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Sample records for dota-tetraamide complexes considerations

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of lanthanide ion DOTA-tetraamide complexes bearing peripheral hydroxyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Azhar; Lin, Mai; Tircsó, Gyula; Rostollan, Cynthia L.; Woods, Mark; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Sun, Xiankai

    2009-01-01

    The use of lanthanide-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an integral component of this important diagnostic modality. These inert chelates typically possess high thermodynamic stability constants that serve as a predictor for in vivo stability and low toxicity. Recently a new class of contrast agents was reported having a significantly lower degree thermodynamic stability while exhibiting biodistribution profiles indicative of high stability under biological conditions. These observations are suggestive that the nature of contrast agent stability is also dependent upon the kinetics of complex dissociation; a feature of potential importance when contemplating the design of new chelates for in vivo use. In this paper we present a study of the kinetics of acid catalyzed dissociation, thermodynamic stability, serum stability and biodistribution of a series of DOTA-tetraamide complexes that have been substituted with peripheral hydroxyl groups. The data indicate that these non-traditional contrast agents exhibit in vivo stability comparable to agents with much higher log KML values demonstrating the important contribution of kinetic inertness. PMID:19083028

  2. The Effect of the Amide Substituent on the Biodistribution and Tolerance of Lanthanide(III) DOTA-Tetraamide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Mark; Caravan, Peter; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Greenfield, Matthew T.; Kiefer, Garry E.; Lin, Mai; McMillan, Kenneth; Prata, M. Isabel M.; Santos, Ana C.; Sun, Xiankai; Wang, Jufeng; Zhang, Shanrong; Zhao, Piyu; Sherry, A. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Recent advances in the design of MRI contrast agents have rendered the lanthanide complexes of DOTA-tetraamide ligands of considerable interest, both as responsive MR agents and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents. The potential utility of these complexes for in vivo applications is contingent upon them being well tolerated by the body. The purpose of this study was to examine how the nature of the amide substituent, and in particular its charge, affected the fate of these chelates postinjection. Materials and Methods Complexes of 6 DOTA-tetraamide ligands were prepared in which the nature of the amide substituent was systematically altered. The 6 ligands formed 3 series: a phosphonate series that included tri-cationic, mono-anionic, and polyanionic complexes; a carboxylate series made up of a tri-cationic complex and a mono-anionic complex; and lastly, a tri-cationic complex with an aromatic amide substituent. These complexes were labeled with an appropriate radioisotope, either 153Gd or 177Lu, and the biodistribution profiles in rats recorded 2 hours postinjection. Results Biodistribution profiles were initially acquired at low doses to minimize adverse effects. All the complexes studied were found to be excreted primarily through the renal system, with the majority of the dose being found in the urine. None of the complexes exhibited substantial uptake by bone, liver, and spleen, except for a complex with 4 phosphonate groups that exhibited significant bone targeting capabilities. Increasing the dose of each complex to that of a typical MR contrast agent was found to render all 3 tri-cationic complexes studied here acutely toxic. In contrast, no ill effects were observed after administration of similar doses of the corresponding anionic complexes. Conclusions The absence of uptake by the liver and spleen indicate that irrespective of the ligand structure and charge, these complexes are not prone to dissociation in vivo. This is

  3. The effect of regioisomerism on the coordination chemistry and CEST properties of lanthanide(III) NB-DOTA-tetraamide chelates

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Jacqueline R.; Woods, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) offers many advantages as a method of generating contrast in magnetic resonance images. However, many of the exogenous agents currently under investigation suffer from detection limits that are still somewhat short of what can be achieved with more traditional Gd3+ agents. To remedy this limitation we have undertaken an investigation of Ln3+ DOTA-tetraamide chelates (where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) that have unusually rigid ligand structures: the nitrobenzyl derivatives of DOTA-tetraamides with (2-phenylethyl)amide substituents. In this report we examine the effect of incorporating hydrophobic amide substituents on water exchange and CEST. The ligand systems chosen afforded a total of three CEST-active isomeric square antiprismatic chelates; each of these chelates was found to have different water exchange and CEST characteristics. The position of a nitrobenzyl substituent on the macrocyclic ring strongly influenced the way in which the chelate and Ln3+ coordination cage distorted. These differential distortions were found to affect the rate of water proton exchange in the chelates. But, by far the greatest effect arose from altering the position of the hydrophobic amide substituent, which, when forced upwards around the water binding site, caused a substantial reduction in the rate of water proton exchange. Such slow water proton exchange afforded a chelate that was 4.5 times more effective as a CEST agent than its isomeric counterparts in dry acetonitrile and at low temperatures and very low presaturation powers. PMID:24287873

  4. Improved synthesis of DOTA tetraamide lanthanide(III) ligands: tool for increasing the repertoire of potential PARACEST contrast agents for MRI and/or fluorescent sensors

    PubMed Central

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Viswanathan, Subha; Sherry, A. Dean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of new DOTA tetra-amide (DOTAMR4) compounds is of great interest given their application in the formation of Ln(III) complexes which are potential PARACEST contrast agents in MRI or fluorescent molecular probes. In this context amino acid and peptide DOTAMR4 derivatives are particularly attractive since the amino-acid and/or peptide moiety can show responsive properties dependent on a given stimuli which might translate to changes in water exchange rates of the corresponding Ln(III) complex. Current synthesis of DOTAMR4 derivatives is typically carried out by reacting haloacetamide intermediates with cyclen. However, this method fails to generate the tetra-substituted products when bulky substituents are present in the haloacetamide and in some cases this intermediate cannot be prepared by conventional acylation procedures limiting the number of DOTAMR4 compounds available for study. As a solution to these limitations, an improved methodology for the synthesis of DOTAMR4 by coupling DOTA to an appropriate amine containing reagent (i.e. protected amino-acids with the α-amino group free) is presented in this work. Several DOTAMR4 derivatives which are difficult or impossible to prepare with the traditional methodologies were easily obtained starting with DOTA. A new protocol was derived using this methodology for the solution phase synthesis of DOTA peptide derivatives. With this methodology, many other DOTAMR4 peptide and non-peptide derivatives have been prepared in our laboratories with several of these new compounds showing interesting properties for molecular imaging. PMID:20586036

  5. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Perioperative Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Bourneville disease, is an inherited, progressive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the potential for hamartoma formation throughout the body. TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, but more than two-thirds of cases are sporadic. Methods Clinical manifestations and treatment options are discussed. Both surgical and anesthetic perioperative considerations are described in this review. Results Routine monitoring is appropriate for minor surgical procedures for patients with TSC who have mild disease manifestations. More extensive monitoring is indicated for major procedures that have the potential for significant blood loss and for patients with more severe pathology. Postoperatively, TSC patients should be admitted for monitoring and treatment after more extensive procedures or if significant organ dysfunction occurs. Postoperative complications, which may be related to either the surgery or the TSC pathology itself, may have origins in many different organs and may include seizures, severe hypertension, and bradyarrhythmias. Conclusion TSC is a rare disease with a highly variable clinical presentation and provides a multitude of challenges for the patient, the family, and the healthcare team. PMID:24940133

  6. A lanthanide complex with dual biosensing properties: CEST and BIRDS with EuDOTA-(gly)4−

    PubMed Central

    Coman, Daniel; Kiefer, Garry E.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Sherry, A. Dean; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2011-01-01

    Responsive contrast agents (RCAs) [R1.12] composed of lanthanide III ion (Ln3+) complexes with a variety of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (DOTA4−) derivatives have shown great potential as molecular imaging agents for magnetic resonance (MR). A variety of LnDOTA-tetraamide complexes have been demonstrated as RCAs for molecular imaging with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). The CEST method detects proton exchange between bulk water and any exchangeable sites on the ligand itself or an inner sphere of bound water that is shifted by a paramagnetic Ln3+ bound in the core of the macrocycle. It has also been shown that molecular imaging is possible when the RCA itself is observed (i.e., not its affect on bulk water) using a method called biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS). The BIRDS method utilizes redundant information stored in the non-exchangeable proton resonances emanating from the paramagnetic RCA for ambient factors like temperature and/or pH. Thus CEST and BIRDS rely on exchangeable and non-exchangeable protons, respectively, for biosensing. We posited that it is feasible to combine these two biosensing features into the same RCA (i.e., dual CEST and BIRDS properties). A complex between europium ion (Eu3+) and DOTA-tetra-glycinate (DOTA-(gly)44−) is used to demonstrate that its CEST characteristics are preserved while BIRDS properties are detected. In vitro temperature sensitivity of EuDOTA-(gly)4− is used to show that qualitative MR contrast with CEST can be calibrated using quantitative MR mapping with BIRDS, thereby enabling quantitative molecular imaging at high spatial resolution. PMID:22020775

  7. Autism Phenotypes in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Poretti, Andrea; Thomas, Emily A; Jenkins, Kosunique T; Desai, Sonal; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem, chronic genetic condition characterized by systemic growth of benign tumors and often accompanied by epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability. Nonetheless, the neurodevelopmental phenotype of these patients is not often detailed. The authors describe 3 individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex who share common characteristics that can help to identify a distinct profile of autism spectrum disorder. These findings include typical cognitive development, expressive and pragmatic language deficits, and anxiety. The authors also describe features specific to tuberous sclerosis complex that require consideration before diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder. Identifying distinct profiles of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex can help optimize treatment across the life span. PMID:26303410

  8. Genitourinary Considerations in Reoperative and Complex Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Althumairi, Azah A; Efron, Jonathan E

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary structures are at risk of injury during colorectal surgery. The incidence of injury is low; however, the risk is higher in cases involving severe inflammatory or infectious processes, locally advanced or recurrent cancer, previous radiation, and reoperation. Consideration of the anatomical relationship between the genitourinary system, and the colon and rectum is crucial to avoid injuries. Intraoperative diagnostic techniques such as intravenous pyelogram (IVP), fluoroscopic cystogram, or retrograde urethrogram can aid in identifying suspected injuries. Early recognition and repair of injuries decrease the morbidity of an injury. Repair of injuries depends on the location and extent of the injury. Simple injuries may be repaired primarily, while complex injuries may require more advanced repairs such as a flap reconstruction. PMID:27247540

  9. [A consideration of the name of the Ajase complex].

    PubMed

    Daiguji, Makoto; Moriguchi-Shinoda, Mai

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the "Ajase complex" was advocated by Heisaku Kosawa, one of the researchers who brought psychoanalysis into Japan. Kosawa's emphasis was originally on the feeling of guilt that is based on the apologetic feeling that comes from being forgiven, in contrast with the guilt that comes from the fear of punishment. However, Okonogi, a disciple of Kosawa, began to change this concept's emphasis to mother/child friction. The Ajase (Ajătaśatru) story which Kosawa and Okonogi based the origin of the name "Ajase complex" on is far different from that of the Buddhist scriptures. The most significant difference is as follows: in the Ajase legend, that comes mainly from two Buddhist scriptures, the Contemplation Sŭtra and the Mahăyăna-mahăparinirvăna-sŭtra, the murder of the father by the child Ajase is the main theme and resembles the Oedipus complex. The episode of Ajase trying to kill her mother, Vaidehi, comes from the mother Vaidehĭ trying to help the imprisoned king and does not come from mother/child friction. In the Ajase complex, the mother's planned pregnancy to ensure the connection of love with her husband, the king, the attempted murder of Ajase, who is the reincarnation of the hermit, by Vaidehĭ, and the story of how a mother's love saves Ajase from the hate that grew out of the mother/child friction, are not included in the above-mentioned Buddhist scriptures. The story to back up the Ajase complex comes from Kosawa and Okonogi's new interpretation and origination. In this article, the authors are not trying to deny the value of the specific pathological mother/child relationship suggested by the Ajase complex. It is not the definition that we doubt, but the naming. PMID:19195193

  10. Otocephaly Complex: Case Report, Literature Review, and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Diep, Jack; Kam, David; Munir, Farrah; Shulman, Steven M; Atlas, Glen

    2016-07-15

    Otocephaly complex is a rare and usually lethal syndrome characterized by a set of malformations consisting of microstomia, mandibular hypoplasia/agnathia, and ventromedial malposition of the ears. Those cases that have been diagnosed prenatally have used an ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure to establish a definitive airway. However, prenatal diagnosis continues to be challenging, primarily because of poor diagnostic sensitivity associated with ultrasonography. We present a case of a newborn with an unanticipated otocephaly complex requiring emergent airway management. In this report, we discuss the medical and ethical issues related to the care of a newborn with this frequently fatal condition. PMID:27258179

  11. Addressing the Needs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Considerations and Complexities for High School Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Fan, Hannah; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…

  12. Headache in a Patient with Complex Congenital Heart Disease: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waheed; Miteff, Ferdi; Collins, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Headache in adult patients with congenital heart disease may be a manifestation of the underlying cardiac condition or more common alternative causes of headache. In patients with pre-existing congenital heart disease, consideration of potentially uncommon aetiologies of headache is important. We report an uncommon case of headache in a patient with complex congenital heart disease characterised by Ebstein's anomaly with previous surgical repair complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This case illustrates the importance of understanding the implications of headache with reference to the underlying cardiac disease as well as specific issues related to a relatively young cohort of patients. PMID:26251315

  13. Modeling and Performance Considerations for Automated Fault Isolation in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the modeling considerations and performance metrics that were examined in the development of a large-scale Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) system. The FDIR system is envisioned to perform health management functions for both a launch vehicle and the ground systems that support the vehicle during checkout and launch countdown by using suite of complimentary software tools that alert operators to anomalies and failures in real-time. The FDIR team members developed a set of operational requirements for the models that would be used for fault isolation and worked closely with the vendor of the software tools selected for fault isolation to ensure that the software was able to meet the requirements. Once the requirements were established, example models of sufficient complexity were used to test the performance of the software. The results of the performance testing demonstrated the need for enhancements to the software in order to meet the demands of the full-scale ground and vehicle FDIR system. The paper highlights the importance of the development of operational requirements and preliminary performance testing as a strategy for identifying deficiencies in highly scalable systems and rectifying those deficiencies before they imperil the success of the project

  14. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  15. Complex aortopulmonary window in a single ventricle setting: Technical considerations for staged palliation

    PubMed Central

    Salve, Gananjay G; Jain, Shreepal A; Katkade, Sandip S; Shivaprakash, Krishnanaik

    2016-01-01

    We report a successful surgical management of a case presented with a combination of aortopulmonary window (APW) with large ventricular septal defect (VSD) amounting to a single ventricle, with a view to highlight technical considerations during staged single-ventricle palliation. PMID:27212854

  16. A Consideration of Cognitive Complexity and Primacy - Recency Effects in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronko, Michael R.; Perin, Charles T.

    1970-01-01

    Classifies subjects as cognitively simple" or cognitively complex" and notes that the latter are much nore successful at reconciling inconsistent information than are the former, whose impressions are formed by the information which makes the greatest impact. (RW)

  17. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  18. Considerable fluorescence enhancement upon supramolecular complex formation between berberine and p-sulfonated calixarenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megyesi, Mónika; Biczók, László

    2006-06-01

    Remarkably strong binding of berberine to 4-sulfonatocalix[8]arene was found in aqueous solution, which led to fluorescence quantum yield increase of a factor about 40 at pH 2. The hypsochromic shift of the fluorescence maximum implied that berberine sensed less polar microenvironment when confined to SCX8. The stability of the supramolecular complex significantly diminished when sulfocalixarenes of smaller ring size served as host compounds but the pH affected the association strength to a much lesser extent. All berberine complexes proved to be barely fluorescent at pH 12.2 because of excited state quenching by the hosts via electron transfer.

  19. Finite element model creation and stability considerations of complex biological articulation: The human wrist joint.

    PubMed

    Gíslason, Magnús K; Stansfield, Benedict; Nash, David H

    2010-06-01

    The finite element method has been used with considerable success to simulate the behaviour of various joints such as the hip, knee and shoulder. It has had less impact on more complicated joints such as the wrist and the ankle. Previously published finite element studies on these multi-bone joints have needed to introduce un-physiological boundary conditions in order to establish numerical convergence of the model simulation. That is necessary since the stabilizing soft tissue mechanism of these joints is usually too elaborate in order to be fully included both anatomically and with regard to material properties. This paper looks at the methodology of creating a finite element model of such a joint focussing on the wrist and the effects additional constraining has on the solution of the model. The study shows that by investigating the effects each of the constraints, a better understanding on the nature of the stabilizing mechanisms of these joints can be achieved. PMID:20303315

  20. Economic consideration of optimal vaccination distribution for epidemic Spreads in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    The main concern of epidemiological modeling is to implement an economical vaccine allocation to the population. Here, we investigate the optimal vaccination allocation in complex networks. We find that the optimal vaccine coverage depends not only on the relative cost of treatment to vaccination but also on the vaccine efficacy. Especially with a high cost of treatment, nodes with high degree are prioritized to vaccinate. These results may help us understand factors that may impact the optimal vaccination distribution in the control of epidemic dynamics.

  1. Considerations in Starting a Patient with Advanced Frailty on Dialysis: Complex Biology Meets Challenging Ethics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nephrologists have focused on the uremic syndrome as an indication for dialysis. The elderly frail renal patient approaching ESRD represents a complex biologic system that is already failing. This patient phenotype exhibits progressive geriatric disabilities and dependence interspersed with shrinking periods of stability regardless of whether dialysis is started. Consequently, the frail renal patient faces challenging treatment choices underpinned by ethical tensions. Identifying the advanced frail renal patient and optimizing the shared decision-making process will enable him or her to make well informed choices based on an understanding of his or her overall condition and personal values and preferences. This approach will also permit nephrologists to fulfill their ethical obligations to respect patient autonomy, promote patient benefit, and minimize patient harm. PMID:23788617

  2. Dental Treatment Considerations for Children with Complex Medical Histories: A Case of Townes-Brock Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elkaiali, Lujayn; Ratliff, Katelin; Oueis, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    It is common for oral health and dental care to be considered a lesser priority for children with complex medical histories than other aspects of their health care. Often, these patients are at a high risk for caries and infection due to poor oral health practices at home, special or restricted diets, and no early establishment of a dental home for routine dental care. Unfortunately, many of these patients present to their first dental visits with caries and require aggressive treatment, such as extractions instead of pulp therapy, or crowns instead of fillings, due to their high caries risk and the difficulty in safely managing them medically during treatment. A unique example of this occurred at the Children's Hospital of Michigan, where a patient with Townes-Brock syndrome (TBS) presented to the dental clinic with advanced caries. TBS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by major findings such as anomalies of the external ear, imperforate anus, renal malformations, and malformations of the hand. Like many medically complex cases, dental anomalies are not a direct consequence of TBS; however, due to the necessity of high calorie and high sugar feeding supplementation, many of these patients are at high risk for advanced dental caries. Due to this high caries risk, a more aggressive treatment plan is necessary to minimize the risk of recurrent decay and infection. It is critical to stress that even if the disease, syndrome, etc., of a patient does not have inherent dental consequences, it is imperative for regular dental care to be part of the comprehensive treatment plan for these patients. This includes the establishment of a dental home at a young age and proper oral health education of the patient's caregivers and their physicians. In the case of the patient with TBS, recommendations for daily brushing, especially after high sugar feedings was stressed, as well as the reduction of any other sweets within the diet. PMID:26882646

  3. Embracing Complex Associations in Common Traits: Critical Considerations for Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hall, Molly A; Moore, Jason H; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with human phenotypes. This approach, however, does not consider the richly diverse and complex environment with which humans interact throughout the life course, nor does it allow for interrelationships between genetic loci and across traits. As we move toward making precision medicine a reality, whereby we make predictions about disease risk based on genomic profiles, we need to identify improved predictive models of the relationship between genome and phenome. Methods that embrace pleiotropy (the effect of one locus on more than one trait), and gene-environment (G×E) and gene-gene (G×G) interactions, will further unveil the impact of alterations in biological pathways and identify genes that are only involved with disease in the context of the environment. This valuable information can be used to assess personal risk and choose the most appropriate medical interventions based on the genotype and environment of an individual, the whole premise of precision medicine. PMID:27392675

  4. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit. PMID:26299123

  5. A primer on gadolinium chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, A. Dean; Caravan, Peter; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Gadolinium is widely known by all practitioners of MRI but few appreciate the basic solution chemistry of this trivalent lanthanide ion. Given the recent linkage between gadolinium contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, some basic chemistry of this ion must be more widely understood. This short primer on gadolinium chemistry is intended to provide the reader the background principles necessary to understand the basics of chelation chemistry, water hydration numbers, and the differences between thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability or inertness. We illustrate the fundamental importance of kinetic dissociation rates in determining gadolinium toxicity in vivo by presenting new data for a novel europium DOTA-tetraamide complex that is relatively unstable thermodynamically yet extraordinarily inert kinetically and also quite non-toxic. This, plus other literature evidence forms the basis of the fundamental axiom that it is the kinetic stability of a gadolinium complex, not its thermodynamic stability, that determines its in vivo toxicity. PMID:19938036

  6. Breaking the Barrier to Slow Water Exchange Rates for Optimal Magnetic Resonance Detection of paraCEST Agents.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W Shirangi; Martins, André F; Zhao, Piyu; Wu, Yunkou; Kiefer, Garry E; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-03-21

    EuDOTA-tetraamide complexes as paraCEST agents offer an attractive platform for designing biological sensors and responsive agents. The early versions of these agents showed low sensitivity at temperature and power levels suitable for in vivo applications partly due to non-optimal water exchange rates. Here we report two new EuDOTA derivatives having glutamyl-phosphonate side arms that display the slowest water exchange rates of any other paraCEST agent reported so far. The advantages of such systems are demonstrated experimentally both in vitro and in vivo and DFT calculations were performed to help understand the physical-chemical reasons for this interesting behavior. PMID:26937683

  7. Colletotrichum truncatum species complex: Treatment considerations and review of the literature for an unusual pathogen causing fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Squissato, Victoria; Yucel, Yeni H.; Richardson, Susan E.; Alkhotani, Alaa; Wong, David T.; Nijhawan, Navdeep; Chan, Clara C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Colletotrichum truncatum species complex fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis in an 87-year-old immunocompetent male in whom oral triazole antifungals were contraindicated. The patient had recently returned from 4 months in Jamaica with a one month history of progressively increasing pain and inflammation in his left eye. Corneal samples grew a filamentous fungus and internal transcribed spacer sequencing polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of C. truncatum species complex. Samples showed no microbial growth. PMID:26137437

  8. Methodological Considerations in Using Complex Survey Data: An Applied Example with the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; McWayne, Christine M.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Faria, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Complex survey data are collected by means other than simple random samples. This creates two analytical issues: nonindependence and unequal selection probability. Failing to address these issues results in underestimated standard errors and biased parameter estimates. Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child…

  9. Iron Complexation to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors SAHA and LAQ824 in PEGylated Liposomes Can Considerably Improve Pharmacokinetics in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Tu, Sheng; Steffen, Dana; Xiong, May P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The formulation of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is challenging due to poor water solubility and rapid elimination of drugs in vivo. This study investigated the effects of complexing iron (Fe3+) to the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and LAQ824 (LAQ) prior to their encapsulation into PEGylated liposomes, and investigated whether this technique could improve drug solubility, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. METHODS The reaction stoichiometry, binding constants and solubility were measured for Fe complexes of SAHA and LAQ. The complexes were passively encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes and characterized by size distribution, zeta-potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and in vitro drug release studies. PC-3 cells were used to verify the in vitro anticancer activity of the formulations. In vivo pharmacokinetic properties of liposomal LAQ-Fe (L-LAQ-Fe) was evaluated in rats. RESULTS SAHA and LAQ form complexes with Fe at 1:1 stoichiometric ratio, with a binding constant on the order of 104 M−1. Fe complexation improved the aqueous solubility and the liposomal encapsulation efficiency of SAHA and LAQ (29–35% EE, final drug concentration > 1 mM). Liposomal encapsulated complexes (L-HDACi-Fe) exhibited sustained in vitro release properties compared to L-HDACi but cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells was comparable to free drugs. The PK of L-LAQ-Fe revealed 15-fold improvement in the plasma t1/2 (12.11 h) and 211-fold improvement in the AUC∞ (105.7 μg·h/ml) compared to free LAQ (0.79 h, 0.5 μg·h/ml). Similarly, the plasma t1/2 of Fe was determined to be 11.83 h in a separate experiment using radioactive Fe-59. The majority of Fe-59 activity was found in liver and spleen of rats and correlates with liposomal uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system. CONCLUSIONS We have demonstrated that encapsulation of Fe complexes of HDACi into PEGylated liposomes can improve overall drug aqueous solubility, in vitro

  10. Bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  11. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the oldest (2.34 Ma) Lokalalei archaeological site complex of the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, northern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Schuster, Mathieu; Roche, Hélène; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Thuo, Peter; Prat, Sandrine; Harmand, Sonia; Davtian, Gourguen; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Bohn, Marcel

    2010-09-01

    At the northwest end of the Lake Turkana Basin (northern Kenya Rift), intensive fieldwork conducted on the Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine Nachukui Formation by the National Museums of Kenya and the West Turkana Archaeological Project (WTAP), led to the discovery of more than 50 archaeological sites aged between 2.4 and 0.7 Ma. Among them is the Lokalalei archaeological site complex, which includes the two oldest archaeological sites (2.34 Ma) found in the Kenyan segment of the East African Rift System. The environmental background of the two sites was described as a succession of ephemeral streams with floodplain palaeosols in which the archaeological sites are situated, bordering the western bank of a large axial meandering river flowing southward. The Lokalalei 1 (LA1) and Lokalalei 2C (LA2C) archaeological sites are of extreme importance in terms of knowledge of hominins' knapping activities. The stratigraphic position of the LA1 and LA2C sites as well as implications on the technical differences between the two sites have been successively discussed by Roche et al. (1999), Brown and Gathogo (2002), and Delagnes and Roche (2005). In terms of stratigraphic position, Lokalalei 2C was estimated to be slightly higher in the section (i.e. younger) than Lokalalei 1. An alternative stratigraphic correlation was proposed by Brown and Gathogo (2002), who suggested that LA2C site should have been approximately 100,000 years younger than LA1. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the Lokalalei sites have been developed following controversy on the stratigraphic position and time interval between the LA1 and LA2C sites. High-resolution lithostratigraphic work based on bed-to-bed field correlations, facies sedimentology and tephra geochemistry confirms that the LA2C site is slightly higher in the section than the LA1 site by about 11.20 m. This represents a time interval of ˜74,000 years based on an assumed sedimentation rate of 152 mm

  12. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  13. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Young, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high molecular weight peaks than did plastic bottles. PMID:23416600

  14. Dolphin social intelligence: complex alliance relationships in bottlenose dolphins and a consideration of selective environments for extreme brain size evolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Connor, Richard C

    2007-04-29

    Bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, live in a large, unbounded society with a fission-fusion grouping pattern. Potential cognitive demands include the need to develop social strategies involving the recognition of a large number of individuals and their relationships with others. Patterns of alliance affiliation among males may be more complex than are currently known for any non-human, with individuals participating in 2-3 levels of shifting alliances. Males mediate alliance relationships with gentle contact behaviours such as petting, but synchrony also plays an important role in affiliative interactions. In general, selection for social intelligence in the context of shifting alliances will depend on the extent to which there are strategic options and risk. Extreme brain size evolution may have occurred more than once in the toothed whales, reaching peaks in the dolphin family and the sperm whale. All three 'peaks' of large brain size evolution in mammals (odontocetes, humans and elephants) shared a common selective environment: extreme mutual dependence based on external threats from predators or conspecific groups. In this context, social competition, and consequently selection for greater cognitive abilities and large brain size, was intense. PMID:17296597

  15. Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment of Air Emission Sources in AN Industrial Complex for Risk Reduction Considerations: AN Air Waste Management Methodology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    The purpose of this study was to develop an air waste management methodology for apportioning the health risks associated with air emission source categories that are identified in a given airshed. This was implemented by expanding the receptor model technique to assess the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic inhalation risks to an exposed population for certain element pollutants determined to be coming from specific emission sources. The concept was demonstrated using air quality data from a mid-sized industrial complex located in a rural/residential area. It was demonstrated that risks from identified, major elemental emission categories can be quantified and that a total, additive risk be determined for main source categories in the airshed. Potential risk reduction measures were targeted at main risk sources without arbitrarily reducing risk for all sources in the airshed thereby making it a cost-effective approach. Dispersion modeling was utilized from previous emission inventory data so that risk estimates for these sources could be modeled at other receptor points in the airshed. The factor analytic procedure for Source Resolution in the initial receptor modeling approach was used to show whether the ambient data fitted a Maximum-Likelihood Factor Analysis or Principal Component Analysis for identifying underlying emission sources. It was also shown how Maximum -Likelihood Factor Analysis can be a stronger source resolution procedure as opposed to Principal Component Analysis since Factor Analysis is metrically invariant. Finally, the use of the ambient air data for total particulates was used to expand the Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment concepts to augment the Bubble Policy currently used in Air Quality Management.

  16. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  17. Translational considerations for cancer nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephan T.; Hall, Jennifer B.; Yu, Lee L.; Wood, Laura J.; Paciotti, Giulio F.; Tamarkin, Lawrence; Long, Stephen E.; McNeil, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    There are many important considerations during preclinical development of cancer nanomedicines, including: 1) unique aspects of animal study design; 2) the difficulties in evaluating biological potency, especially for complex formulations; 3) the importance of analytical methods that can determine platform stability in vivo, and differentiate bound and free active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in biological matrices; and 4) the appropriateness of current dose scaling techniques for estimation of clinical first-in-man dose from preclinical data. Biologics share many commonalities with nanotechnology products with regard to complexity and biological attributes, and can, in some cases, provide context for dealing with these preclinical issues. In other instances, such as the case of in vivo stability analysis, new approaches are required. This paper will discuss the significance of these preclinical issues, and present examples of current methods and best practices for addressing them. Where possible, these recommendations are justified using the existing regulatory guidance literature. PMID:20385183

  18. Multifunctional Polymeric Scaffolds for Enhancement of PARACEST Contrast Sensitivity and Performance: The Effects of Random Copolymer Variations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunkou; Zhao, Piyu; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean

    2010-01-01

    A DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N“,N’”-tetraacetic acid) tetraamide ligand having a single acrylamide side-chain (M1) was copolymerized with either 2-methylacrylic acid (MAA), 2-(acryloylamino)-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) or N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) to create a series of linear random copolymers using classical free radical chain polymerization chemistry. The metal ion binding properties of hydrolyzed M1 were investigated by pH potentiometry and the europium (III) complexes of the resulting heteropolymers were evaluated as PARACEST imaging agents. All polymeric agents were found to possess similar intermediate-to-slow water exchange and CEST characteristics as the parent EuDOTA-tetraamide monomer. Consistent with basic multiplexing principles, the highest molecular weight polymer, Eu-DMAA 3.1, also showed the highest CEST sensitivity with a detection limit of 20 ± 2 μM. The second arylamide component gave polymers with widely different chemical characteristics and CEST properties. In particular, the Eu-DNIPAM 4.0 and Eu-DMAA 4.1 polymers displayed different solubility characteristics as a function of pH or temperature which, in turn, affected the water exchange and CEST properties of the corresponding agents. It was concluded that introduction of hydrophobic groups into the polymer backbone reduces solvent accessibility to the Eu3+ component, effectively slowing water exchange between the inner-sphere water coordination position at each Eu3+ center with bulk water. The CEST properties of the heteropolymers when dissolved in plasma suggest that the more hydrophobic characteristics of these polymers could be advantageous for in vivo applications. PMID:20838469

  19. Philosophical Considerations and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper explores the philosophical considerations involved in literacy. It explains that one concept that is emphasized in discussions of literacy is "the basics," which are defined as essential skills, such as the association of phonemes with graphemes. This paper notes that "the basics" movement presently stresses the importance of statewide…

  20. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  1. Considerations for Multiprocessor Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    Choosing a multiprocessor interconnection topology may depend on high-level considerations, such as the intended application domain and the expected number of processors. It certainly depends on low-level implementation details, such as packaging and communications protocols. The authors first use rough measures of cost and performance to characterize several topologies. They then examine how implementation details can affect the realizable performance of a topology.

  2. Methodology for consideration of specific features of combined-cycle plants with the optimal sharing of the thermal and the electric loads at combined heat power plants with equipment of a complex configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelyan, E. K.; Andriushin, A. V.; Burtsev, S. Y.; Andriushin, K. A.; Hurshudyan, S. R.

    2015-05-01

    When a combined-cycle power plant operates as part of a combined heat power plant, the optimal load-sharing among the power-generating units of the station is complicated owing to specific features of operating a combined-cycle power plant, viz., the dependence of its adjustment range values on the outdoor air temperature, degradation of the ecological and economic performance figures under underloading conditions, possibility of load-sharing between the gas turbines, and a high flexibility. A method for optimal sharing of the load among the power-generating plants of combined heat power plants is proposed that takes into consideration the above features of the combined-cycle power plants. The combined heat power plant is divided into "equivalent" units according to the group power supply points. The first step is the intra-unit optimization over the entire variation range of the thermal and electric loads to achieve the best energy performance of the "equivalent" unit. The second step is the optimization of the load-sharing among the "equivalent" units.

  3. Nanosatellite Power System Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robyn, M.; Thaller, L.; Scott, D.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to build complex electronic functions into compact packages is opening the path to miniature satellites on the order of 1 kg mass, 10 cm across, packed with the computing processors, motion controllers, measurement sensors, and communications hardware necessary for operation. Power generation will be from short strings of silicon or gallium arsenide-based solar photovoltaic cells with the array power maximized by a peak power tracker (PPT). Energy storage will utilize a low voltage battery with nickel cadmium or lithium ion cells as the most likely selections for rechargeables and lithium (MnO2-Li) primary batteries for one shot short missions.

  4. Manufacturability considerations for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

  5. Anatomic Considerations in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Folbe, Adam J; Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Comprehension of the complex anatomic variants comprising the frontal sinus outflow tract is essential for successful surgical intervention. Deviation from sound technique increases the potential for a variety of deleterious sequelae, including recurrent disease as well as catastrophic intracranial and orbital injury. Furthermore, incomplete removal of elements occluding the frontal recess can result in severe stenosis that can increase the difficulty of further interventions. This review covers anatomic considerations that should be kept in mind when performing frontal sinus surgery. PMID:27329978

  6. Management of hypodontia: orthodontic considerations (II).

    PubMed

    Thind, Bikram S; Stirrups, David R; Forgie, Andrew H; Larmour, Colin J; Mossey, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia) present with complex problems. Meeting their treatment needs requires a joint effort between the disciplines of orthodontics and restorative dentistry. There are a number of options available to restore space generated by missing teeth. In the majority of patients orthodontic treatment will be required before this space can be restored satisfactorily. The second part of this series reviews the orthodontic considerations for various options. PMID:15892531

  7. Radiation design considerations for advanced Jupiter spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Koprowski, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers one aspect of the complex radiation design considerations for planetary spacecraft, namely the approach used for solving the effects of radiation on materials problems. An overview of the approach developed at JPL for Voyager, and currently being used on Galileo, is treated briefly. Examples of the postulated Jovian charged particle levels are given. The types of computer analyses codes used, the mass shielding techniques that evolved and the recommended shielding techniques for future planetary spacecraft are treated.

  8. Safety Considerations in Design of Spacecraft Hatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Johnson, Gary W.

    2010-09-01

    Human spaceflight missions have grown longer and more complex as international spaceflight programs have evolved. This has presented additional safety considerations in the design of hatches for habitable spacecraft. One important decision in the design of spacecraft is whether to use pressure-sealing hatches that open inward(i.e., internal cabin pressure keeps the hatch sealed on orbit) or hatches that open outward(i.e., facilitates crew egress during pre-launch and post-landing events). This paper will explore safety considerations that influence that decision, as well as hazards associated with hatches. Safety considerations include mission duration, mission profile(relatively short sorties to ISS versus extended journeys to the Moon or planets), intended usage(e.g., flight and ground crew ingress/egress during ground phases, flight crew ingress/egress during EVA, or inter-spacecraft access during docked operations), reliability/complexity(usually involving mechanisms and/or pyrotechnics), and off-nominal ground ingress/egress(how many crew members must egress within a specified length of time under what circumstances). In addition, this paper will provide a historical survey of hatch designs for manned spacecraft, including a brief list of incidents involving hatches.

  9. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  10. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  11. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  12. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  13. Electromagnetic interference considerations in instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamosky, P.

    1983-12-01

    The present investigation is concerned with electromagnetic interference (EMI) considerations affecting the design of a series of portable 100-MHz oscilloscopes. Because of the complexity of the involved considerations, a design goal to cope with EMI must be established in connection with one of the first decisions to be made during the product proposal phase. In establishing this goal, the market must be defined and applicable specifications must be determined. After the EMI limit has been obtained, approaches for implementing it have to be determined, taking into account individually electrical and mechanical design. Power-supply testing can and should be done early. In mechanical design, each opening (for controls or ventilation) is viewed as a source of degradation, and tested individually. Attention is given to the test procedure, cabinet design, CRT shielding, cable design, and final testing.

  14. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  15. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  16. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration. PMID:22872552

  17. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  18. Basic Considerations in Interviewing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Rick L.

    This manual summarizes and highlights basic considerations in interviewing children. The relationship between interviewing for data collection and interviewing within the counseling or psychotherapeutic context is discussed. The Interviewer's Functional Checklist is presented to provide a method for self-evaluating interviewer behavior, and for…

  19. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  20. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement. PMID:23621971

  1. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  2. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  3. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  4. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  5. Optomechanical considerations for realistic tolerancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Eric; Sasián, José; Youngworth, Richard N.

    2013-09-01

    Optical tolerancing simulation has improved so that the modeling of optomechanical accuracy can better predict as-built performance. A key refinement being proposed within this paper is monitoring formal interference fits and checking lens elements within their mechanical housings. Without proper checks, simulations may become physically unrealizable and pessimistic, thereby resulting in lower simulated yields. An improved simulation method has been defined and demonstrated in this paper with systems that do not have barrel constraints. The demonstration cases clearly show the trend of the beneficial impact with yield results, as a yield increase of 36.3% to 39.2% is garnered by one example. Considerations in simulating the realistic optomechanical system will assist in controlling cost and providing more accurate simulation results.

  6. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zappi, M.E.; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  7. Multi-unit operations considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Walter E.; Bennett, Thomas C.; Brannon, Nathan Gregory

    2005-09-01

    Several nuclear weapons programs have or are pursuing the implementation of multi-unit operations for tasks such as disassembly and inspection, and rebuild. A multi-unit operation is interpreted to mean the execution of nuclear explosive operating procedures in a single facility by two separate teams of technicians. The institution of a multi-unit operations program requires careful consideration of the tools, resources, and environment provided to the technicians carrying out the work. Therefore, a systematic approach is necessary to produce safe, secure, and reliable processes. In order to facilitate development of a more comprehensive multi-unit operations program, the current work details categorized issues that should be addressed prior to the implementation of multi-unit operations in a given weapons program. The issues have been organized into the following categories: local organizational conditions, work process flow/material handling/workplace configuration, ambient environmental conditions, documented safety analysis, and training.

  8. Circumvertical reduction mastoplasty: new considerations.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2003-01-01

    The circumvertical technique is a mixture of the periareolar and the vertical techniques in which the skin resection is performed around the areola and is continued in an inverted cone that starts at the infraareolar area and ends 2-4 cm above the submammary crease. Some advantages of this technique are: The glands are removed from the inferior glandular quadrant and from the inferior borders of the lateral and medial quadrants. The areola is moved upward and attached to the gland, preserving the nursing function. There is a harmonious distribution of the pleats around the areola and at the vertical wound. The vertical suture never crosses the submammary crease. The postoperative result is acceptable. Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor is used minimizing bleeding. Bupivacaine is also included, prolonging the anesthetic effect hours after surgery. This paper describes this simple and rapid surgery and discusses some new, previously unpublished considerations and tricks. PMID:14629057

  9. Nuclear safe orbit basing considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Leifer, Stephanie D.; Shah, Shishir V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to one aspect of space nuclear power safety, namely, the radiation dose rate risk due to a reentered reactor. It is found that for nuclear-thermal propulsion NERVA vehicles, the minimum required altitude for initial basing and earth escape is 500 to 600 km; for final end-of-life storage, the required altitude is about 1000 km. For a 10-MWe nuclear-electric propulsion vehicle, the basing node is 800 km and the final end-of-life storage altitude is 1100 km. Radiation levels have been evaluated for both the SP-100 nuclear electric and the NERVA nuclear thermal reactors as a function of operating time, power level, and time after shutdown.

  10. Clinical considerations for biosimilar antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mellstedt, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Biosimilar agents are approximate copies of branded biologic therapies. Since the first biosimilar was authorized in the European Union in 2006, fifteen additional agents have been approved by the European Medicines Agency, including two biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Biosimilar mAbs represent a distinct class given their large molecular size, complex protein structure, and post-translational modifications. While guidelines have been established for the development, approval, and use of biosimilars, further scrutiny and discussion is necessary to fully understand their potential impact on clinical outcomes. This review takes a critical look at the structural complexity of biosimilar mABs, the feasibility of indication extrapolation, the impact of product variability on immunogenicity, the importance of comprehensive pharmacovigilance, and the potential for ongoing pharmacoeconomic impact. PMID:26217160

  11. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  12. Considerations in parathyroid hormone testing.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Plebani, Mario; Delanaye, Pierre; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a major player in phosphocalcic metabolism and its measurement is very important for the correct diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. PTH determination represents the paradigm of quality in laboratory medicine as many variables in the pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases strongly affect the value of the clinical information. Analytical determination of PTH has been rendered difficult by the presence, in the circulation, of truncated fragments that can cross-react with the antibodies used for its determination. In addition, pre-analytical phase is complicated by the lack of stability of the peptide and the best sample to use for its determination remains controversial, as well as sample handling and storage. PTH secretion is also affected by circadian and seasonal rhythms and by physical exercise. Finally, from the post-analytical perspective, establishment of reliable reference ranges requires further efforts as the selection criteria for reference subjects should take into consideration new variables such as gender, race and vitamin D levels. Finally, clinical guidelines have recently revised and improved the criteria for a correct interpretation of PTH values. PMID:26035114

  13. Hypochondriasis: considerations for ICD-11.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Odile A; Veale, David; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance) and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors) and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic). This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings. PMID:25388609

  14. Nutritional considerations for ultraendurance performance.

    PubMed

    Applegate, E A

    1991-06-01

    The nutritional considerations of the ultraendurance athlete center around proper caloric and nutrient intake during training as well as adequate energy and fluid replacement during competition to maintain optimal performance. Energy needs of ultraendurance athletes during training vary widely, depending upon duration, intensity, and type of exercise training. These athletes may train several hours daily, thus risking inadequate caloric intake that can lead to chronic fatigue, weight loss, and impaired physical performance. It is not known whether protein needs are increased in ultraendurance athletes as a result of extended exercise training. Additionally, micronutrient needs may be altered for these athletes while dietary intake is generally over the RDA because of high caloric intake. Prior to competition, ultraendurance athletes should consider glycogen supercompensation and a prerace meal eaten 4 hrs before as a means of improving performance. Carbohydrate feedings during prolonged exercise can significantly affect performance. During events lasting over several hours, sodium sweat losses and/or the consumption of sodium-free fluids may precipitate hyponatremia. PMID:1844990

  15. Pharmacogenomic considerations in opioid analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Vuilleumier, Pascal H; Stamer, Ulrike M; Landau, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Translating pharmacogenetics to clinical practice has been particularly challenging in the context of pain, due to the complexity of this multifaceted phenotype and the overall subjective nature of pain perception and response to analgesia. Overall, numerous genes involved with the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of opioids response are candidate genes in the context of opioid analgesia. The clinical relevance of CYP2D6 genotyping to predict analgesic outcomes is still relatively unknown; the two extremes in CYP2D6 genotype (ultrarapid and poor metabolism) seem to predict pain response and/or adverse effects. Overall, the level of evidence linking genetic variability (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) to oxycodone response and phenotype (altered biotransformation of oxycodone into oxymorphone and overall clearance of oxycodone and oxymorphone) is strong; however, there has been no randomized clinical trial on the benefits of genetic testing prior to oxycodone therapy. On the other hand, predicting the analgesic response to morphine based on pharmacogenetic testing is more complex; though there was hope that simple genetic testing would allow tailoring morphine doses to provide optimal analgesia, this is unlikely to occur. A variety of polymorphisms clearly influence pain perception and behavior in response to pain. However, the response to analgesics also differs depending on the pain modality and the potential for repeated noxious stimuli, the opioid prescribed, and even its route of administration. PMID:23226064

  16. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real...

  17. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real...

  18. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  19. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  20. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  1. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A&R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S&S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S&S into the design of future A&R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S&S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics.

  2. Ethical considerations in sex selection.

    PubMed

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  3. Ethical considerations in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, J D; Rhodes, R; Springfield, D S

    2000-01-01

    Because our actions as physicians have far-reaching consequences, and because society allows us to do things to others that no one else is free to do, physicians' professional activities fall under the domain of ethical evaluation. We are charged with the obligation to use specialized scientific knowledge, to work in concert with others, and to act for the good of our patients. In fact, acting for the good of our patients is the central tenet of ethical medical behavior. What constitutes the good of the patient, however, is not always clear. In general, we act to limit disease, restore function, alleviate suffering, and prolong life. We understand fully, however, that these goals may conflict with one another. Judgment about what is right for a particular patient leads us to another crucial consideration of ethical behavior, namely, respect for patient autonomy. We recognize that individuals have the right to control their own destiny. Patients have a right, therefore, to make choices about their medical care. As physicians, we must respect those rights. As such, certain ethical behavior is expected of us. We must be honest with our patients. We must provide them with accurate information on which to base their decisions. We must convey to them information about their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, even when it is unpleasant to do so. We must be open about our expertise and level of training for a particular procedure. We must respect their privacy and their right to withhold information even from family and friends. In short, we must respect their choices, even if we may disagree with those choices. To truly respect patient autonomy is to understand that, ultimately, the final decision lies with the patient. PMID:10829220

  4. Percutaneous penetration--methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-07-01

    Studies on percutaneous penetration are needed to assess the hazards after unintended occupational skin exposures to industrial products as well as the efficacy after intended consumer exposure to topically applied medicinal or cosmetic products. During recent decades, a number of methods have been developed to replace methods involving experimental animals. The results obtained from these methods are decided not only by the chemical or product tested, but to a significant degree also by the experimental set-up and decisions made by the investigator during the planning phase. The present MiniReview discusses some of the existing and well-known experimental in vitro and in vivo methods for studies of percutaneous penetration together with some more recent and promising methods. After this, some considerations and recommendations about advantages and limitations of the different methods and their relevance for the prediction of percutaneous penetration are given. Which method to prefer will depend on the product to be tested and the question asked. Regulatory guidelines exist for studies on percutaneous penetration, but researchers as well as regulatory bodies need to pay specific attention to the vehicles and solvents used in donor and sampling fluids so that it reflects in-use conditions as closely as possible. Based on available experimental data, mathematical models have been developed to aid predictions of skin penetration. The authors question the general use of the present mathematical models in hazard assessment, as they seem to ignore outliers among chemicals as well as the heterogeneity of skin barrier properties and skin conditions within the exposed populations. PMID:24373389

  5. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  6. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets.

  7. Operative considerations for rectovaginal fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Kniery, Kevin R; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    To describe the etiology, anatomy and pathophysiology of rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs); and to describe a systematic surgical approach to help achieve optimal outcomes. A current review of the literature was performed to identify the most up-to-date techniques and outcomes for repair of RVFs. RVFs present a difficult problem that is frustrating for patients and surgeons alike. Multiple trips to the operating room are generally needed to resolve the fistula, and the recurrence rate approaches 40% when considering all of the surgical options. At present, surgical options range from collagen plugs and endorectal advancement flaps to sphincter repairs or resection with colo-anal reconstruction. There are general principles that will allow the best chance for resolution of the fistula with the least morbidity to the patient. These principles include: resolving the sepsis, identifying the anatomy, starting with least invasive surgical options, and interposing healthy tissue for complex or recurrent fistulas. PMID:26328032

  8. Perioperative Considerations in Crohn Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, T Paul; Merchea, Amit

    2016-06-01

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is medically and surgically complex. Numerous patient- and disease-oriented factors must be considered in treating patients with IBD, including nutritional replenishment/support, effect of immunosuppressive medications, extent of resection, and use of proximal diversion. Perioperative planning and optimization of the patient is imperative to ensuring favorable outcomes and limiting morbidity. These perioperative considerations in Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis are reviewed here. PMID:27247531

  9. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  10. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example. PMID:16198459

  11. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  12. Ethical considerations in cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Follath, F

    2009-12-01

    patients and healthy subjects for the general population seen in everyday practice? Increasingly, the economic aspects of long-term prevention and problems of a fair allocation of limited healthcare resources are also important issues giving rise to contrasting views among patients, doctors, insurance providers and politicians. What are the priorities and who should decide? Ethical considerations relating to the above questions in CV prevention are discussed in this article. PMID:19500153

  13. Geomorphic considerations for erosion prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Toy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Current soil-erosion prediction technology addresses processes of rainsplash, overland-flow sediment transport, and rill erosion in small watersheds. The effects of factors determining sediment yield from larger-scale drainage basins, in which sediment movement is controlled by the combined small-scale processes and a complex set of channel and other basin-scale sediment-delivery processes, such as soil creep, bioturbation, and accelerated erosion due to denudation of vegetation, have been poorly evaluated. General suggestions are provided for the development of erosion-prediction technology at the geomorphic or drainage-basin scale based on the separation of sediment-yield data for channel and geomorphic processes from those of field-scale soil loss. An emerging technology must consider: (1) the effects on sediment yield of climate, geology and soils, topography, biotic interactions with other soil processes, and land-use practices; (2) all processes of sediment delivery to a channel system; and (3) the general tendency in most drainage basins for progressively greater sediment storage in the downstream direction.

  14. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  15. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  16. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Preference for Local and Small Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base...

  17. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Preference for Local and Small Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base...

  18. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Preference for Local and Small Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base...

  19. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Preference for Local and Small Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base...

  20. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a... CATEX from environmental impact analysis (appendix B). (c) Make environmental documents, comments,...

  1. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  2. Profil'-1 measuring complex

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V.R.; Petrov, A.P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes the Profil'-1 hydroacoustic measuring complex. The complex provides documentary information on the bottom profile of reservoirs, the configuration and geometric dimensions of underwater trenches, the spatial position of pipes in uncovered or washedout trenches, the thickness of a layer covering underwater pipes, etc. The complex can also be used to solve other industrial problems such as hydraulic exploration and searching for sunken objects. The Profil'-1 complex is designed for use on board small craft under field conditions with periodic transportation from storage bases to the operating location and back. The complex uses an echo-pulse method for determining the distance and coordinates of objects with the aid of an ultrasonic transceiver in an aqueous medium. Structurally, the complex consists of four main units: a BA-1 vertical sounding antenna unit; a BAS-1 antenna scanning unit; a BFOS-1 signal shaping and processing unit, and a BR-1 recording unit. Use of the complex in pipeline construction and the oil and gas industry will provide a considerable economic gain by reducing the number of diver inspections of underwater pipelines.

  3. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1)...

  4. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1)...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the...

  6. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed...

  7. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the...

  8. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed...

  10. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed...

  11. Peer Counselling Empowerment and Ethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Noor Syamilah

    2007-01-01

    Peer counselling empowerment entails specific considerations of the training process as peer counsellors. Specific issues related to such empowerment are discussed in light of the counselling profession. Subsequently, ethical considerations pertaining to peer counselling such as confidentiality, dual relationships, competency and vicarious…

  12. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF...

  13. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review of site... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625...

  14. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF...

  15. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review of site... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625...

  16. 49 CFR 209.329 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.329 Section 209.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Assessment considerations. (a) Proof of a respondent's willful violation of one of the requirements of...

  17. 49 CFR 209.119 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.119 Section 209.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Penalties § 209.119 Assessment considerations. The assessment of a civil penalty under § 209.117 is...

  18. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  19. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is...

  20. 49 CFR 190.225 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 190.225 Section 190.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Enforcement Civil Penalties § 190.225 Assessment considerations. In determining the amount of...

  1. 49 CFR 209.119 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.119 Section 209.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Penalties § 209.119 Assessment considerations. The assessment of a civil penalty under § 209.117 is...

  2. 49 CFR 209.329 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.329 Section 209.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Assessment considerations. (a) Proof of a respondent's willful violation of one of the requirements of...

  3. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  4. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  5. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  6. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  7. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  8. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  9. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  10. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  11. 10 CFR 72.90 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General considerations. 72.90 Section 72.90 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.90 General considerations....

  12. 32 CFR 169a.15 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special considerations. 169a.15 Section 169a.15 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.15 Special considerations. (a) Signals Intelligence, Telecommunications (SIGINT) and...

  13. 49 CFR 209.119 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.119 Section 209.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Penalties § 209.119 Assessment considerations. The assessment of a civil penalty under § 209.117 is...

  14. 49 CFR 209.329 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.329 Section 209.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Assessment considerations. (a) Proof of a respondent's willful violation of one of the requirements of...

  15. 49 CFR 190.225 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 190.225 Section 190.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Enforcement Civil Penalties § 190.225 Assessment considerations. In determining the amount of...

  16. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating factor... than 10 tons. Consideration will also be given to bridges with other unique situations, and to...

  17. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  18. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Considerations. 44.202-2 Section 44.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-2 Considerations. (a) The...

  19. 32 CFR 310.15 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General considerations. 310.15 Section 310.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 310.15 General considerations. (a) Collect directly from the individual. Collect...

  20. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed...

  1. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed...

  2. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) directs that a five point...

  3. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  4. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  5. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  6. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  7. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  8. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  9. 14 CFR 25.795 - Security considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this document under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (2) You may review copies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security considerations. 25.795 Section 25... § 25.795 Security considerations. (a) Protection of flightcrew compartment. If a flightdeck door...

  10. 14 CFR 25.795 - Security considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this document under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (2) You may review copies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security considerations. 25.795 Section 25... § 25.795 Security considerations. (a) Protection of flightcrew compartment. If a flightdeck door...

  11. 14 CFR 25.795 - Security considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this document under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (2) You may review copies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security considerations. 25.795 Section 25... § 25.795 Security considerations. (a) Protection of flightcrew compartment. If a flightdeck door...

  12. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  13. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  15. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  16. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  17. Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, K.

    Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

  18. 5 CFR 2634.401 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General considerations. 2634.401 Section 2634.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Qualified Trusts § 2634.401 General considerations. (a) Statutory...

  19. 32 CFR 775.6 - Planning considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Planning considerations. 775.6 Section 775.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.6 Planning considerations. (a) An EIS must be prepared for proposed major...

  20. 32 CFR 775.6 - Planning considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Planning considerations. 775.6 Section 775.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.6 Planning considerations. (a) An EIS must be prepared for proposed major...

  1. 7 CFR 3570.70 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other considerations. 3570.70 Section 3570.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.70 Other considerations. Each application must contain the comments,...

  2. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  3. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  4. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  5. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  6. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1804 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General considerations. 493.1804 Section 493.1804 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1804 General considerations. (a) Purpose. The...

  8. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relevant considerations. 51.8 Section 51.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST GUARD DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD § 51.8 Relevant considerations. In determining the equity and propriety...

  9. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special considerations. 650.709 Section 650.709 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations....

  10. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special considerations. 650.709 Section 650.709 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations....

  11. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special considerations. 650.709 Section 650.709 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations....

  12. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special considerations. 650.709 Section 650.709 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations....

  13. Consideration of VT5 etch-based OPC modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChinTeong; Temchenko, Vlad; Kaiser, Dieter; Meusel, Ingo; Schmidt, Sebastian; Schneider, Jens; Niehoff, Martin

    2008-03-01

    Including etch-based empirical data during OPC model calibration is a desired yet controversial decision for OPC modeling, especially for process with a large litho to etch biasing. While many OPC software tools are capable of providing this functionality nowadays; yet few were implemented in manufacturing due to various risks considerations such as compromises in resist and optical effects prediction, etch model accuracy or even runtime concern. Conventional method of applying rule-based alongside resist model is popular but requires a lot of lengthy code generation to provide a leaner OPC input. This work discusses risk factors and their considerations, together with introduction of techniques used within Mentor Calibre VT5 etch-based modeling at sub 90nm technology node. Various strategies are discussed with the aim of better handling of large etch bias offset without adding complexity into final OPC package. Finally, results were presented to assess the advantages and limitations of the final method chosen.

  14. Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Considerations for the Development of Antibody Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Amrita V; Iyer, Suhasini

    2015-11-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging new class of targeted therapeutics for cancer that use antibodies to deliver cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. There are two FDA approved ADCs on the market and over 30 ADCs in the clinical pipeline against a number of different cancer types. The structure of an ADC is very complex with multiple components and considerable efforts are ongoing to determine the attributes necessary for clinical success. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of an ADC and how it impacts efficacy and toxicity is a critical part of optimizing ADC design and delivery i.e., dose and schedule. This review discusses the pharmacokinetic considerations for an ADC and tools and strategies that can be used to evaluate molecules at the preclinical stage. PMID:25446773

  15. Cell stretching devices as research tools: engineering and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Harshad; Barton, Matthew J; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-16

    Cells within the human body are subjected to continuous, cyclic mechanical strain caused by various organ functions, movement, and growth. Cells are well known to have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. This process is referred to as mechanotransduction. A better understanding of mechanotransduction is of great interest to clinicians and scientists alike to improve clinical diagnosis and understanding of medical pathology. However, the complexity involved in in vivo biological systems creates a need for better in vitro technologies, which can closely mimic the cells' microenvironment using induced mechanical strain. This technology gap motivates the development of cell stretching devices for better understanding of the cell response to mechanical stimuli. This review focuses on the engineering and biological considerations for the development of such cell stretching devices. The paper discusses different types of stretching concepts, major design consideration and biological aspects of cell stretching and provides a perspective for future development in this research area. PMID:27440436

  16. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  17. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  18. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  19. CSM RCS Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Define major Command and Service Module (CSM) design considerations; b) List Command Module (CM) RCS failures and lessons learned; and c) List Service Module (SM) RCS failures and lessons learned.

  20. Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

  1. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  2. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  3. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  4. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  5. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations... restoration success and the need for corrective action. (b) The reasonable costs of such actions are...

  6. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations... restoration success and the need for corrective action. (b) The reasonable costs of such actions are...

  7. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations... restoration success and the need for corrective action. (b) The reasonable costs of such actions are...

  8. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15 CFR... 2301.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Telecommunications and Information NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PUBLIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS...

  9. Surgery Considerations for Adults and Children

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery Considerations for Adults and Children 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981- ... orbdnrc@nof.org Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue Suite 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel (800) ...

  10. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  11. 46 CFR 390.3 - Policy considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy considerations. 390.3 Section 390.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.3 Policy considerations. (a) In general. It is the policy of the United States, as set forth in 46 U.S.C. 50501, that for...

  12. Launch approval considerations for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Dawn; Phillips, J. Mark

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Safety Launch Approval is the US process by which approval is granted from the Executive Branch for the use of nuclear materials in space. It involves analyses utilizing a combination of theoretical calculation and empirical test data, by which the launch of a space nuclear system is demonstrated to have acceptable consequences in terms of radiological risk. Many factors influence the launch approval process and it's complexity. Historical launch approval examples are discussed as well as considerations for mission design, power source design, launch vehicle selection and spacecraft design which may simplify the analyses for launch approval. Factors which influence the complexity of the analyses as well as factors which can bound the analyses are discussed.

  13. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  14. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  15. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  16. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  17. Age and comorbidity considerations related to radiotherapy and chemotherapy administration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, George; Sanatani, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Oncological treatment decision-making is a highly complex enterprise integrating multiple patient, tumor, treatment, and professional factors with the available medical evidence. This management complexity can be exacerbated by the interplay of patient age and comorbid non-cancer conditions that can affect patient quality of life, treatment tolerance, and survival outcomes. Given the expected increase in median age (and associated comorbidity burden) of Western populations over the next few decades, the use of evidence-based therapies that appropriately balance treatment intensity and tolerability to achieve the desired goal of treatment (radical, adjuvant, salvage, or palliative) will be increasingly important to health care systems, providers, and patients. In this review, we highlight the evidence related to age and comorbidity, as it relates to radiotherapy and chemotherapy decision making. We will address evidence as it relates to age and comorbidity considerations separately and also the interplay between the factors. Clinical considerations to adapt radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment to deal with comorbidity challenges will be discussed. Knowledge gaps, future research, and clinical recommendation in this increasingly important field are highlighted as well. PMID:22985810

  18. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  19. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    PubMed

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective. PMID:23724571

  20. Considerations for Future Climate Data Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P. T.; Chapman, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, we will describe the lessons learned based on processing and generating a decade of gridded AIRS and MODIS IR sounding data. We describe the challenges faced in accessing and sharing very large data sets, maintaining data provenance under evolving technologies, obtaining access to legacy calibration data and the permanent preservation of Earth science data records for on demand services. These lessons suggest a new approach to data stewardship will be required for the next decade of hyper spectral instruments combined with cloud resolving models. It will not be sufficient for stewards of future data centers to just provide the public with access to archived data but our experience indicates that data needs to reside close to computers with ultra large disc farms and tens of thousands of processors to deliver complex services on demand over very high speed networks much like the offerings of search engines today. Over the first decade of the 21st century, petabyte data records were acquired from the AIRS instrument on Aqua and the MODIS instrument on Aqua and Terra. NOAA data centers also maintain petabytes of operational IR sounders collected over the past four decades. The UMBC Multicore Computational Center (MC2) developed a Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance gridding system (SOAR) to allow users to select IR sounding instruments from multiple archives and choose space-time- spectral periods of Level 1B data to download, grid, visualize and analyze on demand. Providing this service requires high data rate bandwidth access to the on line disks at Goddard. After 10 years, cost effective disk storage technology finally caught up with the MODIS data volume making it possible for Level 1B MODIS data to be available on line. However, 10Ge fiber optic networks to access large volumes of data are still not available from CSFC to serve the broader community. Data transfer rates are well below 10MB/s limiting their usefulness for climate studies. During

  1. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  2. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about Carney complex. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests. Learn more about what to expect when having ...

  3. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  4. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  5. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  6. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  7. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  8. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  9. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  10. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  11. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  12. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the...

  13. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value. However... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... term of 25 years, with an option on tenant's part to renew for another term of 25 years. Real...

  14. 7 CFR 1778.14 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Other considerations. 1778.14 Section 1778.14... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.14 Other.... 4601 et seq.). All projects must comply with the requirements set forth in 7 CFR part 21. (d) Flood...

  15. Federal Budget Considerations for Colleges, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    This document highlights federal budget considerations for colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, Canada. A key focus of the budget is the Federal Government's Canadian Opportunities Strategy, which supports the acquisition of skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. The budget's emphasis on education over other social…

  16. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other considerations. 226.7104 Section 226.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Preference for Local and Small Businesses 226.7104 Other...

  17. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  18. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY... of intended dissemination, use of the information and whether the end purpose to be served renders effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  19. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  20. Saturn V - Design Considerations and Launch Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Understand some of the design considerations that went into creating the Saturn V launch vehicle; b) Gain an appreciation for some of the manufacturing issues concerning the Saturn V; and c) Review three major problems that affected Saturn V launches.

  1. SEU and Test Considerations for FPGA Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Malanie

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), what they are, implementations in space missions, and current available technologies. Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and Single Event Transients (SETs) are discussed in relation to their effects on FPGAs. Testing goals, considerations, and data analysis are reviewed.

  2. 49 CFR 107.331 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 107.331 Section 107.331 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.331 Assessment...

  3. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS...

  4. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  5. Surviving the Downsizing: Ethical and Economic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Gerri

    1997-01-01

    To reduce the psychological and economic costs of downsizing, school administrators need planning and procedural guidelines. Administrators should have clear reduction-in-force policies, performance standards, employee development guidelines, and alternatives to layoffs. In the layoff mode, administrators should give careful consideration to those…

  6. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  7. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  8. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  9. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a) Consider and document environmental effects of proposed Air Force actions through AF Forms 813, EAs,...

  10. Teenage Pregnancy and Schooling: Legal Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsches-Simmons, Grace

    School policy on teenage pregnancy must take into account a variety legal considerations. Up until recently, the favored way of dealing with pregnant pupils or pupils who are mothers was to exclude them from school. Several law cases involving instances of exclusion and segregation of pregnant pupils are cited. The 14th Amendment's guarantee of…

  11. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  12. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  13. 49 CFR 107.331 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 107.331 Section 107.331 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.331 Assessment...

  14. 49 CFR 107.331 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 107.331 Section 107.331 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.331 Assessment...

  15. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  16. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the National... Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508); and certain other... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the National... Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508); and certain other... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section...

  20. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  1. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  2. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  3. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared, circulated among interested Federal, State and local agencies, and... agency, until the required EIS has be submitted to the EPA unless a “Finding of No Significant Impact... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental considerations. 644.316...

  4. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared, circulated among interested Federal, State and local agencies, and... agency, until the required EIS has be submitted to the EPA unless a “Finding of No Significant Impact... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section...

  5. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared, circulated among interested Federal, State and local agencies, and... agency, until the required EIS has be submitted to the EPA unless a “Finding of No Significant Impact... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section...

  6. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared, circulated among interested Federal, State and local agencies, and... agency, until the required EIS has be submitted to the EPA unless a “Finding of No Significant Impact... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section...

  7. Adult Learners: Considerations for Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistler, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more adults seek out education and training programs to help them become more competitive in the job market, it provides an opportunity for career and technical education. Those who teach adult learners should take into consideration their particular learning traits. This article highlights a framework of core principles to be…

  8. Yearling Bull Breeding Soundness Examination: Special Considerations.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Nora; Larson, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessment of yearling bulls is important for the bottom line of all interested parties: the buyer, the seller, and the veterinarian performing the BSE. Special considerations and current research are highlighted and their application to the evaluation of yearling bulls is discussed. PMID:27324452

  9. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    PubMed

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people. PMID:24941530

  10. Understanding the Concept of "Division": Assessment Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmar, Rene S.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a summary of considerations for teachers when assessing a student's understanding of division concepts. It discusses student products, student procedures and strategies, and student concepts and explanations at the preschool, elementary, and middle school levels. Examples of assessment activities and possible misconceptions…

  11. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  12. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Considerations. 44.202-2 Section 44.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... System for Award Management Exclusions (see subpart 9.4)? (b) Particularly careful and...

  13. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Considerations. 44.202-2 Section 44.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... the proposed subcontractor in the System for Award Management Exclusions (see subpart 9.4)?...

  14. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Considerations. 44.202-2 Section 44.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... the proposed subcontractor in the Excluded Parties List System (see subpart 9.4)? (b)...

  15. Statistical considerations in designing raptor surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Careful sampling design is required to obtain useful estimates of raptor abundance. Well-defined objectives, selection of appropriate sample units and sampling scheme, and attention to detail to reduce extraneous sources of variability and error are all important considerations in designing a raptor survey.

  16. Our Television--Conceptions and Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hase, Karl-Gunther

    1978-01-01

    In response to public criticism of television broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany, audience dependency, network research findings, and broadcasting's role in society are discussed. A policy of unbiased programing in consideration of party-political pressure is reaffirmed, and some orientation points for future television work are…

  17. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  18. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  19. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  20. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  1. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  2. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  3. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  4. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  6. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  7. Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

  8. 42 CFR 493.1804 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General considerations. 493.1804 Section 493.1804 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reliable test results. (b) Basis for decision to impose sanctions. (1) CMS's decision to impose...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1804 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General considerations. 493.1804 Section 493.1804 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reliable test results. (b) Basis for decision to impose sanctions. (1) CMS's decision to impose...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1804 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General considerations. 493.1804 Section 493.1804 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reliable test results. (b) Basis for decision to impose sanctions. (1) CMS's decision to impose...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1804 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General considerations. 493.1804 Section 493.1804 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reliable test results. (b) Basis for decision to impose sanctions. (1) CMS's decision to impose...

  12. Fourteenth Amendment Considerations and Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Joyce

    The implementation of any competency testing program must take into consideration the due process clause and the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Examples of the violation of the due process clause would be to implement a testing program without adequate notice or to cover material not taught. Instructional validity must be…

  13. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  14. Single-port laparoscopy: Considerations in children

    PubMed Central

    Ponsky, Todd A; Krpata, David M

    2011-01-01

    As the quest to minimize scars from surgery continues, innovative methods of surgery, including single-port surgery, have come to the forefront. Here, we review considerations for surgery in children with particular attention to appendectomy and cholecystectomy. We discuss the future technologies that will aid in single-port surgery and how they apply to the paediatric population. PMID:21197252

  15. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  16. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  17. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  18. Protein Complex Purification by Affinity Capture.

    PubMed

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Affinity capture has become a powerful technique for consistently purifying endogenous protein complexes, facilitating biochemical and biophysical assays on otherwise inaccessible biological assemblies, and enabling broader interactomic exploration. For this procedure, cells are broken and their contents separated and extracted into a solvent, permitting access to target macromolecular complexes thus released in solution. The complexes are specifically enriched from the extract onto a solid medium coupled with an affinity reagent-usually an antibody-that recognizes the target either directly or through an appended affinity tag, allowing subsequent characterization of the complex. Here, we discuss approaches and considerations for purifying endogenous yeast protein complexes by affinity capture. PMID:27371601

  19. Nutritional Considerations for the Overweight Young Athlete.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers. PMID:26251973

  20. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. PMID:27534590

  1. Ethical considerations in Syria regarding reproduction techniques.

    PubMed

    Arbach, Olga

    2002-01-01

    Ethical Islamic considerations concerning current medical infertility treatment are outlined, that allow application of all techniques as far as they are compatible with legal marriage: Homogenic insemination is allowed. Heterogenic insemination is not, although it bears slightly better outcome, because of the imperative Islamic rule not to mingle genealogical lines. Neither is surrogate motherhood because of the legal position of the mother in Islamic shari'a and consequent inheritance rights on the one hand and sociological significance of motherhood on the other. The question arises, which is the mother, the biological or the social. In all cases, special attention should be paid to the professionals involved in the procedures. The danger of embryonic sex selection following preimplantation diagnostics is hinted at, precautions should be taken. These ethical considerations are substantial in Arab countries, including Syria. PMID:12184614

  2. Noise Considerations for V/STOL Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, George C.

    1968-01-01

    Noise consideration may well be as important a factor in future aircraft concept selection as such economic factors as operating cost and profitability. The impact of noise on some of the design and operational aspects of future V/STOL transports is examined in detail, including consideration of configuration, attitude-control system, lift system, and terminal flight pattern. Extended vertical rise of VTOL aircraft as a method of limiting the intense noise exposure to the terminal area is shown to be only partially effective as well as costly. Comparisons are made of noise contours for conceptual V/STOL transports for several PNdB criteria. The variation in extent of affected area with configuration and criterion emphasizes the importance of establishing an "acceptable" noise level for "city-center" operation.

  3. Design considerations for Mars photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Considerations for operation of a photovoltaic power system on Mars are discussed with reference to Viking Lander data. The average solar insolation at Mars is 590 W/sq m, which is reduced yet further by atmospheric dust. Of major concern are dust storms, which have been observed to occur on local as well as on global scales, and their effect on solar array output. While atmospheric opacity may rise to values ranging from 3 to 9, depending on storm severity, there is still an appreciable large diffuse illumination, even at high opacities, so that photovoltaic operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high-optical-opacity (i.e., dusty atmosphere) days, it is important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. Energy storage will be required for operation during the night. Temperature and wind provide additional considerations for array design.

  4. Prosthodontic Considerations in Post-cancer Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Boonsiriphant, Piriya; Hirsch, Joel A; Greenberg, Alex M; Genden, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    The restoration of function after oncologic surgery of the oral cavity constitutes one of the major challenges facing head and neck oncology. Within the general objective of securing esthetic as well as functional reconstructions, dental rehabilitation is crucial for achieving a good outcome. Adequate dental rehabilitation allows the patient to chew food and considerably improves speech and swallowing. These reconstructions will be driven biologically or prosthetically following surgical design and outcome. PMID:25951959

  5. Considerations on automation of coating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsch, Markus K.; O'Donnell, Michael S.

    2015-04-01

    Most deposition chambers sold into the optical coating market today are outfitted with an automated control system. We surveyed several of the larger equipment providers, and nine of them responded with information about their hardware architecture, data logging, level of automation, error handling, user interface, and interfacing options. In this paper, we present a summary of the results of the survey and describe commonalities and differences together with some considerations of tradeoffs, such as between capability for high customization and simplicity of operation.

  6. Legal Considerations for Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Sherry; Hoffman, Andrew L

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) solutions provide many potential benefits for dental practices, whether those programs run internally on a dental practice's computers or are cloud-based solutions. However, these programs also create new risks for a dental practice, which may be mitigated through due diligence and adequate contractual provisions to ensure protection for dentists. This article addresses the legal considerations associated with a dentist entering into a service contract with an EHR vendor. PMID:26798899

  7. Emergency department antimicrobial considerations in severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Green, Robert S; Gorman, Sean K

    2014-11-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are common problems in the emergency department patient population and require expert clinical skill by members of the emergency department team to maximize optimal patient outcomes. Although various guidelines have been developed for the management of these patients, issues around antimicrobial-related considerations in critically ill patients require further evidence-based attention. In this review article, important factors related to patient illness, microorganism, timing of antimicrobial administration, and source control are discussed. PMID:25441038

  8. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  9. Ethical Considerations of Whole-Eye Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sivak, Wesley N; Davidson, Edward H; Komatsu, Chiaki; Li, Yang; Miller, Maxine R; Schuman, Joel S; Solari, Mario G; Magill, Gerard; Washington, Kia M

    2016-01-01

    Whole eye transplantation (WET) remains experimental. Long presumed impossible, recent scientific advances regarding WET suggest that it may become a clinical reality. However, the ethical implications of WET as an experimental therapeutic strategy remain largely unexplored. This article evaluates the ethical considerations surrounding WET as an emerging experimental treatment for vision loss. A thorough review of published literature pertaining to WET was performed; ethical issues were identified during review of the articles. PMID:27045309

  10. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  11. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  12. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe ...

  13. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  14. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science – which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour – is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  15. Clinical pharmacology: special safety considerations in drug development and pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Atuah, Kwame N; Hughes, Dyfrig; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2004-01-01

    The dose of a drug is a major determinant of its safety, and establishing a safe dose of a novel drug is a prime objective during clinical development. The design of pre-marketing clinical trials precludes the representation of important subpopulations such as children, the elderly and people with co-morbidities. Therefore, postmarketing surveillance (PMS) activities are required to monitor the safety profile of drugs in real clinical practice. Furthermore, individual variations in pharmacogenetic profiles, the immune system, drug metabolic pathways and drug-drug interactions are also important factors in the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Thus, the safety of a drug is a major clinical consideration before and after it is marketed. A multidisciplinary approach is required to enhance the safety profile of drugs at all stages of development, including PMS activities. Clinical pharmacology encompasses a range of disciplines and forms the backbone of drug safety consideration during clinical drug development. In this review we give an overview of the clinical drug development process and consider its limitations. We present a discussion of several aspects of clinical pharmacology and their application to enhancing drug safety. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling provides a method of predicting a clinically safe dose; consideration of drug pharmacokinetics in special populations may enhance safe therapeutics in a wider spectrum of patients, while pharmacogenetics provides the possibility of genotype-specific therapeutics. Pharmacovigilance activities are also discussed. Given the complex nature and unpredictability of type B reactions, PMS activities are crucial in managing the risks drugs pose to the general population. The various aspects of clinical pharmacology discussed make a strong case for this field as the backbone of optimising and promoting safe development and use of drugs. PMID:15154826

  16. Next Generation Science Standards: Considerations for Curricula, Assessments, Preparation, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief provides an overview of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), discusses policy considerations for adopting or adapting the new standards, and presents examples from states considering or implementing the NGSS. Changing academic standards is a complex process that requires significant investments of time, money, and human…

  17. Numerical considerations for Lagrangian stochastic dispersion models: Eliminating rogue trajectories, and the importance of numerical accuracy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behavior in the numerical solution. This paper discusses numerical considerations when solving the Langevin-based particle velo...

  18. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  19. Design considerations for developing biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    2011-04-01

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. Candidate biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and microstructure, and effects as a cellular behavior can be a difficult and time-intensive process. A systems design approach has the power to provide significant contributions in the development of the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations, and hurdles for developing new cast magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials.

  20. Clinical hypnosis for labour and birth: a consideration.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2013-05-01

    Labour pain is one of the most important factors in shaping women's experiences of birth. Choice around pharmacological relief can be complex. Clinical hypnosis is a non-pharmacological option which a number of women have chosen to use, often paying privately to do so. Self hypnosis allows women the opportunity to take control of this technique. Research findings relating to the therapy vary; some trials have found positive effects by way of a reduction in use of pharmacological pain relief, oxytocin use and shortened first stage of labour. Inclusion of the therapy as a means to invoke relaxation and counter the effects of stress and anxiety alone may be valid reasons for consideration of its use. This article outlines the framework used in clinical hypnosis and discusses some of the issues relating to the evidence base for it. PMID:23789248

  1. Renal and Gastrointestinal Considerations in Joint Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Benjamin; Kurdi, Alexander; Skopec, Alexander; Saleh, Jasmine; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Lane, Joseph M; Mihalko, William M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-01-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal diseases affect a significant portion of the general population. The process of decision making regarding surgical clearance and pre-operative management of the various complexities and medical conditions associated with these diseases hence becomes crucial. To optimize postoperative outcomes, the considerations for the care of this patient population revolve around effective management of hemostasis and electrolyte status. This subset of conditions is uniquely important with regard to the negative impact of improper administration of medications and perioperative care on patients’ prognoses. A thorough understanding and knowledge of standards of care and treatment guidelines for patients with renal dysfunction and gastrointestinal disease assures comprehensive preoperative planning and surgical clearance. This may ultimately lead to improvement of surgical outcomes and potential decrease in postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25811046

  2. Economic and technical considerations in the procurement of laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L L

    1980-04-01

    Research cost effectiveness is an increasing fact of life in this climate of spiraling inflation, restricted budgets, advancing technology and increased regulatory complexities. Because rodent procurement is an easily identifiable cost center, it may become a target for budgetary restriction without judicious consideration of its impact on the total research effort. If such reductions compromise sound biologic, genetic or health principles, the result may be research delays or repetition, inefficient or ineffective use of scientific personnel and increased project costs. Procurement decisions should be based on the development of specific biologic, genetic and health parameters required by the project design. Potential sources of supply should be assessed to determine compliance with these criteria. Further analysis must include an evaluation of institutional resources to determine compatibility with procurement standards over the term of the project. Only then can procurement costs be placed in proper perspective. PMID:7052385

  3. Hydraulic Tomography Implementation Considerations at a Recalcitrant Environmental Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tso, C. H. M.; Mok, C. M. W.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Illman, W. A.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic Tomography (HT) is a robust aquifer characterization method that is capable of providing high-resolution mapping of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage distributions or tomograms. This method is particularly cost-effective to recalcitrant sites where existing pump-and-treat system and monitoring network can be utilized. The high-resolution tomograms generated can provide critical information for targeted in-situ remediation of potential source zones and optimization of existing remediation strategies. In addition, zones for potential back diffusion can be identified. Conducting HT surveys in operating pump-and-treat sites with complex hydrogeologic conditions requires special considerations. The design of the experiment has to be compatible to site-specific constraints. For example, a minimum total pumping rate may have to be met for the treatment facility to function. Many of the existing monitoring wells may not have been designed for HT surveys and have very long screen intervals. Using our current work at a Department of Defense site with more than twenty candidate extraction and injection wells, as well as over a hundred available monitoring wells as an example, we discuss our implementation strategy, and the HT analysis modifications to cope with these constrains. Lessons learnt from this work provide guidance on future implementation considerations of HT at recalcitrant environmental sites.

  4. Considerations for Reporting Finite Element Analysis Studies in Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Guess, Trent M.; Halloran, Jason; Tadepalli, Srinivas C.; Morrison, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based medicine and the development of complex computer models of biological structures is becoming ubiquitous for advancing biomedical engineering and clinical research. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been widely used in the last few decades to understand and predict biomechanical phenomena. Modeling and simulation approaches in biomechanics are highly interdisciplinary, involving novice and skilled developers in all areas of biomedical engineering and biology. While recent advances in model development and simulation platforms offer a wide range of tools to investigators, the decision making process during modeling and simulation has become more opaque. Hence, reliability of such models used for medical decision making and for driving multiscale analysis comes into question. Establishing guidelines for model development and dissemination is a daunting task, particularly with the complex and convoluted models used in FEA. Nonetheless, if better reporting can be established, researchers will have a better understanding of a model’s value and the potential for reusability through sharing will be bolstered. Thus, the goal of this document is to identify resources and considerate reporting parameters for FEA studies in biomechanics. These entail various levels of reporting parameters for model identification, model structure, simulation structure, verification, validation, and availability. While we recognize that it may not be possible to provide and detail all of the reporting considerations presented, it is possible to establish a level of confidence with selective use of these parameters. More detailed reporting, however, can establish an explicit outline of the decision-making process in simulation-based analysis for enhanced reproducibility, reusability, and sharing. PMID:22236526

  5. The future of complexity engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Complexity Engineering encompasses a set of approaches to engineering systems which are typically composed of various interacting entities often exhibiting self-* behaviours and emergence. The engineer or designer uses methods that benefit from the findings of complexity science and often considerably differ from the classical engineering approach of "divide and conquer". This article provides an overview on some very interdisciplinary and innovative research areas and projects in the field of Complexity Engineering, including synthetic biology, chemistry, artificial life, self-healing materials and others. It then classifies the presented work according to five types of nature-inspired technology, namely: (1) using technology to understand nature, (2) nature-inspiration for technology, (3) using technology on natural systems, (4) using biotechnology methods in software engineering, and (5) using technology to model nature. Finally, future trends in Complexity Engineering are indicated and related risks are discussed.

  6. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations Regarding the Use of Virus-Induced Carcinogenesis and Oncolytic Viral Models.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephanie D; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2016-03-31

    The use of virus-induced carcinogenesis and oncologic experimental animal models is essential in understanding the mechanisms of cancer development to advance prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for both the complex philosophical and practical considerations associated with animal models of cancer. Animal models of cancer carry their own unique issues that require special consideration from the IACUC. Many of the considerations to be discussed apply to cancer models in general; specific issues related to viral carcinogenesis or oncolytic viruses will be specifically discussed as they arise. Responsible animal use integrates good science, humane care, and regulatory compliance. To meet those standards, the IACUC, in conjunction with the research investigator and attending veterinarian, must address a wide range of issues, including animal model selection, cancer model selection, humane end point considerations, experimental considerations, postapproval monitoring, reporting requirements, and animal management and personnel safety considerations. PMID:27034398

  7. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  8. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media. PMID:23633902

  9. Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

  10. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

  11. Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

  12. Considerations for dofetilide use in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Crist, Lindsey W; Dixon, Dave L

    2014-04-01

    This case describes an 85-year-old African-American female with atrial arrhythmias on dofetilide maintenance therapy who presented to an ambulatory cardiology clinic with hypotension. The pharmacist identified a potential major drug-drug interaction between dofetilide and the thiazide diuretic, chlorthalidone. Because of the patient's hypotension, it was decided to discontinue chlorthalidone to avoid the potential drug interaction with dofetilide. A systolic BP goal of 140-145 mmHg was later achieved and maintained with the addition of low-dose amlodipine, in addition to her lisinopril. This case highlights important considerations for prescribing and monitoring dofetilide and reviews hypertension management in the elderly population. PMID:24704896

  13. Crashworthy design considerations for general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.; Williams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on general aviation seat and occupant crash response and discusses seat design considerations. Included are typical floor acceleration pulses from general aviation airplane crash tests, the performance of typical general aviation seats in a simulated crash environment, and the performance of prototype energy absorbing (EA) seat designs. Static and dynamic seat testing procedures and test facilities are discussed. Also presented are results from a series of dynamic tests of typical general aviation seats and prototype EA seats.

  14. Some Considerations in Designing a GPS Pseudolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapinski, J.; Koziar, M.; Rzepecka, Z.; Cellmer, S.; Chrzanowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudolites are transmitters of GPS-like signals placed on the ground. Though pseudolites are well known devices and have already been used in the project where visibility to the GNSS satellites is limited, there are still many issues that need enhancement. A prototype of a low-cost pseudolite is being designed and assembled at the University of Warmia and Mazury. This will allow for conducting tests with various codes, signals and software. The goal of the project is to apply the pseudolite as an augmentation to GNSS positioning tasks in geodetic engineering projects. Some practical considerations crucial for the design are discussed in this paper.

  15. Metal tube umbilicals -- Deepwater and dynamic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R.C.; Rao, V.S.; Langner, C.G.; Venkataraman, G.

    1995-12-01

    The use of metal tubulars for umbilical elements has been examined during the last several years as an alternative to thermoplastic materials, particularly for deepwater applications. Metal tubes offer potential technical, cost and reliability advantages, especially in deep water. This paper summarizes the important considerations in metal tube umbilical design, and highlights efforts to validate metal tube umbilical performance for dynamic applications. Selected results are presented from design studies, dynamic analyses, fatigue tests of metal tubes and bend stiffener design. It is concluded that, if properly engineered, metal tube umbilicals are feasible and cost-effective for subsea applications, including those used in dynamic riser configurations from some floating structures.

  16. Design considerations for a gas microcontroller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the design problems that are now being addressed in consideration of a microcontroller for the upcoming GAS payload are discussed. Microcontrollers will be used to run the experiments and to collect and store the data from those experiments. Some of the requirements for a microcontroller are to be small, lightweight, have low power consumption, and high reliability. Some of the solutions that were developed to meet these design requirements are discussed. At present, the experiment is still in the design stage and the final design may change from what is presented here. The search for new integrated circuits which will do all that is needed all in one package continues.

  17. Considerations When Using Videos in Lamaze Classes

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner’s attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the culture of the class participants. Finally, the author provides a list of some of the many wonderful videos available to Lamaze birth educators. PMID:23730131

  18. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  19. Some aerodynamic considerations for advanced aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Yip, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    Recent NASA wind-tunnel investigations of advanced unconventional configurations are surveyed, with an emphasis on those applicable to general-aviation aircraft. Photographs of typical models and graphs of aerodynamic parameters are provided. The designs discussed include aft installation of tractor or pusher-propellor engines; forward-swept wings; canards; combinations of canard, wing, and horizontal tail; and propeller-over-the-wing configurations. Consideration is given to canard-wing flow-field interactions, natural laminar flow, the choice of canard airfoil, directional stability and control, and propulsion-system location.

  20. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  1. Epidemiology of the leishmaniases: general considerations

    PubMed Central

    Moškovskij, Š. D.; Duhanina, N. N.

    1971-01-01

    Recent information from various countries shows that the distribution of the leishmaniases is rapidly changing, as are our concepts of the diverse noso-geographical forms of infection. Concerted efforts should be made to improve our knowledge in these fields to enable the preparation of charts forecasting the spread of the disease. The basic considerations, objectives, and methods of epidemiological investigations carried out in the USSR in natural foci, as well as the classifications used for typing foci, are discussed. The need to use clear-cut epidemiological concepts is particularly stressed. PMID:5316254

  2. Science policy considerations for responsible nanotechnology decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeff; Willis, Jim; de Martinis, Domenico; Hansen, Bjorn; Laursen, Henrik; Sintes, Juan Riego; Kearns, Peter; Gonzalez, Mar

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing literature on the use of science to inform decisions on the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but little has been published by those who make such decisions. Here, as officials of the US Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, we discuss the types of decision facing government regulators, the new considerations nanotechnology brings to decision-making, the role of science in informing decisions, how regulators cooperate internationally on policy issues, and the challenges that lie ahead.

  3. Riding and other equestrian injuries: considerable severity.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R G

    1987-03-01

    All horse-related injuries presenting to an Accident Service over a two-year period were investigated. 237 patients presented. The injuries were not considerable in absolute number but were in severity. There was a high morbidity with 22% of all patients requiring admission to hospital, 50% of all admissions because of head injuries. At least seven life-threatening injuries were identified and there were other severe pelvic and spinal injuries. The wearing of protective head gear remains the most important safety measure. PMID:3580722

  4. Riding and other equestrian injuries: considerable severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, R G

    1987-01-01

    All horse-related injuries presenting to an Accident Service over a two-year period were investigated. 237 patients presented. The injuries were not considerable in absolute number but were in severity. There was a high morbidity with 22% of all patients requiring admission to hospital, 50% of all admissions because of head injuries. At least seven life-threatening injuries were identified and there were other severe pelvic and spinal injuries. The wearing of protective head gear remains the most important safety measure. PMID:3580722

  5. Considerations on non equilibrium thermodynamics of interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Nature can be considered the "first" engineer! For scientists and engineers, dynamics and evolution of complex systems are not easy to predict. A fundamental approach to study complex system is thermodynamics. But, the result is the origin of too many schools of thermodynamics with a consequent difficulty in communication between thermodynamicists and other scientists and, also, among themselves. The solution is to obtain a unified approach based on the fundamentals of physics. Here we suggest a possible unification of the schools of thermodynamics starting from two fundamental concepts of physics, interaction and flows.

  6. Design considerations for a space database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Lance M.

    1989-01-01

    Part of the information used in a real-time simulator is stored in the visual database. This information is processed by an image generator and displayed as a real-time visual image. The database must be constructed in a specific format, and it should efficiently utilize the capacities of the image generator that is was created for. A visual simulation is crucially dependent upon the success with which the database provides visual cues and recognizable scenes. For this reason, more and more attention is being paid to the art and science of creating effective real-time visual databases. Investigated here are the database design considerations required for a space-oriented real-time simulator. Space applications often require unique designs that correspond closely to the particular image-generator hardware and visual-database-management software. Specific examples from the databases constructed for NASA and its Evans and Sutherland CT6 image generator illustrate the various design strategies used in a space-simulation environment. These database design considerations are essential for all who would create a space database.

  7. Considerations for blending data from various sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Brian P.

    1980-01-01

    A project is being proposed at the EROS Data Center to blend the information from sensors aboard various satellites. The problems of, and considerations for, blending data from several satellite-borne sensors are discussed. System descriptions of the sensors aboard the HCMM, TIROS-N, GOES-D, Landsat 3, Landsat D, Seasat, SPOT, Stereosat, and NOSS satellites, and the quantity, quality, image dimensions, and availability of these data are summaries to define attributes of a multi-sensor satellite data base. Unique configurations of equipment, storage, media, and specialized hardware to meet the data system requirement are described as well as archival media and improved sensors that will be on-line within the next 5 years. Definitions and rigor required for blending various sensor data are given. Problems of merging data from the same sensor (intrasensor comparison) and from different sensors (intersensor comparison), the characteristics and advantages of cross-calibration of data, and integration of data into a product matrix field are addressed. Data processing considerations as affected by formation, resolution, and problems of merging large data sets, and organization of data bases for blending data are presented. Examples utilizing GOES and Landsat data are presented to demonstrate techniques of data blending, and recommendations for future implementation of a set of standard scenes and their characteristics necessary for optimal data blending are discussed.

  8. Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as part of the investigation. A simple analysis was conducted in order to determine the most significant factors which affect surface temperatures. It was found that where size and weight restrictions are necessary, the specific heat of the material, and maintaining uniform contact area are the most important factors. A criterion was suggested for optimum sizing of the brake disks. Bench friction tests were run with brake materials. It was found that there is considerable friction variation due to the formation and removal of surface oxide films. Other causes of friction variations are surface softening and melting. The friction behavior at high temperature was found to be more characteristic of the steel surface rather than the copper brake material. It is concluded that improved brake materials are feasible.

  9. Regulatory considerations for determining postmarketing study commitments.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R J

    2007-08-01

    Postmarketing Study Commitments (PMCs) are, most commonly, agreements made by pharmaceutical companies at the time of an FDA approval to perform a study or studies to elucidate further characteristics of the drug under consideration. The role of PMCs in drug regulation has come under considerable scrutiny in recent years, particularly as discussions of drug safety have intensified. Although these agreed-upon PMCs are described in FDA regulations, such PMCs are not sought by FDA with every approval, and completion of the agreed-upon studies is not a requirement for the drug's sponsor (there are required PMCs under certain regulatory provisions and these are discussed below). Requests by FDA at the time of regulatory approval for studies under PMCs have been a common practice for many years. When made, PMCs are described in the approval letters and are therefore publicly available. Concerns over whether PMCs were being duly performed, reported, and reviewed by FDA were addressed in the FDA Modernization Act of 1997, which required more detailed reporting by manufactures on their progress in meeting the PMCs and required FDA to report certain information publicly. PMID:17538552

  10. Entry System Design Considerations for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Powell, Richard W.; Graves, Claude A.; Carman, Gilbert L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective for the next generation or Mars landers is to enable a safe landing at specific locations of scientific interest. The 1st generation entry, descent and landing systems, ex. Viking and Pathfinder, provided successful landing on Mars but by design were limited to large scale, 100s of km, landing sites with minimal local hazards. The 2 nd generation landers, or smart landers, will provide scientists with access to previously unachievable landing sites by providing precision landing to less than 10 km of a target landing site, with the ability to perform local hazard avoidance, and provide hazard tolerance. This 2nd generation EDL system can be utilized for a range of robotic missions with vehicles sized for science payloads from the small 25-70 kg, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander and Mars Exploration Rover-class, to the large robotic Mars Sample Return, 300 kg plus, science payloads. The 2nd generation system can also be extended to a 3nd generation EDL system with pinpoint landing, 10's of meters of landing accuracy, for more capable robotic or human missions. This paper will describe the design considerations for 2nd generation landers. These landers are currently being developed by a consortium of NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academic institutions. The extension of this system and additional considerations required for a 3nd generation human mission to Mars will be described.

  11. Price and Value: Considerations for College Shoppers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broh, C. Anthony; Ansel, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Parents and students recognize the value of a college degree. Increasingly, they are borrowing large sums of money to invest in the future. Their choices about how to save for college, where to attend college, how much and from where to borrow for college, and how to repay their loans, have grown more complex. Yet families work with incomplete…

  12. Systemic Thinking and Education Leadership: Some Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despres, Blane R.

    2004-01-01

    The practice of education leadership has its challenges not only in myriad events that arise but also in working with various stakeholders in education, from children and their parents, to teachers, other administrators and support staff, to community members. With this practice comes an attending challenge of complexity to which the education…

  13. Teaching Beginners to Program: Some Cognitive Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jean B.

    Learning to program involves developing an understanding of two hierarchies of concepts. One hierarchy consists of data and extends from very literal data (which represents only itself) to very abstract data incorporating variable values in complex interrelationships. The other hierarchy consists of the operations performed on the data and extends…

  14. Considerations in Change Management Related to Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, John S.; Hilty, Donald M.; Worley, Linda L.; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances.…

  15. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  16. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, D; Michal, M; Síma, R; Grossmann, P; Kazakov, D V

    2011-10-01

    Carney complex is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease, with at least two genetic loci including the PRKAR1A gene located on chromosome 17 and the CNC2 locus mapped to chromosome 2. Clinically this syndrome is characterized by multiple myxomas occurring in different anatomic sites, mucocutaneous pigmentary lesions, and a variety of non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, often causing endocrine abnormalities, involving various organs. Knowledge of morphological findings in CNC patients with their typical locations is necessary to raise suspicion of this syndrome by pathologists. Confirmation of the diagnosis allows regular clinical check-ups and early treatment of these patients. PMID:22145222

  17. Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Carney complex is a rare, dominantly inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, affecting endocrine glands as the adrenal cortex (causing Cushing's syndrome), the pituitary and the thyroid. It is associated with many other nonendocrine tumors, including cardiac myxomas, testicular tumors, melanotic schwannoma, breast myxomatosis, and abnormal pigmentation (lentiginosis) or myxomas of the skin. The gene located on the CNC1 locus was identified 12 years ago as the regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) located at 17q22-24. Inactivating heterozygous germline mutations of PRKAR1A are observed in about two thirds of Carney complex patients with some genotype-phenotype correlation useful for follow-up and prognosis. More rarely, mutations of phosphodiesterase genes have been reported in patients presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies help to understand how R1A inactivation leads to tumorigenesis. PRKAR1A appears to be a relatively weak tumorigenic signal which can cooperate with other signaling pathways and tumor suppressors. PMID:23652670

  18. DCT-8 pumped limiter design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.; Cramer, B.A.; Haines, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disruption erosion drives the life of the DCT-8 pumped limiter. This result came from an evaluation of beryllium (Be), beryllium oxide (BeO), and silicon carbide (SiC) as candidate surface tile materials. Beryllium oxide was selected as the reference tile materials. Beryllium oxide was selected as the reference tile material because it has the longest life: 13 full power hours (2300 burns at 20 s/burn) or 2.3 years of DCT-8 operation. The fabricability of any of the candidate materials and the ability to survive thermal shock conditions and electromagnetic loads imposed by distuptions are serious concerns. The most desirable materials from an engineering standpoint (graphite and high-Z, e.g., tantalum) were eliminated due to physical considerations.

  19. Quality in managed care: developments and considerations.

    PubMed

    Spoeri, R K

    1997-01-01

    With the rapid movement of both individuals and groups away from fee-for-service health care into managed care, concerns have been expressed appropriately that the quality of care may be affected adversely. Over the past several years, a number of developments have taken place to respond to these concerns. This quality movement in managed care has not been without some issues and considerations, however. This article first describes the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the prominent role it has played in this movement. Next, quality improvement study design is addressed in the context of assuring quality, controlling costs, and achieving NCQA accreditation. The effect that capitation, as a payment strategy for providers, has on data quality is then described. Fourth, the value of partnering is explored. Finally, the newest version of NCQA's performance measurement template is discussed: the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set, version 3.0. PMID:10169183

  20. Nutritional Considerations for Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, JohnEric W.; Holmes, Megan E.; McAllister, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an integral component to any athletes training and performance program. In adults the balance between energy intake and energy demands is crucial in training, recovery, and performance. In young athletes the demands for training and performance remain but should be a secondary focus behind the demands associated with maintaining the proper growth and maturation. Research interventions imposing significant physiological loads and diet manipulation are limited in youth due to the ethical considerations related to potential negative impacts on the growth and maturation processes associated with younger individuals. This necessary limitation results in practitioners providing nutritional guidance to young athletes to rely on exercise nutrition recommendations intended for adults. While many of the recommendations can appropriately be repurposed for the younger athlete attention needs to be taken towards the differences in metabolic needs and physiological differences. PMID:26464898

  1. PEMFC MEA and System Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, Shanna; Bashyam, Rajesh; He, Ping; Lauritzen, Michael; Startek, Cara; Colbow, Vesna; Cheng, Tommy; Kolodziej, Joanna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being developed and sold commercially for multiple near term markets. Ballard Power Systems is focused on the near term markets of backup power, distributed generation, materials handling, and buses. Significant advances have been made in cost and durability of fuel cell products. Improved tolerance to a wide range of system operation and environmental noises will enable increased viability across a broad range of applications. In order to apply the most effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design for each market, the system requirements and associated MEA failures must be well understood. The failure modes associated with the electrodes and membrane degradation are discussed with respect to associated system operation and mitigating approaches. A few key system considerations that influence MEA design include expected fuel quality, balance-of-plant materials, time under idle or open circuit operation, and start-up and shut-down conditions.

  2. Legal considerations in treating the injured athlete.

    PubMed

    Mitten, M J; Mitten, R J

    1995-01-01

    This article is intended to inform physical therapists about legal considerations impacting the practice of sports physical therapy. Our objective is to generate an awareness of these issues to enhance the quality of physical therapy provided to injured athletes and to minimize potential legal liability. Three areas in which physical therapists who treat injured athletes need to be particularly careful are: 1) providing treatment designed to enable continued play with an injury before it is fully healed, 2) informing an athlete of the potential health risks of continued athletic activity in his or her physical condition, and 3) evaluating and advising an athlete concerning his or her ability to resume athletic activity. Based on the parallels between industrial rehabilitation and sports physical therapy, the authors propose that consensus objective criteria and guidelines should be established to assist therapists in advising referring physicians and athletes whether return to play is appropriate under the circumstances. PMID:7889031

  3. Power combining considerations for project Prometheus TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, Scott K.; Menninger, William L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would be faced with the challenging data transmission task of sending a 50 Mbps stream of science data back to Earth over a distance of 6.2 A.U. (9.3x10^8 km). This high data rate will require a transmitter power of 1 kW at 32 GHz which greatly exceeds the highest powers available from any currently existing space-qualified RF amplifiers. Initially, consideration was given to developing a space-qualified klystron or EIK because of the relatively narrow bandwidths implied by this data rate, but neither of these device types have any significant history of use in space.

  4. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  5. Hyponatremia: Special Considerations in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Soiza, Roy L.; Cumming, Kirsten; Clarke, Jennifer M.; Wood, Karen M.; Myint, Phyo K.

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is especially common in older people. Recent evidence highlights that even mild, chronic hyponatremia can lead to cognitive impairment, falls and fractures, the latter being in part due to bone demineralization and reduced bone quality. Hyponatremia is therefore of special significance in frail older people. Management of hyponatremia in elderly individuals is particularly challenging. The underlying cause is often multi-factorial, a clear history may be difficult to obtain and clinical examination is unreliable. Established treatment modalities are often ineffective and carry considerable risks, especially if the diagnosis of underlying causes is incorrect. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that correction of hyponatremia can improve cognitive performance and postural balance, potentially minimizing the risk of falls and fractures. Oral vasopressin receptor antagonists (vaptans) are a promising innovation, but evidence of their safety and effect on important clinical outcomes in frail elderly individuals is limited. PMID:26237487

  6. Advances in Musculoskeletal MRI – Technical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren; Harish, Monica; Hargreaves, Brian; Staroswiecki, Ernesto; Gold, Garry

    2012-01-01

    The technology of musculoskeletal MRI imaging is advancing at a dramatic rate. MR imaging is now done at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and with more variable pulse sequences and post processing techniques than ever before. These numerable technical advances are advantageous as they lead to an increased signal to noise ratio and increased variety of soft tissue contrast options. However, at the same time they potentially produce more imaging artifacts when compared with past techniques. Substantial technical advances have considerable clinical challenges in musculoskeletal radiology such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. In this review, we consider technical advances in hardware and software of musculoskeletal MR imaging along with their clinical applications. PMID:22987756

  7. Technical and business considerations of cobalt hydrometallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Edgar; Åkre, Torjus; Asselin, Edouard

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 55,000 tonnes of cobalt are produced annually worldwide, which represents an estimated 1-3 billion in annual sales depending on cobalt price changes. Cobalt is a common impurity in both non-ferrous mineral sulfide and oxide processing. In this paper some business and technical considerations are presented to facilitate the decision-making process required to produce either an intermediate or a finished cobalt product via a hydrometallurgical route. Methods currently available and practiced for the recovery of cobalt are considered, and process requirements up- and down-stream associated with each chosen method are discussed. In particular, some environmental, energy, or other sustainable development implications of each process are mentioned. An outlook on the future of the cobalt industry and anticipated future trends is included.

  8. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  9. Practical Considerations In Digital Cardiac Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeley, J. P.; Vannier, M. W.; Gutierrez, F. R.; Von Behren, P. L.

    1983-05-01

    Digital fluoroscopic image acquisition, processing and storage for ventriculography, coronary artery and bypass graft imaging involves many practical considerations. Issues of sufficiency in terms of spatial, temporal, gray scale resolution and intravascular contrast sensitivity arise when 35mm cineradiographic film acquisition is replaced by digital fluoroscopy as the primary imaging modality. We have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated and compared digital fluoroscopic and cineradiographic systems for cardiovascular image acquisition, storage and display in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. A digital fluoroscopic system (Siemens Digitron I) was evaluated and compared favorably to 35mm cineradiography in temporal resolution. Spatial resolution of the digital system was poorer, but contrast sensitivity (with digital subtraction) far exceeded the capabilities of cineradiography. As further modifications are made to adapt digital systems to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, complete replacement of 35mm cineradiography by digital vascular imaging systems is likely in the near future.

  10. MicroRNA profiling: approaches and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Colin C.; Cheng, Heather H.; Tewari, Muneesh

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (~22 nt long) that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a broad range of organisms, in both normal physiologic and disease contexts. MiRNA expression profiling is gaining popularity because miRNAs, as key regulators in gene expression networks, can influence many biological processes and have also shown promise as biomarkers for disease. Technological advances have enabled the development of various platforms for miRNA profiling, and an understanding of the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches can aid in the effective use of miRNA profiling for diverse applications. We review here the major considerations for carrying out and interpreting results of miRNA profiling studies, as well as current and emerging applications of miRNA profiling. PMID:22510765

  11. Operational considerations for reusable launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Adelgren, R.G.; Ray, D.; Lashinski, P.

    1997-01-01

    The reusable launch vehicle single stage to orbit concept is a long term goal of the space program. With the reusable concept, government and industry hope to reduce the cost of spacelift and provide fast reliable access to space. For a viable reusable concept, certain operational areas should be well thought out and considered. For instance, {open_quotes}aircraft like{close_quotes} operations should be a goal of the reusable launch vehicle concept. This paper outlines some initial operational considerations for a reusable launch vehicle. The operational areas considered are viewed from the standpoint of operationally testing the system in the areas of effectiveness and suitability. This paper represents thoughts and ideas of the authors and does not represent official Air Force or Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center policies, positions, or direction. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Breast feeding: social, economic and medical considerations.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L

    1983-10-01

    A certain attitude and lifestyle is needed if breast feeding is to be successful. It must have priority over all other activities save the very basic ones. The rural environment provides a situation in which breast feeding can flourish . With urbanisation and the accompanying change in lifestyle breast feeding becomes very difficult. Since successful breast feeding needs strong motivation, the change in attitude of urbanised wives makes it even more unlikely. The Singapore experience demonstrates this convincingly; even though awareness of the benefits of breast feeding is widespread, the motivation to breast feed is not. Remedial measures should take into consideration the need to motivate the mother and family, the prevention of commercial infant food companies influencing public opinion, and incentives for the working mothers to breast feed. PMID:6678141

  13. Anticoagulation Considerations for Travel to High Altitude.

    PubMed

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2015-09-01

    DeLoughery, Thomas G. Anticoagulation considerations for travel to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:181-185, 2015.-An increasing percentage of the population are on anticoagulation medicine for clinical reasons ranging from stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation to long term prevention of deep venous thrombosis. In recent years, several new direct oral anticoagulants have entered the market. The key questions that should be kept in mind when approaching a potential traveler on anticoagulation are: 1) why is the patient on anticoagulation? 2) do they need to stay on anticoagulation? 3) what are the choices for their anticoagulation? 4) will there be any drug interactions with medications needed for travel? and 5) how will they monitor their anticoagulation while traveling? Knowing the answers to these questions then can allow for proper counseling and planning for the anticoagulated traveler's trip. PMID:26186419

  14. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  15. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  16. Diagnostic radiology in the tropics: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; McLean, Ian Donald

    2011-11-01

    An estimated two thirds of the world's population is currently without access to diagnostic radiology services, and most of them live in resource-limited tropical regions with harsh environments. Most patients are diagnosed and treated in poorly equipped government-funded hospitals and clinics that have insufficiently trained staff and are barely operational. Any available imaging equipment is likely to be functioning suboptimally and be poorly maintained. The root of the problem is usually a lack of know-how and a quality culture, combined with insufficient basic equipment and infrastructure. Radiological imaging is an essential aspect of primary care and used in the critical diagnosis and management of trauma, tuberculosis, pneumonia, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer, and other respiratory and abdominal diseases. Considerations such as quality management and infrastructure, personnel, equipment, and radiation protection and safety are important to ensure the proper functioning and rational use of a diagnostic radiology facility in the tropics. PMID:22081279

  17. Ethical considerations in targeted pediatric neurosurgery missions

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, SA; Jandial, R

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of global health development approaches, surgical missions to provide care for underserved populations remain the least studied interventions with regard to their methodology. Because of the unique logistical needs of delivering operative care surgical missions are often described solely in terms of cases performed, with a paucity of discourse on medical ethics. Within surgery, subspecialties that serve patients on a non-elective basis should, it could be argued, create mission strategies that involve a didactic approach and the propagation of sustainable surgical care. The ethical considerations have yet to be described for pediatric neurosurgical outreach missions. We present here the perspectives of neurosurgeons who have participated in surgical outreach missions in Central America, South America, Eastern Europe, and Sub-Saharan Africa from the vantage point of both the visiting mission team and the host team that accommodates the mission efforts. PMID:23001919

  18. Dust storms on Mars: Considerations and simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Iverson, J. D.; Leach, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Aeolian processes are important in modifying the surface of Mars at present, and appear to have been significant in the geological past. Aeolian activity includes local and global dust storms, the formation of erosional features such as yardangs and depositional features such as sand dunes, and the erosion of rock and soil. As a means of understanding aeolian processes on Mars, an investigation is in progress that includes laboratory simulations, field studies of earth analogs, and interpretation of spacecraft data. This report describes the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel, an experimental facility established at NASA-Ames Research Center, and presents some results of the general investigation. Experiments dealing with wind speeds and other conditions required for the initiation of particle movement on Mars are described and considerations are given to the resulting effectiveness of aeolian erosion.

  19. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  20. Gimbal bearing design considerations and friction control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The design considerations of bearing selection, bearing fits, bearing installation, and thermal control are discussed for a gimbal with a high stiffness, low friction torque requirement. Tradeoffs between a quad set of small diameter spread apart or a large diameter bearing pair resulted in a cleaner, lighter, stiffer unit with the latter selection. Bearing fits were designed to eliminate clearances with tolerances of .00127 mm 00005 in) on the bearing shafts and housings. The problems in metrology are discussed and a perferred technique for measurement of small cross-section bearings described. A technique for installation to assure proper seating of the bearing is offered. Where transient thermal conditions are involved, a method of controlling bearing friction by active control of bearing temperature gradients including the use of bearing unload test curves is described.

  1. Multiple fracturing experiments: propellant and borehole considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1982-01-01

    The technology for multiple fracturing of a wellbore, using progressively burning propellants, is being developed to enhance natural gas recovery. Multiple fracturing appears especially attractive for stimulating naturally fractured reservoirs such as Devonian shales where it is expected to effectively intersect existing fractures and connect them to a wellbore. Previous experiments and modeling efforts defined pressure risetimes required for multiple fracturing as a function of borehole diameter, but identified only a weak dependence on peak pressure attained. Typically, from four to eight equally spaced major fractures occur as a function of pressure risetime and in situ stress orientation. The present experiments address propellant and rock response considerations required to achieve the desired pressure risetimes for reliable multiple fracturing.

  2. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  3. Psychosocial considerations about children and radiological events.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne; Johnson, Colleen; Boutette, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Children are identified as a vulnerable population in the case of radiological events because of their increased physical sensitivity to radiation and its impact on critical development stages. Using a comprehensive integrated risk framework, psychosocial risk protective factors are discussed in a social ecology paradigm. Children have been shown to be both vulnerable and resilient; they are both easily impressionable and also quick to adapt and learn. Psychosocial interventions during, after and most efficiently before an event can improve outcome, especially if they involve parents and schools, media and work organisations. Public education through children should be encouraged to increase knowledge of radiation and strategies to minimise exposure and irradiation. Children can become vectors of prevention, preparedness and mitigation through information and behavioural rehearsal. Special consideration must therefore be given to education, school programmes, practice rehearsal and media exposure. PMID:20798186

  4. Considerations when applying ASDs in continuous processes

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, R.A.; Hoadley, F.L.; Piefer, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Proper use of adjustable speed drives (ASD) in any application requires informed considerations of many issues. When that application is an integral part of a continuous process the implications, in financial terms, can be greatly magnified. By definition in this paper a continuous process is any process in which the product being manufactured flows through the manufacturing cycle with no interruption or intermediate storage or lag. Therefore, any interruption to that process will halt the entire manufacturing flow with implications ranging from just lost production to extremely costly implications like repair, re-string-up or removal of polymers that have set up in piping, etc. Paraphrasing a real estate motto, in applying ASDs in a continuous process the three most important factors are: Reliability, Reliability and Reliability. The basis for the reliability issues along with the state of the art potential solutions will be presented.

  5. Structural sizing considerations for large space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Walz, J. E.; Rehder, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Structural optimization studies are made using mathematical programming techniques to examine minimum mass structural proportions of deployable and erectable tetrahedral truss platforms subject to the integrated effects of practical design requirements. Considerations integrated into the optimization process are: 1) lowest natural frequencies of the platform and individual platform components (struts); 2) packaging constraints imposed by the Shuttle cargo bay capacity; 3) initial curvature of the struts; 4) column buckling of the struts due to gravity gradient, orbital transfer, strut length tolerance, or design loads; and 5) practical lower limits for strut diameter and wall thickness. Ultra-low mass designs are shown to be possible with strut proportions much more slender than those conventionally used for earthbound application.

  6. Rheological and Mechanical Considerations for Photovoltaic Encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-11-01

    Photovoltaic (pv) devices are encapsulated in polymeric materials not only for corrosion protection, but also for mechanical support. Even though ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) suffers from having both glass and melting phase transitions at temperatures experienced under environmental exposure, its low cost and good optical transmission made EVA the most commonly used material for PV modules. These transitions, however, cause EVA to embrittle at low temperatures (~ -15 deg C) and to be very soft at high temperatures (>40 deg C). From mechanical considerations, one would prefer a material that was relatively unchanged under a wide temperature range. This would produce a more predictable and reliable package. These concerns are likely to become more important as silicon based cells are made thinner.

  7. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  8. Sucrose and sucrose substitutes. Industrial considerations.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D A

    1978-01-01

    The problem of reducing the sugar content of sugary foods is presented from the food manufacturer's point of view. The distinction is made between the need for artificial sweeteners and the more pressing need for bulking agents with at least some of the technological properties of sugar. In view of the considerable sales success of sugarless confections, accounting for over an estimated 30,000,000 lbs. of sorbitol per annum, the clouded prospect for more general sugar substitution in other food categories is discussed with especial reference to the consequent problems in product claims and nomenclature, and the enormous expense of proving safety and dental claims. Finally, an overview of the competitive consumer and regulatory pressures is given, with an urgent appeal to the dental profession to take the initiative for guiding the food processor to dentally improved foods. PMID:286371

  9. Satellite sound broadcasting system study: Mobile considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the mobile reception part of a study to investigate a satellite sound broadcast system in the UHF or L bands. Existing propagation and reception measurements are used with proper interpretation to evaluate the signaling, coding, and diversity alternatives suitable for the system. Signal attenuation in streets shadowed by buildings appear to be around 29 db, considerably higher than the 10 db adopted by CCIR. With the marriage of proper technologies, an LMSS class satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability in UHF or L bands for high quality mobile and portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers. This scheme requires terrestrial repeaters for satisfactory mobile reception in urban areas. A specialized bandwidth efficient spread spectrum signalling technique is particularly suitable for the terrestrial repeaters.

  10. Neonatal euthanasia: moral considerations and criminal liability.

    PubMed

    Sklansky, M

    2001-02-01

    Despite tremendous advances in medical care for critically ill newborn infants, caregivers in neonatal intensive care units still struggle with how to approach those patients whose prognoses appear to be the most grim, and whose treatments appear to be the most futile. Although the practice of passive neonatal euthanasia, from a moral perspective, has been widely (albeit quietly) condoned, those clinicians and families involved in such cases may still be found legally guilty of child abuse or even manslaughter. Passive neonatal euthanasia remains both a moral dilemma and a legal ambiguity. Even the definition of passive euthanasia remains unclear. This manuscript reviews the basic moral and legal considerations raised by the current practice of neonatal euthanasia, and examines the formal position statements of the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The paper concludes by emphasising the need, at least in the United States, to clarify the legal status of this relatively common medical practice. PMID:11233379

  11. Current Considerations About the Elderly and Firearms

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, more than 17 million people aged 65 years or older own a firearm. They have the highest rate of suicide by a firearm, and recent data suggest that a disproportionate number apply to carry a concealed weapon. At least one new handgun has been designed and marketed for older people. Memory, thinking, and judgment as well as physical and behavioral competence issues related to an elderly person's safe operation of a motor vehicle apply to firearms, too. Gun availability can pose a particular risk to those with dementia and to their caretakers. The elderly constitute a substantial and rapidly growing population and market segment for whom the public health implications of firearm production, promotion, access, ownership, and use merit consideration. PMID:22390501

  12. Current considerations about the elderly and firearms.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Brian; Sorenson, Susan B

    2012-03-01

    In the United States, more than 17 million people aged 65 years or older own a firearm. They have the highest rate of suicide by a firearm, and recent data suggest that a disproportionate number apply to carry a concealed weapon. At least one new handgun has been designed and marketed for older people. Memory, thinking, and judgment as well as physical and behavioral competence issues related to an elderly person's safe operation of a motor vehicle apply to firearms, too. Gun availability can pose a particular risk to those with dementia and to their caretakers. The elderly constitute a substantial and rapidly growing population and market segment for whom the public health implications of firearm production, promotion, access, ownership, and use merit consideration. PMID:22390501

  13. Practical considerations for industrial ultrafast lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankla, Allen K.; Bromley, Leigh J.; Weston, Jeremy

    1998-07-01

    The ultrafast laser industry has been built upon the scientific research market with the assumption that certain factors such as electrical power, cooling, and vibration isolation can be taken for granted. As ultrafast lasers stand ready to break into the industrial laser market, these and many other assumptions must be re-examined. This paper presents a discussion of the many non-trivial engineering issues that must be addressed in order to bring a highly sophisticated laser system into the harsh industrial environment. These practical considerations include performance, reliability, and cost of ownership. The foundation of the discussion is based upon lessons drawn from successful existing industrial laser systems such as CO2 and Nd:YAG. Relevant results from this study will then be applied to the particular case of ultrafast lasers with the goal of examining how current scientific lasers compare with industrial requirements and highlighting some technologies which can help bridge this gap.

  14. Social contexts influence ethical considerations of research.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Judith B; Levine, Robert J; Mazure, Carolyn M; Rubin, Philip E; Schaller, Barry R; Young, John L

    2011-05-01

    This article argues that we could improve the design of research protocols by developing an awareness of and a responsiveness to the social contexts of all the actors in the research enterprise, including subjects, investigators, sponsors, and members of the community in which the research will be conducted. "Social context" refers to the settings in which the actors are situated, including, but not limited to, their social, economic, political, cultural, and technological features. The utility of thinking about social contexts is introduced and exemplified by the presentation of a hypothetical case in which one central issue is limitation of the probability of injury to subjects by selection of individuals who are not expected to live long enough for the known risks of the study to become manifest as harms. Benefits of such considerations may include enhanced subject satisfaction and cooperation, community acceptance, and improved data quality, among other desirable consequences. PMID:21534146

  15. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  16. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  17. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  18. Synthetic vision systems: operational considerations simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  19. Economic and developmental considerations for pharmacogenomic technology.

    PubMed

    Vernon, John A; Johnson, Scott J; Hughen, W Keener; Trujillo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's core business is the innovation, development and marketing of new drugs. Pharmacogenetic (PG) testing and technology has the potential to increase a drug's value in many ways. A critical issue for the industry is whether products in development should be teamed with genetic tests that could segment the total population into responders and non-responders. In this paper we use a cost-effectiveness framework to model the strategic decision-making considerations by pharmaceutical manufacturers as they relate to drug development and the new technology of PG (the science of using genetic markers to predict drug response). In a simple, static, one-period model we consider three drug development strategies: a drug is exclusively developed and marketed to patients with a particular genetic marker; no distinguishing among patients based on the expression of a genetic marker is made (traditional approach); and a strategy whereby a drug is marketed to patients both with and without the genetic marker but there is price discrimination between the two subpopulations. We developed three main principles: revenues under a strategy targeting only the responder subpopulation will never generate more revenue than that which could have been obtained under a traditional approach; total revenues under a targeted PG strategy will be less than that under a traditional approach but higher than a naive [corrected] view would believe them to be; and a traditional [corrected] approach will earn the same total revenues as a price discrimination strategy, assuming no intermarket arbitrage. While these principles relate to the singular (and quite narrow) consideration of drug revenues, they may nevertheless partially explain why PG is not being used as widely as was predicted several years ago when the technology first became available, especially in terms of pharmaceutical manufacturer-developed tests. PMID:16605280

  20. [Occult child abuse (opinions, considerations, personal observations)].

    PubMed

    Paci, A; Migliaccio, P; Paci, G

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the statement the authors point out some lesser aspects of child's ill-treatment (previously suggested by them in other occasions) as expressions of very strict educational systems which strongly limit childrens' freedom or impose them several extrascholastic activities (such as: athletics, music with participation in competitive examination, studies of foreign languages, Latin and so on) where the child must excel in (composex of the "leader-child"). Then these authors suggest using the term "abuse" to mean lexically every excessive, undue, arbitrary use and not only "sexual". They point out the seriousness of abuse as far as juvenile exploitation is concerned both in case of manual labour and prostitution. But the pay particularly attention to the problem of sport when it is gone in for too intensively (as athletics). These authors infact sum up the harms that sport can cause when it is gone in for during the age under the stabilized puberty. Physical harms may occur especially during the practice of risky sports such as: Alpine skiing, cycling on the road, swimming combined with diving, fencing, boxing) and during tiring condition, while psychic harms can entail a fall in scholastic performances, irritability, insomnia, anxiety. The authors depreciate the behaviour of those parents who stimulate their children' aggressiveness during competitions and scold them when their performances are insufficient, or give them forbidden stimulants of hormonal anabolic drugs instead of taking care of their children in order to keep away from the arms mentioned above. However, after all these observations and considerations about competitive sports in juvenile age, these authors can firmly state that all this could be meant as an important aspects of the juvenile exploitation that must be taken in great consideration. PMID:11293144

  1. Structural considerations of vitamin D signaling

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures represent the static picture in the life of a molecule giving a sneak preview what it might be in reality. Hence, it is very hard to extrapolate from these photos toward dynamic processes such as transcriptional regulation. Mechanistically VDR may be considered as molecular machine able to perform ligand-, DNA- and protein recognition, and interaction in a multi-task manner. Taking this into account the functional net effect will be the combination of all these processes. The long awaited answer to explain the differences in physiological effects for various ligands was one of the biggest disappointment that crystal structures provided since no substantial distinction could be made for the conformation of the active VDR-ligand complexes. This may have come from the limitation on the complexity of the available ligand-VDR structures. The recent studies with full length VDR-RXRα showed somewhat more comprehensive perspective for the 3D organization and possible function of the VDR-RXRα-cofactor complex. In addition to in vitro approaches, also computational tools had been introduced with the aim to get understanding on the mechanic and dynamic properties of the VDR complexes with some success. Using these methods and based on measurable descriptors such as pocket size and positions of side chains it is possible to note subtle differences between the structures. The meaning of these differences has not been fully understood yet but the possibility of a “butterfly effect” may have more extreme consequences in terms of VDR signaling. In this review, the three functional aspects (ligand-, DNA- and protein recognition, and binding) will be discussed with respect to available data as well as possible implication and questions that may be important to address in the future. PMID:24936188

  2. Polarization-based complex index of refraction estimation with diffuse scattering consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Hanyu; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng; Cho, Sang-Yeon

    2015-09-01

    Optical polarimetry is an approach that shows promise for refractive index estimation from scattering off a target's surface, which is task of pivotal importance for remote sensing and computer graphics applications. However, the estimation often relies on a microfacet polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF) that is limited to specular targets involving single surface scattering. In this paper, we develop an analytic model for the degree of polarization (DOP) reflected from a rough surface that includes a multiplicative factor for the effect of diffuse scattering. Evaluation of the model indicates that diffuse scattering can significantly affect the DOP values, and the biased DOP values can further lead to inaccurate estimation of the surface refractive index.

  3. Comparing Adolescents' Considerations for Self-Referral and Counsellors' Perceptions of These Considerations: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Investigated considerations of adolescents for self-referral to counselors as reported by high school students and school counselors. Counselor trustworthiness was cited as the most important factor by both groups; but counselors attributed more importance to gender and age, while adolescents emphasized counselor expertness. Discusses strategies…

  4. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  5. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  6. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  7. Fast mask writers: technology options and considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Lloyd C.; Groves, Timothy; Hughes, Greg

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as the complexity of technology increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which have added to the complexity of making masks because of the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low-k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that funding on the order of 50M to 90M for non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development poses a high risk for an individual supplier. The structure of the mask fabrication marketplace separates the mask writer equipment customer (the mask supplier) from the final customer (wafer manufacturer) that will be most effected by the increase in mask cost that will result if a high speed mask writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed.

  8. Drones--ethical considerations and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Drones enhance military capability and form a potent element of force protection, allowing humans to be removed from hazardous environments and tedious jobs. However, there are moral, legal, and political dangers associated with their use. Although a time may come when it is possible to develop a drone that is able to autonomously and ethically engage a legitimate target with greater reliability than a human, until then military drones demand a crawl-walk-run development methodology, consent by military personnel for weapon use, and continued debate about the complex issues surrounding their deployment. PMID:22558742

  9. Biosimilars: current scientific and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Roy, Vandana

    2014-02-01

    The widespread use of biologics has paved way for newer options in therapeutics for once incurable illnesses. Their large and complex protein structure, post-translational modifications, elaborate manufacturing/production process and risk for immunogenicity adds to the uniqueness of a biologic product. Patent expiration of innovator biologics has led to the development of biosimilars; biologics similar /comparable to the reference product in terms of quality, safety and efficacy. We discuss the clinical safety and regulatory requirements for biosimilars in various countries across the world. Future holds promise for biosimilars to provide affordable, efficacious and safe treatment to a vast majority of patients with significant cost savings to the nation. PMID:23952143

  10. [Artificial nutrition: technical, scientific and ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Artificial nutrition (AN) is a relatively new medical treatment which started in the 1960 with parenteral nutrition (PN) and over the last 20 years has come to include enteral nutrition (EN) in hospitals and homes. Enormous clinical progress and continual evolution in techniques aimed at rendering organ funtion substitution more complete and efficient have come to the point where AN can only be suitably performed (indications for therapy, treatment regimen and monitoring) in specialized institutions. However, there has been much discussion about whether artificial nutrition should be considered a medical intervention or an essential intervention of care: in 2004 the Terri Schiavo case became worldwide news and the suspension of AN was decided by the law courts. In Italy, on 5 September 2014, the Council of State gave its opinion on case of Eluana Englaro. In 2007 the Italian Association for Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition (ADI) and the Professional Board of Physicians of the Province of Terni, have shared a paper that takes into account the scientific, technical and ethical considerations of AN in the light of the relative codes. The intent of this position paper was to supply a framework of clinical practices, ethical principles, and professional guidelines that will impart information and can assist decision making regarding AN and hydration. The document is still relevant today. PMID:25734597

  11. Research and quality management studies: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, P A

    1994-04-01

    Federal legislation requires that an IRB must review all research studies receiving federal funding and involving human subjects for the protection of human rights. In addition there must be a provision for informed consent so that subjects can freely choose whether or not to participate. Most health care agencies have adopted this as the standard for conducting research. The ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, guide review boards in making decisions for protecting human subjects. The standards for conducting QM studies have not been as explicit, but it seems that similar ethical principles could provide a guiding framework. To protect human subjects in QM studies, it has been suggested that studies be submitted to an IRB when they: (a) are prospective, (b) have potential scientific merit, and/or (c) may have application beyond the study setting. In addition even when data are coming from existing sources or patient records and used only for evaluation purposes within the study setting, mechanisms for ensuring privacy, confidentiality, and consent need consideration. PMID:8173626

  12. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging. PMID:25355192

  13. Seeding materials: Health and safety considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of a proper seeding material for laser velocimeters must include health and safety considerations. Failure to do so can lead to catastrophic results. All materials are toxic, and laser velocimeter seeding materials are no exception. Toxicity may be considered an inherent property of a given material. The manifestation of that property or the physiological response to the material is dependent on dose and exposure conditions. An approximate physiological classification of toxicity is given in tablular form. Toxicity in some situations is not necessarily the most restrictive factor in selection of materials. It is also very important to consider how the material is used so that actual exposure to the material in a damaging form can result. For example, nickel and cadmium are both extremely toxic as systemic poisons and in the case of nickel as a carcinogen. Seeding materials are dispersed in air under conditions that favor personnel exposure. Dispersal equipment is frequently if not normally manned, and personnel are often required to make frequent adjustments to assure proper operations.

  14. Design considerations for miniaturized optical neural probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Linda; Ordonez, Juan S.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Neural probes are designed to selectively record from or stimulate nerve cells. In optogenetics it is desirable to build miniaturized and long-term stable optical neural probes, in which the light sources can be directly and chronically implanted into the animals to allow free movement and behavior. Because of the size and the beam shape of the available light sources, it is difficult to target single cells as well as spatially localized networks. We therefore investigated design considerations for packages, which encapsulate the light source hermetically and have integrated hemispherical lens structures that enable to focus the light onto the desired region, by optical simulations. Integration of a biconvex lens into the package lid (diameter = 300 μm, material: silicon carbide) increased the averaged absolute irradiance ηA by 298 % compared to a system without a lens and had a spot size of around 120 μm. Solely integrating a plano-convex lens (same diameter and material) results in an ηA of up to 227 %.

  15. [New antiepileptic drugs, and therapeutic considerations].

    PubMed

    Szupera, Zoltán

    2011-09-30

    Epilepsy is not a singular disease, but a variety of disorders. It affects up to 0.5% of the population. Over the past decade, researchers have made great advances in the field of epilepsy. These have been accompanied by the licensing of a great number of antiepileptic drugs. However, despite these efforts, up to 15-20% of patients have refractory epilepsy. The novel antiepileptic drugs must suit several requirements: higher efficacy, especially in resistant cases, better tolerability, and improved pharmacokinetic properties. Recently, three new drugs have been introduced to the market. Retigabine is a carbamic derivate, and its anticonvulsive properties are largely due to its ability to prolong the opening of neuronal voltage-gated potassium Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 channels. Lacosamide is a functionalized amino acid, and selectively enhances voltage-gated sodium channel slow inactivation. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new member of the dibenzazepine family, and blocks the fast inactivated voltage-gated sodium channel. All three of them differ from the foregoing agents in several important ways, including new mechanism of action (retigabine, lacosamide), or pharmacokinetics (eslicarbazepine acetate). These novel anticonvulsants appear to be a safe and effective addition to the armamentarium for the treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy. However, it will take the consideration of new concepts in shaping the new therapeutic algorithm. PMID:22059370

  16. Design Considerations for High Temperature Power Inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2005-01-01

    A uniform B-field approximation model is used to develop design formulas for single-layer wound, toroidal core, ac power inductors that must handle a specified current. Such a geometry is well suited for high temperature, high frequency inductors, where removal of heat from the core becomes critical. Explicit expressions are derived for core radii, core and winding volumes, winding turns and core permeability as functions of a dimensional scaling ratio (S). A limit on the maximum allowed core B-field leads to the result that the minimum core volume is proportional to the permeability, which has a lower bound. Plots versus S are provided for a specific case, to show that good designs can be picked in the overlap regions around the minima in mass and overall size, where the mass and size are relatively flat. Data to 250 C are presented for an MPP core based inductor to show that a quasi-linear, high temperature inductor can be constructed with available materials. A similar development is applied to a toroidal air-core geometry, showing that for the same ratings, such an inductor is considerably bigger and more massive, at least in the single-layer version.

  17. Some geophysical considerations in radioisotope dating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Radioisotope dating only assumes radioactive decay laws are taking place allowing closed form solutions to be obtained in generating a sample date estimate. To be discussed in this work is the isotopic distribution expected in geological samples due to mass diffusion superimposed on that from simple radioactive decay. By taking into consideration the isotope effect (differential mass diffusion rates) when measuring isotopic ratios from very old samples, the distribution dependency will cause a bias if isotopic diffusion rates are not identical throughout a material (or at least across the boundaries of all samples measured). The isotope effect being that isotopes having a smaller atomic mass will diffuse faster in a medium than will their heavier counterparts causing concentration gradients of their ratios even when there are no contributions from radioactive decay which will tend to bias all sample ages (slopes of the isochron) to have a more linear distribution. The application to Sr/Rb dating is evaluated and shown to result in expected age overestimates. Suggested methods to test for this effect along with sample preparation techniques to minimize it are discussed. Special thanks the NCSU Nuclear Engineering Department.

  18. Operational and support considerations in standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreilly, W. T.

    Military applications in the era of the 1990's and beyond, require capabilities beyond those available in most existing systems. These capabilities must be provided in a manner that will achieve a low logistic support cost and that can be maintained with relatively inexperienced personnel. This paper presents the design considerations that must be addressed in each of the standardized subsystems and modules that will provide the operational and support needs for tomorrow and beyond. Advanced maintenance concepts, such as two and one level maintenance, are described together with the operational and life cycle cost benefits that will be achieved. A new operation concept called deferred maintenance, which provides sustained operation without maintenance support, is presented. The fault tolerant architecture which will permit a standardized modular design to efficiently accommodate a variety of system applications is presented. The concerns discussed include combat damage survivability, fail safe and fail operational needs, as well as high availability for long life applications as is required for systems employed in the Space Defense Initiative (SDI).

  19. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  20. Design considerations for infrared fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Anheier, Norman C., Jr.; Osantowski, Robert E.; Matlock, Charlene A.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1994-03-01

    This presentation focuses on mechanical and electro-optical design considerations embodied in VOtectTM -- an infrared fiber optic sensor for volatile organic compounds. Presently, the VOtectTM system is configured for remote detection of hydrocarbon vapors associated with gasoline and other internal-combustion fuels. Using commercially available zirconate glass optical fibers, the sensor exploits the overlap of absorption spectra due to carbon-hydrogen stretching vibrations between 3.3 and 3.6 microns, with the optical output of an infrared HeNe laser operating at 3.39 microns. Compensation for position-dependent fiber bending losses is achieved using 1.15-micron radiation simultaneously emitted by the laser source. Initial laboratory evaluations of the VOtectTM system indicates detection sensitivities well below the lower explosion limits for petroleum distillates, indicating the usefulness of the sensor for petrochemical safety applications. The sensor is intrinsically safe (e.g., explosion-proof), since no electrical power is required at the probe tip. Preliminary sensor optical power budget calculations indicate that the zirconate fiber optic umbilical, which connects the sensor probe to the electro-optical detection system, can be as long as several hundred meters. Calibration data for a variety of hydrocarbons indicate linear relationships between ln(V/Vo) and vapor concentration, suggesting that the sensor should prove useful for on-line, real-time process control applications.

  1. Force-response considerations in ciliary mechanosensation.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Andrew; Hopfer, Ulrich

    2007-08-15

    Considerable experimental evidence indicates that the primary, nonmotile cilium is a mechanosensory organelle in several epithelial cell types. As the relationship between cellular responses and nature and magnitude of applied forces is not well understood, we have investigated the effects of exposure of monolayers of renal collecting duct chief cells to orbital shaking and quantified the forces incident on cilia. An exposure of 24 h of these cells to orbital shaking resulted in a decrease of amiloride-sensitive sodium current by approximately 60% and ciliary length by approximately 30%. The sensitivity of the sodium current to shaking was dependent on intact cilia. The drag force on cilia due to induced fluid flow during orbital shaking was estimated at maximally 5.2x10(-3) pN at 2 Hz, approximately 4 times that of thermal noise. The major structural feature of cilia contributing to their sensitivity appears to be ciliary length. As more than half of the total drag force is exerted on the ciliary cap, one function of the slender stalk may be to expose the cap to greater drag force. Regardless, the findings indicate that the cilium is a mechanosensory organelle with a sensitivity much lower than previously recognized. PMID:17526573

  2. Design considerations for silicon HLE solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.; Pao, S. C.; Fossum, J. G.; Sah, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    The high-low (H-L) junction in the emitter region that defines the high-low-junction emitter (HLE) solar cell suppresses the dark emitter recombination current J sub E so that the base recombination current dominates in determining the open-circuit voltage. For silicon cells this enables the achievement of considerably larger values of open-circuit voltage than those achievable in conventional structures. This paper describes experiments that demonstrate the achievement of J sub E suppression (to less than 5 x 10 to the -14th A/sq cm) and large open-circuit voltage (640 mV) in HLE test cells of two distinct types. In the first type (the diffused HLE structure) impurity diffusion forms the H-L junction in the emitter; in the second type (the oxide-charge-induced HLE structure) the H-L junction is formed in emitter material of relatively low doping concentration by an oxide-charge-induced electron accumulation layer.

  3. [Considerations on limits and profits of registries].

    PubMed

    Addis, Antonio; Costa, Enrico; De Palma, Rossana; Magrini, Nicola; Marata, Anna Maria; Martelli, Luisa; Papini, Donato; Traversa, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The article collects the summary of the discussion occurred in the setting of PRIER II, in the session dedicated to the taxonomy of registries. Shown below, some specific contributions by health professionals working at the regional departments, which deal with registries, as well as the contribution on the same subject by specialists working at some pharmaceutical companies. In particular, after the presentation summarized in the article by prof. Giuseppe Costa1, the contributions, respectively by a representative of the Emilia-Romagna Region, of a health and hospital service and by the PRIER II workgroup, are following. Finally, a collective work with all participants to the working group took place to focus on all the issues considered to be crucial in defining clinical registries. At the same discussion table, institutional representatives of the regulatory national and regional branch were also invited to take into consideration the points of view of all public and private registry users, in particular in their benefits, limits and purposes. Going through the discussion on a specific check list and deepening a number of statements identified by the working group, a list of key points, essential to characterize each clinical registry, was produced. PMID:26418504

  4. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems. PMID:27330125

  5. Site planning considerations for toxic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1989-03-31

    We are developing procedures for controlling emergencies that may arise at sites where toxic materials are used. In our specific example, these materials are semiconductor gases such as phosphine, silane, chlorine, and diborane, but our procedures apply to other operations using toxic materials such as liquid-fueled rocket development and testing. We start by applying or developing Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) for the chemical of interest and we then determine trade offs between gas quantities and other precautions (such as stack heights or flow-limiting orifices) needed to keep ground-level concentrations acceptable during emergencies. We use a version of the widely acknowledged Gaussian-dispersion model (EPIcode) to estimate contaminant levels over 0.1 km from the release point, and we use an adaptation of Wilson's model to estimate concentrations nearer the source. We will discuss these procedures and other considerations (e.g., how we set ERPGs, the relation of ERPGs to other criteria such as Emergency Exposure Limits, and how minimum stack heights are determined) and areas of uncertainty. This paper focuses on planning for emergencies involving toxic materials, routine protection of employees and the public; the normal activities of industrial hygienists and environmental protection personnel are not discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Care of the dying adolescent: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Freyer, David R

    2004-02-01

    More than 3000 adolescents in the United States die annually from the effects of chronic illness. Providing appropriate end-of-life care for these patients is particularly challenging because of several developmental, ethical, and legal considerations relevant to this age group. Developmental issues relate to the ways in which life-threatening illness alters the normal physical and psychological changes associated with adolescence, including attainment of independence, social skills, peer acceptance, and a healthy self-image. Ethical and legal issues arise from the fact that many terminally ill adolescents <18 years of age lack ordinary legal authority to make binding medical decisions (including discontinuation of their treatment), yet they meet functional criteria for having the competence to do so. In such situations, a broad medical, ethical, and legal consensus supports giving decisional authority to the minor patient. Even when full decisional authority is not appropriate, strong moral arguments exist for taking serious account of the young adolescent's treatment preferences. In supporting the dying adolescent, an atmosphere promoting excellent communication and sound decision-making should be fostered as early as possible during preterminal care and maintained thereafter. Once palliative-care strategies become the clinical focus, psychosocial support sensitive to the adolescent's developmental stage must be provided. Using these principles, clinicians can play a crucial role in helping the adolescent, in the face of death, to experience richness of life and the dignity of self-determination. PMID:14754953

  7. Theoretical considerations and measurements for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Wenli; Sun, Jie

    2008-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in current optometry practice. The quality and verification of the instrument are of the utmost importance. In 1997, International Organization for Standardization published the first ISO standard for requirements of phoropters. However, in China, few standard and test method are suggested for phoropters. Research work on test method for phoropters was carried out early in 2004 by China National Institute of Metrology. In this paper, first, structure of phoropters is described. Then, theoretical considerations for its optical design are analyzed. Next, a newly developed instrument is introduced and measurements are taken. By calibration, the indication error of the instrument is not over 0.05m-1. Finally, measurement results show that the quality situation of phoropters is not as good as expected because of production and assembly error. Optical design shall be improved especially for combinations of both spherical and cylindrical lenses with higher power. Besides, optical requirements specified in ISO standard are found to be a little strict and hard to meet. A proposal for revision of this international standard is drafted and discussed on ISO meeting of 2007 held in Tokyo.

  8. Strategies and considerations for protein purifications.

    PubMed

    Linn, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Prior to embarking upon the purification of a protein, one should begin by considering what the protein is to be used for. In particular, how much of the protein is needed, what should be its state of purity, and must it be folded correctly and associated with various other peptides or cofactors. Using such criteria, an appropriate assay should be chosen and a procedure be planned taking into account the source of the protein, how it is to be extracted from the source, and what agents the protein ought to be exposed to or ultimately be stored in. One is often surprised at the time necessary to develop an appropriate protein purification procedure relative to the time required to clone a gene or to accumulate information with the purified protein. There are an overwhelming number of options for protein purification steps, so forethought is necessary to expedite the tedious job of developing the purification scheme, or to avoid having to redesign it upon attempting to use the protein. This chapter points out general considerations to be undertaken in designing, organizing, and executing the purification, while subsequent chapters of this volume supply more specific options and technical details. PMID:19892162

  9. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  10. Legal considerations for protecting the physician's assets.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jerome L

    2011-01-01

    Most states require that as a consideration of obtaining and maintaining a medical license, all applicants must demonstrate "financial responsibility." Usually this includes: (1) establishing an escrow account of cash and/or readily marketable securities; (2) an irrevocable, non-transferable letter of credit; or (3) in most cases, medical malpractice insurance coverage. In recent years, some states have passed legislation that provides that under certain circumstances, a physician may qualify to forego any of the financial requirements, commonly referred to as "going bare." In this regard, much of the impetus for the recently enacted Obama healthcare plan was the rising cost of healthcare in the United States arising from the extensive, and, to some, unnecessary and extraneous testing and retesting to confirm medical diagnosis and treatment-for the patient's benefit but, as importantly, to forestall a potential medical malpractice claim. As the political challenge to what is commonly referred to as "Obamacare" proceeds, and in the absence of any legislative support for "tort reform" and limitations on frivolous malpractice claims, it is abundantly clear that an integral part of any professional's "estate planning" should include and incorporate the asset protection and exempt property statutes available under the laws of the jurisdiction where the physician resides. PMID:21595387

  11. Geometrical Detector Considerations in Laser Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killinger, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the geometrical interaction of different detectors with the impinging optical/laser received beam for a wide range of laser sensing applications. Although different techniques apply, it is found that similar aspects of geometrical physics plays a role in direct detection of a range-resolved large M(sup 2) OPO atmospheric Lidar, heterodyne multi-detector reception of atmospheric turbulence distorted coherent lidar type laser sensing, and the distribution and summation of laser induced fluorescence signals after being spectrally resolved with a spectrometer and detected by a column summing CCD detector. In each of these systems, the focused received light is spatially and spectrally distributed due to several factors including Field-of-View considerations, laser beam quality/divergence, multi-detector aspects, and hardware and software summation (coherent and non-coherent) of multi-element or spatially integrated signals. This invited talk will present some of our recent results in these areas and show the similarities in the detector spatial and temporal summation techniques of these different laser sensing systems.

  12. Radiobiological considerations in magna-field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.G.

    1983-12-01

    Radiobiological considerations are described for total body irradiation (TBI) as given to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although much progress has been made in the use of BMT for refractory leukemias, many patients still die from interstitial pneumonia and relapse. Fractionated TBI has been introduced in order to improve leukemic cell kill, while increasing the degree of normal tissue tolerance. Traditionally, bone marrow stem cells, leukemic cells and immunocytes have been considered as having a limited ability to repair radiation damage while cells of lung tissue and intestinal epithelial cells have a greater capacity. During fractionated radiation therapy or continuous low-dose rate exposure, repair of sublethal damage between fractions allows greater recovery in the cells of lung tissue to those in the bone marrow. Clinically, the potential benefit of six fractions over one fraction or low dose-rate TBI has yet to be proved, although there is suggestive evidence for a reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis. However, other extraneous factors such as doses to the lung, differences in conditioning regimens, effect of increased delay in BMT for patients receiving fractionated TBI, and the unmeasurable differences between institutions make definite conclusions impossible. Despite this, a consensus for dose fractionation has developed and most centers are moving away from the use of large single dose TBI.

  13. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  14. 48 CFR 6101.28 - Full Board consideration [Rule 28].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.28 Full Board consideration . (a) Requests by... matter to be referred is one of exceptional importance. (2) A request for full Board consideration may...

  15. Disaster behavioral health: legal and ethical considerations in a rapidly changing field.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian W; Speier, Anthony H

    2014-08-01

    Disaster behavioral health is increasingly regarded as a central part of disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Legal and ethical issues have received relatively little attention and have sparked divergent opinions. Optimally, understanding and applying legal and ethical considerations requires an understanding of the evolution of the disaster behavioral health field and the context of disaster response and recovery. In addition, there are many legal and ethical questions identified for consideration, and many ways to approach reaching understanding and consensus. Traditionally, discussions of disaster behavioral health, including legal and ethical issues, have not included understanding decision making processes that occur in extreme circumstances. Models which interpret disaster response operations as complex adaptive systems are presented for consideration as useful tools for preparing mental health workers for effectively delivering services in acute disaster response environments. PMID:24912607

  16. Ablating Premature Ventricular Complexes: Justification, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Noheria, Amit; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the underlying principles that allow for safe and effective ablation for premature ventricular complexes. Clinical scenarios that necessitate consideration for ablation, the underlying anatomy, and the unique consideration to maximize energy delivery without compromising safety are sequentially examined. PMID:26306129

  17. Considerations for the design of Ada reusable packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nise, Norman S.; Giffin, Chuck

    1986-01-01

    Two important considerations that precede the design of Ada reusable packages (commonality and programming standards) are discuessed. First, the importance of designing packages to yield widespread commonality is expressed. A means of measuring the degree of applicability of packages both within and across applications areas is presented. Design consideration that will improve commonality are also discussed. Second, considerations for the development of programming standards are set forth. These considerations will lead to standards that will improve the reusability of Ada packages.

  18. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Losada Grande, Eladio José; Al Kassam Martínez, Daniel; González Boillos, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, and endocrine overactivity. Skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi. Myxomas may occur in breast, skin and heart. Cardiac myxomas may be multiple and occur in any cardiac chamber, and are more prone to recurrence. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD may occur isolated, with no other signs of CNC. Pituitary and thyroid glands and gonads are also involved. The PRKAR1A gene, located in 17 q22-24, encodes type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found in 70% of patients with CNC. PRKAR1A is a key component of the c-AMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis. Many different mutations have been reported in the PRKAR1A gene. In almost all cases the sequence change was predicted to lead to a premature stop codon and the resultant mutant mRNA was subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. There is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with CNC. Genetic analysis should be performed in all CNC index cases. All affected patients should be monitored for clinical signs of CNC at least once a year. Genetic diagnosis allows for more effective preparation of more appropriate and effective therapeutic strategies and genetic counseling for patients and gene carriers, and to avoid unnecessary tests to relatives not carrying the gene. PMID:21536508

  19. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  1. 32 CFR 651.19 - Record of environmental consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Record of environmental consideration. 651.19...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.19 Record of environmental consideration. A Record of Environmental Consideration (REC) is a signed statement submitted...

  2. 43 CFR 14.3 - Consideration of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Consideration of petitions. 14.3 Section 14.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING § 14.3 Consideration of petitions. The petition will be given prompt consideration and the petitioner will be...

  3. 43 CFR 14.3 - Consideration of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consideration of petitions. 14.3 Section 14.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING § 14.3 Consideration of petitions. The petition will be given prompt consideration and the petitioner will be notified promptly of action...

  4. 43 CFR 14.3 - Consideration of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consideration of petitions. 14.3 Section 14.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING § 14.3 Consideration of petitions. The petition will be given prompt consideration and the petitioner will be...

  5. 43 CFR 14.3 - Consideration of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consideration of petitions. 14.3 Section 14.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING § 14.3 Consideration of petitions. The petition will be given prompt consideration and the petitioner will be...

  6. 43 CFR 14.3 - Consideration of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of petitions. 14.3 Section 14.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING § 14.3 Consideration of petitions. The petition will be given prompt consideration and the petitioner will be...

  7. Building Complex Reference Objects from Dual Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey, Sanford, Sturt, & Morrow, 2004; Sanford &…

  8. COMPLEXITIES IN UNDERSTANDING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk assessment of 03 impact requires consideration of many factors that, perhaps are not of concern in human health risk assessments. The episodic nature of 03 exposure, functional complexity of species assemblages, and the broad spatial and temporal scales character...

  9. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  10. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  11. Pharmacovigilance Considerations for Biosimilars in the USA.

    PubMed

    Grampp, Gustavo; Felix, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    In 2015, five or more biosimilars may be approved in the USA. Because no two biologic medicines are identical, postapproval safety monitoring will be critical to detect potential differences in safety signals between a biosimilar, its reference product, and other biosimilars. Postapproval safety monitoring in the USA uses two signal detection systems: spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) and active surveillance (AS) systems. Both depend on accurate identification of the specific product(s) dispensed or administered to patients, which may be compromised when products from multiple manufacturers share common drug nomenclature or coding. Product identification can present challenges across different healthcare settings, including inpatient and ambulatory care. Common oral-dosage drugs are predominantly dispensed directly to patients by pharmacists, whereas most injectable drugs, including biologics, are administered to patients by healthcare professionals in outpatient clinics or hospitals. Thus, the effectiveness of SRS and AS mechanisms in both pharmacy and medical channels must be given greater consideration as biotechnology matures. In this article, we describe these systems and their limitations. We identify challenges and opportunities for product-specific safety surveillance of biologics in both the pharmacy and medical settings and provide recommendations to improve biologic safety surveillance under the current and future systems envisioned in the Drug Quality and Security Act. As biosimilars are integrated into existing pharmacovigilance systems, distinguishable nonproprietary names and codes for all biologics, as well as other opportunities to improve traceability (e.g., increased use of barcodes), must be considered to ensure patient safety and confidence in this new class of drugs. PMID:26419971

  12. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; Croft, Steven

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocolsmore » and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.« less

  13. Anatomical and technical considerations in surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Ferdjallah, M; Wertsch, J J

    1998-11-01

    Despite the technical and clinical limitations of surface EMG, it is essential in the physical medicine and rehabilitation field. Surface EMG has evolved from a secondary means of clinical assessment to a primary factor in determining and predicting clinical outcomes. Computer models of electrical muscular activity are currently implemented to assist in designing proper instrumentation and electrode with optimum dimensions. These models could be expanded to simulate pathological motor functions to help understand functional abnormalities even before clinical interventions. Currently, several groups all over the world are investigating the use of multichannel surface EMG. This technological advancement would have an immediate impact on several medical fields. For instance, tendon transfers are performed to improve function in peripheral nerve injury, brachial plexus lesion, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy. There are potential uses for multichannel surface EMG, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperatively choosing the muscle for transfer has been largely based on clinical grounds. Multichannel surface EMG could give a more objective database to assess prognosis and determine which muscle to transfer. Postoperatively, multichannel surface EMG can provide a systematic way of assessing changes in gross muscle topography caused by the tendon transfer. Other applications of multichannel surface EMG would be for bony and soft tissue deformity from arthritis, heterotopic ossification, amputation, or burns. Multichannel surface EMG would allow clinicians to get a broader picture of the skeletal muscle activity despite the fact that it is physically impossible for the patient to assume the anatomic position used for traditional isolated electrode placement. Individuals with physical disabilities that affect their ability to assume the usual posture for electrophysiologic testing may benefit considerably from development of multichannel electrophysiologic

  14. Food insecurity: special considerations for women1234

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity is the converse state, is often associated with poverty and low income, and has important implications for the health and nutrition of individuals. Given their contribution to food production and preparation, their role in society as child bearers and caregivers, the increasing number of female-headed households worldwide, and their disproportionately poor economic status, women need special consideration in discussions of food insecurity and its effect on health, nutrition, and behavior. This article reviews the scientific literature on issues related to women and food insecurity. Food insecurity is associated with obesity, anxiety, and depressive symptoms; risky sexual behavior; poor coping strategies; and negative pregnancy outcomes in women, although evidence about the direction and causality of associations is unclear. There is a lack of evidence and understanding of the effects of food insecurity in resource-poor settings, including its effect on weight, nutritional outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes, as well as its effect on progression of diseases such as HIV infection. More research is needed to guide efficient interventions that address food insecurity among women. However, practical experience suggests that both short-term assistance and longer-term strategies that improve livelihoods, address behavioral and coping strategies, acknowledge the mental health components of food insecurity, and attempt to ensure that women have the same economic opportunities, access to land, and economic power as men are important. PMID:22089447

  15. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred

    2014-12-01

    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  16. Genetic testing: practical, ethical, and counseling considerations.

    PubMed

    Ensenauer, Regina E; Michels, Virginia V; Reinke, Shanda S

    2005-01-01

    Genetic testing is becoming a much more common practice in medicine today. This presents a unique set of challenges for medical professionals in virtually all specialties. The practical aspects of determining which test to order, and in interpreting the result accurately in the context of the family history, can be difficult. Additionally, the ethical conundrums that frequently present themselves when genetic risk assessment and/or genetic testing is being considered can be daunting. These challenges present real concerns for medical professionals and patients alike. Included in this article is a review of some of the practical and ethical complexities associated with genetic testing. Pretest and posttest genetic counseling is also emphasized as an important and essential process in today's medical practice. PMID:15667031

  17. EBF3 Design and Sustainability Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) is a cross-cutting technology for producing structural metal parts using an electron beam and wire feed in a layer-additive fashion. This process was developed by researchers at NASA Langley to specifically address needs for aerospace applications. Additive manufacturing technologies like EBF3 enable efficient design of materials and structures by tailoring microstructures and chemistries at the local level to improve performance at the global level. Additive manufacturing also facilitates design freedom by integrating assemblies into complex single-piece components, eliminating flanges, fasteners and joints, resulting in reduced size and mass. These same efficiencies that permit new design paradigms also lend themselves to supportability and sustainability. Long duration space missions will require a high degree of self-sustainability. EBF3 is a candidate technology being developed to allow astronauts to conduct repairs and fabricate new components and tools on demand, with efficient use of feedstock materials and energy.

  18. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required. PMID:25653085

  19. Dental Care in the Frail Older Adult: Special Considerations and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Stein, Pamela; Aalboe, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    Frail older adults disproportionately suffer from untreated dental problems. Age-related biological changes to hard and soft dental tissues, existing medical conditions, polypharmacy, diet and uncontrolled plaque exacerbate the problem. All of these factors increase the complexity of treatment and will differ greatly from standard treatment of younger adults. This article discusses the key considerations and suggestions for risk assessment, disease management, treatment planning and palliative care to maintain the patient's comfort and quality of life. PMID:26819997

  20. Automation and robotics considerations for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.; Soloway, Donald I.; Mckinney, William S., Jr.; Cornils, Karin; Doggett, William R.; Cooper, Eric G.; Alberts, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    An envisioned lunar outpost shares with other NASA missions many of the same criteria that have prompted the development of intelligent automation techniques with NASA. Because of increased radiation hazards, crew surface activities will probably be even more restricted than current extravehicular activity in low Earth orbit. Crew availability for routine and repetitive tasks will be at least as limited as that envisioned for the space station, particularly in the early phases of lunar development. Certain tasks are better suited to the untiring watchfulness of computers, such as the monitoring and diagnosis of multiple complex systems, and the perception and analysis of slowly developing faults in such systems. In addition, mounting costs and constrained budgets require that human resource requirements for ground control be minimized. This paper provides a glimpse of certain lunar base tasks as seen through the lens of automation and robotic (A&R) considerations. This can allow a more efficient focusing of research and development not only in A&R, but also in those technologies that will depend on A&R in the lunar environment.

  1. Gene therapy for cancer: regulatory considerations for approval

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S R; Han, J; Au, P; Shannon, K; Puri, R K

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments for cancer patients. Advances in genetic modification of cancer and immune cells and the use of oncolytic viruses and bacteria have led to numerous clinical trials for cancer therapy, with several progressing to late-stage product development. At the time of this writing, no gene therapy product has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Some of the key scientific and regulatory issues include understanding of gene transfer vector biology, safety of vectors in vitro and in animal models, optimum gene transfer, long-term persistence or integration in the host, shedding of a virus and ability to maintain transgene expression in vivo for a desired period of time. Because of the biological complexity of these products, the FDA encourages a flexible, data-driven approach for preclinical safety testing programs. The clinical trial design should be based on the unique features of gene therapy products, and should ensure the safety of enrolled subjects. This article focuses on regulatory considerations for gene therapy product development and also discusses guidance documents that have been published by the FDA. PMID:26584531

  2. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  3. Telemedicine: socio-ethical considerations in the Indian milieu.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Luv K; Rajput, Meena

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine is the rapidly developing application of clinical medicine by telephone, the internet or other networks for the purpose of consulting, and on occasions carrying out examinations or medical procedures. Telemedicine may be as simple as two health professionals discussing a case over the telephone, or as complex as using satellite technology and video-conferencing equipment to conduct a real-time consultation between medical specialists in two different countries. Telemedicine offers real benefits in a country as vast as India where the majority of the population lives in remote areas with no access to even the most basic healthcare. As the practice of telemedicine spreads, maintaining standards, security and privacy, will be a challenge especially with regard to legal and regulatory measures and who will be held responsible if telemedicine-assisted surgery fails due to failure in connectivity? Is it the surgeon, the satellite provider or the software/hardware engineer? What is the legal status of telemedicine-based diagnosis and treatment? Other legal issues involve conflicting national laws and information piracy, the dangers of prescription drugs that are banned in one country but not in another and quacks who offer medical advice and prescribe drugs over the internet. This paper discusses some of the legal, ethical and social considerations in the Indian context. PMID:19731480

  4. Sensor and actuator considerations for precision, small machines: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S T; Seugling, R M

    2005-04-04

    This article reviews some design considerations for the scaling down in size of instruments and machines with a primary aim to identify technologies that may provide more optimal performance solutions than those, often established, technologies used at macroscopic, or conventional, scales. Dimensional metrology within emerging applications will be considered for meso- through micro-down to nanometer level systems with particular emphasis on systems for which precision is directly related to function. In this paper, attention is limited to some of the more fundamental issues associated with scaling. For example, actuator work or power densities or the effect of noise on the sensor signals can be readily evaluated and provide some guidance in the selection for any given size of device. However, with reductions in scale these parameters and/or phenomena that limit performance may change. Within this review, the authors have tried to assess these complex inter-relationships between performance and scale, again from a fundamental perspective. In practice, it is likely that the nuances of implementation and integration of sensor, actuator and/or mechanism designs will determine functionality and commercial viability of any particular system development.

  5. Bioavailability enhancement strategies: basics, formulation approaches and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Beg, Sarwar; Swain, Suryakanta; Rizwan, Md; Irfanuddin, Md; Malini, D Shobha

    2011-11-01

    Poor solubility remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical industry, which is now considered to be an area of prime importance in the field of biomedical research. Approximately 40% new molecular entities (NMEs) synthesized in pharmaceutical R with advanced combinatorial chemistry and computer aided drug designing (CADD) approaches suffer from poor solubility and bioavailability related issues. Apart from these presence of intestinal tight junctional epithelial cells, transporters and enzymatic barriers further reduces the oral absorption of drugs. Implication of the novel lipid based nanocarriers and nanomaterials like dendrimers and carbon nanotubes as a delivery system can effectively enhance the oral bioavailability of drugs by breaching the barriers, and resolve all critics related to solubility and bioavailability. Thus prime objectives of this review are to give in-depth knowledge and critical appraisal on the barriers for poor oral bioavailability of drugs, along with various novel formulation approaches used for bioavailability enhancement such as lipid based formulations, nanosizing techniques, complexation with polymers and nanomaterials like dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and penetration enhancers. Also it gives a brief account on in vitro, in vivo screening methods used for assessment of oral bioavailability, and regulatory considerations for the approval. PMID:21864253

  6. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Hemez, Francois M; Booker, Jane M; Ross, Timothy J.

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  7. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    PubMed

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration. PMID:21133335

  8. [Diabetes and cancer risk: oncologic considerations].

    PubMed

    Rosta, András

    2011-07-17

    . Presently, study results showing elevated mitogenic potential with some antidiabetic treatment modalities are not taken into account, when considering the choice of antidiabetic treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. In the care of patients with increased cancer risk, oncologic considerations should be taken into account. Well designed, prospective, clinical studies would be necessary to demonstrate the possible correlation between treatment modalities of type 2 diabetes and change of cancer risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21712179

  9. Pump Outs, General and D0 Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1990-12-25

    and known to the author. The greatest numbers of nozzle seal applications are standard bayonets, but with only one (warm) seal they are excluded from consideration in Table 1.

  10. First MARS Outpost: Development Considerations and Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research and design study that is exploring near and long-term commercial space development opportunities. The central goal of this activity is to conceptualize a scenario of sequential, integrated private enterprise initiatives that can carry humankind forward to Mars. This presentation highlights planning considerations and design concepts for establishing a first settlement on Mars. The outpost would support surface missions lasting up to about 500 days and would serve as the initial stage of a larger and continuously operational development which would utilize Mars resources to be less reliant on materials from Earth. Key elements of this first stage mission development sequence include a new heavy-lift Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle; a plasma- drive Mars transit vehicle; habitat modules for crews in transit to and from Mars; "hard" and "inflatable" surface habitats and laboratories; a mobile power unit; a spacecraft to assist orbital assembly; and vehicles to lift crews off the Mars surface and land them safely back on Earth from LEO. SICSA's space development approach differs in fundamental ways from conventional NASA-sponsored initiatives. First, virtually all baseline planning assumptions are influenced by the private sector-driven nature of an approach that aims to avoid all possible reliance upon government financing, agendas and schedules. In this regard, any involvements with NASA or the space agencies of other countries would be premised upon mutual public-corporate partnership benefits rather than upon federal contract awards, management and control. Another potential difference relates to program philosophy. Unlike Apollo Program "sprint" missions which culminated with footprints and flagpoles on the Moon, the aim is to realize sustainable and continuing planetary exploration and development progress. This goal can be advanced through approaches that

  11. Metastable vacua and complex deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, Radu; Wetenhall, Ben

    2007-12-15

    We use the non-normalizable complex deformations to describe the stringy realizations of the metastable vacua in N=1, SU(N{sub c}) SUSY theories with N{sub f}>N{sub c} massive fundamental flavors. The consideration of the non-normalizable deformations requires a modified toric duality. The new approach considers the tachyon condensation between pairs of wrapped D5 branes and anti-D5 branes and the resulting mixing between some cycles in the geometry. We enlarge the class of metastable vacua to the case of branes-antibranes wrapped on cycles of deformed A{sub n} singularities.

  12. GECluster: a novel protein complex prediction method

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Identification of protein complexes is of great importance in the understanding of cellular organization and functions. Traditional computational protein complex prediction methods mainly rely on the topology of protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks but seldom take biological information of proteins (such as Gene Ontology (GO)) into consideration. Meanwhile, the environment relevant analysis of protein complex evolution has been poorly studied, partly due to the lack of high-precision protein complex datasets. In this paper, a combined PPI network is introduced to predict protein complexes which integrate both GO and expression value of relevant protein-coding genes. A novel protein complex prediction method GECluster (Gene Expression Cluster) was proposed based on a seed node expansion strategy, in which a combined PPI network was utilized. GECluster was applied to a training combined PPI network and it predicted more credible complexes than peer methods. The results indicate that using a combined PPI network can efficiently improve protein complex prediction accuracy. In order to study protein complex evolution within cells due to changes in the living environment surrounding cells, GECluster was applied to seven combined PPI networks constructed using the data of a test set including yeast response to stress throughout a wine fermentation process. Our results showed that with the rise of alcohol concentration, protein complexes within yeast cells gradually evolve from one state to another. Besides this, the number of core and attachment proteins within a protein complex both changed significantly. PMID:26019559

  13. A computing system for LBB considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonen, K.; Miettinen, J.; Raiko, H.; Keskinen, R.

    1997-04-01

    A computing system has been developed at VTT Energy for making efficient leak-before-break (LBB) evaluations of piping components. The system consists of fracture mechanics and leak rate analysis modules which are linked via an interactive user interface LBBCAL. The system enables quick tentative analysis of standard geometric and loading situations by means of fracture mechanics estimation schemes such as the R6, FAD, EPRI J, Battelle, plastic limit load and moments methods. Complex situations are handled with a separate in-house made finite-element code EPFM3D which uses 20-noded isoparametric solid elements, automatic mesh generators and advanced color graphics. Analytical formulas and numerical procedures are available for leak area evaluation. A novel contribution for leak rate analysis is the CRAFLO code which is based on a nonequilibrium two-phase flow model with phase slip. Its predictions are essentially comparable with those of the well known SQUIRT2 code; additionally it provides outputs for temperature, pressure and velocity distributions in the crack depth direction. An illustrative application to a circumferentially cracked elbow indicates expectedly that a small margin relative to the saturation temperature of the coolant reduces the leak rate and is likely to influence the LBB implementation to intermediate diameter (300 mm) primary circuit piping of BWR plants.

  14. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979

  15. Hemophilia A: Dental considerations and management

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Shilpa Padar; Kaul, Rachna; Baroudi, Kusai; Umar, Dilshad

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To review hemophilia A with emphasis on its oral manifestations, investigations, and dental management. Materials and Methods: Search was conducted using internet-based search engines, scholarly bibliographic databases, PubMed, and Medline with key words such as “Hemophilia A,” “factor VIII,” “bleeding and clotting disorders,” and “dental management.” Results: Hemophilia comprises a group of hereditary disorders caused due to the deficiency of one or more clotting factors leading to prolonged clotting time and excessive bleeding tendencies. It is broadly divided into hemophilia A, B, and C, which occur due to deficiency of factor VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive hereditary disorder and is the most common of the three, accounting for 80–85% of the cases. Conclusion: Understanding this complex entity is very important for a dentist to provide appropriate dental treatment and avoid undesirable consequences. PMID:25625071

  16. Biomarkers of PTSD: military applications and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lehrner, Amy; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there are no established biomarkers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as yet, biological investigations of PTSD have made progress identifying the pathophysiology of PTSD. Given the biological and clinical complexity of PTSD, it is increasingly unlikely that a single biomarker of disease will be identified. Rather, investigations will more likely identify different biomarkers that indicate the presence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms, associate with risk for PTSD following trauma exposure, and predict or identify recovery. While there has been much interest in PTSD biomarkers, there has been less discussion of their potential clinical applications, and of the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers. Objective This article will discuss possible applications of PTSD biomarkers, including the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers, with an emphasis on military applications. Method Literature on applications of PTSD biomarkers and on potential ethical and legal implications will be reviewed. Results Biologically informed research findings hold promise for prevention, assessment, treatment planning, and the development of prophylactic and treatment interventions. As with any biological indicator of disorder, there are potentially positive and negative clinical, social, legal, and ethical consequences of using such biomarkers. Conclusions Potential clinical applications of PTSD biomarkers hold promise for clinicians, patients, and employers. The search for biomarkers of PTSD should occur in tandem with an interdisciplinary discussion regarding the potential implications of applying biological findings in clinical and employment settings. PMID:25206945

  17. Biosimilar safety considerations in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Choy, Edwin; Jacobs, Ira Allen

    2014-02-01

    Biologics are important treatments for a number of cancers. Patents for several biologics will expire over the next decade, removing a barrier to the development and commercialization of biosimilars. As biologics differ from small-molecule drugs due to their size and complexity, multifaceted manufacturing process, and their potential for immunogenicity, biosimilars cannot be considered "generic versions" of currently approved biologics. In highly regulated markets, biosimilars can be authorized only if they are demonstrated to be highly similar to the original drug from an analytical and clinical perspective. Any differences must be justified and shown to have no clinically meaningful effect on the safety and efficacy of the biosimilar. The European Medicines Agency has approved a number of biosimilars and the recent approval of the biosimilar infliximab monoclonal antibody is another regulatory milestone. This article will provide context regarding key safety issues addressed in biosimilar development, approval, and delivery, as well as inform oncologists on matters of safety to consider when prescribing biosimilars. Pertinent issues about safety from countries or regions where biosimilars are currently in use also will be reviewed. PMID:24560025

  18. Ethical considerations in community oral health.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-05-01

    As the public's oral health care needs increase in complexity, there is renewed attention to the ethical dimensions of community oral health decision making and the development of public health ethics in teaching and research in dentistry. Despite their reduction globally, oral diseases persist with a particular distribution pattern that is a reflection of the increasingly widespread inequality in access to community oral health preventive and dental care. This is due to differences in the appropriateness, availability, accessibility, and acceptability of oral health education and the care provided. This article provides an overview of community oral health from an ethical perspective, including the importance of equity, human rights, and social justice in providing oral health care to the underserved. The need for a paradigm shift from highly technical and individualistic dental training curricula is discussed, together with the need to instill a holistic approach to ethical and social responsibility in new dental graduates. It concludes with some possible strategies, using the overarching principles of ethics and bioethics that are applicable to practice among vulnerable populations. PMID:25941240

  19. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, W M; Arends, L R; Veenhoven, R

    2011-07-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as 'very happy' and 'pretty happy'. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are then used to compute 'transformed' means and standard deviations. Transforming scores on different questions to the same scale allows to broadening the World Database of Happiness considerably. The central purpose of the Happiness Scale Interval Study is to identify the happiness values at which respondents change their judgment from e.g. 'very happy' to 'pretty happy' or the reverse. This paper deals with the methodological/statistical aspects of this approach. The central question is always how to convert the frequencies at which the different possible responses to the same question given by a sample into information on the happiness distribution in the relevant population. The primary (cl)aim of this approach is to achieve this in a (more) valid way. To this end, a model is introduced that allows for dealing with happiness as a latent continuous random variable, in spite of the fact that it is measured as a discrete one. The [0,10] scale is partitioned in as many contiguous parts as the number of possible ratings in the primary scale sums up to. Any subject with a (self-perceived) happiness in the same subinterval is assumed to select the same response. For the probability density function of this happiness random variable, two options are discussed. The first one postulates a uniform distribution within each of the different subintervals of the [0,10] scale. On the basis of these results, the mean value and variance of the complete distribution can be estimated. The method is described, including the precision of the estimates obtained in this way. The second option assumes the happiness distribution to be described

  20. Intraoral features and considerations in face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wall, A; Bueno, E; Pomahac, B; Treister, N

    2016-03-01

    Face transplantation (FT) is a unique and novel addition to the field of reconstructive surgery, which offers new hope to facially disfigured individuals. This review provides an overview of FT, including clinical indications, immunological principles, and functional outcomes, as well as an in-depth characterization of the intraoral hard and soft tissue findings in the six patients transplanted to date at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, MA, USA. Six FT recipients underwent comprehensive clinical and radiographic evaluation to assess their intraoral status, function, and overall health. The extra- and intraoral soft tissue was assessed via quantitative sensory testing. The vitality of the transplanted dental hard tissue was evaluated with clinically available testing methods. Native teeth and prostheses were also assessed. Sensation of transplanted oral mucosa varied based on time elapsed from FT, ranging from minimal at 3 months post-FT, to nearly complete recovery by approximately 24 months. There was mixed success with the integration of donor teeth (Patients 1, 4 and 6), including associated occlusal discrepancies. Mucosal complications included constriction at the donor/recipient interface (Patients 2 and 5) and solitary episodes of mucosal rejection presenting as lichenoid inflammation (Patients 2 and 4). Face transplantation represents a pivotal moment in the history of reconstructive surgery and transplant medicine, providing new optimism to patients with gross facial deformities. This report highlights the successes of FT, but also the challenges of transplanting hard and soft tissues to restore complex stomatognathic function. Further attention directed toward comprehensive oral rehabilitation in FT will contribute to improved outcomes, with the ultimate goal of restoring and optimizing patient quality of life. PMID:25420927

  1. Engineering Considerations Applied to Starshade Repointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Starke, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  2. Visualizing harm reduction: Methodological and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Switzer, S; Guta, A; de Prinse, K; Chan Carusone, S; Strike, C

    2015-05-01

    The use of visual methods is becoming increasingly common and accepted in health research. This paper explores the opportunities and constraints of using photo-based methods in the context of a community-based participatory research study on how to engage people living with HIV in conversations about a hospital's recently introduced harm reduction policy. Using a blended approach of photovoice and photo-elicited interviews, we provided participants (n = 16) with cameras and asked them to take a series of photos that "show how you feel about or have experienced harm reduction as a Casey House client." We reflect on methodological insights from the study to think through the process of doing photo-based work on a stigmatized topic in a small hospital setting by foregrounding: 1) how the act of taking photos assisted participants in visualizing connections between space, harm reduction, and substance use; 2) expectations of participation and navigating daily health realities; and 3) issues of confidentiality, anonymity and stigma in clinical settings. These reflections provide a case study on the importance of critically examining the process of engaging with photo-based methods. We conclude the paper by re-thinking issues of context and photo-based methods. Rather than viewing context as a neutral backdrop to apply a method, context should be viewed as an active force in shaping what can or cannot be done or produced within the space. Photo-based methods may offer an effective community-engagement strategy but may require modification for use in a clinical setting when working on a stigmatized topic with individuals with complex health care needs. Given the potential of visual methods as a community engagement strategy, research teams are advised to understand the entire process as a data collection opportunity so that these methods can be further explored in a variety of contexts. PMID:25841098

  3. Structural design considerations for stretched-membrane heliostat reflector modules with stability and initial imperfection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, L.M.; Simms, D.; Sallis, D.V.

    1986-10-01

    This report extends the work of several previous reports that present the background leading to the development of stretched-membrane modules and analysis methods to study the structural response of the stretched-membrane module. Specifically, this report presents and discusses the design implications based on our analysis of single- or double-membrane concepts, and the amplification of initial imperfections and deflections caused by loading, which results from stability considerations. In this document, we present analysis results for both single- and double-membrane concepts corresponding to a range of design and loading conditions. Further, we show that stretched-membrane/frame combinations respond quite differently to external loads than can be inferred by studying the decoupled frame and membrane independently. Thus the coupled membrane/frame problem should be considered to assure an accurate description of its response. For idealized configurations and loadings, we discuss the relative merits of various design features for both of these designs. In addition, we studied the structural stability (i.e., the tendency of structural deformation to grow with little increase in applied load) of the tensioned-membrane, compressed-frame combination. Moreover, we demonstrate how stability considerations are important in determining the amplification of both initial displacement imperfection and the deformations caused by wind and weight loading on the structure.

  4. Syntactic Complexity: A Necessary Ingredient in Predicting Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Jean R.

    1979-01-01

    The article examines the available means of determining the readability of written materials and reviews the empirical evidence that indicates consideration of syntactic complexity in determining readability. Problems with readability formulas are pointed out. Guidelines for using readability formulas that take syntactic complexity into account…

  5. Text Complexity and Young Adult Literature: Establishing Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaus, Marci

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students for college and careers in the 21st century has shed light on text complexity as an important variable for consideration in English Language Arts. Authors of The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) define text complexity as broad, highlighting qualitative, rather than quantitative evaluations of narrative fiction as appropriate…

  6. Tunable impedance matching network fundamental limits and practical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Wesley N.

    As wireless devices continue to increase in utility while decreasing in dimension, design of the RF front-end becomes more complex. It is common for a single handheld device to operate on a plethora of frequency bands, utilize multiple antennae, and be subjected to a variety of environments. One complexity in particular which arises from these factors is that of impedance mismatch. Recently, tunable impedance matching networks have begun to be implemented to address this problem. This dissertation presents the first in-depth study on the frequency tuning range of tunable impedance matching networks. Both the fundamental limitations of ideal networks as well as practical considerations for design and implementation are addressed. Specifically, distributed matching networks with a single tuning element are investigated for use with parallel resistor-capacitor and series resistor-inductor loads. Analytical formulas are developed to directly calculate the frequency tuning range TR of ideal topologies. The theoretical limit of TR for these topologies is presented and discussed. Additional formulas are developed which address limitations in transmission line characteristic impedance and varactor range. Equations to predict loss due to varactor quality factor are demonstrated and the ability of parasitics to both increase and decrease TR are shown. Measured results exemplify i) the potential to develop matching networks with a small impact from parasitics, ii) the need for accurate knowledge of parasitics when designing near transition points in optimal parameters, iii) the importance of using a transmission line with the right characteristic impedance, and iv) the ability to achieve extremely low loss at the design frequency with a lossy varactor under the right conditions (measured loss of -0.07 dB). In the area of application, tunable matching networks are designed and measured for mobile handset antennas, demonstrating up to a 3 dB improvement in power delivered to a

  7. Optimizing Reconstruction with Periorbital Transplantation: Clinical Indications and Anatomic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael; Mundinger, Gerhard S.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Christensen, Joani M.; Christy, Michael R.; Bojovic, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complex periorbital subunit reconstruction is challenging because the goals of effective reconstruction vary from one individual to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the indications and anatomic feasibility of periorbital transplantation by reviewing our institutional repository of facial injury. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center for a retrospective chart review conducted on patients with periorbital defects. Patient history, facial defects, visual acuity, and periorbital function were critically reviewed to identify indications for periorbital or total face (incorporating the periorbital subunit) vascularized composite allotransplantation. Cadaveric allograft harvest was then designed and performed for specific patient defects to determine anatomic feasibility. Disease conditions not captured by our patient population warranting consideration were reviewed. Results: A total of 7 facial or periorbital transplant candidates representing 6 different etiologies were selected as suitable indications for periorbital transplantation. Etiologies included trauma, burn, animal attack, and tumor, whereas proposed transplants included isolated periorbital and total face transplants. Allograft recovery was successfully completed in 4 periorbital subunits and 1 full face. Dual vascular supply was achieved in 5 of 6 periorbital subunits (superficial temporal and facial vessels). Conclusions: Transplantation of isolated periorbital structures or full face transplantation including periorbital structures is technically feasible. The goal of periorbital transplantation is to re-establish protective mechanisms of the eye, to prevent deterioration of visual acuity, and to optimize aesthetic outcomes. Criteria necessary for candidate selection and allograft design are identified by periorbital defect, periorbital function, ophthalmologic evaluation, and defect etiology. PMID:27014557

  8. Influencing the Future: Special Considerations for IPY Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitler, J.

    2004-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-1958 created a valuable legacy, by not only advancing the sciences involved, but by also stimulating interest in and support for science, and by inspiring many to enter science careers. Successful education and outreach efforts in conjunction with IGY transmitted this energy to the public and helped researchers to create this legacy. The International Polar Year (IPY) for 2007-2008 again holds promise to generate new scientific insights and leave a similar legacy -- if the sciences are once again successful in connecting with the public. Despite the fine example of the IGY of 1958 -1959, the way forward for meaningful education and outreach for IPY isn't entirely clear. Every element affecting science education and outreach today is considerably more complex, and the distinct challenges and opportunities of today may not always be addressed by simply extending what has been helpful in the past. Whether a large research group or an individual researcher, whether working with a dedicated outreach staff or conducting outreach more informally, whether already operating successful outreach programs or starting from scratch, any project intending an education and outreach effort will significantly increase its relevance and effectiveness by taking pause to formulate specific goals and objectives for IPY. Such thinking shouldn't be entirely delegated to non-researchers. The engagement of the scientists themselves in setting objectives for education and outreach will provide the strongest outcome. This discussion analyzes the communication setting for IPY as it affects outreach and education efforts, and proposes a model for discussing and formulating outreach and education objectives. It poses the key questions that should be asked and answered in order to ensure that researchers take full advantage of education and outreach opportunities with IPY, whatever the scope of their efforts. Education and outreach programs that

  9. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  10. Adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization of uncertain real and complex nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-bing; Wang, Xing-yuan; Wang, Xiu-you; Zhou, Yu-fei

    2016-04-01

    With comprehensive consideration of generalized synchronization, combination synchronization and adaptive control, this paper investigates a novel adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization (AGCCS) scheme for different real and complex nonlinear systems with unknown parameters. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory and adaptive control, an AGCCS controller and parameter update laws are derived to achieve synchronization and parameter identification of two real drive systems and a complex response system, as well as two complex drive systems and a real response system. Two simulation examples, namely, ACGCS for chaotic real Lorenz and Chen systems driving a hyperchaotic complex Lü system, and hyperchaotic complex Lorenz and Chen systems driving a real chaotic Lü system, are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. INCORPORATING WETLANDS IN WATER QUALITY TRADING: ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating the use of wetlands as a technology to enhance water quality trading programs requires consideration of ecological, legal, and economic issues. We explore the case of encouraging the use of wetlands with a focus on the economic considerations. Interestingly, it is...

  12. 48 CFR 215.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subcontract pricing considerations. 215.404-3 Section 215.404-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.404-3 Subcontract pricing considerations. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-3...

  13. 48 CFR 215.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontract pricing considerations. 215.404-3 Section 215.404-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.404-3 Subcontract pricing considerations. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-3...

  14. 48 CFR 215.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subcontract pricing considerations. 215.404-3 Section 215.404-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.404-3 Subcontract pricing considerations. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-3...

  15. 48 CFR 215.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subcontract pricing considerations. 215.404-3 Section 215.404-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.404-3 Subcontract pricing considerations. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-3...

  16. 48 CFR 215.404-3 - Subcontract pricing considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subcontract pricing considerations. 215.404-3 Section 215.404-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.404-3 Subcontract pricing considerations. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-3...

  17. 34 CFR 5.84 - Consideration on review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration on review. 5.84 Section 5.84 Education... PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Administrative Review § 5.84 Consideration on review. Review shall be considered on the basis of the written record including any written argument submitted by...

  18. 32 CFR 241.10 - Small business consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small business consideration. 241.10 Section 241...) § 241.10 Small business consideration. The ASD(NII)/DoD CIO on behalf of the Secretary of Defense shall: (a) Ensure that, of the assignments made each year, at least 20 percent are small business...

  19. Effective Assistive Technology Consideration and Implications for Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vita L.; Hinesmon-Matthews, Lezlee J.

    2014-01-01

    Often the consideration of assistive technology devices and services during the individualized education program (IEP) process is overlooked. Because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authorized this consideration, IEP team members must be keenly aware of the importance they hold in providing this valuable input. Thus, IEP…

  20. 22 CFR 42.54 - Order of consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Order of consideration. 42.54 Section 42.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Numerical Controls and Priority Dates § 42.54 Order of consideration. (a) General. Consular officers shall...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.12 - Consideration of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consideration of alternatives. 1794.12 Section 1794... Environmental Policy Act § 1794.12 Consideration of alternatives. In determining what are reasonable alternatives, RUS considers a number of factors. These factors may include, but are not limited to,...

  2. 7 CFR 1794.12 - Consideration of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consideration of alternatives. 1794.12 Section 1794... Environmental Policy Act § 1794.12 Consideration of alternatives. In determining what are reasonable alternatives, RUS considers a number of factors. These factors may include, but are not limited to,...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.12 - Consideration of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Consideration of alternatives. 1794.12 Section 1794.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Policy Act § 1794.12 Consideration of alternatives. In determining what are reasonable alternatives,...

  4. Psychological and Pedagogical Considerations in Digital Textbook Use and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railean, Elena

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of digital tools into mainstream society, new applications for cutting-edge technologies enable innovations in the dissemination of information. Careful consideration of the impact of these tools is important to maximize benefits while avoiding misuse. "Psychological and Pedagogical Considerations in Digital Textbook Use…

  5. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the structure of vessel is of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which cannot be reviewed...

  6. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 116.340 Section 116.340... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials,...

  7. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the structure of vessel is of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which cannot be reviewed...

  8. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 116.340 Section 116.340... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials,...

  9. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the structure of vessel is of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which cannot be reviewed...

  10. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 116.340 Section 116.340... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials,...

  11. 43 CFR 10010.4 - Consideration of environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consideration of environmental values... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.4 Consideration of environmental values. (a) In Commission management. (1) In the management of the natural, cultural, and...

  12. 43 CFR 10010.4 - Consideration of environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consideration of environmental values... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.4 Consideration of environmental values. (a) In Commission management. (1) In the management of the natural, cultural, and...

  13. 43 CFR 10010.4 - Consideration of environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consideration of environmental values... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.4 Consideration of environmental values. (a) In Commission management. (1) In the management of the natural, cultural, and...

  14. 43 CFR 10010.4 - Consideration of environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consideration of environmental values... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.4 Consideration of environmental values. (a) In Commission management. (1) In the management of the natural, cultural, and...

  15. 45 CFR 400.102 - Consideration of income and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eligibility in 42 CFR 435.831, and as reflected in the State's approved title XIX State Medicaid plan. (2) In... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consideration of income and resources. 400.102... Consideration of income and resources. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this...

  16. 5 CFR 332.405 - Three considerations for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three considerations for appointment. 332... RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION THROUGH COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Consideration for Appointment § 332.405 Three... considered by him for three separate appointments from the same or different certificates for the...

  17. 32 CFR 1633.6 - Consideration of classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consideration of classes. 1633.6 Section 1633.6... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.6 Consideration of classes. Claims of a registrant will be considered in inverse order of the listing of the classes below. When grounds are established to place a registrant in one or more...

  18. 32 CFR 1633.6 - Consideration of classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consideration of classes. 1633.6 Section 1633.6... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.6 Consideration of classes. Claims of a registrant will be considered in inverse order of the listing of the classes below. When grounds are established to place a registrant in one or more...

  19. 32 CFR 1633.6 - Consideration of classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consideration of classes. 1633.6 Section 1633.6... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.6 Consideration of classes. Claims of a registrant will be considered in inverse order of the listing of the classes below. When grounds are established to place a registrant in one or more...

  20. 12 CFR 907.13 - Consideration and Final Decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by such additional time as may reasonably be required, the Board of Directors shall render a Final... § 907.13 Consideration and Final Decisions. (a) Consideration by Board of Directors. The Board of... described in § 907.14. (b) Final Decision. The Board of Directors shall render a Final Decision on the...