Science.gov

Sample records for dosimetry applications part

  1. Applicability of Topaz Composites to Electron Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfim, K. S.; Souza, D. N.

    2010-11-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimetric topaz properties have been investigated and the results have shown that this mineral presents characteristics of a good dosimeter mainly in doses evaluation in radiotherapy with photons beams in radiotherapy. Typical applications of thermoluminescent dosimeters in radiotherapy are: in vivo dosimetry on patients (either as a routine quality assurance procedure or for dose monitoring in special cases); verification of treatment techniques; dosimetry audits; and comparisons among hospitals. The mean aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of topaz-Teflon pellets as thermoluminescent dosimeters in high-energy electron beams used to radiotherapy. Topaz-Teflon pellets were used as TLD.

  2. RPL Dosimetry: Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    2011-05-05

    The principle of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) is applied to the glass dosimeter, which is one of the most excellent solid state dosimeters. The silver activated phosphate glass irradiated with ionizing radiations emits luminescence when exposed to UV light. This phenomenon is called RPL. The most characteristic features of the glass dosimeters are data accumulation and no fading. The basic principle of RPL is described and then how it is applied to the glass dosimeter is explained. Finally some applications of RPL will be introduced.

  3. Code for internal dosimetry (CINDY): Part 1, Conceptual representation

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The computer code CINDY (Computerized Internal Dosimetry Software Package) has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach contained in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30. The code assists in the interpretation of bioassay data, the evaluation of committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, and the preparation of reports, consistent with revised DOE orders. The code is easy to use and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. The CINDY code is an interactive computer program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. 30 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  5. Radiochromic Film Dosimetry and its Applications in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Matthew; Metcalfe, Peter

    2011-05-05

    Radiochromic film can be a fast and inexpensive means for performing accurate quantitative radiation dosimetry. The development of new radiochromic compositions that have greater dose sensitivity and fewer environmental dependencies has led to an ever increasing use of the film in radiotherapy applications. In this report the various physical and dosimetric properties of radiochromic film are presented and the strategies to adequately manage these properties when using radiochromic film for radiotherapy applications are discussed.

  6. Highlights and pitfalls of 20 years of application of computerised glow curve analysis to thermoluminescence research and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Y S; Moscovitch, M

    2013-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of computerised glow curve analysis are described in detail including a review of the current 'state-of-the-achieved' in applications to environmental and personal dosimetry, clinical dosimetry, quality control, characterisation of new materials, continuing characterisation of 'old' materials, heavy charged particle dosimetry, mixed field n-gamma dosimetry, X-ray dosimetry and other aspects of thermoluminescence dosimetry. Fearless emphasis is placed on 'pitfalls' as well as successes. PMID:22987121

  7. HDR brachytherapy with surface applicators: technical considerations and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Sabbas, Albert M; Kulidzhanov, Fridon G; Presser, Joseph; Hayes, Mary K; Nori, Dattatreyudu

    2004-06-01

    HDR surface molds offer an alternative radiotherapy modality to electrons for the treatment of skin lesions. Treatment planning and dosimetry are discussed for two types of surface molds used in our clinic. Standard rectangular applicators are used on a variety of sites where surface curvature is minimal. In these cases an idealized planar geometry is used for treatment planning dose calculations. The calculations yield treatment dose uniformity at the prescription depth in tissue as well as skin dose, as a percentage of the treatment dose, and its dose uniformity. The availability of optimization techniques results in superior dose uniformity at depth but the dose at the skin has to be carefully evaluated. We have studied the dependence of these dosimetric parameters on the size of the surface mold and the type of optimization procedure used in the dosimetry calculations. The second type of surface applicator involves the use of a customized silicone rubber mold attached to a thermoplastic mask of the patient. We have used them to treat lesions of the face where surface curvatures are appreciable and reproducibility of setup is more critical. In these cases a CT data set is used for reconstruction of the catheters, activation of relevant dwell positions and dosimetry, including optimization. Towards establishing effective methods for quality assurance of the optimized HDR surface mold planning calculations, we have compared their dosimetry to both a classical brachytherapy system and to one based on an analytical model of the applicator. The classical system yields an independent verification of the integrated activity used in the planning calculations, whereas the analytical model is used to evaluate depth dose dependence on mold size and optimization. PMID:15161319

  8. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses. PMID:19175101

  9. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  10. Applications of nuclear data in human radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Eckerman, K.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Individuals are exposed to ionizing radiations in two ways: from radiation sources external to the body or from internal sources. In either case, the magnitude of the radiation dose to the sensitive tissues of the body is of primary concern. Radiation dose (or absorbed dose) is a physical quantity defined as the amount of ionizing energy absorbed per unit mass of material. For radiation protection purposes, however, it is also necessary to use the dose equivalent, which includes modifiers of absorbed dose to more fully reflect the biological considerations associated with different ionizing radiations. A research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has focused on defining the exposure-dose relationship (i.e., the relationship between radiation exposure from internal or external sources and the radiation dose received by tissues of the body). Although radiation can be readily detected and measured, it is not feasible to make direct measurements of the dose within the organs and tissues of the body. Nuclear data have been extensively used in these studies but improvements are needed in the current nuclear data base. Examples of these applications include studies dealing with (a) the application of the recommendations of Publication 26 of the International Committee on Radiological Protection in the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides and (b) the reassessment of radiation dosimetry for the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  11. 4D dosimetry and its applications to pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry of VMAT treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, F.; Wetterstedt, S. af; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a 4D dosimetry concept was developed. This concept included a method for calculation of 3D reference absorbed dose matrices at every control point of the delivery using a clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Further, the gamma evaluation method was extended to incorporate the 4th dimension of the TPS calculated dose distributions. The applications of the 4D dosimetry concept on pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry were investigated.

  12. Development of an applicator for eye lens dosimetry during radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, J M; Lee, J; Ye, S-J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an applicator for in vivo measurements of lens dose during radiotherapy. Methods: A contact lens-shaped applicator made of acrylic was developed for in vivo measurements of lens dose. This lens applicator allows the insertion of commercially available metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) dosemeters. CT images of an anthropomorphic phantom with and without the applicator were acquired. Ten volumetric modulated arc therapy plans each for the brain and the head and neck cancer were generated and delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom. The differences between the measured and the calculated doses at the lens applicator, as well as the differences between the measured and the calculated doses at the surface of the eyelid were acquired. Results: The average difference between the measured and the calculated doses with the applicator was 3.1 ± 1.8 cGy with a micro MOSFET and 2.8 ± 1.3 cGy with a standard MOSFET. The average difference without the lens applicator was 4.8 ± 5.2 cGy with the micro MOSFET and 5.7 ± 6.5 cGy with the standard MOSFET. The maximum difference with the micro MOSFET was 10.5 cGy with the applicator and 21.1 cGy without the applicator. For the standard MOSFET, it was 6.8 cGy with the applicator and 27.6 cGy without the applicator. Conclusion: The lens applicator allowed reduction of the differences between the calculated and the measured doses during in vivo measurement for the lens compared with in vivo measurement at the surface of the eyelid. Advances in knowledge: By using an applicator for in vivo dosimetry of the eye lens, it was possible to reduce the measurement uncertainty. PMID:25111733

  13. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy, Part I: Absorbed dose measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Binns, P.J.; Riley, K.J.; Harling, O.K.

    2005-12-15

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 {mu}g g{sup -1} that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study.

  14. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study. PMID:16475772

  15. Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: A Preliminary Study for microCT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Garcia, C.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.

    2006-09-08

    Preliminary measurements for microCT dosimetry are reported in this work, using TLD-100 crystals (1x1x1 mm3) within a solid water phantom specially designed with approximate dimensions of a mouse. A dose dependence as a function of radial distance and position along the axis of the phantom was found. Because of the smaller doses used in this work we can say that it is feasible to perform dosimetry measurements with high accuracy using TLD-100 microcubes.

  16. Radiation dosimetry of a conformal heat-brachytherapy applicator.

    PubMed

    Taschereau, Richard; Stauffer, Paul R; Hsu, I-Chow; Schlorff, Jaime L; Milligan, Andrew J; Pouliot, Jean

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the radiation dosimetric characteristics of a new combination applicator for delivering heat and radiation simultaneously to large area superficial disease <1.5 cm deep. The applicator combines an array of brachytherapy catheters (for radiation delivery) with a conformal printed circuit board microwave antenna array (for heat generation), and a body-conforming 5-10 mm thick temperature-controlled water bolus. The rationale for applying both modalities simultaneously includes the potential for significantly higher response rate due to enhanced synergism of modalities, and lower peak toxicity due to temporal extension of heat and radiation induced toxicities. Treatment plans and radiation dosimetry are calculated with IPSA (an optimization tool developed at UCSF) for 15 x 15 cm(2) and 35 x 24 cm(2) applicators, lesion thicknesses of 5 to 15 mm, flat and curved surfaces, and catheter separation of 5 and 10 mm. The effect on skin dose of bolus thickness and presence of thin copper antenna structures between radiation source and tissue are also evaluated. Results demonstrate the ability of the applicator to provide conformal radiation dose coverage for up to 15 mm deep target volumes under the applicator. For clinically acceptable plans, tumor coverage is > 98%, homogeneity index > 0.95 and the percentage of normal tissue irradiated is < 20%. The dose gradient at the skin surface varies from 3 to 5 cGy/mm depending on bolus thickness and lesion depth. Attenuation of the photon beam by the printed circuit antenna array is of the order 0.25% and secondary electron emissions are absorbed completely within 5 mm of water bolus and plastic layers. Both phenomena can then be neglected in dose calculations allowing commercial software to be used for treatment planning. This novel applicator should prove useful for the treatment of diffuse chestwall disease located over contoured anatomy that may be difficult to treat with single field

  17. EPR retrospective dosimetry with fingernails: report on first application cases.

    PubMed

    Trompier, Francois; Queinnec, François; Bey, Eric; De Revel, Thierry; Lataillade, Jean Jacques; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    For localized irradiation to hands, in case of sources accidentally handled, it is very difficult to estimate the dose distribution by calculation. Doses may reach several tens of grays, and the dose distribution is usually very heterogeneous. Until recently, doses in such situations could be estimated only by analysis of bone biopsies using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This technique was used previously on surgical wastes or after amputation of a finger. In this case, the dose information was available in one or a few locations on the hand only, due to the limited number of biopsy fragments usually collected. The idea to measure free radicals (FRs) induced by radiation in nails to estimate a dose is not new, but up to now, no application cases were reported. As a matter of fact, the EPR analysis of nails is complex due to the presence of intrinsic signals and parasitic signals induced by the mechanical stress (when nails are collected), which overlaps the radio-induced components. In addition, the radio-induced FRs identified up to now are unstable and very sensitive to humidity. In these conditions, it was difficult to foresee any application for dosimetry with fingernails. Recently, stable radio-induced FRs in nails has been identified and an associated protocol for dose assessment developed. This protocol has been applied by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire on fingernail samples from victims of three different radiological accidents that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in different places. PMID:24776914

  18. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  19. The application of thermoluminescence dosimetry in X-ray energy discrimination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, V K; Holloway, L; McLean, I D

    2015-12-01

    Clinical dosimetry requires an understanding of radiation energy to accurately determine the delivered dose. For many situations this is known, however there are also many situations where the radiation energy is not well known, thus limiting dosimetric accuracy. This is the case in personnel dosimetry where thermo luminescent (TL) dosimetry is the method of choice. Traditionally beam energy characteristics in personnel dosimetry are determined through discrimination with the use of various filters fitted within a radiation monitor. The presence of scattered and characteristic radiation produced by these metallic filters, however, can compromise the results. In this study the TL response of five materials TLD100, TLD100H, TLD200, TLD400 and TLD500, was measured at various X-ray energies. The TL sensitivity ratio for various combinations of materials as a function of X-ray energy was calculated. The results indicate that in personal dosimetry a combination of three or more TL detector system has a better accuracy of estimation of effective radiation energy of an X-ray beam than some of the current method of employed for energy estimation and has the potential to improve the accuracy in dose determination in a variety of practical situations. The development of this method also has application in other fields including quality assurance of the orthovoltage therapy machines, dosimetry intercomparisons of kilovoltage X-ray beams, and measurement of the dose to critical organs outside a treatment field of a megavoltage therapy beam. PMID:26330215

  20. Applicability study on existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Kojima, Takuji; Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-12-01

    Applicability of the existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation was investigated through a dose intercomparison study, where several dosimeters were irradiated in the dose range 4-12 kGy in identical polyethylene phantoms in a Bremsstrahlung beam obtained from a 5-MeV electron accelerator. Included in the study were alanine dosimeters molded by three different binders, three types of liquid dosimeters—ceric-cerous, dichromate and ethanol-chlorobenzen (ECB), and glutamine powder. The dosimeter responses for Bremsstrahlung radiation were analyzed at the issuing laboratories, and the dose values determined using calibration based on cobalt-60 gamma-ray irradiation. Dose values for all the three dose levels for all dosimetry systems were in good agreement—better than 3%. The results of the study demonstrate that these existing dosimetry systems have a potential for application to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation.

  1. Application of the LEPRICON methodology to LWR pressure vessel surveillance dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Maerker, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A second example of applying the LEPRICON methodology to an existing pressurized water reactor is described. The present application is an analysis of ad hoc dosimetry inserted into the H.B. Robinson-2 reactor to monitor the effects on pressure vessel fluence produced by the introduction of a low-leakage fuel management scheme during cycle 9. The use of simultaneous dosimetry at both a downcomer location and in the reactor cavity allows a quantitative evaluation to be made by the LEPRICON procedure of the relative merits of each location, and the cavity location is found to be superior.

  2. Application of passive dosimetry for detection of leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    DeGiano, F.A.; Leith, D.; Elliott, D.W.; Pate, B.; Napfel, C.M.

    1992-06-01

    Several modifications to conventional uses of passive dosimetry in industrial hygiene were explored to make the method attractive for both long-term monitoring of underground storage tanks and short-term site assessments of ground water contamination. Methods for both vapor and aqueous phase measurements were of interest. In addition, a colorimetric method was tried to eliminate the need for return of the dosimeter to the laboratory for chemical analysis. The results suggest that passive dosimetry can be a useful qualitative tool for the mapping of the sub-surface of a contaminated area. It is recommended that the dosimeter be used for short-term site-assessments, rather than long-term compliance monitoring applications. A more extensive comparison with other methods of leak detection than was possible in the research may be needed before convincing the private sector to develop a product based on commercial use of these prototype dosimetry devices.

  3. The fission track detector revisited: application to individual neutron dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Prêtre, S; Aroua, A; Boschung, M; Grecescu, M; Valley, J F; Wernli, C

    1996-08-01

    A system based on fission fragment tracks had previously been developed for individual neutron dosimetry. The dosimeter detects both fast neutrons by means of the 232Th(n,f) reaction, and thermal and albedo neutrons by means of the 235U(n,f) reaction. The fission tracks produced in a plastic foil are chemically etched and counted by spark discharges. The response of the dosimeter has recently been re-investigated in 36 different neutron fields: monoenergetic beams, reference fields near isotopic sources, and radiation fields encountered in a variety of situations inside nuclear power plants. The results obtained have been compared to those computed by convolution of the neutron spectra with the energy response functions of the dosimeters. In practical situations, it is essential to know the shape of the neutron spectrum, approximately at least, in order to perform an acceptably accurate dose evaluation. For that purpose, the neutron fields encountered inside nuclear power plants have been grouped into four categories, for which algorithms for dose evaluation have been developed. Concerning the neutron equivalent dose, the error associated with this approach does not exceed a factor of 2, a performance which is comparable to other detection systems used in the field of individual neutron dosimetry. PMID:8690594

  4. A parameterization method and application in breast tomosynthesis dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To present a parameterization method based on singular value decomposition (SVD), and to provide analytical parameterization of the mean glandular dose (MGD) conversion factors from eight references for evaluating breast tomosynthesis dose in the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) protocol and in the UK, European, and IAEA dosimetry protocols.Methods: MGD conversion factor is usually listed in lookup tables for the factors such as beam quality, breast thickness, breast glandularity, and projection angle. The authors analyzed multiple sets of MGD conversion factors from the Hologic Selenia Dimensions quality control manual and seven previous papers. Each data set was parameterized using a one- to three-dimensional polynomial function of 2–16 terms. Variable substitution was used to improve accuracy. A least-squares fit was conducted using the SVD.Results: The differences between the originally tabulated MGD conversion factors and the results computed using the parameterization algorithms were (a) 0.08%–0.18% on average and 1.31% maximum for the Selenia Dimensions quality control manual, (b) 0.09%–0.66% on average and 2.97% maximum for the published data by Dance et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1211–1219 (1990); ibid. 45, 3225–3240 (2000); ibid. 54, 4361–4372 (2009); ibid. 56, 453–471 (2011)], (c) 0.74%–0.99% on average and 3.94% maximum for the published data by Sechopoulos et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 221–232 (2007); J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 9, 161–171 (2008)], and (d) 0.66%–1.33% on average and 2.72% maximum for the published data by Feng and Sechopoulos [Radiology 263, 35–42 (2012)], excluding one sample in (d) that does not follow the trends in the published data table.Conclusions: A flexible parameterization method is presented in this paper, and was applied to breast tomosynthesis dosimetry. The resultant data offer easy and accurate computations of MGD conversion factors for evaluating mean glandular breast dose in the MQSA

  5. COSL dosimetry for application to on-site inspections: A technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.W.; Drigert, M.W.

    1993-08-01

    A technical review has been conducted of the cooled optically-stimulated luminescence (COSL) technique for high-dynamic-range dosimetry. Hardware and data presented by the technology developers have been examined. Applications of the COSL technology to tasks in treaty verification are identified, and possible problems in implementing the applications are discussed. Recommendations are presented for follow-on studies to resolve unanswered questions regarding the use of COSL in treaty verification.

  6. Post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT - part 2: dose-response and tumor predictive dosimetry for resin microspheres

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coincidence imaging of low-abundance yttrium-90 (90Y) internal pair production by positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) achieves high-resolution imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution. Part 2 analyzes tumor and non-target tissue dose-response by 90Y PET quantification and evaluates the accuracy of tumor 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) predictive dosimetry. Methods Retrospective dose quantification of 90Y resin microspheres was performed on the same 23-patient data set in part 1. Phantom studies were performed to assure quantitative accuracy of our time-of-flight lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate system. Dose-responses were analyzed using 90Y dose-volume histograms (DVHs) by PET voxel dosimetry or mean absorbed doses by Medical Internal Radiation Dose macrodosimetry, correlated to follow-up imaging or clinical findings. Intended tumor mean doses by predictive dosimetry were compared to doses by 90Y PET. Results Phantom studies demonstrated near-perfect detector linearity and high tumor quantitative accuracy. For hepatocellular carcinomas, complete responses were generally achieved at D70 > 100 Gy (D70, minimum dose to 70% tumor volume), whereas incomplete responses were generally at D70 < 100 Gy; smaller tumors (<80 cm3) achieved D70 > 100 Gy more easily than larger tumors. There was complete response in a cholangiocarcinoma at D70 90 Gy and partial response in an adrenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastasis at D70 53 Gy. In two patients, a mean dose of 18 Gy to the stomach was asymptomatic, 49 Gy caused gastritis, 65 Gy caused ulceration, and 53 Gy caused duodenitis. In one patient, a bilateral kidney mean dose of 9 Gy (V20 8%) did not cause clinically relevant nephrotoxicity. Under near-ideal dosimetric conditions, there was excellent correlation between intended tumor mean doses by predictive dosimetry and those

  7. Application of spherical diodes for megavoltage photon beams dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Barbés, Benigno; Azcona, Juan D.; Burguete, Javier; Martí-Climent, Josep M.

    2014-01-15

    using the spherical diode described in this work show its feasibility for the dosimetry of megavoltage photon beams. A particularly important feature is its good angular response in the MV range. They would be good candidates forin vivo dosimetry, and quality assurance of VMAT and tomotherapy, and other modalities with beams irradiating from multiple orientations, such as Cyberknife and ViewRay, with minor modifications.

  8. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  9. Dosimetry of low energy proton beams for use in spacecraft parts testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent Dosimeters tes (TLD) were used to measure proton fluences consisting of 5MeV or lower energies. The results were at variance with the corresponding gamma measurements. The results of experiments on low energy proton dosimetry using LiF-in-teflon microrods (TLD-700 or LiF-7), are presented.

  10. Gel Dosimetry Analysis of Gold Nanoparticle Application in Kilovoltage Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, T.; Schwarcke, M.; Garrido, C.; Zucolot, V.; Baffa, O.; Nicolucci, P.

    2010-11-01

    In this work gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were embedded in MAGIC-f gel and irradiated in a 250 kV x-ray clinical beam. The signal of non-irradiated gel samples containing AuNPs showed maximum difference of 0.5% related to gel without nanoparticles. Different AuNPs concentrations were studied: 0.10 mM, 0.05 mM and 0.02 mM, presenting dose enhancements of 106%, 90% and 77% respectively. Monte Carlo spectrometry was performed to quantify theoretical changes in photon energy spectrums due to AuNPs presence. Concordance between simulated dose enhancements and gel dosimetry measurements was better than 97% to all concentrations studied. This study evidences that polymer gel dosimetry as a suitable tool to perform dosimetric investigations of nanoparticle applications in Radiation Therapy.

  11. The application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P to large scale personnel dosimetry: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, M; St John, T J; Cassata, J R; Blake, P K; Rotunda, J E; Ramlo, M; Velbeck, K J; Luo, L Z

    2006-01-01

    LiF:Mg,Cu,P is starting to replace LiF:Mg,Ti in a variety of personnel dosimetry applications. LiF:Mg,Cu,P has superior characteristics as compared to LiF:Mg,Ti including, higher sensitivity, improved energy response for photons, lack of supralinearity and insignificant fading. The use of LiF:Mg,Cu,P in large scale dosimetry programs is of particular interest due to the extreme sensitivity of this material to the maximum readout temperature, and the variety of different dosimetry aspects and details that must be considered for a successful implementation in routine dosimetry. Here we discuss and explain the various aspects of large scale LiF:Mg,Cu,P based dosimetry programs including the properties of the TL material, new generation of TLD readers, calibration methodologies, a new generation of dose calculation algorithms based on the use of artificial neural networks and the overall uncertainty of the dose measurement. The United States Navy (USN) will be the first US dosimetry processor who will use this new material for routine applications. Until June 2002, the Navy used two types of thermoluminescent materials for personnel dosimetry, CaF2:Mn and LiF:Mg,Ti. A program to upgrade the system and to implement LiF:Mg,Cu,P, started in the mid 1990s and was recently concluded. In 2002, the new system replaced the LiF:Mg,Ti and is scheduled to start replacing the CaF2:Mn system in 2006. A pilot study to determine the dosimetric performance of the new LiF:Mg,Cu,P based dosimetry system was recently completed, and the results show the new system to be as good or better than the current system in all areas tested. As a result, LiF:Mg,Cu,P is scheduled to become the primary personnel dosimeter for the entire US Navy in 2006. PMID:16835277

  12. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, A. S.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al2O3:C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al2O3:C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF3:Eu2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al2O3:C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice for point dose

  13. Thermoluminescence in CVD diamond films: application to actinometric dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Flores, M; Meléndrez, R; Chernov, V; Castañeda, B; Pedroza-Montero, M; Gan, B; Ahn, J; Zhang, Q; Yoon, S F

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is considered a tissue-equivalent material since its atomic number (Z =6) is close to the effective atomic number of biological tissue (Z =7.42). Such a situation makes it suitable for radiation detection purposes in medical applications. In the present work the analysis is reported of the thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric features of chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond film samples subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the actinometric region. The TL glow curve shows peaks at 120, 220), 320 and 370 degrees C. The 120 and 370 degrees C peaks are too weak and the first one fades away in a few seconds after exposure. The overall room temperature fading shows a 50% TL decay 30 min after exposure. The 320 degrees C glow peak is considered to be the most adequate for dosimetric applications due to its low fading and linear TL behaviour as a function of UV dose in the 180-260 nm range. The TL excitation spectrum presents a broad band with at least two overlapped components around 205 and 220 nm. The results indicate that the TL behaviour of CVD diamond film can be a good alternative to the currently available dosemeter and detector in the actinometric region as well as in clinical and medical applications. PMID:12382917

  14. Polyethylene Naphthalate Scintillator: A Novel Detector for the Dosimetry of Radioactive Ophthalmic Applicators

    PubMed Central

    Flühs, Dirk; Flühs, Andrea; Ebenau, Melanie; Eichmann, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Background Dosimetric measurements in small radiation fields with large gradients, such as eye plaque dosimetry with β or low-energy photon emitters, require dosimetrically almost water-equivalent detectors with volumes of <1 mm3 and linear responses over several orders of magnitude. Polyvinyltoluene-based scintillators fulfil these conditions. Hence, they are a standard for such applications. However, they show disadvantages with regard to certain material properties and their dosimetric behaviour towards low-energy photons. Purpose, Materials and Methods Polyethylene naphthalate, recently recognized as a scintillator, offers chemical, physical and basic dosimetric properties superior to polyvinyltoluene. Its general applicability as a clinical dosimeter, however, has not been shown yet. To prove this applicability, extensive measurements at several clinical photon and electron radiation sources, ranging from ophthalmic plaques to a linear accelerator, were performed. Results For all radiation qualities under investigation, covering a wide range of dose rates, a linearity of the detector response to the dose was shown. Conclusion Polyethylene naphthalate proved to be a suitable detector material for the dosimetry of ophthalmic plaques, including low-energy photon emitters and other small radiation fields. Due to superior properties, it has the potential to replace polyvinyltoluene as the standard scintillator for such applications. PMID:27171681

  15. Geomagnetic cutoffs: a review for space dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    1994-10-01

    The earth's magnetic field acts as a shield against charged particle radiation from interplanetary space, technically described as the geomagnetic cutoff. The cutoff rigidity problem (except for the dipole special case) has "no solution in closed form". The dipole case yields the Stormer equation which has been repeatedly applied to the earth in hopes of providing useful approximations of cutoff rigidities. Unfortunately the earth's magnetic field has significant deviations from dipole geometry, and the Stormer cutoffs are not adequate for most applications. By application of massive digital computer power it is possible to determine realistic geomagnetic cutoffs derived from high order simulation of the geomagnetic field. Using this technique, "world-grids" of directional cutoffs for the earth's surface and for a limited number of satellite altitudes have been derived. However, this approach is so expensive and time consuming it is impractical for most spacecraft orbits, and approximations must be used. The world grids of cutoff rigidities are extensively used as lookup tables, normalization points and interpolation aids to estimate the effective geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of a specific location in space. We review the various options for estimating the cutoff rigidity for earth-orbiting satellites. PMID:11540027

  16. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  17. Verification of Dosimetry Measurements with Timepix Pixel Detectors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroupa, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Idarraga-Munoz, J.; Hoang, S. M.; Semones, E.; Bahadori, A.; Stoffle, N.; Rios, R.; Vykydal, Z.; Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S.; Turecek, D.; Kitamura, H.

    2014-01-01

    The current capabilities of modern pixel-detector technology has provided the possibility to design a new generation of radiation monitors. Timepix detectors are semiconductor pixel detectors based on a hybrid configuration. As such, the read-out chip can be used with different types and thicknesses of sensors. For space radiation dosimetry applications, Timepix devices with 300 and 500 microns thick silicon sensors have been used by a collaboration between NASA and University of Houston to explore their performance. For that purpose, an extensive evaluation of the response of Timepix for such applications has been performed. Timepix-based devices were tested in many different environments both at ground-based accelerator facilities such as HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan), and at NSRL (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY), as well as in space on board of the International Space Station (ISS). These tests have included a wide range of the particle types and energies, from protons through iron nuclei. The results have been compared both with other devices and theoretical values. This effort has demonstrated that Timepix-based detectors are exceptionally capable at providing accurate dosimetry measurements in this application as verified by the confirming correspondence with the other accepted techniques.

  18. Dosimetry of Strontium eye applicator: Comparison of Monte Carlo calculations and radiochromic film measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoues, M.; Khelifi, R.; Moussa, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Strontium-90 eye applicators are a beta-ray emitter with a relatively high-energy (maximum energy about 2.28 MeV and average energy about 0.9 MeV). These applicators come in different shapes and dimensions; they are used for the treatment of eye diseases. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The main aim of our study is to simulate the dosimetry of the SIA.20 eye applicator with Monte Carlo GATE 6.1 platform and to compare the calculated results with those measured with EBT2 films. This means that GATE and EBT2 were used to quantify the surface and depths dose- rate, the relative dose profile and the dosimetric parameters in according to international recommendations. Calculated and measured results are in good agreement and they are consistent with the ICRU and NCS recommendations.

  19. The three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry method: test for a 106Ru eye plaque applicator.

    PubMed

    Kirov, A S; Piao, J Z; Mathur, N K; Miller, T R; Devic, S; Trichter, S; Zaider, M; Soares, C G; LoSasso, T

    2005-07-01

    The need for fast, accurate and high resolution dosimetric quality assurance in radiation therapy has been outpacing the development of new and improved 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques. This paper summarizes the efforts to create a novel and potentially very fast, 3D dosimetry method based on the observation of scintillation light from an irradiated liquid scintillator volume serving simultaneously as a phantom material and as a dose detector medium. The method, named three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry (3DSD), uses visible light images of the liquid scintillator volume at multiple angles and applies a tomographic algorithm to a series of these images to reconstruct the scintillation light emission density in each voxel of the volume. It is based on the hypothesis that with careful design and data processing, one can achieve acceptable proportionality between the local light emission density and the locally absorbed dose. The method is applied to a Ru-106 eye plaque immersed in a 16.4 cm3 liquid scintillator volume and the reconstructed 3D dose map is compared along selected profiles and planes with radiochromic film and diode measurements. The comparison indicates that the 3DSD method agrees, within 25% for most points or within approximately 2 mm distance to agreement, with the relative radiochromic film and diode dose distributions in a small (approximately 4.5 mm high and approximately 12 mm diameter) volume in the unobstructed, high gradient dose region outside the edge of the plaque. For a comparison, the reproducibility of the radiochromic film results for our measurements ranges from 10 to 15% within this volume. At present, the 3DSD method is not accurate close to the edge of the plaque, and further than approximately 10 mm (<10% central axis depth dose) from the plaque surface. Improvement strategies, considered important to provide a more accurate quick check of the dose profiles in 3D for brachytherapy applicators, are discussed. PMID:15972981

  20. The three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry method: test for a 106Ru eye plaque applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, A. S.; Piao, J. Z.; Mathur, N. K.; Miller, T. R.; Devic, S.; Trichter, S.; Zaider, M.; Soares, C. G.; Lo Sasso, T.

    2005-07-01

    The need for fast, accurate and high resolution dosimetric quality assurance in radiation therapy has been outpacing the development of new and improved 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques. This paper summarizes the efforts to create a novel and potentially very fast, 3D dosimetry method based on the observation of scintillation light from an irradiated liquid scintillator volume serving simultaneously as a phantom material and as a dose detector medium. The method, named three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry (3DSD), uses visible light images of the liquid scintillator volume at multiple angles and applies a tomographic algorithm to a series of these images to reconstruct the scintillation light emission density in each voxel of the volume. It is based on the hypothesis that with careful design and data processing, one can achieve acceptable proportionality between the local light emission density and the locally absorbed dose. The method is applied to a Ru-106 eye plaque immersed in a 16.4 cm3 liquid scintillator volume and the reconstructed 3D dose map is compared along selected profiles and planes with radiochromic film and diode measurements. The comparison indicates that the 3DSD method agrees, within 25% for most points or within ~2 mm distance to agreement, with the relative radiochromic film and diode dose distributions in a small (~4.5 mm high and ~12 mm diameter) volume in the unobstructed, high gradient dose region outside the edge of the plaque. For a comparison, the reproducibility of the radiochromic film results for our measurements ranges from 10 to 15% within this volume. At present, the 3DSD method is not accurate close to the edge of the plaque, and further than ~10 mm (<10% central axis depth dose) from the plaque surface. Improvement strategies, considered important to provide a more accurate quick check of the dose profiles in 3D for brachytherapy applicators, are discussed.

  1. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  2. Design and Construction of an Optical Computed Tomography Scanner for Polymer Gel Dosimetry Application

    PubMed Central

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mesbahi, Asghar; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Azimirad, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is the only accurate three dimensional (3D) dosimeter that can measure the absorbed dose distribution in a perfect 3D setting. Gel dosimetry by using optical computed tomography (OCT) has been promoted by several researches. In the current study, we designed and constructed a prototype OCT system for gel dosimetry. First, the electrical system for optical scanning of the gel container using a Helium-Neon laser and a photocell was designed and constructed. Then, the mechanical part for two rotational and translational motions was designed and step motors were assembled to it. The data coming from photocell was grabbed by the home-built interface and sent to a personal computer. Data processing was carried out using MATLAB software. To calibrate the system and tune up the functionality of it, different objects was designed and scanned. Furthermore, the spatial and contrast resolution of the system was determined. The system was able to scan the gel dosimeter container with a diameter up to 11 cm inside the water phantom. The standard deviation of the pixels within water flask image was considered as the criteria for image uniformity. The uniformity of the system was about ±0.05%. The spatial resolution of the system was approximately 1 mm and contrast resolution was about 0.2%. Our primary results showed that this system is able to obtain two-dimensional, cross-sectional images from polymer gel samples. PMID:24761377

  3. Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.

    PubMed

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

  4. Application of MOSFET Detectors for Dosimetry in Small Animal Radiography Using Short Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G. Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2008-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

  5. Extension of RAPTOR-M3G to r-θ-z Geometry for Use in Reactor Dosimetry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Melissa A.; Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3-D Geometries) is a new deterministic radiation transport code that was originally developed for x-y-z geometry. The development of the r-θ-z version of RAPTOR-M3G and its application to determine ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a typical 2-loop pressurized water reactor is presented. The neutron dosimetry responses determined from RAPTOR-M3G and TORT 3-D r-θ-z calculations are compared to actual measured responses.

  6. MOSFET dosimetry mission inside the ISS as part of the Matroshka-R experiment.

    PubMed

    Hallil, A; Brown, M; Akatov, Yu; Arkhangelsky, V; Chernykh, I; Mitrikas, V; Petrov, V; Shurshakov, V; Tomi, L; Kartsev, I; Lyagushin, V

    2010-03-01

    Radiation measurements of surface and deep organ doses were performed aboard the International Space Station, for the period of January 2006 to April 2007, using a MOSFET dosimetry system combined with the Matroshka-R spherical phantom. The averaged internal and surface dose rates are found to be 0.19 and 0.29 mGy d(-1), respectively. The levels of radiation dose to blood-forming organs (BFO) and to surface organs are compared with recommended safe limits. The maximum measured BFO dose has an average dose rate of 0.23 mGy d(-1) (84 mGy y(-1)), corresponding to 44 % of the recommended annual limit of 0.5 Sv, for a space radiation quality factor of 2.6. The annual surface dose is found to be higher at 126 mGy, corresponding to 16 % of the eye dose limit and to 11 % of the skin dose limit. Doses calculated using the Spenvis software showed deviations of up to 37 % from measurements. PMID:19933696

  7. International Reactor Dosimetry Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-06-28

    Version 00 IRDF-82 contains 620 neutron group cross sections (SAND-II format) based on the ENDF/B-V Special Purpose Dosimetry File as well as other reaction cross sections important for dosimetry applications. In addition, multigroup spectra for ten reference benchmarks are also provided.

  8. Applications, dosimetry and biological interactions of static and time-varying magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenforde, T. S.

    1988-08-01

    The primary topics of this presentation include: (1) the applications of magnetic fields in research, industry, and medical technologies; (2) mechanisms of interaction of static and time-varying magnetic fields with living systems; (3) human health effects of exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields in occupational, medical, and residential settings; and (4) recent advances in the dosimetry of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields. The discussion of these topics is centered about two issues of considerable contemporary interest: (1) potential health effects of the fields used in magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, and (2) the controversial issue of whether exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in the home and workplace leads to an elevated risk of cancer.

  9. Technology transfer from HEP computing to the medical field: overview and application to dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guatelli, S.; Pia, M. G.; Piergentili, M.

    2006-01-01

    We show how nowadays it is possible to achieve the goal of accuracy and fast computation response in radiotherapic dosimetry using MonteCarlo methods, together with a grid computing model. We present a complete, fully functional prototype system for brachytherapy, entirely based on open source software systems originally developed for High Energy Physics experiments. It integrates a Geant4-based simulation component, an AIDA-based dosimetric analysis, a web-based user interface, and distributed processing either on a local computing farm or on geographically spread nodes. Thanks to the object-oriented approach adopted for the architecture, the work presented can be easily extended to become a general purpose dosimetric system, capable to address all radiotherapic techniques. An extension for application to dosimetric studies for IMRT is in progress.

  10. Development of europium doped BaSO4 TL OSL dual phosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results on the preparation and characterization of Europium-doped Barium sulfate (BaSO4: Eu) TL /OSL dual phosphor. The OSL sensitivity was found to be 11% of the commercially available Al2O3: C, using area integration method. The sample also shows good TL sensitivity and the dosimetric peak appears around 190°C with a shoulder at 282°C. After OSL readout, No change in the TL glow curve is observed. Since the observed TL peaks are not responsible for the observed OSL, good OSL as well as TL sensitivity and low fading will make this phosphor suitable for applications in radiation dosimetry using OSL as well as TL.

  11. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  12. MOSFET dosimetry mission inside the ISS as part of the MATROSHKA-R experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallil, Abdelbasset; Brown, M.; Tomi, L.

    The space environment contains high-energy ionizing particles, which can be harmful for the International Space Station (ISS) crew members and for instruments in general; this makes the monitoring of space radiation crucial to the success of space missions. Radiation measurements of surface exposure (Skin dose) and deep doses (e. g. to the blood forming organs, BFO) have been performed aboard the ISS from January 2006 to April 2007, using a new MOSFET dosimetry system combined with the Matroshka-R phantom. The experiment consists of a spherical phantom, constructed from a tissue-equivalent material to simulate various astronaut organs inside the space station, and of MOSFET dosimeters placed at different depths inside the phantom. The shielding information for different MOSFET locations, in addition to the orbital information, has been used in ESA software radiation model (SPENVIS) to calculate the dose, and assess the model validity. The Matroshka-MOSFET dose data covers a period of 292 days inside the spherical phantom and 159 days outside the phantom. The monthly averaged dose rate inside-phantom was found to be 0.19 mGy/day, with a maximum daily dose rate of 0.36 mGy/day in August 06. The average dose rate outside-phantom was found to be 0.29 mGy/day (52% higher than inside-phantom). This increase is due to the reduced shielding and to the occurrence of a solar particle event in December 2006, which resulted in 0.47 mGy/day average dose rate. These results are comparable to doses measured by independent radiation detectors in the space station. The levels of radiation dose to BFO and to surface organs were compared to recommended safe limits. The maximum measured BFO dose has a daily average dose rate of 0.23 mGy/day, or 84 mGy per year. For a typical space radiation quality factor QF=2.6, the BFO dose reaches 44% of the recommended limit 0.5 Sv. The annual surface dose was found to be higher at 126 mGy, corresponding to 16.3% of dose limit to the Eye (2 Sv

  13. A survey of physical dosimetry to date and in the near future: Part 1. Review of standards and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Cassata, James R

    2002-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of the relevant standards and current regulatory issues for use of physical dosimetry devices for the occupational worker in the United States. Included is a summary of relevant standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG-Series, the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP), and the U.S. Military Specifications and Standards (MIL-STD). Proposed changes to ANSI N13.11-1993, "American National Standard for Dosimetry-Personnel Dosimetry Performance Criteria for Testing," are listed. The strategic changes that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making in rulemaking activities related to dosimetry and standards are given. The status of Measurement Program Description (MPD) C.18, "Implementation of Electronic Dosimetry for Primary Dosimetry," from the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) is given. PMID:11873507

  14. Three-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry: Application of Radiobiologic Modeling to Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Imaging–Based Internal Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Andrew R.; Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F.; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2010-01-01

    Phantom-based and patient-specific imaging-based dosimetry methodologies have traditionally yielded mean organ-absorbed doses or spatial dose distributions over tumors and normal organs. In this work, radiobiologic modeling is introduced to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose into biologically effective dose and equivalent uniform dose parameters. The methodology is illustrated using data from a thyroid cancer patient treated with radioiodine. Methods Three registered SPECT/CT scans were used to generate 3-dimensional images of radionuclide kinetics (clearance rate) and cumulated activity. The cumulated activity image and corresponding CT scan were provided as input into an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo calculation: The cumulated activity image was used to define the distribution of decays, and an attenuation image derived from CT was used to define the corresponding spatial tissue density and composition distribution. The rate images were used to convert the spatial absorbed dose distribution to a biologically effective dose distribution, which was then used to estimate a single equivalent uniform dose for segmented volumes of interest. Equivalent uniform dose was also calculated from the absorbed dose distribution directly. Results We validate the method using simple models; compare the dose-volume histogram with a previously analyzed clinical case; and give the mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for an illustrative case of a pediatric thyroid cancer patient with diffuse lung metastases. The mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for the tumor were 57.7, 58.5, and 25.0 Gy, respectively. Corresponding values for normal lung tissue were 9.5, 9.8, and 8.3 Gy, respectively. Conclusion The analysis demonstrates the impact of radiobiologic modeling on response prediction. The 57% reduction in the equivalent dose value for the tumor reflects a high level of dose

  15. APPLICATION OF A FINITE-DIFFERENCE TECHNIQUE TO THE HUMAN RADIOFREQUENCY DOSIMETRY PROBLEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A powerful finite difference numerical technique has been applied to the human radiofrequency dosimetry problem. The method possesses inherent advantages over the method of moments approach in that its implementation requires much less computer memory. Consequently, it has the ca...

  16. REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF INHALATION DOSIMETRY METHODS FOR APPLICATION TO CHILDREN'S RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript has been prepared that reviews and compares inhalation dosimetry available to address childrens unique sensitivities. The manuscript has beenpublished in the April, 2005 issue of the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. A supporting workshop to engage e...

  17. Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 OSL nanophosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor was developed by synthesizing a nano phosphor which is treated at 1000 °C. Excellent OSL properties are observed in the developed phosphor and the sensitivity is found to be 1.26 times to that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer Inc.) phosphor based on area integration method. The sample showed a single TL glow peak around 230 °C which is found to reduce by 47% after the OSL readout. Sublinear dose response with the saturation around 100 mGy is observed in this sample which suggests that it is extremely sensitive and hence will be suitable in detecting very low dose levels. Minimum measurable dose on the used set up is estimated to be 1.42 μGy. Practically no fading is observed for first ten days and the phosphor has excellent reusability. High sensitivity, low fading, excellent reusability will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry applications using OSL.

  18. Application of a canine 238Pu biokinetics/dosimetry model to human bioassay data.

    PubMed

    Hickman, A W; Griffith, W C; Roessler, G S; Guilmette, R A

    1995-03-01

    Associated with the use of 238Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes is the potential for human exposure, primarily by inhalation and most likely as 238PuO2. Several models have been developed for assessing the level of intake and predicting the resulting radiation dose following human exposure to 239Pu. However, there are indications that existing models do not adequately describe the disposition and dosimetry of 238Pu following human exposure. In this study, a canine model that accounts for these differences has been adapted for use with human excretion data. The model is based on existing knowledge about organ retention of plutonium. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to changes in aerosol-associated properties indicated that predictions of urinary excretion are most sensitive to changes in particle solubility and diameter and in the ratio of fragment:particle surface area. Application of the model to urinary excretion data from seven workers exposed to a 238Pu ceramic aerosol gave estimated intakes of 390-8,200 Bq and associated initial pulmonary burdens of 80-1,700 Bq. The resulting 50-y dose commitments to critical organs per Bq of 238Pu intake were estimated to be 0.5 mSv for the thoracic region, 0.2 mSv for the liver, and 1 mSv for the bone surfaces. PMID:7860307

  19. Potential use of P-32 ophthalmic applicator: Monte Carlo simulations for design and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yang Kyun; Ye, Sung-Joon; Kim, Il Han; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Mee Kum; Han, Hyon Soo; Son, Kwang-Jae; Park, Ul Jae

    2008-05-15

    Postoperative {beta}-irradiation after pterygium excision has been considered a valuable therapeutic procedure to reduce the recurrence rate. Recently, it was reported that {beta}-irradiation also substantially reduced the risk of surgical failure after glaucoma surgery. Pure {beta}-irradiation using a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator has been almost exclusively used for this purpose. As an alternative to {sup 90}Sr/Y {beta}-irradiation, we propose treatment with betas of a {sup 32}P source. While {sup 32}P has a lower maximum energy (1.71 MeV) than {sup 90}Sr/Y (2.27 MeV), it has an average energy comparable to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. Furthermore, it can be produced easily in a nuclear reactor by neutron activation and is considered a less hazardous material. Monte Carlo simulations for the dosimetry of proposed {sup 32}P applicators were performed using the MCNP5 code. The structure and dimension of the {sup 32}P applicators were based on those of the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicators currently available, while medical plastic encapsulation and liquid source were chosen to enhance {beta}-dose to the surface of the conjunctiva. The {sup 32}P applicator showed that the surface dose distribution (up to 0.75 mm depth) is very similar to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. However, beyond 0.75 mm depth, the {sup 32}P doses decrease with depths more rapidly than {sup 90}Sr/Y doses. In order to achieve the same surface dose rate, the required {sup 32}P activity is about three times that for a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. We conclude that the proposed {sup 32}P applicator can deliver therapeutic doses to the target lesion while sparing the lens better than the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. The {sup 32}P activity required to deliver therapeutic doses can be produced in a 30 MW reactor available at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

  20. Inhalation reference dose (RfDi): An application of interspecies dosimetry modeling for risk assessment of insoluble particles

    SciTech Connect

    Jarabek, A.M.; Menache, M.G.; Overton, H.; Dourson, M.L.; Miller, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate extrapolation of animal toxicity data for human health risk assessment requires determination of the effective dose to the target tissue and the sensitivity of the target tissue to that dose. The methodology for deriving reference doses (the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) benchmark values for gauging systemic toxicity) for oral exposures has not included dosimetry modeling. Dosimetry data facilitate evaluation of concentration-response data with respect to the dose-response relationships used in quantitative risk assessment. Extension of the methodology to derivation of inhalation reference doses (RfDi) should account for the dynamics of the respiratory system as the portal of entry. The paper presents a method for calculating a dosimetric adjustment factor based on the values for the initial deposited dose of insoluble particles in an animal species and in humans. The application for insoluble particles illustrates the feasibility of interspecies dosimetry calculations for extrapolating the toxicological results of inhaled agents to human exposure conditions for more accurate risk estimation.

  1. Inhalation reference dose (RfDi): an application of interspecies dosimetry modeling for risk assessment of insoluble particles.

    PubMed

    Jarabek, A M; Menache, M G; Overton, J H; Dourson, M L; Miller, F J

    1989-01-01

    Accurate extrapolation of animal toxicity data for human health risk assessment requires determination of the effective dose to the target tissue and the sensitivity of the target tissue to that dose. The methodology for deriving reference doses [the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) benchmark values for gauging systemic toxicity] for oral exposures has not included dosimetry modeling. Dosimetry data facilitate evaluation of concentration-response data with respect to the dose-response relationships used in quantitative risk assessment. Extension of this methodology to derivation of inhalation reference doses (RfDi) should account for the dynamics of the respiratory system as the portal of entry. Predictive physiologically based modeling of the inhalation of reactive gases has recently been demonstrated (Overton and Miller 1988). Models that describe the deposition of hygroscopic particles and account for chemical factors that affect clearance mechanisms and gas uptake are under development. This paper presents a method for calculating a dosimetric adjustment factor based on the values for the initial deposited dose of insoluble particles in an animal species and in humans. The ratio of these two values serves as a scaling factor that can be applied in the R f D methodology to account for the dosimetric differences in the inhaled deposited dose. This application for insoluble particles illustrates the feasibility of interspecies dosimetry calculations for extrapolating the toxicological results of inhaled agents to human exposure conditions for more accurate risk estimation. PMID:2606680

  2. Inhalation reference dose (RfDi): An application of interspecies dosimetry modeling for risk assessment of insoluble particles

    SciTech Connect

    Jarabek, A.M.; Menache, M.G.; Overton, J.H. Jr.; Dourson, M.L.; Miller, F.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Accurate extrapolation of animal toxicity data for human health risk assessment requires determination of the effective dose to the target tissue and the sensitivity of the target tissue to that dose. The methodology for deriving reference doses (the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) benchmark values for gauging systemic toxicity) for oral exposures has not included dosimetry modeling. Dosimetry data facilitate evaluation of concentration-response data with respect to the dose-response relationships used in quantitative risk assessment. Extension of this methodology to derivation of inhalation reference doses (RfDi) should account for the dynamics of the respiratory system as the portal of entry. Predictive physiologically based modeling of the inhalation of reactive gases has recently been demonstrated. Models that describe the deposition of hygroscopic particles and account for chemical factors that affect clearance mechanisms and gas uptake are under development. This paper presents a method for calculating a dosimetric adjustment factor based on the values for the initial deposited dose of insoluble particles in an animal species and in humans. The ratio of these two values serves as a scaling factor that can be applied in the R f D methodology to account for the dosimetric differences in the inhaled deposited dose. This application for insoluble particles illustrates the feasibility of interspecies dosimetry calculations for extrapolating the toxicological results of inhaled agents to human exposure conditions for more accurate risk estimation.

  3. TG-69: radiographic film for megavoltage beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sujatha; Das, Indra J; Dempsey, James F; Lam, Kwok L; Losasso, Thomas J; Olch, Arthur J; Palta, Jatinder R; Reinstein, Lawrence E; Ritt, Dan; Wilcox, Ellen E

    2007-06-01

    TG-69 is a task group report of the AAPM on the use of radiographic film for dosimetry. Radiographic films have been used for radiation dosimetry since the discovery of x-rays and have become an integral part of dose verification for both routine quality assurance and for complex treatments such as soft wedges (dynamic and virtual), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and small field dosimetry like stereotactic radiosurgery. Film is convenient to use, spatially accurate, and provides a permanent record of the integrated two dimensional dose distributions. However, there are several challenges to obtaining high quality dosimetric results with film, namely, the dependence of optical density on photon energy, field size, depth, film batch sensitivity differences, film orientation, processing conditions, and scanner performance. Prior to the clinical implementation of a film dosimetry program, the film, processor, and scanner need to be tested to characterize them with respect to these variables. Also, the physicist must understand the basic characteristics of all components of film dosimetry systems. The primary mission of this task group report is to provide guidelines for film selection, irradiation, processing, scanning, and interpretation to allow the physicist to accurately and precisely measure dose with film. Additionally, we present the basic principles and characteristics of film, processors, and scanners. Procedural recommendations are made for each of the steps required for film dosimetry and guidance is given regarding expected levels of accuracy. Finally, some clinical applications of film dosimetry are discussed. PMID:17654924

  4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  5. Application of a new dosimetry formalism to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Karen E.; Bedford, James L.

    2009-12-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) offers a challenge to classical dosimetry protocols as the beams are dynamic in orientation and aperture shape and may include small apertures. The aim of this paper is to apply a formalism to VMAT beams that has recently been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) working party to improve the dosimetry for small and non-standard fields. We investigated three possible fields and assessed their suitability as plan class specific reference (pcsr) fields. The factors in the new dosimetry formalism were investigated: the conversion of dose to water from the conventional reference field to the pcsr and then from the pcsr to a treatment plan, using a PTW semiflex chamber, two Farmer chambers and an electron diode. Finally, the dose was compared for Alanine, the new formalism and calculated using Pinnacle3 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) for two typical clinical VMAT beams. Correction factors between the reference field and the pcsr determined with Alanine range from 0.1% to 2.3% for the three pcsr fields. Dose to water measured using the calibrated ionization chambers is less than 2% different to the dose calculated by Pinnacle3. VMAT planning and delivery procedures have been successfully implemented and a new dosimetry protocol has been investigated for this new technique. Calibration factors for pcsr fields are found to be up to 2.3% different when using the new formalism, compared to using a standard dosimetry protocol. Using the calibration factors determined in the pcsr fields, the ionization chambers and electron diode agree to within 1% with Alanine dosimetry for two clinical VMAT plans. Good agreements between calculations and measurements are found for these two plans when the new formalism is used.

  6. 4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  7. A survey of physical dosimetry to date and in the near future: Part 2. Review of commercially available products.

    PubMed

    Cassata, James R

    2002-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of physical dosimetry for the occupational worker. The review of commercially available physical dosimetry systems was limited to the following technologies: thermoluminescent dosimeters, electronic personnel dosimeters, optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters, and direction ion storage dosimeters. Product reviews were limited to the top models and largest commercial manufacturers in each category. The physical principles of each dosimeter type are discussed. Information was gathered from journal literature, by direct experience, and by inviting six commercial vendors to present their newest technologies. Each system was found to have strengths and weaknesses. Many of the technologies presented by major vendors were still in development and thus could be considered near-future systems. PMID:11873508

  8. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel; Jan, Sébastien; Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; and others

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  9. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Sarrut, David; Bardiès, Manuel; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Jan, Sébastien; Létang, Jean-Michel; Loudos, George; Maigne, Lydia; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; Schaart, Dennis R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Buvat, Irène

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same framework is emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities. PMID:24877844

  10. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  11. Direct reading measurement of absorbed dose with plastic scintillators--the general concept and applications to ophthalmic plaque dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Flühs, D; Heintz, M; Indenkämpen, F; Wieczorek, C

    1996-03-01

    We have developed dosemeters based on plastic scintillators for a variety of applications in radiation therapy. The dosemeters consist basically of a tissue-substituting scintillator probe, an optical fiber light guide, and a photomultiplier tube. The background light generated in the light guide can be compensated by a simultaneous measurement of the light from a blind fiber. Plastic scintillator dosemeters combine several advantageous properties which render them superior to other dosemeter types for many applications: minimal disturbance of the radiation field because of the homogeneous detector volume and the approximate water equivalence; no dependence on temperature and pressure (under standard clinical conditions) and angle of radiation incidence; no high voltage in the probe; high spatial resolution due to small detector volumes; direct reading of absorbed doses; and a large dynamical range. The high spatial resolution together with direct reading make these detectors suitable for real-time 3-D dosimetry using multi-channel detector systems. Such a system has been developed for eye plaque dosimetry and successfully employed for dosimetric treatment optimization. The plaque optimization can be performed by dosimetric measurements for the individual patient ("dosimetric treatment planning"). The time consumption for this procedure is less than for a physically correct computer-based therapy planning, e.g., by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:8815386

  12. Testis dosimetry in individual patients by combining a small-scale dosimetry model and pharmacokinetic modeling-application of 111In-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin®)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerkhan, Suaad A.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-12-01

    A heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons in the testicles may result in a significant difference between an absorbed dose to the radiosensitive spermatogonia and the mean absorbed dose to the whole testis. This study focused on absorbed dose distribution in patients at a finer scale than normally available in clinical dosimetry, which was accomplished by combining a small-scale dosimetry model with patient pharmacokinetic data. The activity in the testes was measured and blood sampling was performed for patients that underwent pre-therapy imaging with 111In-Zevalin®. Using compartment modeling, testicular activity was separated into two components: vascular and extravascular. The uncertainty of absorbed dose due to geometry variations between testicles was explored by an assumed activity micro-distribution and by varying the radius of the interstitial tubule. Results showed that the absorbed dose to germ cells might be strongly dependent on the location of the radioactive source, and may exceed the absorbed dose to the whole testis by as much as a factor of two. Small-scale dosimetry combined with compartmental analysis of clinical data proved useful for gauging tissue dosimetry and interpreting how intrinsic geometric variation influences the absorbed dose.

  13. Wedge-shaped applicator for additional light delivery and dosimetry in the diaphragmal sinus during photodynamic therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veen, R. L. P.; Schouwink, J. H.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; van der Sijp, J. R. M.; Stewart, F. A.; Baas, P.

    2001-07-01

    In situ light dosimetry during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) after tumour resection facilitates the delivery of a controlled light distribution to the inner thoracic surface. Illumination of the diaphragm-induced sinus, however, remains difficult. Our aim was to develop a wedge-shaped light applicator with incorporated light dosimetry to deliver an additional fluence limited to the sinus. The wedge-shaped applicator contains a cylindrical diffuser for light delivery and two isotropic detectors for simultaneous light dosimetry. These detectors were placed at strategic positions where the fluence rate is maximal or minimal (middle and edge). Prior to its clinical use, the performance of the sinus light applicator was tested in several optical tissue phantoms with different optical properties. The fluence rate distribution over the surface of the applicator showed little change when the wedge was submerged in four different optical phantoms. During clinical PDT of MPM the applicator had to be re-located manually four times in order to give an additional fluence of approximately 2 J cm-2 to the entire sinus. The light applicator enables dosimetry-controlled light delivery for additional illumination of the sinus region that is often under-illuminated during thoracic integral illumination of MPM.

  14. Low-cost flexible thin-film detector for medical dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, P; Abkai, C; Han, Z; Shulevich, Y; Menichelli, D; Hesser, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize dosimetric properties of thin film photovoltaic sensors as a platform for development of prototype dose verification equipment in radiotherapy. Towards this goal, flexible thin-film sensors of dose with embedded data acquisition electronics and wireless data transmission are prototyped and tested in kV and MV photon beams. Fundamental dosimetric properties are determined in view of a specific application to dose verification in multiple planes or curved surfaces inside a phantom. Uniqueness of the new thin-film sensors consists in their mechanical properties, low-power operation, and low-cost. They are thinner and more flexible than dosimetric films. In principle, each thin-film sensor can be fabricated in any size (mm² - cm² areas) and shape. Individual sensors can be put together in an array of sensors spreading over large areas and yet being light. Photovoltaic mode of charge collection (of electrons and holes) does not require external electric field applied to the sensor, and this implies simplicity of data acquisition electronics and low power operation. The prototype device used for testing consists of several thin film dose sensors, each of about 1.5 cm × 5 cm area, connected to simple readout electronics. Sensitivity of the sensors is determined per unit area and compared to EPID sensitivity, as well as other standard photodiodes. Each sensor independently measures dose and is based on commercially available flexible thin-film aSi photodiodes. Readout electronics consists of an ultra low-power microcontroller, radio frequency transmitter, and a low-noise amplification circuit implemented on a flexible printed circuit board. Detector output is digitized and transmitted wirelessly to an external host computer where it is integrated and processed. A megavoltage medical linear accelerator (Varian Tx) equipped with kilovoltage online imaging system and a Cobalt source are used to irradiate different thin

  15. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand; Ranouil, Julien; Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier; Walker, Paul; Brunotte, François

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse

  16. Epid Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  17. Epid Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  18. Commissioning a CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Justus; Newton, Joseph; Yang, Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Chino, Junzo; Craciunescu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the geometric and dose attenuation characteristics of a new commercially available CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid (T&O) applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry. Methods: For geometric characterization, we quantified physical dimensions and investigated a systematic difference found to exist between nominal ovoid angle and the angle at which the afterloading buckets fall within the ovoid. For dosimetric characterization, we determined source attenuation through asymmetric gold shielding in the buckets using Monte Carlo simulations and 3D dosimetry. Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to simulate 1.5 × 109 photon histories from a 137Cs source placed in the bucket to achieve statistical uncertainty of 1% at a 6 cm distance. For 3D dosimetry, the distribution about an unshielded source was first measured to evaluate the system for 137Cs, after which the distribution was measured about sources placed in each bucket. Cylindrical PRESAGE® dosimeters (9.5 cm diameter, 9.2 cm height) with a central channel bored for source placement were supplied by Heuris Inc. The dosimeters were scanned with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT-Scanner before and after delivering a nominal dose at 1 cm of 5–8 Gy. During irradiation the dosimeter was placed in a water phantom to provide backscatter. Optical CT scan time lasted 15 min during which 720 projections were acquired at 0.5° increments, and a 3D distribution was reconstructed with a (0.05 cm)3 isotropic voxel size. The distributions about the buckets were used to calculate a 3D distribution of transmission rate through the bucket, which was applied to a clinical CT-based T&O implant plan. Results: The systematic difference in bucket angle relative to the nominal ovoid angle (105°) was 3.1°–4.7°. A systematic difference in bucket angle of 1°, 5°, and 10° caused a 1% ± 0.1%, 1.7% ± 0.4%, and 2.6% ± 0.7% increase in rectal dose, respectively, with smaller effect to dose to

  19. Commissioning a CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Justus; Newton, Joseph; Yang Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Chino, Junzo; Craciunescu, Oana

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the geometric and dose attenuation characteristics of a new commercially available CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid (T and O) applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry. Methods: For geometric characterization, we quantified physical dimensions and investigated a systematic difference found to exist between nominal ovoid angle and the angle at which the afterloading buckets fall within the ovoid. For dosimetric characterization, we determined source attenuation through asymmetric gold shielding in the buckets using Monte Carlo simulations and 3D dosimetry. Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to simulate 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} photon histories from a {sup 137}Cs source placed in the bucket to achieve statistical uncertainty of 1% at a 6 cm distance. For 3D dosimetry, the distribution about an unshielded source was first measured to evaluate the system for {sup 137}Cs, after which the distribution was measured about sources placed in each bucket. Cylindrical PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} dosimeters (9.5 cm diameter, 9.2 cm height) with a central channel bored for source placement were supplied by Heuris Inc. The dosimeters were scanned with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT-Scanner before and after delivering a nominal dose at 1 cm of 5-8 Gy. During irradiation the dosimeter was placed in a water phantom to provide backscatter. Optical CT scan time lasted 15 min during which 720 projections were acquired at 0.5 Degree-Sign increments, and a 3D distribution was reconstructed with a (0.05 cm){sup 3} isotropic voxel size. The distributions about the buckets were used to calculate a 3D distribution of transmission rate through the bucket, which was applied to a clinical CT-based T and O implant plan. Results: The systematic difference in bucket angle relative to the nominal ovoid angle (105 Degree-Sign ) was 3.1 Degree-Sign -4.7 Degree-Sign . A systematic difference in bucket angle of 1 Degree-Sign , 5 Degree-Sign , and

  20. Application of a radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter for small field dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Aaki, Fujio; Ishidoya, Tatsuya; Ikegami, Tohru; Moribe, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2005-06-15

    We have recently developed a prototypical radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter (GPD) system as a device for small field dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of the GPD system for small field dosimetry. The profiles measured with the GPD were evaluated by comparing them to those from Kodak X-Omat V and GAFCROMIC XR type R film dosimeters for 2, 5, 9, and 15 mm circular collimators created by a linear accelerator-based radiosurgery system. The GPD output factors were compared with those of various detectors including an ion chamber, a p-type silicon diode detector, a glass rod dosimeter (GRD), and a diamond detector. The results measured with the GPD were also confirmed by comparing them to those from Monte Carlo simulations. The accuracy of a simulated beam is validated by the excellent agreement between Monte Carlo calculated and measured central axis depth-dose curves for 9- and 15 mm circular collimators using 4- and 10 MV photon beams. The GPD profiles show almost the same full width at half maximum as those of film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations at 4- and 10 MV photon beams, but a little narrower penumbrae than the film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations. The output factors measured with the GPD are in good agreement with those from a diode detector, a diamond detector, and the GRD with a small active volume and Monte Carlo simulations, except for a very small 2 mm circular collimator. It was found that the GPD is a very useful detector for small field dosimetry.

  1. 20 CFR 801.3 - Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802. 801.3 Section 801.3 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Introductory § 801.3 Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802. Part 802 of...

  2. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Nunez Ochoa, M. A.; Wiart, J.; Peyman, A.; Bloch, I.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties.

  3. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure.

    PubMed

    Dahdouh, S; Varsier, N; Nunez Ochoa, M A; Wiart, J; Peyman, A; Bloch, I

    2016-02-21

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties. PMID:26815765

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  5. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  6. Development of europium doped BaSO{sub 4} TL OSL dual phosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patle, Anita Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents the results on the preparation and characterization of Europium-doped Barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}: Eu) TL /OSL dual phosphor. The OSL sensitivity was found to be 11% of the commercially available Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: C, using area integration method. The sample also shows good TL sensitivity and the dosimetric peak appears around 190°C with a shoulder at 282°C. After OSL readout, No change in the TL glow curve is observed. Since the observed TL peaks are not responsible for the observed OSL, good OSL as well as TL sensitivity and low fading will make this phosphor suitable for applications in radiation dosimetry using OSL as well as TL.

  7. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  8. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

  9. 19 CFR 205.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....S. COMMERCE § 205.1 Applicability of part. This part 205 applies to functions and duties of the Commission under sections 131, 301(e)(3), and 503(a) of the Trade Act of 1974. For other applicable...

  10. 47 CFR 87.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... General Information § 87.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other applicable CFR title 47 parts include: (a... standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining...

  11. In vivo photoacoustic monitoring of photosensitizer in skin: application to dosimetry for antibacterial photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Akihiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    To obtain efficient antibacterial photodynamic effect in traumatic injuries such as burns, depth-resolved dosimetry of photosensitizer is required. In this study, we performed dual-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) measurement for rat burned skins injected with a photosensitizer. As a photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB) or porfimer sodium was injected into the subcutaneous tissue in rats with deep dermal burn. The wound was irradiated with red (665 nm or 630 nm) pulsed light to excite photosensitizers and green (532 nm) pulsed light to excite blood in the tissue; the latter signal was used to eliminate blood-associated component involved in the former signal. Acoustic attenuation was also compensated from the photosensitizer-associated PA signals. These signal processing was effective to obtain high-contrast image of a photosensitizer in the tissue. Behaviors of MB and porfimer sodium in the tissue were compared.

  12. Thermally stimulated currents in polycrystalline diamond films: Application to radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.

    1997-06-01

    Thermally stimulated currents (TSC) were studied in polycrystalline diamond films to gain information about the trap levels in this material. The TSC glow curve is composed of a dominant peak at 555 K with smaller overlapping peaks in the 400-500 K range. The analysis of the TSC isothermal decay at high temperatures shows that the peak at 555 K is related to a trap level at 1.86 eV. The dose response and the room temperature fading rate of TSC were measured in order to evaluate the potential of these films for UV radiation dosimetry. The TSC are found to increase sublinearly with the dose over three decades and to decay with the logarithm of the storage time at room temperature.

  13. Applicability of EPR/alanine dosimetry for quality assurance in proton eye radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Michalec, B; Mierzwinska, G; Ptaszkiewicz, M; Sowa, U; Stolarczyk, L; Weber, A

    2014-06-01

    A new quality assurance and quality control method for proton eye radiotherapy based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetry has been developed. It is based on Spread-Out Bragg Peak entrance dose measurement with alanine detectors. The entrance dose is well correlated with the dose at the facility isocenter, where, during the therapeutic irradiation, the tumour is placed. The unique alanine detector features namely keeping the dose record in a form of stable radiation-induced free radicals trapped in the material structure, and the non-destructive read-out makes this type of detector a good candidate for additional documentation of the patient's exposure over the therapy course. PMID:24876341

  14. Dosimetry in radiotherapy using a-Si EPIDs: Systems, methods, and applications focusing on 3D patient dose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2013-06-01

    An overview is provided of the use of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetric purposes in radiation therapy, focusing on 3D patient dose estimation. EPIDs were originally developed to provide on-treatment radiological imaging to assist with patient setup, but there has also been a natural interest in using them as dosimeters since they use the megavoltage therapy beam to form images. The current generation of clinically available EPID technology, amorphous-silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers, possess many characteristics that make them much better suited to dosimetric applications than earlier EPID technologies. Features such as linearity with dose/dose rate, high spatial resolution, realtime capability, minimal optical glare, and digital operation combine with the convenience of a compact, retractable detector system directly mounted on the linear accelerator to provide a system that is well-suited to dosimetric applications. This review will discuss clinically available a-Si EPID systems, highlighting dosimetric characteristics and remaining limitations. Methods for using EPIDs in dosimetry applications will be discussed. Dosimetric applications using a-Si EPIDs to estimate three-dimensional dose in the patient during treatment will be overviewed. Clinics throughout the world are implementing increasingly complex treatments such as dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, as well as specialized treatment techniques using large doses per fraction and short treatment courses (ie. hypofractionation and stereotactic radiosurgery). These factors drive the continued strong interest in using EPIDs as dosimeters for patient treatment verification.

  15. Verification of the pure alanine in PMMA tube dosimeter applicability for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Al-Karmi, Anan M; Ayaz, Ali Asghar H; Al-Enezi, Mamdouh S; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Dwaikat, Nidal

    2015-09-01

    Alanine dosimeters in the form of pure alanine powder in PMMA plastic tubes were investigated for dosimetry in a clinical application. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure absorbed radiation doses by detection of signals from radicals generated in irradiated alanine. The measurements were performed for low-dose ranges typical for single-fraction doses often used in external photon beam radiotherapy. First, the dosimeters were irradiated in a solid water phantom to establish calibration curves in the dose range from 0.3 to 3 Gy for 6 and 18 MV X-ray beams from a clinical linear accelerator. Next, the dosimeters were placed at various locations in an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom to measure the dose delivery of a conventional four-field box technique treatment plan to the pelvis. Finally, the doses measured with alanine dosimeters were compared against the doses calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The results showed that the alanine dosimeters have a highly sensitive dose response with good linearity and no energy dependence in the dose range and photon beams used in this work. Also, a fairly good agreement was found between the in-phantom dose measurements with alanine dosimeters and the TPS dose calculations. The mean value of the ratios of measured to calculated dose values was found to be near unity. The measured points in the in-field region passed dose-difference acceptance criterion of 3% and those in the penumbral region passed distance-to-agreement acceptance criterion of 3 mm. These findings suggest that the pure alanine powder in PMMA tube dosimeter is a suitable option for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams. PMID:26138456

  16. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  17. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  18. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... version of Part 718 set forth in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 2010, applies to... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of this part. 718.2 Section 718... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. (a) With the exception...

  19. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter. (b) Unless otherwise specified, as used in this subpart “part 36” refers to 14 CFR part 36... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801... § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to part 36. (a) This subpart prescribes operating noise limits...

  20. Mixed field peronnel dosimetry: Part 1, High temperature peak characteristics of the reader-annealed TLD-600

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C. ); Sims, C.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The high temperature peaks (TL peaks 6--7) of TLD-600 are known to have higher responses to high LET radiation than to low LET radiation. These high temperature peak characteristics were studied for the automatic reader-annealed Harshaw albedo neutron TLD. The high temperature peaks response is linear for neutrons over the dose equivalent range tested (0.05--3 mSv of a {sup 252}Cf source moderated by a 15 cm radius polyethylene sphere), but is supralinear above 20 mSv of {sup 137}Cs photons. The peaks ratio (peaks 6--7/peaks 3--5) of TLD-600 is 0.15 for neutrons of any incident energy, 0.01 for {sup 137}Cs gammas, and 0.02 for M-150 x-rays. Based on the high temperature peak characteristics, a mixed field neutron-photon personnel dosimetry methodology using a single TLD-600 element was developed. The dosimetric method was evaluated in mixed {sup 238}PuBe + {sup 137}Cs fields with four neutron-gamma dose equivalent ratios, and the neutron, photon and total dose equivalent estimations are better than 20% except in one case. However, it was found that the neutron and photon dose equivalent estimations are sensitive to the neutron and photon peaks ratios, depending on the neutron-photon dose equivalent ratio and the neutron source in the mixed field. Therefore, a successful use of this method requires knowledge of the photon and neutron energies in the mixed field. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G

    2010-08-01

    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays. PMID:20681781

  2. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  3. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  4. Application of radiation physics to improve dosimetry in early breast cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Ellen Mary

    2005-07-15

    Radiotherapy for early breast cancer has been shown to be a highly effective treatment in a number of long term studies. The radiation dose uniformity of the current standard treatments is often poor, however, with dose variations across the breast much higher than those recommended in international guidelines. This work aimed to explore methods for improving this aspect of the radiation dosimetry of early breast cancer radiotherapy. An experimental method was validated by applying it to computed tomography data from 14 patients with a variety of breast shapes and sizes. The volume of the breast receiving the desired dose levels increased by a mean of 6.9% (range -0.8% to 15.9%) and this benefit was shown to increase with breast volume. The quality of reference images in the verification of treatments was improved by introducing differential filtering to the imaging beams on a radiotherapy simulator. The positive results from the first two studies were applied in a clinical trial (which used the experimental technique). The unique set of data from the trial was analyzed and confirmation of dosimetric improvement, and the increased benefit, for larger breasted women were found. In addition, an analysis of the position of high doses showed these occurred in the upper or lower third of the breast and affected 46% and 30% of patients, respectively, with standard treatment but only 1% of patients with the improved method. Other published methods for improving breast dosimetry were explored by building a simple physical model and carrying out a comparative planning study. The physical model was shown to be effective in predicting the dosimetric consequences of each method. The planning study showed that there was little difference between the methods generally but dosimetric improvement could be increased for larger breast volumes by an appropriate choice of technique. A final study explored how breathing control could be used to reduce cardiac doses in patients with

  5. Development of Kilovoltage X-ray Dosimetry Methods and Their Application to Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, Michael J.

    The increase in popularity of pre-treatment imaging procedures in radiation therapy, such as kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), has been accompanied by an increase in the dose delivered to the patient from these imaging procedures. The measurement of dose from CBCT scans is complicated, as currently available kilovoltage dosimetry protocols are based on air-kerma standards and radiation detectors exhibit large energy responses at the low photon energies used in the imaging procedures. This work aims to provide the tools and methodology needed to measure the dose from these scans more accurately and precisely. Through the use of a validated Monte Carlo (MC) model of the moderately filtered (M-series) x-ray beams at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, dose-to-water rates were obtained in a water phantom for the M-series x-ray beams with tube potentials from 40-250 kVp. The resulting dose-to-water rates were consistent with previously established methods, but had significantly reduced uncertainties. While detectors are commonly used to measure dose in phantom, previous investigations of the energy response of common detectors in the kilovoltage energy range have been limited to in-air geometries. The newly determined dose-to-water rates were used to characterize the in-phantom energy and depth response of thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization chambers. When compared to previous investigations of the in-air detector response, the impact of scatter and absorption of the photon beam by the water medium was found to have a significant impact on the response of certain detectors. The dose to water in the NIST-traceable M-series x-ray beams was transferred to clinical CBCT beams and the resulting doses agreed with other dose-to-water measurement techniques. The dose to water in the CBCT beams was used to characterize the energy and depth responses of a number of detectors. The energy response in the CBCT beams agreed

  6. Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 29. 1. Comparison and evaluation of dosimetry methods applicable to gamma radiation, Nevada Proving Ground. Report for March-June 1953

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, G.V.; Sigoloff, S.C.; Douglas, C.H.; Paglia, D.E.; Heller, C.J.

    1984-10-31

    The three major objectives and parts of this project were to compare and evaluate the accuracy and practicality of chemical vs film and other methods of gamma dosimetry for radiations encountered under bomb conditions at sites receiving (1) either prompt- or residual-gamma exposures or mixtures of both, (2) only residualgamma radiations, either neutron induced or from fission-product fallout, and (3) mixed neutron-gamma irradiation plus correlation with biological effects.

  7. Ion storage dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of a reliable, accurate and cost-effective real-time personnel dosimetry system is fascinating to radiation workers. Electronic dosimeters are contemplated to meet this demand of active dosimetry. The development of direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, a member of the electronic dosimeter family, for personnel dosimetry is also an attempt in this direction. DIS dosimeter is a hybrid of the well-established technology of ion chambers and the latest advances in data storage using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) analog memory device. This dosimeter is capable of monitoring legal occupational radiation doses of gamma, X-rays, beta and neutron radiation. Similar to an ion chamber, the performance of the dosimeter for a particular application can be optimized through the selection of appropriate wall materials. The use of the floating gate of a MOSFET as one of the electrodes of the ion chamber allows the miniaturization of the device to the size of a dosimetry badge and avoids the use of power supplies during dose accumulation. The concept of the device, underlying physics and the design of the DIS dosimeter are discussed. The results of preliminary testing of the device are also provided.

  8. Modeling physicochemical interactions affecting in vitro cellular dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials: application to nanosilver

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Leo, Bey Fen; Royce, Steven G.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Schwander, Stephan; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess unique characteristics affecting their interactions in biological media and biological tissues. Systematic investigation of the effects of particle properties on biological toxicity requires a comprehensive modeling framework which can be used to predict ENM particokinetics in a variety of media. The Agglomeration-diffusion-sedimentation-reaction model (ADSRM) described here is stochastic, using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to study the evolution of nanoparticles in biological media, as they interact with each other and with the media over time. Nanoparticle diffusion, gravitational settling, agglomeration, and dissolution are treated in a mechanistic manner with focus on silver ENMs (AgNPs). The ADSRM model utilizes particle properties such as size, density, zeta potential, and coating material, along with medium properties like density, viscosity, ionic strength, and pH, to model evolving patterns in a population of ENMs along with their interaction with associated ions and molecules. The model predictions for agglomeration and dissolution are compared with in vitro measurements for various types of ENMs, coating materials, and incubation media, and are found to be overall consistent with measurements. The model has been implemented for an in vitro case in cell culture systems to inform in vitro dosimetry for toxicology studies, and can be directly extended to other biological systems, including in vivo tissue subsystems by suitably modifying system geometry. PMID:25598696

  9. OSL and thermally assisted OSL response in dental enamel for its possible application in retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anuj; Mishra, D R; Polymeris, G S; Bhatt, B C; Kulkarni, M S

    2014-11-01

    Dental enamel was studied for its thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) defects. The TL studies showed a wide glow curve with multiple peaks. The thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) studies showed that the integrated TA-OSL and thus OSL signal increases with readout temperature between 100 and 250 °C, due to the temperature dependence of OSL. The thermally assisted energy E A associated with this increase is found to be 0.21 ± 0.015 eV. On the other hand, the signal intensity decreases with temperature between 260 and 450 °C. This decrease could be due to depletion of OSL active traps or possible thermal quenching. The increase of the OSL signal at increased temperature can be used to enhance the sensitivity of dental enamel for ex vivo measurements in retrospective dosimetry. The emission and excitation spectra of its luminescence centers were studied by photoluminescence and were found to be at 412 and 324 nm, respectively. It was found to possess multiple OSL active traps having closely lying photoionization cross sections characterized by continuous wave OSL and nonlinear OSL methods. The investigated dental enamel samples showed a linear OSL dose response up to 500 Gy. The dose threshold was found to be 100 mGy using a highly sensitive compact OSL reader with blue LED (470 nm) stimulation. PMID:24929347

  10. Radiation chemistry of anionic disazo dyes in Cellophane films applications for high-dose dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, William L.

    2003-06-01

    Thin transparent Cellophane films containing anionic disazo "Direct" dyes, e.g. blue Cellophanes, have long been used as monitors of large absorbed doses of ionizing radiation (10-300 kGy) and especially for mapping electron-beam dose profiles. Examples of dyes for such purposes are variations on forms of the disazo dyes, Direct Orange, Direct Violet or Direct Blue. The films have a thickness of 25.6 μm (+0.1 μm) and are available in rolls of either 30 m×0.51 m or 60 m×0.76 m. Such dyed Cellophanes are typically lightfast but can readily be bleached irreversibly by ionizing radiation, as a means of dosimetry using spectrophotometry as the analytical tool. The radiation response is markedly dependent on temperature and relative humidity during irradiation. The reaction is initiated mainly by dehydrogenation and nitrosation upon electrophilic reductive attack on the dye molecule by the thermal electrons, at initial reaction rate constants in the range 10 5-10 6 s -1.

  11. Application of a finite-difference technique to the human radiofrequency dosimetry problem.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, R J; Fatmi, M B; Kunz, K S

    1985-01-01

    A powerful finite-difference numerical technique has been applied to the human radiofrequency dosimetry problem. The method possesses inherent advantages over the method-of-moments approach in that its implementation requires much less computer memory. Consequently, it has the capability to calculate specific absorption rates (SARs) at higher frequencies and provides greater spatial resolution. The method is illustrated by the calculation of the time-domain and frequency-domain SAR responses at selected locations in the chest. The model for the human body is comprised of rectangular cells with dimensions of 4X4X6 cm and dielectric properties that simulate average tissue (2/3 muscle). Additionally, the upper torso (chest) is configured by both homogeneous and inhomogeneous models in which this region is subdivided into 20,736 cells with dimensions of 1X1X1 cm. The homogeneous model of the chest consists of cells with average tissue properties, and the calculated results are compared with measurements acquired from a homogeneous phantom model when the exposure frequency is 350 MHz. For the inhomogeneous chest model the lungs and surrounding region (ribs, spine, sternum, fat, and muscle) are modeled with as much spatial resolution as allowed by the 1X1X1 cm cells. Computed results from the inhomogeneous chest model are compared with the homogeneous model. PMID:3854056

  12. Application of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence from surface soil to retrospective dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroki

    2014-11-01

    A novel pulsed optically stimulated luminescence (P-OSL) instrument was developed. The performance of the instrument was tested using natural quartz extracted from Japanese surface soil and feldspar in mineral specimens. The different P-OSL signals for quartz and feldspar were detected from their decay shape. It was found that the signal from feldspar decayed for 2-3 μs and the signal from quartz was measured at over 50 μs after the LED stimulation was switched off. By using a mixture of quartz and feldspar, the P-OSL protocol was improved to determine the irradiation dose. After irradiating a soil sample, a dose recovery test was conducted and the P-OSL protocol was found to be successful in reconstructing the irradiated dose with an on-time pulse of 4 and 10 μs for quartz and feldspar, respectively. Finally, a soil sample illuminated by a solar simulator was irradiated by a gamma source and then was used in the dose recovery test. The estimated dose agreed with the expected dose. From these results, it can be concluded that P-OSL dosimetry is suitable for the evaluation of the effects of a radiation accident, although further research using actual Japanese surface soil is required to improve the protocol.

  13. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately. PMID:21816724

  14. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580 B Appendix B to Part 1580 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580 B Appendix B to Part 1580 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability...

  17. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the “Holy Gray”

    PubMed Central

    Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

  18. Applicator for light delivery and in situ light dosimetry during endobronchial photodynamic therapy: First measurements in humans.

    PubMed

    Murrer, L H; Marijnissen, J P; Baas, P; Van Zandwijk, N; Star, W M

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a design of an applicator for light delivery and light dosimetry during endobronchial photodynamic therapy (EB-PDT). The design incorporates a linear diffuser that is fixed in the centre of the lumen by a steel spring basket that does not block air flow. An isotropic light detector is included in this design, to measure the light fluence actually delivered to the bronchial mucosa surface. The applicator is designed for use with common bronchoscopy equipment, and can be used with bronchoscopes with a large biopsy channel ( approximately 3 mm). The first clinical measurements were performed and caused no additional discomfort to the (nonphotosensitized) patients. The data showed considerable inter-patient variability of the light fluence rate measured as a result of fixed output power of the diffuser. This fact and the expected strong dependence of the fluence rate on the lumen diameter stress the importance of in situ fluence rate measurement for a proper evaluation of the relationship between light fluence and the biological response of EB-PDT. PMID:20803333

  19. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  20. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... C of part 727 of this subchapter (see 20 CFR 725.4(d)) cannot be approved under that subpart, such... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of this part. 718.2 Section 718... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. With the exception of...

  1. 45 CFR 1110.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of part. 1110.2 Section 1110.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which...

  2. 45 CFR 1110.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of part. 1110.2 Section 1110.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which...

  3. 45 CFR 1110.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of part. 1110.2 Section 1110.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which...

  4. 45 CFR 1110.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application of part. 1110.2 Section 1110.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which...

  5. 45 CFR 1110.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application of part. 1110.2 Section 1110.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which...

  6. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability of this part. This part...

  7. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts... lighting of antenna towers, and the environmental notification process that must be completed before filing certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of...

  8. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts... lighting of antenna towers, and the environmental notification process that must be completed before filing certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of...

  9. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts... lighting of antenna towers, and the environmental notification process that must be completed before filing certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of...

  10. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.1 Applicability of part. This part applies to any program administered by the Secretary...

  11. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Regina K.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR 192Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and 192Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose

  12. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, Regina K. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally

  13. Application of a canine {sup 238}Pu dosimetry model to human bioassay data

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, A.W. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Associated with the use of 2{sup 238}Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes and power supplies for cardiac devices is the potential for human exposure to {sup 238}Pu, primarily by inhalation. In the event of human internal exposure, a means is needed for assessing the level of intake and calculating radiation doses. Several bioassay/dosimetry models have been developed for {sup 239}Pu. However, results from studies with laboratory animals have indicated that the biokinetics, and therefore the descriptive models, of {sup 238}Pu are significantly different from those for {sup 239}Pu. A canine model accounting for these differences has been applied in this work to urinary excretion data from seven humans occupationally exposed to low levels of an insoluble {sup 238}Pu compound. The modified model provides a good description of the urinary excretion kinetics observed in the exposed humans. The modified model was also used to provide estimates of the initial intakes of {sup 238}Pu for the seven individuals; these estimates ranged from 4.5 nCi (170 Bq) to 87 nCi (3200 Bq). Autopsy data on the amount and distribution of {sup 238}Pu retained in the organs may be used in the future to validate or refute both these estimates and the assumptions used to formulate the human model. Modification of the human model to simulate an injection exposure to {sup 239}Pu gave patterns of retention in the organs and urinary excretion comparable to those seen previously in humans; further modification of the model using fecal data (unavailable for the subjects of this study) is indicated.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This Appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  1. A Monte Carlo dosimetry study of vaginal {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy applications with a shielded cylindrical applicator set

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperopoulou, G.; Pantelis, E.; Papagiannis, P.; Rozaki-Mavrouli, H.; Sakelliou, L.; Baltas, D.; Karaiskos, P.

    2004-11-01

    A durable recommendation for brachytherapy treatment planning systems to account for the effect of tissue, applicator and shielding material heterogeneities exists. As different proposed approaches have not been integrated in clinical treatment planning routine yet, currently utilized systems disregard or, most commonly, do not fully account for the aforementioned effects. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the efficacy of current treatment planning in clinical applications susceptible to errors due to heterogeneities. In this work the effect of the internal structure as well as the shielding used with a commercially available cylindrical shielded applicator set (Nucletron part no. 084.320) for vaginal and rectum treatments is studied using three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation for a clinical treatment plan involving seven source dwell positions of the classic microSelectron HDR {sup 192}Ir source. Results are compared to calculations of a treatment planning system (Plato BPS v.14.2.7), which assumes homogeneous water medium and applies a constant, multiplicative transmission factor only at points lying in the shadow of the shield. It is found that the internal structure of the applicator (which includes stainless steel, air and plastic materials) with no shield loaded does not affect the dose distribution relative to homogeneous water. In the unshielded side of the applicator with a 90 deg., 180 deg., or 270 deg. tungsten alloy shield loaded, an overestimation of treatment planning system calculations relative to Monte Carlo results was observed which is both shield and position dependent. While significant (up to 15%) at increased distances, which are not of major clinical importance, this overestimation does not affect dose prescription distances by more than 3%. The inverse effect of approx. 3% dose increase at dose prescription distances is observed for stainless steel shields. Regarding the shielded side of the applicator, it is shown that the

  2. Radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists. PMID:2040250

  3. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts... requirements for construction, marking, and lighting of antenna towers. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of... contains rules relating to commercial mobile radio services. (i) Part 20 which governs commercial...

  4. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.1 Applicability of part. This part establishes classifications of air carriers known as “air taxi operators” and “commuter...

  5. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  6. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  7. PET/CT image registration: Preliminary tests for its application to clinical dosimetry in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Banos-Capilla, M. C.; Garcia, M. A.; Bea, J.; Pla, C.; Larrea, L.; Lopez, E.

    2007-06-15

    The quality of dosimetry in radiotherapy treatment requires the accurate delimitation of the gross tumor volume. This can be achieved by complementing the anatomical detail provided by CT images through fusion with other imaging modalities that provide additional metabolic and physiological information. Therefore, use of multiple imaging modalities for radiotherapy treatment planning requires an accurate image registration method. This work describes tests carried out on a Discovery LS positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT) system by General Electric Medical Systems (GEMS), for its later use to obtain images to delimit the target in radiotherapy treatment. Several phantoms have been used to verify image correlation, in combination with fiducial markers, which were used as a system of external landmarks. We analyzed the geometrical accuracy of two different fusion methods with the images obtained with these phantoms. We first studied the fusion method used by the PET/CT system by GEMS (hardware fusion) on the basis that there is satisfactory coincidence between the reconstruction centers in CT and PET systems; and secondly the fiducial fusion, a registration method, by means of least-squares fitting algorithm of a landmark points system. The study concluded with the verification of the centroid position of some phantom components in both imaging modalities. Centroids were estimated through a calculation similar to center-of-mass, weighted by the value of the CT number and the uptake intensity in PET. The mean deviations found for the hardware fusion method were: vertical bar {delta}x vertical bar {+-}{sigma}=3.3 mm{+-}1.0 mm and vertical bar {delta}y vertical bar {+-}{sigma}=3.6 mm{+-}1.0 mm. These values were substantially improved upon applying fiducial fusion based on external landmark points: vertical bar {delta}x vertical bar {+-}{sigma}=0.7 mm{+-}0.8 mm and vertical bar {delta}y vertical bar {+-}{sigma}=0.3 mm{+-}1.7 mm. We also noted that differences

  8. The application of polymer gel dosimeters to dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Gear, J I; Flux, G D; Charles-Edwards, E; Partridge, M; Cook, G; Ott, R J

    2006-07-21

    internally irradiated gels. Curve fits to the calibration data followed a single exponential function. The correlation coefficients for internally and externally irradiated gels were 0.991 and 0.985, respectively. With the ability to accurately calibrate internally dosed polymer gels, this technology shows promise as a means to evaluate dosimetry methods, particularly in cases of non-uniform uptake of a radionuclide. PMID:16825745

  9. Experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    During the past year a dosimetry research program has been established in the School of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The major objective of this program has been to provide research results upon which a useful internal dosimetry system could be based. The important application of this dosimetry system will be the experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations such as those published by the MIRD Committee.

  10. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  12. Evaluation of a semiautomated lung mass calculation technique for internal dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, Nathan; Erwin, William; Pan, Tinsu

    2013-12-15

    calculated using the formula (lung HU − air HU)/(tissue HU − air HU), and mass = specific gravity × total volume × 1.04 g/cm{sup 3}.Results: The range of calculated lung masses was 0.51–1.29 kg. The average male and female lung masses during FB CT were 0.80 and 0.71 kg, respectively. The calculated lung mass varied across the respiratory cycle but changed to a lesser degree than did lung volume measurements (7.3% versus 15.4%). Lung masses calculated using deep inspiration breath-hold and average CT were significantly larger (p < 0.05) than were some masses calculated using respiratory-phase and FB CT. Increased voxel size and smooth reconstruction kernels led to high lung mass estimates owing to partial volume effects.Conclusions: Organ mass correction is an important component of patient-specific internal radionuclide dosimetry. Lung mass calculation necessitates scan-based density correction to account for volume changes owing to respiration. The range of lung masses in the authors’ patient population represents lung doses for the same absorbed energy differing from 25% below to 64% above the dose found using reference phantom organ masses. With proper management of acquisition parameters and selection of FB or midexpiration breath hold scans, lung mass estimates with about 10% population precision may be achieved.

  13. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part....

  14. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1 Applicability of this part. This...

  15. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General § 1546.1 Applicability of this part....

  16. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.1 Applicability of this part. All tariffs...

  17. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.1 Applicability of this part. All tariffs...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model...

  19. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  20. A Monte Carlo dosimetry study using Henschke applicator for cervical brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pei-Chieh; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Lee, Chung-Chi; Wu, Ching-Jung; Tung, Chuan-Jong

    2010-07-01

    In recent years the Henschke applicator has been widely used for gynecologic patients treated by brachytherapy in Taiwan. However, the commercial brachytherapy planning system did not properly evaluate the dose perturbation caused by the Henschke applicator. Since the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology advised that the effect of source shielding should be incorporated into the brachytherapy planning system, it required calculation and comparison of the dose distribution around the applicator. This study used the Monte Carlo MCNP code to simulate the dose distribution in a water phantom that contained the Henschke applicator with one tandem and two ovoids. Three dwell positions of a high dose rate 192Ir source were simulated by including and excluding the applicator. The mesh tally option of the MCNP was applied to facilitate the calculation of a large number of tallies in the phantom. The voxel size effect and the charge particle equilibrium were studied by comparing the results calculated with different tally options. The calculated results showed that the brachytherapy planning system overestimated the rectal dose and that the shielding material in the applicator contributed more than 40% to the rectal dose.

  1. 47 CFR 20.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts. 20.2 Section 20.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES... mobile radio services include the following: (a) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice...

  2. 47 CFR 20.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts. 20.2 Section 20.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES... mobile radio services include the following: (a) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice...

  3. A new surrogate modeling technique combining Kriging and polynomial chaos expansions – Application to uncertainty analysis in computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kersaudy, Pierric; Sudret, Bruno; Varsier, Nadège; Picon, Odile; Wiart, Joe

    2015-04-01

    In numerical dosimetry, the recent advances in high performance computing led to a strong reduction of the required computational time to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) characterizing the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. However, this procedure remains time-consuming and a single simulation can request several hours. As a consequence, the influence of uncertain input parameters on the SAR cannot be analyzed using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The solution presented here to perform such an analysis is surrogate modeling. This paper proposes a novel approach to build such a surrogate model from a design of experiments. Considering a sparse representation of the polynomial chaos expansions using least-angle regression as a selection algorithm to retain the most influential polynomials, this paper proposes to use the selected polynomials as regression functions for the universal Kriging model. The leave-one-out cross validation is used to select the optimal number of polynomials in the deterministic part of the Kriging model. The proposed approach, called LARS-Kriging-PC modeling, is applied to three benchmark examples and then to a full-scale metamodeling problem involving the exposure of a numerical fetus model to a femtocell device. The performances of the LARS-Kriging-PC are compared to an ordinary Kriging model and to a classical sparse polynomial chaos expansion. The LARS-Kriging-PC appears to have better performances than the two other approaches. A significant accuracy improvement is observed compared to the ordinary Kriging or to the sparse polynomial chaos depending on the studied case. This approach seems to be an optimal solution between the two other classical approaches. A global sensitivity analysis is finally performed on the LARS-Kriging-PC model of the fetus exposure problem.

  4. A new surrogate modeling technique combining Kriging and polynomial chaos expansions - Application to uncertainty analysis in computational dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersaudy, Pierric; Sudret, Bruno; Varsier, Nadège; Picon, Odile; Wiart, Joe

    2015-04-01

    In numerical dosimetry, the recent advances in high performance computing led to a strong reduction of the required computational time to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) characterizing the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. However, this procedure remains time-consuming and a single simulation can request several hours. As a consequence, the influence of uncertain input parameters on the SAR cannot be analyzed using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The solution presented here to perform such an analysis is surrogate modeling. This paper proposes a novel approach to build such a surrogate model from a design of experiments. Considering a sparse representation of the polynomial chaos expansions using least-angle regression as a selection algorithm to retain the most influential polynomials, this paper proposes to use the selected polynomials as regression functions for the universal Kriging model. The leave-one-out cross validation is used to select the optimal number of polynomials in the deterministic part of the Kriging model. The proposed approach, called LARS-Kriging-PC modeling, is applied to three benchmark examples and then to a full-scale metamodeling problem involving the exposure of a numerical fetus model to a femtocell device. The performances of the LARS-Kriging-PC are compared to an ordinary Kriging model and to a classical sparse polynomial chaos expansion. The LARS-Kriging-PC appears to have better performances than the two other approaches. A significant accuracy improvement is observed compared to the ordinary Kriging or to the sparse polynomial chaos depending on the studied case. This approach seems to be an optimal solution between the two other classical approaches. A global sensitivity analysis is finally performed on the LARS-Kriging-PC model of the fetus exposure problem.

  5. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application. PMID:20142941

  6. Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO’s vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

  7. Investigation of the applicability of a special parallel-plate ionization chamber for x-ray beam dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, Ana P.; P. Neves, Lucio; E. Caldas, Linda V.

    2014-02-01

    Diagnostic x-rays are the greatest source of exposition to ionizing radiation of the population worldwide. In order to obtain accurate and lower-cost dosimeters for quality control assurance of medical x-ray facilities, a special ionization chamber was designed at the Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology beams. For the chamber characterization some tests were undertaken. Monte Carlo simulations were proposed to evaluate the distribution of the deposited energy in the sensitive volume of the ionization chamber and the collecting electrode effect on the chamber response. According to the obtained results, this special ionization chamber presents potential use for dosimetry of conventional diagnostic radiology beams.

  8. Applicability of ACR breast dosimetry methodology to a digital mammography system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomon, John J.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Swenson, Kristin N.; Schauer, David A.

    2006-03-15

    Determination of mean glandular dose (MGD) to breast tissue is an essential aspect of mammography equipment evaluations and exposure controls. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Quality Control Manual outlines the procedure for MGD determination in screen-film mammography based upon conversions of entrance skin exposures (ESEs) measured with an ionization chamber (IC). The development of digital mammography has increased with the demand for improved object resolution and tissue contrast. This change in image receptor from screen-film to a solid-state detector has led to questions about the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography. This research has validated the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography in the GE digital mammography system Senographe 2000D[reg]. MGD was determined using light output measurements from thermoluminescent dosimeters (MGD{sub TL}), exposure measurements from an IC (MGD{sub IC}) and conversion factors from the ACR Mammography Quality Control Manual. MGD{sub TL} and MGD{sub IC} data indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the two measurements with the Senographe 2000D[reg]. However, the applicability of the ACR's methodology was validated by calculating MGD at various depths in a 50/50 breast phantom. Additionally, the results of backscatter measurements from the image receptors of both mammography modalities indicate there is a difference (all P values <0.001) in the radiation backscattered from each image receptor.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry in the biomedical sciences: applications in low-exposure biomedical and environmental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.; Vogel, J. S.; Balhorn, R.; Gledhill, B. L.; Southon, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Nelson, D. E.; Proctor, I. D.; Davis, J. C.

    1990-12-01

    We are utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry as a sensitive detector for tracking the disposition of radioisotopically labeled molecules in the biomedical sciences. These applications have shown the effectiveness of AMS as a tool to quantify biologically important molecules at extremely low levels. For example, AMS is being used to determine the amount of carcinogen covalently bound to animal DNA (DNA adduct) at levels relevent to human exposure. Detection sensitivities are 1 carcinogen molecule bound in 1011 to 1012 DNA bases, depending on the specific activity of the radiolabeled carcinogen. Studies have been undertaken in our laboratory utilizing heterocyclic amine food-borne carcinogens and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent environmental carcinogen, to study the metabolism of carcinogens at low doses. In addition, AMS is being used to detect the presence of rare proteins (mutant forms of protamine) in human sperm. Approximately l per 106 sperm analyzed contain the rare form of the protamine. Protamine isolated from this small number of cells is being analyzed by AMS, following 14C labeling. Thus, AMS can be used to verify the identity of an extremely small amount of biological material. Furthermore, an additional improvement of 2 orders of magnitude in the sensitivity of biomédical tracer studies is suggested by preliminary work with bacterial hosts depleted in radiocarbon. Other problems in the life sciences where detection sensitivity or sample sizes are limitations should also benefit from AMS. Studies are underway to measure the molecular targeting of cancer chemotherapeutics in human tissue and to pursue applications for receptor biology. We are also applying other candidate isotopes, such as 3H (double labeling with 14C) and 41Ca (bone absorption) to problems in biology. The detection of 36Cl and 26Al have applications for determination of human neutron exposure and understanding neurological toxicity, respectively. The results

  10. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of this subchapter (see 20 CFR 725.4(d)) cannot be approved under that subpart, such claim may be... DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. With the exception of the...

  11. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  12. Dosimetry modeling of inhaled toxic reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Miller, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    This report focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological processes and factors involved in the absorption of reactive gases. Emphasis is placed on the importance of these factors in developing dosimetry models, special consideration being given to the role of lung fluids and tissues. Several dosimetry models are discussed and illustrations of predicted results presented to demonstrate the application of the models to the uptake of NO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, and to demonstrate the use of models in determining the effects of physical, chemical and biological parameters on dosimetry predictions. Gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the processes of dosimetry are pointed out, and research recommendations are made to increase our understanding of the processes and to enhance the development of dosimetry models.

  13. SU-E-T-308: Systematic Characterization of the Energy Response of Different LiF TLD Crystals for Dosimetry Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, E; Caprile, P; Sanchez-Nieto, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The thermoluminiscense dosimeters (TLDs) are widely used in personal and clinical dosimetry due to its small size, good sensitivity and tissue equivalence, among other advantages. This study presents the characterization of Lithium Fluoride based TLDs, in terms of their absorbed dose response to successive irradiation cycles in a broad range of beam energies, measured under reference conditions. Methods: Four types of Harshaw TLD chips were used: TLD-100, TLD-600 TLD-700 and 100-H. They were irradiated with 10 photon beams of different energy spectrums, from 28 kVp to 18MV (in 30 consecutive cycles for 6 and 18 MV). Results: It was found that the response of the dosimetric system was stabilized (less than ±3%) after 10 cycles for TLD-600 and TLD-700. In the case of TLD-100 and TLD-100H this dependence was not observed. A decreased response to increasing beam energy in terms of absorbed dose to water was observed, as expected, except for TLD-100H which showed the opposite behavior. The less energy dependent detector was the TLD-100H exhibiting a maximum deviation of 12%. The highest variation observed was 33% for TLD-100. The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy. Conclusion: The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy.

  14. Fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    The fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during March 15-23, 1978. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) used unshielded, with a 12-cm-thick Lucite shield, a 20-cm-thick concrete shield, or a 5-cm-thick steel and 15-cm-thick concrete shield, and provided four neutron and gamma-ray spectra. Then the dose was calculated based on the HPRR neutron spectra and dose conversion factors which had been determined previously for the four spectra. The results of these personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies reveal that estimates of dose equivalent vary over a wide range. The standard deviation of the mean of participants data for gamma measurements was in the range of 29 to 43%; for neutrons it was 57 to 188%. (PCS)

  15. Investigation and application of neutron damage to bipolar transistors in light water reactor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Roknizadeh, M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fast neutron metrology and a basis for prediction of changes in performance parameters of semiconductor devices in power plant radiation environments has been established using Cf-252 sources. Three general purpose NPN bipolar transistors (PN2222A, ECG-196, and ECG-184) were chosen as the neutron damage monitors and the change in inverse d.c. current gain before and after irradiation was chosen as the damage parameter for the measurement. The main findings of the investigation were as follows: the change in inverse d.c. current gain for PN2222A transistors was approximately a linear function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0E15 n(1MeV)/cm/sup 2/. The concept of 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence which characterizes an incident energy-fluence spectrum in terms of the fluence of monoenergetic neutrons at 1 MeV, is in error for application to common transistors in a typical power plant environment. Finally, the normalized damage coefficient which is the ratio of damage to 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence divided by the measured base transit time of individual transistors, for all three types of transistors is nearly the same with an average value of 1.27E - 7 +/- 15.0% cm/sup 2//m(1 MeV).Sec.

  16. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General § 1546.1 Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following: (a) The... Transportation under 49 U.S.C. 41302 or other appropriate authority issued by the former Civil Aeronautics...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability of this part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a) The operation of airports... official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport operator that does not have a security program...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability of this part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a) The operation of airports... official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport operator that does not have a security program...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability of this part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a) The operation of airports... official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport operator that does not have a security program...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability of this part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a) The operation of airports... official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport operator that does not have a security program...

  1. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  2. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are...

  3. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are...

  4. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are...

  5. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are...

  6. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are...

  7. First application of total skin electron beam irradiation in Greece: setup, measurements and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Platoni, K; Diamantopoulos, S; Panayiotakis, G; Kouloulias, V; Pantelakos, P; Kelekis, N; Efstathopoulos, E

    2012-04-01

    Total Skin Electron Beam (TSEB) irradiation is considered as the treatment of choice for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma internationally, for either curative purposes or palliative care. An attempt for the first application of this external radiation therapy technique in Greece took place at the Radiation Therapy Unit of 2(nd) Department of Radiology of University of Athens at University General Hospital "Attikon". TSEB modality was developed on a linear accelerator VARIAN Clinac 2100C. To create a uniform and sufficiently large field (≈200 cm × 80 cm) at SSD=380 cm, two symmetrical 6 MeV electron beams are combined with 17.5° tilts concerning the horizontal direction. An immobilization system was constructed to support patient during treatment and to modulate the composite electron field. Irradiation procedure demands a standing patient that takes, in total, six treatment positions. For the confirmation of treatment suitability and the determination of physical features of the clinical electron field, specific measurements were carried out using a parallel-plate ionization chamber and TLDs at water equivalent plastic and anthropomorphic phantoms. Measurements at the referred conditions showed a homogeneous total field with intensity variation of ±2% in the longitudinal axis and ±4% at horizontal axis. The mean energy of the composite field (E¯(o)) is 3.4 MeV, the most probable energy (E(p,0)) is 4.4 MeV and the half-value depth in water (R(50)) is 1.5 g/cm(2). The maximum X-ray background of the TSEB field is 2.1% at head and feet. The above results lead us to conclude that TSEB treatment using "Six-dual-field" technique can be applied in our department safely. PMID:21515082

  8. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801 Section 91.801 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to...

  9. 14 CFR 377.2 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of part. 377.2 Section 377.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW PENDING FINAL DETERMINATION OF APPLICATIONS FOR RENEWAL THEREOF...

  10. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 1203.2 Section 1203.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this...

  11. 45 CFR 1206.1-2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 1206.1-2 Section 1206.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  12. A probabilistic respiratory tract dosimetry model with application to beta-particle and photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, Eduardo Balderrama

    2002-01-01

    Predicting equivalent dose in the human respiratory tract is significant in the assessment of health risks associated with the inhalation of radioactive aerosols. A complete respiratory tract methodology based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 66 model was used in this research project for beta-particle and photon emitters. The conventional methodology has been to use standard values (from Reference Man) for parameters to obtain a single dose value. However, the methods used in the current study allow lung dose values to be determined as probability distributions to reflect the spread or variability in doses. To implement the methodology, a computer code, LUDUC, has been modified to include inhalation scenarios of beta-particle and photon emitters. For beta particles, a new methodology was implemented into Monte Carlo simulations to determine absorbed fractions in target tissues within the thoracic region of the respiratory tract. For photons, a new mathematical phantom of extrathoracic and thoracic regions was created based on previous studies to determine specific absorbed fractions in several tissues and organs of the human body due to inhalation of radioactive materials. The application of the methodology and developed data will be helpful in dose reconstruction and prediction efforts concerning the inhalation of short-lived radionuclides or radionuclides of Inhalation Class S. The resulting dose distributions follow a lognormal distribution shape for all scenarios examined. Applying the probabilistic computer code LUDUC to inhalation of strontium and yttrium aerosols has shown several trends, which could also be valid for many S radionuclide compounds that are beta-particle emitters. The equivalent doses are, in general, found to follow lognormal distributions. Therefore, these distributions can be described by geometric means and geometric standard deviations. Furthermore, a mathematical phantom of the extrathoracic and

  13. Application of the gamma evaluation method in Gamma Knife film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Chae-Yong; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Do-Heui; Suh, Tae-Suk; Gyu Kim, Dong; Chung, Hyun-Tai

    2011-10-15

    isodose lines exhibited inferior gamma indexes and pass rates compared with higher isodose lines. Conclusions: The gamma evaluation method was applicable to GK radiosurgery. For all test plans, planning dose distribution and film measurement met the tolerance criteria of 0.5 mm/0.5% within the 50% isodose line which are used for marginal dose prescription.

  14. Application of a practical method for the isocenter point in vivo dosimetry by a transit signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Angelo; Fidanzio, Andrea; Azario, Luigi; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Onofrio, Guido; Cilla, Savino; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; D'Angelillo, Rolando; Cellini, Francesco; Trodella, Lucio; Russo, Aniello; Iadanza, Luciano; Zucca, Sergio; Fusco, Vincenzo; Di Napoli, Nicola; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Balducci, Mario; Cellini, Numa; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Morganti, Alessio G.

    2007-08-01

    This work reports the results of the application of a practical method to determine the in vivo dose at the isocenter point, Diso, of brain thorax and pelvic treatments using a transit signal St. The use of a stable detector for the measurement of the signal St (obtained by the x-ray beam transmitted through the patient) reduces many of the disadvantages associated with the use of solid-state detectors positioned on the patient as their periodic recalibration, and their positioning is time consuming. The method makes use of a set of correlation functions, obtained by the ratio between St and the mid-plane dose value, Dm, in standard water-equivalent phantoms, both determined along the beam central axis. The in vivo measurement of Diso required the determination of the water-equivalent thickness of the patient along the beam central axis by the treatment planning system that uses the electron densities supplied by calibrated Hounsfield numbers of the computed tomography scanner. This way it is, therefore, possible to compare Diso with the stated doses, Diso,TPS, generally used by the treatment planning system for the determination of the monitor units. The method was applied in five Italian centers that used beams of 6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV x-rays and 60Co γ-rays. In particular, in four centers small ion-chambers were positioned below the patient and used for the St measurement. In only one center, the St signals were obtained directly by the central pixels of an EPID (electronic portal imaging device) equipped with commercial software that enabled its use as a stable detector. In the four centers where an ion-chamber was positioned on the EPID, 60 pelvic treatments were followed for two fields, an anterior-posterior or a posterior-anterior irradiation and a lateral-lateral irradiation. Moreover, ten brain tumors were checked for a lateral-lateral irradiation, and five lung tumors carried out with three irradiations with different gantry angles were followed. One center

  15. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs. (ACR)

  16. Thermoluminescent properties of Ni and Co doped synthetic, high pressure, high temperature diamonds: application to ionising radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Gheeraert, E; Kanda, H; Lapraz, D; Briand, D

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamond crystals grown under diluted nickel or cobalt as solvent catalysts is reported. After a study of TL properties of 6 different samples, it is shown that a crystal grown with Ni+2%Ti and annealed at 2100 K presents an intense glow peak at around 490 K. This peak is characterised by a broad emission band centred at 530 nm (2.34 eV). This crystal presents a significant, reproducible and linear TL response relative to the absorbed dose up to an X ray air kerma of 10 Gy. All these features make this material suitable for ionising radiation dosimetry. A similar study is made on another crystal grown from pure Co, and a comparative review of the results does show that for dosimetry work, Ni-containing diamonds are more appropriate than those grown from Co catalyst. PMID:12382890

  17. Dosimetry of very high energy electrons (VHEE) for radiotherapy applications: using radiochromic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subiel, A.; Moskvin, V.; Welsh, G. H.; Cipiccia, S.; Reboredo, D.; Evans, P.; Partridge, M.; DesRosiers, C.; Anania, M. P.; Cianchi, A.; Mostacci, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Di Giovenale, D.; Villa, F.; Pompili, R.; Ferrario, M.; Belleveglia, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Gatti, G.; Vaccarezza, C.; Seitz, B.; Isaac, R. C.; Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Ersfeld, B.; Islam, M. R.; Mendonca, M. S.; Sorensen, A.; Boyd, M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range from 100-250 MeV have the potential of becoming an alternative modality in radiotherapy because of their improved dosimetry properties compared with MV photons from contemporary medical linear accelerators. Due to the need for accurate dosimetry of small field size VHEE beams we have performed dose measurements using EBT2 Gafchromic® film. Calibration of the film has been carried out for beams of two different energy ranges: 20 MeV and 165 MeV from conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. In addition, EBT2 film has been used for dose measurements with 135 MeV electron beams produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. The dose response measurements and percentage depth dose profiles have been compared with calculations carried out using the general-purpose FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The impact of induced radioactivity on film response for VHEEs has been evaluated using the MC simulations. A neutron yield of the order of 10-5 neutrons cm-2 per incident electron has been estimated and induced activity due to radionuclide production is found to have a negligible effect on total dose deposition and film response. Neutron and proton contribution to the equivalent doses are negligible for VHEE. The study demonstrates that EBT2 Gafchromic film is a reliable dosimeter that can be used for dosimetry of VHEE. The results indicate an energy-independent response of the dosimeter for 20 MeV and 165 MeV electron beams and has been found to be suitable for dosimetry of VHEE.

  18. Dosimetry of very high energy electrons (VHEE) for radiotherapy applications: using radiochromic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Subiel, A; Moskvin, V; Welsh, G H; Cipiccia, S; Reboredo, D; Evans, P; Partridge, M; DesRosiers, C; Anania, M P; Cianchi, A; Mostacci, A; Chiadroni, E; Di Giovenale, D; Villa, F; Pompili, R; Ferrario, M; Belleveglia, M; Di Pirro, G; Gatti, G; Vaccarezza, C; Seitz, B; Isaac, R C; Brunetti, E; Wiggins, S M; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Mendonca, M S; Sorensen, A; Boyd, M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range from 100-250 MeV have the potential of becoming an alternative modality in radiotherapy because of their improved dosimetry properties compared with MV photons from contemporary medical linear accelerators. Due to the need for accurate dosimetry of small field size VHEE beams we have performed dose measurements using EBT2 Gafchromic® film. Calibration of the film has been carried out for beams of two different energy ranges: 20 MeV and 165 MeV from conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. In addition, EBT2 film has been used for dose measurements with 135 MeV electron beams produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. The dose response measurements and percentage depth dose profiles have been compared with calculations carried out using the general-purpose FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The impact of induced radioactivity on film response for VHEEs has been evaluated using the MC simulations. A neutron yield of the order of 10(-5) neutrons cm(-2) per incident electron has been estimated and induced activity due to radionuclide production is found to have a negligible effect on total dose deposition and film response. Neutron and proton contribution to the equivalent doses are negligible for VHEE. The study demonstrates that EBT2 Gafchromic film is a reliable dosimeter that can be used for dosimetry of VHEE. The results indicate an energy-independent response of the dosimeter for 20 MeV and 165 MeV electron beams and has been found to be suitable for dosimetry of VHEE. PMID:25207591

  19. SU-E-T-364: 6X FFF and 10X FFF Portal Dosimetry Output Factor Verification: Application for SRS/SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Gulam, M; Bellon, M; Gopal, A; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Hames, S; Schmidt, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To enhance portal dosimetry of high dose rate SRS/SBRT plan verifications with extensive imager measurement of output factors (OF). Methods: Electronic portal image dosimetry (EPID), implemented on the Varian Edge allows for acquisition of its two energies: 6X FFF and 10 FFF (1400 and 2400 MU/min, respectively) at source to imager distance (SID) =100cm without imager saturation. Square and rectangular aSi OF following EPID calibration were obtained. Data taken was similar to that obtained during beam commissioning (of almost all field sizes from 1×1 to 15×15 and 20×20 cm{sup 2}, [Trilogy] and [Edge], respectively) to construct a table using the OF tool for use in the Portal Dosimetry Prediction Algorithm (PDIP v11). The Trilogy 6x SRS 1000 MU/min EPID data were taken at 140 SID. The large number of OF were obtained for comparison to that obtained with diode detectors and ion chambers (cc13 for >3×3 field size). As Edge PDIP verification is currently ongoing, EPID measurements of three SRS/SBRT plans for the Trilogy were taken and compared to results obtained prior to these measurements. Results: The relative difference output factors of field sizes 2×2 and higher compared to commissioning data were (mean+/-SD, [range]): Edge 6X (−1.9+/−2.9%, [−5.9%,3.1%]), Edge 10X (−0.7+/−1.2%, [− 3.3%,0.8%] and Trilogy (0.03+/−0.5%, [−1.4%,1.1%]) with EPID over predicting. The results for the 140 SID showed excellent agreement throughout except at the 1×1 to 1×15 and 15×1 field sizes where differences were: −10.6%, −6.0% and −5.8%. The differences were also most pronounced for the 1×1 at 100 SID. They were −7.4% and −11.5% for 6X and 10X, respectively. The Gamma (3%, 1mm) for three clinical plans improved by 8.7+/−1.8%. Conclusion: Results indicate that imager output factor measurements at any SID of high dose rate SRS/SBRT are quite reliable for portal dosimetry plan verification except for the smallest fields. This work was not

  20. Common deficiencies in RCRA part B incinerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, B.A.; Trenholm, A.R.

    1987-03-01

    Although requirements are listed in the regulations and guidance is provided in various publications, certain types of information often are deficient in RCRA Part B incinerator applications, resulting in deficiency notices and delays in the permitting process. This paper presents an approach for preparing an incinerator permit application and identifies common deficiencies in the applications. Specific problem areas discussed include engineering descriptions, process monitoring, gaseous emission monitoring, automatic waste feed cutoff systems, waste characterization, sampling and analysis, quality assurance/quality control, and general considerations. The paper also suggest approaches to satisfy requirements for these common problem areas resulting in an application that is more likely to be approved by a permit reviewer.

  1. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  2. Automation of the particle dosimetry and the dose application for radiobiological experiments at a vertical proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörtel, H.; Georgi, J.; Eyrich, W.; Fritsch, M.; Distel, L.

    2002-08-01

    A facility with a vertical beam for radiobiological experiments with low-energy protons has been setup at the Tandem accelerator at Erlangen. This energy region is optimal to investigate the biological effects of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg region under physiological conditions. A new automated data acquisition system for dosimetry and monitoring based on a personal computer was developed and optimized for this setup. A specially designed sample holder offers possibilities of cooling or changing of atmosphere during irradiation. First irradiations of biological samples have shown the functionality of the setup.

  3. 46 CFR 114.112 - Specific applicability for individual parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specific applicability for individual parts. 114.112 Section 114.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 114.112 Specific...

  4. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid,...

  5. 19 CFR 207.2 - Definitions applicable to part 207.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions applicable to part 207. 207.2 Section 207.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED...

  6. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE... pursuant to an application approved prior to such effective date. This part does not apply to (a)...

  7. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE... pursuant to an application approved prior to such effective date. This part does not apply to (a)...

  8. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE... pursuant to an application approved prior to such effective date. This part does not apply to (a)...

  9. 22 CFR 209.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 209.2 Section 209.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General §...

  11. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations 1. High School Equivalency Program and College Assistance Migrant Program Section 418A of the... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS,...

  12. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of this part. 112.2 Section 112.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY... Small Business Administration. (See appendix A) (b) The term Federal financial assistance includes:...

  13. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  14. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  15. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE... pursuant to an application approved prior to such effective date. This part does not apply to (a)...

  16. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE... pursuant to an application approved prior to such effective date. This part does not apply to (a)...

  17. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  18. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  19. 19 CFR 205.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 205.1 Section 205.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS TO DETERMINE THE PROBABLE ECONOMIC EFFECT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES OF PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS...

  20. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 232 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 232 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, FOREIGN OPERATIONS, AND RELATED PROGRAMS APPROPRIATIONS ACT,...

  1. 14 CFR 377.2 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of part. 377.2 Section 377.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW PENDING FINAL DETERMINATION...

  2. 14 CFR 377.2 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of part. 377.2 Section 377.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW PENDING FINAL DETERMINATION...

  3. 14 CFR 377.2 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of part. 377.2 Section 377.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW PENDING FINAL DETERMINATION...

  4. 14 CFR 377.2 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of part. 377.2 Section 377.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CONTINUANCE OF EXPIRED AUTHORIZATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW PENDING FINAL DETERMINATION...

  5. 5 CFR 2423.0 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 2423.0 Section 2423.0 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS §...

  6. 5 CFR 2423.0 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 2423.0 Section 2423.0 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS §...

  7. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color,...

  8. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color,...

  9. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or...

  10. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color,...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 232 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 232 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA LOAN GUARANTEES... issued by Banque Centrale de Tunisie, acting on behalf of the Republic of Tunisia (the “Borrower”)...

  12. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1 Section 3050.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.1..., mathematical, or statistical theory, precept, or assumption applied by the Postal Service in producing...

  13. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1 Section 3050.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.1..., mathematical, or statistical theory, precept, or assumption applied by the Postal Service in producing...

  14. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1 Section 3050.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.1..., mathematical, or statistical theory, precept, or assumption applied by the Postal Service in producing...

  15. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1 Section 3050.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.1..., mathematical, or statistical theory, precept, or assumption applied by the Postal Service in producing...

  16. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  17. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  18. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  19. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  20. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  1. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  2. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  3. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  4. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  5. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  6. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  7. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  8. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  9. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  11. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations 1. High School Equivalency Program and College Assistance Migrant Program Section 418A of the... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS,...

  12. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations 1. High School Equivalency Program and College Assistance Migrant Program Section 418A of the... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS,...

  13. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

  14. A broad-group cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for fast neutron dosimetry Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alpan, F.A.

    2011-07-01

    A new ENDF/B-VII.0-based coupled 44-neutron, 20-gamma-ray-group cross-section library was developed to investigate the latest evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) ,in comparison to ENDF/B-VI.3 used in BUGLE-96, as well as to generate an objective-specific library. The objectives selected for this work consisted of dosimetry calculations for in-vessel and ex-vessel reactor locations, iron atom displacement calculations for reactor internals and pressure vessel, and {sup 58}Ni(n,{gamma}) calculation that is important for gas generation in the baffle plate. The new library was generated based on the contribution and point-wise cross-section-driven (CPXSD) methodology and was applied to one of the most widely used benchmarks, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pool Critical Assembly benchmark problem. In addition to the new library, BUGLE-96 and an ENDF/B-VII.0-based coupled 47-neutron, 20-gamma-ray-group cross-section library was generated and used with both SNLRML and IRDF dosimetry cross sections to compute reaction rates. All reaction rates computed by the multigroup libraries are within {+-} 20 % of measurement data and meet the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission acceptance criterion for reactor vessel neutron exposure evaluations specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. (authors)

  15. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Wang, M; Liu, Q

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry. PMID:26301501

  16. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D.; Wang, M.; Liu, Q.

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

  17. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  18. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  19. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  20. Practical considerations for TLD-400/700-based gamma ray dosimetry for BNCT applications in a high thermal neutron fluence.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, S W; Johnson, J E; Vostmyer, C E; Albertson, B D; Binney, S E

    1995-12-01

    Operating experience with thermoluminescent dosimeters used in a boron neutron capture therapy research project is reported. In particular, certain facets of the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters for gamma ray dose measurements in the presence of a high thermal neutron fluence are discussed, including a comparison of TLD-400 and TLD-700 for gamma ray dosimetry, annealing procedures, and the effects of neutrons (56Mn activation) on TLD-400. The TLD-400 were observed to have a thermal neutron sensitivity (due to 56Mn beta decay) of 1.5 x 10(-13) Gy per n cm-2. An algorithm was developed to correct for the 56Mn beta decay thermal neutron-induced effects on TLD-400 by using a two-stage thermoluminescent readout for the thermoluminescent dosimeter chips. PMID:7493815

  1. Modelling the effective atomic number and the packing factor of polyatomic compounds: Applications to refractive index and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, H.; Couto dos Santos, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, based on fundamental physics and chemistry (charge distribution, electronegativity, induced dipole moment), we are introducing an analytical expression for Zeff and a general way of calculating the crystal packing factor, p, of any ionic material. By using the average separation between the atomic and crystal(ionic) radii of the interacting ions, we are postulating an effective distance(Rij) between the positive and the negative centre of charge. When compared to the available experimental data, predictions within 20% have been obtained to Zeff of materials applied to dosimetry. In photonics, the increasing behaviour of the refractive index with Zeff is confirmed. By combining crystal field and effective charge models, we have predicted Zeff of the Eu2O3 within the range of available experimental data.

  2. Neodymium as a magnesium tetraborate matrix dopant and its applicability in dosimetry and as a temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Luiza F.; Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2015-06-01

    MgB4O7 doped with lanthanides such as Dy3+ and Tm3+ are phosphors with very well established use in routine personal dosimetry. Certain characteristics, for example linearity in a broad dose range, low energy dependence, Zeff=8.5, high sensitivity and a relatively simple thermoluminescent (TL) emission curve make MgB4O7 a good material for thermoluminescent dosimetry. With the aim of analyzing other doping possibilities, this paper presents some preliminary results on the use of Nd3+ as a dopant in the MgB4O7 matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of using two different lanthanides, Nd and Dy, in the host matrix. In the present work, the phosphors were produced through solid state synthesis and X-ray diffraction confirmed the success of the technique. The TL behavior of MgB4O7:Nd was assessed when irradiated with gamma (60Co) and beta radiation, to determine the effect of the dopant concentration and the dose-response over a broad dose range. We also evaluated the dose-response of MgB4O7:Nd,Dy when irradiated with 60Co. The TL responses of the phosphors were compared with that of MgB4O7:Dy. These preliminary studies show that for the absorbed dose range studied, the sensitivity of MgB4O7:Nd,Dy was 3.8 and 28 times higher than that of MgB4O7:Dy and MgB4O7:Nd. The materials also presented linearity from 5 to 40 Gy. Above this value, the dose response curve exhibited sublinear behavior. These preliminary results will assist in developing a new temperature sensor based on a MgB4O7 dosimeter.

  3. Application of a color scanner for 60Co high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry with EBT radiochromic film

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Roodi, Shahram Bayani; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a color scanner as a radiochromic film reader in two dimensional dosimetry around a high dose rate brachytherapy source. Materials and methods A Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL film scanner was utilized for the measurement of dose distribution around a high dose rate GZP6 60Co brachytherapy source with GafChromic® EBT radiochromic films. In these investigations, the non-uniformity of the film and scanner response, combined, as well as the films sensitivity to scanner’s light source was evaluated using multiple samples of films, prior to the source dosimetry. The results of these measurements were compared with the Monte Carlo simulated data using MCNPX code. In addition, isodose curves acquired by radiochromic films and Monte Carlo simulation were compared with those provided by the GZP6 treatment planning system. Results Scanning of samples of uniformly irradiated films demonstrated approximately 2.85% and 4.97% nonuniformity of the response, respectively in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the film. Our findings have also indicated that the film response is not affected by the exposure to the scanner’s light source, particularly in multiple scanning of film. The results of radiochromic film measurements are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations (4%) and the corresponding dose values presented by the GZP6 treatment planning system (5%). Conclusions The results of these investigations indicate that the Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL color scanner in conjunction with GafChromic EBT film is a reliable system for dosimetric evaluation of a high dose rate brachytherapy source. PMID:23411947

  4. Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. [in Two Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1923-01-01

    The report gives, rather briefly, in part one an introduction to hydrodynamics which is designed to give those who have not yet been actively concerned with this science such a grasp of the theoretical underlying principles that they can follow the subsequent developments. In part two there follows a separate discussion of the different questions to be considered, in which the theory of aerofoils claims the greatest portion of the space. The last part is devoted to the application of the aerofoil theory to screw propellers. A table giving the most important quantities is at the end of the report. A short reference list of the literature on the subject and also a table of contents are added.

  5. Diagnostic and interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound: part 2. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jay; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2009-02-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound involves the use of high-frequency sound waves to image soft tissues and bony structures in the body for the purposes of diagnosing pathology or guiding real-time interventional procedures. Recently, an increasing number of physicians have integrated musculoskeletal ultrasound into their practices to facilitate patient care. Technological advancements, improved portability, and reduced costs continue to drive the proliferation of ultrasound in clinical medicine. This increased interest creates a need for education pertaining to all aspects of musculoskeletal ultrasound. The primary purpose of this article is to review diagnostic ultrasound technology and its potential clinical applications in the evaluation and treatment of patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. After reviewing this article, physicians should be able to (1) list the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound compared to other available imaging modalities; (2) describe how ultrasound machines produce images using sound waves; (3) discuss the steps necessary to acquire and optimize an ultrasound image; (4) understand the difference ultrasound appearances of tendons, nerves, muscles, ligaments, blood vessels, and bones; and (5) identify multiple applications for diagnostic and interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound. Part 2 of this 2-part article will focus on the clinical applications of musculoskeletal ultrasound in clinical practice, including the ultrasonographic appearance of normal and abnormal tissues as well as specific diagnostic and interventional applications in major body regions. PMID:19627890

  6. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  7. Fifth personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1980-02-01

    The fifth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (PDIS) was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility on March 20-22, 1979. This study is the latest PDIS in the continuing series started at the DOSAR facility in 1974. The PDIS is a three day study, typically in March, where personnel dosimeters are mailed to the DOSAR facility, exposed to a range of low-level neutron radiation doses (1 to 15 mSv or equivalently, 100 to 1500 mrem) and neutron-to-gamma ratios (1:1-10:1) using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as the radiation source, and returned to the participants for evaluation. This report is a summary and analysis of the results reported by the various participants. The participants are able to intercompare their results with those of others who made dose measurements under identical experimental conditions.

  8. Neutron personnel dosimetry intecomparison studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted sixteen Neutron Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies (PDIS) since 1974. During these studies dosimeters are mailed to DOSAR, exposed to low-level (typically in the 0.3 -- 5.0 mSv range) neutron dose equivalents in a variety of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields, and then returned to the participants for evaluation. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) was used as the primary radiation source in PDIS 1--12 and radioisotopic neutron sources at DOSAR's Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) were mainly used, along with sources and accelerators at cooperating institutions, in PDIS 13--16. Conclusions based on 13,560 measurements made by 146 different participating organizations (102 - US) are presented.

  9. Interspecies dosimetry of reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Gerrity, T.R.; Graham, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    The development of dosimetry models that can provide a description of the uptake and distribution of inhaled compounds throughout the body and the availability of animal toxicological data are integral components for a full evaluation of potential risks associated with human exposure. Interspecies dosimetric comparisons must be approached using a model conceptualization that incorporates the major factors affecting the uptake of the gas, such as respiratory tract morphology, route of breathing, depth and rate of breathing, physicochemical properties of the gas, etc. Modeling efforts thus far have primarily focused on ozone. A comparison of theoretical predictions of delivered dose of ozone to the lower respiratory tract of man shows good agreement with dose estimates derived from experimental measurements. Applications to ozone toxicological data in animals and man have been examined that incorporate the use of dosimetry models in studying quantitative dose-response relationships.

  10. Hybrid Computational Phantoms Representing the Reference Adult Male and Adult Female: Construction and Applications for Retrospective Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Jorge L.; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-year Korean volunteer and a 25-year U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images for the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of 8 anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from

  11. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  12. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  13. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arvind K; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  14. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators. PMID:25644219

  15. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Brian W; Elliott, Jonathan T; Kanick, Stephen C; Davis, Scott C; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Maytin, Edward V; Pereira, Stephen P; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  16. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  17. Generalized Interference Alignment—Part II: Application to Wireless Secrecy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Liangzhong; Lau, Vincent K. N.; Win, Moe Z.

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to its wired counterpart, wireless communication is highly susceptible to eavesdropping due to the broadcast nature of the wireless propagation medium. Recent works have proposed the use of interference to reduce eavesdropping capabilities in wireless wiretap networks. However, the concurrent effect of interference on both eavesdropping receivers (ERs) and legitimate receivers (LRs) has not been thoroughly investigated, and carefully engineering the network interference is required to harness the full potential of interference for wireless secrecy. This two part paper addresses this issue by proposing a generalized interference alignment (GIA) technique, which jointly designs the transceivers at the legitimate partners to impede the ERs without interfering with LRs. In Part I, we have established a theoretical framework for the GIA technique. In Part II, we will first propose an efficient GIA algorithm that is applicable to large-scale networks and then evaluate the performance of this algorithm in stochastic wireless wiretap network via both analysis and simulation. These results reveal insights into when and how GIA contributes to wireless secrecy.

  18. Application of computational fluid dynamics to regional dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbell, J.S.; Gross, E.A.; Joyner, D.R.; Godo, M.N.; Morgan, K.T. )

    1993-08-01

    For certain inhaled air pollutants, such as reactive, water soluble gases, the distribution of nasal lesions observed in F344 rats may be closely related to regional gas uptake patterns in the nose. These uptake patterns can be influenced by the currents of air flowing through the upper respiratory tract during the breathing cycle. Since data on respiratory tract lesions in F344 rats are extrapolated to humans to make predictions of risk to human health, a better understanding of the factors affecting these responses is needed. To assess potential effects of nasal airflow on lesion location and severity, a methodology was developed for creation of computer simulations of steady-state airflow and gas transport using a three-dimensional finite element grid reconstructed from serial step-sections of the nasal passages of a male F344 rat. Simulations on a supercomputer used the computational fluid dynamics package FIDAP (FDI, Evanston, IL). Distinct streams of bulk flow evident in the simulations matched inspiratory streams reported for the F344 rat. Moreover, simulated regional flow velocities matched measured velocities in concurrent laboratory experiments with a hollow nasal mold. Computer-predicted flows were used in simulations of gas transport to nasal passage walls, with formaldehyde as a test case. Results from the uptake simulations were compared with the reported distribution of formaldehyde-induced nasal lesions observed in the F344 rat, and indicated that airflow-driven uptake patterns probably play an important role in determining the location of certain nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde. This work demonstrated the feasibility of applying computational fluid dynamics to airflow-driven dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract.

  19. An application of GafChromic MD-55 film for 67.5 MeV clinical proton beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Daftari, I; Castenadas, C; Petti, P L; Singh, R P; Verhey, L J

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the use of GafChromic MD-55 (RC) film for 67.5 MeV clinical proton beam dosimetry at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, University of California, Davis. Several strips of RC film 6 cm x 6 cm in dimension were irradiated at a depth of 18.2 mm corresponding to the middle of a 24 mm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The films were irradiated to a proton dose in the range of 0.5 Gy to 100 Gy. The beam profiles were also measured at the middle of the 24 mm SOBP. The Bragg peak was measured by using a wedge shaped phantom made of Lucite. The Bragg peak measured with RC film was compared with diode and ionization chamber measurements. After background subtraction, the calibration of the dose response of RC film showed, to a maximum deviation of 10%, a linear increase of optical density (OD) with dose from 0.5 to 100 Gy. The uniformity of OD over a single sheet of film showed a variation of +/-6%. The distal-fall off between 90% and 20% measured with GafChromic film for the Bragg peak was 1.3 mm as compared to 1.1 mm for a diode measurement and 1.4 mm for an ionization chamber measurement. The FWHM of the Bragg peak was 7.5 mm when measured with GafChromic film, 5.3 mm when measured with a diode and 8.1 mm as measured by an ionization chamber. The peak/plateau ratio with GafChromic film was 3.3 as compared to 3.7 with a diode and 3.2 with an ionization chamber. In conclusion, GafChromic MD-55 film may be a useful and convenient detector for dose measurement and quality assurance programmes of proton beams. PMID:10588281

  20. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Commission Field Offices. (b) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice and procedure for license... terminal equipment to the telephone network. (j) Part 101. This part contains rules concerning...

  1. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Commission Field Offices. (b) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice and procedure for license... communications services. (j) Part 25. This part contains the requirements for satellite communications,...

  2. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Commission Field Offices. (b) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice and procedure for license... communications services. (j) Part 25. This part contains the requirements for satellite communications,...

  3. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Commission Field Offices. (b) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice and procedure for license... terminal equipment to the telephone network. (j) Part 101. This part contains rules concerning...

  4. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commission Field Offices. (b) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice and procedure for license... terminal equipment to the telephone network. (j) Part 101. This part contains rules concerning...

  5. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commission Field Offices. (b) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice and procedure for license... communications services. (j) Part 25. This part contains the requirements for satellite communications,...

  6. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commission Field Offices. (b) Part 1. This part includes rules of practice and procedure for license... telephone network. (j) Part 101. This part contains rules concerning common carrier and private...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  12. Bedside ultrasonography: Applications in critical care: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of ultrasound to assess and guide the management of critically ill patients. The ability to carry out quick examinations by the bedside to answer specific clinical queries as well as repeatability are clear advantages in an acute care setting. In addition, delays associated with transfer of patients out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and exposure to ionizing radiation may also be avoided. Ultrasonographic imaging looks set to evolve and complement clinical examination of acutely ill patients, offering quick answers by the bedside. In this two-part narrative review, we describe the applications of ultrasonography with a special focus on the management of the critically ill. Part I explores the utility of echocardiography in the ICU, with emphasis on its usefulness in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients. We also discuss lung ultrasonography - a vastly underutilized technology for several years, until intensivists began to realize its usefulness, and obvious advantages over chest radiography. Ultrasonography is rapidly emerging as an important tool in the hands of intensive care physicians. PMID:24914259

  13. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values. PMID:15353694

  14. Practical CT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Suneja, S.K.; Teal, J.S. )

    1989-07-01

    The dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible from a radiation safety standpoint. Occasionally, one encounters a case in which an unsuspected pregnant woman undergoes a CT pelvic scan, and the radiologist is required to estimate the dose to the fetus. This article addresses practical methods of CT dosimetry with a specific discussion on fetal dose estimate. Three methods are described: (1) the use of a dose chart, (2) the pencil ionization chamber method, and (3) the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method.

  15. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  16. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  17. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B

    2016-07-21

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these. PMID:27351409

  18. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  19. 75 FR 14212 - Proposed Generic Communications; Applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 Requirements to Applicants for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 49352), clarified the applicability of various requirements to each of the licensing... of considerations that accompanied the final rule (3150-AG24) for Part 52 (72 FR 49352; August 28... Standard Design Certifications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of opportunity...

  20. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 2, geological and multidisciplinary applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is focused on organic petrology applied to unconventional and multidisciplinary investigations and is the second part of a two part review that describes the geological applications and uses of this branch of earth sciences. Therefore, this paper reviews the use of organic petrology in investigations of: (i) ore genesis when organic matter occurs associated with mineralization; (ii) the behavior of organic matter in coal fires (self-heating and self-combustion); (iii) environmental and anthropogenic impacts associated with the management and industrial utilization of coal; (iv) archeology and the nature and geographical provenance of objects of organic nature such as jet, amber, other artifacts and coal from archeological sites; and (v) forensic science connected with criminal behavior or disasters. This second part of the review outlines the most recent research and applications of organic petrology in those fields.

  1. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting Releases... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  2. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting Releases... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  3. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  4. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  5. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting Releases... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  6. 42 CFR 124.11 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 124.11 Section 124... Construction and Modernization § 124.11 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74... 74 shall also apply to grants to all other grantee organizations under this subpart. 45 CFR Part...

  7. 42 CFR 124.11 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 124.11 Section 124... Construction and Modernization § 124.11 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74... 74 shall also apply to grants to all other grantee organizations under this subpart. 45 CFR Part...

  8. 42 CFR 124.11 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 124.11 Section 124... Construction and Modernization § 124.11 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74... 74 shall also apply to grants to all other grantee organizations under this subpart. 45 CFR Part...

  9. 42 CFR 124.11 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 124.11 Section 124... Construction and Modernization § 124.11 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74... 74 shall also apply to grants to all other grantee organizations under this subpart. 45 CFR Part...

  10. 42 CFR 124.11 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 124.11 Section 124... Construction and Modernization § 124.11 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74... 74 shall also apply to grants to all other grantee organizations under this subpart. 45 CFR Part...

  11. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part are subject to recall regulations specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart S, except for the items set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part are subject to recall regulations specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart S, except for the items set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR part...

  13. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part are subject to recall regulations specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart S, except for the items set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR part...

  14. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  15. Impact of the vaginal applicator and dummy pellets on the dosimetry parameters of Cs-137 brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Sina, Sedigheh; Faghihi, Reza; Meigooni, Ali S; Mehdizadeh, Simin; Mosleh Shirazi, M Amin; Zehtabian, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, dose rate distribution around a spherical 137Cs pellet source, from a low-dose-rate (LDR) Selectron remote afterloading system used in gynecological brachytherapy, has been determined using experimental and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP4C code, for a single pellet source in water medium and Plexiglas, and measurements were performed in Plexiglas phantom material using LiF TLD chips. Absolute dose rate distribution and the dosimetric parameters, such as dose rate constant, radial dose functions, and anisotropy functions, were obtained for a single pellet source. In order to investigate the effect of the applicator and surrounding pellets on dosimetric parameters of the source, the simulations were repeated for six different arrangements with a single active source and five non-active pellets inside central metallic tubing of a vaginal cylindrical applicator. In commercial treatment planning systems (TPS), the attenuation effects of the applicator and inactive spacers on total dose are neglected. The results indicate that this effect could lead to overestimation of the calculated F(r,θ), by up to 7% along the longitudinal axis of the applicator, especially beyond the applicator tip. According to the results obtained in this study, in a real situation in treatment of patients using cylindrical vaginal applicator and using several active pellets, there will be a large discrepancy between the result of superposition and Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21844861

  16. Retrospective dosimetry of Iodine-131 exposures using Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 inventories in soils--A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Michel, R; Daraoui, A; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Romantschuk, L D; Alfimov, V; Synal, H-A

    2015-12-01

    The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations. PMID:26254721

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting a Waiver Application C Appendix C to... Pt. 284, App. C Appendix C to Part 284—Submitting a Waiver Application A. Who May Apply for...

  18. HSE performance tests for dosimetry services.

    PubMed

    Birch, R; Simpson, J A; Hedley, R P; Wardle, J

    2000-12-01

    In the United Kingdom a dosimetry service that measures and assesses whole-body or part-body doses arising from external radiation must successfully complete a performance test. Results of the performance tests for routine whole-body, routine extremity/skin and special accident dosimetry, carried out over the past six years by the AEA Technology Calibration Service at Winfrith, and DRaStaC, the AWE Calibration Service at Aldermaston, are presented. The test involves irradiating groups of dosemeters to known doses of gamma radiation and determining the bias and relative standard deviations for each dose group. The results are compared with the pass criteria specified by the UK Health and Safety Executive. For routine whole-body dosimetry, both the film badge and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) perform adequately for irradiations between 0.6 and 30 mSv. For higher doses up to 250 mSv, where the slow emulsion of the film is used, the film badge shows poorer performance with a tendency to overestimate the dose. For routine extremity/skin dosimetry there is a wider spread of relative standard deviation results than is seen for routine whole-body dosimetry. This is to be expected since the results will include dosemeters that are based on 'disposable' TLDs and ones based on lithium fluoride powder in sachets. For special accident dosimetry the dosemeters are tested between 0.26 and 6 Gy. For the highest dose group the film badge invariably underestimates the true dose, whereas the TLD has a tendency to overestimate it. PMID:11140715

  19. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to operate in the Wireless Telecommunications Services, adjudicatory proceedings including hearing... contains rules relating to miscellaneous wireless communications services. (l) Part 51 contains rules... radio equipment to the public switched telephone network. (n) Part 101 governs the operation of...

  20. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the.... Subpart F includes the rules for the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for...

  1. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the.... Subpart F includes the rules for the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  7. 20 CFR 725.4 - Applicability of other parts in this title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contained in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1978), which established the... 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1999. (e) Part 410. Part 410 of this title... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of other parts in this...

  8. 20 CFR 725.4 - Applicability of other parts in this title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1978), which established the... 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1999. (e) Part 410. Part 410 of this title... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of other parts in this...

  9. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has not... 11738; and 40 CFR part 32. The Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to §...

  10. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has not... 11738; and 40 CFR part 32. The Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to §...

  11. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has not... 11738; and 40 CFR part 32. The Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to §...

  12. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has not... 11738; and 40 CFR part 32. The Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to §...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has not... 11738; and 40 CFR part 32. The Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to §...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, provisions applicable to subpart G § 63.1(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(13... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  15. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  16. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

  17. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  18. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-06-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  19. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  20. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  1. Current scenario of biomedical aspect of metal-based nanoparticles on gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Titus, Deena; Samuel, E James Jebaseelan; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj

    2016-06-01

    In past decades, the possibility of using high atomic number nanoparticle has gained interest in gel dosimetry to enhance the dose deposited in the tumor while using low radiation as well as for better imaging purposes. Sparing of healthy tissues and targeting the tumor part have become much more captivating with the help of these systems. The gel dosimetry is a the three-dimensional dosimeter for extracting the dose, which can be used along with the nanoparticles like gold, platinum, and silver, for better therapeutic efficiency for modern radiotherapy techniques. These nanoparticles of different size prepared either by chemical route or green synthesis and incorporated into the gel system respond in a different manner. Having wide applications in therapeutic field, this study reviews the use of gel dosimeters in the therapeutic procedures and also with the aid of nanoparticles so as to achieve dose enhancement. The biological activity of the various nanoparticles has been discussed. PMID:27100529

  2. EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccolini, E.; Rocchi, F.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Tartari, A.; Mariotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 μm brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

  3. EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.; Mariotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {mu}m brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

  4. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions § 1208.3 Application of 5 CFR... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3... (Enforcement of Final Decisions and Orders) of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals governed by this part. The Board...

  5. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  6. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  7. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  8. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  9. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  10. X-ray dose response of calcite-A comprehensive analysis for optimal application in TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of various annealing treatments on dosimetric characteristics of orange calcite (CaCO3) mineral has been studied in detail. Quantitative analysis on the dose response shows that the 573 K annealed sample showed sublinear dose response from 10 mGy to 1 Gy. The fading and reproducibility of this sample are also good enough for dosimetric application. However, a specific annealing treatment after irradiation shows some significant improvements in the dosimetric characteristics of the sample. The 773 K pre-annealed sample, after X-ray irradiation post-annealing at 340 K for 6 min provides linear dose response from 10 mGy to 3.60 Gy, very less fading and good reproducibility. Moreover, this sample after post-annealing at 380 K for 6 min shows linear dose response from 10 mGy to 5.40 Gy when analyzed from the ∼408 K thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak. Analysis of TL glow curves confirmed that the 1.30 eV trap center in calcite crystal is the most effective trapping site for dosimetric application.

  11. Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry for High Flux Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting Applications Using a Simple Optical Detection Method.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boer; Sharp, Joshua S

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) by fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) is a powerful benchtop tool used to probe protein structure, interactions, and conformational changes in solution. However, the reproducibility of all HRPF techniques is limited by the ability to deliver a defined concentration of hydroxyl radicals to the protein. This ability is impacted by both the amount of radical generated and the presence of radical scavengers in solution. In order to compare HRPF data from sample to sample, a hydroxyl radical dosimeter is needed that can measure the effective concentration of radical that is delivered to the protein, after accounting for both differences in hydroxyl radical generation and nonanalyte radical consumption. Here, we test three radical dosimeters (Alexa Fluor 488, terepthalic acid, and adenine) for their ability to quantitatively measure the effective radical dose under the high radical concentration conditions of FPOP. Adenine has a quantitative relationship between UV spectrophotometric response, effective hydroxyl radical dose delivered, and peptide and protein oxidation levels over the range of radical concentrations typically encountered in FPOP. The simplicity of an adenine-based dosimeter allows for convenient and flexible incorporation into FPOP applications, and the ability to accurately measure the delivered radical dose will enable reproducible and reliable FPOP across a variety of platforms and applications. PMID:26455423

  12. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND... under 14 CFR part 119 for scheduled passenger operations, public charter passenger operations, private... CFR part 119 operating aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or...

  13. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND... under 14 CFR part 119 for scheduled passenger operations, public charter passenger operations, private... CFR part 119 operating aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND... under 14 CFR part 119 for scheduled passenger operations, public charter passenger operations, private... CFR part 119 operating aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or...

  15. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND... under 14 CFR part 119 for scheduled passenger operations, public charter passenger operations, private... CFR part 119 operating aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or...

  16. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

  17. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  18. PREFACE: Third International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeDeene, Yves; Baldock, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry is not merely another dosimetry technique. Gel dosimeters are integrating dosimeters that enable dose verification in three dimensions. The application of a 3D dosimetry technique in the clinic would give a real push to the implementation of advanced high-precision radiotherapy technologies in many institutes. It can be expected that with the recent developments in the field towards more user-friendly gel systems and imaging modalities, gel dosimetry will become a vital link in the chain of high-precision radiation cancer therapy in the near future. Many researchers all over the world have contributed to the emerging technology of gel dosimetry. The research field of gel dosimetry is recognized to be very broad from polymer and analytical chemistry and material research to imaging technologies. The DOSGEL conferences in the past have proven to be an important forum at which material scientists, chemists, medical physicists, magnetic resonance imaging and radiation specialists brought together a critical mass of thoughts, findings and considerations. DOSGEL 2004 has been endorsed by many international, supra-national and national medical physics organizations and publishers. These proceedings contain 51 papers that cover various aspects of gel dosimetry.

  19. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  20. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part....

  1. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part....

  2. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part....

  3. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part....

  4. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D...

  5. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  6. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

  7. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  8. Pipe line pigs have varied applications in operations. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vernooy, B.

    1980-10-01

    In the early days of pipelining, it was discovered that running a swab equipped with leather disks through the line removed paraffin deposited on the pipe wall increasing the flow without increasing the power input. Blades were added to the device later to improve the efficiency of wax removal, which also decreased the number of runs and the cost of pigging. Pig developers learned from their successes as well as their failures. Part 1 of this work focused on the construction and kaliper pigs, and the second part describes the general form and function of the different operational pigs, i.e., calipers, cleaners, and spheres.

  9. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  12. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  13. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  14. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  15. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... due on ___, 20__, on $_ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $_ was not received on such...

  16. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  17. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  18. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  19. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations are listed under § 200.5(p) of this part. Title VI requirements for 23 U.S.C. 402 will be covered under...

  20. 17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 9(a) OF THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR... reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (“EBRD”) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction...

  1. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  2. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting appendix C to part 30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant to § 30.10 C Appendix C to Part 30... TRANSACTIONS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application...

  3. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting appendix C to part 30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant to § 30.10 C Appendix C to Part 30... TRANSACTIONS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63... plants may be area sources. 63.1(c)(3) No . 63.1(c)(4)-(c)(5) Yes 63.1(d) No . 63.1(e) Applicability...

  5. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 3351 et seq.) (hereinafter NAFTA... investigations under section 312(c) of the NAFTA Implementation Act; subpart D sets forth rules specifically applicable to petitions and investigations under section 302 of the NAFTA Implementation Act; and subpart...

  6. 12 CFR 1007.102 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... only performs real estate brokerage activities (as defined in 12 U.S.C. 5102(4)(D)) and is licensed or registered as a real estate broker in accordance with applicable state law, unless the individual is... Act, 15 U.S.C. 1602(v)) or residential real estate upon which is constructed or intended to...

  7. Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 1. The neuroradiologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E T S

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application and usage in clinical practice of techniques of detection and measurement of imaging biomarkers. Some commentaries in the article derive from a literature search and include summaries of recently published material compiled and linked to each other by extensive use of the text contained in the material examined.

  8. Scientific Applications of the Apple Game Port: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratzlaff, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    The Apple game port has two types of inputs: the paddle input and the button input. Scientific applications of these input-output units are discussed, examining analog inputs (potentiometers, thermistors, and photoresistors), single bit digital inputs, and single-bit outputs. (JN)

  9. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  10. [Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Part II: application in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Pokorný, D; Fulín, P; Slouf, M; Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

    2010-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the up-to-date organic polymer thermoplastics with applications in orthopaedics and trauma medicine. This study presents a detailed analysis of its tests and applications in clinical medicine. A wide range of PEEK modifications and composites are commercially available, e.g., PEEK-Classix, PEEK-Optima, Endolign and Motis. They differ in their physical properties, which makes them suitable for different applications. Other forms, so-called PEEK bioactive composites, contain beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Research in this field is also concerned with the surface finish of this polymer thermoplastic and involves macroporous titanium and hydroxyapatite layers, or treatment with laser for an exactly defined surface structure. The clinical applications of PEEK and its composites include, in addition to components for spinal surgery, osteosynthesis plates, screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators, which are implants still at the stage of prototypes. In this review, attention is paid to the use of PEEK thermoplastics for joint replacement. Mid-term studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that, for instance, the VerSys Epoch Fullcoat Hip System (Zimmer) has a markedly lower stress-shielding effect. Carbon fibre-reinforced (CFR-PEEK) composites are used to make articulating components for total hip replacement. Their convenient properties allow for production of much thinner liners and an enlargement of the femoral head diameter, thus reducing the wear of joint implants. CFR-PEEK composites are particularly effective for hip resurfacing in which the Mitch PCR (Stryker) acetabular component has been used with good results. The MOTIS polymer acetabular cup (Invibio Ltd.) is another example. Further PEEK applications include the construction of finger-joint prostheses (Mathys AG), suture anchors (Stryker) and various kinds of augmentations (Medin). Based on the information obtained, the authors suggest

  11. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Prostate PDT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a review of the current state of dosimetry in prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT of the human prostate has been performed with a number of different photosensitizers and with a variety of dosimetry schemes. The simplest clinical light dose prescription is to quantify the total light energy emitted per length (J/cm) of cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) for patients treated with a defined photosensitizer injection per body weight. However, this approach does not take into account the light scattering by tissue and usually underestimates the local light fluence rate, and consequently the fluence. Techniques have been developed to characterize tissue optical properties and light fluence rates in vivo using interstitial measurements during prostate PDT. Optical methods have been developed to characterize tissue absorption and scattering spectra, which in turn provide information about tissue oxygenation and drug concentration. Fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify drug concentrations and photobleaching rates of photosensitizers. PMID:25046988

  13. Cosmic Ray Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Belkhir, F.; Attallah, R.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation levels at aircraft cruising altitudes are twenty times higher than at sea level. Thus, on average, a typical airline pilot receives a larger annual radiation dose than some one working in nuclear industry. The main source of this radiation is from galactic cosmic radiation, high energy particles generated by exploding stars within our own galaxy. In this work we study cosmic rays dosimetry at various aviation altitudes using the PARMA model.

  14. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 201 - Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11) B Appendix B to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  15. 10 CFR 1016.41 - Continued applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continued applicability of the regulations in this part. 1016.41 Section 1016.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 1016.41 Continued applicability of the regulations in this part....

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A Appendix A to Part 284 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards...

  17. 13 CFR 107.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 107.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 107. 107.20 Section 107.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.20 Legal basis and applicability of this...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A Appendix A to Part 284 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards...

  19. 45 CFR 303.0 - Scope and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope and applicability of this part. 303.0 Section 303.0 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT... HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.0 Scope and applicability of this part. This...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q Appendix Q to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues...

  1. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6 Section 132.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q Appendix Q to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This appendix sets out procedures...

  3. Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.

  4. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 240 - Optional Forms for Powers of Attorney and Their Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined in 31 CFR part 240) as attorney-in-fact, but must describe the purpose for which the checks are... and Their Application A Appendix A to Part 240 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS DRAWN ON THE UNITED STATES TREASURY Pt. 240, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  5. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. BSEE authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... exploration conducted by or on behalf of the lessee on a lease in the OCS. Refer to 30 CFR part 550 if you... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  6. 30 CFR 551.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. BOEM authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... exploration conducted by or on behalf of the lessee on a lease in the OCS. Refer to 30 CFR part 250 if you... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  7. 30 CFR 551.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. BOEM authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... exploration conducted by or on behalf of the lessee on a lease in the OCS. Refer to 30 CFR part 250 if you... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  8. 30 CFR 551.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. BOEM authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... exploration conducted by or on behalf of the lessee on a lease in the OCS. Refer to 30 CFR part 250 if you... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  9. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. BSEE authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... exploration conducted by or on behalf of the lessee on a lease in the OCS. Refer to 30 CFR part 550 if you... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  10. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. BSEE authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... exploration conducted by or on behalf of the lessee on a lease in the OCS. Refer to 30 CFR part 550 if you... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  11. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. MMS authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... exploration conducted by or on behalf of the lessee on a lease in the OCS. Refer to 30 CFR part 250 if you... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  12. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section... Standards § 1928.21 Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. (a) The following standards in part 1910 of...-moving vehicles—§ 1910.145; (5) Hazard communication—§ 1910.1200; (6) Cadmium—§ 1910.1027. (7)...

  13. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section... Standards § 1928.21 Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. (a) The following standards in part 1910 of...-moving vehicles—§ 1910.145; (5) Hazard communication—§ 1910.1200; (6) Cadmium—§ 1910.1027. (7)...

  14. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section... Standards § 1928.21 Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. (a) The following standards in part 1910 of...-moving vehicles—§ 1910.145; (5) Hazard communication—§ 1910.1200; (6) Cadmium—§ 1910.1027. (7)...

  15. Passive particle dosimetry. [silver halide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Present methods of dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the processes using silver chloride crystals for ionizing particle dosimetry. Differences between the ability of various crystals to record ionizing particle paths are directly related to impurities in the range of a few ppm (parts per million). To understand the roles of these impurities in the process, a method for consistent production of high purity silver chloride, and silver bromide was developed which yields silver halides with detectable impurity content less than 1 ppm. This high purity silver chloride was used in growing crystals with controlled doping. Crystals were grown by both the Czochalski method and the Bridgman method, and the Bridgman grown crystals were used for the experiments discussed. The distribution coefficients of ten divalent cations were determined for the Bridgman crystals. The best dosimeters were made with silver chloride crystals containing 5 to 10 ppm of lead; other impurities tested did not produce proper dosimeters.

  16. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 1, geological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suárez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Organic petrology developed as coal petrology at the beginning of the 20th century dedicated mainly to the study of coals because of their utilization in industry. Coal petrology was then considered a branch of coal science. Later, with the development of specialized nomenclature, classification of coal components, and the standardization and improvement of analytical (microscopical) methods, this discipline expanded in interests and name, becoming organic petrology. Organic petrology carries a broader context, being as well a tool applied in the study of dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks due to its importance in exploration for fossil fuel resources. At present, organic petrology is a discipline widely recognized for its role in fundamental and applied research with respect to both coal utilization and in geosciences. Throughout the 20th century several important monographs have been published on the discipline of organic petrology, including “Stach's textbook of coal petrology” (1st edition 1935, 2nd 1975, 3rd 1982), updated as the more general “Organic petrology” by Taylor et al. (1998). More recently, the text “Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization” was published by Suárez-Ruiz and Crelling (2008). This review is the first in a two-part review series that describes and updates the role of organic petrology in geosciences. A second part complementing this one and focused on the applications of organic petrology to other scientific fields will follow.

  17. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO/sub 4/) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs.

  18. GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  19. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Errico, Francesco

    2001-09-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as "superheated drop detectors" or "bubble (damage) detectors", have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry.

  20. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  1. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-19

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-90) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF.

  2. Handbook for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for personnel dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The program contained in this Handbook provides a significant advance in the field of radiation protection through a structured means for assuring the quality of personnel dosimetry performance. Since personnel dosimetry performance is directly related to the assurance of worker safety, it has been of key interest to the Department of Energy. Studies conducted over the past three decades have clearly demonstrated a need for personnel dosimetry performance criteria, related testing programs, and improvements in dosimetry technology. In responding to these needs, the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (EH) has developed and initiated a DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) which is intended to improve the quality of personnel dosimetry through (1) performance testing, (2) dosimetry and calibration intercomparisons, and (3) applied research. In the interest of improving dosimetry technology, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is also designed to encourage cooperation and technical interchange between DOE laboratories. Dosimetry intercomparison programs have been scheduled which include the use of transport standard instruments, transport standard radioactive sources and special dosimeters. The dosimeters used in the intercomparison program are designed to obtain optimum data on the comparison of dosimetry calibration methodologies and capabilities. This data is used in part to develop enhanced calibration protocols. In the interest of overall calibration update, assistance and guidance for the calibration of personnel dosimeters is available through the DOELAP support laboratories. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Monte Carlo and experimental internal radionuclide dosimetry in RANDO head phantom.

    PubMed

    Ghahraman Asl, Ruhollah; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Parach, Ali Asghar; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Momennezhad, Mehdi; Davenport, David

    2015-09-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are widely employed in internal dosimetry to obtain better estimates of absorbed dose distributions from irradiation sources in medicine. Accurate 3D absorbed dosimetry would be useful for risk assessment of inducing deterministic and stochastic biological effects for both therapeutic and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. The goal of this study was to experimentally evaluate the use of Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) Monte Carlo package for 3D internal dosimetry using the head portion of the RANDO phantom. GATE package (version 6.1) was used to create a voxel model of a human head phantom from computed tomography (CT) images. Matrix dimensions consisted of 319 × 216 × 30 voxels (0.7871 × 0.7871 × 5 mm(3)). Measurements were made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100). One rod-shaped source with 94 MBq activity of (99m)Tc was positioned in the brain tissue of the posterior part of the human head phantom in slice number 2. The results of the simulation were compared with measured mean absorbed dose per cumulative activity (S value). Absorbed dose was also calculated for each slice of the digital model of the head phantom and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each slice from the simulation data. The S-values calculated by GATE and TLD methods showed a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, r(2) ≥ 0.99, p < 0.05) with each other. The maximum relative percentage differences were ≤14% for most cases. DVHs demonstrated dose decrease along the direction of movement toward the lower slices of the head phantom. Based on the results obtained from GATE Monte Carlopackage it can be deduced that a complete dosimetry simulation study, from imaging to absorbed dose map calculation, is possible to execute in a single framework. PMID:26232251

  4. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  5. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  6. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  7. Characterisation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of tailor-made Ge-doped silica glass fibre for applications in medical radiation therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahaimi, N. A.; Zin, H.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Rahman, A. L. Abdul; Bradley, D. A.; Rahman, A. T. Abdul

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the characterisation of new fabricated material Ge doped silica glass thermoluminescence TL dosimeter (Photonic Research Centre, University of Malaya) for medical radiation dosimetry at therapy energy. Previously, the dosimeter has been studied to provide ideal dosimetry system, suitable to ensure an accurate delivery of radiation doses to tumour tissue while minimising the amount of radiation administrated to healthy tissue. Both energies of photon and electron were used in this experiment for a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy. The various sizes of core diameter Ge doped silica glass (120, 241, 362, 483 and 604 μm) were exposed by using linear accelerator at Pantai Medical Centre. For both energies, the optical fibres were found to produce a flat response to a fixed photon and electron doses to within 4% (S.D) of the mean of the TL distribution. In terms of dose response, the fibres provide linear response over the range investigated, from a fraction of 1-5 Gy. The finding shows 120 μm fibres have 1.82 greater dose response than 604 pm fibres irradiated at 6 MV photon with a fixed dose of 3 Gy. While for electron energy 12 MeV, the response shows 120 μm fibres have 1.58 greater dose response compared to 604 μm fibres. The good responses are suitable to make these tailor-made doped silica fibres a promising TL material for use as a dosimetric system in medical radiation therapy.

  8. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees. PMID:26553474

  9. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Daniel A.; Moran, Jean M.; Dempsey, James F.; Dong Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  10. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT.

    PubMed

    Low, Daniel A; Moran, Jean M; Dempsey, James F; Dong, Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  11. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter not applicable. No claim for indemnity for animals destroyed because of brucellosis shall hereafter be paid...

  12. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter not applicable. No claim for indemnity for animals destroyed because of brucellosis shall hereafter be paid...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 4290.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 4290 § 4290.20 Legal basis and applicability of...

  14. 40 CFR 270.13 - Contents of part A of the permit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous wastes listed or designated under 40 CFR part 261 to be treated, stored, or disposed of at the... the facility for which the application is submitted. (c) Up to four SIC codes which best reflect...

  15. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  16. Liquid radiochromic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rativanich, N.; Radak, B. B.; Miller, A.; Uribe, R. M.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    By strategic combination of weak acid, mild oxidizing agent, and polar organic solvents containing millimolar concentrations of leucocyanides of certain triphenylmethane dyes, fairly broad ranges of absorbed doses of ionizing radiation can be determined. The yield of dye ions as determined by spectrophotometry can be made essentially constant with dose (i.e. linear response) from 0.01 to 30 kGy and it does not vary with dose rate upto 10 11 Gy·s -1. The radiation-induced color is stable and offers fast-retrieval dosimetry if N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone is used as solvent. Other possible polar solvents are 2-propanol, 2-methoxy ethanol, N, N-dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and triethyl phosphate. Dimethyl sulfoxide is found to give the widest and most linear response. Suitable dye precursors are leucocyanides of pararosaniline, new fuchsin, hexa (hydroxyethyl) pararosaniline, crystal violet, malachite green, setoglaucine, ethyl violet, helvetia green, basic violet-14, and formyl violet. Low concentrations of carboxylic acids contribute stability to the system. Typical mild oxidizing agents are nitrobenzene, and atmospheric oxygen, or oxygen released radiolytically from the solvents. The dosimetry systems do not require high-purity of ingredients or ultracleanliness of containers, although, for reproducibility of dye yields (G-values), thoroughly purified and uniform dye derivates are recommended.

  17. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  18. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  19. Evolution of the NWC (Naval Weapons Center) thermal standard. Part 5: Thermal standard development and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, R. D.

    1984-07-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of reports covering the development and application of a temperature-measuring device, designated the NWC thermal standard, which can be used to evaluate the thermal response of ordnance. Part 1 of this report series described the theoretical concepts of a thermal standard. Part 2 presented a comparison of predicted and experimental data. Part 3 described use of the thermal standard to determine field thermal response of ordnance stored unsheltered. Part 4 presented the results of several years of data collection in the field, using the thermal standard, along with graphs and analysis of the data. This part of the report series, Part 5, contains a summary of the work done with the thermal standard temperature-measuring device. Development of the device is described, and its applications are discussed. Future uses are suggested.

  20. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 263 - Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program B Appendix B to Part 263 Navigation and Navigable... Pt. 263, App. B Appendix B to Part 263—Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing... conducting a feasibility study. Mature, seasoned judgment is a prime requisite. b. Stage 2—Development...

  1. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  2. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms F Appendix F to Part 227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. F Appendix F to Part...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control...

  6. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings B Appendix B to Part 191 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191—Sample Formats...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 270 - Application for Compensation of Vietnamese Commandos

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commandos A Appendix A to Part 270 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Pt. 270, App. A Appendix A to Part 270—Application for Compensation of Vietnamese Commandos All persons applying for payment shall submit a properly completed, signed and...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 62 - Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application B Appendix B to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App. B Appendix B to Part 62—Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor...

  11. 78 FR 63501 - Request To Submit a Two-Part Application-Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Rules of Practice and Procedure,'' on April 24, 1974 (39 FR 14506). The intent of this final rule was to... licenses under 10 CFR part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants'' (72 FR... COMMISSION Request To Submit a Two-Part Application--Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC AGENCY:...

  12. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Part 53 of this chapter not applicable. 51.10 Section 51.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter...

  13. 13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

  15. 20 CFR 725.2 - Purpose and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sections set forth in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1999, apply to the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose and applicability of this part. 725.2 Section 725.2 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  16. 20 CFR 725.2 - Purpose and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sections set forth in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1999, apply to the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose and applicability of this part. 725.2 Section 725.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 57 - Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO) Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO) Application A Appendix A to Part 57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Pt. 57, App. A Appendix A to Part 57—Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 57 - Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO) Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO) Application A Appendix A to Part 57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Pt. 57, App. A Appendix A to Part 57—Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Audiograms F Appendix F to Part 227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. F Appendix F to Part 227—Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms This appendix is...

  1. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 564 - Information Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam Headlamp Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam Headlamp Units C Appendix C to Part 564 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... SOURCE AND SEALED BEAM HEADLAMP INFORMATION Pt. 564, App. C Appendix C to Part 564—Information...

  3. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  4. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

  9. 40 CFR 61.01 - Lists of pollutants and applicability of part 61.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lists of pollutants and applicability...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.01 Lists of pollutants and applicability of part 61. (a) The following list presents...

  10. 36 CFR 3.1 - What is the applicability and scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the applicability and scope of this part? 3.1 Section 3.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.1 What is the applicability and scope of...

  11. 36 CFR 3.1 - What is the applicability and scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the applicability and scope of this part? 3.1 Section 3.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.1 What is the applicability and scope of...

  12. 20 CFR 802.102 - Applicability of part 801 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part 801 of this chapter. 802.102 Section 802.102 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF..., authority, and operation of the Benefits Review Board and definitions applicable to this chapter....

  13. 40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applications to exempt new... Administrative Procedures § 725.67 Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a) Submission. (1) Any manufacturer or importer of a new microorganism may request, under TSCA section 5(h)(4),...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 22 to Part 679 - Chiniak Gully Research Area (applicable through December 31, 2010)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chiniak Gully Research Area (applicable... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 22 Figure 22 to Part 679—Chiniak Gully Research Area (applicable through December 31, 2010) ER01JN06.018 Effective Date Note: At 71 FR 31107, June...

  15. 45 CFR 301.0 - Scope and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope and applicability of this part. 301.0 Section 301.0 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN APPROVAL AND GRANT PROCEDURES § 301.0 Scope and applicability of this...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 564 - Information Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam Headlamp Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam... SOURCE AND SEALED BEAM HEADLAMP INFORMATION Pt. 564, App. C Appendix C to Part 564—Information Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam Headlamp Units I. Dimensional Information Specific to a Type...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... Reactor Safeguards of requests for early review of one or more site suitability issues relating to...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... Reactor Safeguards of requests for early review of one or more site suitability issues relating to...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... Reactor Safeguards of requests for early review of one or more site suitability issues relating to...

  20. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 5 CFR 210.101 - Applicability of various parts of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of various parts of regulations. 210.101 Section 210.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS (GENERAL) Applicability of Regulations; Definitions §...

  6. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section 1928.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Applicability...

  7. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, H., IV

    2000-03-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products — Requirements for validation and routine control — Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but

  8. The next decade in external dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  10. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  11. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  12. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J. Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kao, Yung H.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Iagaru, Andre H.; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  13. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-01

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space. PMID:10631334

  14. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  15. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  16. Laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    We report a novel laser-heated thermoluminescence dosimeter that is radically different from previous laser-heated dosimeters. The dosimeter is a semiconductor and metal ion doped silica glass that has excellent optical transparency. The high optical quality of the glass essentially eliminates laser power loss due to light scattering. This efficient utilization of the laser power permits operation of the dosimeter without strong absorption of the laser, as is required in traditional laser-heated dosimetry. Our laser-heated dosimeter does not rely on the diffusion of heat from a separate, highly absorbing substrate, but operates via intimate, localized heating within the glass dosimeter due to the absorption of the laser light by rare earth ion dopants in the glass. Following absorption of the laser light, the rare earth ions transfer energy to the surrounding glass via nonradiative relaxation processes, resulting in rapid, localized temperature increases sufficient to release all the filled traps near the ions. As the heat diffuses radially away from the rare earth ions the temperature plummets dramatically on a manometer distance scale and the release of additional filled traps subsides. A key distinguishing feature of this laser-heated dosimeter is the ability to read the dose information more than once. While laser-heating provides complete information about the radiation exposure experienced by the glass due to the release of locally heated traps, the process leaves the remaining filled bulk traps undisturbed. The bulk traps can be read using traditional bulk heating methods and can provide a direct determination of an accumulated dose, measured following any number of laser-heated readouts. Laser-heated dosimetry measurements have been performed using a solid state diode laser for the readout following radiation exposure with a {sup 60}Co source.

  17. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general

  18. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  19. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  20. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.