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Sample records for double chooz experiment

  1. The Double Chooz Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfahler, Patrick; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    Double Chooz is a reactor bar nue-disappearance experiment situated at the commercial nuclear power plant of Chooz in northern France. The experiment aims for the revelation of the last unknown mixing angle Θ13 as a part of the neutrino mixing matrix or the improvement of the upper limit for sin2(2Θ13), which is currently < 0.14 (90% CL). A newly developed gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator as target allows the detection of electron-anti-neutrinos (bar nue) using the inverse beta decay and its distinct decay pattern (bar nue + p → e+ +n). Double Chooz uses two identical detectors at different distances in order to reduce systematic uncertainties. This will allow, after a data taking phase of 4 years, an improvement on sin2(2Θ13) down to < 0.03 (90% CL). The first (far) detector has successfully been installed and filled, and takes data since April of 2011. A preliminary analysis of first 120 days revealed about 4000 Neutrino-candidates and a stable detector-setup with low backgrounds. The commissioning of the second (near) detector is expected for the beginning of 2013 and will provide maximum sensitivity for the experiment.

  2. Double-Chooz Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares, Carmen; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Double Chooz experiment will use the electron anti-neutrinos produced by the Chooz nuclear power station to search for a non-vanishing value of the θ13 neutrino mixing angle. Double Chooz will be the first of a new generation of neutrino experiments using identical detectors at different distances from the neutrino source to reduce the systematic errors due to the uncertainties on the neutrino flux and to the detector acceptance. The far detector will be operative by the beginning of 2011. Installation of the near detector will occur in 2012.

  3. Double Chooz and a history of reactor θ13 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suekane, Fumihiko; Junqueira de Castro Bezerra, Thiago

    2016-07-01

    This is a contribution paper from the Double Chooz (DC) experiment to the special issue of Nuclear Physics B on the topics of neutrino oscillations, celebrating the recent Nobel prize to Profs. T. Kajita and A.B. McDonald. DC is a reactor neutrino experiment which measures the last neutrino mixing angle θ13. The DC group presented an indication of disappearance of the reactor neutrinos at a baseline of ∼1 km for the first time in 2011 and is improving the measurement of θ13. DC is a pioneering experiment of this research field. In accordance with the nature of this special issue, physics and history of the reactor-θ13 experiments, as well as the Double Chooz experiment and its neutrino oscillation analyses, are reviewed.

  4. Measuring θ13 in the Double Chooz experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Double Chooz measures θ13 by searching for the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos (νe) interacting via inverse beta decay (IBD) in a liquid scintillator-based detector. The signature of IBD is the coincidence of positron annihilation followed by the capture of a neutron. Although Double Chooz was primarily designed to detect νe by searching for neutron capture on gadolinium, we can also search for neutron capture on hydrogen. We developed separate analyses for neutron capture on hydrogen and gadolinium as the two elements have different capture energies, capture lifetimes, and spatial distributions within our detector.

  5. Latest Double Chooz results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasserre, Thierry; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    I report the latest results from the Double Chooz experiment on the θ13 neutrino mixing angle. Two detectors are located at distances of 400 m and 1050 m from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power station (France) to measure the disappearance of electron antineutrinos. The far detector has been taking data since 2011, accumulating a live time of 467.90 days (66.5 GW-ton-year). In this article we focus on the latest measurement using neutrino-induced neutron capture on hydrogen. A new analysis improved the signal efficiency and reduced the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties, leading to sin2 2θ 13 = 0.095+0.039 -0.038. When combined with the Gadolinium-based analysis this leads to sin2 2θ13 = 0.088+0.33 -0.033. The distortion from the prediction above a visible energy of 4 MeV is confirmed. The near detector started data taking in 2014 and first results shall be reported in 2016.

  6. Double Chooz and recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meregaglia, A.; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The reactor bar{{ν}}e^{} disappearance experiment Double Chooz, located in France near the power plant of Chooz, has as main goal the measurement of the θ_{{13}}^{} mixing angle. For the first time, in 2011, the experimental results gave an indication for a non-zero value of such an oscillation parameter. The mixing angle was successively measured using only the far detector finding the best fit value of sin2(2 θ_{{13}}^{}) = 0.090+0.033-0.029 . The near detector started data taking in December 2014 and it will allow to reduce the systematic errors so far dominated by the reactor flux uncertainty. In this paper a review of the experiment is presented focusing on the so-called Gadolinium-III results (DOUBLE CHOOZ COLLABORATION (ABE Y. et al.), JHEP, 10 (2014) 086; 02 (2015) 074). Furthermore additional physics measurements are presented such as the capability of Double Chooz to identify the ortho-positronium state on event by event basis.

  7. Reactor ν̄e disappearance in the Double Chooz experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abe, Y.; Aberle, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Bergevin, M.; Bernstein, A.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukhov, L.; Blucher, E.; Bowden, N. S.; et al

    2012-09-18

    The Double Chooz experiment has observed 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events in 227.93 live days with 33.71 GW-ton-years (reactor power×detector mass×live time) exposure using a 10.3 m³ fiducial volume detector located at 1050 m from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant in France. The expectation in case of θ₁₃=0 is 8937 events. The deficit is interpreted as evidence of electron antineutrino disappearance. From a rate plus spectral shape analysis we find sin²2θ₁₃=0.109±0.030(stat)±0.025(syst). The data exclude the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% CL (2.9σ).

  8. Reactor ν̄e disappearance in the Double Chooz experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Y.; Aberle, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Bergevin, M.; Bernstein, A.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukhov, L.; Blucher, E.; Bowden, N. S.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Caden, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, P.-J.; Chimenti, P.; Classen, T.; Collin, A. P.; Conover, E.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A.; D’Agostino, M. V.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; Dazeley, S.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Durand, V.; Ebert, J.; Efremenko, Y.; Elnimr, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; Fechner, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Felde, J.; Franco, D.; Franke, A. J.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gama, R.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodman, M. C.; Goon, J. TM.; Greiner, D.; Haag, N.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hartmann, F. X.; Haser, J.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Jones, C. L.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Keefer, G.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kibe, Y.; Konno, T.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Langbrandtner, C.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P.; Lindner, M.; López-Castanõ, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lucht, S.; McKee, D.; Maeda, J.; Maesano, C. N.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Miyata, H.; Mueller, Th. A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Novella, P.; Obolensky, M.; Oberauer, L.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Perrin, P.; Pfahler, P.; Porta, A.; Potzel, W.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Remoto, A.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Roth, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Sato, F.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwetz, T.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shimojima, S.; Shrestha, D.; Sida, J-L.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Stüken, A.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Toups, M.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Valdiviesso, G.; Veyssiere, C.; Wagner, S.; Watanabe, H.; White, B.; Wiebusch, C.; Winslow, L.; Worcester, M.; Wurm, M.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2012-09-18

    The Double Chooz experiment has observed 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events in 227.93 live days with 33.71 GW-ton-years (reactor power×detector mass×live time) exposure using a 10.3 m³ fiducial volume detector located at 1050 m from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant in France. The expectation in case of θ₁₃=0 is 8937 events. The deficit is interpreted as evidence of electron antineutrino disappearance. From a rate plus spectral shape analysis we find sin²2θ₁₃=0.109±0.030(stat)±0.025(syst). The data exclude the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% CL (2.9σ).

  9. Double Chooz Slow Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pi-Jung; Horton-Smith, Glenn; McKee, David; Shrestha, Deepak; Winslow, Lindley; Conrad, Janet

    2010-02-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims to measure neutrino flux from two nearly identical detectors with an uncertainty less than 0.6%. The Double Chooz slow monitoring system records conditions of the experiment's environment which can impact the experiment's goals. The slow monitoring system includes temperatures and voltages in electronics, experimental hall environmental conditions, line voltages, liquid temperatures, PMT's magnetic field, radon concentrations, and photo-tube high voltages. This system scans all channels automatically, stores data in a common database, and warns of changes in the two detectors' physical environments. Most functions in this system can be accomplished by 1-Wire products from Dallas Semiconductor. We can use a single master for several functions' controls and operations and the power is derived from a signal bus. Every device has a unique unalterable ID. The sensors monitoring the liquid system, such as liquid thermal meters, are covered by epoxy in order to isolate in the liquid. Their radioactivity can be ignored and will not affect the uncertainty in the system. )

  10. Indication of reactor ν(e) disappearance in the Double Chooz experiment.

    PubMed

    Abe, Y; Aberle, C; Akiri, T; dos Anjos, J C; Ardellier, F; Barbosa, A F; Baxter, A; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukhov, L; Blucher, E; Bongrand, M; Bowden, N S; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Caden, E; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chang, P-J; Chimenti, P; Classen, T; Collin, A P; Conover, E; Conrad, J M; Cormon, S; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Cribier, M; Crum, K; Cucoanes, A; D'Agostino, M V; Damon, E; Dawson, J V; Dazeley, S; Dierckxsens, M; Dietrich, D; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Durand, V; Efremenko, Y; Elnimr, M; Endo, Y; Etenko, A; Falk, E; Fallot, M; Fechner, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Felde, J; Fernandes, S M; Franco, D; Franke, A J; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gama, R; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Göger-Neff, M; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodman, M C; Goon, J T M; Greiner, D; Guillon, B; Haag, N; Hagner, C; Hara, T; Hartmann, F X; Hartnell, J; Haruna, T; Haser, J; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayakawa, T; Hofmann, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Jones, C L; Kaether, F; Kalousis, L; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Kawasaki, T; Keefer, G; Kemp, E; de Kerret, H; Kibe, Y; Konno, T; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C E; Langbrandtner, C; Lasserre, T; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H P; Lindner, M; Liu, Y; López-Castanõ, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lucht, S; McKee, D; Maeda, J; Maesano, C N; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Martino, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Milzstajn, A; Miyata, H; Motta, D; Mueller, Th A; Nagasaka, Y; Nakajima, K; Novella, P; Obolensky, M; Oberauer, L; Onillon, A; Osborn, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Palomares, C; Peeters, S J M; Pepe, I M; Perasso, S; Perrin, P; Pfahler, P; Porta, A; Potzel, W; Queval, R; Reichenbacher, J; Reinhold, B; Remoto, A; Reyna, D; Röhling, M; Roth, S; Rubin, H A; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Sato, F; Schönert, S; Schoppmann, S; Schwan, U; Schwetz, T; Shaevitz, M H; Shrestha, D; Sida, J-L; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Smith, E; Spitz, J; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Strait, M; Stüken, A; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Svoboda, R; Tabata, H; Tamura, N; Terao, K; Tonazzo, A; Toups, M; Trinh Thi, H H; Veyssiere, C; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H; White, B; Wiebusch, C; Winslow, L; Worcester, M; Wurm, M; Yanovitch, E; Yermia, F; Zbiri, K; Zimmer, V

    2012-03-30

    The Double Chooz experiment presents an indication of reactor electron antineutrino disappearance consistent with neutrino oscillations. An observed-to-predicted ratio of events of 0.944±0.016(stat)±0.040(syst) was obtained in 101 days of running at the Chooz nuclear power plant in France, with two 4.25 GW(th) reactors. The results were obtained from a single 10 m(3) fiducial volume detector located 1050 m from the two reactor cores. The reactor antineutrino flux prediction used the Bugey4 flux measurement after correction for differences in core composition. The deficit can be interpreted as an indication of a nonzero value of the still unmeasured neutrino mixing parameter sin(2)2θ(13). Analyzing both the rate of the prompt positrons and their energy spectrum, we find sin(2)2θ(13)=0.086±0.041(stat)±0.030(syst), or, at 90% C.L., 0.017

  11. Characterization of the spontaneous light emission of the PMTs used in the Double Chooz experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Abrahão, T.; Alt, C.; Appel, S.; Bekman, I.; Bergevin, M.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Calvo, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Collin, A. P.; Conover, E.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A. S.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; de Kerret, H.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; Felde, J.; Fernandes, S. M.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gomez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Haag, N.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jiménez, S.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P., Jr.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lucht, S.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Nunokawa, H.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Porta, A.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schilithz, A. C.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharankova, R.; Shrestha, D.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Soiron, M.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Valdiviesso, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Verdugo, A.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wagner, S.; Walsh, N.; Watanabe, H.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2016-08-01

    During the commissioning of the first of the two detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, an unexpected and dominant background caused by the emission of light inside the optical volume has been observed. A specific study of the ensemble of phenomena called Light Noise has been carried out in-situ, and in an external laboratory, in order to characterize the signals and to identify the possible processes underlying the effect. Some mechanisms of instrumental noise originating from the PMTs were identified and it has been found that the leading one arises from the light emission localized on the photomultiplier base and produced by the combined effect of heat and high voltage across the transparent epoxy resin covering the electric components. The correlation of the rate and the amplitude of the signal with the temperature has been observed. For the first detector in operation the induced background has been mitigated using online and offline analysis selections based on timing and light pattern of the signals, while a modification of the photomultiplier assembly has been implemented for the second detector in order to blacken the PMT bases.

  12. Inverse Beta Decay Reconstruction in the Double Chooz Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrick, Anne

    2010-02-01

    The Double Chooz Experiment will search for neutrino oscillations using the ``Inverse Beta-Decay'' (IBD) interactions of electron antineutrinos from a nuclear reactor in Chooz, France. The experiment needs to isolate IBD events by detecting and reconstructing the positions and deposited energies of the outgoing positron and neutron. Methods for isolating this process will be described. In addition, results of simulation studies of two different reconstruction algorithms will be presented and their performances compared. )

  13. Exploiting the directional sensitivity of the double Chooz near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Raffelt, Georg G.; Lindner, Manfred

    2007-10-01

    In scintillator detectors, the forward displacement of the neutron in the reaction {nu}{sub e}+p{yields}e{sup +}+n provides neutrino directional information as demonstrated by the CHOOZ reactor experiment with 2500 events. The near detector of the forthcoming Double Chooz experiment will collect 1.6x10{sup 5} events per year, enough to determine the average neutrino direction with a 1{sigma} half-cone aperture of 2.3 deg. in one year. It is more difficult to separate the two Chooz reactors that are viewed at a separation angle {phi}=30 deg. If their strengths are known and approximately equal, the azimuthal location of each reactor is obtained with {+-}6 deg. (1{sigma}) and the probability of confusing them with a single source is less than 11%. Five-year's data reduce this 'confusion probability' to less than 0.3%, i.e., a 3{sigma} separation is possible. All of these numbers improve rapidly with increasing angular separation of the sources. For a setup with {phi}=90 deg. and one-year's data, the azimuthal 1{sigma} uncertainty for each source decreases to {+-}3.2 deg. Of course, for Double Chooz the two reactor locations are known, allowing one instead to measure their individual one-year integrated power output to {+-}11% (1{sigma}), and their five-year integrated output to {+-}4.8% (1{sigma})

  14. Double Chooz and the search for short range anti-neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Francis X.

    2009-06-01

    The Double Chooz Experiment seeks to search for short range antineutrino oscillations from the nuclear reactors at the Chooz Nuclear Power Station operated by Electricite de France in Northeastern France. The measurements are of interest to constraining the value for θ13 in current neutrino oscillation models. New scintillator types based on beta-diketone and pH stabilized carboxylic acid chemistry are described. New results from the study of these scintillators in the context of the detector design are reported.

  15. Double Chooz Neutron Detection Efficiency with Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pi-Jung

    2012-03-01

    The Double Chooz experiment is designed to search for a non-vanishing mixing angle theta13 with unprecedented sensitivity. The first results obtained with the far detector only indicate a non-zero value of theta13. The Double Chooz detector system consists of a main detector, an outer veto system and a number of calibration systems. The main detector consists of a series of concentric cylinders. The target vessel, a liquid scintillator loaded with 0.1% Gd, is surrounded by the gamma-catcher, a non-loaded liquid scintillator. A buffer region of non-scintillating liquid surrounds the gamma-catcher and serves to decrease the level of accidental background. There is the Inner Veto region outside the buffer. The experiment is calibrated with light sources, radioactive point sources, cosmics and natural radioactivity. The radio-isotopes sealed in miniature capsules are deployed in the target and the gamma-catcher. Neutron detection efficiency is one of the major systematic components in the measurement of anti-neutrino disappearance. An untagged 252Cf source was used to determine fractions of neutron captures on Gd, neutron capture time systematic and neutron delayed energy systematic. The details will be explained in the talk.

  16. The Quest for θ13 Angle with the Double Chooz Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricic, Jelena

    2007-08-01

    The Double Chooz experiment will perform a highly sensitive measurement of the neutrino mixing angle sin22θ13. The Double Chooz will utilize a two detector design where the near detector provides an ``unoscillated'' neutrino flux measurement (high count rate, but higher background as well), while the far detector provides the ``oscillated'' neutrino flux characterized by the lower count rate and lower background level. The signal comparison between the two detectors will be necessary to see the subtle sign of θ13. Double CHOOZ will be built at the site of the original CHOOZ experiment which still provides the best world upper limit on the value of the neutrino mixing angle sin22θ13 < 0.2 for the mean value of the neutrino mixing mass Δm23 = 2 × 10-3 eV2. In this article we describe the Double Chooz experiment that will contribute to the discovery of θ13 if above 0.03 or improve the existing limit on sin22θ13 from 0.2 to 0.03 in just 3 years of running of the Double Chooz experiment. The mixing angle θ13 is the last non-measured oscillation parameter of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata(PMNS) neutrino mixing matrix whose non-zero elements imply the existence of the massive neutrinos, strongly indicating new physics beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of measuring the sin22θ13 or lowering the existing limit to a few percent would also allow selection of the best means to search for the CP-phase in the lepton sector.

  17. Non-proliferation studies with Double Chooz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormon, S.; Fallot, M.; Martino, J.; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The near detector of Double Chooz will provide the most accurate measurement of the spectrum and the flux of the electronic anti-neutrinos (νbare) emitted by a nuclear power plant. This enables the collaboration to address certain safeguards issues for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) benefit.

  18. Direct measurement of backgrounds using reactor-off data in Double Chooz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Aberle, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Bergevin, M.; Bernstein, A.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukhov, L.; Blucher, E.; Bowden, N. S.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Caden, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, P.-J.; Chimenti, P.; Classen, T.; Collin, A. P.; Conover, E.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; Dazeley, S.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Durand, V.; Ebert, J.; Efremenko, Y.; Elnimr, M.; Erickson, A.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; Fechner, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Felde, J.; Fernandes, S. M.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, A. J.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gama, R.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Goon, J. T. M.; Greiner, D.; Haag, N.; Habib, S.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hartmann, F. X.; Haser, J.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Jones, C. L.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Keefer, G.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kibe, Y.; Konno, T.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Langbrandtner, C.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P., Jr.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lucht, S.; McKee, D.; Maeda, J.; Maesano, C. N.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyer, M.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Miyata, H.; Mueller, Th. A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Novella, P.; Obolensky, M.; Oberauer, L.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Perrin, P.; Pfahler, P.; Porta, A.; Potzel, W.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Remoto, A.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Roth, S.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Sato, F.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwetz, T.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shimojima, S.; Shrestha, D.; Sida, J.-L.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Stüken, A.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Toups, M.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Valdiviesso, G.; Veyssiere, C.; Wagner, S.; Watanabe, H.; White, B.; Wiebusch, C.; Winslow, L.; Worcester, M.; Wurm, M.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2013-01-01

    Double Chooz is unique among modern reactor-based neutrino experiments studying ν¯e disappearance in that data can be collected with all reactors off. In this paper, we present data from 7.53 days of reactor-off running. Applying the same selection criteria as used in the Double Chooz reactor-on oscillation analysis, a measured background rate of 1.0±0.4 events/day is obtained. The background model for accidentals, cosmogenic β-n-emitting isotopes, fast neutrons from cosmic muons, and stopped-μ decays used in the oscillation analysis is demonstrated to be correct within the uncertainties. Kinematic distributions of the events, which are dominantly cosmic-ray-produced correlated-background events, are provided. The background rates are scaled to the shielding depths of two other reactor-based oscillation experiments, Daya Bay and RENO.

  19. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  20. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  1. Entering the Two-Detector Phase of Double Chooz: First Near Detector Data and Prospects for Future Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Rachel; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    In 2011, Double Chooz reported the first evidence for θ13-driven reactor antineutrino oscillation, derived from observations of inverse beta decay (IBD) events in a single detector located ~ 1 km from two nuclear reactors. Since then, the collaboration has honed the precision of its sin2 2θ13 measurement by reducing backgrounds, improving detection efficiency and systematics, and including additional statistics from IBD events with neutron captures on hydrogen. By 2014, the overwhelmingly dominant contribution to sin2 2θ13 uncertainty was reactor flux uncertainty, which is irreducible in a single-detector experiment. Now, as Double Chooz collects the first data with a near detector, we can begin to suppress that uncertainty and approach the experiment's full potential. In this talk, we show quality checks on initial data from the near detector. We also present our two-detector sensitivity to both sin2 2θ13 and sterile neutrino mixing, which are enhanced by analysis strategies developed in our single-detector phase. In particular, we discuss prospects for the first two-detector results from Double Chooz, expected in 2015.

  2. Muon capture on light isotopes measured with the Double Chooz detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; Alt, C.; Appel, S.; Barriere, J. C.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bergevin, M.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Collin, A. P.; Conover, E.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A. S.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; de Kerret, H.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; Felde, J.; Fernandes, S. M.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gomez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Haag, N.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lucht, S.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Porta, A.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schilithz, A. C.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharankova, R.; Shrestha, D.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Soiron, M.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Valdiviesso, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wagner, S.; Walsh, N.; Watanabe, H.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Using the Double Chooz detector, designed to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ13, the products of μ- capture on 12C,13C,14N, and 16O have been measured. Over a period of 489.5 days, 2.3 ×106 stopping cosmic μ- have been collected, of which 1.8 ×105 captured on carbon, nitrogen, or oxygen nuclei in the inner detector scintillator or acrylic vessels. The resulting isotopes were tagged using prompt neutron emission (when applicable), the subsequent β decays, and, in some cases, β -delayed neutrons. The most precise measurement of the rate of 12C(μ-,ν ) 12B to date is reported: 6 .57-0.21+0.11×103s-1 , or (17 .35-0.59+0.35)% of nuclear captures. By tagging excited states emitting γ s , the ground state transition rate to 12B has been determined to be 5 .68-0.23+0.14 ×103s-1 . The heretofore unobserved reactions 12C(μ-,ν α ) 8Li,13C(μ-,ν n α ) 8Li , and 13C(μ-,ν n ) 12B are measured. Further, a population of β n decays following stopping muons is identified with 5.5 σ significance. Statistics limit our ability to identify these decays definitively. Assuming negligible production of 8He, the reaction 13C(μ-,ν α ) 9Li is found to be present at the 2.7 σ level. Limits are set on a variety of other processes.

  3. Chasing Chooz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramond, P.

    2004-01-01

    We relate the MNS and CKM mixing matrices using ideas from grand unification. We catalog models in terms of the family symmetries of the down quark mass matrices, and emphasize the role of the Cabibbo angle in the lepton mixing matrix. We find a large class of models with an observable CHOOZ angle ˜ λ λ {√ 2 }};.

  4. Chasing Chooz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramond, P.

    We relate the MNS and CKM mixing matrices using ideas from grand unification. We catalog models in terms of the family symmetries of the down quark mass matrices, and emphasize the role of the Cabibbo angle in the lepton mixing matrix. We find a large class of models with an observable CHOOZ angle ˜λ /√ {2}.

  5. Measurement of θ 13 in Double Chooz using neutron captures on hydrogen with novel background rejection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Appel, S.; Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; Alt, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bergevin, M.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Collin, A. P.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A. S.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Felde, J.; Fernandes, S. M.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gomez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Haag, N.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lucht, S.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Porta, A.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schilithz, A. C.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharankova, R.; Shrestha, D.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Soiron, M.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Thi, H. H. Trinh; Valdiviesso, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, S.; Walsh, N.; Watanabe, H.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2016-01-01

    The Double Chooz collaboration presents a measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 using reactor overline{νe} observed via the inverse beta decay reaction in which the neutron is captured on hydrogen. This measurement is based on 462.72 live days data, approximately twice as much data as in the previous such analysis, collected with a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties. Accidental coincidences, the dominant background in this analysis, are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude with respect to our previous publication by a multi-variate analysis. These improvements demonstrate the capability of precise measurement of reactor overline{νe} without gadolinium loading. Spectral distortions from the overline{νe} reactor flux predictions previously reported with the neutron capture on gadolinium events are confirmed in the independent data sample presented here. A value of sin2 2 θ 13 = 0.095 - 0.039 + 0.038 (stat+syst) is obtained from a fit to the observed event rate as a function of the reactor power, a method insensitive to the energy spectrum shape. A simultaneous fit of the hydrogen capture events and of the gadolinium capture events yields a measurement of sin2 2 θ 13 = 0 .088 ± 0 .033(stat+syst). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Biphoton double-slit experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, G.; Cagliero, E.; Falzetta, G.; Genovese, M.; Gramegna, M.; Predazzi, E.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present a double-slit experiment where two indistinguishable photons produced by type-I parametric down-conversion are each sent to a well-defined slit. Data about the diffraction and interference patterns for coincidences are presented and discussed. An analysis of these data allows a test of standard quantum mechanics against the de Broglie-Bohm theory.

  7. Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, F.; Schaetzel, M.G.; Baltuska, A.; Goulielmakis, E.; Walther, H.; Krausz, F.; Milosevic, D.B.; Bauer, D.; Becker, W.; Paulus, G.G.

    2005-07-22

    A new scheme for a double-slit experiment in the time domain is presented. Phase-stabilized few-cycle laser pulses open one to two windows (slits) of attosecond duration for photoionization. Fringes in the angle-resolved energy spectrum of varying visibility depending on the degree of which-way information are measured. A situation in which one and the same electron encounters a single and a double slit at the same time is observed. The investigation of the fringes makes possible interferometry on the attosecond time scale. From the number of visible fringes, for example, one derives that the slits are extended over about 500 as.

  8. Muon simulations for Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Alfred; Horton-Smith, Glenn; Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Tonazzo, Alessandra

    2006-09-01

    Muon backgrounds at Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ are calculated using MUSIC. A modified version of the Gaisser sea-level muon distribution and a well-tested Monte Carlo integration method are introduced. Average muon energy, flux, and rate are tabulated. Plots of average energy and angular distributions are given. Implications for muon tracker design in future experiments are discussed.

  9. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Y.

    2006-11-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

  10. The COBRA double-beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Y.; COBRA Collaboration

    2007-09-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 υββ). The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double-beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large-scale experiment are also described.

  11. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D. Y.

    2006-11-17

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

  12. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino ( < 1.3 . 10-5) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  13. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  14. The COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldorf, C.; Cobra Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The COBRA experiment is searching for double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on the isotope 116Cd. In addition to pure energy measurements, pixelisation allows also for tracking capabilities. This kind of semiconductor tracker is unique in the field. The current status of the experiment is shown including the latest half-life limits.

  15. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. V.

    2007-03-01

    The progress of the COBRA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment is discussed. Potential backgrounds are described. Estimates on the contamination levels of 214Bi in the detectors have been made using previously acquired low background data. New crystals with a different passivation material show an improved background count rate of approximately one order of magnitude.

  16. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J. V.

    2007-03-28

    The progress of the COBRA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment is discussed. Potential backgrounds are described. Estimates on the contamination levels of 214Bi in the detectors have been made using previously acquired low background data. New crystals with a different passivation material show an improved background count rate of approximately one order of magnitude.

  17. The COBRA Neutrinoless Double Beta Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    2008-04-01

    The COBRA is a proposed experiment to detect neutrinoless double beta decays of the isotope 116Cd. The COBRA design is based on CZT room temperature solid state detectors. A prototype of the experiment made of 64 1cm^3 detectors is running in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. In this talk, I will discuss the design of the COBRA prototype experiment and possible designs of a large-scale experiment made of 410 kg of CZT detectors. We are currently evaluating the option to use CZT detector units with 200 micron spatial resolution. Such detectors would make it possible to track the electrons from double beta decays and to distinguish them from certain types of background events.

  18. Plans for Double Shell Experiments on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Gunderson, M. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Watt, R. G.; Kline, J. L.; Hayes, A. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Boswell, M.; Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Batha, S. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-11-01

    Double-shells are an alternative approach to achieving indirect drive ignition. These targets consist of a low-Z ablatively-driven outer shell that impacts a high-Z inner shell filled with DT fuel. In contrast to single-shell designs, double-shell targets burn the fuel via volume ignition, albeit with a lower gain. While double-shell capsules are complicated to fabricate, their design includes several beneficial metrics such as a low convergence pusher (C.R. < 10), low implosion speed (~ 250 km/s), a simple few-ns laser drive in a vacuum hohlraum, less sensitivity to hohlraum asymmetries, and low expected laser-plasma instabilities. We present preliminary double-shell capsule designs for NIF using a cryogenic gas DT fill which are optimized for yield and minimized for fall-line mix. Challenges will be discussed, as well as uncertainties and trade-offs in the physics issues compared to single-shells. A development path for double-shell experiments on NIF will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  19. COBRA - Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, Nadine

    2012-08-01

    The COBRA experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on Cd-116, with a decay energy of 2814keV well above the highest naturally occurring gamma lines. Furthermore, Te-130, with a high natural abundance, and Cd-106, a double β+ emitter, are under investigation. Advantageous is the possibility to operate the detectors at room temperature. Besides coplanar grid detectors, pixelised detectors are considered. The latter ones would allow for particle discrimination, therefore providing efficient background reduction. The current status of the experiment is described, including the upgrade of the R&D set-up in spring 2011 at the LNGS underground laboratory, the different detector concepts and the latest half -life limits. Furthermore, studies on the use of liquid scintillator for background suppression and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented.

  20. Future Challenges for Double Beta Decay Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that at least one neutrino has a mass greater than 50 meV. In the inverted hierarchy pattern of neutrino masses, one would expect an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 15 meV or greater. This fact has led to a strong resurgence of interest in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments that can reach this mass target. If this rare nuclear decay process exists it would demonstrate that Lepton number conservation is violated, that neutrinos are their own anti-particles and the decay rate would give an indication of the neutrino mass. This presentation will summarize the double beta decay experimental program with a focus on the technical challenges that will be faced.

  1. Status of the double beta experiment COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2006-07-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large number of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double beta decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. A half-life measurement of the fourfold forbidden non-unique beta-decay of 113Cd has been performed. Improved half-life limits for the ground state transitions of 64Zn for 0νβ+/EC and 0νEC/EC have been obtained. A short outlook on future activities is given.

  2. The NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, A.; NEXT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) is a neutrinoless double-beta (ββ0v) decay experiment at Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (LSC). It is an electroluminescent Time Projection Chamber filled with high pressure 136Xe gas with separated function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Energy resolution and background suppression are the two key features of any neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. NEXT has both good energy resolution (< 1% FWHM) and an extra handle for background identification provided by track reconstruction. We expect a background rate of 4 × 10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 yr-1, and a sensitivity to the Majorana neutrino mass of between 80-160 meV (depending on NME) after a run of 3 effective years of the 100 kg scale NEXT-100 detector. The initial phase of NEXT-100, called NEW, is currently being commissioned at LSC. It will validate the NEXT background rate expectations and will make first measurements of the two neutrino ββ2v mode of 136Xe. Furthermore, the NEXT technique can be extrapolated to the tonne scale, thus allowing the full exploration of the inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. These proceedings review NEXT R&D results, the status of detector commissioning at LSC and the NEXT physics case.

  3. Liquid Scintillator based experiments in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; KamLAND-Zen Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    Recent experiments have confirmed neutrino oscillations. The mass structure of neutrinos is one of the next interesting subjects in neutrino physics. Neutrinoless double beta decay has the potential to investigate the mass structure of neutrinos. Many neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are being proposed and some were introduced at this conference. Here we present neutrinoless double beta decay experiments based on liquid scintillator techniques. SNO+ plans to use 150Nd as the neutrinoless double beta decay isotope dissolved in liquid scintillator, similarly KamLAND-Zen will use 136Xe loaded liquid scintillator. The physics goals, schedule and current status of both experiments were discussed.

  4. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with the NEMO 3 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nasteva, Irina

    2008-11-23

    The NEMO 3 experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay and makes precision measurements of two-neutrino double beta decay in seven isotopes. The latest two-neutrino half-life results are presented, together with the limits on neutrinoless half-lives and the corresponding effective Majorana neutrino masses. Also given are the limits obtained on neutrinoless double beta decay mediated by R{sub p}-violating SUSY, right-hand currents and different Majoron emission modes.

  5. Neutrino mass ordering in future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by recent intensive experimental efforts on searching for neutrinoless double beta decays, we present a detailed quantitative analysis on the prospect of resolving neutrino mass ordering in the next generation 76Ge-type experiments.

  6. Review on θ13 Measurements from Reactor Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    2015-03-01

    Definitive measurements of the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 were made by Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO experiments in 2012, based on the disappearance of electron antineutrinos emitted from reactors. The new generation reactor experiments have significantly improved a sensitivity for θ13 down to the sin2(2θ13) ~ 0.01 level. A rather large value of θ13 has opened a new window to find the CP violation phase and to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The θ13 measurements by the three reactor experiments are presented with their future expected sensitivities.

  7. What can we learn from neutrinoless double beta decay experiments?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahcall, John N.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pena-Garay, Carlos

    2004-04-08

    We assess how well next generation neutrinoless double beta decay and normal neutrino beta decay experiments can answer four fundamental questions. 1) If neutrinoless double beta decay searches do not detect a signal, and if the spectrum is known to be inverted hierarchy, can we conclude that neutrinos are Dirac particles? 2) If neutrinoless double beta decay searches are negative and a next generation ordinary beta decay experiment detects the neutrino mass scale, can we conclude that neutrinos are Dirac particles? 3) If neutrinoless double beta decay is observed with a large neutrino mass element, what is the total mass in neutrinos? 4) If neutrinoless double beta decay is observed but next generation beta decay searches for a neutrino mass only set a mass upper limit, can we establish whether the mass hierarchy is normal or inverted? We base our answers on the expected performance of next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiments and on simulations of the accuracy of calculations of nuclear matrix elements.

  8. Bounds on sterile neutrino parameters from reactor experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Kalpana

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present a realistic analysis of the potential of the present-day reactor experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO for probing the existence of sterile neutrinos. We present exclusion regions for sterile oscillation parameters and find that these experimental set-ups give significant bounds on the parameter Θee especially in the low sterile oscillation region 0.01 < Δm241 < 0.05 eV2. These bounds can add to our understanding of the sterile neutrino sector since there is still a tension in the allowed regions from different experiments for sterile parameters.

  9. Results on θ13 Neutrino Oscillations from Reactor Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    2014-03-01

    Definitive measurements of the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 were made by Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO in 2012, based on the disappearance of electron antineutrinos emitted from reactors. The new generation reactor experiments have significantly improved a sensitivity for θ13 down to the sin2(2θ13)~0.01 level using two identical detectors of 10 ~ 40 tons at near (300 ~ 400 m) and far (1 ~ 2 km) locations. The θ13 measurements by the three reactor experiments are presented with their future expected sensitivities.

  10. The Majorana Double Beta Decay Experiment: Present Status

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Beene, Jim; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips II, D. G.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2013-06-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, an R&D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator

  11. A Variant of Young's Double Slit Experiment for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henault, Francois; Spang, Alain

    2011-01-01

    We describe a variant of the classical Young's double slit experiment that can be easily realized in any classroom, in order to evidence the wave nature of light. The proposed apparatus and its simplified theory are described and pictures of fringes, readily obtained using only cheap and off-the-shelf optical components, are reproduced. The…

  12. First experiment with the double solenoid RIBRAS system

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Condori, R. Pampa; Lepine-Szily, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morais, M. C.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V. B.; Gasques, L. R.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Shorto, J. M. B.

    2013-05-06

    A description of the double solenoid system (RIBRAS) operating since 2004 in one of the beam lines of the Pelletron Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo is presented. The recent installation of the secondary scattering chamber after the second solenoid is reported and the first experiment in RIBRAS using both solenoids is described.

  13. Inter-Laboratory Uranium Double-Spike Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, G. P

    1999-11-11

    In environmental samples, the major analytical limitation on the use of uranium {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U determinations as an indicator of uranium enrichment is mass dependent bias occurring during the measurement. The double-spike technique can be used to correct the data for this effect. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the variation of mass bias among several laboratories and to determine the extent to which the double-spike could be used to reduce analytical uncertainty. Four laboratories performed replicate analyses on each of three samples. Generally mass bias was determined to be small compared to the random scatter of the measurements, but in at least one case, the bias was > 1%. In 8 of 12 cases, intra-laboratory variance was reduced when the double-spike correction was applied. For all three samples, the inter-laboratory variance was decreased, though the decrease was small. Based on a reasonable assumption about the true isotopic compositions of the samples, the accuracy of 11 of the twelve analyses was improved by applying the double spike correction. When the double spike is used to correct for mass bias, the {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U accuracy is better than 1% even for samples as small as 1 ng. For 50 ng of uranium, 0.1% accuracy was achieved.

  14. GERDA - a new neutrinoless double beta experiment using 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhofer, G.; GERDA Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νßß) has been a very active field for the last decades. While double beta decay has been observed, 0νßß decay still waits for its experimental proof. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) uses 76Ge, an ideal candidate as it is acting as source and detector simultaneously. Germanium detectors, isotopically enriched in 76Ge are submerged directly into an ultra pure cryo liquid, which serves as coolant and radiation shield. This concept will allow to reduce the background by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to earlier experiments. GERDA has been constructed in hall A of the underground laboratory LNGS of the INFN in Italy. The experiment started recently with a test run.

  15. Extra dimensions and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, Marek; Kaminski, Wieslaw A.; Faessler, Amand

    2005-05-01

    The neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the few phenomena, belonging to the nonstandard physics, which is extensively being sought for in experiments. In the present paper the link between the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay and theories with large extra dimensions is explored. The use of the sensitivities of currently planned 0{nu}2{beta} experiments: DAMA, CANDLES, COBRA, DCBA, CAMEO, GENIUS, GEM, MAJORANA, MOON, CUORE, EXO, and XMASS, gives the possibility for a nondirect 'experimental' verification of various extra dimensional scenarios. We discuss also the results of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration. The calculations are based on the Majorana neutrino mass generation mechanism in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model.

  16. Young's double-slit experiment in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2012-10-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of the transmission of a photonic crystal perforated by two sub-wavelength slits, separated by two wavelengths.The experimental near-field image of the double-slit design of the photonic crystal shows an interference pattern, which is analogous to Young’s experiment. This interference arises as a consequence of the excitation of surface states of the photonic crystals and agrees very well with the simulations.

  17. Status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kg × days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  18. The status of the COBRA double-beta-decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2010-04-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the fourfold-forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double-beta-decay limits for Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented, based on 18 kg× days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description of the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  19. Status and perspectives of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Henning; COBRA Collaboration

    2006-05-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large amount of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double beta decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. A half-life measurement of the 4-fold forbidden non-unique beta-decay of 113Cd has been performed. Improved half-life limits for the ground state transitions of 64Zn for 0νβ+/EC and 0νEC/EC have been obtained. A short outlook on future activities is given.

  20. Results of the double beta decay experiment NEMO-3

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyak, V. I.; Collaboration: NEMO-3 Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    The double beta decay experiment NEMO-3 has taken data from February 2003 to January 2011. The two-neutrino decay half lives were measured for seven different isotopes ({sup 100}Mo, {sup 82}Se, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 48}Ca and {sup 130}Te). No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is observed. The 0νββ half-life limits are found to be T{sub 1/2}{sup 0ν}({sup 100}Mo)>1.0×10{sup 24}yr(90%C.L.) and T{sub 1/2}{sup 0ν}({sup 82}Se)>3.2×10{sup 23}yr(90%C.L.)

  1. Double Shock Experiments on the Sandia Z Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, Heath; Knudson, Marcus; Desjarlais, Michael; Lemke, Ray

    2011-06-01

    The double shock layered high-velocity flyer plate is one new capability being developed on Sandia's Z machine. With this technique, dynamic material data at high energy densities can be obtained at points in phase space which lie neither on principal Hugoniots nor on quasi-isentropic ramp curves. For example, the hypothesized HCP to BCC phase transition in beryllium can be measured, as can the high pressure melt curve. Another example is a postulated refreeze of tantalum. We discuss the double shock experiments being performed on Z, including accessible conditions, design and experimental methods, and analysis of results. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Switching from deferred dismantling to immediate dismantling: the example of Chooz A, a French PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Grenouillet, Jean-Jacques

    2007-07-01

    Located in the north of France, close to Belgian border, Chooz A is the first PWR that was built in France from 1962 to 1967. When it was shutdown in 1991, a deferred dismantling strategy was selected. Further to an evolution of EDF decommissioning strategy in 2001, the decommissioning of the plant was accelerated by reducing the safe enclosure period to only a few years. Thus Chooz A will be the first PWR to be fully dismantled in France and it gives a good insight of what is needed to reactivate a plant for final dismantling after a safe enclosure period. (author)

  3. The GERDA Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Majorovits, Bela A.

    2007-10-12

    Neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta})-decay is the key process to gain understanding of the nature of neutrinos. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is designed to search for 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay of the isotope {sup 76}Ge. Germanium crystals enriched in {sup 76}Ge, acting as source and detector simultaneously, will be submerged directly into an ultra pure cooling medium that also serves as a radiation shield. This concept will allow for a reduction of the background by up to two orders of magnitudes with respect to earlier experiments.

  4. Radiopurity control in the NEXT-100 double beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, V.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Díaz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gil, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Serra, L.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; and others

    2013-08-08

    An extensive material screening and selection process is underway in the construction of the 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC' (NEXT), intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe. Determination of the radiopurity levels of the materials is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (Spain) and also on Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry. Materials to be used in the shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage components and energy and tracking readout planes have been already taken into consideration. The measurements carried out are presented, describing the techniques and equipment used, and the results obtained are shown, discussing their implications for the NEXT experiment.

  5. The CUORICINO and CUORE double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardito, R.; Arnaboldi, C.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carbone, L.; Cebrian, S.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; de Waard, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dolinski, M.; Farach, H. A.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Freedman, S. J. F.; Frossati, G.; Gargiulo, C.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Heeger, K. M.; Irastorza, I. G.; Longo, E.; Maruyama, R.; Morganti, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Xu, Nu; Olivieri, E.; Ottonello, P.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, E.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Torres, L.; Ventura, G.; Zanotti, L.

    2006-07-01

    After an introduction on the various experimental techniques to be adopted in searches for double beta decay, the new approach based on the use of cryogenic low temperature detectors is described. The present results are reported on the limit for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te obtained with the large bolometric detector CUORICINO. This setup consists of 44 cubic crystals of natural TeO 2 with 5 cm sides and 18 crystals of 3×3×6 cm 3. Four of these latter crystals are made with isotopically enriched materials: two in 128Te and two others in 130Te. With a sensitive mass of 40.7 kg, this array is by far the most massive running cryogenic detector. The array is operated at a temperature of ˜10 mK in a dilution refrigerator under a heavy shield in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory at a depth of about 3500 m.w.e. The counting rate in the region of neutrinoless double beta decay is 0.18±0.02 counts keV -1 kg -1 y -1, among the lowest in this type of experiment. No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is found. The corresponding lower limit for the lifetime of this process is 2×10 24 years at 90% C.L. The resultant upper limit on the effective neutrino mass ranges between 0.2 and 1.0 eV, depending on the theoretically calculated nuclear matrix elements. This constraint is the most restrictive one, except for those obtained with Ge diodes, and is comparable to them. The second part of this report is devoted to the present status of the construction of the larger experiment CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) formed from 988 bolometers with a cubic TeO 2 absorber of size 5×5×5 cm 3, with a total mass of ˜750 kg. We present technical details of the CUORE setup as well as of its location and our efforts to reduce radioactive backgrounds.

  6. First test of Lorentz violation with a reactor-based antineutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Aberle, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Bergevin, M.; Bernstein, A.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukhov, L.; Blucher, E.; Bowden, N. S.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Caden, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, P.-J.; Chimenti, P.; Classen, T.; Collin, A. P.; Conover, E.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; Dazeley, S.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Durand, V.; Ebert, J.; Efremenko, Y.; Elnimr, M.; Erickson, A.; Fallot, M.; Fechner, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Felde, J.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, A. J.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gama, R.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodman, M. C.; Goon, J. TM.; Greiner, D.; Haag, N.; Habib, S.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hartmann, F. X.; Haser, J.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Jones, C. L.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D. M.; Katori, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Keefer, G.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Konno, T.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P., Jr.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lucht, S.; McKee, D.; Maeda, J.; Maesano, C. N.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyer, M.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Miyata, H.; Mueller, Th. A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Novella, P.; Obolensky, M.; Oberauer, L.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Perrin, P.; Pfahler, P.; Porta, A.; Potzel, W.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Remoto, A.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Roth, S.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Sato, F.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwetz, T.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shrestha, D.; Sida, J.-L.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Stüken, A.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Toups, M.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Valdiviesso, G.; Veyssiere, C.; Wagner, S.; Watanabe, H.; White, B.; Wiebusch, C.; Winslow, L.; Worcester, M.; Wurm, M.; Yanovitch, E.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2012-12-01

    We present a search for Lorentz violation with 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events taken by the Double Chooz experiment in 227.9 live days of running. This analysis, featuring a search for a sidereal time dependence of the events, is the first test of Lorentz invariance using a reactor-based antineutrino source. No sidereal variation is present in the data and the disappearance results are consistent with sidereal time independent oscillations. Under the Standard-Model Extension, we set the first limits on 14 Lorentz violating coefficients associated with transitions between electron and tau flavor, and set two competitive limits associated with transitions between electron and muon flavor.

  7. Experience in calibrating the double-hardening constitutive model Monot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M. A.

    2003-11-01

    The Monot double-hardening soil model has previously been implemented within a general purpose finite element algorithm, and used in the analysis of numerous practical problems. This paper reviews experience gained in calibrating Monot to laboratory data and demonstrates how the calibration process may be simplified without detriment to the range of behaviours modelled. It describes Monot's principal features, important governing equations and various calibration methods, including strategies for overconsolidated, cemented and cohesive soils. Based on a critical review of over 30 previous Monot calibrations, for sands and other geomaterials, trends in parameter values have been identified, enabling parameters to be categorized according to their relative importance. It is shown that, for most practical purposes, a maximum of only 5 parameters is needed; for the remaining parameters, standard default values are suggested. Hence, the advanced stress-strain modelling offered by Monot is attainable with a similar number of parameters as would be needed for some simpler, less versatile, models. Copyright

  8. Long implosion PRS experiments on Double-EAGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.; Coleman, P.L.; Failor, B.H.

    1999-07-01

    Previous research on the high-power generators DM2, at Maxwell Physics International, and Saturn, at Sandia National laboratories, has demonstrated that long-implosion (200--300 ns) PRS sources, both gas puff and wire load, can be sufficiently stable to produce well-assembled pinches and high-power radiation pulses of soft x-rays (1--4 keV). This has substantial implications for reducing the cost and risk of future higher current facilities (e.g., Decade Quad). To extend their knowledge and understanding of long-implosion sources, the authors are conducting a well-diagnosed series of experiments on long-pulse Double-EAGLE (4 MA at 200 ns). Results from Ar gas puffs, with various nozzles and valves, and Al wire arrays will be presented. Where possible, comparison with short-pulse results will be discussed.

  9. Semiconductor-based experiments for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabé Heider, Marik; Gerda Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    Three experiments are employing semiconductor detectors in the search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay: COBRA, Majorana and GERDA. COBRA is studying the prospects of using CdZnTe detectors in terms of achievable energy resolution and background suppression. These detectors contain several ββ emitters and the most promising for 0νββ-decay search is 116Cd. Majorana and GERDA will use isotopically enriched high purity Ge detectors to search for 0νββ-decay of 76Ge. Their aim is to achieve a background ⩽10-3 counts/(kgṡyṡkeV) at the Q improvement compared to the present state-of-art. Majorana will operate Ge detectors in electroformed-Cu vacuum cryostats. A first cryostat housing a natural-Ge detector array is currently under preparation. In contrast, GERDA is operating bare Ge detectors submerged in liquid argon. The construction of the GERDA experiment is completed and a commissioning run started in June 2010. A string of natural-Ge detectors is operated to test the complete experimental setup and to determine the background before submerging the detectors enriched in 76Ge. An overview and a comparison of these three experiments will be presented together with the latest results and developments.

  10. Measurement of double-beta-decay—experiments TGV and NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štekl, I.

    2001-06-01

    A description of the aim and present status of the experiments NEMO and TGV are presented. The NEMO collaboration developed the detector NEMO-2 to investigate double-beta ( ββ) decay of 100Mo, 116Cd, 82Se and 96Zr. The results obtained for the above mentioned isotopes are given. The new detector NEMO-3, which is approximately 20 times larger than NEMO-2, is under construction. The NEMO-3 detector should allow the study of 0 νββ decays of 100Mo (or other isotopes) with half-life ˜10 25years, corresponding to neutrino masses of 0.1- 0.3 eV. The TGV I collaboration has studied the ββ decay of 48Ca. The result T 2 νββ1/2=(4.2 +3.3-1.3)×10 19 years has been found. Experiment TGV II is devoted to measurement of the ββ decay (β +β +, β +/ EC, EC/ EC) of 106Cd, particularly the 2 νEC/EC mode.

  11. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  12. Sense and sensitivity of double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Sorel, M.; Ferrario, P.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Novella, P.; Poves, A. E-mail: justo.martin-albo@ific.uv.es E-mail: paola.ferrario@ific.uv.es E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es E-mail: alfredo.poves@uam.es

    2011-06-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay is a very active field in which the number of proposals for next-generation experiments has proliferated. In this paper we attempt to address both the sense and the sensitivity of such proposals. Sensitivity comes first, by means of proposing a simple and unambiguous statistical recipe to derive the sensitivity to a putative Majorana neutrino mass, m{sub ββ}. In order to make sense of how the different experimental approaches compare, we apply this recipe to a selection of proposals, comparing the resulting sensitivities. We also propose a ''physics-motivated range'' (PMR) of the nuclear matrix elements as a unifying criterium between the different nuclear models. The expected performance of the proposals is parametrized in terms of only four numbers: energy resolution, background rate (per unit time, isotope mass and energy), detection efficiency, and ββ isotope mass. For each proposal, both a reference and an optimistic scenario for the experimental performance are studied. In the reference scenario we find that all the proposals will be able to partially explore the degenerate spectrum, without fully covering it, although four of them (KamLAND-Zen, CUORE, NEXT and EXO) will approach the 50 meV boundary. In the optimistic scenario, we find that CUORE and the xenon-based proposals (KamLAND-Zen, EXO and NEXT) will explore a significant fraction of the inverse hierarchy, with NEXT covering it almost fully. For the long term future, we argue that {sup 136}Xe-based experiments may provide the best case for a 1-ton scale experiment, given the potentially very low backgrounds achievable and the expected scalability to large isotope masses.

  13. Sense and sensitivity of double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Sorel, M.; Ferrario, P.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Novella, P.; Poves, A.

    2011-06-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay is a very active field in which the number of proposals for next-generation experiments has proliferated. In this paper we attempt to address both the sense and the sensitivity of such proposals. Sensitivity comes first, by means of proposing a simple and unambiguous statistical recipe to derive the sensitivity to a putative Majorana neutrino mass, mββ. In order to make sense of how the different experimental approaches compare, we apply this recipe to a selection of proposals, comparing the resulting sensitivities. We also propose a ``physics-motivated range'' (PMR) of the nuclear matrix elements as a unifying criterium between the different nuclear models. The expected performance of the proposals is parametrized in terms of only four numbers: energy resolution, background rate (per unit time, isotope mass and energy), detection efficiency, and ββ isotope mass. For each proposal, both a reference and an optimistic scenario for the experimental performance are studied. In the reference scenario we find that all the proposals will be able to partially explore the degenerate spectrum, without fully covering it, although four of them (KamLAND-Zen, CUORE, NEXT and EXO) will approach the 50 meV boundary. In the optimistic scenario, we find that CUORE and the xenon-based proposals (KamLAND-Zen, EXO and NEXT) will explore a significant fraction of the inverse hierarchy, with NEXT covering it almost fully. For the long term future, we argue that 136Xe-based experiments may provide the best case for a 1-ton scale experiment, given the potentially very low backgrounds achievable and the expected scalability to large isotope masses.

  14. The SuperNEMO neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela, Cristovao; NEMO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    SuperNEMO is an experiment currently in the construction phase with the aim of searching for neutrinoless double beta decay, a beyond the standard model lepton number violating process. It employs the same strategy as its predecessor NEMO-3, with a tracker and calorimeter surrounding a thin foil of source isotope. Twenty modules are planned, yielding 100 kg of 82Se as source, with a sensitivity to a half-life of 1026 years. The first module is intended to demonstrate the very stringent radiopurity requirements, with no background counts being expected in the region of interest of the decay for 2.5 years of data taking. It will hold 7 kg of 82Se, giving it a sensitivity to a half-life of 6.5 × 1024 years. The tracking detector is essential for background discrimination and its construction and commissioning are being undertaken in the U.K., primarily at UCL, MSSL (UCL) and The University of Manchester.

  15. Background Reduction For Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H.; Cebrian, S.; Morales, J.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-03-28

    The new generation experiments to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge (Q{beta}{beta}=2039keV) using enriched germanium detectors, need to reach a background level of {approx}10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the Region of Interest (RoI: 2-2.1 MeV) that would have, for 70 kg of germanium enriched to 86% in 76Ge, 3 keV of FWHM and 5 years of measuring time, a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of {<=} 40 meV. To reduce the background level close to the value needed, we have to combine several techniques. Three of the most important points to study are: segmentation and granularity of the crystal and spatial resolution of the detector directly correlated with an offline Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). Preliminary studies about these strategies for background reduction were developed during last months, obtaining some promising results.

  16. Use of silicon pixel detectors in double electron capture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, P.; Stekl, I.; Shitov, Yu A.; Mamedov, F.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Jose, J. M.; Cermak, J.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Loaiza, P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel experimental approach to search for double electron capture (EC/EC) is discussed in this article. R&D for a new generation EC/EC spectrometer based on silicon pixel detectors (SPDs) has been conducted since 2009 for an upgrade of the TGV experiment. SPDs built on Timepix technology with a spectroscopic readout from each individual pixel are an effective tool to detect the 2νEC/EC signature of the two low energy X-rays hitting two separate pixels. The ability of SPDs to indentify α/β/γ particles and localize them precisely leads to effective background discrimination and thus considerable improvement of the signal-to-background ratio (S/B). A multi-SPD system, called a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT), is planned based on the experimental approach of the TGV calorimeter which measures thin foils of enriched EC/EC-isotope sandwiched between HPGe detectors working in coincidence mode. The sources of SPD internal background have been identified by measuring SPD radiopurity with a low-background HPGe detector as well as by long-term SPD background runs in the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France), and results of these studies are presented.

  17. Single-center experience in double kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fontana, I; Magoni Rossi, A; Gasloli, G; Santori, G; Giannone, A; Bertocchi, M; Piaggio, F; Bocci, E; Valente, Umberto

    2010-05-01

    Use of organs from marginal donors for transplantation is a current strategy to expand the organ donor pool. Its efficacy is universally accepted among data from multicenter studies. Herein, we have reviewed outcomes of double kidney transplantation (DKT) over an 9-year experience in our center. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible important differences between a monocenter versus multicenter studies. Between 1999 and 2008, we performed 59 DKT. Recipient mean age was 63 +/- 5 years. Mean HLA-A, -B, and -DR mismatches were 3.69 +/- 0.922. Donor mean age was 69 +/- 7 years and mean creatinine clearance was 69.8 +/- 30.8 mL/min. Proteinuria was detected in three donors (5%). Mean cold ischemia and warm ischemia times were 1130 +/- 216 and 48 +/- 11 minutes, respectively. The right and left kidney scores were 4.18 +/- 2 and 4.21 +/- 2, respectively. Thirty patients (51%) displayed good postoperative renal function; 22 (37%), acute tubular necrosis with postoperative dialysis; 3 (5%), acute rejection episodes; 4 (7%), single-graft transplantectomy due to vascular thrombosis; 1 (2%), a retransplantation; 5 (8%), a lymphocele; 3 (5%) vescicoureteral reflux or stenosis requiring surgical correction. Cytomegalovirus infection was detected in five patients (8%). In three patients (5%) displayed de novo neoplasia. Three patients showed chronic rejection (5%), whereas we observed a cyclosporine-related toxicity in 7 (12%). Nine patients (15%) developed iatrogenic diabetes. Patient and graft survivals after 3 years from DKT were 93% and 86.3%, respectively. In this study, we applied successfully a widespread score to allocate organs to single kidney transplantation or DKT. In our experience, the score is suitable for the organ allocation but it may be overprotective, excluding potentially suitable organs for a single transplantation. PMID:20534235

  18. Chooz A, First Pressurized Water Reactor to be Dismantled in France - 13445

    SciTech Connect

    Boucau, Joseph; Mirabella, C.; Nilsson, Lennart; Kreitman, Paul J.; Obert, Estelle

    2013-07-01

    Nine commercial nuclear power plants have been permanently shut down in France to date, of which the Chooz A plant underwent an extensive decommissioning and dismantling program. Chooz Nuclear Power Station is located in the municipality of Chooz, Ardennes region, in the northeast part of France. Chooz B1 and B2 are 1,500 megawatt electric (MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) currently in operation. Chooz A, a 305 MWe PWR implanted in two caves within a hill, began operations in 1967 and closed in 1991, and will now become the first PWR in France to be fully dismantled. EDF CIDEN (Engineering Center for Dismantling and Environment) has awarded Westinghouse a contract for the dismantling of its Chooz A reactor vessel (RV). The project began in January 2010. Westinghouse is leading the project in a consortium with Nuvia France. The project scope includes overall project management, conditioning of the reactor vessel (RV) head, RV and RV internals segmentation, reactor nozzle cutting for lifting the RV out of the pit and seal it afterwards, dismantling of the RV thermal insulation, ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) forecast to ensure acceptable doses for the personnel, complementary vacuum cleaner to catch the chips during the segmentation work, needs and facilities, waste characterization and packaging, civil work modifications, licensing documentation. The RV and RV internals will be segmented based on the mechanical cutting technology that Westinghouse applied successfully for more than 13 years. The segmentation activities cover the cutting and packaging plan, tooling design and qualification, personnel training and site implementation. Since Chooz A is located inside two caves, the project will involve waste transportation from the reactor cave through long galleries to the waste buffer area. The project will end after the entire dismantling work is completed, and the waste storage is outside the caves and ready to be shipped either to the ANDRA (French

  19. Neutron Interactions in the CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinski, Michelle Jean

    2008-10-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0vDBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0vDBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0vDBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0vDBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0vDBD of 130Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO2 bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0vDBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10-6. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0vDBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, which can be produced underground both by (α,n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE

  20. Neutron interactions in the CUORE neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinski, Michelle Jean

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0nuDBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0nuDBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0nuDBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0nuDBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0nuDBD of 130Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO2 bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0nuDBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10-6. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0nuDBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, winch can be produced underground both by (alpha,n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE data to set an upper

  1. Review of high convergence implosion experiments with single and double shell targets

    SciTech Connect

    Delamater, N. D.; Watt, R. G.; Varnum, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments have been been performed in recent years at the Omega laser studying double shell capsules as an a1 teinative, 11011 cryogenic, path towards ignition at NTF. Double shell capsules designed to mitigate the Au M-band radiation asymmetries, were experimentally found to perform well in both spherical and cylindrical hohlraums, achieving near 1-D (-90 %) clean calculated yield at convergence comparable to that required for NIF ignition. Near-term plans include directly driven double shell experiments at Omega, which eliminates Au M-band radiation as a yield degradation m ec h an i s in.

  2. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, Mark D.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, David; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Williams, T.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta (ββ (0ν)) decay of the isotope 76Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. TheDemonstrator is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the SanfordUnderground Research Facility in Lead, SouthDakota. The array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the Demonstrator and the details of its design.

  3. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, David; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Williams, T.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2014-06-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for the neutrinoless double-beta (ββ(0ν)) decay of the isotope 76Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The DEMONSTRATOR is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the DEMONSTRATOR and the details of its design.

  4. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Tmore » he M ajorana D emonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta ( β β 0 ν ) decay of the isotope Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors.he observation of this rare decay would indicate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino.he D emonstrator is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.he array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the D emonstrator and the details of its design. « less

  5. Probing Pre- and In-service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these teachers were interviewed. The results showed that the physics teachers' thought experiments with classical particles, light, and electrons were often partial. Many teachers also suffered a lack of the basic ideas and principles of physics, which probably hindered thought experimenting. In particular, understanding the ontological nature of classical particles, light and electrons seemed to be essential in performing the double-slit experiment in an appropriate way. However, the in-service physics teachers who had teaching experience in modern physics were more prepared for the double-slit thought experiment than the pre-service teachers. The results suggest that both thought experiments and the double-slit experiment should be given more weight in physics teacher education, even if experience in modern physics teaching at upper secondary school seems to some extent to develop teachers' abilities.

  6. Status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutta, B.; Cobra Collaboration

    2011-08-01

    COBRA is an R&D project, using CdZnTe (CZT) semiconductor detectors to search for the 0νββ decay. CZT is a room temperature semiconductor detector with good energy resolution. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). In addition to pure energy measurements, pixelated detectors allow for tracking, further reducing the background significantly. The current status of the experiment is presented, including the latest analysis results.

  7. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain 238U, 226Ra and 232,228Th typically on the level of ˜ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO2, Nd2O3 and Gd2O3. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R&D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  8. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A.; Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  9. Double Barreled Wet Colostomy: Initial Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Cruz, Luis; Espin-Basany, Eloy; Vallribera-Valls, Francesc; Sanchez-Garcia, Jose; Jimenez-Gomez, Luis Miguel; Marti-Gallostra, Marc; Garza-Maldonado, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pelvic exenteration and multivisceral resection in colorectal have been described as a curative and palliative intervention. Urinary tract reconstruction in a pelvic exenteration is achieved in most cases with an ileal conduit of Bricker, although different urinary reservoirs have been described. Methods. A retrospective and observational study of six patients who underwent a pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a double barreled wet colostomy (DBWC) was done, describing the preoperative diagnosis, the indication for the pelvic exenteration, the complications associated with the procedure, and the followup in a period of 5 years. A literature review of the case series reported of the technique was performed. Results. Six patients had a urinary tract reconstruction with the DBWC technique, 5 male patients and one female patient. Age range was from 20 to 77 years, with a medium age 53.6 years. The most frequent complication presented was a pelvic abscess in 3 patients (42.85%); all complications could be resolved with a conservative treatment. Conclusion. In the group of our patients with pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a DBWC, it is a safe procedure and well tolerated by the patients, and most of the complications can be resolved with conservative treatment. PMID:25574498

  10. Double Hypernuclei Experiment with Hybrid Emulsion Method at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawa, Hiroyuki

    Double hypernuclei are important probes to study the system with strangeness S = -2. Several emulsion experiments had been performed to search for them. We are planning a new experiment to search for double hypernuclei at the K1.8 beam line in the Hadron Experimental Facility (J-PARC E07 experiment). Ξ- tracks in the emulsion plates and SSD will be automatically connected by a hybrid method. The estimated Ξ- stopped statistics is 10 times as high as that of the KEK E373 experiment. Discoveries of 10 new double hypernuclear species are expected, which enable us to discuss binding energy in terms of mass number dependence. On the other hand, we will also observe X rays from Ξ- atoms with a germanium detector array installed close to theemulsion plates by tagging Ξ- stopped events. This will be the first measurement to give information on the Ξ- potential at the nuclear surface region.

  11. Online Data Monitoring for the CUORE Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feintzeig, Jacob; Cuore Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming bolometric experiment that will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay at Gran Sasso, Italy. Crystals of tellurium dioxide are instrumented with neutron transmutation doped (NTD) thermistors to observe the heat pulse caused by a double beta decay event. Currently under construction, CUORE will contain 988 independent bolometers. The CUORE-0 detector, consisting of the first 52 bolometers, took data from 2013-2015. After briefly reviewing results from a neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE-0, I will outline recent work to improve data analysis and online data quality monitoring for the upcoming CUORE detector.

  12. Neutron inelastic scattering processes as a background for double-{beta} decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, D.-M.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V.; Kazkaz, K.

    2008-05-15

    We investigate several Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) and Ge(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions. We measure {gamma}-ray production from Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions that can be a significant background for double-{beta} decay experiments which use lead as a massive inner shield. Particularly worrisome for Ge-based double-{beta} decay experiments are the 2041-keV and 3062-keV {gamma} rays produced via Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}). The former is very close to the {sup 76}Ge double-{beta} decay endpoint energy and the latter has a double escape peak energy near the endpoint. We discuss the implications of these {gamma} rays on past and future double-{beta} decay experiments and estimate the cross section to excite the level that produces the 3062-keV {gamma} ray. Excitation {gamma}-ray lines from Ge(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions are also observed. We consider the contribution of such backgrounds and their impact on the sensitivity of next-generation searches for neutrinoless double-{beta} decay using enriched germanium detectors.

  13. The Path to Large-Mass Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Steven R.

    2012-08-08

    The technology is ready for atmospheric scale sensitivity and we can at least discuss it for the solar scale. Even null results will be interesting. Supporting measurements are important and have an impact. Need several mesurements with a total uncertainty (experiment and theory) of {approx} 50% or less, and eventually even better. If we see {beta}{beta} the qualitative physics results are profound, but next we'll want to quantify the underlying physics.

  14. Suppression of Ablation in Femtosecond Double-Pulse Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Levashov, P. R.; Itina, T. E.

    2009-11-06

    We report the physical reasons of a curious decrease in the crater depth observed for long delays in experiments with two successive femtosecond pulses. Detailed hydrodynamic modeling demonstrates that the ablation mechanism is dumped when the delay between the pulses exceeds the electron-ion relaxation time. In this case, the interaction of the second laser pulse with the expanding target material leads to the formation of the second shock wave suppressing the rarefaction wave created by the first pulse. The evidence of this effect follows from the pressure and density profiles obtained at different delays after the first laser pulse.

  15. R and D of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for high sensitivity double β decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.

    2013-12-30

    Experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay enters to a new phase when a sensitivity on the level of T{sub 1/2}∼10{sup 26}−10{sup 28} yr is required. Scintillating low temperature detectors possess important properties required for high-sensitivity double beta decay experiments: presence of elements of interest, high energy resolution and detection efficiency, low level of background thanks to excellent particle discrimination ability. High concentration of isotope of interest and as low as possible radioactive contamination are important requirements to crystal scintillators. Other crucial issues are maximal output of detectors and minimal loss of enriched materials. Prospects of several scintillation materials, enriched in isotopes promising for double beta decay experiments, are discussed.

  16. Solar neutrino interactions with liquid scintillators used for double beta-decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Zuber, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Solar neutrinos interact within double-beta-decay (DBD) detectors and hence will contribute to backgrounds (BGs) for DBD experiments. Background contributions due to solar neutrinos are evaluated for their interactions with atomic electrons and nuclei in liquid scintillation detectors used for DBD experiments. They are shown to be serious BGs for high-sensitivity DBD experiments to search for the Majorana neutrino masses in the inverted and normal hierarchy regions.

  17. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  18. Double Beta Decay Experiments: Present Status and Prospects for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino ( < 1.3 × 10-5) are obtained. In the second part of the review prospects of search for the neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to at the level of ∼ (0.01-0.1) eV are discussed. The main attention is paid to experiments of CUORE, GERDA, MAJORANA, EXO, KamLAND-Zen-2, SuperNEMO and SNO+. Possibilities of low-temperature scintillating bolometers on the basis of inorganic crystals (ZnSe, ZnMoO4, Li2MoO4, CaMoO4 and CdWO4) are considered too.

  19. Maize Haploid Induction and Doubling – Recent Experience with Exotic and Elite Maize Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experience from three maize research projects utilizing the haploid inducer RWS x RWK-76 from the University of Hohenheim will be summarized. These projects result from collaborations between Iowa State Doubled Haploid Facility (http://www.plantbreeding.iastate.edu/DHF/DHF.htm) researchers and USDA...

  20. Present status and future of the experiment TGV (measurement of double beta decay of48Ca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalík, A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Zaparov, Ch.; Briancon, Ch.; Janout, Z.; Koníček, J.; Kubašta, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Štekl, I.; Vorobel, V.

    1998-02-01

    A short description of experiment TGV (double beta decay of48Ca) is given. The measurement started in the Modane underground laboratory in August 1996. The first result of T {1/2/0 ν } ≥ 4.6 × 1020 years [90% CL] after 2545 hours is presented.

  1. DESIREE - A Double Electrostatic Storage Ring for Merged-Beam Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Danared, H.; Liljeby, L.; Andler, G.; Bagge, L.; Blom, M.; Kaellberg, A.; Leontein, S.; Loefgren, P.; Paal, A.; Rensfelt, K.-G.; Simonsson, A.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Larsson, M.; Rosen, S.; Schmidt, K.

    2006-03-20

    DESIREE is a double electrostatic storage ring cooled to cryogenic temperatures. It is built at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory for merged-beam and single-beam experiments in atomic and molecular physics as well as biophysics. This paper describes the present status of the design of DESIREE.

  2. Status and perspective of the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knöpfle, K. T.; Gerda Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    Gerda, the GERManium Detector Array [1], is a new double beta decay experiment which is currently under commissioning in the Infn National Gran Sasso Laboratory (Lngs), Italy. It is implementing a new shielding concept by operating bare Ge diodes - enriched in 76Ge - in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The paper presents the status of the experiment, results from the commissioning, and a summary of planned future activities.

  3. Search for double beta decay of 48Ca in the TGV experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Briançon, C.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalik, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Štekl, I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vylov, T.; Čermák, P.

    2000-12-01

    This Letter describes a collaborative TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) study of the double beta decay of 48Ca with a low-background and high sensitivity Ge multi-detector spectrometer. The results of T1/22νββ=(4.2+3.3- 1.3)×1019 years and T1/20νββ>1.5×1021 years (90% CL) for double beta decay of 48Ca were found after processing experimental data obtained after 8700 hours of measuring time, using approximately 1 gramme of 48Ca. The features of a TGV-2 experiment are also presented.

  4. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. A.; Burritt, T. H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gehman, V. M.; Guiseppe, V.E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  5. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, J. M. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a Collaboration: TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in {sup 106}Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  6. Modeling double pulsing of ion beams for HEDP target heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth; Barnard, John; Stoltz, Peter; Henestroza, Enrique

    2008-04-01

    Recent research on direct drive targets using heavy ion beams suggests optimal coupling will occur when the energy of the ions increases over the course of the pulse. In order to experimentally explore issues involving the interaction of the beam with the outflowing blowoff from the target, double pulse experiments have been proposed whereby a first pulse heats a planar target producing an outflow of material, and a second pulse (˜10 ns later) of higher ion energy (and hence larger projected range) interacts with this outflow before reaching and further heating the target. We report here results for simulations of double pulsing experiments using HYDRA for beam and target parameters relevant to the proposed Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) II at LBNL.

  7. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, J. M.; TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-01

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in 106Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  8. Status of double beta decay experiments using isotopes other than 136Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandola, L.

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton-number violating process predicted by many extensions of the standard model. It is actively searched for in several candidate isotopes within many experimental projects. The status of the experimental initiatives which are looking for the neutrinoless double beta decay in isotopes other than 136Xe is reviewed, with special emphasis given to the projects that passed the R&D phase. The results recently released by the experiment GERDA are also summarized and discussed. The GERDA data give no positive indication of neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge and disfavor in a model-independent way the long-standing observation claim on the same isotope. The lower limit reported by GERDA for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge is T1/20ν > 2.1 ṡ1025 yr (90% C.L.), or T1/20ν > 3.0 ṡ1025 yr, when combined with the results of other 76Ge predecessor experiments.

  9. Research and Development Supporting a Next Generation Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steve; Chu, Pinghan; Goett, Johnny; Massarczyk, Ralph; Xu, Wenqin

    2015-10-01

    To improve the search for neutrinoless double beta decay, the next-generation experiments will increase in source mass and continue to reduce backgrounds in the region of interest. A promising technology for the next generation experiment is large arrays of Germanium p-type point contact detectors enriched in 76-Ge. The experience, expertise and lessons learned from the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and GERDA experiments naturally lead to a number of research and development activities that will be useful in guiding a future experiment utilizing Germanium. We will discuss some R&D activities including a hybrid cryostat design, background reduction in cabling, connectors and electronics, and modifications to reduce assembly time. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  10. Semiclassical simulation of the double-slit experiments with single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkovskiy, Sergey A.

    2015-12-01

    Many quantum phenomena, traditionally described by quantum electrodynamics, can be calculated within the framework of so-called semiclassical theory, in which atoms are described by the wave equations of quantum mechanics (Schrödinger, Dirac, etc.), while light is described by classical electrodynamics without quantization of the radiation. These phenomena include the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, the Lamb shift, radiative effects, spontaneous emission, the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, etc. In this paper, I show that the double-slit experiment can also be calculated in detail in terms of semiclassical theory if we take into account the discrete (atomic) structure of matter. I show that the results of a semiclassical simulation of the "linear" double-slit experiment coincide with predictions of wave theory only for low-intensity light and for short exposure time, while stricter dependences exist for long-term exposure. The semiclassical theory is used for calculation of the "nonlinear" double-slit experiment with an intense laser beam in which multiphoton and tunnel excitation of atoms on a photographic plate occurs. The Born rule for light is derived from the semiclassical theory.

  11. Virtual Young's Double Slit Experiment for Hard X-ray Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakovic, Abdel; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Siddons, D. P.; Stein, A.; Warren, J. B.; Sandy, A.; Narayanan, S.; Metzler, M.

    2010-03-01

    Coherent hard X-ray beams underlie many of the recent advances in X-ray imaging and characterization, and it is crucial to quantify the coherence properties of X-ray beams for further advances. The classic Young's double slit experiment is an accepted method from which one can deduce the transverse coherence length, but unfortunately the double slit experiment is difficult to implement at these wavelengths. Micro-fabricated prisms are used to implement a virtual Young's double slit experiment, and interference fringes are quantified by X-ray fluorescence from a 30 nm Cr film in addition to being recorded with YAG crystal and CCD. The maximum number of fringes in the classical overlap region is comparable to δ/4πβ, the ratio of real to imaginary parts of the X-ray refractive index of the prism material. We have measured the horizontal and vertical transverse coherence lengths at beamline APS 8-ID. We suggest this to be a flexible, easily applied method that can be implemented at X-ray laboratories for both, coherence measurements and interferometric imaging. http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.5524

  12. Double-sleeve and carinal resections using the uniportal VATS technique: a single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Lyscov, Andrei; Obukhova, Tatyana; Ryabova, Victoria; Zuiev, Vladimir; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) double-sleeve lobectomy and carinal resections are two of the most complex procedures in thoracic surgery. The uniportal approach provides an advantage for performing these procedures successfully; however, knowledge of the important technical details is required. This study describes the experience of implementing these procedures by Russian specialists. Methods Six patients (one woman; mean age, 57.3±3.6 years) who underwent a uniportal VATS double sleeve and carinal resections were consecutively included in this study. A 5- to 6-cm incision was made at the fifth intercostal space on the middle axillary line. Results Double sleeve left upper lobectomy was completed in four cases. One case of the right sleeve carinal pneumonectomy and one case of the right sleeve carinal upper lobectomy were completed. The mean operation time was 280±13 minutes. There was no conversion to thoracotomy. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 10.8±0.8 days. There was no postoperative mortality. In one case of double-sleeve lobectomy, postoperative pneumonia developed. The postoperative diagnoses of the four uniportal double-sleeve cases were as follows: T2aN2M0 in one case, T3N1M0 in two cases, and T2aN0M0 in one case. The postoperative diagnoses of the two uniportal totally carinal resections were as follows: T4N0M0 and T3N0M0. Conclusions This study results suggest that a uniportal VATS approach might be a feasible option for complex sleeve resections with acceptable postoperative outcomes in the advanced stages of lung cancer. To further evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of this technique, more experience would be required. PMID:27014469

  13. A scintillating bolometer array for double beta decay studies: The LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gironi, L.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of the LUCIFER experiment is to study the neutrinoless double beta decay, a rare process allowed if neutrinos are Majorana particles. Although aiming at a discovery, in the case of insufficient sensitivity the LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment able to probe the entire inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve this challenging result, high resolution detectors with active background discrimination capability are required. This very interesting possibility can be largely fulfilled by scintillating bolometers thanks to the simultaneous read-out of heat and light emitted by the interactions in the detector or by pulse shape analysis.

  14. Mapping of the Marangoni effect in soap films using Young's double-slit experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    We report on the thickness variation measurement of a soap film due to a local perturbation, using Young's double-slit experiment configuration. We map a laser-heated deformation of a vertical free-standing draining thin soap film using the differential change of optical path in the interferometer. The experiment has a resolution of about 0.1 nm and enables to follow the liquid flow dynamics. We evidence a bottleneck formation in the heated region of the film that perturbs the usual flow. Such an experimental set-up could then be adapted to measure other tiny variations in fluctuating hydrodynamics such as capillary waves for example.

  15. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  16. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell’oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; C. Nones; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Fabbri, F.; Giacomelli, P.

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  17. Status and perspectives of the COBRA double-beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. R.; Cobra Collaboration

    2006-05-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large amount of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double-beta-decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. Improved half-life limits for the ground-state transitions of 64Zn and 120Te for 0νβ +/EC and 0νECEC have been obtained and the rate of the 4-fold forbidden 113Cd decays has been measured. A short outlook on future activities is also given.

  18. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell'oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  19. The Milano-Gran Sasso double beta decay experiment: toward a 20-crystal array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camin, D. V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-02-01

    TeO 2 thermal detectors are being used by the Milano group to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. An upper limit for neutrinoless decay half life of 2.1 × 10 22 yr at 90% CL obtained with a 334 g TeO 2 detector has been previously reported. To improve the sensitivity of the experiment an array of twenty 340 g TeO 2 crystals will be realised in the next future. As a first step toward the realisation of that experiment a 4 crystal detector has been tested in the Gran Sasso refrigerator. Detector performances, data acquisition and analysis are discussed.

  20. Classification of Bent-Double Galaxies: Experiences with Ensembles of Decision Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Cantu-Paz, E

    2002-01-08

    In earlier work, we have described our experiences with the use of decision tree classifiers to identify radio-emitting galaxies with a bent-double morphology in the FIRST astronomical survey. We now extend this work to include ensembles of decision tree classifiers, including two algorithms developed by us. These algorithms randomize the decision at each node of the tree, and because they consider fewer candidate splitting points, are faster than other methods for creating ensembles. The experiments presented in this paper with our astronomy data show that our algorithms are competitive in accuracy, but faster than other ensemble techniques such as Boosting, Bagging, and Arcx4 with different split criteria.

  1. On the stability and pointing of an attached double-gimbal experiment package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.; Shaughnessy, J. D.; Nene, V. D.

    1972-01-01

    The pointing capability of a double gimbal experiment isolation and control system of the Apollo telescope mount (ATM) type was investigated. Three composite structural models of an experiment package connected through frictionless gimbals to a carrier vehicle (including a rigid package-rigid carrier model, a rigid package-flexible carrier model, and a flexible package-flexible carrier model) were used, and a linear model of the nominal ATM gimbal control system is considered. A linear stability analysis was performed to verify stability of the control system with nominal gains. Transform techniques were used to compute pointing errors onboard the experiment package due to random crew motions input into the carrier vehicle. Results of the investigation indicate that there is no stability problem due to flexible coupling of the experiment package and the carrier, and that the ATM-type system is capable of pointing accuracies better than 0.1 arc second.

  2. Novel tubular switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings: Design, modeling, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Li, Wei; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, I.-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The space utilization of linear switched reluctance machine is relatively low, which unavoidably constrains the improvement of system output performance. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings. The employment of double excitation helps to increase the electromagnetic force of the system. Furthermore, the installation of windings on both stator and mover can make the structure more compact and increase the system force density. The design concept and operating principle are presented. Following that, the major structure parameters of the system are determined. Subsequently, electromagnetic force and reluctance are formulated analytically based on equivalent magnetic circuits, and the result is validated with numerical computation. Then, a research prototype is developed, and experiments are conducted on the system output performance. It shows that the proposed design of electric linear machine can achieve higher thrust force compared with conventional linear switched reluctance machines.

  3. Novel tubular switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings: Design, modeling, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Li, Wei; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, I-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The space utilization of linear switched reluctance machine is relatively low, which unavoidably constrains the improvement of system output performance. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings. The employment of double excitation helps to increase the electromagnetic force of the system. Furthermore, the installation of windings on both stator and mover can make the structure more compact and increase the system force density. The design concept and operating principle are presented. Following that, the major structure parameters of the system are determined. Subsequently, electromagnetic force and reluctance are formulated analytically based on equivalent magnetic circuits, and the result is validated with numerical computation. Then, a research prototype is developed, and experiments are conducted on the system output performance. It shows that the proposed design of electric linear machine can achieve higher thrust force compared with conventional linear switched reluctance machines. PMID:26724063

  4. Reactor neutrino experiments: θ13 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    We review the current-generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments that have firmly established the third neutrino mixing angle θ13 to be nonzero. The relative large value of θ13 (around 9°) has opened many new and exciting opportunities for future neutrino experiments. Daya Bay experiment with the first measurement of Δ m2ee is aiming for a precision measurement of this atmospheric mass-squared splitting with a comparable precision as Δ m2μ μ from accelerator muon neutrino experiments. JUNO, a next-generation reactor neutrino experiment, is targeting to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) with medium baselines ( 50 km). Beside these opportunities enabled by the large θ13, the current-generation (Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO) and the next-generation (JUNO, RENO-50, and PROSPECT) reactor experiments, with their unprecedented statistics, are also leading the precision era of the three-flavor neutrino oscillation physics as well as constraining new physics beyond the neutrino Standard Model.

  5. Pixel detectors in double beta decay experiments, a new approach for background reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, J. M.; Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Fiederle, M.; Fauler, A.; Loaiza, P.

    2013-08-01

    Double beta decay (ββ) experiments are challenging frontiers in contemporary physics. These experiments have the potential to investigate more about neutrinos (eg. nature and mass). The main challenge for these experiments is the reduction of background. The group at IEAP, CTU in Prague is investigating a new approach using pixel detectors Timepix. Pixel detector offer background reduction capabilities with its ability to identify the particle interaction (from the 2D signature it generates). However, use of pixel detectors has some challenges such as the presence of readout electronics near the sensing medium and heat dissipation. Different aspects of pixel setup (identification of radio-impurities, selection of radio-pure materials) and proposed experimental setup are presented. Also, results of preliminary background measurements (performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories) using the prototype setups are presented.

  6. The neutrinoless double beta decay experiment COBRA: Status and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jerrad

    2009-10-01

    The COBRA experiment uses Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) room-temperature solid-state detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of the isotope ^116Cd as well as for rare decays from several other Cd and Te isotopes. A prototype experiment is currently taking data in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. In this contribution, recent results from the prototype will be presented. Furthermore, the on-going detector R&D will be described and two detector options for a large-scale experiment made of 420 kg of CZT detectors will be discussed. The first option uses ``calorimetric coplanar grid detector units". Alternatively, finely pixelated detectors may be used with pixel pitches of between 200 and 350 microns. The pixelated detectors would afford the possibility of tracking beta particles inside the detector and distinguishing them from background events.

  7. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  8. Experiments and Modeling of Boric Acid Permeation through Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membranes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-07-19

    Boron removal is one of the great challenges in modern wastewater treatment, owing to the unique small size and fast diffusion rate of neutral boric acid molecules. As forward osmosis (FO) membranes with a single selective layer are insufficient to reject boron, double-skinned FO membranes with boron rejection up to 83.9% were specially designed for boron permeation studies. The superior boron rejection properties of double-skinned FO membranes were demonstrated by theoretical calculations, and verified by experiments. The double-skinned FO membrane was fabricated using a sulfonated polyphenylenesulfone (sPPSU) polymer as the hydrophilic substrate and polyamide as the selective layer material via interfacial polymerization on top and bottom surfaces. A strong agreement between experimental data and modeling results validates the membrane design and confirms the success of model prediction. The effects of key parameters on boron rejection, such as boron permeability of both selective layers and structure parameter, were also investigated in-depth with the mathematical modeling. This study may provide insights not only for boron removal from wastewater, but also open up the design of next generation FO membranes to eliminate low-rejection molecules in wider applications. PMID:27280490

  9. The COBRA experiment - Status and prospects on the search of neutrinoless double beta-decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatschler, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride 0-ν Double Beta Research Apparatus (COBRA) [1] is a next-generation experiment searching for the existence of neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay). The observation of 0νββ-decay would be an unambiguous sign for physics beyond the Standard Model such as lepton number violating processes and would prove the Majorana character of neutrinos. Furthermore, the study of 0νββ-decay could probe the absolute neutrino mass and allows for the identification of the neutrino mass hierarchy realized in nature assuming light Majorana neutrino exchange. Currently a demonstrator setup at the underground facility LNGS (Italy) built of 4×4×4 coplanar grid (CPG) detectors collects high quality low background physics data with FADC pulse shape sampling. The detectors are made of natural abundant CdZnTe (CZT), which is a commercially available room temperature semiconductor. It contains several double beta isotopes, the most promising of which is 116Cd with a Q-value of 2813.5 keV - which is well above the highest naturally occurring prominent γ-lines.

  10. 1/12-Scale scoping experiments to characterize double-shell tank slurry uniformity: Test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Liljegren, L.M.

    1994-10-01

    Million gallon double-shell tanks (DSTs) at Hanford are used to store transuranic, high-level, and low-level wastes. These wastes generally consist of a large volume of salt-laden solution covering a smaller volume of settled sludge primarily containing metal hydroxides. These wastes will be retrieved and processed into immobile waste forms suitable for permanent disposal. The current retrieval concept is to use submerged dual-nozzle pumps to mobilize the settled solids by creating jets of fluid that are directed at the tank solids. The pumps oscillate, creating arcs of high-velocity fluid jets that sweep the floor of the tank. After the solids are mobilized, the pumps will continue to operate at a reduced flow rate sufficient to maintain the particles in a uniform suspension. The objectives of these 1/12-scale scoping experiments are to determine how Reynolds number, Froude number, and gravitational settling parameter affect the degree of uniformity achieved during jet mixer pump operation in the full-scale double-shell tanks; develop linear models to predict the degree of uniformity achieved by jet mixer pumps operating in the full-scale double-shell tanks; apply linear models to predict the degree of uniformity that will be achieved in tank 241-AZ-101 and determine whether contents of that tank will be uniform to within {+-} 10% of the mean concentration; and obtain experimental concentration and jet velocity data to compared with the TEMPEST computational and modeling predictions to guide further code development.

  11. The COBRA experiment – Status and prospects on the search of neutrinoless double beta-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zatschler, S.

    2015-10-28

    The Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride 0-ν Double Beta Research Apparatus (COBRA) [1] is a next-generation experiment searching for the existence of neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay). The observation of 0νββ-decay would be an unambiguous sign for physics beyond the Standard Model such as lepton number violating processes and would prove the Majorana character of neutrinos. Furthermore, the study of 0νββ-decay could probe the absolute neutrino mass and allows for the identification of the neutrino mass hierarchy realized in nature assuming light Majorana neutrino exchange. Currently a demonstrator setup at the underground facility LNGS (Italy) built of 4×4×4 coplanar grid (CPG) detectors collects high quality low background physics data with FADC pulse shape sampling. The detectors are made of natural abundant CdZnTe (CZT), which is a commercially available room temperature semiconductor. It contains several double beta isotopes, the most promising of which is {sup 116}Cd with a Q-value of 2813.5 keV – which is well above the highest naturally occurring prominent γ-lines.

  12. First operation of a dielectric-loaded double-stripline free-electron maser experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Einat, M.; Jerby, E.; Shahadi, A.

    1995-12-31

    A tabletop free-electron maser (FEM) experiment based on a dielectric-loaded double-stripline waveguide is presented. It employs a low-energy (8 keV, 0.5 A) electron beam and a folded-foil wiggler ({lambda}w = 2 cm). Metal striplines protects the dielectric slabs from the electron beam and support quasi-TEM modes in the waveguide. Radiation output is observed at f = 3.5 GHz, in agreement with the dielectric-loaded FEM tuning relation.

  13. Towards a Precise Energy Calibration of the CUORE Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dally, Adam G.

    The mass of the neutrino may hold the key to many problems in cosmology and astrophysics. The observation of neutrino oscillations shows that neutrinos have mass, which was something that was not accounted for in the Standard Model of particle physics. This thesis covers topics relating to measuring the value of neutrino mass directly using bolometers. The first section will discuss the neutrino mass and different experiments for measuring the mass using bolometers. The mass of the neutrino can be measured directly from beta-decay or inferred from observation of neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta). In this work I present Monte Carlo and analytic simulation of the MARE experiment including, pile-up and energy resolution effects. The mass measurement limits of a micro-calorimeter experiments as it relates to the quantity of decays measured is provided. A similar simulation is preformed for the HolMES experiment. The motivation is to determine the sensitivity of such experiments and the detector requirements to reach the goal sensitivity. Another possible method for determining the neutrino mass is to use neutrinoless double beta decay. The second section will cover the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) detector calibration system (DCS). CUORE is a neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta) experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of 130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0 nubetabeta decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. Calibration is necessary to associate a known energy from a gamma with a voltage pulse from the detector. The DCS must overcome many design challenges. The calibration source must be placed safely and reliable within the detector. The temperature of the detector region of the cryostat must not be changed during calibration. To achieve this

  14. Optimization Studies for the COBRA Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment and Results from a Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jerrad Wayne

    The COBRA experiment uses Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) room-temperature semiconductor detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of cadmium-116. While the experiment has produced globally competitive half-life limits with data from coplanar-grid CZT detectors, a future ton-scale iteration could set limits constraining the effective Majorana neutrino mass to less than 100 meV. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal CZT detector type for such an experiment. First, an overview of the relevant neutrino physics as well as an introduction to the COBRA experiment is presented. The performance characteristics and design criteria for CZT detectors are then covered, both in general and as they relate to COBRA. Simulations and prototype experiments have been performed using two of the detector design candidates. The method and results are discussed in detail. Finally, the prototype is compared with other CZT detector designs in the context of performance and scalability for a 420 kg COBRA experiment.

  15. First results on neutrinoless double beta decay of Te-130 with the calorimetric cuoricino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaboldi, C.; Artusa, D.R.; Avignone, F.T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J.W.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carbone, L.; Cebrian, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R.J.; de Waard, A.; Farach, H.A.; Fascilla, A.; Fiorini, E.; Frossati, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Haller, E.E.; McDonald, R.J.; Morales, A.; Norman, E.B.; Nucciotti, A.; Olivieri, E.; Palmieri, E.; Pasca, E.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Pobes, C.; Previtali, E.; Pyle, M.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A.R.; Torres, L.; Ventura, G.

    2003-12-04

    The first results are reported on the limit for neutrinoless double decay of {sup 130}Te obtained with the new bolometric experiment CUORICINO. The set-up consists of 44 cubic crystals of natural TeO{sub 2}, 5 cm on the side and 18 crystals of 3 x 3 x 6 cm{sup 3}. Four of these latter crystals are made with isotopically enriched materials: two in {sup 128}Te and two others in {sup 130}Te . With a sensitive mass of {approx}40 kg, our array is by far the most massive running cryogenic detector to search for rare events. The array is operated at a temperature of {approx}10 mK in a dilution refrigerator under a heavy shield in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory at a depth of about 3500 m.w.e. The counting rate in the region of neutrinoless double beta decay is {approx}0.2 counts keV{sup -1} kg{sup -1} year{sup -1}, among the lowest in this type of experiment. No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is found with the present statistics obtained in about three months with a live time of 72%. The corresponding lower limit for the lifetime of this process is of 5.5 x 10{sup 23} years at 90% C.L. The corresponding limit for the effective neutrino mass ranges between 0.37 to 1.9 eV depending on the theoretically calculated nuclear matrix elements used. This constraint is the most restrictive one except those obtained with Ge diodes, and is comparable to them.

  16. First results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te with the calorimetric CUORICINO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carbone, L.; Cebrian, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; de Waard, A.; Farach, H. A.; Fascilla, A.; Fiorini, E.; Frossati, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Haller, E. E.; McDonald, R. J.; Morales, A.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Olivieri, E.; Palmieri, E.; Pasca, E.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Pobes, C.; Previtali, E.; Pyle, M.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Torres, L.; Ventura, G.

    2004-04-01

    The first results are reported on the limit for neutrinoless double decay of 130Te obtained with the new bolometric experiment CUORICINO. The set-up consists of 44 cubic crystals of natural TeO2, 5 cm on the side and 18 crystals of 3×3×6 cm3. Four of these latter crystals are made with isotopically enriched materials: two in 128Te and two others in 130Te. With a sensitive mass of ∼40 kg, our array is by far the most massive running cryogenic detector to search for rare events. The array is operated at a temperature of ∼10 mK in a dilution refrigerator under a heavy shield in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory at a depth of about 3500 m.w.e. The counting rate in the region of neutrinoless double beta decay is ∼0.2 counts keV-1 kg-1 y-1, among the lowest in this type of experiment. No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is found with the present statistics obtained in about three months with a live time of 72%. The corresponding lower limit for the lifetime of this process is of 5.5×1023 years at 90% C.L. The corresponding limit for the effective neutrino mass ranges between 0.37 to 1.9 eV depending on the theoretically calculated nuclear matrix elements used. This constraint is the most restrictive one except those obtained with Ge diodes, and is comparable to them.

  17. Einstein-Bohr recoiling double-slit gedanken experiment performed at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Miao, Quan; Gel'Mukhanov, Faris; Patanen, Minna; Travnikova, Oksana; Nicolas, Christophe; Ågren, Hans; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Miron, Catalin

    2015-02-01

    Double-slit experiments illustrate the quintessential proof for wave-particle complementarity. If information is missing about which slit the particle has traversed, the particle, behaving as a wave, passes simultaneously through both slits. This wave-like behaviour and corresponding interference is absent if ‘which-slit’ information exists. The essence of Einstein-Bohr's debate about wave-particle duality was whether the momentum transfer between a particle and a recoiling slit could mark the path, thus destroying the interference. To measure the recoil of a slit, the slits should move independently. We showcase a materialization of this recoiling double-slit gedanken experiment by resonant X-ray photoemission from molecular oxygen for geometries near equilibrium (coupled slits) and in a dissociative state far away from equilibrium (decoupled slits). Interference is observed in the former case, while the electron momentum transfer quenches the interference in the latter case owing to Doppler labelling of the counter-propagating atomic slits, in full agreement with Bohr's complementarity.

  18. Status Update of the Majorana Demonstrator Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzko, Julieta; Rielage, Keith Robert; Xu, Wenqin; Elliott, Steven Ray; Massarczyk, Ralph; Goett, John Jerome III; Chu, Pinghan

    2015-11-10

    Neutrinoless double beta decay searches play a major role in determining neutrino properties, in particular the Majorana or Dirac nature of the neutrino and the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The consequences of these searches go beyond neutrino physics, with implications for Grand Unification and leptogenesis. The Majorana Collaboration is assembling a low-background array of high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The Majorana Demonstrator, which is currently being constructed and commissioned at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, will contain 44 kg (30 kg enriched in 76Ge) of HPGe detectors. Its primary goal is to demonstrate the scalability and background required for a tonne-scale Ge experiment. This is accomplished via a modular design and projected background of less than 3 cnts/tonne-yr in the region of interest. The experiment is currently taking data with the first of its enriched detectors.

  19. The Majorana Zero-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay Experiment White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitskell, R.; Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S.; Stekhanov, V.; Umatov,, V.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, S.; Webb, J.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Anderson, Dale N.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Jordan, David B.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Smith, Leon E.; Thompson, Robert C.; Warner, Ray A.; Tornow, W.; Young, A.; Collar, J. I.; Avignone, Frank T.; Palms, John M.; Doe, P. J.; Elliott, Steven R.; Kazkaz, K.; Robertson, Hamish; Wilkerson, John

    2002-03-07

    The goal of the Majorana Experiment is to determine the effective Majorana masss of the eletron neutrino. Detection of the neutrino mass implied by oscillation results in within our grasp. This exciting physics goal is best pursued using double-beta decay of germanium because of the historical and emerging advances in eliminating competing signals from radioactive backgrounds. The Majorana Experiment will consist of a large mass of 76Ge in the form of high-resolution detectors deep underground, searching for a sharp peak at the BB endpoint. We present here an overview of the entire project in order to help put in perspective the scope, the level and technial risk, and the readiness of the Collaboration to begin the undertaking.

  20. Anti-Reflective Coatings R&D for Next Generation Neutrinoless Double Beta Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, Alexander; Cuore Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Cyogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic source=detector experiment designed to search for the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0 νββ) of 130Te. CUORE currently utilizes a single phonon readout channel per crystal; adding a second channel for scintillation or Cherenkov light would improve particle identification for actively rejecting background events. This light would be collected via semiconductor wafers covered with anti-reflective coatings. These coatings maximize light absorption. In this talk, I will discuss the coating optimization regarding material and structure, and its implications for designing the next generation CUORE-style experiment. In addition, I will discuss projections for possible sensitivities of next generation 0 νββ searches that use dual channel light-phonon readouts.

  1. Double β experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; d'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Dossovitskiyj, A. E.; Galashov, E. N.; Grinyov, B. V.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Laubenstein, M.; Mikhlin, A. L.; Nagornaya, L. L.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nagornyi, P. G.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Prosperi, D.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Shlegel, V. N.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Stenin, Y. G.; Suhonen, J.; Tolmachev, A. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Virich, V. D.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yavetskiy, R. P.; Yurchenko, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    A search for double beta decay of 64,70Zn, 180,186W was carried out by using low background ZnWO4 crystal scintillators, while a CeCl3 scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2β processes in 136,138,142Ce. A search for 2β decay of 96,104Ru, 156,158Dy, 190,198Pt and study of 2ν2β decay of 100Mo to the first excited 0+ level of 100Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe γ spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO4 crystal scintillators from enriched 106Cd and 116Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2β decay of 106Cd and 116Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate 96,104Ru and 116Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2β processes in 106Cd is in preparation.

  2. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios

    2015-05-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge, a lepton number violating nuclear process predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. GERDA is an array of bare germanium diodes immersed in liquid argon located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. The results of the GERDA Phase I data taking with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV kg yr) are presented in this paper. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T1/20ν > 2.1×1025 yr (90% C.L.) was derived for the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge. Phase II of the experiment aims to reduce the background around the region of interest by a factor of ten.

  3. Stability studies of a hollow plasma in the double cusp experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.R.; Garner, H.R.; Parks, P.B.; Sleeper, A.M.; Okamura, S.; Adati, K.; Aoki, T.; Fujita, H.; Hidekuma, S.; Hattori, K.

    1984-11-01

    Axisymmetric cusp end cells have application for the stabilization and plugging of a tandem-mirror-type reactor. Experiments have been performed on the RFC-XX double cusp in Nagoya, Japan to measure the stability of the hollow plasma in the adiabatically confined region of the device. Experiments were performed with both a uniform field central section and with a mirror central section connecting the two cusps. The plasma is produced by an rf discharge of gas puffed into the vessel. Plasma fluctuations were measured by Langmuir probes and magnetic probes. Stable regions of operation with a hollow plasma in the cusp are found for both magnetic configurations. Various types of instabilities are observed: electrostatic drift type waves with m> or =1, lower-frequency waves with a magnetic perturbation associated with the density perturbation, an m = 0 ion-acoustic mode, and a large amplitude relaxation oscillation.

  4. Critical view to ``IGEX 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment: Prospects for next generation experiments''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Dietz, A.; Krivosheina, I. V.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a paper entitled “The IGEX 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment: Prospects for next generation experiments” has been published [

    Phys. Rev. D 65, 092007 (2002)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.65.092007
    ]. In view of the recently reported evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay [
    Mod. Phys. Lett. A 16, 2409 (2001).MPLAEQ0217-732310.1142/S0217732301005825
    ;
    Found. Phys.FNDPA40015-9018 31, 1181 (2002)
    ;
    Phys. Lett. BPYLBAJ0370-2693 586, 198 (2004).10.1016/j.physletb.2004.02.025
    ], it is particularly unfortunate that the IGEX paper is rather incomplete in its presentation. We would like to point out in this Comment that and why it would be highly desirable to make more details about the experimental conditions and the analysis of IGEX available. We list some of the main points, which require further explanation. We also point to an arithmetic mistake in the analysis of the IGEX data, the consequence of which are too high half-life limits given in that paper.

  5. Probing flavor models with ^{ {76}}Ge-based experiments on neutrinoless double-β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Matteo; Merle, Alexander; Zuber, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The physics impact of a staged approach for double-β decay experiments based on ^{ {76}}Ge is studied. The scenario considered relies on realistic time schedules envisioned by the Gerda and the Majorana collaborations, which are jointly working towards the realization of a future larger scale ^{ {76}}Ge experiment. Intermediate stages of the experiments are conceived to perform quasi background-free measurements, and different data sets can be reliably combined to maximize the physics outcome. The sensitivity for such a global analysis is presented, with focus on how neutrino flavor models can be probed already with preliminary phases of the experiments. The synergy between theory and experiment yields strong benefits for both sides: the model predictions can be used to sensibly plan the experimental stages, and results from intermediate stages can be used to constrain whole groups of theoretical scenarios. This strategy clearly generates added value to the experimental efforts, while at the same time it allows to achieve valuable physics results as early as possible.

  6. Medication double-checking procedures in clinical practice: a cross-sectional survey of oncology nurses' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Taxis, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background Double-checking is widely recommended as an essential method to prevent medication errors. However, prior research has shown that the concept of double-checking is not clearly defined, and that little is known about actual practice in oncology, for example, what kind of checking procedures are applied. Objective To study the practice of different double-checking procedures in chemotherapy administration and to explore nurses' experiences, for example, how often they actually find errors using a certain procedure. General evaluations regarding double-checking, for example, frequency of interruptions during and caused by a check, or what is regarded as its essential feature was assessed. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, qualified nurses working in oncology departments of 3 hospitals were asked to rate 5 different scenarios of double-checking procedures regarding dimensions such as frequency of use in practice and appropriateness to prevent medication errors; they were also asked general questions about double-checking. Results Overall, 274 nurses (70% response rate) participated in the survey. The procedure of jointly double-checking (read-read back) was most commonly used (69% of respondents) and rated as very appropriate to prevent medication errors. Jointly checking medication was seen as the essential characteristic of double-checking—more frequently than ‘carrying out checks independently’ (54% vs 24%). Most nurses (78%) found the frequency of double-checking in their department appropriate. Being interrupted in one's own current activity for supporting a double-check was reported to occur frequently. Regression analysis revealed a strong preference towards checks that are currently implemented at the responders' workplace. Conclusions Double-checking is well regarded by oncology nurses as a procedure to help prevent errors, with jointly checking being used most frequently. Our results show that the notion of independent checking needs to be

  7. Double Stimulation in the Waiting Experiment with Collectives: Testing a Vygotskian Model of the Emergence of Volitional Action.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    This study explores what human conduct looks like when research embraces uncertainty and distance itself from the dominant methodological demands of control and predictability. The context is the waiting experiment originally designed in Kurt Lewin's research group, discussed by Vygotsky as an instance among a range of experiments related to his notion of double stimulation. Little attention has been paid to this experiment, despite its great heuristic potential for charting the terrain of uncertainty and agency in experimental settings. Behind the notion of double stimulation lays Vygotsky's distinctive view of human beings' ability to intentionally shape their actions. Accordingly, human beings in situations of uncertainty and cognitive incongruity can rely on artifacts which serve the function of auxiliary motives and which help them undertake volitional actions. A double stimulation model depicting how such actions emerge is tested in a waiting experiment conducted with collectives, in contrast with a previous waiting experiment conducted with individuals. The model, validated in the waiting experiment with individual participants, applies only to a limited extent to the collectives. The analysis shows the extent to which double stimulation takes place in the waiting experiment with collectives, the differences between the two experiments, and what implications can be drawn for an expanded view on experiments. PMID:26318436

  8. A Comparison of Climate Feedback Strength between CO2 Doubling and LGM Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimori, M.; Yokohata, T.; Abe-Ouchi, A.

    2008-12-01

    Studies of past climate potentially provide a constraint on the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, but previous studies warn against a simple scaling to the future. The climate sensitivity is determined by various feedback processes and they may vary with climate states and forcings. In this study, we investigate similarities and differences of feedbacks for a CO2 doubling, a last glacial maximum (LGM), and LGM greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing experiments, using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. After computing the radiative forcing, the individual feedback strengths: water vapor, lapse rate, albedo, and cloud feedbacks, are evaluated explicitly. For this particular model, the difference in the climate sensitivity among experiments is attributed to the shortwave cloud feedback in which there is a tendency that it becomes weaker or even negative in the cooling experiments. No significant difference is found in the water vapor feedback between warming and cooling experiments by GHGs despite the nonlinear dependence of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation on temperature. The weaker water vapor feedback in the LGM experiment due to a relatively weaker tropical forcing is compensated by the stronger lapse rate feedback due to a relatively stronger extratropical forcing. A hypothesis is proposed which explains the asymmetric cloud response between warming and cooling experiments associated with a displacement of the region of mixed- phase clouds. The difference in the total feedback strength between experiments is, however, relatively small compared to the current intermodel spread, and does not necessarily preclude the use of LGM climate as a future constraint.

  9. New generation of double beta decay experiments: are there any limitations?

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2011-12-16

    New generation of experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay with sensitivity to effective Majorana neutrino mass on the level of {approx}3-5 meV is discussed. Possible restrictions in achievement of this sensitivity such as: possibility to produce large amount of enriched isotopes, possibility to reach of a very low level of background, energy resolution and possible cost of experiments are considered. It is shown that for realization of so ambitious project 10 tons (or more) of enriched isotope is required. Background index should be on the level {<=}10{sup -5}-10{sup -6} c/kg{center_dot}keV{center_dot}y. In addition, the energy resolution of the detector should be no worse than 1-2%. It is shown that {sup 130}TeO{sub 2} low temperature bolometer could be the most realistic candidate for such an experiment. Under certain conditions experiments with {sup 76}Ge, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 136}Xe can be realized too.

  10. Experiments TGV I (double-beta decay of 48Ca) and TGV II (double-beta decay of 106Cd and 48Ca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štekl, I.; Čermák, P.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Briancon, Ch.; Šimkovic, F.

    2000-04-01

    Present status of experiments TGV I and TGV II is given. The TGV I collaboration has studied the double-beta decay of 48Ca with a low-background and high sensitivity Ge multi-detector spectrometer TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical). The preliminary results of years and years (90% CL) for double-beta decay of 48 Ca has been found after the processing of experimental data obtained after 8700 hours of measuring time using approximately 1 gramme of 48Ca. The aim of the experiment TGV II is the development of the experimental methods, construction of spectrometers and measurement of the decay (++, β+/EC, EC/EC) of 106Cd particularly the 2νEC/EC mode. The theoretical description and performance of the TGV II spectrometer are also given.

  11. Decisions that hasten death: double effect and the experiences of physicians in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Australian end-of-life care, practicing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is illegal. Despite this, death hastening practices are common across medical settings. Practices can be clandestine or overt but in many instances physicians are forced to seek protection behind ambiguous medico-legal imperatives such as the Principle of Double Effect. Moreover, the way they conceptualise and experience such practices is inconsistent. To complement the available statistical data, the purpose of this study was to understand the reasoning behind how and why physicians in Australia will hasten death. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Highlighting the importance of a multidimensional approach, physicians negotiated multiple influences when death was regarded as hastened. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices were affected by politico-religious and cultural influences, medico-legal imperatives, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects further emphasised the emotional and psychological investment physicians have with patients and others. In most cases death occurred as a result of treating suffering, and sometimes to fulfil the wishes of patients and others who requested death. Experience was especially subject to the efficacy with which physicians negotiated complex but context-specific situations, and was reflective of how they considered a good death. Although many were compelled to draw on the Principle of Double Effect, every physician reported its inadequacy as a medico-legal guideline. Conclusions The Principle of Double Effect, as a simplistic and generalised guideline, was identified as a convenient mechanism to protect physicians who

  12. Probing Pre-and In-Service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these…

  13. MOON for a next-generation neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment: Present status and perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, T.; Doe, P.J.; Ejiri, H.; Elliot, S.R.; Engel, J.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fushimi, K.; Gehman, V.M.; Greenfield, M.B.; Hazama, R.; /Hiroshima U. /NIRS, Chiba

    2008-01-01

    The performance of the MOON detector for a next-generation neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment was evaluated by means of the Monte Carlo method. The MOON detector was found to be a feasible solution for the future experiment to search for the Majorana neutrino mass in the range of 100-30 meV.

  14. Radiopure ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU double-beta experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poda, D. V.; Armengaud, E.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Barabash, A. S.; Benoît, A.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Boiko, R. S.; Bergmann, T.; Blümer, J.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Censier, B.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Chernyak, D. M.; Coron, N.; Coulter, P.; Cox, G. A.; Danevich, F. A.; de Boissière, T.; Decourt, R.; De Jesus, M.; Devoyon, L.; Drillien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Enss, C.; Filosofov, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Fourches, N.; Gascon, J.; Gastaldo, L.; Gerbier, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Henry, S.; Hervé, S.; Heuermann, G.; Humbert, V.; Ivanov, I. M.; Juillard, A.; Kéfélian, C.; Kleifges, M.; Kluck, H.; Kobychev, V. V.; Koskas, F.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le Sueur, H.; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Menshikov, A.; Nasonov, S. G.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Piro, M. C.; Plantevin, O.; Redon, T.; Robinson, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Schmidt, B.; Shlegel, V. N.; Siebenborn, B.; Strazzer, O.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tenconi, M.; Torres, L.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vagneron, L.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.; Velazquez, M.; Viraphong, O.; Walker, R. J.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zhang, X.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2015-08-01

    The results of R&D of radiopure zinc molybdate (ZnMoO4) based scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU (Luminescent Underground Molybdenum Investigation for NEUtrino mass and nature) double-beta decay experiment are presented. A dedicated two-stage molybdenum purification technique (sublimation in vacuum and recrystallization from aqueous solutions) and an advanced directional solidification method (the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique) were utilized to produce high optical quality large mass (˜1 kg) ZnMoO4 crystal boules and first 100Mo (99.5%) enriched Zn100MoO4 crystal scintillator (mass of ˜0.2 kg). Scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO4 (≈ 0.33 kg) and Zn100MoO4 (≈ 0.06 kg) scintillation elements and high purity Ge wafers were tested in the EDELWEISS set-up at the Modane Underground Laboratory (France). Long term low temperature tests demonstrate excellent detectors' performance and effectiveness of the purification and solidification procedures for the achievement of high radiopurity of the material, in particular with a bulk activity of 228Th and 226Ra below 4 µBq/kg. The adopted protocol was used to produce for the first time a large volume Zn100MoO4 crystal scintillator (mass of ˜1.4 kg, 100Mo enrichment is 99.5%) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 100Mo in the framework of the LUMINEU project.

  15. Double free gracilis muscle transfer after complete brachial plexus injury: First Canadian experience

    PubMed Central

    Elzinga, Kate; Zuo, Kevin J; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael; Babicki, Sasha; Chan, K Ming

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brachial plexus root avulsions are devastating injuries, and are complex and challenging to reconstruct. Double free muscle transfer using the gracilis muscles is a potentially effective method of restoring upper extremity function. The authors report on the first two patients treated using this technique in Canada. Both sustained traumatic brachial plexus root avulsion injuries resulting in a flail arm. In the first step of this two-stage procedure, a gracilis muscle was transferred to restore elbow flexion, and wrist and digit extension. Months later, the transfer of the second gracilis muscle was performed to enhance elbow flexion and to enable wrist and digit flexion. Postoperatively, both patients achieved Medical Research Council grade 4 elbow flexion, functional handgrip and were able to return to gainful employment. Patient satisfaction was high and active range of motion improved substantially. The authors’ experience supports the use of this technique following severe brachial plexus injury. PMID:25152644

  16. The search for Majorana neutrinos with neutrinoless double beta decays: From CUORICINO to LUCIFER experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, F.

    2012-11-20

    The study of neutrino properties is one of the fundamental challenges in particle physics nowadays. Fifty years of investigations established that neutrinos are massive but the absolute mass scale has not yet been measured. Moreover its true nature is still unknown. Is the neutrino its own antiparticle (thus violating the lepton number) as proposed by Majorana in 1937? The only way to probe the neutrino nature is through the observation of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}), a very rare spontaneous nuclear transition which emits two electrons and no neutrinos. In this paper, after a brief introduction to the theoretical framework of Majorana's neutrino, a presentation of experimental challenges posed by 0{nu}{beta}{beta} search will be given as well as an overview of present status and future perpectives of experiments.

  17. Exploration of Pixelated detectors for double beta decay searches within the COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenke, M.; Zuber, K.; Janutta, B.; He, Z.; Zeng, F.; Anton, G.; Michel, T.; Durst, J.; Lück, F.; Gleixner, T.; Gössling, C.; Schulz, O.; Köttig, T.; Krawczynski, H.; Martin, J.; Stekl, I.; Cermak, P.

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay events in Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) room temperature semiconductor detectors. The development of pixelated detectors provides the potential for clear event identification and thus major background reduction. The tracking option of a semiconductor is a unique approach in this field. For initial studies, several possible detector systems are considered with a special regard for low background applications: the large volume system Polaris with a pixelated CdZnTe sensor, Timepix detectors with Si and enriched CdTe sensor material and a CdZnTe pixel system developed at the Washington University in St. Louis, USA. For all detector systems first experimental background measurements taken at underground laboratories (Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy, LNGS and the Niederniveau Messlabor Felsenkeller in Dresden, Germany) and additionally for the Timepix detectors simulation results are presented.

  18. The search for Majorana neutrinos with neutrinoless double beta decays: From CUORICINO to LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, F.

    2012-11-01

    The study of neutrino properties is one of the fundamental challenges in particle physics nowadays. Fifty years of investigations established that neutrinos are massive but the absolute mass scale has not yet been measured. Moreover its true nature is still unknown. Is the neutrino its own antiparticle (thus violating the lepton number) as proposed by Majorana in 1937? The only way to probe the neutrino nature is through the observation of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νββ), a very rare spontaneous nuclear transition which emits two electrons and no neutrinos. In this paper, after a brief introduction to the theoretical framework of Majorana's neutrino, a presentation of experimental challenges posed by 0νββ search will be given as well as an overview of present status and future perpectives of experiments.

  19. Drell-Yan Cross Section and Longitudinal Double Spin Asymmetry in the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Gonaduwage

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of the Drell-Yan process in high energy polarized proton-proton collisions is a unique method for probing the proton spin structure. Measurement of the longitudinal double spin asymmetry (ALL) in the Drell-Yan process provides clean access to the anti-quark helicity distributions without involving quark fragmentation functions. In the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Forward Silicon Vertex Detector (FVTX), together with forward muon spectrometers, allows us to study the Drell-Yan process by detecting the muon pairs in the forward region (1 . 2 < | η | < 2 . 4) while also suppressing backgrounds due to heavy-flavor production. In this talk we present the status of the Drell-Yan cross-section and ALL measurement for the intermediate mass region (4 GeV < M < 8 GeV) using the RHIC 2013 data of proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 510 GeV.

  20. Flight Experiment to Study Double-Diffusive Instabilities in Silver-Dopped Lead Bromide Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Adam, J. D.; Zhang, Hui; Coriell, Sam. R.; Duval, Walter M. B.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present program is to understand thermosolutal convection during crystal growth of PbBr2-AgBr alloys. This involves identification of the growth conditions for microgravity experiments delineating the microsegregation, observation of convecto-diffusive instabilities and comparison with theoretical models. The overall objectives can be summarized as follows: 1. Observe and study the double diffusive and morphological instabilities in controlled conditions and to compare with theoretically predicted convective and morphological instability curves. 2. Study the three-dimensional morphological instabilities and resulting cellular growth that occur near the onset of morphological instability in the bulk samples under purely diffusive conditions. 3. Understand the micro-and macro-segregation of silver dopant in lead bromide crystals in microgravity. 4. Provide basic data on convective behavior in alloy crystals grown by the commercially important Bridgman crystal growth process.

  1. From Gaia to NEAT (Theia): synergies and results of the NEAT double-blind experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiche, E.; Voss, H.; Luri, X.; Anglada Escudé, G.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    The Near-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT, recently renamed into Theia) is a new mission concept to achieve sub-microarcsecond precision astrometry using pointed observations. This mission will be proposed as a candidate for the M4 call of ESA later this year. It will be a natural continuation of ESA's leadership in space astrometry by continuing and extending the work of the very successful HIPPARCOS and the recently launched Gaia missions. The science top-level requirements for NEAT are set by the ability to detect potentially habitable Earth-mass planets around all G and K dwarfs within 10 pc. Given the versatility of the concept, many other science cases can be addressed by obtaining ultra-precise pointed astrometric observations of exotic objects detected by Gaia and other on-going projects. Although Gaia is a mission that is not designed to search for exoplanets per se, it will make a major contribution to the field and to the NEAT mission in several aspects. The Gaia mission will produce an enormous wealth of data to mine and explore, so experience must be acquired to identify the simple traps of the analysis methods, design validation strategies and prepare scientists across the ESA community and beyond to exploit such wealth of data. In fact, the experience in astrometry precision and simulations acquired for Gaia, laid the foundation for the creation of the NEAT simulator. This simulator has been created in order to build a double-blind test program for astrometric planet detection, with the goal to demonstrate the exo-Earth planet finding capabilities of a pointed astrometric mission. Results are presented from our participation in this double-blind test showing our capabilities in the detection of Earth-like planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars based on the MLE method.

  2. Assessing the Prevalence of Publication Misconduct among Iranian Authors Using a Double List Experiment

    PubMed Central

    HADJI, Maryam; ASGHARI, Fariba; YUNESIAN, Masoud; KABIRI, Payam; FOTOUHI, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to determine the prevalence of publication misconduct among Iranian authors. Methods: Data were collected through an email survey of corresponding authors of papers published in Iranian journals indexed in Scopus during 2009–2011. Using the double list experiment, these individuals were indirectly questioned about committing one of the five misconducts including duplicate publication, falsification, guest authorship, plagiarism, and fabrication over the past year. Results: The survey was sent to 2321 individuals; 100 emails bounced, and of the remaining, 813 (36.60%) people responded to the questions. The prevalence rates were 4.15% for fabrication, 4.90% for plagiarism, 18.10% for guest authorship, 12.65% for falsification of the study methods, and −5.40% for duplicate publication. Among respondent 56.50% trusted the method and confidentiality of the survey and 6.50% did not trust the method or confidentiality at all. Conclusion: We found that the double list experiment method is simple and reliable for use in the academic community, and it can be conducted easily in an e-survey. According to our results, the most common misconducts among Iranian authors are guest authorship and falsification of the methodology. In light of the negative and maleficent impact of publication misconduct in the scientific society, we recommend raising awareness and educating authors and investigators in this regard. To determine the accuracy of the method used in this study, further studies on publication misconduct using a control group and direct questioning, as well as other indirect methods are suggested. PMID:27516996

  3. Reacted Equation of State Experiments in LX-17 Using a Double Shock Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Garcia, Frank; Tarver, Craig M.

    2011-06-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method. This method involves using 2 flyer materials on the projectile (of a known equation of state) that act to reflect a shock back into the detonated material after the initial shock. Thus, by measuring the parameters of this reflected wave, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The experiments were driven by a projectile at or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state ensuring a quick transition to detonation. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) was used to measure the velocity profile at the interface between the LX-17 and a backing lithium fluoride (LiF) window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental setup utilized, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, modeling, and future experiments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. ZICOS - New project for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment using zirconium complex in liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    A liquid scintillator containing a tetrakis (isopropyl acetoacetato) zirconium has been developed for new project of neutrinoless double beta decay experiment (ZICOS experiment). We have synthesized a tetrakis (isopropyl acetoacetato) zirconium, which have high solubility (over 31.2 wt.%) in anisole. We measured the performance of liquid scintillator containing 10 wt.% concentration of a tetrakis (isopropyl acetoacetato) zirconium, and obtained 48.7 ± 7.1% of the light yield of BC505 and the energy resolution of 4.1 ± 0.6% at 3.35 MeV assuming 40% photo coverage of the photomultiplier, respectively. We also estimated that ZICOS experiment should be sensitive to (mν) < 0.1 eV assuming gA = 1.25, gpp = 1.11 and QRPA model, if a radius of the inner detector is 1.5 m and the detector is filled with this liquid scintillator with an enriched 96Zr nucleus and we can reduce 208 Tl backgrounds to be one tenth order of magnitude of KamLAND-Zen using Cherenkov lights.

  5. Spillover and diffraction sidelobe contamination in a double-shielded experiment for mapping Galactic synchrotron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, C.; Villela, T.; Smoot, G. F.; Bersanelli, M.; Figueiredo, N.; De Amici, G.; Bensadoun, M.; Wuensche, C. A.; Torres, S.

    2000-09-01

    We have analyzed observations from a radioastronomical experiment to survey the sky at decimetric wavelengths along with feed pattern measurements in order to account for the level of ground contamination entering the sidelobes. A major asset of the experiment is the use of a wire mesh fence around the rim-halo shielded antenna with the purpose of levelling out and reducing this source of stray radiation for zenith-centered 1-rpm circular scans. We investigate the shielding performance of the experiment by means of a geometric diffraction model in order to predict the level of the spillover and diffraction sidelobes in the direction of the ground. Using 408 MHz and 1465 MHz feed measurements, the model shows how a weakly-diffracting and unshielded antenna configuration becomes strongly-diffracting and double-shielded as far-field diffraction effects give way to near-field ones. Due to the asymmetric response of the feeds, the orientation of their radiation fields with respect to the secondary must be known a priori before comparing model predictions with observational data. By adjusting the attenuation coefficient of the wire mesh the model is able to reproduce the amount of differential ground pick-up observed during test measurements at 1465 MHz.

  6. Final Report One-Twelfth-Scale Mixing Experiments to Characterize Double-Shell Tank Slurry Uniformity

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Liljegren, Lucia M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Titzler, Patricia A.; Terrones, Guillermo

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of these 1/12-scale scoping experiments were to: Determine which of the dimensionless parameters discussed in Bamberger and Liljegren (1994) affect the maximum concentration that can be suspended during jet mixer pump operation in the full-scale double-shell tanks; Develop empirical correlations to predict the nozzle velocity required for jet mixer pumps to suspend the contents of full-scale double-shell tanks; Apply the models to predict the nozzle velocity required to suspend the contents of Tank 241 AZ-101; Obtain experimental concentration data to compare with the TEMPEST( )(Trent and Eyler 1989) computational modeling predictions to guide further code development; Analyze the effects of changing nozzle diameter on exit velocity (U0) and U0D0 (the product of the exit velocity and nozzle diameter) required to suspend the contents of a tank. The scoping study experimentally evaluated uniformity in a 1/12-scale experiment varying the Reynolds number, Froude number, and gravitational settling parameter space. The initial matrix specified only tests at 100% U0D0 and 25% U0D0. After initial tests were conducted with small diameter, low viscosity simulant this matrix was revised to allow evaluation of a broader range of U0D0s. The revised matrix included full factorial test between 100% and 50% U0D0 and two half-factorial tests at 75% and 25% U0D0. Adding points at 75% U0D0 and 50% U0D0 allowed evaluation curvature. Eliminating points at 25% U0D0 decreased the testing time by several weeks. Test conditions were achieved by varying the simulant viscosity, the mean particle size, and the jet nozzle exit velocity. Concentration measurements at sampling locations throughout the tank were used to assess the degree of uniformity achieved during each test. Concentration data was obtained using a real time ultrasonic attenuation probe and discrete batch samples. The undissolved solids concentration at these locations was analyzed to determine whether the tank

  7. Double {beta} experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Belli, P.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yurchenko, S. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; and others

    2011-12-16

    A search for double beta decay of {sup 64,70}Zn, {sup 180,186}W was carried out by using low background ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators, while a CeCl{sub 3} scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2{beta} processes in {sup 136,138,142}Ce. A search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 96,104}Ru, {sup 156,158}Dy, {sup 190,198}Pt and study of 2{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the first excited 0{sup +} level of {sup 100}Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators from enriched {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate {sup 96,104}Ru and {sup 116}Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2{beta} processes in {sup 106}Cd is in preparation.

  8. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; González-Díaz, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Villar, J. A.; Álvarez, V.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Díaz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC & Universitat de València, C and others

    2015-08-17

    The ”Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC” (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too.

  9. The Majorana Demonstrator Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarczyk, Ralph; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay searches play a major role in determining neutrino properties. The Majorana Collaboration is constructing an ultra-low background, modular high-purity Ge detector array to search for this decay in 76Ge. Located at the 4850-ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, the Demonstrator detector assembly has the goal to show that it is possible to achieve background rates necessary for future ton-scale experiments. The talk will give a short introduction to the experiment, an overview of the achievements made in detector construction, data analysis and simulation. After the first commissioning phase last year with more than half of the detectors in their final configuration, the current status of the Demonstrator will be presented in this talk as well as plans for the future. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  10. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; Pérez, J.; Bandac, I.; Labarga, L.; Álvarez, V.; Barrado, A. I.; Bettini, A.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Conde, E.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Fernández, M.; Ferrario, P.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Morata, J. A. Hernando; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; de Solórzano, A. Ortiz; Aparicio, J. L. Pérez; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-08-01

    The "Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC" (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too.

  11. The MGDO software library for data analysis in Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Finnerty, P.; Kröninger, K.; Lenz, D.; Liu, J.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R.; Nguyen, K. D.; Pandola, L.; Schubert, A. G.; Volynets, O.; Zavarise, P.

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda and Majorana experiments will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using isotopically enriched high-purity germanium detectors. Although the experiments differ in conceptual design, they share many aspects in common, and in particular will employ similar data analysis techniques. The collaborations are jointly developing a C++ software library, MGDO, which contains a set of data objects and interfaces to encapsulate, store and manage physical quantities of interest, such as waveforms and high-purity germanium detector geometries. These data objects define a common format for persistent data, whether it is generated by Monte Carlo simulations or an experimental apparatus, to reduce code duplication and to ease the exchange of information between detector systems. MGDO also includes general-purpose analysis tools that can be used for the processing of measured or simulated digital signals. The MGDO design is based on the Object-Oriented programming paradigm and is very flexible, allowing for easy extension and customization of the components. The tools provided by the MGDO libraries are used by both Gerda and Majorana.

  12. Results from the Cuoricino (Zero-Neutrino Double Beta) Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaboldi, C; Artusa, D R; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Barucci, M; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Brofferio, C; Bucci, C; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cebrian, S; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; de Ward, A; Didomizio, S D; Dolinski, M J; Farach, H A; Fiorini, E; Frossati, G; Giachero, A; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Maruyama, R H; McDonald, R J; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Olivieri, E; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, E; Pasca, E; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Risegari, L; Rosenfeld, C; Sangiorgio, S; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Torres, L; Ventura, G; Vignati, M

    2007-12-20

    Recent results from the CUORICINO {sup 130}Te zero-neutrino double-beta (0v{beta}{beta}) decay experiment are reported. CUORICINO is an array of 62 tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) bolometers with an active mass of 40.7 kg. It is cooled to {approx}8 mK by a dilution refrigerator shielded from environmental radioactivity and energetic neutrons. It is running in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Assergi, Italy. These data represent 11.83 kg y or 90.77 mole-years of {sup 130}Te. No evidence for 0v{beta}{beta}-decay was observed and a limit of T{sub 1/2}{sup 0v} ({sup 130}Te) {ge} 3.0 x 10{sup 24} y (90% C.L.) is set. This corresponds to upper limits on the effective mass, , between 0.19 and 0.68eV when analyzed with the many published nuclear structure calculations. In the context of these nuclear models, the values fall within the range corresponding to the claim of evidence of 0v{beta}{beta}-decay by H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus and his co-workers. The experiment continues to acquire data.

  13. Radiopurity assessment of the tracking readout for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; Pérez, J.; Bandac, I.; Labarga, L.; Álvarez, V.; Barrado, A. I.; Bettini, A.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Conde, E.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Fernández, M.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-05-01

    The ``Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon Time-Projection Chamber'' (NEXT) is intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe, which requires a severe suppression of potential backgrounds; therefore, an extensive screening and selection process is underway to control the radiopurity levels of the materials to be used in the experimental set-up of NEXT. The detector design combines the measurement of the topological signature of the event for background discrimination with the energy resolution optimization. Separate energy and tracking readout planes are based on different sensors: photomultiplier tubes for calorimetry and silicon multi-pixel photon counters for tracking. The design of a radiopure tracking plane, in direct contact with the gas detector medium, was specially challenging since the needed components like printed circuit boards, connectors, sensors or capacitors have typically, according to available information in databases and in the literature, activities too large for experiments requiring ultra-low background conditions. Here, the radiopurity assessment of tracking readout components based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterr&aposaneo de Canfranc (Spain) is described. According to the obtained results, radiopure enough printed circuit boards made of kapton and copper, silicon photomultipliers and other required components, fulfilling the requirement of an overall background level in the region of interest of at most 8×10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 y-1, have been identified.

  14. Radiopure ZnMoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU double-beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, D. V.; Chernyak, D. M.; Armengaud, E.; Boissière, T. de; Fourches, N.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Hervé, S.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X-F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Cazes, A.; Censier, B.; Charlieux, F.; De Jesus, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS and others

    2015-08-17

    The results of R&D of radiopure zinc molybdate (ZnMoO{sub 4}) based scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU (Luminescent Underground Molybdenum Investigation for NEUtrino mass and nature) double-beta decay experiment are presented. A dedicated two-stage molybdenum purification technique (sublimation in vacuum and recrystallization from aqueous solutions) and an advanced directional solidification method (the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique) were utilized to produce high optical quality large mass (∼1 kg) ZnMoO{sub 4} crystal boules and first {sup 100}Mo (99.5%) enriched Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystal scintillator (mass of ∼0.2 kg). Scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO{sub 4} (≈ 0.33 kg) and Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} (≈ 0.06 kg) scintillation elements and high purity Ge wafers were tested in the EDELWEISS set-up at the Modane Underground Laboratory (France). Long term low temperature tests demonstrate excellent detectors’ performance and effectiveness of the purification and solidification procedures for the achievement of high radiopurity of the material, in particular with a bulk activity of {sup 228}Th and {sup 226}Ra below 4 µBq/kg. The adopted protocol was used to produce for the first time a large volume Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystal scintillator (mass of ∼1.4 kg, {sup 100}Mo enrichment is 99.5%) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 100}Mo in the framework of the LUMINEU project.

  15. Search for double beta decay of 116Cd with enriched 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators (Aurora experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danevich, F. A.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; d’Angelo, S.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The Aurora experiment to investigate double beta decay of 116 Cd with the help of 1.162 kg cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators enriched in 116 Cd to 82% is in progress at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The half-life of 116 Cd relatively to the two neutrino double beta decay is measured with the highest up-to-date accuracy T1/2 = (2.62 ± 0.14) × 1019 yr. The sensitivity of the experiment to the neutrinoless double beta decay of 116 Cd to the ground state of 116 Sn is estimated as T1/2 ≥ 1.9 × 1023 yr at 90% CL, which corresponds to the effective Majorana neutrino mass limit (mv) ≤ (1.2 — 1.8) eV. New limits are obtained for the double beta decay of 116 Cd to the excited levels of 116 Sn, and for the neutrinoless double beta decay with emission of majorons.

  16. Status Update of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorren, Kristopher; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA collaboration has made significant progress over the past year on the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate backgrounds low enough to justify building a tonne-scale experiment, establish the feasibility to construct and field modular arrays of Ge detectors, and perform searches for additional physics beyond the standard model. The DEMONSTRATOR is currently being built at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The first of three custom cryostats, the prototype module, is currently taking data, while assembly and commissioning of the second cryostat, module 1, is ongoing. Hardware fabrication for the third cryostat, module 2, is nearing completion. Combined, module 1 and module 2 will contain 40 kg of Ge detectors with 30 kg enriched to 87 % 76 Ge, the double-beta decaying isotope. An active simulation and analysis campaign is underway for the prototype and module 1 cryostats. This talk will provide an overview and status update on the DEMONSTRATOR. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  17. First storage of ion beams in the Double Electrostatic Ion-Ring Experiment: DESIREE

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H. T.; Thomas, R. D.; Gatchell, M.; Rosen, S.; Reinhed, P.; Loefgren, P.; Braennholm, L.; Blom, M.; Bjoerkhage, M.; Baeckstroem, E.; Alexander, J. D.; Leontein, S.; Zettergren, H.; Liljeby, L.; Kaellberg, A.; Simonsson, A.; Hellberg, F.; Mannervik, S.; Larsson, M.; Geppert, W. D.; and others

    2013-05-15

    We report on the first storage of ion beams in the Double ElectroStatic Ion Ring ExpEriment, DESIREE, at Stockholm University. We have produced beams of atomic carbon anions and small carbon anion molecules (C{sub n}{sup -}, n= 1, 2, 3, 4) in a sputter ion source. The ion beams were accelerated to 10 keV kinetic energy and stored in an electrostatic ion storage ring enclosed in a vacuum chamber at 13 K. For 10 keV C{sub 2}{sup -} molecular anions we measure the residual-gas limited beam storage lifetime to be 448 s {+-} 18 s with two independent detector systems. Using the measured storage lifetimes we estimate that the residual gas pressure is in the 10{sup -14} mbar range. When high current ion beams are injected, the number of stored particles does not follow a single exponential decay law as would be expected for stored particles lost solely due to electron detachment in collision with the residual-gas. Instead, we observe a faster initial decay rate, which we ascribe to the effect of the space charge of the ion beam on the storage capacity.

  18. The double-slit experiment with Physarum polycephalum and p-adic valued probabilities and fuzziness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Andrew; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a single-cell slime mould visible by unaided eye. When foraging for sources of nutrients the slime mould optimizes its body shape, or a network of protoplasmic tubes. This optimization can be interpreted as computation. Many experimental laboratory prototypes of Physarum-based non-silicon computing devices have been implemented recently yet the scope of the slime mould as a fuzzy processor was never explored. We are filling this gap and show, by implementing the double-slit experiment, that self-inconsistencies in the slime mould's behaviour cannot approximate atomic individual acts of Physarum. This finding is analogous to our inability to approximate single photons. We further interpret the Physarum's behaviour in terms of individual-collective duality using p-adic valued probabilities and fuzziness. We also construct a system of p-adic many-valued logic to describe experimental responses of Physarum and we show how this logic can be used in ?-adic fuzzy logic controllers on the medium of Physarum.

  19. A novel double hohlraum target to create a moderately coupled plasma for ion stopping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, A.; Faik, S.; Schumacher, D.; Basko, M. M.; Blazevic, A.; Busold, S.; Bedacht, S.; Cayzac, W.; Frank, A.; Kraus, D.; Rienecker, T.; Schaumann, G.; Tauschwitz, An.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new double hohlraum target for the creation of a moderately coupled (0.1 < Γ < 1) carbon plasma for energy loss and charge state measurements of projectile ions interacting with this plasma. A spherical cavity of 600 μm in diameter is heated with a 150-J laser pulse (λL = 527nm) within 1.2ns to produce a quasi-Planckian X-ray source with a radiation temperature of Tr ≈ 100eV . These X-rays are then used to heat volumetrically two thin carbon foils in a secondary cylindrical hohlraum to a dense plasma state. An axi-symmetric plasma column with a free-electron density of up to 8 ×1021cm-3, a temperature of T ≈ 10 eV, and an average ionization degree of Z ≈ 3 is generated. This plasma stays in a dense and an almost uniform state for about 5ns . Ultimately, such targets are supposed to be used in experiments where a heavy ion beam is launched through the sample plasma, and the ion energy losses as well as the charge distributions are to be measured. The present paper is in a certain sense a symbiotic one, where the theoretical analysis and the experimental results are combined to investigate the basic properties and the prospects of this type of plasma targets.

  20. Fourier transform infrared double-flash experiments resolve bacteriorhodopsin's M1 to M2 transition.

    PubMed Central

    Hessling, B; Herbst, J; Rammelsberg, R; Gerwert, K

    1997-01-01

    The orientation of the central proton-binding site, the protonated Schiff base, away from the proton release side to the proton uptake side is crucial for the directionality of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. It has been proposed that this movement, called the reprotonation switch, takes place in the M1 to M2 transition. To resolve the molecular events in this M1 to M2 transition, we performed double-flash experiments. In these experiments a first pulse initiates the photocycle and a second pulse selectively drives bR molecules in the M intermediate back into the BR ground state. For short delay times between initiating and resetting pulses, most of the M molecules being reset are in the M1 intermediate, and for longer delay times most of the reset M molecules are in the M2 intermediate. The BR-M1 and BR-M2 difference spectra are monitored with nanosecond step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Because the Schiff base reprotonation rate is kM1 = 0.8 x 10(7) s(-1) in the light-induced M1 back-reaction and kM2 = 0.36 x 10(7) s(-1) in the M2 back-reaction, the two different M intermediates represent two different proton accessibility configurations of the Schiff base. The results show only a minute movement of one or two peptide bonds in the M1 to M2 transition that changes the interaction of the Schiff base with Y185. This backbone movement is distinct from the larger one in the subsequent M to N transition. No evidence of a chromophore isomerization is seen in the M1 to M2 transition. Furthermore, the results show time-resolved reprotonation of the Schiff base from D85 in the M photo-back-reaction, instead of from D96, as in the conventional cycle. Images Scheme 2 PMID:9336202

  1. An excellent navigation system and experience in craniomaxillofacial navigation surgery: a double-center study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jiewen; Wu, Jinyang; Wang, Xudong; Yang, Xudong; Wu, Yunong; Xu, Bing; Shi, Jun; Yu, Hongbo; Cai, Min; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hao; Shen, Guofang; Zhang, Shilei

    2016-01-01

    Numerous problems regarding craniomaxillofacial navigation surgery are not well understood. In this study, we performed a double-center clinical study to quantitatively evaluate the characteristics of our navigation system and experience in craniomaxillofacial navigation surgery. Fifty-six patients with craniomaxillofacial disease were included and randomly divided into experimental (using our AccuNavi-A system) and control (using Strker system) groups to compare the surgical effects. The results revealed that the average pre-operative planning time was 32.32 mins vs 29.74 mins between the experimental and control group, respectively (p > 0.05). The average operative time was 295.61 mins vs 233.56 mins (p > 0.05). The point registration orientation accuracy was 0.83 mm vs 0.92 mm. The maximal average preoperative navigation orientation accuracy was 1.03 mm vs 1.17 mm. The maximal average persistent navigation orientation accuracy was 1.15 mm vs 0.09 mm. The maximal average navigation orientation accuracy after registration recovery was 1.15 mm vs 1.39 mm between the experimental and control group. All patients healed, and their function and profile improved. These findings demonstrate that although surgeons should consider the patients’ time and monetary costs, our qualified navigation surgery system and experience could offer an accurate guide during a variety of craniomaxillofacial surgeries. PMID:27305855

  2. Maize Haploid Induction and Doubling II – Experience with Exotic and Elite Maize Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a follow-up to our previous study, second year information will be presented addressing questions on haploid induction and doubling, utilizing exotic and elite maize. These projects result from collaborations between Iowa State Doubled Haploid Facility (http://www.plantbreeding.iastate.edu/DHF/D...

  3. Measurement of the double-β decay half-life of 136Xe with the KamLAND-Zen experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O'Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from the KamLAND-Zen double-beta decay experiment based on an exposure of 77.6 days with 129 kg of 136Xe. The measured two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of 136Xe is T1/22ν=2.38±0.02(stat)±0.14(syst)×1021 yr, consistent with a recent measurement by EXO-200. We also obtain a lower limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life, T1/20ν>5.7×1024 yr at 90% confidence level (C. L.), which corresponds to almost a fivefold improvement over previous limits.

  4. Radon emanation based material measurement and selection for the SuperNEMO double beta experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerna, Cédric; Soulé, Benjamin; Perrot, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    The SuperNEMO Demonstrator experiment aims to study the neutrinoless double beta decay of 7 kg of 82Se in order to reach a limit on the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism T1/2 (ββ0ν) > 6.5 1024 years (90%CL) equivalent to a mass sensitivity mββ < 0.20 - 0.40 eV (90%CL) in two years of data taking. The detector construction started in 2014 and its installation in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) is expected during the course of 2015. The remaining level of 226Ra (238U chain) in the detector components can lead to the emanation of 222Rn gas. This isotope should be controlled and reduced down to the level of a 150 µBq/m3 in the tracker chamber of the detector to achieve the physics goals. Besides the HPGe selection of the detector materials for their radiopurity, the most critical materials have been tested and selected in a dedicated setup facility able to measure their 222Rn emanation level. The operating principle relies on a large emanation tank (0.7m3) that allows measuring large material surfaces or large number of construction pieces. The emanation tank is coupled to an electrostatic detector equipped with a silicon diode to perform the alpha spectroscopy of the gas it contains and extract the 222Rn daughters. The transfer efficiency and the detector efficiency have been carefully calibrated through different methods. The intrinsic background of the system allows one to measure 222Rn activities down to 3 mBq, leading to a typical emanation sensitivity of 20 µBq/m2/day for a 30 m2 surface sample. Several construction materials have been measured and selected, such as nylon and aluminized Mylar films, photomultipliers and tracking of the SuperNEMO Demonstrator.

  5. Physics Design of the Eta-II Double Pulse Target Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Ho, Darwin D.-H.; McCarrick, James; Paul, Arthur; Sampayan, Stephen; Wang, Li-Fang; Weir, John

    2000-10-01

    The second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility will provide four 2.1 mm spot size, x-ray pulses within 2 ms with their x-doses in the range of several hundred rads at a meter for x-ray imaging. To achieve its performance specifications, there should be a sufficient amount of the DARHT-II x-ray converter material remaining while it turns into plasma and expands rapidly due to the heating of previous beam pulses. Furthermore, the beam-target interactions, such as the unwanted focusing by the backstreaming ions from the desorbed gas from the target surface for the first pulse and by those from the target plasma for the subsequent pulses, and the instability of the beam propagating in dense plasma, should be mitigated. We have modified the single pulse target experimental facility on the Experimental Test Accelerator II (ETA-II) to perform the double pulse target experiments to validate the DARHT-II multi-pulse target concept. The 1.15 MeV, 2 kA Snowtron injector will be used to provide the first electron pulse. The 6 MeV, 2 kA ETA-II beam will be used as the probe beam, i.e., the second pulse. The ETA-II target is located inside a focusing magnet (near the center). To use the same ETA-II final focus lens, an iron sleeve will be inserted from the downstream side of the magnet to reduce the downstream side’s magnetic field, and the Snowtron beam will strike the x-ray converter from the back. The physics design of the final focus area will be presented. We have modeled the hydrodynamics of the target expansion for the Snowtron beam. Comparison against the DARHT-II target will be presented.

  6. Scintillator Development for the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Minfang

    2014-03-01

    Doped scintillator is the target material of choice for antineutrino detection as it utilizes the time-delayed coincidence signature of the positron annihilation and neutron capture resulting from the Inverse Beta Decay (IBD) interaction. Additionally, the multiple gamma rays or heavy ions emitted after neutron capture on either Gd or 6Li respectively provide a distinct signal for the identification of antineutrino events and therefore significantly enhance accidental background reduction. The choice of scintillator and dopant depends on the detector requirements and scintillator performance criteria. Both Gd and 6Li doped scintillators have been used in past reactor antineutrino experiments such as Double Chooz, Daya Bay, RENO, and Bugey3 and are currently under investigation by the PROSPECT collaboration. Their properties in terms of light yield, optical transparency, chemical stability and background rejection efficiency using Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) will be reported. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics and Office of High Energy Physics, under contract with Brookhaven National Laboratory-Brookhaven Science Associates.

  7. The design and construction of a double-sided Silicon Microvertex Detector for the L3 experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, A.; Ahlen, S.; Marin, A.; Zhou, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Caria, M.; Checcucci, B.; Easo, S.; Fiandrini, E.; Krastev, V.R.; Massetti, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L. |; Bencze, G.Y.L.; Kornis, J.; Toth, J.; Brooks, M.L.; Coan, T.E.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C.; Busenitz, J.; DiBitonto, D.; Camps, C.; Commichau, V.; Hangartner, K.; Schmitz, P.; Castellini, G.; Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Josa, I.; Landi, G.; Lecomte, P.; Viertel, G.M.; Waldmeier, S.; Leiste, R. |; Lejeune, E.; Weill, R.; Lohmann, W.; Nowak, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Schoeniech, B.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Vogt, H.; Passaleva, G.

    1993-12-01

    A Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) has been commissioned for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron-Positron colliding-beam accelerator (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Physics, (CERN). The SMD is a 72,672 channel, two layer barrel tracker that is comprised of 96 ac-coupled, double-sided silicon detectors. Details of the design and construction are presented.

  8. Radon emanation based material measurement and selection for the SuperNEMO double beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cerna, Cédric Soulé, Benjamin; Perrot, Frédéric

    2015-08-17

    The SuperNEMO Demonstrator experiment aims to study the neutrinoless double beta decay of 7 kg of {sup 82}Se in order to reach a limit on the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism T{sub 1/2} (ββ0ν) > 6.5 10{sup 24} years (90%CL) equivalent to a mass sensitivity mβ{sub β} < 0.20 - 0.40 eV (90%CL) in two years of data taking. The detector construction started in 2014 and its installation in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) is expected during the course of 2015. The remaining level of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U chain) in the detector components can lead to the emanation of {sup 222}Rn gas. This isotope should be controlled and reduced down to the level of a 150 µBq/m{sup 3} in the tracker chamber of the detector to achieve the physics goals. Besides the HPGe selection of the detector materials for their radiopurity, the most critical materials have been tested and selected in a dedicated setup facility able to measure their {sup 222}Rn emanation level. The operating principle relies on a large emanation tank (0.7m{sup 3}) that allows measuring large material surfaces or large number of construction pieces. The emanation tank is coupled to an electrostatic detector equipped with a silicon diode to perform the alpha spectroscopy of the gas it contains and extract the {sup 222}Rn daughters. The transfer efficiency and the detector efficiency have been carefully calibrated through different methods. The intrinsic background of the system allows one to measure 222Rn activities down to 3 mBq, leading to a typical emanation sensitivity of 20 µBq/m{sup 2}/day for a 30 m{sup 2} surface sample. Several construction materials have been measured and selected, such as nylon and aluminized Mylar films, photomultipliers and tracking of the SuperNEMO Demonstrator.

  9. Double and multiple chromosomal aneuploidies in spontaneous abortions: A single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Pulijaal, Venkat R.; Mathew, Susan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize double and multiple aneuploidies in spontaneous abortions (SAB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cytogenetics data obtained by culturing/harvesting products of the conception material at our center from 2006 to 2009 was performed. The abnormal cytogenetic results, maternal age, gestational age, and previous pregnancy history were recorded and compared. RESULTS: Double and multiple aneuploidies are rare, however, a high percentage of double (4.6%) and multiple (0.4%) chromosomal aneuploidies were observed in our study of 1502 cases of SAB. Of 1502 cases of SAB evaluated, 70 cases (4.6%) showed double aneuploidy, whereas 6 cases (0.4%) had multiple aneuploidies. The chromosomes most frequently involved in double aneuploidy in the decreasing order were 21, 16, ± X, 22, 18, 13, and 15. The most frequent chromosome combinations observed were: Loss of X/21 (8.5%), 21/22 (4.4%), 16/21 (4.4%), and 7/16 (4.4%). The chromosome combinations in multiple aneuploidy included trisomy of chromosomes X/5/8, 8/20/22, 16/20/22, 14/21/22, and loss of X with 21/21 and 7/21. These abnormalities were significantly observed in women between the age group 40-44 years (59.2%). A high success rate (94%) of obtaining metaphase cells was observed in this study mainly due to the use of direct and long-term cultures. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high percentage of double (4.6%) and multiple (0.4%) aneuploidies, frequently involving the acrocentic chromosomes 13, 15, 21, and 22 and nonacrocentric chromosomes X, 16, and 18. PMID:25624662

  10. Experiment TGV II: results on double electron capture in 106Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, P.; Benes, P.; Briançon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Gusev, K. N.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalik, A.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Simkovic, F.; Stekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, T.

    2008-06-01

    The TGV II (Telescope Germanium Vertical) facility is a low background spectrometer operated in Modane Underground Laboratory. It aims at the study of double electron capture of 106Cd. The spectrometer is composed of 32 HPGe planar detectors interleaved with thin-foil samples made of 106Cd enriched to 75%. In 2006, the main run of phase I (1 year duration) was terminated yielding a new limit on half-life for two-neutrino double electron capture in 106Cd as 2.0x1020y. The new limit is significantly higher (by almost three orders of magnitude) than those already published.

  11. Experiment TGV-2 - Search for double beta decay of 106Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Briançon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalík, A.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    New limits (at 90% C.L.) on double beta decay of Cd106-T(0νEC/EC)>1.7×1020 yr and T(2νEC/EC)>4.2×1020 yr were obtained in a preliminary calculation of data accumulated for 12900 h on the TGV-2 spectrometer.

  12. Results on neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge from phase I of the GERDA experiment.

    PubMed

    Agostini, M; Allardt, M; Andreotti, E; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Barnabé Heider, M; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjáš, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Cossavella, F; Demidova, E V; Domula, A; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Ferella, A; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Gotti, C; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Guthikonda, K K; Hampel, W; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Janicskó Csáthy, J; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Liu, X; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Machado, A A; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Misiaszek, M; Nemchenok, I; Nisi, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pessina, G; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Schönert, S; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Strecker, H; Tarka, M; Ur, C A; Vasenko, A A; Volynets, O; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2013-09-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope (76)Ge. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1 × 10(-2) counts/(keV kg yr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of (76)Ge, T(1/2)(0ν) >2.1 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with (76)Ge yields T(1/2)(0ν)>3.0 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.). PMID:24093254

  13. Results on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of Ge76 from Phase I of the GERDA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope Ge76. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1×10-2counts/(keVkgyr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge76, T1/20ν>2.1×1025yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with Ge76 yields T1/20ν>3.0×1025yr (90% C.L.).

  14. Double-Layered PTFE-Covered Nitinol Stents: Experience in 32 Patients with Malignant Esophageal Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jung Gu; Jung, Gyoo-Sik Oh, Kyung Seung; Park, Seon-Ja

    2010-08-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a double-layered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered nitinol stent in the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal strictures. A double-layered PTFE-covered nitinol stent was designed to reduce the propensity to migration of conventional covered stent. The stent consists of an inner PTFE-covered stent and an outer uncovered nitinol stent tube. With fluoroscopic guidance, the stent was placed in 32 consecutive patients with malignant esophageal strictures. During the follow-up period, the technical and clinical success rates, complications, and cumulative patient survival and stent patency were evaluated. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients, and no procedural complications occurred. After stent placement, the symptoms of 30 patients (94%) showed improvement. During the mean follow-up of 103 days (range, 9-348 days), 11 (34%) of 32 patients developed recurrent symptoms due to tumor overgrowth in five patients (16%), tumor ingrowth owing to detachment of the covering material (PTFE) apart from the stent wire in 3 (9%), mucosal hyperplasia in 2 (6%), and stent migration in 1 (3%). Ten of these 11 patients were treated by means of placing a second covered stent. Thirty patients died, 29 as a result of disease progression and 1 from aspiration pneumonia. The median survival period was 92 days. The median period of primary stent patency was 190 days. The double-layered PTFE-covered nitinol stent seems to be effective for the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal strictures. We believe that the double-layer configuration of this stent can contribute to decreasing the stent's migration rate.

  15. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched ^{82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Benetti, P.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Dafinei, I.; Domizio, S. Di; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Laubenstein, M.; Maino, M.; Nagorny, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orio, F.; Pagnanini, L.; Pattavina, L.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2015-12-01

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of ^{82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched ^{82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched ^{82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of ^{232}Th, ^{238}U and ^{235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μ Bq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the ^{82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of ^{82}Se to 0^+_1, 2^+_2 and 2^+_1 excited states of ^{82}Kr of 3.4\\cdot 10^{22}, 1.3\\cdot 10^{22} and 1.0\\cdot 10^{22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  16. Labeling DNA for Single-Molecule Experiments: Methods of Labeling Internal Specific Sequences on Double-Stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zohar, Hagar; Muller, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    This review is a practical guide for experimentalists interested in specifically labeling internal sequences on double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules for single-molecule experiments. We describe six labeling approaches demonstrated in a single-molecule context and discuss the merits and drawbacks of each approach with particular attention to the amount of specialized training and reagents required. By evaluating each approach according to criteria relevant to single-molecule experiments, including labeling yield and compatibility with cofactors such as Mg2+, we provide a simple reference for selecting a labeling method for given experimental constraints. Intended for non-specialists seeking accessible solutions to DNA labeling challenges, the approaches outlined emphasize simplicity, robustness, suitability for use by non-biologists, and utility in diverse single-molecule experiments. PMID:21734993

  17. Labeling DNA for single-molecule experiments: methods of labeling internal specific sequences on double-stranded DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Hagar; Muller, Susan J.

    2011-08-01

    This review is a practical guide for experimentalists interested in specifically labeling internal sequences on double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules for single-molecule experiments. We describe six labeling approaches demonstrated in a single-molecule context and discuss the merits and drawbacks of each approach with particular attention to the amount of specialized training and reagents required. By evaluating each approach according to criteria relevant to single-molecule experiments, including labeling yield and compatibility with cofactors such as Mg2+, we provide a simple reference for selecting a labeling method for given experimental constraints. Intended for non-specialists seeking accessible solutions to DNA labeling challenges, the approaches outlined emphasize simplicity, robustness, suitability for use by non-biologists, and utility in diverse single-molecule experiments.

  18. Modeling data from double-tagging experiments to estimate heterogeneous rates of tag shedding in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.

    1999-01-01

    Data from mark-recapture studies are used to estimate population rates such as exploitation, survival, and growth. Many of these applications assume negligible tag loss, so tag shedding can be a significant problem. Various tag shedding models have been developed for use with data from double-tagging experiments, including models to estimate constant instantaneous rates, time-dependent rates, and type I and II shedding rates. In this study, we used conditional (on recaptures) multinomial models implemented using the program SURVIV (G.C. White. 1983. J. Wildl. Manage. 47: 716-728) to estimate tag shedding rates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and explore various potential sources of variation in these rates. We applied the models to data from several long-term double-tagging experiments with Lake Superior lake trout and estimated shedding rates for anchor tags in hatchery-reared and wild fish and for various tag types applied in these experiments. Estimates of annual tag retention rates for lake trout were fairly high (80-90%), but we found evidence (among wild fish only) that retention rates may be significantly lower in the first year due to type I losses. Annual retention rates for some tag types varied between male and female fish, but there was no consistent pattern across years. Our estimates of annual tag retention rates will be used in future studies of survival rates for these fish.

  19. Purifications of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, AMoRE

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-08-17

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is going to use calcium molybdate crystals to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo isotope. In order to make the crystal, we use calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders as raw materials. Therefore it is highly necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th in the powders. In this talk, we will present our studies for purification of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders.

  20. Investigating two-photon double ionization of D{sub 2} by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Toppin, M.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Perez-Torres, J. F.; Plesiat, E.; Morales, F.; Martin, F.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.; Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A.

    2010-05-15

    We used a split-mirror setup attached to a reaction microscope at the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) to perform an XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiment by tracing the ultrafast nuclear wave-packet motion in the D{sub 2}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) with <10 fs time resolution. Comparison with time-dependent calculations shows excellent agreement with the measured vibrational period of 22{+-}4 fs in D{sub 2}{sup +}, points to the importance of accurately knowing the internuclear distance-dependent ionization probability, and paves the way to control sequential and nonsequential two-photon double-ionization contributions.

  1. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. II - Evidence for a double layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Television observations of a barium-plasma flux tube extending from near 4500 km to near 10,000 km during a magnetic substorm and dawn-sector auroral display indicated several interesting anomalous events. Beyond 5500 km, there was a rapid increase in brightness accompanied by flux-tube splitting and diffusion, leaving behind a truncated single flux tube. From the orientation of the flux tube compared with theoretical field models, the presence of a substantial field-aligned current sheet is deduced. A suggested explanation of these phenomena is given in terms of a plasma potential double layer.

  2. Neutron induced radio-isotopes and background for Ge double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Pinghan; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Environmental neutrons, mostly produced by muons in the cosmic rays, might contribute backgrounds to the search for neutrinoless double beta decays. These neutrons can interact with materials and generate radio-isotopes, which can decay and produce radioactive backgrounds. Some of these neutron-induced isotopes have a signature of a time-delayed coincidence, allowing us to study these infrequent events. For example, such isotopes can decay by beta decay to metastable states and then decay by gamma decay to the ground state. Considering the time-delayed coincidence of these two processes, we can determine candidates for these neutron-induced isotopes in the data and estimate the flux of neutrons in the deep underground environment. In this report, we will list possible neutron-induced isotopes and the methodology to detect them, especially those that can affect the search for neutrinoless double beta decays in 76Ge. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  3. How Can Visual Experience Be Depicted? A Study of Close-Up Double Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; Pepperell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The attempt to record visual experience has been of central importance to many artists throughout the history of art. Vision itself is made up of many processes, both psychological and physiological, and is still only partially understood. This paper presents research into an aspect of visual experience descried as "close-up double…

  4. A practical guide for the setup of a 1H-31P-13C double cross-polarization (DCP) experiment.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Wlodzimierz; Kassassir, Hassan; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2011-01-01

    O-phospho-L-threonine is a convenient sample to setup a (1)H-(31)P-(13)C double cross-polarization (DCP) Hartmann-Hahn match. The (1)H-(31)P-(13)C technique is extremely sensitive to the rate of the sample spinning. Both zero-quantum (ZQ) and double-quantum (DQ) cross-polarization operate at an average spinning rate (6-7 kHz). At higher spinning rates (10 kHz), the DQCP mechanism dominates and leads to a reduction of signal intensity, in particular for lower (31)P RF field strength. The application of two shape pulses during the second cross-polarization greatly improves the signal to noise ratio allowing the recording of better quality spectra. (31)P-(13)C spectrally induced filtering in combination with cross-polarization (SPECIFIC-CP) experiments can be carried out under ZQCP and DQCP conditions if careful attention is paid to the choice of RF field amplitudes and carriers Ω. Application of 1D and 2D (1)H-(31)P-(13)C experiments is demonstrated on model samples; disodium ATP hydrate and O-phospho-L-tyrosine. PMID:21440422

  5. Magnetic field line reconnection experiments. V - Current disruptions and double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Gekelman, W.; Wild, N.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of the stability of a large laboratory plasma current sheet, which has been generated in the process of magnetic field line reconnection, with respect to local current increases. Magnetic flux variations in regions remote from the current sheet generate an inductive voltage in the current loop that drops off inside the plasma in the form of a potential double layer, leading to particle acceleration with velocities much larger than those expected from the steady state electric fields in the plasma. A model for the mechanism of the current disruptions is formulated in which the potential structure leads to ion expulsion, creating a localized density drop. The associated current drop in an inductive circuit drives the potential structure, providing feedback for the disruptive instability. Similarities to, and differences from, magnetospheric substorm phenomena are noted.

  6. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leviner, L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ahmed, M. W.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Boswell, M.; De Braeckeleer, L.; Brudanin, V.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Elliott, Steven R.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Lesko, Kevin; Li, Jingyi; Mei, Dongming; Mikhailov, S.; Miley, Harry S.; Radford, D. C.; Reeves, James H.; Sandukovsky, Viatcheslav; Umatov, Valdimir; Underwood, T. A.; Tornow, W.; Wu, Y. K.; Young, A.

    2014-01-21

    We present data characterizing the performance of the _rst segmented, N- type Ge detector, isotopically enriched to 85% 76Ge. This detector, based on the Ortec PT6x2 design and referred to as SEGA (Segmented, Enriched Germanium Assembly), was developed as a possible prototype for neutrinoless double beta-decay measurements by the Majorana collaboration. We present some of the general characteristics (including bias potential, efficiency, leakage current, and integral cross-talk) for this detector in its temporary cryostat. We also present an analysis of the resolution of the detector, and demonstrate that for all but two segments there is at least one channel that reaches the Majorana resolution goal below 4 keV FWHM at 2039 keV, and all channels are below 4.5 keV FWHM.

  7. Experiment TGV-2. Search for double beta decay of 106Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Briançon, Ch; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Mamedov, F.; Shitov, Yu A.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Zhukov, S. V.

    2012-07-01

    The search for double beta decay of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (France, 4800 m.w.e.) using the multi-detector spectrometer TGV-2. 16 samples (~13.6 g) of 106Cd with an enrichment of 75% were installed between neighbouring HPGe detectors and measured during 12900 h. New half-life limits (at 90% CL) were obtained for 2νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the ground state of 106Pd - T1/2 > 4.2 × 1020 y, and for OνEC/EC resonant decay of 106Cd to 2741 keV and 2718 keV excited states of 106Pd - T1/2 > 1.8 × 1020y and T1/2 > 1.6 × 1020y respectively.

  8. Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

  9. A measurement of the 2 neutrino double beta decay rate of Te-130 in the CUORICINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kogler, Laura K.

    2011-11-30

    CUORICINO was a cryogenic bolometer experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay and other rare processes, including double beta decay with two neutrinos (2vββ). The experiment was located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and ran for a period of about 5 years, from 2003 to 2008. The detector consisted of an array of 62 TeO2 crystals arranged in a tower and operated at a temperature of 10 mK. Events depositing energy in the detectors, such as radioactive decays or impinging particles, produced thermal pulses in the crystals which were read out using sensitive thermistors. The experiment included 4 enriched crystals, 2 enriched with 130Te and 2 with 128Te, in order to aid in the measurement of the 2vββ rate. The enriched crystals contained a total of 350 g 130Te. The 128-enriched (130-depleted) crystals were used as background monitors, so that the shared backgrounds could be subtracted from the energy spectrum of the 130- enriched crystals. Residual backgrounds in the subtracted spectrum were fit using spectra generated by Monte-Carlo simulations of natural radioactive contaminants located in and on the crystals. The 2vββ half-life was measured to be T2v1/2 = [9.81± 0.96(stat)± 0.49(syst)] x1020 y.

  10. Double electron capture of {sup 106}Cd in the TGV-2 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalik, A.; Rozov, S. V.; Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V. V.; Yakushev, E. A.; Briancon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Fajt, L.; Hodák, R.; Kouba, P.; Rukhadze, E.; Rychnovský, F.; Štekl, I.; Klimenko, A. A.; Piquemal, F.; Šimkovic, F.; Shitov, Yu. A.

    2015-10-28

    A new experimental run of searching for EC/EC decay of {sup 106}Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (4800 m w.e.) using the TGV-2 spectrometer and ∼23.2 g {sup 106}Cd with enrichment of 99.57%. The limit on 2νEC/EC decay of {sup 106}Cd - T{sub 1/2}(2νEC/EC) > 3.1×10{sup 20} y, at 90% C.L was obtained from the preliminary calculation of experimental data accumulated for 7018 h of measurement. The limits on the resonance neutrino-less double electron capture decay of {sup 106}Cd were obtained from the measurement of ∼23.2 g of {sup 106}Cd with the low-background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX lasted 395 h - T{sub 1/2}(KL, 2741 keV) > 0.9×10{sup 20} y and T{sub 1/2}(KK, 2718 keV) > 1.4×10{sup 20} y at 90% C.L.

  11. OEDGE modeling of the DIII-D double null (CH4)-C-13 puffing experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J. D.; Wampler, W. R.; McLean, A. G.; Stangeby, P. C.; Allen, S. L.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Leonard, A. W.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Watkins, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Unbalanced double null ELMy H-mode configurations in DIII-D are used to simulate the situation in ITER high triangularity, burning plasma magnetic equilibria, where the second X-point lies close to the top of the vacuum vessel, creating a secondary divertor region at the upper blanket modules. The measured plasma conditions in the outer secondary divertor closely duplicated those projected for ITER. (CH4)-C-13 was injected into the secondary outer divertor to simulate sputtering there. The majority of the C-13 found was in the secondary outer divertor. This material migration pattern is radically different than that observed for main wall (CH4)-C-13 injections into single null configurations where the deposition is primarily at the inner divertor. The implications for tritium codeposition resulting from sputtering at the secondary divertor in ITER are significant since release of tritium from Be co-deposits at the main wall bake temperature for ITER, 240 degrees C, is incomplete. The principal features of the measured C-13 deposition pattern have been replicated by the OEDGE interpretive code.

  12. OEDGE modeling of the DIII-D double null 13CH4 puffing experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, A. W.; Unterberg, E. A.; Brook, N. H.; Elder, J. D.; McLean, A.G.; Bray, B. D.; Allen, S. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Watkins, Jonathan G.; Wampler, William R.

    2010-06-01

    Unbalanced double null ELMy H-mode configurations in DIII-D are used to simulate the situation in ITER high triangularity, burning plasma magnetic equilibria, where the second X-point lies close to the top of the vacuum vessel, creating a secondary divertor region at the upper blanket modules. The measured plasma conditions in the outer secondary divertor closely duplicated those projected for ITER. {sup 13}CH{sub 4} was injected into the secondary outer divertor to simulate sputtering there. The majority of the {sup 13}C found was in the secondary outer divertor. This material migration pattern is radically different than that observed for main wall {sup 13}CH{sub 4} injections into single null configurations where the deposition is primarily at the inner divertor. The implications for tritium codeposition resulting from sputtering at the secondary divertor in ITER are significant since release of tritium from Be co-deposits at the main wall bake temperature for ITER, 240 C, is incomplete. The principal features of the measured {sup 13}C deposition pattern have been replicated by the OEDGE interpretive code.

  13. Comparison of Capsule Endoscopy Findings to Subsequent Double Balloon Enteroscopy: A Dual Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Amandeep S; Walker, Andrew J; Benson, Mark E; Soni, Anurag; Guda, Nalini M; Misha, Mehak; Gopal, Deepak V

    2015-01-01

    Background. There has been a growing use of both capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to diagnose and treat patients with obscure gastrointestinal blood loss and suspected small bowel pathology. Aim. To compare and correlate sequential CE and DBE findings in a large series of patients at two tertiary level hospitals in Wisconsin. Methods. An IRB approved retrospective study of patients who underwent sequential CE and DBE, at two separate tertiary care academic centers from May 2007 to December 2011, was performed. Results. 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age ± SD was 66.6 ± 13.2 years. There were 56% males and 43.9% females. Measure of agreement between prior capsule and DBE findings was performed using kappa statistics, which gave kappa value of 0.396 with P < 0.001. Also contingency coefficient was calculated and was found to be 0.732 (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our study showed good overall agreement between DBE and CE. Findings of angioectasia had maximum agreement of 69%. PMID:26420979

  14. Double electron capture of 106Cd in the TGV-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Briancon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Fajt, L.; Hodák, R.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Kouba, P.; Piquemal, F.; Rozov, S. V.; Rukhadze, E.; Rychnovský, F.; Salamatin, A. V.; Šimkovic, F.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Yakushev, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new experimental run of searching for EC/EC decay of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (4800 m w.e.) using the TGV-2 spectrometer and ˜23.2 g 106Cd with enrichment of 99.57%. The limit on 2νEC/EC decay of 106Cd - T1/2(2νEC/EC) > 3.1×1020 y, at 90% C.L was obtained from the preliminary calculation of experimental data accumulated for 7018 h of measurement. The limits on the resonance neutrino-less double electron capture decay of 106Cd were obtained from the measurement of ˜23.2 g of 106Cd with the low-background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX lasted 395 h - T1/2(KL, 2741 keV) > 0.9×1020 y and T1/2(KK, 2718 keV) > 1.4×1020 y at 90% C.L.

  15. Search for double beta decay of 106Cd in TGV-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Briançon, Ch; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Shitov, Yu A.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts

    2010-01-01

    Search for double beta decay (β+β+, β+/EC, EC/EC) of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (4800 m w.e.) using a spectrometer TGV-2 with 32 HPGe detectors. New limits on the half-lives of 0vEC/EC resonant decay - T1/2 >= 1.6 × 1020 y, and on 2vEC/EC decay of 106Cd - T1/2 >= 4.1 × 1020 y (at 90% CL) were obtained from preliminary calculations of experimental data accumulated for 12900 h of measurement of ~13.6 g of 106Cd with enrichment of 75%. The limits on 2vEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the 2+,512 keV and 0+1,1334 keV excited states of 106Pd and on 2vβ+β+ and 2vβ+/EC decay of 106Cd were improved

  16. Comparison of Capsule Endoscopy Findings to Subsequent Double Balloon Enteroscopy: A Dual Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Amandeep S.; Walker, Andrew J.; Benson, Mark E.; Soni, Anurag; Guda, Nalini M.; Misha, Mehak; Gopal, Deepak V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. There has been a growing use of both capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to diagnose and treat patients with obscure gastrointestinal blood loss and suspected small bowel pathology. Aim. To compare and correlate sequential CE and DBE findings in a large series of patients at two tertiary level hospitals in Wisconsin. Methods. An IRB approved retrospective study of patients who underwent sequential CE and DBE, at two separate tertiary care academic centers from May 2007 to December 2011, was performed. Results. 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age ± SD was 66.6 ± 13.2 years. There were 56% males and 43.9% females. Measure of agreement between prior capsule and DBE findings was performed using kappa statistics, which gave kappa value of 0.396 with P < 0.001. Also contingency coefficient was calculated and was found to be 0.732 (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our study showed good overall agreement between DBE and CE. Findings of angioectasia had maximum agreement of 69%. PMID:26420979

  17. A new double imaging velocity focusing coincidence experiment: i{sup 2}PEPICO

    SciTech Connect

    Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Gerber, Thomas; Sztaray, Balint

    2012-08-15

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline of the Swiss Light Source has been upgraded after two years of operation. A new, turntable-type monochromator was constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which allows for fast yaw-alignment as well as quick grating change and exchange. In addition to the original imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence endstation (iPEPICO), a second, complementary double imaging setup (i{sup 2}PEPICO) has been built. Volatile samples can be introduced at room temperature or in a molecular beam, a pyrolysis source allows for radical production, and non-volatile solids can be evaporated in a heated cell. Monochromatic VUV radiation ionizes the sample and both photoelectrons and photoions are velocity map imaged onto two fast position sensitive detectors and detected in delayed coincidence. High intensity synchrotron radiation leads to ionization rates above 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}. New data acquisition and processing approaches are discussed for recording coincidence processes at high rates. The setup is capable of resolving pulsed molecular beam profiles and the synchrotron time structure temporally. The latter is shown by photoelectron autocorrelation, which displays both the 1.04 MHz ring clock frequency as well as resolving the micro-pulses with a separation of 2 ns. Kinetic energy release analysis on the dissociative photoionization of CF{sub 4} indicates a dissociation mechanism change in the Franck-Condon allowed energy range of the first ion state.

  18. Search for double beta decay of 106Cd in the TGV-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Kouba, P.; Piquemal, F.; Rozov, S. V.; Rukhadze, E.; Salamatin, A. V.; Šimkovic, F.; Shitov, Yu A.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Yakushev, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    A new experimental run of searching for double beta decay of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.) using the TGV-2 spectrometer, consisting of 32 planar type HPGe detectors with a total sensitive volume of ~400 cm3. 16 foils of 106Cd with an enrichment of 99.57% and a total mass of ~ 23.2 g were inserted between the entrance windows of face-to-face detectors. The limit on 2vEC/EC decay of 106Cd - T1/2 > 3.7 × 1020 y at 90% C.F was obtained from the preliminary calculation of experimental data accumulated for 8198 h of measurement. The limits on the resonance OvEC/EC decay of 106Cd were obtained from the measurement of ~23.2 g of 106Cd with the low-background HPGe spectrometer Obelix lasted 395 h -T1/2 (KF, 2741 keV) > 0.9 × 1020 y and T1/2 (KK, 2718 keV) > 1.4 × 1020 y at 90% C.L.

  19. The Majorana Experiment: a Straightforward Neutrino Mass Experiment Using The Double-Beta Decay of Ge-76

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Harry S.; Y Suzuki, M Nakahata, Y Itow, M Shiozawa & Y Obayashi

    2004-08-01

    The Majorana Experiment proposes to measure the effective mass of the electron neutrino to as low as 0.02 eV using well-tested technology. A half life of about 4E27 y, corresponding to a mass range of [0.02 - 0.07] eV can be reached by operating 500 kg of germanium enriched to 86% in Ge-76 deep underground. Radiological backgrounds of cosmogenic or primordial origin will be greatly reduced by ultra-low background screening of detector, structural, and shielding materials, by chemical processing of materials, and by electronic rejection of multi-site events in the detector. Electronic background reduction is achieved with pulse shape analysis, detector segmentation, and detector-to detector coincidence rejection.

  20. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, P.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, Jim; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Q.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Phillips, David; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2014-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0*) of the 76Ge isotope with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate the neutrino is its own anti-particle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass-scale of the neutrino. The Demonstrator is being assembled at the 4850 foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be contained in a lowbackground environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. The goals for the Demonstrator are: demonstrating a background rate less than 3 counts tonne -1 year-1 in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) surrounding the 2039 keV 76Ge endpoint energy; establishing the technology required to build a tonne-scale germanium based double-beta decay experiment; testing the recent claim of observation of 0; and performing a direct search for lightWIMPs (3-10 GeV/c2).

  1. Twenty-Year Experience of a Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a four-strand semitendinosus tendon was started in our department in July 1994. The motivation for starting the procedure was that the EndoButton with an inside-out procedure instrument became available in Japan. A review article of our DB ACL reconstruction procedure was summarized for the twentieth anniversary of the surgical procedure. Initial tension setting of the two grafts was changed in the first 8 years to achieve better stability during DB ACL reconstruction. A randomized clinical trial (RCT) was started in July 2002 to clarify superiority of the DB procedure to single-bundle (SB) reconstruction under the concept of anatomic reconstruction. Several anatomic studies were performed to describe normal ACL anatomy, which is essential for realizing anatomic reconstruction. A remnant-preserving technique would be an additional option for our DB procedure to improve reconstruction outcomes. Thus, a new remnant-preserving DB procedure was started in 2012. The reproducibility of the new procedure was investigated using three-dimensional computed tomography images. More complex procedures were performed using a transtibial technique and EndoButtons. Initial tension balancing between the two grafts was important for a better outcome. Superiority of knee stability after the DB compared to that after the SB procedure was clarified by the RCT. However, no patient consensus has been reached on any subjective advantage to the DB procedure. Studies of normal ACL anatomy have left questions unresolved regarding where the two tunnels should be created for direct and indirect insertions based on normal anatomy. A new remnant-preserving DB ACL procedure has been practiced. The procedure was more reproducible with respect to creating the femoral tunnel. DB ACL reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon is an attractive option when pursuing a better outcome for patients. PMID:26217458

  2. Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-Pump -- XUV-Probe experiments at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    FLASH Collaboration; Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, A.; Perez-Torres, J.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Toppin, M.; Plesiat, E.; Morales, F.; Martin, F.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M.; Jahnke, T.; Dorner, R.; Sanz-Vicario, J.; van Tilborg, J.; Belkacem, A.; Schulz, M.; Ueda, K.; Zouros, T.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, C.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2010-08-02

    Using a novel split-mirror set-up attached to a Reaction Microscope at the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) we demonstrate an XUV-pump -- XUV-probe ((hbar omega = 38 eV) experiment by tracing the ultra-fast nuclear wave-packet motion in the D2+ (1s sigma g-state) with<10 fs time resolution. Comparison with time-dependent calculations yields excellent agreement with the measured vibrational period of 22+-4 fs in D2+, points to the importance of the inter-nuclear distance dependent ionization probability and paves the way to control sequential and non-sequential two-photon double ionization contributions.

  3. Influence of a Sampling Shutter in a Double Shutter Drift Tube Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Yasutaka; Yoshida, Kosaku

    Monte Carlo simulations have been done to elucidate influence of a sampling shutter on electron arrival-time spectra (ATS) in an electrical shutter drift tube experiment. It is revealed that the ATS profile at the collector electrode coincides with that at the first grid of the sampling shutter and the swarm parameters deduced from the spectra are not affected by transmissivity of the grid although the ATS profile changes depending on the transmissivity.

  4. Velocity Interferometer blanking due to preheating in a double pulse planar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffite, S.; Baton, S. D.; Combis, P.; Clerouin, J.; Koenig, M.; Recoules, V.; Rousseaux, C.; Videau, L.

    2014-08-01

    Optical diagnostics, such as VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) or SOP (Streaked Optical Pyrometry), have become essential in shock timing experiments. Their high precision allows for accurate measurements of shock velocities, chronometry, and brightness temperature. However, in some instances, these measurements can be compromised. In planar shock coalescence experiments recently performed at the LULI facility [Baton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 195002 (2012)], VISAR signal loss was observed. In these experiments, a strong shock launched by a high-intensity spike catches up with a previously shock launched by an earlier, low-intensity beam. The disappearance of the VISAR signal is attributed to a preheating of the coronal plasma by x-rays generated by the high intensity spike. The signal does not disappear if the high-intensity spike starts after VISAR probe beam begins to reflect off of the first shock. The VISAR diagnostic, modeled using an assessment of the optical index in quartz, compares favorably to experimental results. This provides evidence that x-ray preheating can cause blanking of the VISAR signal in quartz.

  5. Velocity Interferometer blanking due to preheating in a double pulse planar experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Laffite, S.; Combis, P.; Clerouin, J.; Recoules, V.; Rousseaux, C.; Videau, L.; Baton, S. D.; Koenig, M.

    2014-08-15

    Optical diagnostics, such as VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) or SOP (Streaked Optical Pyrometry), have become essential in shock timing experiments. Their high precision allows for accurate measurements of shock velocities, chronometry, and brightness temperature. However, in some instances, these measurements can be compromised. In planar shock coalescence experiments recently performed at the LULI facility [Baton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 195002 (2012)], VISAR signal loss was observed. In these experiments, a strong shock launched by a high-intensity spike catches up with a previously shock launched by an earlier, low-intensity beam. The disappearance of the VISAR signal is attributed to a preheating of the coronal plasma by x-rays generated by the high intensity spike. The signal does not disappear if the high-intensity spike starts after VISAR probe beam begins to reflect off of the first shock. The VISAR diagnostic, modeled using an assessment of the optical index in quartz, compares favorably to experimental results. This provides evidence that x-ray preheating can cause blanking of the VISAR signal in quartz.

  6. Energy Calibration for a Sensitive Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay: Using the Cuoricino Experience to Prepare for CUORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejzak, Larissa M.

    Neutrinos, which were long believed to be massless particles, are now known to have a tiny finite mass. A thorough understanding of the properties of their masses may provide vital clues to the history of the development of the universe as we know it. An intensive experimental search is underway for evidence of a Majorana mass component to the neutrino via many current and upcoming detectors seeking to observe the rare nuclear process neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nubetabeta). These detectors must be able to achieve very low backgrounds and a precise understanding of their energy scales. This paper presents the experimental approach of one of these 0nubetabeta experiments, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE), and the attendant challenges of achieving excellent energy calibration performance in the detector from the perspectives of both hardware design and analysis. Experience and data from Cuoricino, the predecessor of CUORE, have been extensively leveraged to prepare optimized operational procedures for CUORE. The expected sensitivity profile of CUORE as a function of time is also presented and compared with those of other leading 0nubetabeta experiments.

  7. Two experiments in neutrino physics: Double beta decay of cadmium-116 and the efficiency of an argon-40 neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Manojeet

    1999-03-01

    This thesis contains work concerning two experiments related to searches for neutrino masses. 1. QRPA calculations of double-β-decays have not been able to reproduce data in the A = 100 system. We propose the A = 116 system-because of its smaller deformation-as a simpler system to test QRPA calculations. We performed two experiments that determine the previously unknown electron capture (EC) decay branch of 116In to be (2.27 ± 0.63) × 10- 2%, from which we deduce logft = 4.39- 0.15+0.10. We then used this EC logft value along with the well known βsp- logft values to predict the 2ν double-β decay rate of 116Cd to the g.s. and the first excited 0+ state of 116Sn. The prediction shows that the contribution to the double-β decay rate from the g.s could exceed the total decay rate indicating a cancellation of contributions from the excited states of 116In. 2. We studied β-delayed proton and γ emission from 40Ti decay. We found t1/over 2 = 53.6 ± 0.6 ms and observed 28 proton groups that we organized into a 40Ti decay with 21 branches. The reduced transition strengths of these decay branches were then used to compute the neutrino detection efficiency of the ICARUS liquid argon time-projection chamber. Our integrated GT strength is about 20% larger than the theoretical prediction. We found 40Ar(/nu,e) cross-sections (for an electron energy threshold W = 5 MeV) of (13.8 ± 0.3) × 10-43cm2, (74.0 ± 1.6) × 10- 43cm2 and (3.2 ± 0.1) × 10- 41cm2 for 8B neutrinos, hep neutrinos and supernova neutrinos characterized by a temperature of 4.5 MeV.

  8. Linewidth oscillations in a nanometer-size double-slit interference experiment with single electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrachina, R. O.; Frémont, F.; Fossez, K.; Gruyer, D.; Helaine, V.; Lepailleur, A.; Leredde, A.; Maclot, S.; Scamps, G.; Chesnel, Jean-Yves

    2010-06-01

    In this article we provide experimental evidence of an interference phenomenon that, to the best of our knowledge, has so far not been observed with either matter or light. In a nanometer-sized version of Feynman’s famous two-slit “thought” experiment with single electrons, we managed to observe that the width of a quasi-monochromatic line oscillates with the detection angle. Furthermore, we find that it occurs in counterphase with the line intensity. We discuss the underlying mechanism that produces this unexpected result.

  9. Double cathode experiments using radial foil configurations on the COBRA generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, B. H.; Gorenstein, A. Y.; Kim, J. E.; Gourdain, P.-A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Laboratory of Plasma Studies at Cornell University, our research group has been investigating the dynamics and the collision of plasma bubbles formed by the explosion of metallic foils. A 100-ns rise time 1MA current runs through an aluminum foil, five micron thick, stretched horizontally onto the anode of the COBRA pulsed power generator. Cathode contacts consist of two hollow stainless pins equally spaced about the center of the foil. The parameters of this experiment include the spacing (3 mm) and inclination of the cathode pins (parallel or at a 45 degree angle). During the explosion, plasma bubbles are formed around each pin. As the bubbles grow and collide, interesting features appear in both experiments. For the parallel cathode configuration, a plasma plume forms above the center between the two bubbles before collision occurs. The plume resembles a twisted helix. For the slanted cathode configuration a plasma sheet forms when the two bubbles collide, and possibly a shock front is formed after the collision. The sheet extends inside a vertical plane just above the foil geometrical center. The electron density of this plasma sheet is approximately 5x10^18 cm-3, and its velocity is below 150 km/s.

  10. Measurement of the half-life of the two-neutrino double beta decay of 76Ge with the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Denisov, A.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A. D.; Freund, K.; Froborg, F.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gazzana, S.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kianovsky, S.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Peraro, L.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-03-01

    The primary goal of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN is the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. High-purity germanium detectors made from material enriched in 76Ge are operated directly immersed in liquid argon, allowing for a substantial reduction of the background with respect to predecessor experiments. The first 5.04 kg yr of data collected in Phase I of the experiment have been analyzed to measure the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied double beta decay of 76Ge. The observed spectrum in the energy range between 600 and 1800 keV is dominated by the double beta decay of 76Ge. The half-life extracted from GERDA data is T2ν1/2 = (1.84+0.14-0.10) × 1021 yr.

  11. Interference in acetylene intersystem crossing acts as the molecular analog of Young's double-slit experiment

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mattijs; Field, Robert W.; Buma, Wybren J.

    2009-01-01

    We report on an experimental approach that reveals crucial details of the composition of singlet-triplet mixed eigenstates in acetylene. Intersystem crossing in this prototypical polyatomic molecule embodies the mixing of the lowest excited singlet state (S1) with 3 triplet states (T1, T2, and T3). Using high-energy (157-nm) photons from an F2 laser to record excited-state photoelectron spectra, we have decomposed the mixed eigenstates into their S1, T3, T2, and T1 constituent parts. One example of the interpretive power that ensues from the selective sensitivity of the experiment to the individual electronic state characters is the discovery and examination of destructive interference between two doorway-mediated intersystem crossing pathways. This observation of an interference effect in nonradiative decay opens up possibilities for rational coherent control over molecular excited state dynamics. PMID:19179288

  12. Double shock experiments and reactive flow modeling on LX-17 to understand the reacted equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Garcia, Frank; Fried, Laurence E.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2014-05-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method involving the use of two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on the projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. By measuring the parameters of the first and second shock waves, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as detail on possible future experiments.

  13. Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling on LX-17 to Understand the Reacted Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin; Garcia, Frank; Fried, Laurence; Tarver, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method involving the use of two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on the projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. By measuring the parameters of the first and second shock waves, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as possible future experiments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Peña-Garay, C. E-mail: jmalbos@ific.uv.es E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es

    2013-03-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with Σm{sub ν} = (0.32±0.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m{sub ββ} involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ββ0ν experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kg·year, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ββ0ν events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 ton·year, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely.

  15. Development of a double-stage DDIA apparatus and its application to in-situ melting experiments at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Tange, Y.; Hilairet, N.; Yu, T.; Sakamaki, T.

    2010-12-01

    Melting experiments at high pressures are critical to our studies on the chemical evolution and dynamics of Earth and other terrestrial planets. A large volume press can generate a homogeneous and stable high-temperature environment, which is the key to melting experiments. However, previous in-situ melting experiments using a large volume press were often restricted to relatively low pressures. In order to expand the P-T conditions, a double-stage 6-8 configuration (6 first-stage anvils and 8 second stage-anvils) has been developed in a DDIA apparatus (DDIA-30), recently installed at the GSECARS Beamline 13-ID-D at the Advanced Photon Source. 27 mm DIA-type first-stage anvils and 14 mm second-stage anvils with the truncation edge length (TEL) of 1.5 mm are employed. A cell assembly that is suitable for synchrotron X-ray studies developed by Tange et al. (2008) has been adopted for melting experiments. High pressure and temperature conditions are generated up to 27 GPa and 2473 K by using tungsten carbide anvils, and up to 35 GPa and 1773 K by using sintered diamond anvils. Both LaCrO3 and TiB2 heater materials have been successfully applied for high-temperature generation. Although TiB2 shows a decrease of resistance at temperatures higher than 2000 K at 20 GPa, we are able to achieve 2473 K with temperature fluctuations in the range of ±30 K. Using tungsten carbide anvils and TiB2 heaters, we have determined the melting curve of gold up to 20 GPa. We constrain the melting temperature based on the disappearance of the gold peaks in energy dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns and the change of sample shape in the radiographic images. The combination of these two observations can reduce the uncertainties in melting temperatures to within 100 K. The measured melting temperatures of gold at 8, 13, and 20 GPa are consistent with the low-pressure results (up to 6 GPa) such as Mirwald and Kennedy (1979). Melting experiments with sintered diamond anvils are currently

  16. PARTICLES AND FIELDS: Systematic impact of spent nuclear fuel on θ13 sensitivity at reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Feng-Peng; Tian, Xin-Chun; Zhan, Liang; Cao, Jun

    2009-09-01

    Reactor neutrino oscillation experiments, such as Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO are designed to determine the neutrino mixing angle θ13 with a sensitivity of 0.01-0.03 in sin2 2θ13 at 90% confidence level, an improvement over the current limit by more than one order of magnitude. The control of systematic uncertainties is critical to achieving the sin2 2θ13 sensitivity goal of these experiments. Antineutrinos emitted from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) would distort the soft part of energy spectrum and may introduce a non-negligible systematic uncertainty. In this article, a detailed calculation of SNF neutrinos is performed taking account of the operation of a typical reactor and the event rate in the detector is obtained. A further estimation shows that the event rate contribution of SNF neutrinos is less than 0.2% relative to the reactor neutrino signals. A global χ2 analysis shows that this uncertainty will degrade the θ13 sensitivity at a negligible level.

  17. Brief Report: Oxytocin Enhances Paternal Sensitivity to a Child with Autism--A Double-Blind Within-Subject Experiment with Intranasally Administered Oxytocin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Poslawsky, Irina E.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin seems associated with parenting style, and experimental work showed positive effects of intranasally administered oxytocin on parenting style of fathers. Here, the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject experiment with intranasal oxytocin administration to fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is…

  18. First results for the measurement of double-electron capture of 106Cd in the experiment TGV II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štekl, I.; Čermák, P.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Gusev, K. N.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Briançon, Ch.; Šimkovic, F.

    2006-05-01

    Present status of the experiment TGV II which is devoted to the measurement of double-beta decay of 106Cd is given. The low background spectrometer TGV II is installed in the Modane Underground Laboratory and has been running from February 2005 with approx 10 grams of 106Cd enriched at 75%. After an analysis of 3736 hours of experimental data the new improved half-life limit for 2νEC/EC decay of 106Cd (0 g.s. + → 0 g.s. + ) is given as T 1 2/2ν > 4.8 × 1019 years (90% CL). The search for 2νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the excited states of 106Pd allows to determine the limits of the half-lives T 1 2/2ν (0 g.s. + → 2 1 + ) > 3.9 × 1019 years (90% CL) and T 1 2/2ν (0 g.s. + → 0 1 + ) > 5.8 × 1019 years (90% CL).

  19. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Cervera, A.; Hernando, J. A.; Imzaylov, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Nygren, D.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay experiments using a high-pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0νββ decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0νββ decay (0Qββ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign of the curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0νββ) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (single-electron) events producing a track that should spiral in a single direction. Due to electron multiple scattering, this strategy is not perfectly efficient on an event-by-event basis, but a statistical estimator can be constructed which can be used to reject background events by one order of magnitude at a moderate cost (about 30%) in signal efficiency. Combining this estimator with the excellent energy resolution and topological signature identification characteristic of the HPXe TPC, it is possible to reach a background rate of less than one count per ton-year of exposure. Such a low background rate is an essential feature of the next generation of 0νββ experiments, aiming to fully explore the inverse hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  20. A Peculiar Sensation: Double Consciousness and the Lived Experiences of African American Art Historians at Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaidan, Christina Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Double consciousness is the identity conflict of being Black and being an American (Du Bois, 1903). Double consciousness leads to "identity confusion and inherent contradictions in the collective psyche of people of African descent" (Benjamin, 2005, p. 21.). This study employed grounded theory to collect and analyze the data that emerged from the…

  1. Microscopic calculations of signals of double beta decay in a 76Ge detector and first application to the Heidelberg Moscow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Mironov, V.; Titkova, I. V.

    2006-05-01

    The identification of signals of neutrinoless double beta decay is a question of extreme interest. Starting from the Monte Carlo calculated time history and spatial energy distribution of neutrinoless double beta events, for the first time the expected pulse shapes to be observed in a big 76Ge detector have been calculated 'microscopically', by using the Poisson Superfish code for determination of the field distribution in the detector. It is shown, that for the majority of 0 νββ events it is not possible to differentiate between the contributions of different particle physics parameters entering into the 0 νββ decay process-in the mass mechanism the effective neutrino mass and the right-handed weak current parameters < λ >, < η >. It is shown, that on the other hand it is possible in a 76Ge double beta decay experiment to reject a background of larger sizes (high multiplicity) gamma events by selecting low size (low multiplicity) events. First application of the theoretical ββ pulses to events from the line observed at Qββ [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina, A. Dietz, et al., Phys. Lett. B 586 (2004) 198; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz, I.V. Krivosheina, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 522 (2004) 371] shows very good agreement. It is shown further, and confirmed by measurements with a collimated source, that a rather good radial position determination of ββ events in the detector is possible. By the same type of calculation it is shown that use of the pulse shapes of the 1592 keV double escape line of the 2614 keV γ-transition from 228Th for calibrating a neuronal net for search of events of neutrinoless double beta decay can be helpful.

  2. Effects of certain control-system nonlinearities on stability and pointing of an attached double-gimbal experiment package in presence of random crew-motion disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.; Groom, N. J.; Nene, V. D.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of two types of control-system nonlinearities, sensor deadband and actuator breakout torque, on the pointing capability of a Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) double-gimbal experiment isolation and control system are investigated. A composite structural model of a flexible experiment package connected through frictionless double gimbals to a flexible carrier vehicle is used for this investigation. Contributions of the primary carrier control system to experiment pointing are neglected. Pointing errors onboard the experiment package due to random crew-motion input into the carrier vehicle are computed. A stability investigation is performed to verify control-system stability with nominal nonlinearities and gains. Indications are that there is no stability problem due to the nonlinearities. A nonlinearity sensitivity study is carried out to determine the effects on pointing accuracy. Its results indicate that nominal ATM control system nonlinearities limit the pointing accuracy to approximately 0.4 arc second in the presence of crew motion. Methods of reducing the error to less than 0.1 arc second are discussed.

  3. Limits on {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub e} disappearance from Gallium and reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Acero, Mario A.; Laveder, Marco

    2008-10-01

    The deficit observed in the Gallium radioactive source experiments is interpreted as a possible indication of the disappearance of electron neutrinos. In the effective framework of two-neutrino mixing we obtain sin{sup 2}2{theta} > or approx. 0.03 and {delta}m{sup 2} > or approx. 0.1 eV{sup 2}. The compatibility of this result with the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor short-baseline antineutrino disappearance experiments is studied. It is found that the Bugey data present a hint of neutrino oscillations with 0.02 < or approx. sin{sup 2}2{theta} < or approx. 0.08 and {delta}m{sup 2}{approx_equal}1.8 eV{sup 2}, which is compatible with the Gallium allowed region of the mixing parameters. This hint persists in the combined analyses of Bugey and Chooz data, of Gallium and Bugey data, and of Gallium, Bugey, and Chooz data.

  4. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  5. Doubled CO2 experiments with the Global Change Research Center two-dimensional statistical dynamical climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, R. M.; Khalil, M. A. K.

    1995-10-01

    The zonally averaged response of the Global Change Research Center two-dimensional (2-D) statistical dynamical climate model (GCRC 2-D SDCM) to a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (350 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to 700 ppmv) is reported. The model solves the two-dimensional primitive equations in finite difference form (mass continuity, Newton's second law, and the first law of thermodynamics) for the prognostic variables: zonal mean density, zonal mean zonal velocity, zonal mean meridional velocity, and zonal mean temperature on a grid that has 18 nodes in latitude and 9 vertical nodes (plus the surface). The equation of state, p=ρRT, and an assumed hydrostatic atmosphere, Delta;p=-ρgΔz, are used to diagnostically calculate the zonal mean pressure and vertical velocity for each grid node, and the moisture balance equation is used to estimate the precipitation rate. The model includes seasonal variations in solar intensity, including the effects of eccentricity, and has observed land and ocean fractions set for each zone. Seasonally varying values of cloud amounts, relative humidity profiles, ozone, and sea ice are all prescribed in the model. Equator to pole ocean heat transport is simulated in the model by turbulent diffusion. The change in global mean annual surface air temperature due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 in the 2-D model is 1.61 K, which is close to that simulated by the one-dimensional (1-D) radiative convective model (RCM) which is at the heart of the 2-D model radiation code (1.67 K for the moist adiabatic lapse rate assumption in 1-D RCM). We find that the change in temperature structure of the model atmosphere has many of the characteristics common to General Circulation Models, including amplified warming at the poles and the upper tropical troposphere, and stratospheric cooling. Because of the potential importance of atmospheric circulation feedbacks on climate change, we have also investigated the response of the zonal wind

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering cross sections for 76Ge relevant to background in neutrinoless double-β decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Allmond, J. M.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-09-01

    The experimental signature in searches for the neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge is a peak near 2039 keV in the spectrum. Given the low probability of the process, it is important that the background in this region be well understood. Inelastic scattering reactions with neutrons from muon-induced interactions and (α ,n ) reactions in the surrounding materials or in the detector can provide contributions to the background. We have measured the production cross sections for γ rays from the 76Ge(n ,n'γ ) reaction in the 2039-keV region at incident neutron energies up to 4.9 MeV. In addition to determining that the cross sections of a previously known 2040.7-keV γ ray from the 3952-keV level in 76Ge are rather small, we find that a larger contribution arises from a 2037.5-keV γ ray which is attributed to a newly identified level at 3147 keV in 76Ge. A third contribution is also possible from another new level at 3577 keV. These results indicate that the 2039-keV region in 76Ge neutrinoless double-β decay searches is more complex than was previously thought.

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering cross sections for 76Ge relevant to background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crider, Ben; Peters, Erin; Allmond, James M; McEllistrem, M; Prados-Estevez, F.; Ross, T.J.; Vanhoy, J.R.; Yates, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental signature in searches for the neutrinoless double- decay of 76Ge is a peak near 2039 keV in the spectrum. Given the low probability of the process, it is important that the background in this region be well understood. Inelastic scattering reactions with neutrons from muon-induced interactions and ( ,n) reactions in the surrounding materials or in the detector can provide contributions to the background. We have measured the production cross sections for rays from the 76Ge(n,n ) reaction in the 2039-keV region at incident neutron energies up to 4.9 MeV. In addition to determining that the cross sectionsmore » of a previously known 2040.7-keV ray from the 3952-keV level in 76 Ge are rather small, we find that a larger contribution arises from a 2037.5-keV ray which is attributed to a newly identified level at 3147 keV in 76Ge. A third contribution is also possible from another new level at 3577 keV. These results indicate that the 2039-keV region in 76Ge neutrinoless double- decay searches is more complex than was previously thought.« less

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering cross sections for Ge76 relevant to background in neutrinoless double- β decay experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Allmond, J. M.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-09-11

    The experimental signature in searches for the neutrinoless double- decay of 76Ge is a peak near 2039 keV in the spectrum. Given the low probability of the process, it is important that the background in this region be well understood. Moreover, inelastic scattering reactions with neutrons from muon-induced interactions and ( ,n) reactions in the surrounding materials or in the detector can provide contributions to the background. We also measured the production cross sections for rays from the 76Ge(n,n ) reaction in the 2039-keV region at incident neutron energies up to 4.9 MeV. In addition to determining that the crossmore » sections of a previously known 2040.7-keV ray from the 3952-keV level in 76 Ge are rather small, we find that a larger contribution arises from a 2037.5-keV ray which is attributed to a newly identified level at 3147 keV in 76Ge. Finally, a third contribution is also possible from another new level at 3577 keV. These results indicate that the 2039-keV region in 76Ge neutrinoless double- decay searches is more complex than was previously thought.« less

  9. Limits on Majoron-emitting double-β decays of 136Xe in the KamLAND-Zen experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O'Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2012-08-01

    We present limits on Majoron-emitting neutrinoless double-β decay modes based on an exposure of 112.3 days with 125 kg of 136Xe. In particular, a lower limit on the ordinary (spectral index n=1) Majoron-emitting decay half-life of 136Xe is obtained as T1/20νχ0>2.6×1024 yr at 90% C.L., a factor of five more stringent than previous limits. The corresponding upper limit on the effective Majoron-neutrino coupling, using a range of available nuclear matrix calculations, is <(0.8-1.6)×10-5. This excludes a previously unconstrained region of parameter space and strongly limits the possible contribution of ordinary Majoron emission modes to 0νββ decay for neutrino masses in the inverted hierarchy scheme.

  10. Final Technical Report [Cosmogenic background and shielding R&D for a Ge Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, Vince

    2013-10-01

    The USD Majorana group focused all of its effort in support of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) experiment. Final designs of the shielding subsystems are complete. Construction of the MJD shielding systems at SURF has begun and the proposed activities directly support the completion of the shield systems. The PI and the group contribute heavily to the onsite construction activities of the MJD experiment. The group led investigations into neutron and neutron-­induced backgrounds, shielding effectiveness and design, and radon backgrounds.