment planning system and compare its performance against an electron pencil beam algorithm. Several tests were performed to explore the system's behavior in simple geometries and in configurations encountered in clinical practice. The first series of tests were executed in a homogeneous water phantom, where experimental measurements and eMC-calculated dose distributions were compared for various combinations of energy and applicator. More specifically, we compared beam profiles and depth-dose curves at different source-to-surface distances (SSDs) and gantry angles, by using dose difference and distance to agreement. Also, we compared output factors, we studied the effects of algorithm input parameters, which are the random number generator seed, as well as the calculation grid size, and we performed a calculation time evaluation. Three different inhomogeneous solid phantoms were built, using high- and low-density materials inserts, to clinically simulate relevant heterogeneity conditions: a small air cylinder within a homogeneous phantom, a lung phantom, and a chest wall phantom. We also used an anthropomorphic phantom to perform comparison of eMC calculations to measurements. Finally, we proceeded with an evaluation of the eMC algorithm on a clinical case of nose cancer. In all mentioned cases, measurements, carried out by means of XV-2 films, radiographic films or EBT2 Gafchromic films. were used to compare eMC calculations with dose distributions obtained from an electron pencil beam algorithm. eMC calculations in the water phantom were accurate. Discrepancies for depth-dose curves and beam profiles were under 2.5% and 2 mm. Dose calculations with eMC for the small air cylinder and the lung phantom agreed within 2% and 4%, respectively. eMC calculations for the chest wall phantom and the anthropomorphic phantom also

  19. Program Evaluation of the Sustainability of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggests a particular question that higher education researchers might ask: "Do educational programs use teaching methods that are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable?" It further proposes that program evaluation research (PER) can be used to answer the question. Consideration is given to: a) program evaluation…

  20. Evaluation of the FWL Responsive Headstart Program 1970-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephen

    This evaluation report of the Far West Laboratory Responsive Head Start Program, an inservice training program for preschool educators, discusses the effectiveness of the Laboratory's program and gives specific recommendations for improving it. The present report contains data that continue to support earlier findings indicating that the…

  1. Support for Career Development in Youth: Program Models and Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekinda, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines four influential programs--Citizen Schools, After School Matters, career academies, and Job Corps--to demonstrate the diversity of approaches to career programming for youth. It compares the specific program models and draws from the evaluation literature to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each. The article highlights…

  2. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Brighter Futures Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Davis, Terry

    This report provides information on the longitudinal evaluation of the Brighter Futures program in Florida, a teen pregnancy prevention program which created support groups for mothers age 16 and younger in order to prevent their having second pregnancies. Other program goals were to ensure that the girls finish high school and plan for a career,…

  3. Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

  4. Language Development Component, Secondary Developmental Reading Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Donald; Chamberlain, Ed

    This report evaluates the Secondary Developmental Reading Program, a component of the Ohio Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund (DPPF), in terms of the 1982-83 program objectives. Twelve project reading teachers worked in eight Columbus senior high schools with 843 pupils scoring at or below the 36th percentile in reading achievement. A pilot project…

  5. Composition for Personal Growth: Program Design and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Robert Coit

    This thesis describes the design and evaluation of the "Composition for Personal Growth" program developed by Sidney B. Simon, Robert C. Hawley, and David D. Britton. In developing the program, the designers sought to remedy what they considered to be the four major faults of many traditional composition programs: lack of meaningful subject…

  6. Worker Education Program 1994-97. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Katherine E.

    An evaluation examined the efficacy of the program structure, implementation, and outcomes of the Worker Education Program (WEP), a partnership of Northeastern Illinois University; Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees; and 14 employers. WEP's greatest strengths were its conceptual design, program structures, relevant…

  7. Transitional Class Program, 1979-80. OEE Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opperman, Prudence Ward; And Others

    This evaluation report describes the implementation and results of the 1979-80 Transitional Class Program. Although the program no longer exists as a centrally-coordinated effort, it serves as a final summary of the program's two years of operation by comparing the results from one year (1978-1979) to the next (1979-1980), and provides guidance to…

  8. Evaluating the "Reasoning and Rehabilitation" Program for Young Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Palmer, Emma J.

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R and R) program with juvenile offenders in an English prison was evaluated using reconviction and reimprisonment at eighteen months post-release as outcomes. A group of offenders who completed the program (n = 31) were compared with a group of offenders who did not receive the program (n =…

  9. Evaluation of verification and testing tools for FORTRAN programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two automated software verification and testing systems were developed for use in the analysis of computer programs. An evaluation of the static analyzer DAVE and the dynamic analyzer PET, which are used in the analysis of FORTRAN programs on Control Data (CDC) computers, are described. Both systems were found to be effective and complementary, and are recommended for use in testing FORTRAN programs.

  10. Montana CETA Field Learning Program. Fiscal Year 1980. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Richard E.

    Evaluation of the CETA/EBCE (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act/Experience Based Career Education) Field Learning Program at eight sites in Montana showed the program to be successful in helping high school students explore careers. The system was generally successful in achieving program outcome objectives: varied types of students were…

  11. An Evaluative Case Study of Nine Virtual High School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Clara M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of nine virtual high school programs in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Idaho, Colorado, Illinois, Michigan, North Carolina and Massachusetts. In order to assess the quality and effectiveness of the virtual high school programs in the study in terms of overall quality and…

  12. Prevention Initiative Program. Final Evaluation Report Fiscal 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Patricia; Borger, Jeanne

    This report provides an evaluation of the Prevention Initiative Program's second-funded year in the Chicago Public Schools. The program's purpose was to reduce school failure by providing health and social services to young families, improving parenting skills, and assisting young mothers to complete high school. The program served pregnant or…

  13. Building for the Future: Community College Leadership Development Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresso, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study examines and evaluates an internal, grow-your-own, community college leadership development program. Participants in a community college leadership development program self-reported their leadership knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) before, during, and after participation in the program. Study…

  14. METRO Achievement Program: Summer 1988. External Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Denise R.

    This document comprises an evaluation of the 1988 METRO Achievement Program, a summer educational program to help develop the academic potential of primarily Black and Hispanic girls entering the seventh and eighth grades in Chicago. The 5-week program included the following components: (1) mathematics, science, and communication skills classes;…

  15. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  16. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of the OneDose MOSFET for measuring kilovoltage imaging dose from image-guided radiotherapy procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, George X.; Coffey, Charles W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a single-use dosimeter, OneDose MOSFET designed for in vivo patient dosimetry, for measuring the radiation dose from kilovoltage (kV) x rays resulting from image-guided procedures. Methods: The OneDose MOSFET dosimeters were precalibrated by the manufacturer using Co-60 beams. Their energy response and characteristics for kV x rays were investigated by using an ionization chamber, in which the air-kerma calibration factors were obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (ADCL). The dosimetric properties have been tested for typical kV beams used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Results: The direct dose reading from the OneDose system needs to be multiplied by a correction factor ranging from 0.30 to 0.35 for kilovoltage x rays ranging from 50 to 125 kVp, respectively. In addition to energy response, the OneDose dosimeter has up to a 20% reduced sensitivity for beams (70-125 kVp) incident from the back of the OneDose detector. Conclusions: The uncertainty in measuring dose resulting from a kilovoltage beam used in IGRT is approximately 20%; this uncertainty is mainly due to the sensitivity dependence of the incident beam direction relative to the OneDose detector. The ease of use may allow the dosimeter to be suitable for estimating the dose resulting from image-guided procedures.

  18. Whole-body dose evaluation with an adaptive treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kenta; Kumada, Hiroaki; Isobe, Tomonori; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Kamizawa, Satoshi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Dose evaluation for out-of-field organs during radiotherapy has gained interest in recent years. A team led by University of Tsukuba is currently implementing a project for advancing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), along with a radiation treatment planning system (RTPS). In this study, the authors used the RTPS (the 'Tsukuba-Plan') to evaluate the dose to out-of-field organs during BNCT. Computed tomography images of a whole-body phantom were imported into the RTPS, and a voxel model was constructed for the Monte Carlo calculations, which used the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System. The results indicate that the thoracoabdominal organ dose during BNCT for a brain tumour and maxillary sinus tumour was 50-360 and 120-1160 mGy-Eq, respectively. These calculations required ∼29.6 h of computational time. This system can evaluate the out-of-field organ dose for BNCT irradiation during treatment planning with patient-specific irradiation conditions. PMID:25520378

  19. Evaluation of Hepatotoxicity with Treatment Doses of Flucytosine and Amphotericin B for Invasive Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Folk, Alexandra; Cotoraci, Coralia; Balta, Cornel; Suciu, Maria; Herman, Hildegard; Boldura, Oana Maria; Dinescu, Sorina; Paiusan, Lucian; Ardelean, Aurel; Hermenean, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection is a well-known cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. In this study we aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity induced by combined therapy of flucytosine and amphotericin B, at three different doses administered to mice for 14 days: 50 mg/kg flucytosine and 300 μg/kg amphotericin B; 100 mg/kg flucytosine and 600 μg/kg amphotericin B; 150 mg/kg flucytosine and 900 μg/kg amphotericin B. Liver injuries were evaluated by analysis of optic and electron microscopy samples, changes in TNF-α, IL-6, and NF-κB inflammation markers levels of expression, and evaluation of mRNA profiles. Histological and ultrastructural analysis revealed an increase in parenchymal and portal inflammation in mice and Kupffer cells activation. Combined antifungal treatment stimulated activation of an inflammatory pathway, demonstrated by a significant dose-dependent increase of TNF-α and IL-6 immunoreactivity, together with mRNA upregulation. Also, NF-κB was activated, as suggested by the high levels found in hepatic tissue and upregulation of target genes. Our results suggest that antifungal combined therapy exerts a synergistic inflammatory activation in a dose-dependent manner, through NF-κB pathway, which promotes an inflammatory cascade during inflammation. The use of combined antifungal therapy needs to be dose limiting due to the associated risk of liver injury, especially for those patients with hepatic dysfunction. PMID:26949702

  20. Second NBL measurement evaluation program meeting: A summary

    SciTech Connect

    Spaletto, M.I.; Clapper, M.; Tolbert, M.E.M.

    1997-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), the US government`s nuclear materials measurements and reference materials laboratory, administers interlaboratory measurement evaluation programs to evaluate the quality and adequacy of safeguards measurements. The NBL Measurement Evaluation Program covers several types of safeguards analytical measurements. The Safeguards Measurement Evaluation (SME) program distributes test materials destructive measurements of uranium for both elemental concentration and isotopic abundances, and of plutonium for isotopic abundances. The Calorimetry Exchange (CalEx) Program tests the quality of nondestructive measurements of plutonium isotopic abundances by gamma spectroscopy and plutonium concentration by calorimetry. In May 1997, more than 30 representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE), its contractor laboratories, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees met at NBL in Argonne, Illinois, for the annual meeting of the Measurement Evaluation Program. The summary which follows details key points that were discussed or presented at the meeting.