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Sample records for dose mn fe

  1. Anomalous positive exchange bias in nanostructured FeMn/Co/FeMn networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng; Fan, Xiaolong; Guo, Dangwei; Liu, Qingfang

    2007-08-01

    FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayers are sputtered onto porous alumina templates and silicon, respectively. The FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on the porous alumina templates forms an interconnected network nanostructure, while the FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on the silicon substrate forms a continuous film. The SQUID testing results show that the exchange bias (HE) and coercivity (Hc) of the FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on the porous alumina templates strongly depend on the temperature. A positive exchange bias loops shift is observed at 250 K under field-cooled conditions. However, this is not found in the FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer on silicon for the same layer thickness. We attribute the positive exchange bias loops shift of the network nanostructured FeMn/Co/FeMn multilayer to the decreased exchange coupling due to the existence of the holes in the interconnected nanostructure.

  2. Tough cryogenic alloys from the Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schanfein, M. J.; Zackay, V. F.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    By adjusting composition, metastable gamma (austenite) and epsilon (hexagonal) martensite may be retained in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr alloys and used to impact toughness through the TRIP mechanism. The resulting alloys have excellent toughness at cryogenic temperatures. The best alloys obtained to date are: Fe-20Mn, with sigma (sub y) = 79ksi and K sub IC = 275ksi square root of (in) at 77 K, and Fc-16Mn-8Cr, with sigma sub y = 85ksi and K sub IC = 72ksi square root of (in) at 77 K.

  3. Guidelines for finding concretionary Mn-Fe oxides in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlan, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Concretionary Mn-Fe oxides in streams form at interfaces between oxidizing and reducing environments. A reducing environment produces waters high in dissolved Mn and Fe, and an oxidizing environment causes precipitation. Mineralogical, microprobe, and optical studies of concretionary Mn-Fe oxides may further our understanding of the role of Mn-Fe oxides in determining the trace-element geochemistry of stream sediments. ?? 1982.

  4. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0).

    PubMed

    Igarashi, R N; Miranda, I P; Eleno, L T F; Klautau, A B; Petrilli, H M

    2016-08-17

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0). PMID:27346457

  5. Low hysteresis FeMn-based top spin valve.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, V V; Krinitsina, T P; Milyaev, M A; Naumova, L I; Proglyado, V V

    2012-09-01

    FeMn-based top spin valves Ta/[FeNi/CoFe]/Cu/CoFe/FeMn/Ta with different Cu and FeMn layers thicknesses were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. It was shown that low field hysteresis due to free layer magnetization reversal can be reduced down to (0.1 divided by 0.2) Oe keeping the GMR ratio higher 8% by using both layers thicknesses optimization and non-collinear geometry of magnetoresistance measurements. Dependence of low field hysteresis and GMR ratio on the angle between applied magnetic field and pinning direction are presented. PMID:23035516

  6. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS–LMTO–ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn–Mn and Mn–Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  7. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process. PMID:1886521

  8. Investigations of Fe and Mn Bioreduction in Unconsolidated Clastic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, J. P.; Zachara, J. M.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Heald, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    We studied the microbial reduction of Mn and Fe in sediments from Oak Ridge, TN, and the Hanford Site, WA. Bioreduction was by incubation of 1 g sediment in 10 ml of 30 mM pH 7 bicarbonate buffer with 7-9 x 107 cells/ml {it S. putrefaciens} CN32 and 10 mM sodium lactate as electron donor. Solution chemistry was monitored during incubation and sediments were pasteurized before characterization. For the unconsolidated clay-rich saprolite from Oak Ridge, Fe reduction occurred after Mn reduction was essentially complete. In sediments from the Pliocene Ringold Fm. (Hanford), incubated under the same conditions, Fe reduction was inhibited, and Mn(III/IV) was incompletely reduced. When Ringold sediments were incubated under conditions with greater available electron donor, more Fe was reduced after reduction of almost all of the available Mn(IV). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe and XANES analysis of Ringold sediments were used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of Mn. Initially, Mn(III/IV) was present as fragments of phyllomanganate minerals and as interlammelar precipitates with Fe oxides in micas and on silicate clast surfaces. The precipitates were botryoidal and chemically heterogeneous at the sub-micron scale. Precipitates within micas had expanded and deformed the sheet structure of each flake. With the lesser available donor, Mn reduction essentially ceased after 43 days of incubation, and the bulk Mn XANES spectrum indicated residual Mn(III/IV). X-ray microprobe mapping indicated all of the remaining Mn was associated with interlamellar and grain-surface iron oxides, and microXANES showed that the Mn valence within a single mica clast was heterogeneously distributed, and varied from Mn(III/IV) to Mn(II). At longer incubation times, the Mn nearer to the clast exterior tended to be more uniformly reduced than Mn in the interior. The Mn in clast interiors was apparently not readily bioavailable, but could act to

  9. Thermodynamics of nitrogen in Mn-Fe-C melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young E.

    2003-12-01

    The present study assesses the available experimental data in the Unified Interaction Parameter (UIP) formalism and proposes a thermodynamic model to describe the solubility of nitrogen over the entire composition range in Mn-Fe-C melts. The solubility of nitrogen was investigated from equilibrium between gaseous nitrogen and nitrogen dissolved in Mn-Fe-C melts. 1/2N_2 (g) + \\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle-}{N} (x,liq.Mn)K = x_N γ _N /P_{N_2^{1/2} } The equilibrium constant, K, and the activity coefficient of nitrogen, γ N, in the UIP formalism were determined taking a liquid Mn and infinite dilution of N in a Mn melt as the standard states for Mn and N, respectively. In K=-5.633+5770/T (1544 to 1841 K) ln K = - 5.633 + 5770/T (1544 to 1841 K)[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Molecular orbital (SCF-X-α-SW) theory of Fe2+-Mn3+, Fe3+-Mn2+, and Fe3+-Mn3+ charge transfer and magnetic exchange in oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-metal charge-transfer and magnetic exchange interactions have important effects on the optical spectra, crystal chemistry, and physics of minerals. Previous molecular orbital calculations have provided insight on the nature of Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ charge-transfer transitions in oxides and silicates. In this work, spin-unrestricted molecular orbital calculations on (FeMnO10) clusters are used to study the nature of magnetic exchange and electron delocalization (charge transfer) associated with Fe3+-Mn2+, Fe3+-Mn3+, and Fe2+-Mn3+ interactions in oxides and silicates. 

  11. Local Observation of the Site Occupancy of Mn in a MnFePSi Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, M. J.; Oxley, M. P.; Guo, J.; Sales, B. C.; Allen, L. J.; Chisholm, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    MnFePSi compounds are promising materials for magnetic refrigeration as they exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect. From first principles calculations and experiments on bulk materials, it has been proposed that this is due to the Mn and Fe atoms preferentially occupying two different sites within the atomic lattice. A recently developed technique was used to deconvolve the obscuring effects of both multiple elastic scattering and thermal diffuse scattering of the probe in an atomic resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy investigation of a MnFePSi compound. This reveals, unambiguously, that the Mn atoms preferentially occupy the 3 g site in a hexagonal crystal structure, confirming the theoretical predictions. After deconvolution, the data exhibit a difference in the Fe L2 ,3 ratio between the 3 f and 3 g sites consistent with differences in magnetic moments calculated from first principles, which are also not observed in the raw data.

  12. Magnetic and microwave properties of CoFe/PtMn/CoFe multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettiford, C. I.; Zeltser, A.; Yoon, S. D.; Harri, V. G.; Vittoria, C.; Sun, N. X.

    2006-04-01

    CoFe/PtMn/CoFe films were deposited on seed layers of Ru or NiFeCr with CoFe film compositions being either Co-10 at. %Fe or Co-16 at. %Fe. Eight periods of the CoFe/PtMn/CoFe trilayers were also prepared. The magnetic properties and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of these films were characterized with vibrating-sample magnetometer, and field-sweep FMR system at X band (~9.5 GHz). The Ru-seeded CoFe/PtMn/CoFe sandwich films show excellent magnetic softness with a low hard axis coercivity of 2-4 Oe, an easy axis Mr/Ms of >98%, and a significantly enhanced in-plane anisotropy of 57-123 Oe when CoFe layer thickness is above 200 A˚. Contrary to what was observed in the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayer systems that have reduced FMR linewidth with the increase of film thickness, the CoFe/PtMn/CoFe trilayers with Ru seed layer show a minimum FMR linewidth of 45 Oe at an intermediate CoFe layer thickness of 300 A˚ at ~9.5 GHz.

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Fe-Mn Binary Alloys with High Mn Content: Effects of Stable and Metastable ɛ-Martensite, and Mn Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Motomichi; Okazaki, Shota; Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

    2016-06-01

    To obtain a basic understanding of hydrogen embrittlement associated with ɛ-martensite, we investigated the tensile behavior of binary Fe-Mn alloys with high Mn content under cathodic hydrogen charging. We used Fe-20Mn, Fe-28Mn, Fe-32Mn, and Fe-40Mn alloys. The correlation between the microstructure and crack morphology was clarified through electron backscatter diffraction measurements and electron channeling contrast imaging. ɛ-martensite in the Fe-20Mn alloy critically deteriorated the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement owing to transformation to α'-martensite. However, when ɛ-martensite is stable, hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility became low, particularly in the Fe-32Mn alloys, even though the formation of ɛ-martensite plates assisted boundary cracking. The Fe-40Mn alloys, in which no martensite forms even after fracture, showed higher hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility compared to the Fe-32Mn alloy. Namely, in Fe-Mn binary alloys, the Mn content has an optimal value for hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility because of the following two reasons: (1) The formation of stable ɛ-martensite seems to have a positive effect in suppressing hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity, but causes boundary cracking, and (2) an increase in Mn content stabilizes austenite, suppressing martensite-related cracking, but probably decreases the cohesive energy of grain boundaries, causing intergranular cracking. As a consequence, the optimal Mn content was 32 wt pct in the present alloys.

  14. Magnetic interactions in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingyu; Sheng, Yan; Khalid, M.; Cao, Yanqiang; Wang, Yutian; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Zhang, Wen; He, Maocheng; Wang, Shuangbao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Qi; Wu, Di; Zhai, Ya; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Peng; Xu, Y. B.; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The clear understanding of exchange interactions between magnetic ions in substituted BiFeO3 is the prerequisite for the comprehensive studies on magnetic properties. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), the ferroelectricity at room temperature has been inferred from the observation of PFM hysteresis loops and electrical writing of ferroelectric domains for both samples. Spin glass behavior has been observed in both samples by temperature dependent magnetization curves and decay of thermo-remnant magnetization with time. The magnetic ordering has been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, and Fe-O-Mn interaction has been confirmed to be antiferromagnetic (AF). The observed spin glass in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films has been attributed to cluster spin glass due to Mn-rich ferromagnetic (FM) clusters in AF matrix, while spin glass in BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices is due to competition between AF Fe-O-Fe, AF Fe-O-Mn and FM Mn-O-Mn interactions in the well ordered square lattice with two Fe ions in BiFeO3 layer and two Mn ions in BiMnO3 layer at interfaces. PMID:25766744

  15. Ferrous Carbonyl Dithiolates as Precursors to FeFe, FeCo, and FeMn Carbonyl Dithiolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reported are complexes of the formula Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and their use to prepare homo- and heterobimetallic dithiolato derivatives. The starting iron dithiolates were prepared by a one-pot reaction of FeCl2 and CO with chelating diphosphines and dithiolates, where dithiolate = S2(CH2)22– (edt2–), S2(CH2)32– (pdt2–), S2(CH2)2(C(CH3)2)2– (Me2pdt2–) and diphos = cis-C2H2(PPh2)2 (dppv), C2H4(PPh2)2 (dppe), C6H4(PPh2)2 (dppbz), C2H4[P(C6H11)2]2 (dcpe). The incorporation of 57Fe into such building block complexes commenced with the conversion of 57Fe into 57Fe2I4(iPrOH)4, which then was treated with K2pdt, CO, and dppe to give 57Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe). NMR and IR analyses show that these complexes exist as mixtures of all-cis and trans-CO isomers, edt2– favoring the former and pdt2– the latter. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with the Fe(0) reagent (benzylideneacetone)Fe(CO)3 gave Fe2(dithiolate)(CO)4(diphos), thereby defining a route from simple ferrous salts to models for hydrogenase active sites. Extending the building block route to heterobimetallic complexes, treatment of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) with [(acenaphthene)Mn(CO)3]+ gave [(CO)3Mn(pdt)Fe(CO)2(dppe)]+ ([3d(CO)]+). Reduction of [3d(CO)]+ with BH4– gave the Cs-symmetric μ-hydride (CO)3Mn(pdt)(H)Fe(CO)(dppe) (H3d). Complex H3d is reversibly protonated by strong acids, the proposed site of protonation being sulfur. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with CpCoI2(CO) followed by reduction by Cp2Co affords CpCo(dithiolate)Fe(CO)(diphos) (4), which can also be prepared from Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and CpCo(CO)2. Like the electronically related (CO)3Fe(pdt)Fe(CO)(diphos), these complexes undergo protonation to afford the μ-hydrido complexes [CpCo(dithiolate)HFe(CO)(diphos)]+. Low-temperature NMR studies indicate that Co is the kinetic site of protonation. PMID:24803716

  16. Structure and magnetism of FeMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayaprol, S.; Kaushik, S. D.; Babu, P. D.; Siruguri, V.

    2013-02-01

    The compound FeMnO3 crystallizing in the mineral bixbyite structure has been prepared by mechanochemical synthesis achieved by high energy ball milling of starting compounds. The structure and magnetism have been studied using powder neutron diffraction and magnetization measurements. Magnetization measurements exhibits ferrimagnetism at 300 K and antiferromagnetic (TN) ordering around 36 K. Magnetic structure has been determined from the Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction pattern recorded at 300 K. Fe and Mn occupy both 8b and 24d sites in 1:1 ratio. Interaction between Fe and Mn atoms is antiferromagnetic. The ferrimagnetism arises due to anti-parallel alignment of unequal moments on 8b and 24d sites.

  17. Study of intergranular embrittlement in Fe-12Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Auger microscopic study has been performed on the intergranular fracture surfaces of Fe-12Mn steels in the as-austenitized condition. Fracture mode below the ductile-brittle transition temperature was intergranular whenever the alloy was quenched from the austenite field. The intergranular fracture surface failed to reveal any consistent segregation of P, S, As, O, or N. The occasional appearance of S or O on the fracture surface was found to be due to a low density precipitation of MnS and MnO/sub 2/ along the prior austenite boundaries. An AES study with Ar/sup +/ ion-sputtering showed no evidence of manganese enrichment along the prior austenite boundaries, but a slight segregation of carbon which does not appear to be implicated in the tendency toward intergranular fracture. Addition of 0.002% B with a 1000/sup 0/C/1h/WQ treatment yielded a high Charpy impact energy at liquid nitrogen temperature, preventing the intergranular fracture. High resolution AES studies showed that 3 at. % B on the prior austenite grain boundaries is most effective in increasing the grain boundary cohesive strength in an Fe-12Mn alloy. Trace additions of Mg, Zr, or V had negligible effects on the intergranular embrittlement. A 450/sup 0/C temper of the boron-modified alloys was found to cause tempered martensite embrittlement, leading to intergranular fracture. The embrittling treatment of the Fe-12Mn alloys with and without boron additions raised the ductile-brittle transition by 150/sup 0/C. This tempered martensite embrittlement was found to be due to the Mn enrichment of the fracture surface to 32 at. % Mn in the boron-modified alloy and 38 at. % Mn in the unmodified alloy. The Mn-enriched region along the prior austenite grain boundaries upon further tempering is believed to cause nucleation of austenite and to change the chemistry of the intergranular fracture surfaces. 61 figures.

  18. The corrosion behavior of Fe-Mn-Al weld metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, Daryush K.

    2001-02-01

    The corrosion resistance of a newly developed iron-base, Fe-Mn-Al austenitic, and duplex weld metal has been examined in the NACE solution consisting of 5 wt.% NaCl, 0.5 wt.% acetic acid, and the balance distilled water. The electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization, Tafel plots, linear polarization, cyclic polarization, and open-circuit potential versus time were employed. The Fe-Mn-Al weld metals did not passivate and exhibited high corrosion rates. Fe-Cr-Ni (310 and 316) weld and base metals were also examined in the NACE solution at room temperature. The 310 and 316 base metals were more resistant to corrosion than the as-welded 310 and 316 weld metals. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) improved the corrosion performance of the Fe-Mn-Al weld metals. The corrosion resistance of Fe-Mn-Al weld metals after PWHT was still inferior to that of the 310 and 316 weld and base metals.

  19. Effect of on-site Coulomb interaction (U) on the electronic and magnetic properties of Fe2MnSi, Fe2MnAl and Co2MnGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sonu; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structures, density of states' plots and magnetic moments of Fe2MnSi, Fe2MnAl, and Co2MnGe are studied by using the first principles calculation. The FM solutions using LSDA without U show the presence of half-metallic ferromagnetic (HFM) ground state in Fe2MnSi, whereas the ground state of Fe2MnAl is found to be metallic. In both compounds the maximum contribution to the total magnetic moment is from the Mn atom, while the Fe atom contributes very less. The electronic structures and magnetic moments of Fe-based compounds are affected significantly by U under around-the-mean-field (AMF) double counting scheme, whereas its effect is very less on Co2MnGe. The magnetic moment of Fe atom in Fe2MnSi (Fe2MnAl) increased by ∼70% (∼75%) and in Mn atom it decreases by ∼50% (∼70%) when the value of U is increased from 1 to 5 eV. Hund's like exchange interactions are increasing in Fe atom while decreasing in Mn atom with increase in U. The Fe and Mn moments are ferromagnetically coupled in Fe2MnSi for all values of U, whereas in Fe2MnAl they are coupled antiferromagnetically below U=2 eV and ferromagnetically above it. Above U=2 eV the metallic ground state of Fe2MnAl changes to semiconducting ground state and the ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Mn atoms appears to be responsible for this. This shows that the validity of AFM double counting scheme is not robust for the entire range of U in the Fe2MnAl compound.

  20. Magnetic properties and atomic ordering of BCC Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yuepeng; Ma, Yuexing; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure, atomic disorder and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. BCC Fe2MnGa ribbon samples were prepared. Experimentally, a saturation magnetic moment (3.68 μB at 5 K) much larger than the theoretical value (2.04 μB) has been reported. First-principles calculations indicate that the difference is related to the Fe-Mn disorder between A, B sites, as can also be deduced from the XRD pattern. L21 type Fe2MnGa is a ferrimagnet with antiparallel Fe and Mn spin moments. However, when Fe-Mn disorder occurs, part of Mn moments will be parallel to Fe moments, and the Fe moments also clearly increase simultaneously. All this results in a total moment of 3.74 μB, close to the experimental value.

  1. Paramagnetic properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys: a DMFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerov, Alexander S.; Anisimov, Vladimir I.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bcc Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys by two different approaches. The first approach employs the coherent potential approximation (CPA) combined with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The material-specific Hamiltonians in the Wannier function basis are obtained by density functional theory. In the second approach, we construct supercells modeling the binary alloys and study them using DMFT. Both approaches lead to a qualitative agreement with experimental data. In particular, the decrease of Curie temperature with Mn content and a maximum at about 10 at.% V are well described in units of the Curie temperature of pure iron. In contrast to the Mn impurities, the V ones are found to be antiferromagnetically coupled to Fe atoms. Our calculations for the two-band Anderson–Hubbard model indicate that the antiferromagnetic coupling is responsible for a maximum in the concentration dependence of Curie temperature in Fe-V alloys.

  2. Paramagnetic properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys: a DMFT study.

    PubMed

    Belozerov, Alexander S; Anisimov, Vladimir I

    2016-09-01

    We calculate magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bcc Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys by two different approaches. The first approach employs the coherent potential approximation (CPA) combined with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The material-specific Hamiltonians in the Wannier function basis are obtained by density functional theory. In the second approach, we construct supercells modeling the binary alloys and study them using DMFT. Both approaches lead to a qualitative agreement with experimental data. In particular, the decrease of Curie temperature with Mn content and a maximum at about 10 at.% V are well described in units of the Curie temperature of pure iron. In contrast to the Mn impurities, the V ones are found to be antiferromagnetically coupled to Fe atoms. Our calculations for the two-band Anderson-Hubbard model indicate that the antiferromagnetic coupling is responsible for a maximum in the concentration dependence of Curie temperature in Fe-V alloys. PMID:27355416

  3. Scavenging of Cd through Fe/Mn oxides within natural surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Huang, Guo-he; Zhang, Bai-yu; Guo, Shu-hai

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of Cd scavenging from solutions by Fe/Mn oxides in natural surface coatings (NSCs) was investigated under laboratory conditions. Selective extraction methods were employed to estimate the contributions of Fe/Mn oxides, where hydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.01 mol/L NH2OH x HCl + 0.01 mol/L HNO3), sodium dithionite (0.4 mol/L Na2S2O4) and nitric acid (10% HNO3) were used as extraction reagents. The Cd scavenging was accomplished with developing periods of the NSCs (totally 21 data sets). The resulting process dynamics fitted well to the Elovich equation, demonstrating that the amount of Cd scavenged was proportional to the increments of Fe/Mn oxides that were accumulated in the NSCs. The amount of Cd bound to Fe oxides (M,,) and Mn oxides (MCdMn could be quantified by solving two equations based on the properties of two extraction reagents. The amount of Cd scavenged by Fe/Mn oxides could also be estimated using MCdFe and MCdMn, divided by the total amounts of Fe and Mn oxides in the NSCs, respectively. The results indicated that the Cd scavenging by Fe/Mn oxides was dominated by Fe oxides, with less roles attributed to Mn oxides. The estimated levels of Cd scavenging through Fe and Mn oxides agreed well with those predicted through additive-adsorption and linear-regression models. PMID:17294965

  4. Electrochemical sensing property of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2013-02-01

    The Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrochemical sensing property of pure and Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were examined using uric acid (UA) as an analyte. The obtained results indicated that the Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity towards UA.

  5. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  6. Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shufeng; Li, Run-Wei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yao, Kui; Wu, Yihong

    2016-03-01

    Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt bilayers with ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn has been characterized through planar Hall effect measurements. A large effective field of 2.05 ×10-5 to 2.44 ×10-5Oe (A-1cm2) is obtained for FeMn in the thickness range of 2-5 nm. The experimental observations can be reasonably accounted for by using a macrospin model under the assumption that the FeMn layer is composed of two spin sublattices with unequal magnetizations. The large effective field corroborates the spin Hall origin of the effective field, considering the much smaller uncompensated net moments in FeMn as compared to NiFe. The effective absorption of spin current by FeMn is further confirmed by the fact that spin current generated by Pt in NiFe/FeMn/Pt trilayers can only travel through the FeMn layer with a thickness of 1-4 nm. By quantifying the fieldlike effective field induced in NiFe, a spin diffusion length of 2 nm is estimated in FeMn, consistent with values reported in the literature by ferromagnetic resonance and spin-pumping experiments.

  7. The Mn-Fe negative correlation in olivines in ALHA 77257 ureilite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Furuta, T.; Fujii, N.; McKay, D. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Duke, M. B.

    1993-03-01

    An electron probe microanalyzer is used to measure the Mn, Fe, and oxygen zoning profiles of olivines in the ALHA 77257 ureilite. This is done to study the effects of reduction on the Mn-Fe value, as ureilite olivines exhibit thin reduced rims. Since the Mn content gradually increases toward the rim of ureilite olivines, while the Fa (= 100 x Fe/(Mg + Fe), mol percent) component decreases, the Mn-Fe content of olivine is likely related to redox conditions. The results of melting experiments suggest that the Mn-Fe positive correlation is related to temperature and that the negative correlation of Mn-Fe in olivine and low-Ca pyroxene is related to reduction.

  8. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn, Co, and Ni substitution of Fe in Fe4N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Patrizia; Björkman, Torbjörn; Gasche, Thomas; Eriksson, Olle

    2013-08-01

    The magnetic properties of Mn, Co, and Ni substituted Fe4N are calculated from first principles theory. It is found that the generalized gradient approximation reproduces with good accuracy the magnetic moment and equilibrium volume for the parent Fe4N structure, with the atomic moment largest for the Fe atom furthest away from the N atom (Fe I site), approaching a value of 3 μB/atom, whereas the Fe atom closer to the N atom (Fe II site) has a moment closer to that of bcc Fe. The substitution of Fe for Mn, Co, or Ni, shows an intricate behavior in which the Mn substitution clearly favors the Fe II site, Ni favors substitution on the Fe I site, and Co shows no strong preference for either lattice site. The Ni and Co substitution results in a ferromagnetic coupling to the Fe atoms, whereas Mn couples antiferromagnetically on the Fe II site and ferromagnetically on the Fe I site. For all types of doping, the total magnetic moment is enhanced compared to Fe4N only in the energetically very unfavorable case of Mn doping at the Fe I site.

  9. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Fe Ions for Induction ofMicro-Nuclei at Low Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Groesser, Torsten; Chun, Eugene; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2007-01-16

    Dose-response curves for induction of micro-nuclei (MN) was measured in Chinese hamster V79 and xrs6 (Ku80-) cells and in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells in the dose range of 0.05-1 Gy. The Chinese Hamster cells were exposed to 1 GeV/u Fe ions, 600 MeV/u Fe ions, and 300 MeV/u Fe ions (LETs of 151, 176 and 235 keV/{micro}m respectively) as well as with 320 kVp X-rays as reference. Second-order polynomials were fitted to the induction curves and the initial slopes (the alpha values) were used to calculate RBE. For the repair proficient V79 cells the RBE at these low doses increased with LET. The values obtained were 3.1 (LET=151 keV/{micro}m), 4.3 (LET = 176 keV/{micro}m) and 5.7 (LET = 235 keV/{micro}m), while the RBE was close to 1 for the repair deficient xrs6 cells regardless of LET. For the MCF10A cells the RBE was determined for 1 GeV/u Fe ions and found to be 5.4, slightly higher than for V79 cells. To test the effect of shielding, the 1 GeV/u Fe ion beam was intercepted by various thickness of high-density polyethylene plastic absorbers, which resulted in energy loss and fragmentation. It was found that the MN yield for V79 cells placed behind the absorbers decreased in proportion to the decrease in dose both before and after the Fe ion Bragg peak (excluding the area around the Fe-ion Bragg peak itself), indicating that RBE did not change significantly due to shielding. At the Bragg peak the effectiveness for MN formation per unit dose was decreased, indicating an 'overkill' effect by low-energy very high-LET Fe ions.

  10. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    SciTech Connect

    Akmaldinov, K.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V.

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  11. Assessment of Mn-Fe-Si-C Melt in Unified Interaction Parameter Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jung Pil; Lee, Young E.

    2016-02-01

    The solubility of C in Mn-Fe-Si-C melt decreases with increasing Si content, and its decrease becomes greater when the phase in equilibrium with Mn-Fe-Si-C melt changes from carbon to SiC. Such behavior has an industrial implication for low carbon products and processes of steels and Mn alloys. Li and Morris assessed the solution properties of Mn-Fe-Si-C system in the UIP formalism, but the effectiveness of their assessment was limited in applicable ranges of composition to Mn-rich solution and of temperature to around 1673 K (1400 °C). This study develops the information of activity coefficients of C and Si of Mn-Fe-Si-C system from the consistent experimental solubility of C and assesses them in the UIP formalism. This assessment of Mn-Fe-Si-C system describes confidently the behavior of solution properties in a wide range of composition and temperature.

  12. Chemistry of arsenic removal during coagulation and Fe-Mn oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Arsenic removal during coagulation or Fe-Mn oxidation is examined to aid utilities that desire to improve arsenic removal. Fundamental mechanisms of arsenic removal are discussed, optimization strategies are forwarded, and some new insights are provided to guide future research. Specifically, As(III) removals by coagulation are primarily controlled by coagulant dose and relatively unaffected by solution pH, whereas the converse is true for As(V). When compared on the basis of moles iron or aluminum hydroxide solid formed during coagulation, iron and aluminum coagulants are of demonstrably equal effectiveness in removing As(V) at pH < 7.5. However, iron-based coagulants are advantageous if soluble metal residuals are problematic, if pH is > 7.5, or if the raw water contains As(III). Arsenic removal during Fe-Mn oxidation is controlled by the quantity of iron removed [Fe(OH)[sub 3] formed] and is relatively independent of the quantity of manganese removed (MnOOH formed). 63 refs.

  13. A Mn(IV)/Fe(IV) Intermediate in Assembly of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) Cofactor of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Hoffart, Lee M.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2008-01-01

    We recently showed that the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from the human pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, uses a MnIV/FeIII cofactor to generate protein and substrate radicals in its catalytic mechanism [Jiang, W., Yun, D., Saleh, L., Barr, E. W., Xing, G., Hoffart, L. M., Maslak, M.-A., Krebs, C., and Bollinger, J. M., Jr. (2007) Science 316, 1188-1191]. Here, we have dissected the mechanism of formation of this novel heterobinuclear redox cofactor from the MnII/FeII cluster and O2. An intermediate with a g = 2 EPR signal that shows hyperfine coupling to both 55Mn and 57Fe accumulates almost quantitatively in a second order reaction between O2 and the reduced R2 complex. The otherwise slow decay of the intermediate to the active MnIV/FeIII-R2 complex is accelerated by the presence of the one-electron reductant, ascorbate, implying that the intermediate is more oxidized than MnIV/FeIII. Mössbauer spectra show that the intermediate contains a high-spin FeIV center. Its chemical and spectroscopic properties establish that the intermediate is a MnIV/FeIV-R2 complex with an S = 1/2 electronic ground state arising from antiferromagnetic coupling between the MnIV (SMn = 3/2) and high-spin FeIV (SFe = 2) sites. PMID:17616152

  14. Origin of concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides in stream sediments of Maine, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlan, G.A.; McHugh, J.B.; Hessin, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of stream and sediment-pore waters largely explain the genesis of concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides in Maine. Waters of two small streams near Jackman, Maine, were studied in terms of pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved Mn, total dissolved Fe, and ferrous and ferric Fe. Pyrite Creek has profuse concretions and coatings of Mn-Fe-oxides, whereas West Pyrite Creek has only sparse Mn-Fe-oxide stains. Pyrite Creek drains boggy terrain and West Pyrite Creek drains well-drained terrain. In West Pyrite Creek, stream and subjacent pore waters have chemical characteristics that do not differ greatly. However, dissolved Mn, ferrous Fe, dissolved oxygen, and in situ Eh measurements show that a steep Eh gradient exists between stream and subjacent pore waters of Pyrite Creek. The steep Eh gradient is manifested by the common zonation of coatings and stains on rocks in stream sediment. The bottom zone has no deposition of oxides, the middle zone is red and consists mostly of Fe-oxides, and the upper zone is black or dark-brown and consists of Mn-oxides with varying amounts of Fe-oxides. The zonation agrees with theoretical predictions of oxide stability as one moves from a reducing to an oxidizing environment. At locations where concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides form, pore waters are depleted of oxygen because of abundant decaying organic material in the stream sediment. The pore waters are charged with dissolved Mn and Fe because mechanically deposited Mn-Fe-oxides are remobilized due to the low-Eh conditions. Groundwaters also contribute dissolved Mn and Fe. Stream waters, on the other hand, are oxygenated and the high-Eh conditions result in low concentrations of dissolved Mn and Fe in stream waters because of the insolubility of Mn-Fe-oxides in high-Eh environments. Therefore, concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides form at the interface between pore and stream waters because Mn- and Fe-rich pore waters, which are undersaturated with respect to Mn-Fe-oxides, mix with

  15. Close correlation between magnetic properties and the soft phonon mode of the structural transition in BaFe>2mn>As>2mn> and SrFe>2mn>As>2mn>

    SciTech Connect

    Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Castellan, J. -P.; Lamago, D.; Mittal, R.; Wolf, Th.; Reznik, Dmitry

    2015-04-27

    Parent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in BaFe>2mn>As>2mn> and SrFe>2mn>As>2mn>. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.

  16. Magnetic and magnetocaloric exploration of Fe rich (Mn,Fe)2(P,Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, J. V.; van der Haar, M.; Lefering, A.; Brück, E.

    2013-10-01

    We explored the Fe rich side of the (Mn,Fe)2(P,Ge) magnetocaloric system. The transition temperature of this system is extremely easy to tune with careful manipulation of Fe and Ge content as well as stoichiometrical proportions, which give rise to the real possibility of lowering the price of this compound and thus make it economically viable for practical magnetocaloric applications. Novel and unexpected magnetic properties observed in this system suggest an exciting potential for permanent magnet application in a limited concentration range.

  17. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH)max of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  18. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH){sub max} of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of MnBi/Co and MnBi/FeCo Nanocomposite Bulk Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudyal, Narayan; Gandha, Kinjal; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiaotong; Qiu, Zhaoguo; Elkins, Kevin; Liu, J. Ping; Cui, Jun; Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Texas 76019, USA Team; Energy; Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington USA Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We report the fabrication of MnBi/Co and MnBi/FeConanocomposite bulk magnets by consolidating the hard and the soft phase powder particles under a magnetic field followed by subsequent sintering process. The anisotropic micro and submicron hard magnetic MnBi particles were first prepared by low energy cryo ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature. MnBi/Co and MnBi/FeCo nanocomposite powders were then prepared by using different fraction of chemically synthesized Co nanowires and FeCo nanoparticles as the soft magnetic phase. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of the composite magnets increases with addition of the soft phase while the coercivity first increases and then decreases. The MnBi/Co and MnBi/FeCo nanocomposite bulk magnets have reached an enhanced magnetization value (Ms = 78 and 80.6 emu/g) with 30 wt. % of Co nanowires and FeCo nanoparticles, respectively compared to the single phase MnBi bulk magnet (Ms = 52 emu/g).

  20. Magnetic epoxy nanocomposites with superparamagnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiangnan; Cao, Yonghai; Zhang, Xi; Li, Yutong; Guo, Jiang; Wei, Suying; Peng, Xiangfang; Shen, Tong D.; Guo, Zhanhu

    2015-09-01

    Manganese iron oxide (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles successfully served as nanofillers for obtaining magnetic epoxy nanocomposites. The viscosities of MnFe2O4/epoxy resin liquid suspensions increased with increasing the nanoparticles loading except the suspension with 5.0 and 1.0 wt% loading, whose viscosities were lower than that of pure epoxy. The introduction of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles showed a lower onset decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg), which decreased with increasing the nanoparticles loading. The storage modulus and tensile strength of 1.0 wt% MnFe2O4/epoxy were a little higher than that of pure epoxy. The coercivity of MnFe2O4/epoxy nanocomposites with 5.0 wt% (44.7 Oe) and 10.0 wt% (43.9 Oe) displayed much higher than that of pure MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (14.94 Oe). The magnetic moment (m) of nanocomposites (1.354 μB for 10 wt% MnFe2O4/epoxy) are higher than that of pure MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (1.244 μB). The increased real permittivity observed in the nanocomposites was attributed to the interfacial polarization. The intrinsic permittivity of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was also calculated.

  1. Fe-species-loaded mesoporous MnO2 superstructural requirements for enhanced catalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruting; Liu, Yanyu; Chen, Zhiwen; Pan, Dengyu; Li, Zhen; Wu, Minghong; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K L

    2015-02-25

    In this work, a novel catalyst, Fe-species-loaded mesoporous manganese dioxide (Fe/M-MnO2) urchinlike superstructures, has been fabricated successfully in a two-step technique. First, mesoporous manganese dioxide (M-MnO2) urchinlike superstructures have been synthesized by a facile method on a soft interface between CH2Cl2 and H2O without templates. Then the M-MnO2-immobilized iron oxide catalyst was obtained through wetness impregnation and calcination. Microstructural analysis indicated that the M-MnO2 was composed of urchinlike hollow submicrospheres assembled by nanorod building blocks with rich mesoporosity. The Fe/M-MnO2 retained the hollow submicrospheres, which were covered by hybridized composites with broken and shortened MnO2 nanorods. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis was used to determine the availability of Fe loading processes and the homogeneity of Fe in Fe/M-MnO2. Catalytic performances of the M-MnO2 and Fe/M-MnO2 were evaluated in catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of methylene blue (MB), a typical organic pollutant in dyeing wastewater. The catalytic degradation displayed highly efficient discoloration of MB when using the Fe/M-MnO2 catalyst, e.g., ca. 94.8% of MB was decomposed when the reaction was conducted for 120 min. The remarkable stability of this Fe/M-MnO2 catalyst in the reaction medium was confirmed by an iron leaching test and reuse experiments. Mechanism analysis revealed that the hydroxyl free radical was responsible for the removal of MB and catalyzed by M-MnO2 and Fe/M-MnO2. MB was transformed into small organic compounds and then further degraded into CO2 and H2O. The new insights obtained in this study will be beneficial for the practical applications of heterogeneous catalysts in wastewater treatments. PMID:25626157

  2. Thermodynamic Assessment of the Aluminum Corner of the Al-Fe-Mn-Si System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Jacques; Eleno, Luiz; Sundman, Bo

    2010-09-01

    A new assessment of the aluminum corner of the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si system has been made that extends beyond the COST-507 database. This assessment makes use of a recent, improved description of the ternary Al-Fe-Si system. In the present work, modeling of the Al-rich corner of the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si system has been carried out by introducing Fe solubility into the so-called alpha-AlMnSi and beta-AlMnSi phases of the Al-Mn-Si system. A critical review of the data available on the quaternary system is presented and used for the extension of the description of these ternary phases into the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si.

  3. Cu-Mn-Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Jabal Samran area (western Saudi Arabia), secondary copper mineralization in a NE-trending shear zone in which the arc metavolcanic host rocks (dacite-rhyodacite) show conjugate fractures and extensive hydrothermal alteration and bleaching. The zones contain frequent Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides (FeOH-MnOH) that resulted from oxidation of pyrite and Mn-bearing silicates. In the bleached part, the groundmass is represented by Fe-bearing interstratified illite-smectite with up to 4.02 wt% FeOt. FeOH-MnOH are pre-weathering phases formed by hydrothermal alteration in a submarine environment prior to uplifting. Five varieties of FeOH are distinguished, four of them are exclusively hydrothermal with ∼20 wt% H2O whereas the fifth contains ∼31-33 wt% H2O and might represent reworking of earlier hydrothermal FeOH phases by weathering. FeOH fills thin fractures in the form of veinlets and crenulated laminae or as a pseudomorph for pyrite, goethite and finally ferrihydrite, and this oxyhydroxide is characterized by positive correlation of Fe2O3 with SiO2 and Al2O3. On the other hand, MOH shows positive correlation between MnO2 and Al2O3 whereas it is negative between Fe2O3 and SiO2. Paratacamite is the most common secondary copper mineral that fills fractures and post-dates FeOH and MnOH. It is believed that Cl- in the structure of paratacamite represents inherited marine storage rather than from surfacial evaporates or meteoric water. The mineralogy of slags suggests a complicated mineral assemblage that includes native Cu prills, synthetic spinifixed Mn-rich amphiboles with 16.73 wt% MnO, brown glass and Ca-Mn-Fe phase close to the olivine structure. EMPA indicate that the some Cu prills have either grey discontinuous boarder zone of S-rich Mn-Cu alloy (with up to 21.95 wt% S and 19.45 wt% Mn) or grey Cu-Mn-Fe alloy (with up to 15.9 wt% Cu, 39. 12 wt% Mn and 61.64 wt% Fe). Mn in the Cu prills is expelled inward as Cu-Mn-Fe alloy inclusions whereas S is expelled

  4. Magnetism of NiMn2O4-Fe3O4 spinel interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Bettinger, J. S.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.

    2007-09-13

    We investigate the magnetic properties of the isostructural spinel-spinel interface of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}(NMO)-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Although the magnetic transition temperature of the NMO film is preserved, both bulk and interface sensitive measurements demonstrate that the interface exhibits strong interfacial magnetic coupling up to room temperature. While NMO thin films have a ferrimagnetic transition temperature of 60 K, both NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are ferrimagnetic at room temperature. Our experimental results suggest that these magnetic properties arise from a thin interdiffused region of (Fe,Mn,Ni){sub 3}O{sub 4} at the interface, leading to Mn and Ni magnetic properties similar to those of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  5. The improvement of cryogenic mechanical properties of Fe-12 Mn and Fe-8 Mn alloy steels through thermal/mechanical treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. K.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation has been made to improve the low temperature mechanical properties of Fe-8Mn and Fe-12Mn-0.2 Ti alloy steels. A reversion annealing heat treatment in the two-phase (alpha + gamma) region following cold working has been identified as an effective treatment. In an Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti alloy a promising combination of low temperature (-196 C) fracture toughness and yield strength was obtained by this method. The improvement of properties was attributed to the refinement of grain size and to the introduction of a uniform distribution of retained austenite (gamma). It was also shown that an Fe-8Mn steel could be grain-refined by a purely thermal treatment because of its dislocated alpha-prime martensitic structure and absence of epsilon martensite. As a result, a significant reduction of ductile to brittle transition temperature was obtained.

  6. Structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of polyaniline/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra, Palanisamy; Muthusamy, Athianna; Jayaprakash, Rajan

    2015-12-01

    Ferromagnetic PANI containing MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline incorporated MnCoFe2O4 nanoparticles (20%, 10% w/w of fine powders) with and without ultrasonic treatment. The MnCoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by auto combustion method. The PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The average particle size of the resulting PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites was confirmed from the TEM and XRD analysis. The structure and morphology of the composites were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and SEM. In addition, the electrical and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites under applied magnetic field exhibited the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic nature at room temperature. The variation of Dielectric constant, Dielectric loss, and AC conductivity of PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites at room temperature as a function of frequency in the range 50 Hz-5 MHz has been studied. Effect of ultrasonication on the PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites was also investigated.

  7. Observations on the formation of [var epsilon] martensite in an Fe-23. 2%Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Akguen, I.; Durlu, T.N. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-11-15

    In Fe-Mn binary alloys the formation behavior of [var epsilon] martensite is quite sensitive to the Mn percentage and although both [var epsilon] and [alpha][prime] type martensites are formed in low Mn alloys, mostly [gamma] [yields] [var epsilon] transformation occur as the Mn concentration is increased. The present study was undertaken to examine the formation of thermally induced and also strain-induced [var epsilon] martensites, and their intersections in a Fe-23.2%Mn alloy by using transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  8. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-09-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  9. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  10. Application of damping mechanism model and stacking fault probability in Fe-Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Wen, Y.H.; Li, N. Teng, J.; Ding, S.; Xu, Y.G.

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, the damping mechanism model of Fe-Mn alloy was analyzed using dislocation theory. Moreover, as an important parameter in Fe-Mn based alloy, the effect of stacking fault probability on the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy after deep-cooling or tensile deformation was also studied. The damping capacity was measured using reversal torsion pendulum. The stacking fault probability of {gamma}-austenite and {epsilon}-martensite was determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis. The microstructure was observed using scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results indicated that with the strain amplitude increasing above a critical value, the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy increased rapidly which could be explained using the breakaway model of Shockley partial dislocations. Deep-cooling and suitable tensile deformation could improve the damping capacity owning to the increasing of stacking fault probability of Fe-19.35Mn alloy.

  11. Study of magnetic properties in ball-milled MnFeCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, D. R.; Padrón Hernández, E.; Rechenberg, H. R.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2004-05-01

    A study of the magnetic properties in mechanical alloyed nanocrystalline MnO+FeCo was carried out. As-milled and annealed samples show a noticeable improvement of the coercivity, even at room temperature. A strong effect over the spin wave stiffness constant of the ferromagnetic α -FeCo, probably induced by the antiferromagnetic ordering of the MnO around to 120K (the Néel temperature of MnO) was observed.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy and spin wave relaxation in CoFe/PtMn/CoFe trilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y. H.; Wu, C.; Gong, Y.; Pettiford, C.; Sun, N. X.

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the magnetic anisotropic properties and the spin wave relaxation in trilayer films of CoFe/PtMn/CoFe grown on the seed layer Ru or NiFeCr with CoFe compositions being Co-16 at. % Fe. The measurements were taken in samples with the ferromagnetic layers of CoFe varying from 10 to 500 Å by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique. The magnetic anisotropic parameters were investigated by rotating the field aligned axis with respect to the spectral field in the configurations of both in plane and out of plane. We determine the effective in-plane anisotropy field of ˜0.005 T, the uniaxial out-of-plane anisotropy of ˜-0.3 T, and the exchange stiffness D of ˜512 meV Å2. Moreover, spin wave damping was estimated by analyzing the FMR linewidth and line shape as a function of the angle between the external field and easy axis and as a function of the thickness of the CoFe layers. We identify an extrinsic contribution of the damping parameter dominated by two-magnon scattering in addition to the intrinsic Gilbert term with a damping parameter, α =0.012. Further, we reveal that a significant linewidth broadening could also be caused by the overlap of the surface and the uniform spin wave excitations. The FMR lines show a strong dependence of the surface anisotropy contribution of free energy in trilayer films.

  13. The distribution of Fe and Mn between chlorite and fluid: Evidence from fluid inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Bottrell, S.H.; Yardley, B.W.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fe/Mn ratio of fluid inclusions from low-grade metamorphic quartz veins has been analyzed by an improved crush-leach method. When compared with Fe and Mn in coexisting vein chlorites, exchange between fluid and chlorite is shown to vary with the redox state of the wall rocks, but is independent of the salinity of the fluid. Agreement between our results and theoretical predictions of Fe/Mn partitioning between fluid and chlorite are good for veins from relatively oxidized rocks, but vein fluids from reduced hosts are enriched in Fe.

  14. The synthesis of open-shell, bimetallic Mn/Fe trinuclear clusters

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Tamara M.; Gu, Nina; Fout, Alison R.; Baldwin, Anne M.; Sánchez, Raúl Hernández; Alfonso, Denise M.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant deprotonation and metallation of hexadentate ligand platform tbsLH6 (tbsLH6 = 1,3,5-C6H9(NHC6H4-o-NHSiMe2 tBu)3) with divalent transition metal starting materials Fe2(Mes)4 (Mes = mesityl) or Mn3(Mes)6 in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) resulted in isolation of homotrinuclear complexes (tbsL)Fe3(THF) and (tbsL)Mn3(THF) respectively. In the absence of coordinating solvent (THF) the deprotonation and metallation exclusively afforded dinuclear complexes of the type (tbsLH2)M2 (M = Fe or Mn). The resulting dinuclear species were utilized as synthons to prepare bimetallic trinuclear clusters. Treatment of (tbsLH2)Fe2 complex with divalent Mn source (Mn2(N(SiMe3)2)4) afforded the bimetallic complex (tbsL)Fe2Mn(THF) which established the ability of hexamine ligand tbsLH6 to support mixed metal clusters. The substitutional homogeneity of (tbsL)Fe2Mn(THF) was determined by 1H NMR, 57Fe Mössbauer, and X-ray fluorescence. Anomalous scattering measurements were critical for the unambiguous assignment of the trinuclear core composition. Heating a solution of (tbsLH2)Mn2 with a stoichiometric amount of Fe2(Mes)4 (0.5 mol equiv) affords a mixture of both (tbsL)Mn2Fe(THF) and (tbsL)Fe2Mn(THF) as a result of the thermodynamic preference for heavier metal substitution within the hexa-anilido ligand framework. These results demonstrate for the first time the assembly of mixed metal cluster synthesis in an unbiased ligand platform. PMID:23984911

  15. Directional short range order in L10 FeMnPt magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng-Jun; Xu, Dongbin; Heald, Steve M.; Chen, Jingsheng; Chow, Gan-Moog

    2011-10-01

    A method for investigating the directional short range order (DSRO) of an element of interest in L10 FeMnPt thin films using polarization-dependent x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is described. The XANES calculations for both L10 FePt and L10 MnPt phases indicate that the height of the low-energy shoulder of the polarization-dependent XANES is proportional to the degree of DSRO of the element of interest in the case of L10 FePt and MnPt systems. The experimentally observed DSROs of Fe and Mn in L10 FeMnPt magnetic thin films are consistent with a decrease of ordering parameter with increasing Mn doping. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the heights of the low-energy shoulder in the FeK- and MnK-edge polarization-dependent XANES are proportional to the DSROs of Fe and Mn, respectively.

  16. Degradation behavior of biodegradable Fe35Mn alloy stents.

    PubMed

    Sing, N B; Mostavan, A; Hamzah, E; Mantovani, D; Hermawan, H

    2015-04-01

    This article reports a degradation study that was done on stent prototypes made of biodegradable Fe35Mn alloy in a simulated human coronary arterial condition. The stent degradation was observed for a short-term period from 0.5 to 168 h, which simulates the early period of stenting procedure. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to quantify degradation rate and surface property of the stents. Results showed that signs of degradation were visible on both crimped and expanded stents after 1 h of test, mostly located on the stent's curvatures. The degradation rate of stent was higher compared to that of the original alloy, indicating the surface altering effect of stent fabrication processing to degradation. A single oxide layer was formed and detected as a porous structure with capacitive behavior. Expanded stents exhibited lower polarization resistance compared to the nonexpanded ones, indicating the cold work effect of expansion procedure to degradation. PMID:24954069

  17. Exchange bias in sputtered FeNi/FeMn systems: Effect of short low-temperature heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Peter; Guzmán, Jorge; Lepalovskij, Vladimir; Svalov, Andrey; Kurlyandskaya, Galina; Asenjo, Agustina; Vas'kovskiy, Vladimir; Vazquez, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Short (5 min) post-deposition thermal treatments under magnetic field at low temperature (up to 200 °C) performed in exchange-coupled FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm) bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are shown to be effective to significantly modify their exchange field (from around 40 Oe down to 27 Oe) between FeNi and FeMn layers. A similar exchange field decrease was observed for the first deposited FeNi layer of the FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm)/FeNi(40 nm) trilayer films after the same thermal treatments. The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates that such a heat treatment has no effect on the grain size and crystalline texture of the films, while atomic force microscope studies reveal an increase of the surface roughness after the treatment which is more noticeable in the case of the trilayer film. Analysis of the experimental results leads us to conclude that the variations of the exchange field after heat treatment are likely caused by a modification of interfacial roughness and/or interfacial magnetic structure, but unlikely by the changes in the microstructure and/or changes of composition of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer.

  18. Dilute ferrimagnetism of ilmenites Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazuev, G. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Golovkin, B. G.

    2016-07-01

    Metastable solid solutions (SS) Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 with the ilmenite structure (space group R bar 3) have been prepared by quenching at normal conditions. The compositions of the compounds have been justified using EDX spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of SSs have been analyzed by comparison with ferrimagnetic ilmenite Mn2FeSbO6 ( T N = 269 K) as a natural mineral and ceramics obtained at high pressure and high temperature. The solid solutions have been characterized as dilute magnetic systems formed as a result of substitution of nonmagnetic cations Ti4+ for a part of Fe3+ and Sb5+ cations. Mn3FeTiSbO9 is considered as a ferromagnetic with T N = 171 K and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 as a magnetic with the concentration of magnetic clusters below the percolation threshold.

  19. Fe content effects on electrochemical properties of Fe-substituted Li 2MnO 3 positive electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabuchi, Mitsuharu; Nabeshima, Yoko; Takeuchi, Tomonari; Tatsumi, Kuniaki; Imaizumi, Junichi; Nitta, Yoshiaki

    Fe-substituted Li 2MnO 3 including a monoclinic layered rock-salt structure (C2/ m), (Li 1+ x(Fe yMn 1- y) 1- xO 2, 0 < x < 1/3, 0.1 ≤ y ≤ 0.5) was prepared by coprecipitation-hydrothermal-calcination method. The sample was assigned as two-phase composite structure consisting of the cubic rock-salt (F m 3 bar m) and monoclinic ones at high Fe content above 30% (y ≥ 0.3), while the sample was assigned as a monoclinic phase (C2 /m) at low Fe content less than 20%. In the monoclinic Li 2MnO 3-type structure, the Fe ion tends to substitute a Li (2 b) site, which corresponds to a center position of Mn 4+ hexagonal network in Mn-Li layer. The electrochemical properties including discharge characteristics under high current density (<3600 mA g -1 at 30 °C) and low temperature (<-20 °C at 40 mA g -1) were severely affected by chemical composition (Fe content and Li/(Fe + Mn) ratio), crystal structure (monoclinic phase content) and powder property (specific surface area). Under the optimized Fe content (0.2 < y < 0.4), the Li/sample cells showed high initial discharge capacity (240-300 mAh g -1) and energy density (700-950 mWh g -1) between 1.5 and 4.8 V under moderate current density, 40 mA g -1 at 30 °C. Results suggest that Fe-substituted Li 2MnO 3 would be a non-excludable 3 V positive electrode material.

  20. Influence of substrate rocks on Fe-Mn crust composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Morgan, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Principal Component and other statistical analyses of chemical and mineralogical data of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts and their underlying rock substrates in the central Pacific indicate that substrate rocks do not influence crust composition. Two ridges near Johnston Atoll were dredged repetitively and up to seven substrate rock types were recovered from small areas of similar water depths. Crusts were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for 24 elements, and substrates were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for the 10 major oxides. Compositions of crusts on phosphatized substrates are distinctly different from crusts on substrates containing no phosphorite. However, that relationship only indicates that the episodes of phosphatization that mineralized the substrate rocks also mineralized the crusts that grew on them. A two-fold increase in copper contents in crusts that grew on phosphatized clastic substrate rocks, relative to crusts on other substrate rock types, is also associated with phosphatization and must have resulted from chemical reorganization during diagenesis. Phosphatized crusts show increases in Sr, Zn, Ca, Ba, Cu, Ce, V, and Mo contents and decreases in Fe, Si, and As contents relative to non-phosphatized crusts. Our statistical results support previous studies which show that crust compositions reflect predominantly direct precipitation from seawater (hydrogenetic), and to lesser extents reflect detrital input and diagenetic replacement of parts of the older crust generation by carbonate fluorapatite.

  1. Impact of Mn on the solution enthalpy of hydrogen in austenitic Fe-Mn alloys: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    von Appen, Jörg; Dronskowski, Richard; Chakrabarty, Aurab; Hickel, Tilmann; Spatschek, Robert; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen interstitials in austenitic Fe-Mn alloys were studied using density-functional theory to gain insights into the mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength Mn steels. The investigations reveal that H atoms at octahedral interstitial sites prefer a local environment containing Mn atoms rather than Fe atoms. This phenomenon is closely examined combining total energy calculations and crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis. Contributions from various electronic phenomena such as elastic, chemical, and magnetic effects are characterized. The primary reason for the environmental preference is a volumetric effect, which causes a linear dependence on the number of nearest-neighbour Mn atoms. A secondary electronic/magnetic effect explains the deviations from this linearity. PMID:25250795

  2. Antiferromagnetic FeMn alloys electrodeposited from chloride-based electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gómez, Sandra; Ranchal, Rocío; Abuín, Manuel; Aragón, Ana María; Velasco, Víctor; Marín, Pilar; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Pérez, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    The capability of synthesizing Fe-based antiferromagnetic metal alloys would fuel the use of electrodeposition in the design of new magnetic devices such as high-aspect-ratio spin valves or new nanostructured hard magnetic composites. Here we report the synthesis of high quality antiferromagnetic FeMn alloys electrodeposited from chloride-based electrolytes. We have found that in order to grow homogeneous FeMn films it is necessary to incorporate a large concentration of NH4Cl as an additive in the electrolyte. The study of the structure and magnetic properties shows that films with composition close to Fe50Mn50 are homogeneous antiferromagnetic alloys. We have established a parameter window for the synthesis of FeMn alloys that show antiferromagnetism at room temperature. PMID:26925594

  3. The Charpy impact behavior of Fe{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al-20 at % Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.N.; Yan, W.; Ma, J.L.; Wu, K.H.

    1997-12-31

    A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the impact fracture behavior of Fe{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al-20 Mn alloys. The results of this study indicated that: (i) The addition of Mn introduces an ordered L1{sub 2}-type phase in the Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys. On the other hand, the addition of Mn decreases the order parameter of the DO{sub 3} {alpha} phase. (ii) The total-impact energy of an Fe{sub 3}Al alloy increases with the temperature at the low-temperature range (<600 C), then drops around 700 C, and finally increases again as the temperature further elevates. (iii) The trend of the variation of the impact energy of Fe{sub 3}Al-20 at % Mn alloy with temperature is the same as that of the Fe{sub 3}Al alloy. (iv) And the addition of Mn significantly improves the impact energy of the Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloy, and changes the variation of the crack-growth energy with the testing temperature when the temperature is above 700 C.

  4. Ab initio study of Fe{sub 2}MnZ (Al, Si, Ge) Heusler alloy using GGA approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vivek Kumar Jain, Vishal Lakshmi, N. Venugopalan, K.

    2014-04-24

    Density functional theory based on FP-LAPW method used to investigate the electronic structure of Fe{sub 2}MnZ, shows that the total spin magnetic moment shows a trend consistent with the Slater–Pauling curve. The Fe and Mn magnetic moment depend on choice of Z element although the magnetic moment of Z element is negative and less than 0.1 μ{sub B}. Spin polarization calculations evidence 100% spin polarization for Fe{sub 2}MnSi. Fe{sub 2}MnAl and Fe{sub 2}MnGe show metallic behavior with 93%, 98% spin polarization.

  5. Controlling phosphate releasing from poultry litter using stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenbo; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-01-15

    Animal wastes contain high concentrations of phosphorus (P), most of which is lost into the environment due to uncontrolled release rates. Polysaccharide stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles were prepared and tested for phosphate adsorption from water and for controlling leachability of P from poultry litter. A water soluble starch and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used as a stabilizer. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir models were able to adequately interpret the isotherm data. The Langmuir maximum capacity was determined at 252, 298 and 313 mg-P/g for bare, CMC- and starch-stabilized nanoparticles, respectively. The presence of the stabilizers not only enhanced the sorption capacity, but facilitated delivery and dispersion of the nanoparticles in poultry litter (PL) and in soil. High phosphate sorption capacity was observed over a broad pH range of 4-9. FTIR analyses indicated that inner sphere surface complexation (Fe-O-P) was the key mechanism for the enhanced uptake of P. When applied to poultry litter, the stabilized nanoparticles reduced water leachable phosphate by >86% at a dose of 0.2 g/L as Fe, and simultaneously, water leachable arsenic by >87-95%. Under conditions of simulated land application of PL, the nanoparticle amendment of PL reduced the water soluble P from 66% (for untreated PL) to 4.4%, and lowered the peak soluble P concentration from 300 to <20 mg/L. By transferring the peak soluble P to the nanoparticle-bound P, the nanoparticles not only greatly reduce the potential runoff loss of P from PL, but also provide a long-term slow-releasing nutrient source. Fortuitously, the nanoparticle treatment was able to immobilize arsenic from PL. With excellent adsorption capacity, easy deliverability, low cost and environmental innocuousness, the stabilized Fe-Mn nanoparticles appear promising for controlling P releases from poultry litter or other animal wastes and for phosphate recovery from water. PMID:26442720

  6. Ni spin switching induced by magnetic frustration in FeMn/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2009-03-08

    Epitaxially grown FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) films are investigated by Photoemission Electron Microscopy and Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect. We find that as the FeMn overlayer changes from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic state, it could switch the ferromagnetic Ni spin direction from out-of-plane to in-plane direction of the film. This phenomenon reveals a new mechanism of creating magnetic anisotropy and is attributed to the out-of-plane spin frustration at the FeMn-Ni interface.

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of (Fe/Mn) exchange-biased multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bahoui, A.; Genevois, C.; Juraszek, J.; Bordel, C.; Ledue, D.

    2013-05-01

    Exchange-biasing of ferromagnetic (F) Fe layers by adjacent antiferromagnetic (AF) Mn layers has been investigated in (Fe/Mn)10 multilayered films. This study has been focused on the relationship between the evolution of the exchange-bias field and the evolution of the film microstructure as a function of the deposition temperature. The increase of the deposition temperature results in the formation of an Fe-Mn alloy at the interfaces and columnar features whose size increases with the deposition temperature. In parallel, the exchange-bias field decreases significantly, due to interface roughness.

  8. Perpendicular exchange bias behaviors of CoPt/IrMn and CoPt/FeMn bilayers: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, K. F.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa

    2015-05-07

    In this study, FeMn was introduced as an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer to couple with a single-layered Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51} alloy thin film, and it was compared with a Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51}/IrMn bilayer system in exchange bias (EB) effect, to explore the mechanism of spontaneous perpendicular exchange bias (PEB), which has been recently observed in CoPt/IrMn bilayers. Bilayers of CoPt/IrMn and CoPt/FeMn were prepared under the same conditions by sputtering at room temperature without any inducing field. Although PEB was observed in as-grown CoPt/FeMn bilayers, the loop shape and PEB behavior were found to exhibit different characteristics from those of CoPt/IrMn bilayers. The CoPt (5 nm)/FeMn (10 nm) bilayer has a sheared loop that is similar to a double-shifted loop and a much lower squareness ratio (SQR = 0.52) and exchange bias field (H{sub e} = 180 Oe) than the CoPt (5 nm)/IrMn (10 nm) system, which has a rectangular loop shape and a high SQR of 0.97 and large H{sub e} of 290 Oe. The two systems present entirely different dependences of PEB on the thickness of the AFM layer. CoPt/IrMn exhibits behavior that is typical of most EB systems, but for CoPt/FeMn, this dependence is more complicated with an unusual peak at an AFM layer thickness of 10 nm. Based on the dissimilar loop shapes and dependences of PEB on AFM thickness, the mechanisms of the spontaneously established PEB in these two systems are considered to differ. Investigations of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed no apparent difference between the interfacial microstructures of the two systems. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated the 〈111〉 texture of both systems. Therefore, different interfacial spin configurations may be responsible for the dissimilar PEB behaviors in these two FM/AFM bilayer systems.

  9. Observation of hyperfine structure of D022-Mn3‑ x Fe x Ga by Mössbauer effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeba, Akira; Shima, Toshiyuki; Doi, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    In this work, to obtain the design guideline for a magnet made of a Mn-based alloy, Mn3‑ x Fe x Ga alloys were prepared by arc melting and the magnetic state of Fe in the alloys and hyperfine structure were investigated on the basis of the Mössbauer effect. As a result, D022-Mn2.2Fe0.5Ga alloys were obtained by annealing at 350 °C for 2 days. From the Mössbauer spectrum of Mn2.2Fe0.5Ga, it was clear that Fe replaced Mn in the Mn II site of the D022 structure. In addition, it was also found that the hyperfine field of Fe is extremely lower in the Mn II site than in the Mn I site.

  10. Preparation of a novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite and its application for aqueous Hg(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingchun; Huang, Yao; Gong, Yanyan; Lyu, Honghong; Wang, Qilin; Ma, Jianli

    2016-10-01

    A novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (GO/Fe-Mn) composite was synthesized (molar ratio of Fe/Mn=3/1 and mass ratio of Fe/GO=1/7.5) and investigated for the sorption characteristics and mechanisms of aqueous mercury (Hg(2+)) as well as the biological effects to wheat and rice. Characterization tests showed that Fe-Mn oxides were impregnated onto GO sheets in an amorphous form through oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., CO, epoxy COC, carboxyl OCO, and CO) and π-π interactions. GO/Fe-Mn possessed large surface area, surface enhanced Raman scattering with more sp(3) defects, and greater thermal stability than GO. XPS analysis revealed that Fe2O3, FeOOH, MnO2, MnOOH, and MnO were the dominant metal oxides in GO/Fe-Mn. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Sips isotherm model fitted well with the sorption kinetic and isotherm data. The maximum sorption capacity for mercury was 32.9mg/g. Ligand exchange and surface complexation were the dominant mechanisms for mercury removal. GO/Fe-Mn greatly reduced the bioavailability of mercury to wheat and rice, even promoted the seedling growth. This work suggests that GO/Fe-Mn can be used as an effective and environmental-friendly adsorbent in heavy metal remediation. PMID:27232726

  11. Magnetic interactions in BiFe₀.₅Mn₀.₅O₃ films and BiFeO₃/BiMnO₃ superlattices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingyu; Sheng, Yan; Khalid, M; Cao, Yanqiang; Wang, Yutian; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Zhang, Wen; He, Maocheng; Wang, Shuangbao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Qi; Wu, Di; Zhai, Ya; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Peng; Xu, Y B; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The clear understanding of exchange interactions between magnetic ions in substituted BiFeO3 is the prerequisite for the comprehensive studies on magnetic properties. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), the ferroelectricity at room temperature has been inferred from the observation of PFM hysteresis loops and electrical writing of ferroelectric domains for both samples. Spin glass behavior has been observed in both samples by temperature dependent magnetization curves and decay of thermo-remnant magnetization with time. The magnetic ordering has been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, and Fe-O-Mn interaction has been confirmed to be antiferromagnetic (AF). The observed spin glass in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films has been attributed to cluster spin glass due to Mn-rich ferromagnetic (FM) clusters in AF matrix, while spin glass in BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices is due to competition between AF Fe-O-Fe, AF Fe-O-Mn and FM Mn-O-Mn interactions in the well ordered square lattice with two Fe ions in BiFeO3 layer and two Mn ions in BiMnO3 layer at interfaces. PMID:25766744

  12. Magnetic properties and loss separation in FeSi/MnZnFe2O4 soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauda, M.; Füzer, J.; Kollár, P.; Strečková, M.; Bureš, R.; Kováč, J.; Baťková, M.; Baťko, I.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated composites that have been prepared from FeSi powders covered with MnZnFe2O4 (MnZn ferrite), which was prepared by sol-gel synthesis accompanied with the auto-combustion process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex permeability and core losses of prepared samples with different amount of MnZn ferrite. The microstructure and the powder morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements on bulk samples were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer, an impedance analyzer and hysteresisgraphs. The results indicate that the composites with 2.6 wt% MnZn ferrite show better soft magnetic properties than the composites with about 6 wt% MnZn ferrite.

  13. Zn Speciation in two Fe-Mn Banded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, M.; Manceau, A.; Kersten, M.; Tazaki, K.

    2002-12-01

    We have used micro-EXAFS spectroscopy to study the speciation of Zn in two shallow-water Fe-Mn banded structures. One of the samples is from the Baltic Sea and contains anthropogenic Zn in a matrix which is believed to be banded due to annual oscillations in oxygen content, pH and other variables of water chemistry (Hlawatsch, et. al., 2002). The other sample, from Akayu Hot Springs off the coast of a volcanic island (Satsuma-Iwo Jima) at the southern tip of Japan, is a hardened biomat in which the compositional oscillations are at least partly due to bacterial action, and in which the Zn content is natural (Tazaki, 2000). By using a beam as small as 5μm in diameter, we can look at details of metal distribution and speciation on a spatial scale much finer than the banding, which has wavelengths of order 100μm. In both samples, the Zn is associated with the high-Mn layers, though the layer-to-layer contrast is lower in the Japan sample. However, the speciation of Zn is different in the two samples. The Baltic sample shows Zn only in one form - sorbed on a layered phyllomanganate resembling birnessite with Zn tetrahedrally coordinated and sorbed to vacant octahedral sites of the Mn layer. This species was also found in soil (Manceau et. al., 2000). The Japan sample also has tetrahedral Zn in birnessite-like phyllomanganate as well as Zn in at least two other forms. The phyllomanganate species is thus seen to be a ubiquitous sink for Zn in the environment. We will discuss some possible reasons for the differences and similarities of Zn speciation in these two systems. Hlawatsch, S., Garbe-Schönberg, C.D., Lechtenberg, F., Manceau, A., Tamura, N., Kulik, D.A., Kersten, M. (2002) Trace metal fluxes to ferromanganese nodules from the western Baltic Sea as a record for long-term environmental changes. Chemical Geology, 182 697-709. Manceau A., Lanson B., Schlegel M.L., Hargé J.C., Musso M., Eybert-Bérard L., Hazemann J.L., Chateigner D., Lamble G.M. (2000

  14. FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films studied using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Li, J.; Tan, A.; Park, J.; Jin, E.; Son, H.; Doran, A.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Zhao, H. W.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-07-31

    FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films were grown epitaxially and investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy. We found that FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) exhibits the same properties as FeMn/Co/Cu(1,1,10) for the ferromagnetic phase of the face centered cubic (fcc) Fe film but a different property for the non-ferromagnetic phase of the fcc Fe film. This result indicates that the characteristic property reported in the literature for FeMn/Co/Cu(001) comes from the FeMn spin structure and is independent of the ferromagnetic layer.

  15. Thermal Decay and Reversal of Exchange Bias Field of CoFe/PtMn Bilayer after Ga+ Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhu, Yu-Fu; Lin, Yue-Bin

    2011-05-01

    An applied field is used to perform Ga+ ion irradiation on a CoFe/PtMn bilayer. Effects of the applied field and energy transfer between Ga+ ions and antiferromagnetic (AFM) atoms on the exchange bias field Hex are investigated. A partially reversed Hex is found in CoFe/PtMn specimens irradiated at a dose of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2 with an applied field anti-parallel to the original exchange bias direction. We believe that the rapid energy transfer and local temperature increase originating from the interaction between Ga+ ions and AFM atoms result in spin reversal and the formation of reversed AFM domains when specimens are irradiated with anti-parallel fields. The decrease in Hex when annealing the film in a negative saturation field indicates a thermal decay process. The AFM moments are reversed by thermal activation over an energy barrier distribution, which may change in some way as the temperature increases.

  16. Precipitation and fracture behaviour of Fe-Mn-Ni-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2013-12-01

    The effects of Al addition on the precipitation and fracture behaviour of Fe-Mn-Ni alloys were investigated. With the increasing of Al concentration, the matrix and grain boundary precipitates changed from L10 θ-MnNi to B2 Ni2MnAl phase, which is coherent and in cube-to-cube orientation relationship with the α‧-matrix. Due to the suppression of the θ-MnNi precipitates at prior austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs), the fracture mode changed from intergranular to transgranular cleavage fracture. Further addition of Al resulted in the discontinuous growth of Ni2MnAl precipitates in the alloy containing 4.2 wt.% Al and fracture occurred by void growth and coalescence, i.e. by ductile dimple rupture. The transition of the fracture behaviour of the Fe-Mn-Ni-Al alloys is discussed in relation to the conversion of the precipitates and their discontinuous precipitation behaviour at PAGBs.

  17. Substituting Fe for two of the four Mn ions in photosystem II-effects on water-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Semin, Boris K; Seibert, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Fe(II) cations with Ca-depleted PSII membranes (PSII[-Ca,4Mn]) in the dark and found that Fe(II) incubation removes 2 of 4 Mn ions from the tetranuclear Mn cluster of the photosynthetic O2-evolving complex (OEC). The reduction of Mn ions in PSII(-Ca,4Mn) by Fe(II) and the concomitant release of two Mn(II) cations is accompanied by the binding of newly generated Fe(III) in at least one vacated Mn site. Flash-induced chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence yield measurements of this new 2Mn/nFe cluster (PSII[-Ca,2Mn,nFe]) show that charge recombination in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) occurs between Qa (-) and the remaining Mn/Fe cluster (but not YZ (●)) in the OEC, and extraction of 2 Mn occurs uniformly in all PSII complexes. No O2 evolution is observed, but the heteronuclear metal cluster in PSII(-Ca,2Mn,nFe) samples is still able to supply electrons for reduction of the exogenous electron acceptor, 2,6-dichlorophrenolindophenol, by photooxidizing water and producing H2O2 in the absence of an exogenous donor as seen previously with PSII(-Ca,4Mn). Selective extraction of Mn or Fe cations from the 2Mn/nFe heteronuclear cluster demonstrates that the high-affinity Mn-binding site is occupied by one of the iron cations. It is notable that partial water-oxidation function still occurs when only two Mn cations are present in the PSII OEC. PMID:26847716

  18. Eutectic equilibria in the quaternary system Fe-Cr-Mn-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S.; Schuster, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution of the quaternary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-C and to a lesser extent of the quinary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-Al-C were examined for in situ composite alloy candidates. Multivariant eutectic compositions were determined from phase equilibria studies wherein M7C3 carbides (approximately 30% by volume) formed from the melt within gamma iron. An extended field of the hexagonal carbide, (Cr, Fe, Mn)7 C3, was found without undergoing transformation to the orthorhombic structure. Increasing stability for this carbide was found for higher ratios of Cr/Fe(+) Cr + Mn. Aluminum additions promoted a ferritic matrix while manganese favored the desired gamma austenitic matrix. In coexistence with the matrix phase, chromium enters preferentially the carbide phase while manganese distributes equally between the gamma matrix and the M7C3 carbide. The composition and lattice parameters of the carbide and matrix phases were determined to establish their respective stabilities.

  19. Structural and magnetic characterization of the ball-milled α-Fe 2O 3-Mn 2O 3 and α-Fe-Mn 2O 3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, S. N.; Luciano, A.; Cótica, L. F.; Santos, I. A.; Paesano, A.; da Cunha, J. B. M.

    2004-10-01

    In this work, the (Fe2O3)x(Mn2O3)1-x and Fey(Mn2O3)1-y systems were mechanically processed in a high-energy ball-mill. The as-milled powders were structurally and magnetically characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Under similar milling settings and conditions, dissimilar behaviors were observed in the studied systems. In the oxide-oxide system, only the bixbyite (Mn,Fe)2O3 phase was obtained in all the analysed samples, whereas in the metal-oxide system, a sharp compositional dependence for the final milling products was observed. For y⩽0.40, the FeMn2O4 spinel phase was detected and, for y>0.40, a wustite-like phase of the (Fe, Mn)1-yO type was formed. It was observed that magnetization in both systems increased with the nominal concentration, x or y, of the magnetic precursors, up to half of the concentration maximum and then it decreased as a result of structural phase transformations.

  20. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of LuFe2- x Mn x O4 + δ multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamzatov, A. G.; Aliev, A. M.; Markelova, M. N.; Burunova, N. A.; Kaul', A. R.; Semisalova, A. S.; Perov, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the LuFe2- x Mn x O4 + δ ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.12) system have been studied. A partial substitution of manganese for iron leads to a noticeable decrease in the magnetization and the magnetocaloric effect. It has been shown that the magnetocaloric effect in LuFe2- x Mn x O4 + δ samples is determined by several mechanisms.

  1. Ternary NiFeMn layered double hydroxides as highly-efficient oxygen evolution catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyi; Qian, Li; Tian, Yang; Li, Yaping; Sun, Xiaoming; Duan, Xue

    2016-01-18

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a family of layer materials that receive heightened attention. Herein a ternary NiFeMn-LDH is investigated with superior oxygen evolution activity, which is attributed to the Mn(4+) doping in the intralayer, which modifies the electronic structure and improves the conductivity of the electrocatalyst. PMID:26579843

  2. Atomic structural and electrochemical impact of Fe substitution on nano porous LiMnPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Inseok; Senthilkumar, B.; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Youngsik; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2016-07-01

    The atomic structural and electrochemical properties of Fe substituted nano porous LiMn1-xFexPO4 (x = 0-0.8) composites are investigated and compared. X-ray scattering method is used for atomic structural investigation. Rietveld refinement shows that all Fe substituted composites have the same olivine structure (Pnma) with lithium occupying octahedral 4a sites, Fe2+ replacing Mn2+ at the octahedral 4c sites. The a, b, c parameters and cell volume decrease with the addition of Fe2+. When the nano porous LiMn1-xFexPO4 composites are evaluated as cathode materials in lithium cells at room temperature, x = 0.6, and 0.8 resulted in the best overall electrochemical performance, exhibiting stable cycling and high discharge capacities of 149 and 154 mA h g-1, respectively. The composites with above x = 0.4 show a fast lithium ions transfer with high electronic conductivity because Fe transition metal substitution reduce the partly occupation of Mn in the M1 (LiO6) sites and thereby Mn block the lithium ion diffusion pathway. We here firstly find the antisite defect in the high Mn content in porous LiMn1-xFexPO4 composites.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of MnPd/Fe grown on MgO(100) substrate: Ab initio studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malonda-Boungou, B. R.; Magnoungou, J. H. J.; M'Passi-Mabiala, B.; Demangeat, C.

    2016-07-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of ultrathin films MnPd/Fe grown on MgO(001) are investigated using a self-consistent pseudopotential plane waves method based on density functional theory in the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation. The results obtained reveal the presence of an antiferromagnetic coupling between successive Mn [100] rows, combined with a ripple where Mn outward atoms exhibit a positive magnetic moment, in the case of Mn overlayer on Fe/MgO(001). In the case of MnPd monolayer ordered alloy, the c(2 × 2) structure formation is more favorable than the p(1 × 2) one, exhibiting a ferromagnetic coupling between Mn neighbor atoms with a positive induced ferromagnetic moment on Pd atoms. Pd atoms are pushed outward. For 1-ML MnxPd1 - x on Fe/MgO, the Mn absolute mean magnetization per atom increases as x coverage increases, whereas the Pd mean induced magnetic moment decreases. For systems alternating Mn and Pd monolayers on Fe/MgO(001), a complex magnetic structure is shown on Mn monolayers: changing from Mn neighboring antiferromagnetic coupling to Mn [010] rows antiferromagnetic behavior. The correlation is made between the electronic structure and the magnetic properties, by comparing filled with partially filled components (Pd, Mn and Fe) d-bands. The magnetization easy-axis changes between the in-plane and the out-of-plane orientations from Fe/MgO to MnPd/Fe/MgO systems.

  4. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. PMID:25649390

  5. Fe and Mn removal from mining drainage using goaf filling materials obtained from coal mining process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Chen, Aolei; Qu, Hongbin; Xu, Shouqiang; Zhang, Xue; He, Xuwen

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue, sandy soil and clay (mass ratio 45:4:1) as goaf filling materials acquired from coal mining processes were applied to remove Fe and Mn effectively from mining drainage. The results of an adsorption kinetic study showed that the Fe adsorption equation was y=21.454y+8.4712, R2=0.9924 and the Mn adsorption equation was y=7.5409x+0.905, R2=0.9957. Meanwhile, the goaf filling materials had low desorption capacity (Fe 6.765 μg/g, Mn 1.52 μg/g) and desorption ratio (Fe 8.98%, Mn 11.04%). Experiments demonstrated that Fe and Mn from mining drainage could be removed stably at a flow rate of 1.2 L/min, Fe inlet concentration of less than 40 mg/L, Mn inlet concentration of less than 2 mg/L and neutral or alkaline conditions. During a procedure of continuous experiments, the effluent quality could meet the requirement of the 'Code for Engineering Design of Sewage Regeneration-GB503352-2002'. A real-application project using goaf filling materials to treat mining drainage in Shendong coal mine showed that the average cost per ton of mining drainage was about 0.55 RMB, which could bring about considerable economic benefit for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26606087

  6. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 and modified Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanling

    A novel alloy with nominal composition Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 has been found to show good room-temperature strength and significant ductility. The current project is to study the wear properties of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn35Al 15 and discuss the possibility of further improving the mechanical properties of this alloy. The dry sliding wear of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 was studied in in four different environments, i.e. air, dry oxygen, dry argon and a 4% hydrogen/nitrogen mixture. Two-body and three-body abrasive wear mechanism was found for tests in oxygen-containing environments, while plastic flow mechanisms dominated the wear behavior for tests in argon. Hydrogen embrittlement led to 1000% increase of wear loss by causing more rapid crack nucleation of the asperities. The effects of different additions of chromium (≤ 8 at. %) on both microstructure and fracture behavior of Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 were investigated. All alloys consisted of (Ni, Al)-rich B2 and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases with most of the Cr residing in the f.c.c. phase. The addition of 6 at. % Cr not only increased the room temperature ductility, but also completely suppressed the environmental embrittlement observed in the Cr-free alloy at low strain rates. The effects of varying the Al concentration on the microstructures and tensile properties of six two-phase FeNiMnAl alloys with a composition close to Fe30Ni20Mn35Al15 were studied. The increase in f.c.c. volume fraction and f.c.c. lamellar width led to an increase in ductility and a decrease in yield strength. The correlation between the yield stress and f.c.c. lamellar spacing lambda obeyed a Hall-Petch-type relationship, i.e. sigmay=252+0.00027lambda-1, where the units for sigmay and lambda are MPa and meter, respectively. FeNiMnAl alloy with B2 and f.c.c. phases aligned along was reported to show high strength at room temperature. The mechanical properties of Fe 28Ni18Mn33Al21, consisting of (Ni, Al)-enriched B2 and (Fe, Mn)-enriched f.c.c. phases with

  7. Synthesis and high-efficiency methylene blue adsorption of magnetic PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Zui; Cai, Minhan; Jian, Haitao; Zeng, Zhiqiao; Li, Feng; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-08-01

    MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and ultrasonic mixing process. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and VSM. XRD patterns indicate that the synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a single cubic spinel phase. SEM images confirm the existence of three types of basic morphology of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles: octahedral, flower-like, and plate-like particles. High saturation magnetization Ms (up to 74.6 emu/g) of the as-synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was obtained. Experiments demonstrate that the variation of the hydrothermal reaction time does not remarkably affect the magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. In PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites, the coating of PAA leads to a slight decrease in magnetization of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Additionally, PAA coating greatly enhances the adsorption properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles for Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Especially, the removal efficiency reaches 96.3%. This research indicates that the as-synthesized PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibit excellent magnetic properties and can be taken as a promising adsorbent for removal of MB dye in industrial scale.

  8. Transition metal redox and Mn disproportional reaction in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes cycled with aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zengqing; Hu, Jiangtao; Duan, Yandong; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We performed soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS) and a quantitative analysis of the transition metal redox in the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes upon electrochemical cycling. In order to circumvent the complication of the surface reactions with organic electrolyte at high potential, the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes are cycled with aqueous electrolyte. The analysis of the transitional metal L-edge spectra allows a quantitative determination of the redox evolution of Mn and Fe during the electrochemical cycling. The sXAS analysis reveals the evolving Mn oxidation states in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4. We found that electrochemically inactive Mn2+ is formed on the electrode surface during cycling. Additionally, the signal indicates about 20% concentration of Mn4+ at the charged state, providing a strong experimental evidence of the disproportional reaction of Mn3+ to Mn2+ and Mn4+ on the surface of the charged LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes.

  9. Preparation and magnetic properties of anisotropic bulk MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. L.; Liu, X. B.; Nguyen, V. V.; Poudyal, N.; Yue, M.; Liu, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Anisotropic hybrid bulk magnets of MnBi/NdFeB with different composition ratio have been prepared with starting MnBi and Nd2Fe14B powders as well as epoxy resin as a binder in case it is needed to form bulk samples. It has been found that the ratio between the two phases in content has a remarkable influence on the magnetic properties, the thermal stability and the density of the bulk magnets. With increasing MnBi content the binder addition can be reduced. When the MnBi content is larger than 30 wt%, no binder is needed. On the other hand, the coercivity and saturation magnetization were increased significantly with increasing NdFeB content. When the NdFeB content was increased from 0% to 50%, the maximum energy product was enhanced from 4.7 to 10.0 MGOe, respectively. The energy product then decreased gradually with the NdFeB content due to the reduced density of the hybrid magnet. The thermal stability measurements showed that the temperature coefficient of coercivity grew with the MnBi content and became positive with MnBi=80 wt%.

  10. Electrical manipulation of ferromagnetic NiFe by antiferromagnetic IrMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshitoyan, V.; Ciccarelli, C.; Mihai, A. P.; Ali, M.; Irvine, A. C.; Moore, T. A.; Jungwirth, T.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that an antiferromagnet can be employed for a highly efficient electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet. In our study, we use an electrical detection technique of the ferromagnetic resonance driven by an in-plane ac current in a NiFe/IrMn bilayer. At room temperature, we observe antidampinglike spin torque acting on the NiFe ferromagnet, generated by an in-plane current driven through the IrMn antiferromagnet. A large enhancement of the torque, characterized by an effective spin-Hall angle exceeding most heavy transition metals, correlates with the presence of the exchange-bias field at the NiFe/IrMn interface. It highlights that, in addition to the strong spin-orbit coupling, the antiferromagnetic order in IrMn governs the observed phenomenon.

  11. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of Ni 1-xMn xFe 2O 4 nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobana, M. K.; Sankar, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the structural, thermal and magnetic properties of Ni 1-xMn xFe 2O 4 are presented. It is observed that high concentration of Mn 2+ ions into NiFe 2O 4 tends to reduce the particle size. Calcination at 500 °C has resulted in the growth of Ni 1-xMn xFe 2O 4 nanoparticles, but the calcination at 900 °C has led to the evaporation of the majorities of the polyvinyl alcohol. After calcination at 900 °C, crystallographically oriented NiMnFe 2O 4 nanoparticles are formed. These Ni 1-xMn xFe 2O 4 nanoparticles show hysteresis behaviour upon magnetization. On the other hand, saturation magnetization (Ms) values decreases with increasing Mn content in ferrite due to the influence of Mn 2+ ion in the sub lattice.

  12. FeMn Metal Droplet Behavior in the MnO-SiO2-CaO Slag System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyoung-Soon; Ryu, Jae Wook; Sohn, Il

    2015-04-01

    Optimization of the MnO-SiO2-CaO-based slag composition in the FeMn decarburization refining process to minimize metal droplet entrainment has been studied. FeMn spherical droplets with average diameter of 2.5 mm were dispersed within the refining slag of the medium carbon grade ferro-manganese alloy process. Approximately 4.2 pct of the slag existed as FeMn droplets contributing to the overall metal yield loss in the current process. Sedimentation tests of slags with various SiO2 content ranging from 26 to 47 pct using Al2O3 crucibles held at 1773 K (1500 °C) for 30 minutes showed an improvement of the metal/slag separation. Estimated and measured viscosity of the slags showed SiO2 at 32 pct to be optimal for metal/slag separation. Changes in the SiO2 content to 32 pct in actual plant trials allowed significant decrease in the amount of metal droplet entrainment resulting in a decrease of metal in slag to 1.3 pct. Refining times for this optimized slag composition required at least 20 minutes holding for increased separation according to Stokes' law.

  13. Magnetic self-assembly for the synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/Fe-Co composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.; Cui, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Exchange coupled hard/soft MnBi/Fe-Co core/shell structured composites were synthesized using a magnetic self-assembly process. MnBi particles were prepared by arc-melting, and Fe-Co nanoparticles were synthesized by an oleic acid assisted chemical reduction method. Grinding a mixture of micron-sized MnBi and Fe-Co nanoparticles in hexane resulted in MnBi/Fe-Co core/shell structured composites. The MnBi/Fe-Co (95/5 wt%) composites showed smooth magnetic hysteresis loops, enhanced remanent magnetization, and positive values in the ΔM curve, indicating exchange coupling between MnBi and Fe-Co particles.

  14. The role of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides formed in situ for arsenic oxidation and adsorption in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Yang, Tingting; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    As(III&V), Mn(II), and Fe(II) may occur simultaneously in some groundwater and surface water. Studying their redox reactions and interactions is essential to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of these metal ions in aquatic ecosystems and to find effective methods to remove them simultaneously in drinking water treatment. Here, the formation of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO, defined as a mixture of biogenic Mn oxide (BMO) and Fe oxide) as well as its oxidation and adsorption of As in a Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) system were investigated. Batch experiments and structure characterization revealed that the BFMO was formed via a sequential precipitation of Fe oxide and BMO. The first formed Fe oxide was identified as FeOOH (lepidocrocite) and the latter formed BMO was identified as MnO2 (similar to hexagonal birnessite). In the BFMO mixture, the BMO part was mainly responsible for As(III) oxidation, and the Fe oxide part dominated As adsorption. Remarkably, the BMO could oxidize Fe(II) to form FeOOH, which may improve As adsorption. The optimum Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio for As removal was approximately 1:3 (mol/mol). Taken together, in Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe ecosystems, the in situ formation of BFMO could eliminate or decrease Fe(II), Mn(II), and As(III&V) species simultaneously. Therefore, based on this study, new approaches may be developed for As removal from water containing high concentrations of Fe(II) and Mn(II). PMID:27088246

  15. Damage annealing in low temperature Fe/Mn implanted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Johnston, K.; Langouche, G.; Mantovan, R.; Mølholt, T. E.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, O.; Weyer, G.

    2015-04-01

    57Fe Emission Mössbauer spectra obtained after low fluence (<1012 cm -2) implantation of 57Mn ( T 1/2= 1.5 min.) into ZnO single crystal held at temperatures below room temperature (RT) are presented. The spectra can be analysed in terms of four components due to Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ on Zn sites, interstitial Fe and Fe in damage regions (Fe D ). The Fe D component is found to be indistinguishable from similar component observed in emission Mössbauer spectra of higher fluence (˜1015 cm -2)57Fe/ 57Co implanted ZnO and 57Fe implanted ZnO, demonstrating that the nature of the damage regions in the two types of experiments is similar. The defect component observed in the low temperature regime was found to anneal below RT.

  16. Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on Fe>54mn>,>56mn>,>58mn>

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.

    2015-07-06

    Here, deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α-particle emission spectra, from d+54,56,58Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 55Co, 57Co, 55Fe, 57Fe, 52Mn, and 54Mn have been deduced from the compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)] was found to have a good agreement with our results.

  17. Magnetic order near 270 K in mineral and synthetic Mn2FeSbO6 ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, R.; Ivanov, S. A.; Bazuev, G. V.; Hudl, M.; Lazor, P.; Solovyev, I. V.; Nordblad, P.

    2011-05-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Mn2FeSbO6 single-crystalline mineral and ceramic samples synthesized under thermobaric treatment have been investigated, and compared to theoretical predictions based on first-principles electronic structure calculations. This ilmenite system displays a sharp magnetic transition just below the room temperature related to a ferrimagnetic ordering of the Mn2+ and Fe3+ cations, which makes Mn2FeSbO6 a promising candidate for designing functional magnetic materials.

  18. A new particulate Mn-Fe-P-shuttle at the redoxcline of anoxic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellwig, Olaf; Leipe, Thomas; März, Christian; Glockzin, Michael; Pollehne, Falk; Schnetger, Bernhard; Yakushev, Evgeniy V.; Böttcher, Michael E.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    Pelagic redoxclines of anoxic basins and deeps form the suboxic transition between oxygenated surface and anoxic or even sulfidic bottom waters. Intense element cycling, favoured by elevated microbial activity, causes steep gradients of physico-chemical parameters, nutrients and redox-sensitive trace metals. This study presents a conceptual model for authigenic particle formation at pelagic redoxclines, which is based on the tight coupling of Mn, Fe, and P cycles. Besides the well-known occurrence of Mn-oxides, textural (SEM-EDX) and geochemical (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) analyses of particles from the redoxclines of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea (Gotland Basin, Landsort Deep) evidence the existence of earlier postulated Fe-oxyhydroxo-phosphates and emphasize mixed phases consisting of Mn-oxides and Fe-oxyhydroxo-phosphates as a new solid species. Most of the analyzed particles are star-shaped, of about 5 μm in size, and occur as single particles or aggregates without any morphological differences between Mn-oxides, Fe-oxyhydroxo-phosphates, and mixed phases. Throughout the redoxcline, these minerals show a general succession with maximum abundance of Mn-oxides above the redoxcline followed by mixed phases and almost pure Fe-phosphates within and below the redoxcline, respectively. Molar Fe/P ratios of single particles argue against the formation of known pure Fe-phosphates like vivianite or strengite at the lower end of the redox transition zone, but are consistent with recent experimental findings for colloidal P-bearing hydrous ferric oxides. Moreover, morphological similarities suggest the formation of irregular Fe-oxyhydroxo coatings due to oxidation of upward diffusing Fe 2+ by oxygen and stepwise replacement of Mn(IV) by Fe(III) on sinking MnO x particles followed by immediate adsorption or even co-precipitation of phosphate. Batch-type experiments using biogenic MnO x particles demonstrate the efficient potential of Fe 2+ oxidation by sinking MnO x particles

  19. Influence of the porewater geochemistry on Fe and Mn assimilation in Laternula elliptica at King George Island (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poigner, Harald; Monien, Patrick; Monien, Donata; Kriews, Michael; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Wilhelms-Dick, Dorothee; Abele, Doris

    2013-12-01

    A high input of lithogenic sediment from glaciers was assumed to be responsible for high Fe and Mn contents in the Antarctic soft shell clam Laternula elliptica at King George Island. Indeed, withdrawal experiments indicated a strong influence of environmental Fe concentrations on Fe contents in bivalve hemolymph, but no significant differences in hemolymph and tissue concentrations were found among two sites of high and lower input of lithogenic debris. Comparing Fe and Mn concentrations of porewater, bottom water, and hemolymph from sampling sites, Mn appears to be assimilated as dissolved species, whereas Fe apparently precipitates as ferrihydrite within the oxic sediment or bottom water layer prior to assimilation by the bivalve. Hence, we attribute the high variability of Fe and Mn accumulation in tissues of L. elliptica around Antarctica to differences in the geochemical environment of the sediment and the resulting Fe and Mn flux across the benthic boundary.

  20. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. W.; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.; Stamps, R. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  1. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, G. W. Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; Stamps, R. L.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.

    2015-11-28

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  2. Mn, Fe, Zn and As speciation in a fast-growing ferromanganese marine nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Matthew A.; Manceau, Alain; Kersten, Michael

    2004-04-01

    The speciation of Mn, Fe, As and Zn in a fast-growing (0.02mm/yr), shallow-marine ferromanganese nodule has been examined by micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This nodule exhibits alternating Fe-rich and Mn-rich layers reflecting redox variations in water chemistry. Fe occurs as two-line ferrihydrite. The As is strictly associated with Fe and is mostly pentavalent, with an environment similar to that of As sorbed on or coprecipitated with synthetic ferrihydrite. The Mn is in the form of turbostratic birnessite with {approx} 10 percent trivalent manganese in the layers and probably {approx} 8 percent corner-sharing metal octahedra in the interlayers. The Zn is enriched on the rim of the nodule, associated with Mn. The Zn is completely (>90 percent) tetrahedrally coordinated and sorbed in the interlayers of birnessite on vacant layer Mn sites. The Zn and Mn species are similar to ones found in soils, suggesting common structural principles, despite the differing formation conditions in these systems.

  3. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-05-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4. PMID:25079636

  4. Magnetic properties of transition metal Mn, Fe and Co dimers on monolayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2016-09-23

    We studied the geometries, electronic structure and magnetic properties of substitutional doping and adsorption of transition metal (Mn, Fe and Co) dimers on phosphorene monolayer in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U. Electronic band structures and magnetic properties were dependent on the doping type and dopant materials. For Mn and Fe substitutional and adsorption dimers, we obtained semiconducting band structures with spin polarization. However, we found a half-metallic feature in Co substitutional dimer while the Co adsorption dimer showed a semiconducting behavior without any spin polarization. With GGA + U, all the systems showed spin polarized semiconducting band structures except Co adsorption dimer which remained unaffected. The hybridization between transition metal (TM) and phosphorene sheet contributed to suppressing the magnetic moment of TM dimers. For instance, the total magnetic moments of -2.0, 4.24 and 1.28 μ B/cell for Mn, Fe and Co substitutional dimers were obtained while the Mn and Fe adsorption dimers showed magnetic moments of -1.69 and 0.46 μ B/cell. These magnetic moments were enhanced with GGA + U. The same magnetic ground states were obtained both from GGA and GGA + U approaches except for the Mn dimers. We observed that the Mn and Fe substitutional dimers showed an out-of-plane magnetization while an in-plane magnetization was observed in Co substitutional dimer. The Mn adsorption dimer still displayed a perpendicular magnetization whereas the Fe adsorption dimer had an in-plane magnetization. We found that the both GGA and GGA + U showed the same magnetization direction in all the systems. PMID:27512907

  5. Magnetic properties of transition metal Mn, Fe and Co dimers on monolayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2016-09-01

    We studied the geometries, electronic structure and magnetic properties of substitutional doping and adsorption of transition metal (Mn, Fe and Co) dimers on phosphorene monolayer in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U. Electronic band structures and magnetic properties were dependent on the doping type and dopant materials. For Mn and Fe substitutional and adsorption dimers, we obtained semiconducting band structures with spin polarization. However, we found a half-metallic feature in Co substitutional dimer while the Co adsorption dimer showed a semiconducting behavior without any spin polarization. With GGA + U, all the systems showed spin polarized semiconducting band structures except Co adsorption dimer which remained unaffected. The hybridization between transition metal (TM) and phosphorene sheet contributed to suppressing the magnetic moment of TM dimers. For instance, the total magnetic moments of ‑2.0, 4.24 and 1.28 μ B/cell for Mn, Fe and Co substitutional dimers were obtained while the Mn and Fe adsorption dimers showed magnetic moments of ‑1.69 and 0.46 μ B/cell. These magnetic moments were enhanced with GGA + U. The same magnetic ground states were obtained both from GGA and GGA + U approaches except for the Mn dimers. We observed that the Mn and Fe substitutional dimers showed an out-of-plane magnetization while an in-plane magnetization was observed in Co substitutional dimer. The Mn adsorption dimer still displayed a perpendicular magnetization whereas the Fe adsorption dimer had an in-plane magnetization. We found that the both GGA and GGA + U showed the same magnetization direction in all the systems.

  6. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  7. Effect of Mn substitution on the transport properties of co-sputtered Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.; Jin, C.; Bai, H. L.

    2014-11-07

    Motivated by the theoretical calculations that Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si can simultaneously exhibit a high spin polarization with a high Curie temperature to be applied in spintronic devices, and in order to further study the effect of Mn contents on the physical properties of Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si, we have investigated the effect of Mn substitution on the transport properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si (0≤x≤1) films systematically. The Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si films were epitaxially grown on MgO(001) plane with 45° rotation. The magnetization for various x shows enhanced irreversibility, implying the antiferromagnetic ordering induced by the substitution of Mn. A metal-semiconductor crossover was observed due to the enhanced disorders of interactions and the local lowering of symmetry induced by the substitution of Mn. The single-domain state in the Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si films leads to twofold symmetric curves of the anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall resistivity.

  8. Magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2 and effects of Co and Mn substitutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of Fe5PB2, Fe4CoPB2, Fe4MnPB2, Fe5SiB2, Fe4CoSiB2, and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. All adopt the tetragonal Cr5B3 structure-type and are ferromagnetic at room temperature with easy axis of magnetization along the c-axis. The spin reorientation in Fe5SiB2 is observed as an anomaly in the magnetization near 170 K and is suppressed by substitution of Co or Mn for Fe. The silicides are found to generally have larger magnetic moments than the phosphides, but the data suggest smaller magnetic anisotropy in the silicides. Cobalt substitution reduces the Curie temperatures by more than 100 K and ordered magnetic moments by 16%-20%, while manganese substitution has a much smaller effect. This suggests Mn moments align ferromagnetically with the Fe and that Co does not have an ordered moment in these structures. Anisotropic thermal expansion is observed in Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2, with negative thermal expansion seen along the c-axis of Fe5SiB2. First principles calculations of the magnetic properties of Fe5SiB2 and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. The results, including the magnetic moment and anisotropy, are in good agreement with experiment.

  9. Magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2 and effects of Co and Mn substitutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-22

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of Fe5PB2, Fe4CoPB2, Fe4MnPB2, Fe5SiB2, Fe4CoSiB2, and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. All adopt the tetragonal Cr5B3 structure-type and are ferromagnetic at room temperature with easy axis of magnetization along the c-axis. The spin reorientation in Fe5SiB2 is observed as an anomaly in the magnetization near 170 K, and is suppressed by substitution of Co or Mn for Fe. The silicides are found to generally have larger magnetic moments than the phosphides, but the data suggests smaller magnetic anisotropy in the silicides. Cobalt substitution reduces the Curie temperatures by more than 100 K and ordered magnetic moments bymore » 16-20%, while manganese substitution has a much smaller effect. This suggests Mn moments align ferromagnetically with the Fe and that Co does not have an ordered moment in these structures. Anisotropic thermal expansion is observed in Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2, with negative thermal expansion seen along the c-axis of Fe5SiB2. First principles calculations of the magnetic properties of Fe5SiB2 and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. The results, including the magnetic moment and anisotropy, and are in good agreement with experiment.« less

  10. Effects of Oral Administration of CrCl3 on the Contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the Liver, Kidney, and Heart of Chicken.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhan; Zhao, Xiaona; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Xuejun; Liu, Yongxia; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of trivalent chromium on the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the heart, liver, and kidney. Different levels of 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 LD50 (LD50 = 5000 mg/kg body mass) CrCl3 milligrams per kilogram body mass daily were added into the water to establish the chronic poisoning model. Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were detected with the flame atomic absorption spectrometry in the organs exposed 14, 28, and 42 days to CrCl3, respectively. Results showed that Cr was accumulated in the heart, liver, and kidney significantly (P < 0.05) with extended time and dose. The contents of Ca and Fe increased, whereas those of Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in the heart, liver, and kidney of each treated group, which had a dose- and time-dependent relationship, but the contents of Mg and Zn in the heart took on a fluctuated change. These particular observations were different from those in the control group. In conclusion, the oral administration of CrCl3 could change the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the heart, liver, and kidney, which may cause disorders in the absorption and metabolism of the metal elements of chickens. PMID:26537118

  11. Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilina, Alfred; Homoky, William B.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Mills, Rachel A.

    2014-07-01

    Short sediment cores were collected from ∼1100 m water depth at the top of Hook Ridge, a submarine volcanic edifice in the Central Basin of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, to assess Fe and Mn supply to the water column. Low-temperature hydrothermal fluids advect through these sediments and, in places, subsurface H2S is present at high enough concentrations to support abundant Sclerolinum sp., an infaunal tubeworm that hosts symbiotic thiotrophic bacteria. The water column is fully oxic, and oxygen penetration depths at all sites are 2-5 cmbsf. Pore water Fe and Mn content is high within the subsurface ferruginous zone (max. 565 μmol Fe L-1, >3-7 cmbsf)-14-18 times higher than values measured at a nearby, background site of equivalent water depth. Diffusion and advection of pore waters supply significant Fe and Mn to the surface sediment. Sequential extraction of the sediment demonstrates that there is a significant enrichment in a suite of reactive, authigenic Fe minerals in the upper 0-5 cm of sediment at one site characterised by weathered crusts at the seafloor. At a site with only minor authigenic mineral surface enrichment we infer that leakage of pore water Fe and Mn from the sediment leads to enriched total dissolvable Fe and Mn in bottom waters. An Eh sensor mounted on a towed package mapped a distinct Eh signature above this coring site which is dispersed over several km at the depth of Hook Ridge. We hypothesise that the main mechanism for Fe and Mn efflux from the sediment is breach of the surface oxic layer by the abundant Sclerolinum sp., along with episodic enhancements by physical mixing and resuspension of sediment in this dynamic volcanic environment. We propose that Hook Ridge sediments are an important source of Fe and Mn to the deep waters of the Central Basin in the Bransfield Strait, where concentrations are sustained by the benthic flux, and Fe is stabilised in the water column as either colloidal phases or ligand-bound dissolved

  12. Thermal decomposition study of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Tasmira J.; Chaki, S. H.; Tailor, J. P.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    Fe3O4 is an excellent magnetic material among iron oxides. It has a cubic inverse spinel structure exhibiting distinguished electric and magnetic properties. In this paper the authors report the synthesis of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles by wet chemical reduction technique at ambient temperature and its thermal characterization. Ferric chloride hexa-hydrate (FeCl3•6H2O), manganese chloride tetra-hydrate (MnCl2•4H2O) and sodium boro-hydrate (NaBH4) were used for synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles at ambient temperature. The elemental composition of the as-synthesized Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) technique. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were carried out on the Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the temperature range of ambient to 1124 K. The thermo-curves revealed that the particles decompose by four steps. The kinetic parameters were evaluated using non-mechanistic equations for the thermal decomposition.

  13. Post-irradiation annealing behavior of neutron-irradiated FeCu, FeMnNi and FeMnNiCu model alloys investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.; Lindner, P.; Keiderling, U.; Malerba, L.

    2014-11-01

    Neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels gives rise to the formation of thermodynamically stable and unstable nano-features. The present work is focused on the stability of Cu-, Mn- and Ni-containing solute clusters in model alloys exposed to post-irradiation annealing. Fe0.1Cu, Fe1.2Mn0.7Ni and Fe1.2Mn0.7Ni0.1Cu (wt%) model alloys irradiated up to neutron exposures of 0.1 and 0.19 dpa (displacements per atom) were annealed at stepwise increasing temperatures in the range from 300 °C (i.e. near irradiation temperature) to 500 °C and characterized by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have found characteristic differences in the annealing behavior of the alloys. In particular, there is a non-trivial (synergistic-antagonistic) interplay of Mn/Ni and Cu.

  14. Interfacial strain and defects in asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mayence, Arnaud; Wéry, Madeleine; Tran, Dung Trung; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-08-01

    Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds. PMID:27385323

  15. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel by Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R. A.; Miller, M. K.; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 °C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe)3Ti and (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for ~60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  16. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R A; Miller, Michael K; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti and (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for {approx}60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  17. Structural And Magnetic Properties Of Mn And Zn Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Verma, Kavita; Yogi, A.

    2011-07-01

    Mn and Zn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size 7.36 and 12.52 nm were prepared by co precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern infers that both the samples are in single phase with Fd3m space group, which was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement. Transmission Mössbauer spectra reveals ferrimagnetic nature for Mn doping concentration while into that for Zn doping concentration it shows diamagnetic behaviour. Zn doped nanoparticles shows the superparamagnetic property.

  18. Interfacial strain and defects in asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayence, Arnaud; Wéry, Madeleine; Tran, Dung Trung; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds.Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials characterization, powder X-ray diffraction, EFTEM images, EELS spectra, HAADF-STEM. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01373b

  19. Spark plasma sintering and microwave electromagnetic properties of MnFe2O4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penchal Reddy, M.; Mohamed, A. M. A.; Venkata Ramana, M.; Zhou, X. B.; Huang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    MnFe2O4 ferrite powder was synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal route and then consolidated into dense nanostructured compacts by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The effect of sintering temperature, on densification, morphology, magnetic and microwave absorption properties was examined. Spark plasma sintering resulted in uniform microstructure, as well as maximum relative density of 98%. The magnetic analysis indicated that the MnFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles showed ferrimagnetic behavior. Moreover, the dielectric loss and magnetic loss properties of MnFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were both enhanced due to its better dipole polarization, interfacial polarization and shape anisotropy. It is believed that such spark plasma sintered ceramic material will be applied widely in microwave absorbing area.

  20. Rotational hysteresis of the exchange anisotropy direction in Co /FeMn thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olamit, Justin; Liu, Kai

    2007-05-01

    The effects of rotating an applied field on the exchange anisotropy in Co /FeMn thin films have been investigated. When the applied field is initially along the cooling field direction, the longitudinal hysteresis loop has a maximum coercivity and the transverse hysteresis loop is flat, indicating that the exchange field is along the cooling field direction. When the applied field angle is rotated away and then restored to the original field cooling direction, the exchange anisotropy direction has changed. The rotation of the exchange field direction trails the applied field and is hysteretic. The rotational hysteresis of the exchange field direction is due to the weak anisotropy in thin FeMn layers and decreases with increasing FeMn thickness.

  1. Fractionation and risk assessment of Fe and Mn in surface sediments from coastal sites of Sonora, Mexico (Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, Martín E; García-Camarena, Raúl; Gómez-Álvarez, Agustín; García-Rico, Leticia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Fe and Mn distribution in geochemical fractions of the surface sediment of four oyster culture sites in the Sonora coast, Mexico. A selective fractionation scheme to obtain five fractions was adapted for the microwave system. Surface sediments were analyzed for carbonates, organic matter contents, and Fe and Mn in geochemical fractions. The bulk concentrations of Fe ranged from 10,506 to 21,918 mg/kg (dry weight, dry wt), and the bulk concentrations of Mn ranged from 185.1 to 315.9 mg/kg (dry wt) in sediments, which was low and considered as non-polluted in all of the sites. The fractionation study indicated that the major geochemical phases for the metals were the residual, as well as the Fe and Mn oxide fractions. The concentrations of metals in the geochemical fractions had the following order: residual > Fe and Mn oxides > organic matter > carbonates > interchangeable. Most of the Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction. Among non-residual fractions, high percentages of Fe and Mn were linked to Fe and Mn oxides. The enrichment factors (EFs) for the two metals were similar in the four studied coasts, and the levels of Fe and Mn are interpreted as non-enrichment (EF < 1) because the metals concentrations were within the baseline concentrations. According to the environmental risk assessment codes, Fe and Mn posed no risk and low risk, respectively. Although the concentrations of Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction, the levels in non-residual fractions may significantly result in the transference of other metals, depending on several physico-chemical and biological factors. PMID:26116197

  2. Thermoelectric properties of Fe and Al double substituted MnSiγ (γ~1.73)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczak, S. A.; Downie, R. A.; Popuri, S. R.; Decourt, R.; Pollet, M.; Bos, J. W. G.

    2015-07-01

    Two series of Fe and Al double substituted MnSiγ chimney ladders with a nominal valence electron count, VEC=14 per transition metal were prepared (γ=1.75). Simultaneous replacement of Mn with Fe and Si with Al yielded the Mn1-xFexSi1.75-xAlx series while the second Mn1-xFexSi1.75-1.75xAl2x series follows the pseudo-binary between MnSi1.75 and FeAl2. Scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping revealed that ~60% of the nominal Al content ends up in the product with the remainder lost to sublimation, and that up to 7% Al can be substituted in the main group sublattice. Profile analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data revealed gradual changes in the cell metrics, consistent with the simultaneous substitution of Fe and Al in a fixed ratio. All samples are p-type with VEC≈13.95 from the structural data and ~1×1021 holes cm-3 from variable temperature Seebeck measurements. The substituted samples have lower electrical resistivities (ρ300 K=2-5 mΩ cm) due to an improved microstructure. This leads to increased thermoelectric power factors (largest S2/ρ=1.95 mW m-1 K-2) compared to MnSiγ. The thermal conductivity for the Mn0.95Fe0.05Si1.66Al0.1 sample is 2.7 W m-1 K-1 between 300 and 800 K, and is comparable to literature data for the parent material.

  3. Phase transformations during deformation of Fe-Ni and Fe-Mn alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherdyntsev, V. V.; Pustov, L. Yu.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Tomilin, I. A.; Shelekhov, E. V.; Laptev, A. I.; Baldokhin, Yu. V.; Estrin, E. I.

    2007-10-01

    Compositions of Fe(100 - x)Mn x ( x = 10 and 12 at. %) and Fe(100 - y)Ni y ( y = 18 and 20 at. %) were produced by combined mechanical alloying of pure-metal powders and annealed in the austenitic field. After annealing and cooling to room temperature, the alloys had a single-phase austenitic structure. During deformation, the γ phase partially transforms into the α 2 phase (and/or ɛ phase in Fe-Mn alloys). The phase composition of the alloys after deformation depends on the amount of alloying elements and the predeformation annealing regime. The amount of martensite in the structure of a bulk alloy obtained by powder compacting grows proportionally to the degree of deformation of the sample.

  4. Different magnetic origins of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders and thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiuping; Jiang, Fengxian; Quan, Zhiyong; Qing, Xiufang; Xu, Xiaohong

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of the sample forms, fabricated methods, and process conditions on the structural and magnetic properties of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders and films were systematically studied. The origins of ferromagnetism in the vacuum-annealed powder and PLD-deposited film are different. The former originates from the impurities of magnetic clusters, whereas the latter comes from the almost homogenous phase. Highlights: ► The magnetic natures of Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O powders and thin films come from different origins. ► The ferromagnetism of the powder is mainly from the contribution of magnetic clusters. ► Whereas the ferromagnetic behavior of the film comes from the almost homogenous phase. -- Abstract: The structural and magnetic properties of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders as well as thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements indicated that the higher sintering temperature facilitates more Mn and Fe incorporation into ZnO. Magnetic measurements indicated that the powder sintered in air at 800 °C showed paramagnetic, but it exhibited obvious room temperature ferromagnetism after vacuum annealing at 600 °C. The results revealed that magnetic clusters were the major contributors to the observed ferromagnetism in vacuum-annealed Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O powder. Interestingly, the room temperature ferromagnetism was also observed in the Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O film deposited via pulsed laser deposition from the air-sintered paramagnetic target, but the secondary phases in the film were not detected from X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and zero-field cooling and field cooling. Apparently, the magnetic natures of powders and films come from different origins.

  5. Preparation and Magnetic Studies of Mn Substituted Analogues of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, B. L.; Kumar, Sudhish; Krishnamurthy, Anjali; Srivastava, Bipin K.

    2011-11-01

    Manganese substituted samples (for iron) in the multiferroic BiFeO3 have been prepared using solid state ceramic route. It has been possible to prepare a sample with the highest 40% Mn content. Reitveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns shows that the substituted analogues crystallize in rhombohedral symmetry in R-3¯c space group. Effort to prepare 50 atomic% Mn substituted sample did not succeed. Magnetization measurements have been made in the temperature range 20K-300K and in fields upto 8 kOe. Magnetic nature of the 40 atomic% Mn substituted sample is alike that of 30 atomic% Mn substituted one. Mn induces weak ferromagnetism with the average magnetic moment increasing with its concentration.

  6. DFT calculation and experimental investigation of Mn doping effect in Fe16N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Himmetoglu, Burak; Cococcioni, Matteo; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-05-01

    An effective dopant to improve the thermal stability of a Fe16N2 permanent magnet is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that manganese is a promising candidate as dopant in Fe16N2 magnet to improve the thermal stability. Firstly, the atomic moments of the Fe ions with respect to N is investigated by using first-principles DFT calculation. Two possible candidates of elements, including Co and Mn, are compared in terms of its preferred position and magnetic coupling mode. It is found that Mn prefers Fe1 position and ferromagnetic coupling in the Fe16N2 lattice. So Mn is considered as a promising dopant in Fe16N2 magnet to improve its thermal stability. Based on theoretical results, experiments are conducted by a cold-crucible method to prepare (Fe1-xMnx) N bulk samples. The samples are thermal treated at different temperatures to observe their thermal stabilities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are characterized on the samples.

  7. Adsorption of antimony(V) onto Mn(II)-enriched surfaces of manganese-oxide and FeMn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Xu, Wei; He, Zan; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Prasai, Tista

    2015-11-01

    Manganese(IV) oxide [Mn(IV)] potentially oxidizes antimony(III) [Sb(III)] to antimony(V) [Sb(V)] and improves Sb removal by FeMn binary oxide (FMBO) through an oxidation-adsorption mechanism. This study focused on the effect of Mn(IV) reductive dissolution by potassium sulfite (K2SO3) on Sb(V) adsorption onto manganese oxide (Mn-oxide) and FMBO. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption (Qmax,Sb(V)) increased from 1.0 to 1.1 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and from 0.4 to 0.6 mmol g(-1) for Mn-oxide after pretreatment with 10 mmol L(-1) K2SO3. The addition of 2.5 mmol L(-1) Mn(2+) also significantly improved Sb(V) adsorption, and the observed Qmax,Sb(V) increased to 1.4 and 1.0 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and Mn-oxide, respectively, with pre-adsorbed Mn(2+). Neither K2SO3 nor Mn(2+) addition had any effect on Sb(V) adsorption onto iron oxide (Fe-oxide). Mn(2+) introduced by either Mn(IV) dissolution or addition tended to form outer-sphere surface complexes with hydroxyl groups on Mn-oxide surfaces (MnOOH). Mn(2+) at 2.5 mmol L(-1) shifted the isoelectric point (pHiep) from 7.5 to 10.2 for FMBO and from 4.8 to 9.2 for Mn-oxide and hence benefited Sb(V) adsorption. The adsorption of Sb(V) onto Mn(2+)-enriched surfaces contributed to the release of Mn(2+), and the X-ray photoelectron spectra also indicated increased binding energy of Mn 2p3/2 after the adsorption of Sb(V) onto K2SO3-pretreated FMBO and Mn-oxide. Sb(V) adsorption involved the formation of inner-sphere complexes and contributed to the release of Mn(2+). In the removal of Sb(III) by Mn-based oxides, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by Mn(IV) oxides had an effect; however, Mn(IV) dissolution and Mn(2+)-enrichment also played an important role. PMID:26218341

  8. Mechanical properties of weldments in experimental Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys for cryogenic service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.; Devletian, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties of weldments in two Fe-12Mn experimental alloys designed for cryogenic service were evaluated. Weldments were made using the GTA welding process. Tests to evaluate the weldments were conducted at -196 C and included: equivalent energy fracture toughness tests; autogenous transverse weld, notched transverse weld, and longitudinal weld tensile tests; and all-weld-metal tensile tests. The Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys proved weldable for cryogenic service, with weld metal and heat-affected zone properties comparable with those of the base metal. Optimum properties were achieved in the base alloys, weld metals, and heat-affected zones after a two-step heat treatment consisting of austenitizing at 900 C followed by tempering at 500 C. The Mo-containing alloy offered a marked improvement in cryogenic properties over those of the Mo-free alloy. Molybdenum increased the amount of retained austenite and reduced the amount of epsilon martensite observed in the microstructure of the two alloys.

  9. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  10. 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer spin valve component investigated by polarized neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Callori, S. J. Bertinshaw, J.; Cortie, D. L.; Cai, J. W. Zhu, T.; Le Brun, A. P.; Klose, F.

    2014-07-21

    We have observed 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer system using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetometry results show magnetic switching for both the biased and free NiFe layers, the latter of which reverses at low applied fields. As these measurements are only capable of providing information about the total magnetization within a sample, polarized neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the reversal behavior of the NiFe layers individually. Both the non-spin-flip and spin-flip neutron reflectometry signals were tracked around the free NiFe layer hysteresis loop and were used to detail the evolution of the magnetization during reversal. At low magnetic fields near the free NiFe coercive field, a large spin-flip signal was observed, indicating magnetization aligned perpendicular to both the applied field and pinned layer.

  11. The microstructure of near-equiatomic B2/f.c.c. FeNiMnAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Miller, M.K.; Munroe, P.R.

    2011-10-15

    A microstructural analysis of two FeNiMnAl alloys, Fe{sub 30}Ni{sub 20}Mn{sub 30}Al{sub 20} and Fe{sub 25}Ni{sub 25}Mn{sub 30}Al{sub 20}, was performed by a combination of atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Although the microstructures of both alloys, which consist of alternating platelets aligned along < 100> of the B2-ordered phase, are similar to B2/b.c.c. two-phase alloys previously observed in the FeNiMnAl system, the two phases present in the current alloys are B2-ordered and f.c.c., with the latter phase being heavily twinned. Very fine ({approx} 5 nm) precipitates, whose chemistry was similar to that of the f.c.c. (Fe, Mn)-rich phase, were found within the B2 (Ni, Al)-rich phase in both alloys. - Highlights: {yields} The microstructures of the novel alloys Fe{sub 30}Ni{sub 20}Mn{sub 30}Al{sub 20} and Fe{sub 25}Ni{sub 25}Mn{sub 30}Al{sub 20} were characterized. {yields} Atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy were used in the study. {yields} A < 100>-aligned B2-ordered phase and heavily-twinned f.c.c. phase were present. {yields} Very fine (Fe, Mn)-rich precipitates were found within the B2 (Ni, Al)-rich phase.

  12. Preparation, characterization, and phosphate removal and recovery of magnetic MnFe2O4 nano-particles as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shumei; Xu, Xiaoming; Xu, Changsong; Wang, Hongshuai; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate removal is an important method for controlling eutrophication in bodies of water. Adsorption is an effective phosphate removal approach. In this research, the adsorbent, namely, MnFe2O4, was prepared through the improved co-precipitation method and investigated in terms of phosphate removal. MnFe2O4 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phosphate adsorption by MnFe2O4, desorption of adsorbed MnFe2O4 with the regeneration of desorbed MnFe2O4, and phosphate recovery were researched. Experimental results showed that adding the appropriate amount of polyethylene glycol to MnFe2O4 precursors during preparation inhibited the agglomeration of MnFe2O4 between particles because of the magnetic property of MnFe2O4 etc. High crystallinity and strong magnetism were achieved by MnFe2O4 at low temperatures. Average particle size was 5.1 nm. The hysteresis loops confirmed the ferrimagnetic behaviour of MnFe2O4 with a high saturation magnetization (i.e. 26.27 emu/g). The adsorption mechanism of phosphate was mainly physical. The prepared MnFe2O4 had a spinel structure. The proposed technique achieved a phosphate removal rate of 96.06%. A considerable amount of phosphate was desorbed from the adsorbed MnFe2O4 in 15 w/v% NaOH solution. The adsorption capacity of the desorbed MnFe2O4 could be restored to 96.73% in 10 w/v% NaNO3 solution through ion exchange. A sustainable phosphate source was recovered via hydroxyapatite crystallization in the desorption solution, which contained an abundant amount of phosphate as seed for suitable recovery condition. This finding suggested that MnFe2O4 could be a promising adsorbent for efficient phosphate removal. PMID:26292922

  13. The Microstructure of Near-Equiatomic B2/f.c.c. FeNiMnAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Ian; Wu, H; Wu, Xiaolan; Miller, Michael K; Munroe, P R

    2011-01-01

    A microstructural analysis of two FeNiMnAl alloys, Fe{sub 30}Ni{sub 20}Mn{sub 30}Al{sub 20} and Fe{sub 25}Ni{sub 25}Mn{sub 30}Al{sub 20}, was performed by a combination of atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Although the microstructures of both alloys, which consist of alternating platelets aligned along <100> of the B2-ordered phase, are similar to B2/b.c.c. two-phase alloys previously observed in the FeNiMnAl system, the two phases present in the current alloys are B2-ordered and f.c.c., with the latter phase being heavily twinned. Very fine ({approx} 5 nm) precipitates, whose chemistry was similar to that of the f.c.c. (Fe, Mn)-rich phase, were found within the B2 (Ni, Al)-rich phase in both alloys.

  14. Ductile-brittle-ductile transition and grain boundary segregation of Mn and Ni in an Fe-6Mn-12Ni alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, N.H.

    1996-05-15

    Recently, Heo and Lee reported a ductile-brittle-ductile (DBD) transition in an Fe-8Mn-7Ni ternary alloy, which was caused by manganese segregation to the grain boundaries and its desegregation into the matrix. More recently Heo theoretically analyzed the nonequilibrium segregation behaviors of the elements in the Fe-8Mn-7Ni alloy. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether other Fe-6Mn-12Ni ternary alloy also shows the ductile-brittle-ductile transition, and is additionally to ascertain whether calculated results are consistent with experimental data. The study encompasses experimental procedures and a modeling based on the previous research. A general discussion will show that such an approach allows a comprehensive understanding of the ductile-brittle-ductile transition in the Fe-Mn-Ni ternary alloys.

  15. Biocompatibility of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles and Their Thermotherapy on VX2-Carcinoma-Induced Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Yan; Tang, Qiu-Sha; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors are the most serious threat to human health. Much research has focused on revealing the characteristics of this disease and developing methods of treatment. Because tumor cells are more sensitive to heat than normal cells, thermotherapy for the treatment of tumors has attracted much attention. In this paper, we presented functional Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles with the molecular composition of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 as the magnetic response material for the thermotherapy. The suggested Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles were with a self-regulation temperature of 43 degrees C which was ideal for tumor thermotherapy. The biocompatibility and anti-tumor effect of this material were well investigated. It was found that the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles have no hemolysis activity, no genotoxic effects and cytotoxicity. Its Median Lethal Dose (LD50) arrived at 6.026 g/kg and it did not induce any abnormal clinical signs in laboratory animals. Moreover, the suggested nanoparticles can increase the inhibitory ratio of weight and volume of tumors, cause tumor tissues necrosis and show the therapeutic effect on the xenograft live cancers in vivo. Based on these results, we could envision the valuable application of the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles for the practical thermotherapy. PMID:26328307

  16. Effects of Mn content on the deformation behavior of Fe-Mn-Al-C TWIP steels — A computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuan; Sun, Xin; Wang, Y. D.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a double-slip/double-twin polycrystal plasticity model using finite element solution to investigate the kinetics of deformation twinning of low-to-medium manganese (Mn) twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels. Empirical equations are employed to estimate the stacking fault energy (SFE) of TWIP steels and the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for dislocation slip and deformation twinning, respectively. The results suggest that the evolution of twinning in Fe-xMn-1.4Al-0.6C (x=11.5, 13.5, 15.5, 17.5 and 19.5) TWIP steels, and its relation to the Mn content, can explain the effect of Mn on mechanical properties.the stress-strain. By comparing the double-slip/double-twin model to a double-slip model, the predicted results essentially reveal that the interaction behavior between dislocation slip and deformation twinning can lead to an additional work hardening. Also, numerical simulations are carried out to study the influence of boundary conditions on deformation behavior and twin formation. The nucleation and growth of twinning are found to depend on internal properties (e.g., mismatch orientation of grains and stress redistribution) as well as on external constraints (e.g., the applied boundary conditions) of the material.

  17. Effect of Manganese on Microstructures and Solidification Modes of Cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua; Du, Yangyang; Yu, Qinxu; Yang, Qin

    2013-10-01

    We investigated microstructures and solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys to clarify whether Mn was an austenite former during solidification. Furthermore, we examined whether the Creq/Nieq equations (Delong, Hull, Hammer and WRC-1992 equations) and Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 were valid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys. The results have shown that the solidification modes of Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni alloys changed from the F mode to the FA mode with increasing the Mn concentration. Mn is an austenite former during the solidification for the cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys. The Delong, Hull, Hammer, and WRC-1992 equations as well as Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 are invalid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni SMAs. To predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys, a new Creq/Nieq equation should be developed or the thermodynamic database of Thermo-Calc software® should be corrected.

  18. Investigation of magnetic properties of MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 nanocomposite permanent magnets by micro-magnetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Q.; Yue, M.; Wang, T.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, D. T.; Gao, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Demagnetization curves of anisotropic nanocomposite MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 permanent magnets were investigated by micro-magnetic finite element method. Effects of volume ratio, deviation degree of orientation and intrinsic magnetic properties of the soft magnetic phase on the magnetic properties of the magnets were investigated. From the viewpoint of practical applications, to meet the requirement of hardness parameters, ĸ=K/(μ0MS2)1/2>1, the calculation maximum (BH)max of MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 magnets are about 199 kJ/m3 (V(Co)=22 vol%) and 196 kJ/m3 (V(FeCo)=14 vol%), respectively, indicating their good potential in application. Compared with single phase MnBi magnet, the (BH)max of nanocomposite MnBi/Co and MnBi/Fe65Co35 magnets increases by 66% and 63%, respectively. The remanence and coercivity of MnBi/Co nanocomposite magnets reduce as appearing a deviation degree of orientation, result of greatly decrease of the magnetic energy product.

  19. Charge and magnetic states of Mn-, Fe-, and Co-doped monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xianqing; Ni, Jun

    2014-07-28

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2} substitutionally doped with Mn, Fe, and Co in possible charge states (q). We find that the Mn, Fe, and Co dopants substituting for a Mo atom in monolayer MoS{sub 2} (Mn@Mo, Fe@Mo, and Co@Mo) are all magnetic in their neutral and charge states except in the highest positive charge states. Mn@Mo, Fe@Mo, and Co@Mo have the same highest negative charge states of q=−2 for chemical potential of electron just below the conduction band minimum, which corresponds to the electron doping. In the q=−2 state, Mn@Mo has a much larger magnetic moment than its neutral state with the antiferromagnetic coupling between the Mn dopant and its neighboring S atoms maintained, while Fe@Mo and Co@Mo have equal or smaller magnetic moments than their neutral states. The possible charge states of Mn@Mo, Fe@Mo, and Co@Mo and the variation of the magnetic moments for different dopants and charge states are due to the change of the occupation and energy of the anti-bonding defect levels in the band gap. The rich magnetic properties of the neutral and charge states suggest possible realization of the substitutionally Mn-, Fe-, and Co-doped monolayer MoS{sub 2} as dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  20. Microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and cytotoxicity characterization of the hot forged FeMn30(wt.%) alloy.

    PubMed

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    An interest in biodegradable metallic materials has been increasing in the last two decades. Besides magnesium based materials, iron-manganese alloys have been considered as possible candidates for fabrication of biodegradable stents and orthopedic implants. In this study, we prepared a hot forged FeMn30 (wt.%) alloy and investigated its microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics as well as cytotoxicity towards mouse L 929 fibroblasts. The obtained results were compared with those of iron. The FeMn30 alloy was composed of antiferromagnetic γ-austenite and ε-martensite phases and possessed better mechanical properties than iron and even that of 316 L steel. The potentiodynamic measurements in simulated body fluids showed that alloying with manganese lowered the free corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate, compared to iron. On the other hand, the corrosion rate of FeMn30 obtained by a semi-static immersion test was significantly lower than that of iron, most likely due to a higher degree of alkalization in sample surrounding. The presence of manganese in the alloy slightly enhanced toxicity towards the L 929 cells; however, the toxicity did not exceed the allowed limit and FeMn30 alloy fulfilled the requirements of the ISO 10993-5 standard. PMID:26478385

  1. Nickel-free Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti alloy steel for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S.; Jin, S.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A nickel-free Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti alloy steel was investigated for cryogenic applications. The systematic control of the grain size and the microstructural distribution of the retained gamma phase was made through alpha plus gamma heat treatments in combination with mechanical working. Substantial improvements of important low temperature mechanical properties were obtained by these processings.

  2. Mechanical and hardness evaluations of Fe-18Cr-18Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Duttlinger, N.W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of Fe-18Cr-18Mn-N-C alloys was produced and evaluated to determine their mechanical and hardness properties. In one group, different levels of nitrogen and carbon were added to a base composition of Fe-18Cr-18Mn. The base Fe-18Cr-18Mn alloy had a fcc-bcc duplex microstructure. The addition of nitrogen and carbon stabilised the fcc phase. These alloys had increasing room temperature hardness, strength, and failure energy with increasing interstitial concentrations. At cryogenic and elevated temperatures, these alloys had increasing hardness (and by implication, increased strength) with increasing interstitial concentrations. In a second group, different levels of nitrogen and carbon were added to the base Fe-18Cr-18Mn composition to which minor solid solution additions of silicon, molybdenum, and nickel had been added. Minor alloy additions made only nominal improvement to mechanical and hardness properties. Nitrogen remained interstitial. However, these minor solid solution additions reduced carbon solubility resulting in the formation of M23C6 precipitates that, while increasing alloy hardness and strength, greatly reduced fracture toughness. The present study suggests that replacing nickel with manganese in stainless steels results not only in more economical alloys but also in alloys with higher strength and hardness.

  3. Effect of Fe doping on the electrochemical capacitor behavior of MnO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonguzhali, R.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Senthilkumar, A.; Viruthagiri, G.; Kannadasan, N.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the influence of Fe doping on the capacitance behavior of MnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by chemical precipitation was investigated. During the doping process the concentration of Fe was increased from 0.025 M to 0.125 M in steps of 0.025 M. The products obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. To demonstrate the suitability of Fe-doped MnO2 for capacitor applications, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance were recorded. Among the different levels of doping, the specific capacitance of 912 F/g was delivered by 0.075 M of Fe-doped MnO2 at a scan rate of 10 mV/s, which is almost more than fourfold that of the bare MnO2 electrode (210 F/g). Moreover, for the same concentration the charge, discharge studies revealed the highest specific capacitance of 1084 F/g at a current density of 10 A/g.

  4. The Formation of Crystal Defects in a Fe-Mn-Si Alloy Under Cyclic Martensitic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Vladimir I; Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2016-12-01

    Formation of crystalline defects due to cyclic martensitic transformations (CMT) in the iron-manganese Fe-18 wt.% Mn-2 wt.% Si alloy was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Conditions for accumulation of fragment sub-boundaries with low-angle misorientations and chaotic stacking faults in crystal lattice of austenite and ε-martensite were analyzed. PMID:26960743

  5. Superhalogen Behavior of FeO4 MnO_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, G. L.; Khanna, S. N.; Jena, P.; Rao, B. K.

    2000-03-01

    Superhalogens are a class of cluster compounds that possess electron affinities in excess of 3.6 eV which is the electron affinity of chlorine, the most electronegative element in the periodic table. For clusters containing oxygen, a superhalogen has to satisfy the composition MO_n, where 2n=k+1. Here k is the maximal valence of the central atom M and n is the number of oxygen atoms. This requirement is fulfilled for MnO4 as the maximal valence of Mn is 7. However, FeO4 should be a closed shell system as the maximal valence of Fe is 8. Consequently, it should possess a relatively low electron affinity. We have performed self-consistent calculations of the total energy and geometry of FeO4 and MnO4 clusters in the neutral and anionic configurations using gradient corrected density functional theory and molecular orbital approach. The electron affinity of MnO4 was found to be 5 eV and as expected, is a superhalogen. Contrary to expectation, FeO4 too was found to have a large electron affinity, namely 3.8 eV and thus, belongs to the superhalogen class. The origin of this large electron affinity of a closed shell system is shown to be a manifestation of the special bonding characterstic of d-electron systems.

  6. Precipitates and Grain Boundary Strength of an Fe-Mn-Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Jang, Jae Hoon; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2012-11-01

    The effect of grain boundary (GB) precipitates on the GB strength of an age-hardened Fe-7.8Mn-8.2Ni alloy was investigated. Premature intergranular fracture was observed after age hardening due to the precipitation of θ-MnNi precipitates at prior austenite grain boundaries. However, the conversion of GB θ precipitates to austenite by a short second aging at 793 K (520 °C) after peak aging at 713 K (440 °C) resulted in a remarkable improvement of GB strength. The result strongly supports the proposition that the weak bonding of GB θ precipitates to the matrix is the main reason for GB embrittlement in age-hardened Fe-Mn-Ni alloys.

  7. Elasticity and magnetocaloric effect in MnFe4Si3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlitschke, M.; Klobes, B.; Sergueev, I.; Hering, P.; Perßon, J.; Hermann, R. P.

    2016-03-01

    The room temperature magnetocaloric material MnFe4Si3 was investigated with nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at different temperatures and applied magnetic fields in order to assess the influence of the magnetic transition and the magnetocaloric effect on lattice dynamics. The NIS data give access to phonons with energies above 3 meV, whereas RUS probes the elasticity of the material in the MHz frequency range and thus low-energy, ˜ neV, phonon modes. A significant influence of the magnetic transition on the lattice dynamics is observed only in the low-energy, long-wavelength limit. MnFe4Si3 and other compounds in the Mn5 -xFexSi3 series were also investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, resistivity measurements, and Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to study the magnetic transitions and to complement the results obtained on the lattice dynamics.

  8. Elasticity and magnetocaloric effect in MnFe4Si3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Herlitschke, Marcus; Klobes, B.; Sergueev, I.; Hering, Paul; Persson, Joerg; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2016-03-16

    The room temperature magnetocaloric material MnFe4Si3 was investigated with nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at different temperatures and applied magnetic fields in order to assess the infuence of the magnetic transition and the magnetocaloric effect on the lattice dynamics. The NIS data give access to phonons with energies above 3 meV, whereas RUS probes the elasticity of the material in the MHz frequency range and thus low energy, ~5 neV, phonon modes. A significant infuence of the magnetic transition on the lattice dynamics is observed only in the low energy region. Here, MnFe4Si3 and other compoundsmore » in the Mn5-xFexSi3 series were also investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, resistivity measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy in order to study the magnetic transitions and to complement the obtained results on the lattice dynamics.« less

  9. Structural stability, half-metallicity and magnetism of the CoFeMnSi/GaAs(0 0 1) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhou, Ting; Yuan, Hongkuan; Chen, Hong

    2015-08-01

    The ferromagnet/semiconductor interface plays a crucial role in the performance of advanced magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) built of ferromagnetic electrodes and semiconductor as a spacer. We investigate the interface character between LiMgPbSb-type Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi and semiconductor GaAs by using the first-principles density functional simulations. In our calculations, we build two kinds of interface structures, namely the top-type and the bridge-type structure by connecting the termination of nine CoFeMnSi layers to the top of the As-terminated GaAs layer and the bridge site between interface As atoms, respectively. The calculated phase diagram indicated that the CoFe-terminated interface is more stable in the bridge-type structure than in the top-type structure, and a favored MnMn- or MnSi-terminated interface will appear in the top-type structure instead of the bridge-type structure under Fe-rich conditions. Besides, our calculation reveals that interface Mn and interface Fe atoms prefer to extend outward and their atom-resolved spin magnetic moments are enhanced due to the rehybridization caused by the symmetry breaking at the interface, while interface Co atoms shrink inward and their moments are decreased compared with the bulk value. Further analysis on DOS and PDOS indicates that owing to the interface effect, the half metallicity of CoFe-, MnSi-, and SiSi-terminated interfaces is completely destroyed. However, the MnMn-terminated interface in the top-type structure preserves 100% spin polarization, indicating that the CoFeMnSi/GaAs heterostructure with the top-type MnMn-terminated interface has more advantages than other atomic terminations in spintronics applications.

  10. Effect of CoFe insertion in Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions on spin injection properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, Yuya; Akiho, Takafumi; Liu, Hong-xi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2014-04-28

    The CoFe thickness (t{sub CoFe}) dependence of spin injection efficiency was investigated for Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions. The ΔV{sub NL}/I value, which is a measure of spin injection efficiency, strongly depended on t{sub CoFe}, where ΔV{sub NL} is the amplitude of a nonlocal spin-valve signal, and I is an injection current. Importantly, the maximum value of ΔV{sub NL}/I for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junction was one order of magnitude higher than that for a CoFe/n-GaAs junction, indicating that a Co{sub 2}MnSi electrode works as a highly polarized spin source. No clear spin signal, on the other hand, was observed for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction due to diffusion of Mn atoms into the GaAs channel. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the CoFe insertion effectively suppressed the diffusion of Mn into GaAs, resulting in improved spin injection properties compared with those for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction.

  11. The synthesized and thermally modified Mn-Ca-FeOOH composite in persulfate system: Its role to discolor methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Young-Hoon; Hong, Seong-Ho; Park, Tae-Jin; Do, Si-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Methylene blue (MB) discoloration was performed using persulfate (PS) activated with the synthesized composites. Four types of composites, which were synthesized by the immobilization of Mn on iron oxides (hematite and goethite) using either NaOH or Ca(OH)2, were evaluated as PS activator. The synthesized Mn-Ca-FeOOH composite was selected and it was thermally modified at 300 and 700 °C (denoted Mn-Ca-FeOOH_300 and Mn-Ca-FeOOH_700). The BET surface area of Mn-Ca-FeOOH_300 was similar to that of Mn-Ca-FeOOH while that of Mn-Ca-FeOOH_700 was dramatically lower. XRD and XPS analysis indicated that the thermal modification transformed iron oxides from goethite to hematite and changed amorphous manganese oxide to crystalline. MB discoloration at pH 3 indicated that Mn-Ca-FeOOH acted as an oxidant to degrade MB, and the thermally modified composites (i.e. Mn-Ca-FeOOH_300 and Mn-Ca-FeOOH_700) acted as a catalyst to activate PS. Moreover, incomplete MB discoloration was observed in PS/composite system at pH 3. However, a whole tested wavelength of MB was reduced when MB discoloration was tested in PS/composite system above pH 7. Moreover, the increasing pH of solution increased MB discoloration. The higher MB discoloration in heterogeneous system at pH 12 could suggest that superoxide anion (O2•-) was dominant reactive oxygen species.

  12. Exchange bias effects in Heusler alloy Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Kubota, Takahide; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Huminiuc, Teodor; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Takanashi, Koki

    2016-06-01

    Ni2MnAl Heusler alloy thin films were epitaxially grown on MgO(1 0 0) single crystal substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the structures of all the Ni2MnAl thin films were B2-ordered regardless of the deposition temperature ranging from room temperature to 600 °C. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity showed a kink about 280 K, which was consistent with a reported value of the Néel temperature for antiferromagnetic B2-Ni2MnAl. The magnetization curves of Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayer samples showed a shift caused by the interfacial exchange interaction at 10 K. The maximum value of the exchange bias field H ex was 55 Oe corresponding to the exchange coupling energy J k of 0.03 erg cm‑2.

  13. Perpendicular exchange bias effect in sputter-deposited CoFe/IrMn bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J. Y. Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Xu, H. J.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2014-04-14

    CoFe/IrMn bilayers with perpendicular magnetization for various IrMn layer thicknesses exhibit unusual two-step hysteresis loops with both positive and negative loop shifts. Observed at room temperature in the as-grown state, they provide direct evidence of large antiferromagnetic domain formation at the IrMn interface. The exchange bias field reaches 100 mT with an IrMn layer thickness of 4 nm after field annealing at 200 °C–300 °C in 800 mT, which is at least three times as large as the coercivity, and may be useful for reference layers of spin-valves or magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  14. MnFe2O4@C Nanofibers as High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchang; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Chuanming; Jiao, Lifang; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-11

    MnFe2O4 nanodots (∼3.3 nm) homogeneously dispersed in porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (denoted as MFO@C) were prepared by a feasible electrospinning technique. Meanwhile, MFO@C with the character of flexible free-standing membrane was directly used as binder- and current collector-free anode for sodium-ion batteries, exhibiting high electrochemical performance with high-rate capability (305 mA h g(-1) at 10000 mA g(-1) in comparison of 504 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)) and ultralong cycling life (ca. 90% capacity retention after 4200 cycles). The Na-storage mechanism was systematically studied, revealing that MnFe2O4 is converted into metallic Mn and Fe after the first discharge (MnFe2O4 + 8Na(+) + 8e(-) → Mn + 2Fe + 4Na2O) and then to MnO and Fe2O3 during the following charge (Mn + 2Fe + 4Na2O → MnO + Fe2O3 + 8Na(+) + 8e(-)). The subsequent cycles occur through reversible redox reactions of MnO + Fe2O3 + 8Na(+) + 8e(-) ↔ Mn + 2Fe + 4Na2O, of which the reduction/oxidation of MnO/Mn takes place at a lower potential than that of Fe2O3/Fe. Furthermore, a soft package sodium-ion full battery with MFO@C anode and Na3V2(PO4)2F3/C cathode was assembled, delivering a stable capacity of ∼400 mA h g(-1) for MFO@C (with 100 cycles at 500 mA g(-1)) and a promising energy density of 77.8 Wh kg(-1) for the whole battery. This is owing to the distinctive structure of very-fine MnFe2O4 nanodots embedded in porous N-doped carbon nanofibers, which effectively improves the utilization rate of active materials, facilitates the transportation of electrons and Na(+) ions, and prevents the particle pulverization/agglomeration upon prolonged cycling. PMID:27050390

  15. Phosphorites, Co-rich Mn nodules, and Fe-Mn crusts from Galicia Bank, NE Atlantic: Reflections of Cenozoic tectonics and paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Francisco Javier; Somoza, Luis; Hein, James R.; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Urgorri, Victoriano; Reyes, Jesús; Martín-Rubí, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of marine mineral deposits were recovered from 750 to 1400 m water depths on Galicia Bank, Iberian margin. Mineral deposits include: (1) carbonate fluorapatite phosphorite slabs and nodules that replaced limestone and preserved original protolith fabric. (2) Ferromanganese vernadite crusts with high Mn and Fe (Mn/Fe = 1) contents, and thick stratabound layers consisting mainly of Mn (up to 27% MnO) and Fe (15% Fe2O3), which impregnated and replaced the phosphorite. (3) Co-rich Mn nodules are composed of romanechite and todorokite laminae. Mn-rich layers (up to 58% MnO) contain up to 1.8% Co. (4) Goethite nodules with Fe up to 67% Fe2O3 have low Mn and trace metals. We interpret this mineralization paragenesis to be related to major changes in oceanographic and tectonic regimes. Three phosphatization generations formed hardgrounds dated by 87Sr/86Sr isotopes as late Oligocene, early Miocene, and latest early Miocene. During the latest early Miocene, the hardground was fractured and breached due to regional intraplate tectonism, which was coeval with a widespread regional erosional unconformity. The stratabound layers and Co-rich manganese nodules were derived from low-temperature geothermally driven hydrothermal fluids, with fluid conduits along reactivated faults. During middle and late Miocene, the introduction of vigorous deep water flow from the Arctic generated growth of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts. Finally, growth of diagenetic Fe-rich nodules (late Pliocene) was promoted by the introduction of hypersaline Mediterranean Outflow Water into the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  17. Phase Field Modeling of Cyclic Austenite-Ferrite Transformations in Fe-C-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhu, Benqiang; Militzer, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Three different approaches for considering the effect of Mn on the austenite-ferrite interface migration in an Fe-0.1C-0.5Mn alloy have been coupled with a phase field model (PFM). In the first approach (PFM-I), only long-range C diffusion is considered while Mn is assumed to be immobile during the phase transformations. Both long-range C and Mn diffusions are considered in the second approach (PFM-II). In the third approach (PFM-III), long-range C diffusion is considered in combination with the Gibbs energy dissipation due to Mn diffusion inside the interface instead of solving for long-range diffusion of Mn. The three PFM approaches are first benchmarked with isothermal austenite-to-ferrite transformation at 1058.15 K (785 °C) before considering cyclic phase transformations. It is found that PFM-II can predict the stagnant stage and growth retardation experimentally observed during cycling transformations, whereas PFM-III can only replicate the stagnant stage but not the growth retardation and PFM-I predicts neither the stagnant stage nor the growth retardation. The results of this study suggest a significant role of Mn redistribution near the interface on reducing transformation rates, which should, therefore, be considered in future simulations of austenite-ferrite transformations in steels, particularly at temperatures in the intercritical range and above.

  18. Phase Field Modeling of Cyclic Austenite-Ferrite Transformations in Fe-C-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhu, Benqiang; Militzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Three different approaches for considering the effect of Mn on the austenite-ferrite interface migration in an Fe-0.1C-0.5Mn alloy have been coupled with a phase field model (PFM). In the first approach (PFM-I), only long-range C diffusion is considered while Mn is assumed to be immobile during the phase transformations. Both long-range C and Mn diffusions are considered in the second approach (PFM-II). In the third approach (PFM-III), long-range C diffusion is considered in combination with the Gibbs energy dissipation due to Mn diffusion inside the interface instead of solving for long-range diffusion of Mn. The three PFM approaches are first benchmarked with isothermal austenite-to-ferrite transformation at 1058.15 K (785 °C) before considering cyclic phase transformations. It is found that PFM-II can predict the stagnant stage and growth retardation experimentally observed during cycling transformations, whereas PFM-III can only replicate the stagnant stage but not the growth retardation and PFM-I predicts neither the stagnant stage nor the growth retardation. The results of this study suggest a significant role of Mn redistribution near the interface on reducing transformation rates, which should, therefore, be considered in future simulations of austenite-ferrite transformations in steels, particularly at temperatures in the intercritical range and above.

  19. Tailoring Mg(x)Mn(1-x)Fe(2)O(4) superparamagnetic nanoferrites for magnetic fluid hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-10-01

    A superparamagnetic nanoferrite (SPNF) with high magnetic moment, AC magnetically induced heating (AC-heating) capacity, and good biocompatibility is the most vital part of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for utilizing it in the clinics. Herein, we precisely tune magnetic properties and AC-heating characteristics of MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF via chemically controlling the cations' concentration and distribution to develop a tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF as a potential magnetic fluid hyperthermia agent. The magnetic and AC-heating characteristics of the tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF are strongly dependent on the Mg/Mn cations' concentration and distribution, and Mg0.285Mn0.715Fe2O4 SPNF exhibits the highest saturation magnetization and AC-heating capacity as well as high biocompatibility. PMID:25238143

  20. The magneto-structural transition in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q. Y.; Hutchison, W. D.; Wang, J. L.; Studer, A. J.; Din, M. F. Md; Muñoz Pérez, S.; Cadogan, J. M.; Campbell, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Large refrigeration capacities, between 212(30) J kg-1 and 261(40) J kg-1 for a magnetic field change from 0 T to 5 T, were obtained in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) compounds. A partial magnetic phase diagram has been derived on the basis of magnetic transition and martensitic transformation temperatures determined from differential scanning calorimetry (200 K to 450 K), variable temperature x-ray diffraction (20 K to 310 K) and magnetisation measurements (5 K to 340 K 0.01 T). Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds with compositions in the range x  =  0.01 to 0.03 exhibit magneto-structural transitions. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out on the Mn0.98Fe0.02CoGe sample over the temperature range of 5 K to 450 K. The diffraction patterns were analysed based on irreducible representation theory which confirms a ferromagnetic structure in the sample with an atomic magnetic moment of 3.7(1)μ B at 5 K on the Mn sublattice, oriented along the orthorhombic c axis. More significantly, a magneto-structural transition around T M ~ 297(1) K with a full width at half maximum of 29 K is demonstrated directly via neutron diffraction. Larger magnetic entropy changes are obtained for the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) samples than for Mn0.96Fe0.04CoGe which has separate structural and magnetic transitions. In addition, it is noted that standard Arrott plots do not provide unambiguous insight to the nature of the magneto-structural transition in the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds.

  1. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  2. High Curie temperature of Ce-Fe-Si compounds with ThMn12 structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C; Pinkerton, FE; Herbst, JF

    2015-01-15

    We report the discovery of ternary CeFe(12-x)Si(x)compounds possessing the ThMn12 structure. The samples were prepared by melt spinning followed by annealing. In contrast to other known Ce Fe-based binary and ternary compounds, CeFe12-xSix compounds exhibit exceptionally high Curie temperatures whose values increase with added Si substitution. The highest T. = 583 K in CeFe10Si2 rivals that of the well-established Nd2Fe14B compound. We ascribe the T-c behavior to a combination of Si-induced 3d band structure changes and partial Ce3+ stabilization. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas. PMID:26298264

  4. Carbon-coated Fe-Mn-O composites as promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yue-Ya; Tang, Rui; Qi, Yong-Xin; Lun, Ning; Bai, Yu-Jun; Fan, Run-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Fe-Mn-O composite oxides with various Fe/Mn molar ratios were prepared by a simple coprecipitation method followed by calcining at 600 °C, and carbon-coated oxides were obtained by pyrolyzing pyrrole at 550 °C. The cycling and rate performance of the oxides as anode materials are greatly associated with the Fe/Mn molar ratio. The carbon-coated oxides with a molar ratio of 2:1 exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 651.8 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 90 cycles, and the capacities of 567.7, 501.3, 390.7, and 203.8 mA h g(-1) at varied densities of 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mA g(-1), respectively. The electrochemical performance is superior to that of single Fe3O4 or MnO prepared under the same conditions. The enhanced performance could be ascribed to the smaller particle size of Fe-Mn-O than the individuals, the mutual segregation of heterogeneous oxides of Fe3O4 and MnO during delithiation, and heterogeneous elements of Fe and Mn during lithiation. PMID:24007324

  5. Mn abundances in the stars of the Galactic disc with metallicities -1.0 < [Fe/H] < 0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T.; Gorbaneva, T.; Pignatari, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Korotin, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present and discuss the observations of the Mn abundances for 247 FGK dwarfs, located in the Galactic disc with metallicity -1 < [Fe/H] < +0.3. The observed stars belong to the substructures of the Galaxy thick and thin disks, and to the Hercules stream. The observations were conducted using the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) equipped with the echelle-type spectrographs ELODIE and SOPHIE. The abundances were derived under the LTE approximation, with an average error for the [Mn/Fe] ratio of 0.10 dex. For most of the stars in the sample, Mn abundances are not available in the literature. We obtain an evolution of [Mn/Fe] ratio with the metallicity [Fe/H] consistent with previous data compilations. In particular, within the metallicity range covered by our stellar sample, the [Mn/Fe] ratio is increasing with the increase of metallicity. This due to the contribution to the Galactic chemical evolution of Mn and Fe from thermonuclear supernovae. We confirm the baseline scenario where most of the Mn in the Galactic disc and in the Sun is made by thermonuclear supernovae. In particular, the effective contribution from core-collapse supernovae to the Mn in the Solar system is about 10-20 per cent. However, present uncertainties affecting the production of Mn and Fe in thermonuclear supernovae are limiting the constraining power of the observed [Mn/Fe] trend in the Galactic discs on, e.g. the frequency of different thermonuclear supernovae populations. The different production of these two elements in different types of thermonuclear supernovae needs to be disentangled by the dependence of their relative production on the metallicity of the supernova progenitor.

  6. Differential coordination demands in Fe vs Mn water-soluble cationic metalloporphyrins translates into remarkably different aqueous redox chemistry and biology

    PubMed Central

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Weitner, Tin; Sheng, Huaxin; Lu, MiaoMiao; Rajic, Zrinka; Warner, David S.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Reboucas, Julio S.; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2013-01-01

    on fairly similar log kcat(O2.− values, very similar effect on the growth of SOD-deficient E. coli was anticipated by both metalloporphyrins. Yet, while MnTE-2-PyP5+ was fully efficacious at ≥20 μM, the Fe analog, FeTE-2-PyP5+ supported SOD-deficient E. coli growth at 200-fold lower doses in the range of 0.1 to 1 μM. Moreover the pattern of SOD-deficient E. coli growth was different with Mn- and Fe porphyrins. Such results suggested different mode of action of these metalloporphyrins. Further exploration demonstrated that: (1) 0.1 μM FeTE-2-PyP5+ provided similar growth stimulation as 0.1 μM Fe salt, while 20 μM Mn salt provides no protection to E. coli; and (2) 1 μM Fe porphyrin is fully degraded by 12 hours in E. coli cytosol and growth medium; while Mn porphyrin is not. Stimulation of the aerobic growth of SOD-deficient E. coli by the Fe porphyrin is therefore due to iron acquisition. Our data suggest that in vivo, redox-driven degradation of Fe porphyrins resulting in Fe release plays a major role in their biological action. Possibly, iron reconstitutes enzymes bearing [4Fe-4S] clusters as active sites. Under same experimental conditions, (OH)(H2O)FePs do not cause mouse arterial hypotension, whereas (H2O)2MnPs do, which greatly limits the application of Mn porphyrins in vivo. PMID:23646875

  7. Effect of Tb-Mn substitution on the magnetic and electrical properties of BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravana Kumar, K.; Aswini, P.; Venkateswaran, C.

    2014-09-01

    Tb-Mn co-substituted BiFeO3 of stoichiometry Bi1-xTbxFe1-xMnxO3 (x=0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. Inferences from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the presence of Fe in mixed oxidation states i.e., Fe3+ and Fe2+. But in the Tb-Mn substituted samples, Fe is predominantly in +3 oxidation state and Mn is found to be in +3 state. There is a decrease in cell volume due to Tb3+ substitution as Mn3+ ions have similar ionic radii as that of Fe3+. The grains of substituted samples have regular dimensions with agglomeration when compared to irregular shaped grains of BiFeO3. No major characteristic transitions are found in substituted samples as observed from the thermal measurements, but BiFeO3 shows a ferroelectric-paraelectric transition at ~820 °C. A weak magnetic ordering is observed from the magnetization measurements at room temperature with the increase in substitution percentage. Impedance spectroscopy studies show the impact of Tb-Mn substitution on the conductivity of BiFeO3. The ferroelectric loop and leakage current studies with an applied electric field on samples also supplement the results obtained from impedance measurements.

  8. Ab initio investigation of competing antiferromagnetic structures in low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guijiang; Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-06-01

    The antiferromagnetic structures of a low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy were investigated by first principles calculations. One possible antiferromagnetic structure in supercell along the c-axis was revealed in FeMnP0.75Si0.25 alloy. It was found that atomic disorder occupation between Fe atom on 3f and Mn atoms on 3g sites is responsible for the formation of antiferromagnetic structures. Furthermore the magnetic competition and the coupling between possible AFM supercells along the c and a-axis can promote a non-collinear antiferromagnetic structure. These theoretical investigations help to deeply understand the magnetic order in FeMn(PSi) alloys and benefit to explore the potential magnetocaloric materials in Fe2P-type alloys. PMID:27143642

  9. Ab initio investigation of competing antiferromagnetic structures in low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guijiang; Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-06-01

    The antiferromagnetic structures of a low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy were investigated by first principles calculations. One possible antiferromagnetic structure in supercell along the c-axis was revealed in FeMnP0.75Si0.25 alloy. It was found that atomic disorder occupation between Fe atom on 3f and Mn atoms on 3g sites is responsible for the formation of antiferromagnetic structures. Furthermore the magnetic competition and the coupling between possible AFM supercells along the c and a-axis can promote a non-collinear antiferromagnetic structure. These theoretical investigations help to deeply understand the magnetic order in FeMn(PSi) alloys and benefit to explore the potential magnetocaloric materials in Fe2P-type alloys.

  10. Effect of doping and elastic properties in (Mn,Fe ) 2(Si ,P )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Torun, E.; de Groot, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Mixed magnetism (the coexistence of strong and weak magnetism in one material) is regarded as the origin of the giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE). A good example is (Mn,Fe ) 2(Si ,P ), which is established as one of the best magnetocaloric materials available. Tuning the material properties are essential for optimizing its performance, and a straightforward way to do that is by doping. In this article, an ab initio electronic structure method was used to calculate the structure and magnetic properties of 3 d -transition-metal-doped (Mn,Fe ) 2(Si ,P ) materials for magnetocaloric applications (transition metals are Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Cu). For a steady performance, the material should be mechanically stable. A detailed analysis of the elastic constants shows that the mechanical stability of the (Mn,Fe ) 2(Si ,P ) system increases significantly by doping with boron without affecting the magnetic properties. Insights of the influence of doping enable future studies to understand and predict better magnetocaloric materials.

  11. The investigation of Fe-Mn-based alloys with shape memory effect by small-angle scattering of polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopitsa, G. P.; Runov, V. V.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Bliznuk, V. V.; Gavriljuk, V. G.; Glavatska, N. I.

    2003-07-01

    The small-angle polarized neutron scattering (SAPNS) technique has been used to study a nuclear and magnetic homogeneity in the distribution of both substituent (Si, Cr, Ni) and interstitial (C, N) alloying elements on the mesoscopic range in Fe-Mn-based alloys with shape memory effect (SME). The four groups of alloys with various basic compositions: FeMn 18 (wt%), FeMn 20Si 6, FeMn 20Cr 9N 0.2 and FeMn 17Cr 9Ni 4Si 6 were investigated. It was found that the small-angle scattering of neutrons and depolarization on these alloys are very small altogether. The scattering did not exceed 1.5% from the incident beam and depolarization ∼2% for all samples. It means that these alloys are well nuclear and magnetically homogeneous on the scale of 10-1000 Å. However, the difference in the homogeneity depending on the compositions still takes place. Thus, the adding of Si in FeMn 18 and FeMn 20Cr 9N 0.2 alloys improves the homogeneity pronouncedly. At once, the effect of the doping by C or N atoms on the homogeneity in FeMn 20Si 6 and FeMn 17Cr 9Ni 4Si 6 alloys is multivalued and depend on the presence of substitutional atoms (Ni and Cr). The capability of SAPNS as a method for the study of mesoscopic homogeneity in materials with SME and testing of the quality of their preparation is discussed.

  12. 238U-234U-230Th disequilibrium in hydrogenous oceanic Fe-Mn crusts: Palaeoceanographic record or diagenetic alteration?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chabaux, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Cohen, A.S.; Hein, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed TIMS study of (234Uexc/238U), (230Th/232Th), and Th/U ratios have been performed on the outermost margin of ten hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and west-central Indian Ocean. Th/U concentration ratios generally decrease from the crust's surface down to 0.5-1 mm depth and growth rates estimated by uranium and thorium isotope ratios are significantly different in Fe-Mn crusts from the Peru Basin and the west-central Indian Ocean. Fe-Mn crusts from the same geographical area define a single trend in plots of Ln (234Uexc/238U) vs. Ln(230Th/232Th) and Th/U ratios vs. age of the analysed fractions. Results suggest that (1) hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts remain closed-systems after formation, and consequently (2) the discrepancy observed between the 230Th and 234U chronometers in Fe-Mn crusts, and the variations of the Th/U ratios through the margin of Fe-Mn crusts, are not due to redistribution of uranium and thorium isotopes after oxyhydroxide precipitation, but rather to temporal variations of both Th/U and initial thorium activity ratios recorded by the Fe-Mn layers. Implications of these observations for determination of Fe-Mn crust growth-rates are discussed. Variations of both Th/U and initial Th activity ratios in Fe-Mn crusts might be related to changes in particle input to seawater and/or changes in ocean circulation during the last 150 ka. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Magnetic order near 270 K in mineral and synthetic Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} ilmenite

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, R.; Hudl, M.; Nordblad, P.; Ivanov, S. A.; Bazuev, G. V.; Lazor, P.; Solovyev, I. V.

    2011-05-16

    The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} single-crystalline mineral and ceramic samples synthesized under thermobaric treatment have been investigated, and compared to theoretical predictions based on first-principles electronic structure calculations. This ilmenite system displays a sharp magnetic transition just below the room temperature related to a ferrimagnetic ordering of the Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations, which makes Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} a promising candidate for designing functional magnetic materials.

  14. Study of the Thermodynamics of Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) Binding to Fe3O4 and MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Steven; Brogfeld, Nathan; Kim, Jisoo; Parsons, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of chromium(III) or (VI) from aqueous solution was achieved using Fe3O4, and MnFe2O4 nanomaterials. The nanomaterials were synthesized using a precipitation method and characterized using XRD. The size of the nanomaterials was determined to be 22.4 ± 0.9 nm (Fe3O4) and 15.5 ± 0.5 nm (MnFe2O4). The optimal binding pH for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) were pH 6 and pH 3. Isotherm studies were performed, under light and dark conditions, to determine the capacity of the nanomaterials. The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were determined to be 7.189 and 10.63 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(III). The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were 3.21 and 3.46 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(VI). Under dark reaction conditions the binding of chromium(III) to the MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanomaterials were 5.74 and 15.9 mg/g, respectively. The binding capacity for the binding of chromium(VI) to MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 under dark reaction conditions were 3.87 and 8.54 mg/g, respectively. The thermodynamics for the reactions showed negative ΔG values, and positive ΔH values. The ΔS values were positive for the binding of chromium(III) and for chromium(VI) binding under dark reaction conditions. The ΔS values for chromium(VI) binding under the light reaction conditions were determined to be negative. PMID:23558081

  15. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-07

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (T{sub c}) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (T{sub c}(x)) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired T{sub c} in the range of 600–650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) in the range of 1041–919 emu/cm{sup 3} and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96–8.36 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) shows 930–800 emu/cm{sup 3} of M{sub s} and 7.18–5.61 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.{sup 2} areal density.

  16. Formation and evolution of MnNi clusters in neutron irradiated dilute Fe alloys modelled by a first principle-based AKMC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngayam-Happy, R.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.

    2012-07-01

    An atomistic Monte Carlo model parameterised on electronic structure calculations data has been used to study the formation and evolution under irradiation of solute clusters in Fe-MnNi ternary and Fe-CuMnNi quaternary alloys. Two populations of solute rich clusters have been observed, which can be discriminated by whether or not the solute atoms are associated with self-interstitial clusters. Mn-Ni-rich clusters are observed at a very early stage of the irradiation in both modelled alloys, whereas the quaternary alloys contain also Cu-containing clusters. Mn-Ni-rich clusters nucleate very early via a self-interstitial-driven mechanism, earlier than Cu-rich clusters; the latter, however, which are likely to form via a vacancy-driven mechanism, grow in number much faster than the former, helped by the thermodynamic driving force to Cu precipitation in Fe, thereby becoming dominant in the low dose regime. The kinetics of the number density increase of the two populations is thus significantly different. Finally the main conclusion suggested by this work is that the so-called late blooming phases might as well be neither late, nor phases.

  17. Fe(II)-mediated reduction and repartitioning of structurally incorporated Cu, Co, and Mn in iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Catalano, Jeffrey G

    2012-10-16

    The reduction of trace elements and contaminants by Fe(II) at Fe(III) oxide surfaces is well documented. However, the effect of aqueous Fe(II) on the fate of redox-active trace elements structurally incorporated into iron oxides is unknown. Here, we investigate the fate of redox-active elements during Fe(II)-activated recrystallization of Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted goethite and hematite. Enhanced release of Cu, Co, and Mn to solution occurs upon exposure of all materials to aqueous Fe(II) relative to reactions in Fe(II)-free fluids. The quantity of trace element release increases with pH when Fe(II) is present but decreases with increasing pH in the absence of Fe(II). Co and Mn release from goethite is predicted well using a second-order kinetic model, consistent with the release of redox-inactive elements such as Ni and Zn. However, Cu release and Co and Mn release from hematite require the sum of two rates to adequately model the kinetic data. Greater uptake of Fe(II) by Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted iron oxides relative to analogues containing only redox-inactive elements suggests that net Fe(II) oxidation occurs. Reduction of Cu, Co, and Mn in all materials following reaction with Fe(II) at pHs 7.0-7.5 is confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. This work shows that redox-sensitive elements structurally incorporated within iron oxides are reduced and repartitioned into fluids during Fe(II)-mediated recrystallization. Such abiotic reactions likely operate in tandem with partial microbial and abiotic iron reduction or during the migration of Fe(II)-containing fluids, mobilizing structurally bound contaminants and micronutrients in aquatic systems. PMID:22970760

  18. Al-Mn coating electrodeposited from ionic liquid on NdFeB magnet with high hardness and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jingjing; Xu, Bajin; Ling, Guoping

    2014-06-01

    Al-Mn coatings were electrodeposited on sintered NdFeB permanent magnet in MnCl2-AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methylim-idazolium chloride (MnCl2-AlCl3-EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adhesion strength of the coating on NdFeB substrate was evaluated by thermal shock and scratch test. The hardness and corrosion behavior of Al-Mn coating were measured by a Knoop microhardness tester, immersion test and neutral salt spray test respectively. The results showed that the amorphous structure of the deposits was obtained at the current density of 6 mA/cm2, while higher current densities resulted in a mixed structure of amorphous and crystalline. The Al-Mn coating showed excellent adhesion strength on NdFeB substrate with the thermal shock test over 30 cycles and Lc > 80 N. The hardness of Al-Mn coating was up to 5.4 GPa. The amorphous Al-Mn coating showed an anodic sacrificial protection with a low corrosion rate for NdFeB. Meanwhile, the magnetic properties measured by an AMT-4 magnetic measurement device showed that Al-Mn coating did not deteriorate the magnetic property of NdFeB.

  19. First-principles investigation of the stability of MN and CrMN precipitates under coherency strains in α-Fe (M = V, Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, Dan H. R.; Wahnström, Göran

    2011-06-01

    We perform a systematic ab initio study of the interface energetics of thin coherent rocksalt (nacl) structured MN and tetragonal CrMN films in bcc Fe (M = V, Nb, Ta), motivated by the vital role of MN and CrMN precipitates for the long-term creep resistance in 9%-12%Cr steels. The similarities and differences in the work of separations and the elastic costs for the coherency strains are identified, and the possibility for formation of coherent films are discussed. Our findings provide valuable information of the interface energetics, which in continuation can be combined with thermodynamical modeling to obtain a better understanding of the initial nucleation stage of the MN and CrMN precipitates, and their influence on the long-term microstructural evolution in 9%-12%Cr steels.

  20. Discontinuous coarsening behavior of Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic compound during isothermal aging treatment of Fe-Mn-Ni-Al alloys.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Takeguchi, Masaki; Furuya, Kazuo; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2010-08-01

    The discontinuous reaction of the Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic phase was investigated during the aging of a solution-treated Fe-8.3Mn-8.2Ni-4.2Al alloy. During aging, Ni(2)MnAl lamellae formed at the prior austenite grain boundaries and twin boundaries and grew into the neighboring grains. The presence of continuously precipitated fine Ni(2)MnAl particles before the growth of the discontinuously precipitated lamellae was confirmed by dark-field transmission electron microscopy, and it was concluded that the present reaction is a type of discontinuous coarsening process, alpha' + Ni(2)MnAl (continuous precipitation) --> alpha + Ni(2)MnAl (discontinuous coarsening). The chemical driving force and the reduction of the total coherent strain energy were suggested to be the driving force for the discontinuous coarsening reaction. PMID:20551447

  1. Large exchange bias in polycrystalline MnN/CoFe bilayers at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinert, Markus; Büker, Björn; Graulich, Dominik; Dunz, Mareike

    2015-10-01

    We report on the new polycrystalline exchange bias system MnN/CoFe, which shows exchange bias of up to 1800 Oe at room temperature with a coercive field around 600 Oe. The room-temperature values of the interfacial exchange energy and the effective uniaxial anisotropy are estimated to be Jeff=0.41 mJ /m2 and Keff=37 kJ /m3 . The thermal stability was found to be tunable by controlling the nitrogen content of MnN. The maximum blocking temperature exceeds 325 ∘C, however the median blocking temperature in the limit of thick MnN is 160 ∘C . Good oxidation stability through self-passivation was observed, enabling the use of MnN in lithographically defined microstructures. As a proof of principle we demonstrate a simple giant magnetoresistance stack exchange biased with MnN, which shows clear separation between parallel and antiparallel magnetic states. These properties come along with a surprisingly simple manufacturing process for the MnN films.

  2. Genetic and biochemical effects induced by iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure in tadpoles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus.

    PubMed

    Veronez, Alexandra Caroline da Silva; Salla, Rômulo Victor; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2016-05-01

    For decades, the extraction of minerals has intensified in order to meet the demand of industry. Iron ore deposits are important sources of metals, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). The particulate ores can be dispersed during extraction, transport and storage, with potential to induce biological impacts. Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental stressors. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure during the metamorphosis of Lithobates catesbeianus. Endpoints analyzed included morphological (biometrical and developmental analyses), whole body Fe and Mn concentration in, plasma ferritin concentration, erythrocyte DNA damage (measured through comet assay and micronucleus test) and liver activity of enzymes involved in oxidative status [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)]. Tadpoles were kept under control condition (no contaminant addition) or exposed to iron ore (3.79mg/L as fine particulate matter); Fe (nominal concentration: 0.51mg/L Fe as C10H12FeN2NaO8; Fe-EDTA); and Mn (nominal concentration: 5.23mg/L Mn as 4H2O.MnCl2) for 30 days. Virtually, no mortality was observed, except for one tadpole found dead in the iron ore treatment. However, tadpoles exposed to iron ore had longer tail than those kept under control conditions while tadpoles exposed to manganese chloride showed higher body length than control ones. Exposure to Fe and Mn induced a delay in tadpole metamorphosis, especially when these metals are presented not as a mixture (iron ore). Tadpoles exposed to iron ore had increased whole body Fe and Mn while those exposed to Fe and Mn accumulated each metal individually. Tadpoles exposed to any of the contaminants tested showed a significant increase in erythrocyte DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei. In addition, they showed higher liver GST activity respect with those kept under control conditions. Plasma ferritin concentration and liver CAT activity were higher only in tadpoles

  3. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Tamisari, M.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.

    2015-05-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  4. Fabrication and properties of Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiailing; Wang, Wenting

    2010-08-01

    Zn-doped α-FeOOH nanofiber was synthesized by coprecipitation method. Then the α-FeOOH was enwraped by the complex of the Mn 2+ and citric acid. The morphology of α-FeOOH did not transform after the calcination process and Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofiber was successfully prepared. The phase, morphology, particle diameter and the magnetic properties of samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results indicated that Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofibers with an aspect ratio over 40 and a diameter of 20 nm were prepared. Compared with the amorphous Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4, the anisotropy of the Mn 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanofiber increased, resulting in the higher coercivity and magnetization of the obtained sample. With an increase in the calcination temperature, the diameter and the saturation magnetization of the sample increased, while the aspect ratio and coercivity decreased. The coercivity of the sample obtained at 700 °C was maximal (up to 185.4 Oe). The saturation magnetization of the sample obtained at 900 °C was maximal (up to 65.3 emu/g). The use of citric acid method prevented the presence of Mn(OH) 2, resulting in the decrease of the calcination temperature.

  5. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbiotti, G. Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.; Tamisari, M.

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  6. Superior magnetic and mechanical property of MnFe3N driven by electron correlation and lattice anharmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-02-01

    Manganese-substitution-doped iron nitride MnFe3N holds great promise for applications in high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices. However, existing theory contradicts experimental results on the structural and magnetic stability of MnFe3N , and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that the ferromagnetic state with enhanced magnetization in MnFe3N is driven by the electron correlation effect not previously considered. We further reveal a large nonlinear shear plasticity, which produces an unexpectedly high shear strength in MnFe3N despite its initial ductile nature near the equilibrium structure. Moreover, we identify strong lattice anharmonicity that plays a pivotal role in stabilizing MnFe3N under high pressures at room temperature. These remarkable properties stem from the intriguing bonding nature of the parent compound Fe4N . Our results explain experimental results and offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms for the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of MnFe3N .

  7. Quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and activity towards ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammam, Malika; Easton, E. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    In this account, two series of quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts have been synthesized and characterized by ICP, XRD, XPS, TEM and cyclic voltammetry. XRD spectra of each series illustrated that PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co and Ni) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) alloys have been formed without significant free Mn, Cu, Mo or X co-catalysts. For PtMnCuSn/C and PtMnMoSn/C, in addition to alloy formation, significant free Sn-oxides are present in each catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry revealed that all quaternary showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation compared to the ternary precursor. Also, shift of the onset potential of ethanol oxidation towards less positive values were also recorded with the quaternary alloys, demonstrating a facilitated oxidation with the quaternary alloys compared to ternary alloy precursor. The magnitude of the gain in potential depend on the alloy composition and PtMnMoSn/C was found to be the best of all synthetized quaternary alloys with an onset potential of ethanol oxidation of only 0.059 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  8. Ferromagnetic interfacial interaction and the proximity effect in a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer.

    PubMed

    Nie, S H; Chin, Y Y; Liu, W Q; Tung, J C; Lu, J; Lin, H J; Guo, G Y; Meng, K K; Chen, L; Zhu, L J; Pan, D; Chen, C T; Xu, Y B; Yan, W S; Zhao, J H

    2013-07-12

    The magnetic properties of a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer epitaxied on GaAs (001) are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Unlike the common antiferromagnetic interfacial interaction existing in most ferromagnet-magnetic semiconductor bilayers, a ferromagnetic interfacial interaction in the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer is observed from measurements of magnetic hysteresis and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The Mn ions in a 1.36 nm thick (Ga,Mn)As layer remain spin polarized up to 400 K due to the magnetic proximity effect. The minor loops of the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer shift with a small ferromagnetic interaction field of +24 Oe and -23 Oe at 15 K. The observed ferromagnetic interfacial coupling is supported by ab initio density functional calculations. These findings may provide a viable pathway for designing room-temperature semiconductor spintronic devices through magnetic proximity effect. PMID:23889435

  9. Ferromagnetic Interfacial Interaction and the Proximity Effect in a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, S. H.; Chin, Y. Y.; Liu, W. Q.; Tung, J. C.; Lu, J.; Lin, H. J.; Guo, G. Y.; Meng, K. K.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L. J.; Pan, D.; Chen, C. T.; Xu, Y. B.; Yan, W. S.; Zhao, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic properties of a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer epitaxied on GaAs (001) are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Unlike the common antiferromagnetic interfacial interaction existing in most ferromagnet-magnetic semiconductor bilayers, a ferromagnetic interfacial interaction in the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer is observed from measurements of magnetic hysteresis and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The Mn ions in a 1.36 nm thick (Ga,Mn)As layer remain spin polarized up to 400 K due to the magnetic proximity effect. The minor loops of the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer shift with a small ferromagnetic interaction field of +24Oe and -23Oe at 15 K. The observed ferromagnetic interfacial coupling is supported by ab initio density functional calculations. These findings may provide a viable pathway for designing room-temperature semiconductor spintronic devices through magnetic proximity effect.

  10. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation in FeMnNi alloys: A "grey alloy" object kinetic Monte Carlo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiapetto, M.; Malerba, L.; Becquart, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    This work extends the object kinetic Monte Carlo model for neutron irradiation-induced nanostructure evolution in Fe-C binary alloys developed in [1], introducing the effects of substitutional solutes like Mn and Ni. The objective is to develop a model able to describe the nanostructural evolution of both vacancy and self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect cluster populations in Fe(C)MnNi neutron-irradiated model alloys at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C), by simulating specific reference irradiation experiments. To do this, the effects of the substitutional solutes of interest are introduced, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" scheme. Mn and Ni solute atoms are not explicitly introduced in the model, which therefore cannot describe their redistribution under irradiation, but their effect is introduced by modifying the parameters that govern the mobility of both SIA and vacancy clusters. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proved to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable defect clusters with increasing solute content. Solute concentration is explicitly taken into account in the model as a variable determining the slowing down of self-interstitial clusters; small vacancy clusters, on the other hand, are assumed to be significantly slowed down by the presence of solutes, while for clusters bigger than 10 vacancies their complete immobility is postulated. The model, which is fully based on physical considerations and only uses a few parameters for calibration, is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental trends in terms of density and size distribution of the irradiation-induced defect populations with dose, as compared to the reference experiment, thereby providing insight into the physical mechanisms that influence the nanostructural evolution undergone by this material during irradiation.

  11. The effects of Ni, Mo, Ti and Si on the mechanical properties of Cr free Mn steel (Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The FeMnAlC alloys may hold potential as Cr-free replacements for high strategic material iron base superalloys, but little is known about their intermediate temperature (650 C to 870 C) mechanical properties. The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical properties of model FeMnAlC alloys were studied. Results showed that modified FeMnAlC alloys had promising short term, intermediate temperature properties but had relatively poor stress rupture lives at 172 MPa and 788 C. Room temperature and 788 C tensile strength of FeMnAlC alloys were better than common cast stainless steels. Changes in room temperature tensile and 788 C tensile strength and ductility, and 788 C stress rupture life were correlated with changes in Ni, Mo, Ti, and Si levels due to alloying effects on interstitial carbon levels and carbide morphology. Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C had a very poor stress rupture life at 172 MPa and 788 C. Addition of carbide-forming elements improved the stress rupture life.

  12. Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on basalts at east pacific rise near 13°N: An SEM-EDS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zeng, Zhigang; Qi, Haiyan; Chen, Shuai; Yin, Xuebo; Yang, Baoju

    2014-12-01

    Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13°N were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). These encrustations are mainly composed of amorphous Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides forming laminated, spherical, porous aggregates with some biodetritus, anhydrite, nontronite, and feldspar particles. Anhydrite particles and nontronite crystals in the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations imply that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide may have formed under relatively low- to high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on pillow basalts are 1-2 mm thick. The growth rate of ferromanganese crusts in the survey area suggests that these encrustations are an unlikely result of hydrogenic deposition alone having a hydrothermal and (Fe/Mn ratio up to 7.7 and Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al) ratio exceeding 0.78) hydrogenic origin (0.22 Fe/Mn ratio close to the mean value of 0.7 for open-ocean seamount crusts). The varying Fe/Mn ratios indicate that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations have formed through several stages of seafloor hydrothermalism. It is suggested that, at the initial formation stage, dense Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides with low Mn content deposit from a relatively reducing hydrothermal fluid, and then the loose Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides deposit on the Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides. As the oxidation degree of hydrothermal fluid increases and Si-oxide is inhibited, Mn-oxide will precipitate with Fe-oxyhydroxides.

  13. Synergetic effects of Mn and Si in the interaction with point defects in bcc Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaev, A.; Terentyev, D.; He, X.; Van Neck, D.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of Mn, Si and Cr with a vacancy and self-interstitial defects in BCC Fe has been analyzed using ab initio calculations. While the interaction of the considered solute clusters with a single vacancy is linearly additive, there is a considerable synergetic effect in the case of self-interstitial atoms, found to bind strongly with Mn-Si pairs. The latter therefore act as deep trapping configurations for self-interstitials. At the same time, the presence of the point defects nearby weakly attractive Mn-Si pairs significantly enhances the solute-solute binding. The revealed effects are rationalized on the basis of charge density and local magnetic moment distributions.

  14. Structure and magnetism of Mn, Fe, or Co adatoms on monolayer and bilayer black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhu, Shasha; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wu, Hua

    2016-03-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) is an emergent layered material and is currently explored for its potential applications in nanoelectronics. Here using density functional calculations, we investigate the structure and magnetism of transition metal (TM) adatoms (Mn, Fe, and Co) on the monolayer and bilayer BP. We find that while the TM adatoms prefer to occupy a valley site of the puckered monolayer BP and have a low-spin magnetic state, they could move to an interlayer interstitial site of the bilayer BP and turn into a high-spin state. In particular, Mn adatom at the valley site of monolayer BP has also a metastable high-spin state, and moreover, a low-spin to high-spin magnetic transition can readily be induced by a strain along the armchair direction. Then Mn adsorbed BP monolayer has a strain-tuning spin switch.

  15. Nonvolatile photorefractive properties in triply doped stoichiometric Mg:Fe:Mn:LiTaO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Liang; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    We have grown triply doped Mg:Fe:Mn:LiTaO3 crystals with near stoichiometry using the top seeded solution growth technique. The defect structure was investigated by infrared absorption spectra and Curie temperature. Using a blue laser as the source, excellent photorefractive properties were obtained. Nonvolatile holographic storage properties were investigated using the dual wavelength technique. We got a very high fixed diffraction efficiency and nonvolatile holographic storage sensitivity. The blue light has more than enough energy to excite holes of deep (Mn) and shallow (Fe) trap centers with the same phase, which enhance dramatically the blue photorefractive properties and the nonvolatile holographic storage. Mg2+ ion is no longer damage resistant at blue laser, but enhances photorefractive characteristics.

  16. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of W- and Fe-Substituted MnSi γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodke, Swapnil; Hiroishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Akio; Ikuta, Hiroshi; Matsunami, Masaharu; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of heavy-element (W) substitution on the thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicide (HMS). Samples were prepared by arc melting followed by liquid quenching, where the latter assisted in achieving higher solubility for tungsten. We observed that Mn34.6W1.8Si63.6 was a p-type material, whereas simultaneous substitution of 12 at.% Fe made the higher manganese silicide an n-type material. The optimal carrier concentration was obtained by simultaneous substitution of Fe and W for Mn atoms. Although the samples were metastable, we successfully obtained bulk samples by a low-temperature (970 K), high-pressure (>100 MPa), long-duration sintering process. The lattice thermal conductivity was effectively reduced by W substitution, and the ZT value was improved to above 0.5 for both n- and p-type samples.

  17. Giant exchange bias in Mn2FeGa with hexagonal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, H. G.; Zhang, X. J.; Ma, X. Q.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present the experimental observation that polycrystalline Mn2+xFe1-xGa (x = -0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4) compounds can be synthesized to be D019-type (Ni3Sn-type) hexagonal structure with space group P63/mmc. A giant exchange bias field up to 1.32 kOe was achieved in hexagonal Mn2FeGa alloy at 5 K. A cluster glass state is confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement under different driving frequencies. Interestingly, robust horizontal and vertical shifts in magnetic hysteresis loop were simultaneously observed at 5 K under high cooling field up to 90 kOe. The large exchange bias is originated from the large exchange anisotropy between cluster glass phase and ferrimagnetic matrix. The vertical shift is thought to be attributed to the incomplete reversal of frozen cluster spins.

  18. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga/Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chang-Long; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A ferromagnetic shape memory composite of Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Ga was fabricated by using spark plasma sintering method. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Compared to the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy, the threshold field for magnetic-field-induced strain in the composite is clearly reduced owing to the assistance of internal stress generated from Fe-Ga. Meanwhile, the ductility has been significantly improved in the composite. A fracture strain of 26% and a compressive strength of 1600 MPa were achieved. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51271065 and 51301054), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1253-NCET-009), the Youth Academic Backbone in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1251G022), the Projects of Heilongjiang, China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  19. Comparative Studies of Cation Doping of ZnO with Mn, Fe, and Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jug, Karl; Tikhomirov, Viatcheslav A.

    2009-08-01

    MSINDO calculations were performed to elucidate the effect of doping and defects on the electronic properties of zinc oxide. The cyclic cluster Zn48O48 served as a model for the bulk. Band gaps and stabilities of spin states were determined for doping with Mn, Fe, and Co. It was found that a substantial lowering of the band gap occurs for Mn and Co doping. In contrast, the Fe doping has a rather insignificant effect on the band gap. Additional defects such as oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitial, or zinc vacancy were also studied. In the case of substitution of zinc by two transition metal atoms, various spin states arise which can be classified as antiferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, or ferromagnetic. We find that the spin state with the lowest multiplicity, antiferromagentic or ferrimagnetic, is more stable than the high-multiplicity ferromagnetic state in most considered cases, but additional zinc vacancies or mixed doping may reverse this trend.

  20. Metal-ceramic microstructures in the Fe-Mn-O system -- Morphology control by impurity addition

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Uestuendag, E.; Sass, S.L.; Dieckmann, R.

    1995-10-01

    The influence of the addition of impurities and changes in the oxygen partial pressure on the formation of metal-ceramic microstructures by partial reduction of ternary or higher ceramic oxides was experimentally investigated in the model system Fe-Mn-O at constant temperature and total pressure. Electron microscopy studies were performed for microstructural characterization, phase identification and chemical analysis. It was observed that the addition of dopants such as BaO, CaO, MgO, SrO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or ZrO{sub 2} to the initial, polycrystalline oxide solid solution (Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}){sub 1{minus}{Delta}}O strongly influences the location and rate of metal precipitation during reduction. Experimental observations are discussed based on solubility limits and the segregation of dopants.

  1. Strain development during the phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Smith, Anders; Norby, Poul; Stâhl, Kenny; Bahl, Christian R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We use powder X-ray diffraction to evaluate the temperature dependence of the crystalline properties during the magnetic phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz as a function of the Fe/Mn/Si ratio. Both the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases were observed as peak overlaps in the patterns around the Curie temperature (TC) occurring continuously in a temperature range of about 5 K around TC. Using the Williamson-Hall method, we evaluate the strain developing in the crystallites during the transition and find that it is associated with the growth of the paramagnetic phase as the transition occurs. Based on our measurements and microstructure analyses, we propose that cracking during the phase transition is due to or aggravated by the small content of a La-rich phase.

  2. Structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of MnBi:Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kharel, P.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Li, X. Z.; Shah, V. R.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Tarawneh, K.; Sabirianov, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    The structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of Mn{sub 55-x}Fe{sub x}Bi{sub 45} (x = 0, 2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 16) films prepared by multilayer deposition and annealing using e-beam evaporation have been investigated. Fe doping has produced a significant change in the magnetic properties of the samples including the decrease in saturation magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy and increase in coercivity. Although the magnetization shows a smooth decrease with increasing Fe concentration, the coercivity jumps abruptly from 8.5 kOe to 22 kOe as Fe content changes from 4% to 5%, but the change in coercivity is small as the concentration goes beyond 5%. The temperature dependence of resistivity shows that the samples with low Fe concentration ({<=}4%) are metallic, but the resistivity increases unexpectedly as the concentration reaches 5%, where the resistance increases with decreasing temperature below 300 K. First-principle calculations suggest that the observed magnetic properties can be understood as the consequences of competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the interstitial atom and the rest of the MnBi lattice.

  3. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe2YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe2YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3 d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit ( H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal ( R 0) and anomalous ( R s ) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R s in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio ( R s ∝ ρ 0 3.1 ), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  4. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kourov, N. I. Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-15

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit (H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal (R{sub 0}) and anomalous (R{sub s}) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R{sub s} in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio (R{sub s} ∝ ρ{sub 0}{sup 3.1}), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  5. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Under High Strain Rate Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingfeng; Fu, Ao; Huang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong; Li, Zezhou; Zan, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. Dynamic compressive tests of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy were deformed at varying strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic yield strength of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy increases with increasing strain rate. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) plastic model was applied to model the dynamic flow behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, and the constitutive relationship was obtained. Serration behavior during plastic deformation was observed in the stress-strain curves. The mechanism for serration behavior of the alloy deformed at high strain rate is proposed.

  6. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Under High Strain Rate Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingfeng; Fu, Ao; Huang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong; Li, Zezhou; Zan, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. Dynamic compressive tests of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy were deformed at varying strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic yield strength of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy increases with increasing strain rate. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) plastic model was applied to model the dynamic flow behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, and the constitutive relationship was obtained. Serration behavior during plastic deformation was observed in the stress-strain curves. The mechanism for serration behavior of the alloy deformed at high strain rate is proposed.

  7. Partitioning and structural role of Mn and Fe ions in ionic sulfophosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Möncke, Doris; Wondraczek, Lothar; Sirotkin, Sergey; Stavrou, Elissaios; Kamitsos, Efstratios I.

    2014-12-14

    Ionic sulfophosphate liquids of the type ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} exhibit surprising glass forming ability, even at slow or moderate cooling rate. As a concept, they also provide high solubility of transition metal ions which could act as cross-linking sites between the sulfate and phosphate entities. It is therefore investigated how the replacement of ZnO by MnO and/or FeO affects the glass structure and the glass properties. Increasing manganese levels are found to result in a monotonic increase of the transition temperature T{sub g} and most of the mechanical properties. This trend is attributed to the change of metal-ion coordination from four-fold around Zn{sup 2+} to six-fold around Mn{sup 2+} ions. The higher coordination facilitates cross-linking of the ionic structural entities and subsequently increases T{sub g}. Raman and infrared spectroscopy show that the structure of these glasses involves only SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} monomers as well as P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} dimers. Replacement of ZnO by MnO is found to favour PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} over P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} species, a trend which is enhanced by co-doping with FeO. Both transition metal ions show, like Zn{sup 2+}, a preference to selectively coordinate to phosphate anionic species, as opposed to sodium ions which coordinate mainly to sulfate anions. EPR spectroscopy finally shows that divalent Mn{sup 2+} ions are present primarily in MnO{sub 6}-clusters, which, in the studied sulfophosphate glasses, convert upon increasing MnO content from corner-sharing to edge-sharing entities.

  8. First-principles study on the ferrimagnetic half-metallic Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang; Chen, Nanxian

    2015-05-15

    Mn-based full-Heusler alloys are kinds of promising candidates for new half-metallic materials. Basing on first principles, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy have been investigated in detail. The Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type Mn{sub 2}FeAs compound obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, while the anti-parallel alignment atomic magnetic moments of Mn locating at different sites indicate it a ferrimagnetic alloy. The calculated spin-down bands behave half-metallic character, exhibiting a direct gap of 0.46 eV with a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. More studies show the compound would maintain half-metallic nature in a large range of variational lattice constants. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Mn{sub 2}FeAs applying in the future spintronics field. - Graphical abstract: The d orbitals of Mn and Fe atoms split into multi-degenerated levels which create new bonding and nonbonding states. These exchange splitting shift the Fermi level to origin band gap.▪ - Highlights: • The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy were studied. • A total magnetic moment of 3μ{sub B} was obtained for Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy, following the SP rule M{sub t}=Z{sub t}−24. • The origin of ferrimagnetism and half-metallic character in Mn{sub 2}FeAs were discussed.

  9. Design of dual-phase Fe/Mn/C steel for low-temperature application

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.J.

    1981-09-01

    An investigation has been made to improve the impact properties of a dual phase Fe/1.5Mn/.06C steel for potential low temperature application. The research involved establishing the microstructure-property relationships, especially with regard to the morphology of the constituents. Dual phase processing was done in two ways, viz., controlled rolling and intercritical annealing of the as-hot-rolled structure.

  10. Mechanism and kinetics of interaction of Fe, Cr, Mo, and Mn atoms with molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmadov, U.S.; Zaslonko, I.S.; Smirnov, V.N.

    1988-09-01

    By means of resonance atomic absorption in shock waves, rate constants have been measured for the interaction of atoms of a number of transition metals (Fe, Cr, Mo, and Mn) with molecular oxygen. A new method is proposed and used for determining the exponent ..gamma.. in the modified Lambert-Beer law D = element of(ZN)/sup ..gamma../. The bond strength in CrO and MoO molecules has been estimated.

  11. Dipolar centers in incipient ferroelectrics: Mn and Fe in KTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, E. L.; Samara, G. A.; Laguta, V. V.; Glinchuk, M. D.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2005-03-01

    The influence of lattice disorder produced by Mn and Fe substitution on the dielectric properties of the incipient ferroelectric KTaO3 were investigated. Both substituents produce dipolar centers that exhibit relaxational behavior in the audio frequency range. At a concentration of 0.01 at. %, i.e., in the very dilute limits, the Mn center is reflected in a dielectric loss ( ∈″ or tanδ ) peak, but not to a measurable degree in the real part (∈') of the dielectric function, but a concentration of 0.3 at. % Mn produces measurable anomalies in both ∈'(T) and the dielectric loss. In the case of Fe, a concentration of 0.3 at. % produces anomalies in the dielectric loss, but not in ∈'(T) . Hydrostatic pressure has a considerable influence on the static and dynamic properties of these materials and provides insights into the physics. The results are discussed in terms of microscopic models for these dipolar centers, and it is shown that all the properties can be understood in terms of the temperature and pressure dependences of the correlation length for dipolar interactions in the highly polarizable KTaO3 host lattice—properties unique to soft ferroelectric mode hosts. A model theory was used to describe the influence of random dipolar fields on the reorientation dynamics. The calculations are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data on the 0.3 % Mn where there are weak dipolar correlations.

  12. Compositional dependence of antiferromagnetic anisotropy in IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aley, N. P.; O'Grady, K.

    2011-04-01

    We report on a study of the effect of Ir content on the loop shift (HEX) and anisotropy constant (KAF) in the CoFe/IrMn system. The sample structure investigated was Si/NiCr(5 nm)/Ru(5 nm)/IrxMn1-x/CoFe(2 nm)/Ta(3 nm). All samples were produced by sputtering and the Ir and Mn levels were varied using a specially made composite target and deposited at ˜120 °C. The composition of the samples was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. KAF was calculated from thermal activation measurements using the York Protocols. A plateau in HEX was found for Ir levels between 16- 20.5 at. %. HEX was found to decrease by 50% on either side of this window. This result is consistent with previous studies where the enhancement of HEX was attributed to an increase in the atomic ordering of the IrMn alloy. However, KAF decreases linearly with increasing Ir concentration and does not appear to correlate with the change in HEX.

  13. Pack-boriding of Fe-Mn binary alloys: Characterization and kinetics of the boride layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bektes, M.; Calik, A.; Ucar, N.; Keddam, M.

    2010-02-15

    In this work, the boronizing of Fe-Mn binary alloys at 0.42, 0.76 and 0.94 wt.% Mn was carried out in a solid medium using the powder pack method. In this method, commercial Ekabor-II boron source and activator (ferro-silicon) were thoroughly mixed to form the boriding medium. The samples were boronized in an electrical resistance furnace for exposure times of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h at 1173 K under atmospheric pressure and a series of boronized samples in the temperature range 1073-1373 K for 3 h. After the furnace process, boronized samples were removed from the furnace and cooled in air. Afterwards, the boride layers generated by the pack-boronizing process were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, Vickers microhardness and tensile testing. The generated boride layers, showing a saw-tooth morphology, had a surface microhardness in the range 1400-1270 HV0.1. It was shown that the values of yield stresses and ultimate tensile stresses were increased as the Mn content increases in the boronized Fe-Mn binary alloys. In contrast, the values of elongations determined from the stress-strain curves were decreased. Furthermore, it was found that the calculated mean value of the activation energy of boron diffusion was close to 119 J/mol.

  14. The effect of the concentration of the Mn2+ ions on the optical and magnetic properties of the ZnS:Fe2+(1%) nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Fan, Lin; Yang, Jinghai; Yan, Yongsheng; Wei, Maobin; Yang, Lili; Feng, Bo; Han, Donglai; Wang, Bingji; Fu, Hao

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the wurtzite-type Fe/Mn co-doped ZnS nanowires were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method at 180 °C without any surface-active agent. The results showed that both the Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions were incorporated into the ZnS host and the maximum concentration of the Mn2+ ions in the ZnS:Fe2+(1%) nanowires was 5.1%. After adding Mn2+ ions into the ZnS:Fe2+(1%) nanowires, the emission peak centered at 2.14 eV corresponding to the Mn2+4T1-6A1 transition can be observed. As the Mn2+ doped ratio increased, the concentration quenching effect can be observed. The ferromagnetism property of the ZnS:Fe2+Mn2+ nanowires was observed around room temperature, which became weaker as the Mn2+ doped ratio increased.

  15. [Determination the chemical speciation of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in Radix Scutellariae by AAS].

    PubMed

    Miao, Shan; Sun, Ji-yuan; Xie, Yan-hua; Wang, Jian-bo; Shi, Xiao-peng; Ding, Yuan-yuan; Bi, Lin-lin; Gao, Shuang-bin; Wang, Si-wang

    2009-05-01

    An analysis method was developed to determine the chemical speciation of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in radix scutellariae decoction using atomic absorption spectroscopy(AAS). The decoction can be divided into suspension and soluble species by 0.45 microm filter membrane and the soluble species can be separated into organism and inorganic species by LSA-10 macroporous resin. These elements in water-soluble test samples can be divided into alcohol-soluble and water-soluble by adopting n-octyl alcohol-water allocation system in man-made gastric acidity. Then, the concentration of these elements was determined by AAS, which provided more chemical speciation information about these elements instead of the total amount of them only in radix scutellariae. Deteotion limit of Cu, Zn and Mn by using the method was all 0.01 microg x mL(-1) and was 0.02 microg x mL(-1) for Fe. The RSD was in the range of 1.5%-3.6% (n=11) and the recovery rate of soluble species and inorganic species were in range of 96.7%-105.0%. The method has been successfully applied to determine the chemical speciation of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in radix scutellariae, which was very important for overall study of radix scutellariae. PMID:19650506

  16. A new Fe-Mn-Si alloplastic biomaterial as bone grafting material: In vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fântânariu, Mircea; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Solcan, Carmen; Trofin, Alina; Strungaru, Ştefan; Şindilar, Eusebiu Viorel; Plăvan, Gabriel; Stanciu, Sergiu

    2015-10-01

    Designing substrates having suitable mechanical properties and targeted degradation behavior is the key's development of bio-materials for medical application. In orthopedics, graft material may be used to fill bony defects or to promote bone formation in osseous defects created by trauma or surgical intervention. Incorporation of Si may increase the bioactivity of implant locally, both by enhancing interactions at the graft-host interface and by having a potential endocrine like effect on osteoblasts. A Fe-Mn-Si alloy was obtained as alloplastic graft materials for bone implants that need long recovery time period. The surface morphology of the resulted specimens was investigated using scanning electrons microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffractions (X'Pert equipment) or X-ray dispersive energy analyze (Bruker EDS equipment). This study objective was to evaluate in vivo the mechanisms of degradation and the effects of its implantation over the main metabolic organs. Biochemical, histological, plain X radiography and computed tomography investigations showed good compatibility of the subcutaneous implants in the rat organism. The implantation of the Fe-Mn-Si alloy, in critical size bone (tibiae) defect rat model, did not induced adverse biological reactions and provided temporary mechanical support to the affected bone area. The biodegradation products were hydroxides layers which adhered to the substrate surface. Fe-Mn-Si alloy assured the mechanical integrity in rat tibiae defects during bone regeneration.

  17. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  18. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  19. Latent heat of magnetization for MnFeSi0 . 33P0 . 66

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prasenjit; de Groot, Robert A.; Theoretical Chemistry Team

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is a very promising environmental-friendly method to encounter the energy shortage of the world by implementing the magnetocaloric effect. MnFeSiP series of materials are distinguishable magnetocaloric meterial for the use of non-toxic, inexpensive elements as well as high efficiency. There are several ways to measure the efficiency of the MCE, viz.- measuring the adiabatic temperature change or measuring the entropy change at the transition. MnFeSiP materials show a first order magneto-elastic phase transition at the Curie temperature (TC). This simultaneous occourance of the magnetic and elastic transition in this material account for a higher ΔTad (or high entropy change), which is linearly proportional to the Latent heat (L) of magnetization. Experimentally L can be determined with techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry. In our study we use VASP in addition to the Phonopy package, to determine the finite temperature properties of the system. Quasi Harmonic Approximation was applied successfully to determine the Gibbs free energy of MnFeSi0.33 P0.66. Hence we show a phase transition around 425 K. From the temperature derivative of G , the specific heat was obtained and finally the latent heat was obtained. Foundation for fundamental research on matter.

  20. A new mineral species ferricoronadite, Pb[Mn6 4+(Fe3+, Mn3+)2]O16: mineralogical characterization, crystal chemistry and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Jančev, Simeon; Pekov, Igor V.; Göttlicher, Jörg; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Nelyubina, Yuliya V.; Van, Konstantin V.

    2016-07-01

    A new mineral ferricoronadite with the simplified formula Pb(Mn6 4+Fe2 3+)O16 was discovered in the orogenetic zone related to the "Mixed Series" metamorphic complex near the Nežilovo village, Pelagonian massif, Republic of Macedonia. Associated minerals are franklinite, gahnite, hetaerolite, roméite, almeidaite, Mn-analogue of plumboferrite, zincohögbomite analogue with Fe3+ > Al, zincochromite, Zn-bearing talc, Zn-bearing muscovite, baryte, quartz and zircon. Ferricoronadite is a late hydrothermal mineral forming veinlets up to 8 mm thick in granular aggregate predominantly composed by zinc-dominant spinels. The new mineral is opaque, black, with brownish black streak. The luster is strong submetallic to metallic. The micro-indentation hardness is 819 kg/mm2. Distinct cleavage is observed on (100). Ferricoronadite is brittle, with uneven fracture. The density calculated from the empirical formula is 5.538 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferricoronadite is light gray. The reflectance values [ R max/ R min, % ( λ, nm)] are: 28.7/27.8 (470), 27.6/26.6 (546), 27.2/26.1 (589), 26.5/25.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the absence of H2O and OH groups. According to the Mössbauer spectrum, all iron is trivalent. The Mn K-edge XANES spectroscopy shows that Mn is predominantly tetravalent, with subordinate Mn3+. The chemical composition is (wt%; electron microprobe, Mn apportioned between MnO2 and Mn2O3 based on the charge-balance requirement): BaO 5.16, PbO 24.50, ZnO 0.33, Al2O3 0.50, Mn2O3 9.90, Fe2O3 11.45, TiO2 4.19, MnO2 44.81, total 100.84. The empirical formula based on 8 cations Mn + Fe + Ti + Al + Zn pfu is Pb1.03Ba0.32(Mn 4.85 4+ Fe 1.35 3+ Mn 1.18 3+ Ti0.49Al0.09Zn0.04)Σ8.00O16. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is tetragonal, space group I4/ m, a = 9.9043(7), c = 2.8986(9) Å, V = 284.34(9) Å3, Z = 1. In ferricoronadite, double chains of edge-sharing (Mn, Fe, Ti)-centered octahedra are connected

  1. A new mineral species ferricoronadite, Pb[Mn6 4+(Fe3+, Mn3+)2]O16: mineralogical characterization, crystal chemistry and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Jančev, Simeon; Pekov, Igor V.; Göttlicher, Jörg; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Nelyubina, Yuliya V.; Van, Konstantin V.

    2016-04-01

    A new mineral ferricoronadite with the simplified formula Pb(Mn6 4+Fe2 3+)O16 was discovered in the orogenetic zone related to the "Mixed Series" metamorphic complex near the Nežilovo village, Pelagonian massif, Republic of Macedonia. Associated minerals are franklinite, gahnite, hetaerolite, roméite, almeidaite, Mn-analogue of plumboferrite, zincohögbomite analogue with Fe3+ > Al, zincochromite, Zn-bearing talc, Zn-bearing muscovite, baryte, quartz and zircon. Ferricoronadite is a late hydrothermal mineral forming veinlets up to 8 mm thick in granular aggregate predominantly composed by zinc-dominant spinels. The new mineral is opaque, black, with brownish black streak. The luster is strong submetallic to metallic. The micro-indentation hardness is 819 kg/mm2. Distinct cleavage is observed on (100). Ferricoronadite is brittle, with uneven fracture. The density calculated from the empirical formula is 5.538 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferricoronadite is light gray. The reflectance values [R max/R min, % (λ, nm)] are: 28.7/27.8 (470), 27.6/26.6 (546), 27.2/26.1 (589), 26.5/25.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the absence of H2O and OH groups. According to the Mössbauer spectrum, all iron is trivalent. The Mn K-edge XANES spectroscopy shows that Mn is predominantly tetravalent, with subordinate Mn3+. The chemical composition is (wt%; electron microprobe, Mn apportioned between MnO2 and Mn2O3 based on the charge-balance requirement): BaO 5.16, PbO 24.50, ZnO 0.33, Al2O3 0.50, Mn2O3 9.90, Fe2O3 11.45, TiO2 4.19, MnO2 44.81, total 100.84. The empirical formula based on 8 cations Mn + Fe + Ti + Al + Zn pfu is Pb1.03Ba0.32(Mn{4.85/4+}Fe{1.35/3+}Mn{1.18/3+}Ti0.49Al0.09Zn0.04)Σ8.00O16. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is tetragonal, space group I4/m, a = 9.9043(7), c = 2.8986(9) Å, V = 284.34(9) Å3, Z = 1. In ferricoronadite, double chains of edge-sharing (Mn, Fe, Ti)-centered octahedra are connected via

  2. Construction of the Magnetic Phase Diagram of FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, C.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-01-04

    Single crystalline FeMn/Ni bilayer was epitaxially grown on Cu(001) substrate and investigated by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). The FeMn and Ni films were grown into two cross wedges to facilitate an independent control of the FeMn (0-20 ML) and Ni (0-20 ML) film thicknesses. The Ni magnetic phases were determined by Ni domain images as a function of the Ni thickness (d{sub Ni}) and the FeMn thickness (d{sub FeMn}). The result shows that as the Ni thickness increases, the Ni film undergoes a paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic state transition at a critical thickness of d{sub FM} and an in-plane to out-of-plane spin reorientation transition at a thicker thickness d{sub SRT}. The phase diagram shows that both d{sub FM} and d{sub SRT} increase as the FeMn film establishes its antiferromagnetic order.

  3. MnFe2O4 as a gas sensor towards SO2 and NO2 gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Deepshikha; Mitra, Supratim

    2016-05-01

    The chemical co-precipitation method was used to synthesize MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The average particle size of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was found to be 10.7 nm using Scherrer formula. The ultrafine powder of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was pressed to design pellet of 10 mm diameter and 1mm thickness. Copper electrodes have been deposited on the surface of pellet using silver paste in the form of capacitor. Fabricated gas sensing device of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was tested towards SO2 and NO2 gases. Cole-Cole plot of MnFe2O4 was investigated with the help of electrochemical workstation. The performance of the sensors including sensitivity, response and recovery time was also determined. It was observed that the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles are more sensible for NO2 gas as compared to SO2 gas.

  4. Moessbauer studies in Zn(2+)0.3 Mn(2+)0.7 Mn(3+) (2-y) Fe(3+) (2-y) O4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. G.; Mendiratta, R. G.; Escue, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Mossbauer effect has proven to be effective in the study of nuclear hyperfine interactions. Ferrite systems having the formula (Zn(2+)0.3)(Mn(2+)0.7)(Mn(3+)y)(Fe(3+)2-y)(O4) were prepared and studied. These systems can be interpreted as mangacese-doped zinc and a part of iron ions. A systematic study of these systems is presented to promote an understanding of their microstructure for which various theories were proposed.

  5. Magnetism in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂ tuned by Fe/Mn ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hechang; Bozin, Emil S.; Llobet, A.; Ivanovski, V.; Koteski, V.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Petrovic, C.

    2012-09-17

    We report the evolution of structural and magnetic properties in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂. Heat capacity and bulk magnetization indicate an increased ferromagnetic component of the long-range magnetic order and possible increased degree of frustration. Atomic disorder on Fe(Mn) sites suppresses the temperature of the long-range order whereas intermediate alloys show a rich magnetic phase diagram.

  6. Enhanced half-metallicity of off-stoichiometric quaternary Heusler alloy C o2(Mn ,Fe )Si investigated through saturation magnetization and tunneling magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, Kidist; Honda, Yusuke; Liu, Hong-xi; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Miura, Yoshio; Shirai, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the factors that critically affect the half-metallicity of the quaternary Heusler alloy C o2(Mn ,Fe )Si (CMFS) by examining the film composition dependence of the saturation magnetization per formula unit, μs, of CMFS thin films and the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of CMFS/MgO/CMFS magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). We also investigated the origin of the giant TMR ratio of up to 2610% at 4.2 K (429% at 290 K) obtained for CMFS MTJs with Mn-rich, lightly Fe-doped CMFS electrodes. Co antisites at the nominal Mn/Fe sites (C oMn /Fe antisites) can consistently explain the μs for (Mn + Fe)-deficient CMFS thin films being lower than the half-metallic Zt-24 value and the TMR ratio for MTJs with (Mn + Fe)-deficient CMFS electrodes being lower than that for MTJs with (Mn + Fe)-rich CMFS electrodes. It was revealed that the C oMn /Fe antisite is detrimental to the half-metallicity of the CMFS quaternary alloy, as it is in the Co2MnSi (CMS) ternary alloy. It was also shown that (Mn +Fe ) -rich compositions are critical to suppressing these harmful antisites and to retaining the half-metallic electronic state. In addition, a relatively small Fe ratio, rather than a large one, in the total (Mn +Fe ) composition led to a more complete half-metallic electronic state. Half-metallicity was more strongly enhanced by increasing the Mn composition in Mn-rich, lightly Fe-doped CMFS than in Mn-rich CMS. This phenomenon is the cause of the giant TMR ratio recently reported for CMFS MTJs. Our findings indicate that the approach to controlling off-stoichiometry and film composition is promising for fully utilizing the half-metallicity of quaternary CMFS thin films as spin source materials.

  7. Planar Hall effect in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}/IrMn films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. Zou, L. K.

    2014-12-29

    The planar Hall effect of IrMn on an yttrium iron garnet (YIG = Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was measured in the magnetic field rotating in the film plane. The magnetic field angular dependence of planar Hall resistance (PHR) was observed in YIG/IrMn bilayer at different temperatures, while the Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}/IrMn film shows constant PHR for different magnetic field angles at both 10 K and 300 K. This provides evidence that IrMn has interfacial spins which can be led by ferrimagnetic layer in YIG/IrMn structure. A hysteresis can be observed in PHR-magnetic field angle loop of YIG/IrMn film at 10 K, indicative of the irreversible switching of IrMn interfacial spins at low temperature.

  8. Synthesis of MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide core-shell nanoparticles and their excellent performance for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zichuan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chang, Yongfang; Xing, Shengtao; Wu, Yinsu; Gao, Yuanzhe

    2013-10-21

    Magnetic nanomaterials that can be easily separated and recycled due to their magnetic properties have received considerable attention in the field of water treatment. However, these nanomaterials usually tend to aggregate and alter their properties. Herein, we report an economical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully coated with amorphous Mn-Co oxide shells. The synthesized MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide nanoparticles have highly negatively charged surface in aqueous solution over a wide pH range, thus preventing their aggregation and enhancing their performance for heavy metal cation removal. The adsorption isotherms are well fitted to a Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximal adsorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide are 481.2, 386.2 and 345.5 mg g(-1), respectively. All the metal ions can be completely removed from the mixed metal ion solutions in a short time. Desorption studies confirm that the adsorbent can be effectively regenerated and reused. PMID:23945878

  9. Enhanced Thermal Stability and Magnetic Properties in NaCl-Type FePt-MnO Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, AG; Chen, J; Ye, XC; Kikkawa, JM; Murray, CB

    2011-08-31

    We report the growth of NaCl-type binary nanocrystal (NC) superlattice membranes by coassembly of FePt and MnO NCs at the liquid-air interface. The constituent FePt NCs were converted into the hard magnetic L1(0) phase by thermal annealing at 650 degrees C without degradation of the long-range NC ordering. In contrast, both FePt-only NC superlattices and FePt-MnO disordered NC mixtures showed substantial FePt sintering under the same annealing conditions. Our results demonstrate that the incorporation of FePt NCs into binary superlattices can solve the problems of FePt sintering during conversion to the L1(0) phase, opening a new route to the fabrication of ordered ferromagnetic NC arrays on a desired substrate for high-density data storage applications.

  10. Exchange-bias phenomena and modeling in nanocrystalline powders of MnO/FeCo and NiO/Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, D. R.; Padrón Hernández, E.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    An approach towards the modeling of the magnetic behavior in heterogeneous systems of exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (FM) particles with composition (AF)x+(FM)1-x is presented. The model is based on the Preisach hysteresis model and correctly predicts the correlation between the exchange-bias field and the mean grain size of the material, as established from the measurements of the hysteresis loops in mechanically alloyed (MnO)+(α-FeCo). The model was also used to calculate the unidirectional anisotropy interface energies in both this and (NiO)x+(α-Fe)1-x system; in the latter case, the predicted value was in full agreement with that reported for antiferromagnetic layers of NiO.

  11. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications. PMID:27185656

  12. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications. PMID:27185656

  13. Structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of MnBi:Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kharel, P; Li, XZ; Shah, VR; Al-Aqtash, N; Tarawneh, K; Sabirianov, RF; Skomski, R; Sellmyer, DJ

    2012-04-01

    The structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of Mn55-xFexBi45 (x = 0, 2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 16) films prepared by multilayer deposition and annealing using e-beam evaporation have been investigated. Fe doping has produced a significant change in the magnetic properties of the samples including the decrease in saturation magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy and increase in coercivity. Although the magnetization shows a smooth decrease with increasing Fe concentration, the coercivity jumps abruptly from 8.5 kOe to 22 kOe as Fe content changes from 4% to 5%, but the change in coercivity is small as the concentration goes beyond 5%. The temperature dependence of resistivity shows that the samples with low Fe concentration (<= 4%) are metallic, but the resistivity increases unexpectedly as the concentration reaches 5%, where the resistance increases with decreasing temperature below 300 K. First-principle calculations suggest that the observed magnetic properties can be understood as the consequences of competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the interstitial atom and the rest of the MnBi lattice. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3675615

  14. LiMO{sub 2} (M=Mn, Fe, and Co): Energetics, polymorphism and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Miaojun; Navrotsky, Alexandra . E-mail: anavrotsky@ucdavis.edu

    2005-04-15

    LiMO{sub 2} materials (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) with different structures were synthesized and their enthalpies of formation from oxides (Li{sub 2}O and M{sub 2}O{sub 3}, M=Mn and Fe), or from oxides (Li{sub 2}O and CoO) plus oxygen at 25{sup o}C were determined by high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The relative stability of the polymorphs of the compound LiMO{sub 2} was established based on their enthalpies of formation. Phase transformations in LiFeO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The phase transition enthalpies at 25{sup o}C for {beta}->{alpha}, {gamma}->{beta}, and {gamma}->{alpha} are 4.9+/-0.7, 4.3+/-0.8 and 9.2+/-0.9kJ/mol, respectively. Thus the {gamma} phase (ordered cations) is the stable form of LiFeO{sub 2} at room temperature, the {alpha} phase (disordered cations) is stable at high temperature and the {beta} phase may have a stability field at intermediate temperatures.

  15. Synthesis of Waste Form in the Gd-Fe-Al-Ni-Mn-Cr-O System

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, S.C.; Jang, Y.N.; Bae, I.K.; Ryu, K.W.

    2006-07-01

    Poly-phase waste form which was the mixture of Gd{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 3}O{sub 12} and (Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x})(Fe{sub y}Cr{sub 1-y}){sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized. Also, we are intended to examine phase relation and physicochemical properties of coexisted phases in the compositions and to confirm accommodation relation of elements and phases. Two types of phase series were observed: Garnet-perovskite-spinel and Garnet-spinel. The compositions of garnets and spinels were nonstoichiometric, and especially, this poly-phase ceramics may be in a good waste form. The excessive Gd in garnets indicated the immobilization of higher content of actinides. The nonstoichiometric compositions of garnet and spinel were attributed to the formation of perovskite in that perovskite contained Gd, Fe and Al from garnet and Cr from spinel. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of Fe, Mn promoted sulfated zirconia catalyst by x-ray and infrared spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Tabora, J.E.; Davis, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Sulfated zirconia promoted with Fe and Mn is two orders of magnitude more active than an unpromoted catalyst for butane isomerization at low temperature. In this work, the atomic structures of the unpromoted and promoted superacid catalysts were investigated using x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zr and Fe K-edges. In addition, infrared spectroscopy was used to probe the structure of the surface sulfate groups on the superacids. Infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine and carbon monoxide was also used to determine the types and strengths of acid sites on the two samples. Results indicated that Fe atoms do not substitute into tetragonal zirconia and that both Bronsted and Lewis acid sites were present on the materials. Furthermore, no obvious difference in acid strength was observed. Implications of these results for catalysis by zirconia-based superacids will be discussed.

  17. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of bimagnetic spinel ferrite CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 nanocrystals with core-shell architecture.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Zhang, Z John

    2012-06-20

    A combination of hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) and soft phase MnFe(2)O(4) as the bimagnetic nanocrystals in a core-shell architecture has been synthesized, and their magnetic properties have been systematically studied. Both HRTEM and EDS results confirmed the formation of bimagnetic core-shell structured nanocrystals. On the basis of the systematic and comparative studies of the magnetic properties of a mechanical mixture of pure CoFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, chemically mixed Co(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, and bimagnetic core-shell CoFe(2)O(4)@MnFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4)@CoFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, the bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals show very unique magnetic properties, such as the blocking temperature and coercivity. Our results show that the coercivity correlates with the volume fraction of the soft phase as the theoretical hard-soft phase model has suggested. Furthermore, switching the hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) from the core to the shell shows great changes in the coercivity of the nanocrystals. The bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals evidently demonstrate the rational design capability to separately control the blocking temperature and the coercivity in magnetic nanocrystals by varying the materials, their combination, and the volume ratio between the core and the shell and by switching hard or soft phase materials between the core and shell. Such controls via a bimagnetic core-shell architecture are highly desirable for magnetic nanocrystals in various applications. PMID:22621435

  18. Density Functional Theory Analysis of Structure, Energetics, and Spectroscopy for the Mn-Fe Active Site of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase in Four Oxidation States

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Ge; Giammona, Debra Ann; Bashford, Donald; Noodleman, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Models for the Mn-Fe active site structure of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from pathogenic bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in different oxidation states have been studied in this paper, using broken-symmetry density functional theory (DFT) incorporated with the conductor like screening (COSMO) solvation model and also with the finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann self-consistent reaction field (PB-SCRF) calculations. The detailed structures for the reduced Mn(II)-Fe(II), the met Mn(III)-Fe(III), the oxidized Mn(IV)-Fe(III) and the superoxidized Mn(IV)-Fe(IV) states are predicted. The calculated properties, including geometries, 57Fe Mössbauer isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings, and 57Fe and 55Mn ENDOR hyperfine coupling constants, are compared with the available experimental data. The Mössbauer and energetic calculations show that the (μ-oxo, μ-hydroxo) models better represent the structure of the Mn(IV)-Fe(III) state than the di-μ-oxo models. The predicted Mn(IV)-Fe(III) distances (2.95 and 2.98 Å) in the (μ-oxo, μ-hydroxo) models are in agreement with the EXAFS experimental value of 2.92 Å (Younker, et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 15022-15027). The effect of the protein and solvent environment on the assignment of the Mn metal position is examined by comparing the relative energies of alternative mono-Mn(II) active site structures. It is proposed that if the Mn(II)-Fe(II) protein is prepared with prior addition of Mn(II) or with Mn(II) richer than Fe(II), Mn is likely positioned at metal site 2, which is further from Phe127. PMID:20604534

  19. Fe-Ca-phosphate, Fe-silicate, and Mn-oxide minerals in concretions from the Monterey Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medrano, M.D.; Piper, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrically zoned phosphatic-enriched concretions were collected at three sites from the Monterey Formation. The following minerals were identified: vivianite, lipscombite, rockbridgeite, leucophosphite, mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite, nontronite, todorokite, and barite. The mineralogy of the concretions was slightly different at each of the three collection sites. None of the concretions contains all of the minerals, but the spatial distribution of minerals in individual concretions, overlapping mineralogies between different concretions, and the geochemical properties of the separate minerals suggest a paragenesis represented by the above order. Eh increased from the precipitation of vivianite to that of rockbridgeite/lipscombite. The precipitation of leucophosphite, then mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite and todorokite/Fe-oxide indicates increasing pH. Concretion growth culminated with the precipitation of todorokite, a Mn oxide, and minor amounts of barite along microfractures. Conspicuously absent are Fe-sulfide and Mn-phosphate minerals. The concretions are hosted by finely laminated diatomite. The laminations exhibit little to no deformation around the concretions, requiring that the concretions formed after compaction. We interpret this sediment feature and the paragenesis as recording the evolving pore-water chemistry as the formation was uplifted into the fresh-ground-water zone.

  20. Is the enrichment of metals in Mn-Fe nodules from the central Pacific correlated with glacial-interglacial stages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegorzewski, A.; Kuhn, T.

    2012-12-01

    Polymetallic nodules and crusts contain high concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and HFSE. The BGR has been exploring a German license area between the Clarion- and Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the Pacific for nodule abundance and metal content. Nodules are Mn-Fe oxy-hydroxide precipitations consisting of concentrically banded microlayers of different chemical and mineralogical composition. There are layers with high Mn/Fe ratios (3-400) and high Ni+Cu (2-6 wt%) but low Co contents (0.01-0.2 wt%). Mineralogically these layers consists of todorokite and birnessite. In contrast there are layers with low Mn/Fe ≤ 3 and low Ni+Cu (~1 wt%) but increased Co content (0.2-0.5 wt%) and consist mineralogically of Fe-rich vernadite which is epitaxial intergrown with feroxyhyte nanoparticles (Bodei et al., 2007). The different composition of the layers is depending on different growth processes, such as hydrogenetic (metal precipitation from the water column under oxic conditions; Mn/Fe ≤ 3) or diagenetic (metal precipitation from the sediment pore water under oxic (Mn/Fe 3-10) or suboxic (Mn/Fe ≥ 10) conditions; Halbach et al., 1988). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analyses of recently precipitated outer layers show low Mn/Fe ratios (1.4-2.8). The Ni+Cu content range from 0.34-1.86 wt% and Co shows concentrations between 0.33-1.42 wt%. These results are typical for hydrogenetic processes. They may indicate that in the oxic pore water the same metal enrichment processes prevail as in oxic seawater. Oxygen measurements of near-bottom and pore water proved that the nodules are currently growing under oxic conditions (Mewes, K.,unpub. data). Layers with Mn/Fe ratios of 3-400 cannot grow under such oxic conditions. The high fractionation of Mn and Fe is only possible under suboxic conditions as they are currently predominating in the Peru Basin (PB). Similar growth structures and Mn/Fe ratios of individual layers from CCFZ and PB nodules indicate suboxic conditions

  1. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cumore » (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.« less

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial FeMn2O4 film on MgO (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong van, Thiet; Nguyen, Thi Minh Hai; Nguyen, Anh Phuong; Dang Duc, Dung; Duong, Anh Tuan; Nguyen van, Quang; Cho, Sunglae

    FeM2X4 spinel structures, where M is a transition metal and X is oxygen or sulfur, are candidate materials for spin filters, one of the key devices in spintronics. On the other hand, the electronic and magnetic properties of these spinel structures could be modified via the control of cation distribution. Among the spinel oxides, iron manganese oxide is one of promising materials for applications. FeMn2O4 shows inverse spinel structure above 390 K and ferrimagnetic properties below the temperature. In this work, we report on the structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial FeMn2O4 thin film on MgO(100) substrate. The reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that films were epitaxially grown on MgO(100) without the impurity phases. The valance states of Fe and Mn in the FeMn2O4film were carried out using x-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). The magnetic properties were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), indicating that the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature. The structural detail and origin of magnetic ordering in FeMn2O4 will be discussed.

  3. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cu (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.

  4. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-C Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-02-01

    The solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-C steel ingots containing different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by Thermo-Calc to assist development of the continuous casting technology of Fe-Mn-C steels. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is higher than that of the 3Mn steel. The thermal conductivity of the 6Mn steel is the lowest in the three kinds of steels below 1023 K (750 °C) and the highest above 1173 K (900 °C). The 0Mn steel has the highest value of the proportion of equiaxed grain zone area in the three kinds of steels, whereas the 3Mn steel has the lowest value of it in the steels. Manganese has the effect of promoting the coarsening of grains. The microstructure is martensite and a little retained austenite (3.8 mass pct) in the 6Mn steel, whereas the microstructure is bainite in the 3Mn steel. The 0Mn steel is characterized by ferrite and pearlite. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.6 × 10-5 K-1, and the determinations of mold tapers of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels can refer to low-carbon steel. Using RA <60 pct as the criterion, the third brittle temperature region of the 6Mn steel is 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C), whereas those of the 3Mn steel and the 0Mn steel are 873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C) and 873 K to 1173 K (600 °C to 900 °C), respectively. In the 6Mn and 3Mn steels, the deformation-induced ferrite (DIF) forms in sufficient quantities cause the recovery of the ductility at the low temperature end. However, since low strains are present when straightening, sufficient quantities of DIF cannot be formed. Thus, the ductility of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels cannot be improved during the continuous casting process. Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region.

  5. Giant magnetoresistance in the half-metallic double-perovskite ferrimagnet Mn2FeReO6.

    PubMed

    Li, Man-Rong; Retuerto, Maria; Deng, Zheng; Stephens, Peter W; Croft, Mark; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Deng, Xiaoyu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Sánchez-Benítez, Javier; Hadermann, Joke; Walker, David; Greenblatt, Martha

    2015-10-01

    The first transition-metal-only double perovskite compound, Mn(2+) 2 Fe(3+) Re(5+) O6 , with 17 unpaired d electrons displays ferrimagnetic ordering up to 520 K and a giant positive magnetoresistance of up to 220 % at 5 K and 8 T. These properties result from the ferrimagnetically coupled Fe and Re sublattice and are affected by a two-to-one magnetic-structure transition of the Mn sublattice when a magnetic field is applied. Theoretical calculations indicate that the half-metallic state can be mainly attributed to the spin polarization of the Fe and Re sites. PMID:26235744

  6. Crystal structure and magnetism of YbFeMnO 5: A neutron diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lope, M. J.; Retuerto, M.; Alonso, J. A.; García-Hernández, M.; Krezhov, K.; Spirov, I.; Ruskov, T.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    We have studied the crystal structure and magnetic properties of Y bFeMnO 5 obtained by substituting Fe 3+ for Mn 3+ in the parent Y bMn 2O 5 compound, through x-ray (XRD) and neutron (NPD) powder diffraction, magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were prepared in polycrystalline form by a soft chemistry route, followed by thermal treatments under high-oxygen pressure. The Rietveld analysis of diffraction data shows that Y bFeMnO 5 is isostructural with the oxides of stoichiometry RMn 2O 5 (R=rare earth, Y or Bi); the crystal structure is orthorhombic, Pbam space group, formed by chains of edge-sharing Mn 4+O 6 octahedra linked together by dimer groups of square pyramids Fe 3+O 5 and Y b 3+O 8 scalenohedra. A low level of disorder was established between the two transition metal positions 4 f and 4 h, occupied ideally by Mn 4+ and by Fe 3+: about 6% of Mn cations is replaced by Fe and 16% of Fe by Mn. Mössbauer spectroscopy data confirm the existence of two distinct crystallographic sites for Fe 3+. One of them corresponds to almost regular octahedra (at 4 f positions), characterized by nearly equal Mn/Fe-O distances of 1.890 Å at RT (from NPD data), giving a quadrupole doublet in the Mössbauer spectra at RT, broadened by the Fe/Mn disorder over this site. The second environment for Fe 3+ contributes to a less broadened, but more intensive doublet in the Mössbauer spectra, which corresponds to a distorted square pyramid Fe 3+O 5 (at 4h sites), for which NPD data demonstrates an axial distortion with three sets of Fe-O distances at 2.010(2) Å, 1.859(5) Å and 1.925(3) Å. Magnetic studies and the thermal evolution of the NPD patterns show that below a transition temperature Tc˜178 K a long-range magnetic order is developed, resolved from NPD data as a ferrimagnetic structure with propagation vector k=0. The spin arrangements for the Mn 4+ ions ( 4f site) and Fe 3+ ions ( 4h site) are given by the basis vectors ( 0,0,Fz) and ( 0,0,Fz

  7. Influence of solute drag on the growth of proeutectoid ferrite in Fe-C-Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, M.

    1999-10-08

    The diffusion-controlled growth of proeutectoid ferrite ({alpha}) from austenite ({gamma}) in an Fe-C-Mn alloy was simulated incorporating the possible drag effect of Mn on the migration of {alpha}:{gamma} interphase boundaries. The magnitude of drag force or the dissipation of free energy by drag was evaluated by means of Cahn and Purdy-Brechet models. The growth rate of ferrite was calculated from the flux balance equation for carbon taking into account the fact that the carbon concentration at the boundary in austenite varied with time. Whereas the time exponent of growth deviated from one-half at each moment, the overall time dependence was dictated by carbon volume diffusion in austenite. The reported differences of experimental growth rates from those calculated assuming paraequilibrium were reduced considerably by incorporating the drag of Mn, although simulation results may largely depend on the shape and depth of solute interaction potential with {alpha}:{gamma} boundaries and Mn diffusivity within the boundary, etc.

  8. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O3, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than ∼8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals. PMID:20046215

  9. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-08-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.

  10. Alloying effects on the microstructure and phase stability of Fe-Cr-Mn steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2008-05-01

    Austenitic Fe–Cr–Mn stainless steels interstitially alloyed with nitrogen have received considerable interest lately, due to their many property improvements over conventional Fe–Cr–Ni alloys. The addition of nitrogen to Fe–Cr–Mn stabilizes the fcc structure and increases the carbon solubility. The benefits of increased interstitial nitrogen and carbon content include: enhanced strength, hardness, and wear resistance. This study examines the effect of carbon, silicon, molybdenum, and nickel additions on the phase stability and tensile behavior of nitrogen-containing Fe–Cr–Mn alloys. Nitrogen and carbon concentrations exceeding 2.0 wt.% were added to the base Fe–18Cr–18Mn composition without the formation of nitride or carbide precipitates. Minor additions of molybdenum, silicon, and nickel did not affect nitrogen interstitial solubility, but did reduce carbon solubility resulting in the formation of M23C6 (M=Cr, Fe, Mo) carbides. Increasing the interstitial content increases the lattice distortion strain, which is directly correlated with an increase in yield stress.