Sample records for double hydroxide ldh

  1. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) derived catalysts for simultaneous catalytic removal of soot and NO(x).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruoyan; Gao, Yanshan; Wang, Junya; Wang, Qiang

    2014-07-21

    Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and soot which come from vehicle engine exhausts cause serious environmental pollution and human health problems. Recently, the catalytic purification technology, particularly the simultaneous catalytic removal of soot and NO(x), has received more and more attention. For this technology, the key is to develop highly efficient and robust catalysts. Due to the unique chemical and structural properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), LDH-derived catalysts have shown great potential, and much effort has been devoted to this type of catalyst. In this manuscript, we reviewed the latest progress in the LDH derived catalysts by classifying the LDH precursors according to the number of metals into binary, ternary, and quaternary, and discussed their advantages and disadvantages in detail. We hope that this review paper could provide a clearer picture of this topic and theoretical support for its better development. PMID:24492318

  2. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rives, V., E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  3. Synergistic effects of layered double hydroxide with phosphorus-nitrogen intumescent flame retardant in PP\\/EPDM\\/IFR\\/LDH nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Cui; Bao-jun Qu

    2010-01-01

    Synergistic effects of layered double hydroxide (LDH) with intumescent flame retardanct (IFR) of phosphorus-nitrogen (NP)\\u000a compound in the polypropylene\\/ethylene-propylene-diene\\/IFR\\/LDH (PP\\/EPDM\\/IFR\\/LDH) nanocomposites and related properties were\\u000a studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), limiting oxygen\\u000a index (LOI), UL-94 test, cone calorimeter test (CCT) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD and TEM results show that\\u000a the

  4. Polypropylene/Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Nanocomposites: Influence of LDH Particle Size on the Crystallization Behavior of Polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Nagendra, Baku; Mohan, Kiran; Bhoje Gowd, E

    2015-06-17

    Highly dispersed isotactic polypropylene (iPP) nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating two different sized Mg-Al LDH nanoparticles with different loadings from 1 to 10 wt % using a modified solvent mixing method. Larger sized LDH nanoparticles (?3-4 ?m) were prepared from the gel form of Mg-Al LDH, and the smaller sized nanoparticles (?50-200 nm) were prepared by sonication of as-synthesized LDH particles. Such obtained LDH nanoparticles were carefully characterized using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. WAXD and atomic force microscopy results indicate that the LDH nanoparticles were highly dispersed in the iPP matrix. The influence of LDH nanoparticles size and concentration on the thermal stability, spherulitic morphology, melting behavior, isothermal crystallization kinetics, and lamellar structure of iPP were investigated. Incorporation of low loadings of sonicated LDH particles (e.g., 1-2.5 wt %) show substantial effect on thermal stability, spherulite size, crystallinity, and crystallization half-time and lamellar morphology of iPP compared to the pure iPP and that of nanocomposites with larger LDH particles with same loadings. The better nucleation ability of iPP in the presence of sonicated LDH can be attributed to the high surface area of LDH nanoparticles along with its better dispersibility within the polymer matrix. The incorporation of LDH nanoparticles does not change the crystallization growth mechanism and crystal structure of iPP. PMID:25741910

  5. Adsorption study of anionic reactive dye from aqueous solution to Mg-Fe-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, I. M.; Gasser, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Mg-Fe-Cl Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been prepared using a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps with Mg/Fe = 3. The interlayer anions readily replaced by carbonate are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. The effects of different parameters, such as pH, contact time, concentration of dye and temperature on the capacity and adsorption mechanism of Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH in removing an anionic dye (congo red, CR) from aqueous solution were separately investigated. The results show that Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH is particularly efficient in removing CR and the dye removal increases with decreasing pH. The adsorption of CR on Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH reached equilibrium after 15 min where 100 mg/L CR was removed. The equilibrium isotherm indicates that the adsorption of CR onto Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH fits to Langmuir and Freundlich equation as well. The adsorption data obtained from the Langmuir model gave good values of the determination coefficient and the saturated adsorption capacity of Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH for CR was found to be 104.6 mg/g. The regeneration study indicates that the prepared LDH could be used for several cycles. The thermodynamic parameters have been calculated, and the adsorption process was found to be spontaneous, endothermic in nature and follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  6. The removal and recovery of Cr(VI) by Li/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH).

    PubMed

    Hsu, L C; Wang, S L; Tzou, Y M; Lin, C F; Chen, J H

    2007-04-01

    Hexavalent Cr has been identified as one of the toxic metals commonly present in industrial effluents. Among the treatment techniques developed for removing Cr(VI) from waste waters, sorption is most commonly applied, due to its simplicity and efficiency. However, few adsorbents can be recycled and reused cost-effectively. In this study, the removal and recovery of Cr(VI) from water using Li/Al LDH was investigated. The removal of Cr(VI) by Li/Al LDH was evaluated in a batch mode. The results demonstrated that Cr(VI) adsorption onto Li/Al LDH occurs by replacing the Cl(-) that originally exists in the interlayer of the adsorbent. The degree of Cr(VI) adsorption observed for Li/Al LDH was relatively high and the process occurred rapidly; however, a portion of adsorbed Cr(VI) was gradually desorbed, due to the Li de-intercalation of Li/Al LDH. Lithium de-intercalation from Li/Al LDH with interlayer Cl(-) and interlayer Cr(VI) follows the first order kinetics and has the activation energies of 76.6 and 41.5 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The properties of thermal unstability and the high adsorption capacity of Li/Al LDH may lead to the development of an innovative technique for the removal of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI)-containing wastewater. That is, Li/Al LDH may be used as an effective adsorbent for the adsorption of Cr(VI) in an ambient environment. Following the adsorptive process, the adsorbed Cr(VI) may be released, using heated water to treat the Cr(VI)-containing Li/Al LDH particles. Through this hydrothermal treatment of the used adsorbent, Cr(VI) can be recovered and the solid product (gibbsite) can be recycled for further use. PMID:16978767

  7. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) – Green rust sodium sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Christiansen; T. Balic-Zunic; P.-O. Petit; C. Frandsen; S. Mørup; H. Geckeis; A. Katerinopoulou; S. L. Svane Stipp

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from

  8. The application of layered double hydroxide clay (LDH)-poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film composites for the controlled release of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Michelle; Jackson, John K; Plackett, David; Gilchrist, Samuel E; Burt, Helen M

    2012-07-01

    Many sites of bacterial infection such as in-dwelling catheters and orthopedic surgical sites require local rather than systemic antibiotic administration. However, currently used controlled release vehicles, such as polymeric films, release water-soluble antibiotics too quickly, whereas nonporous bone cement, used in orthopedics, release very little drug. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of nanoparticulates composed of layered double hydroxide clays to bind various antibiotics and release them in a controlled manner. Mg-Al (carbonate) layered double hydroxides were synthesized and characterized using established methods. These clay particles were suspended in solutions of the antibiotics tetracycline, doxorubicin (DOX), 5-fluorouracil, vancomycin (VAN), sodium fusidate (SF) and antisense oligonucleotides and binding was determined following centrifugation and quantitation of the unbound fraction by UV/Vis absorbance or HPLC analysis. Drug release from layered double hydroxide clay/drug complexes dispersed in polymeric films was measured by incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 37 °C using absorbance or HPLC analysis. Antimicrobial activity of drug released from film composites was determined using zonal inhibition studies against S. epidermidis. All drugs bound to the clay particles to various degrees. Generally, drugs released with a large burst phase of release (except DOX) with little further drug release after 4 days. Dispersion of drug/clay complexes in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films resulted in a reduced burst phase of release and a slow continuous release for many weeks with effective antimicrobial amounts of VAN and SF released at later time points. Layered double hydroxide clays may be useful for controlled release applications at sites requiring long-term antibiotic exposure as they maintain the drug in a non-degraded state and release effective amounts of drug over long time periods. LDH clay/drug complexes are amenable to homogenous dispersion in polymeric films where implant coating may be optimal or required. PMID:22528072

  9. Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides (LDH) intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)

    SciTech Connect

    Arco, Margarita del [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Gutierrez, Sonia [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Martin, Cristina [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Rives, Vicente [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)]. E-mail: vrives@usal.es; Rocha, Joao [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2004-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite type structure and a Mg:Al ratio of two have been prepared, with salicylate or naproxen in the interlayer. Two synthetic routes have been used: reconstruction from a mildly calcined hydrotalcite-CO{sub 3} precursor, and a coprecipitation method with chlorides of the metals. The solids have been characterized using several physicochemical techniques, i.e., powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies and thermal analysis (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses). The gallery height determined is in all cases larger than the size of the drug, 11.5A for salicylate and 15.8 and 16.6A for naproxen, depending on the specific synthesis route followed. Experimental data suggest the anion molecules form a tilted bilayer, with the carboxylate groups pointing towards the brucite-like layers. The solids are stable up to 230{sup o}C and their evolution from 350{sup o}C upwards is very similar to that observed for a carbonate-containing hydrotalcite, forming mostly amorphous solids with a large specific surface area.

  10. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  11. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakraborty, Jui, E-mail: jui@cgcri.res.in [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ghosh, Swapankumar, E-mail: swapankumar.ghosh2@mail.dcu.ie [National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR, Trivandrum 695019 (India); Mitra, Manoj K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Basu, Debabrata [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2011-09-15

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 A in pristine LDH to 21.3 A in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion. - Graphical abstract: ZnAl-layered double hydroxide intercalated with methotrexate ({approx}34% loading) promises the possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in controlled delivery. Highlights: > ZnAl-layered double hydroxide methotrexate nanohybrid has been synthesized. > XRD and TEM studies on nanohybrid revealed successful intercalation of methotrexate. > TG and CHN analyses showed {approx}34 wt% of methotrexate loading into the nanohybrid. > Possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in delivery.

  12. Synthesis of layered double hydroxide nanosheets by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Xiujiang; Sun, Meiyu; Ma, Xiuming [State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Hou, Wanguo, E-mail: wghou@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The synthesis of Mg{sub 2}Al–NO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor is reported. Aqueous LDH nanosheet dispersions were obtained. The LDH nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and particle size analysis, and the transmittance and viscosity of LDH nanosheet dispersions were examined. The two-dimensional LDH nanosheets consisted of 1–2 brucite-like layers and were stable for ca. 16 h at room temperature. In addition, the co-assembly between LDH nanosheets and dodecyl sulfate (DS) anions was carried out, and a DS intercalated LDH nanohybrid was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LDH nanosheets being directly prepared in bulk aqueous solution. This simple, cheap method can provide naked LDH nanosheets in high quantities, which can be used as building blocks for functional materials. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets were synthesized by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor, and could be used as basic building blocks for LDH-based functional materials. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LDH nanosheets were synthesized by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor. • Naked LDH nanosheets were dispersed in aqueous media. • LDH nanosheets can be used as building blocks for functional materials.

  13. Biological evaluation of layered double hydroxides as efficient drug vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Ai, Hanhua; Chang, Qing; Liu, Dandan; Xia, Ying; Liu, Shuwen; Peng, Nanfang; Xi, Zhuge; Yang, Xu

    2010-03-01

    Recently there has been a rapid expansion of the development of bioinorganic hybrid systems for safe drug delivery. Layered double hydroxides (LDH), a variety of available inorganic matrix, possess great promise for this purpose. In this study, an oxidative stress biomarker system, including measurement of reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, endogenous nitric oxide, carbonyl content in proteins, DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, was designed to evaluate the biocompatibility of different concentrations of nano-Zn/Al-LDH with a Hela cell line. The drug delivery activity of the LDH-folic-acid complex was also assessed. The resulting data clearly demonstrated that nano-LDH could be applied as a relatively safe drug vehicle with good delivery activity, but with the caveat that the effects of high dosages observed here should not be ignored when attempting to maximize therapeutic activity by increasing LDH concentration.

  14. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mitra, Manoj K.; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-09-01

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 Å in pristine LDH to 21.3 Å in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion.

  15. Novel modifiers for layered double hydroxides and their effects on the properties of polylactic acid composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Uk Ha; Marino Xanthos

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic modification of a carbonated layered double hydroxide (LDH) and its calcined equivalent was conducted by direct ion exchange reactions with three ionic liquids having the same phosphonium-based cation, but different anions. Among the ionic liquids, successful anionic intercalation was only carried out when calcined LDH reacted with a phosphinate anion containing ionic liquid, in excess of the stoichiometric amount.

  16. Molecular dynamics in aluminum layered double hydroxides as studied by 1H T1? NMR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyalikh, Anastasia; Wang, De-Yi; Wagenknecht, Udo; Heinrich, Gert; Scheler, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Proton dynamics in pristine and organically-modified layered double hydroxide has been studied by 1H T1?. Inverse Laplace transform with spectral resolution results in a correlation of T1? and chemical shift. In LDH two contributions are resolved. They are assigned to the metal hydroxides, forming the LDH sheets (4-8 ms), and mobile interlayer water (2 ms). Apparent T1? values of OH-protons in surfactant-modified LDH are different in dodecylbenzenesulfonate- (SDBS) and sodium octasulfonate- (C8) modified LDH. This difference is explained by the presence of water in LDH-SDBS. The effects of spin diffusion have been studied by performing 2D 1H RFDR in the LDH-SDBS.

  17. New antimony substituted Mg-Al layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin A; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2008-10-01

    No antimony hydroxide has been previously reported not only in solid state but also in aqueous solution, surely due to the fact that the formation of antimony oxide, Sb2O3, is thermodynamically more favorable than that of the hydroxide phase, Sb(OH)3. According to the pH dependent solubility diagram of Sb2O3, antimony (III) hydroxide may not exist as a definite compound but be proposed as a hydrated monomeric molecular species, Sb(OH)3(aq), which is in equilibrium with Sb2O3, under a condition of very small ionic strength. This is probably the reason why no Sb(3+)-containing layered double hydroxide, LDH, has been reported as yet. In the present study, an attempt has been made to prepare new Sb(3+)-LDH by substituting the Al3+ in octahedral site partially with Sb3+ up to approximately 10%. From the X-ray diffraction analysis, we found that the lattice constants (a = 3.075 angstroms, c = 23.788 angstroms) of the pristine, Mg-Al LDH, increased gradually upto those (a = 3.087 angstroms, c = 24.167 angstroms) of Sb-LDH (8%-substituted). Beyond 10%, the Sb substitution does not lead to any further increases of lattice constants but the impurity Sb2O3 phase is formed. It is, therefore, concluded that the solubility limit of Sb3+ in LDH would be around 10%. In addition, we were able to determine the chemical formula of Sb-substituted LDHs as follows, Mg4Al(1-x)Sb(x)OH10(CO3)(1/2) x H2O (x = 0 approximately 0.08) on the basis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:19198414

  18. Facile synthesis of deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids via a coassembly process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaowen; Wang, Shuang; Du, Na; Zhang, Renjie; Hou, Wanguo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a synthesis strategy of deoxycholate (DC) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanohybrids via a coassembly method at room temperature. For this strategy, LDH particles were delaminated to well-dispersed 2D nanosheets in formamide, and the resulting LDH nanosheets were then coassembled with DC anions into the DC intercalated LDH (DC-LDH) nanohybrids. The so-synthesized nanohybrids were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, elemental analyses and TG-DSC. It was found that the loading amount of DC in the nanohybrids could be easily controlled by changing the ratio of DC to LDH. In addition, the nanohybrids have similar characteristics with the DC-LDH nanohybrids synthesized by the hydrothermal method, including their DC loading, crystal structure, morphology and thermal gravimetric behavior. However, this strategy exhibited the advantages of short reaction time and mild experimental conditions compared with the hydrothermal method.

  19. A hybrid Mg-Al layered double hydroxide/graphene nanostructure obtained via hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Cao, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Hu, Guo-Hua; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2014-06-01

    A hybrid Mg-Al layered double hydroxide/graphene (LDH-GR) material nanostructure has been fabricated by employing the hydrothermal treatment at 140 °C for 10 h. Graphene oxide is simultaneously reduced to graphene during the hydrothermal treatment. The LDH and LDH-GR have high degree of crystallinity and assembled layer structure, which is attributed to electrostatic interaction mechanism. The obtained hybrid nanostructure materials can be used as flame retardant or conductor of electricity and heat due to the combination of different properties arising from graphene and LDH.

  20. Sugar-anionic clay composite materials: intercalation of pentoses in layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Ishiyama, Kayoko; Ogasawara, Wataru; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    2003-09-01

    The intercalation of non-ionized guest pentoses (ribose and 2-deoxyribose) into the Mg-Al and Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was carried out at 298 K by the calcination-rehydration reaction using the Mg-Al and Zn-Al oxide precursors calcined at 773 K. The resulting solid products reconstructed the LDH structure with incorporating pentoses, and the maximum amount of ribose intercalated by the Mg-Al oxide precursor was approximately 20 times that by the Zn-Al oxide precursor. The ribose/Mg-Al LDH was observed to have the expanded LDH structure with a broad (003) spacing of 0.85 nm. As the thickness of the LDH hydroxide basal layer is 0.48 nm, the interlayer distance of the ribose/Mg-Al LDH is 0.37 nm. This value corresponds to molecular size of ribose in thickness (0.36 nm), supporting that ribose is horizontally oriented in the interlayer space of LDH. The maximum amount of ribose intercalated by the Mg-Al oxide precursor was approximately 5 times that of 2-deoxyribose. Ribose is substituted only by the hydroxyl group at C-2 position for 2-deoxyribose. Therefore, the number of hydroxyl group of sugar is essentially important for the intercalation of sugar molecule into the LDH, suggesting that the intercalation behavior of sugar for the LDH was greatly influenced by hydrogen bond between hydroxyl group of the intercalated pentose and the LDH hydroxide basal layers.

  1. Inorganic layered double hydroxides as a drug delivery system—intercalation and in vitro release of fenbufen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bingxin Li; Jing He; David G. Evans; Xue Duan

    2004-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), or so-called anionic clays, consist of cationic brucite-like layers and exchangeable interlayer anions. Because of their biocompatibility, some LDHs, such as Mg\\/Al, Zn\\/Al, Fe\\/Al and Li\\/Al-LDH, can be used as host materials for drug-LDH host–guest supramolecular structures. The anti-inflammatory drug fenbufen has been intercalated into layered double hydroxides for the first time by co-precipitation under a

  2. Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-A; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH). The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1%) of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 ?g/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement. PMID:25490138

  3. An advanced Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide electrocatalyst for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ming; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Z; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-06-12

    Highly active, durable, and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions, including water-splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) nanoplates on mildly oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-LDH. The crystalline NiFe-LDH phase in nanoplate form is found to be highly active for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline solutions. For NiFe-LDH grown on a network of CNTs, the resulting NiFe-LDH/CNT complex exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution than commercial precious metal Ir catalysts. PMID:23701670

  4. Controllable Nanocage Structure Derived from Cyclodextrin-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides and Its Inclusion Properties for Dodecylbenzene

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Controllable Nanocage Structure Derived from Cyclodextrin-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides carboxymethyl- -cyclodextrins (CMCDs) intercalated in layered double hydroxides (LDHs), whose gates can) and inclusion of DDB in CMCD followed by intercalation of the host-guest complex into the LDH (inclusion

  5. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles in gene and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ladewig, Katharina; Xu, Zhi Ping; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2009-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been known for many decades as catalyst and ceramic precursors, traps for anionic pollutants, catalysts and additives for polymers, but their successful synthesis on the nanometer scale a few years ago opened up a whole new field for their application in nanomedicine. The delivery of drugs and other therapeutic/bioactive molecules (e.g., peptides, proteins, nucleic acids) to mammalian cells is an area of research that is of tremendous importance to medicine and provides manifold applications for any new developments in the area of nanotechnology. Among the many different nanoparticles that have been shown to facilitate gene and/or drug delivery, LDH nanoparticles have attracted particular attention owing to their many desirable properties. This review aims to report recent progress in gene and drug delivery using LDH nanoparticles. It summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of using LDH nanoparticles as carriers for nucleic acids and drugs against the general background of bottlenecks that are encountered by cellular delivery systems. It describes further the models that have been proposed for the internalization of LDH nanoparticles into cells so far and discusses the intracellular fate of the particles and their cargo. The authors offer some remarks on how this field of research will progress in the near future and which challenges need to be overcome before LDH nanoparticles can be used in a clinical setting. PMID:19686052

  6. Synthesis and characterization of exfoliated polystyrene/ZnAl layered double hydroxide nanocomposite via emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Peng; Qu, Baojun

    2005-11-01

    Exfoliated polystyrene (PS)/ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites have been synthesized via emulsion polymerization in the presence of N-lauroyl-glutamate surfactants and long-chain n-hexadecane. The samples were characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD and TEM results demonstrate that the exfoliated ZnAl-LDH layers of 50-70 nm width and about 1 nm thickness were well dispersed at molecular level in the PS matrix. And the completely exfoliated PS/LDH nanocomposites can be obtained even at the 10 wt% LDH loading. When the 50% weight loss was selected as a comparison point, the decomposition temperature of exfoliated PS/LDH sample with 5 wt% LDH was ca. 28 degrees C higher than that of pure PS. PMID:16165142

  7. Dry reforming of methane over catalysts derived from nickel-containing Mg–Al layered double hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey I. Tsyganok; Tatsuo Tsunoda; Satoshi Hamakawa; Kunio Suzuki; Katsuomi Takehira; Takashi Hayakawa

    2003-01-01

    We present the synthesis and structural characterization of new nickel-containing Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH), which adopt a structure in which nickel, chelated with ethylenediaminetetraacetate to a divalent anion [Ni(EDTA)]2?, is nested between brucite-like layers of LDH. The corresponding LDH-derived Ni–Mg–Al mixed oxides demonstrated high and stable catalytic function toward the reaction of methane reforming with carbon dioxide into synthesis gas

  8. One-step direct synthesis of layered double hydroxide single-layer nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jingfang; Martin, Benjamin R.; Clearfield, Abraham; Luo, Zhiping; Sun, Luyi

    2015-05-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) single-layer nanosheets were traditionally prepared through a multi-step exfoliation process which is very time-consuming and of low efficiency. Herein we report the preparation of LDH single-layer nanosheets through a facile direct synthesis method. By introducing a layer growth inhibitor, one can directly synthesize LDH single-layer nanosheets instead of LDH layered compounds. The inhibitor weakens the interactions between neighboring layers, thus preventing the interlayer growth. This investigation on blocking interlayer growth by weakening interlayer interactions to obtain inorganic single-layer nanosheets opens a new route for the synthesis of 2-dimensional materials.Layered double hydroxide (LDH) single-layer nanosheets were traditionally prepared through a multi-step exfoliation process which is very time-consuming and of low efficiency. Herein we report the preparation of LDH single-layer nanosheets through a facile direct synthesis method. By introducing a layer growth inhibitor, one can directly synthesize LDH single-layer nanosheets instead of LDH layered compounds. The inhibitor weakens the interactions between neighboring layers, thus preventing the interlayer growth. This investigation on blocking interlayer growth by weakening interlayer interactions to obtain inorganic single-layer nanosheets opens a new route for the synthesis of 2-dimensional materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis methods and SEM, EDX, XRD and scheme. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01077b

  9. Complex formation with layered double hydroxides for the remediation of hygroscopicity.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Aki; Kubota, Mai; Okamura, Miki; Nakayama, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been used commercially as antacids, to stabilize drugs, to allow the controlled release of incorporated drugs, and to act as drug carriers to reduce drug accumulation within the body. Several types of LDH were investigated: nitrate type (LDH-NO3); chloride type (LDH-Cl); and carbonate type (LDH-CO3). Each type was added to an aqueous or methanol (MeOH) solution containing a drug (pravastatin or nateglinide). With pravastatin sodium, the interlayer distance expanded after reaction with LDH-NO3 and LDH-Cl in aqueous solution. In contrast, the interlayer distance of LDH-CO3 increased in methanol with nateglinide. Each drug was intercalated into the interlayer space of LDH by ion exchange. The hygroscopicity of the drug substances, complexes, and physical mixtures were determined at 70% relative humidity. Increases in weight (%) of the complexes were less than those of the physical mixtures, which demonstrates that hygroscopicity was reduced upon complexation with LDH due to the layer of LDH over the drugs. PMID:25743189

  10. Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

    2014-05-01

    Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

  11. Mg/Al layered double hydroxide for bacteriophage removal in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of bacteriophages in Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH). Batch experiments were performed with bacteriophage MS2 in a powder form of Mg/Al LDH under various LDH doses. Column experiments were also performed under flow-through condition with bacteriophages MS2 and phiX174 in Mg/Al LDH immobilized on sand surfaces. Batch tests demonstrated that the powder form of Mg/Al LDH was effective in removing MS2 with the removal capacity of 2.2 × 10(8) plaque forming unit (pfu)/g under the given experimental conditions (LDH dose = 2 g/L; initial MS2 concentration = 4.61 × 10(5) pfu/mL). Column experiments showed that the log removal of phiX174 was 4.40 in columns containing 100% Mg/Al LDH-coated sand while it was 0.05 in 100% quartz sand. These findings indicated that Mg/Al LDH-coated sand was effective in removing bacteriophages compared with sand. A more than 4 log removal (=5.44) of MS2 was achieved in 100% Mg/Al LDH-coated sand. This study demonstrates the potential application of Mg/Al LDH for virus removal in water treatment. PMID:22766864

  12. Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Dou, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Biocompatible clay materials have attracted particular attention as the efficient drug delivery systems (DDS). In this article, we review developments in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for controlled drug release and delivery. We show how advances in the ability to synthesize intercalated structures have a significant influence on the development of new applications of these materials. We also show how modification and/or functionalization can lead to new biotechnological and biomedical applications. This review highlights the most recent progresses in research on LDH-based controlled drug delivery systems, focusing mainly on: (i) DDS with cardiovascular drugs as guests; (ii) DDS with anti-inflammatory drugs as guests; and (iii) DDS with anti-cancer drugs as guests. Finally, future prospects for LDH-based drug carriers are also discussed. PMID:24940733

  13. Catalytic applications of layered double hydroxides: recent advances and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoli; Li, Feng; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2014-01-01

    This review surveys recent advances in the applications of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in heterogeneous catalysis. By virtue of the flexible tunability and uniform distribution of metal cations in the brucite-like layers and the facile exchangeability of intercalated anions, LDHs-both as directly prepared or after thermal treatment and/or reduction-have found many applications as stable and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts or catalyst supports for a variety of reactions with high industrial and academic importance. A major challenge in this rapidly growing field is to simultaneously improve the activity, selectivity and stability of these LDH-based materials by developing ways of tailoring the electronic structure of the catalysts and supports. Therefore, this Review article is mainly focused on the most recent developments in smart design strategies for LDH materials and the potential catalytic applications of the resulting materials. PMID:25001024

  14. Soft Chemical Conversion of Layered Double Hydroxides to Superparamagnetic Spinel Platelets

    E-print Network

    magnetic materials. Introduction The layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and brucite-type divalent metal. Recent advances in the synthesis of highly crystalline LDH and brucite-type platelets of various LDHs and brucite-type structures as extremely well-defined, single crystalline platelets

  15. Preparation and regulating cell adhesion of anion-exchangeable layered double hydroxide micropatterned arrays.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng; Hu, Hao; Xu, Sailong; Huo, Ruijie; Zhao, Zhiping; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Fujian

    2015-02-25

    We describe a reliable preparation of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) micropatterned arrays on gold substrate by combining SO3(-)-terminated self-assembly monolayer and photolithography. The synthesis route is readily extended to prepare LDH arrays on the SO3(-)-terminated polymer-bonded glass substrate amenable for cell imaging. The anion-exchangeable MgAl-LDH micropattern can act both as bioadhesive region for selective cell adhesion and as nanocarrier for drug molecules to regulate cell behaviors. Quantitative analysis of cell adhesion shows that selective HepG2 cell adhesion and spreading are promoted by the micropatterned MgAl-LDH, and also suppressed by methotrexate drug released from the LDH interlayer galleries. PMID:25654314

  16. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  17. Dispersion control and nematic ordering of Ni/Al layered double hydroxide suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Luan Lingyu; Liu Shangying [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Sun Dejun, E-mail: djsun@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

    2009-06-15

    In this paper, we report the preparation of aqueous suspensions of Ni/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles by a non-steady co-precipitation followed by peptization. By choosing suitable peptization temperature and time, well-dispersed suspensions were obtained. Meanwhile, the particle size, shape and size polydispersity can be efficiently controlled. Nematic ordering is observed in colloidal Ni/Al LDH suspensions and confirmed by birefringence observations and SAXS measurements. Furthermore, we showed that the sol-gel transition takes place after a liquid crystalline phase transition in concentrated Ni/Al LDH suspensions. The absence of isotropic-nematic phase separation can be attributed to the fact that the nematic phase droplets are too small to settle to the bottom of the cuvette. - Graphical abstract: Well-defined Ni/Al LDH nanoparticles were prepared and nematic ordering confirmed by birefringence observations and SAXS measurements is observed in concentrated Ni/Al LDH suspensions.

  18. Layered double hydroxide as nanofiller in the development of polyurethane nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kotal, M; Srivastava, S K; Manu, S K

    2010-09-01

    Polyurethane (PU)/Dodecyl sulphate intercalated layered double hydroxide (DS-LDH) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized from PU prepolymer and polyol TG (mixtures of glycerol and trimethylolpropane) for the first time. Formation of partially exfoliated structures of PU/DS-LDH nanocomposites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of tensile properties showed significant improvements in tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EB) of about 407% and 83% for PU/DS-LDH (3 wt%) nanocomposite. The observed excellent concurrent improvement in TS and EB is attributed to the relatively better reinforcing effect of partially exfoliated DS-LDH layers in PU making the present investigation most noteworthy. In addition, gradual improvement in thermal stability and limiting oxygen index (LOI) with increasing DS-LDH loading makes these nanocomposites versatile and hence suitable for many critical applications. PMID:21133098

  19. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as cellular delivery vectors of supercoiled plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi Ping; Walker, Tara L; Liu, Kerh-lin; Cooper, Helen M; Lu, GQ Max; Bartlett, Perry F

    2007-01-01

    We prepared stable homogeneous suspensions with layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles for in vitro gene delivery tests. The viability of HEK 293T cells in the presence of LDH nanoparticles at different concentrations was investigated. This revealed 50% cell viability at 500 ?g/mL of LDH nanoparticles that is much higher than 50–100 ?g/mL used for the delivery tests. The supercoiled pEF-eGFP plasmid (ca. 6100 base pairs) was mixed with LDH nanoparticle suspensions for anion exchange at a weight ratio of DNA/LDH between 1:25 and 1:100. In vitro experiments show that GFP expression in HEK 293T cells starts in the first day, reaches the maximum levels by the second day and continues in the third day. The GFP expression generally increases with the increase in DNA loading in DNA-LDH nanohybrids. However, the delivery efficiency with LDH nanoparticles as the agent is low. For example, the relative efficiency is 7%–15% of that of the commercial agent FuGENE®6. Three to 6% of total cells expressed GFP in an amount detectable by the FACS cytometry 2 days after transfection at 1 ?g/mL of plasmid DNA with 25 ?g/mL of LDH nanomaterial. The lower delivery efficiency could be attributed to the aggregation of LDH nanoparticles caused by the long-chain plasmid DNA. PMID:17722544

  20. Efficient uranium capture by polysulfide/layered double hydroxide composites.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shulan; Huang, Lu; Ma, Lijiao; Shim, Yurina; Islam, Saiful M; Wang, Pengli; Zhao, Li-Dong; Wang, Shichao; Sun, Genban; Yang, Xiaojing; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-03-18

    There is a need to develop highly selective and efficient materials for capturing uranium (normally as UO2(2+)) from nuclear waste and from seawater. We demonstrate the promising adsorption performance of S(x)-LDH composites (LDH is Mg/Al layered double hydroxide, [S(x)](2-) is polysulfide with x = 2, 4) for uranyl ions from a variety of aqueous solutions including seawater. We report high removal capacities (q(m) = 330 mg/g), large K(d)(U) values (10(4)-10(6) mL/g at 1-300 ppm U concentration), and high % removals (>95% at 1-100 ppm, or ?80% for ppb level seawater) for UO2(2+) species. The S(x)-LDHs are exceptionally efficient for selectively and rapidly capturing UO2(2+) both at high (ppm) and trace (ppb) quantities from the U-containing water including seawater. The maximum adsorption coeffcient value K(d)(U) of 3.4 × 10(6) mL/g (using a V/m ratio of 1000 mL/g) observed is among the highest reported for U adsorbents. In the presence of very high concentrations of competitive ions such as Ca(2+)/Na(+), S(x)-LDH exhibits superior selectivity for UO2(2+), over previously reported sorbents. Under low U concentrations, (S4)(2-) coordinates to UO2(2+) forming anionic complexes retaining in the LDH gallery. At high U concentrations, (S4)(2-) binds to UO2(2+) to generate neutral UO2S4 salts outside the gallery, with NO3(-) entering the interlayer to form NO3-LDH. In the presence of high Cl(-) concentration, Cl(-) preferentially replaces [S4](2-) and intercalates into LDH. Detailed comparison of U removal efficiency of S(x)-LDH with various known sorbents is reported. The excellent uranium adsorption ability along with the environmentally safe, low-cost constituents points to the high potential of S(x)-LDH materials for selective uranium capture. PMID:25714654

  1. Nanohybrids of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide and long-chain (C18) unsaturated fatty acid anions: Structure and sorptive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-chain (C18) unsaturated fatty acid anions, elaidate (ELA), oleate (OLE), linoleate (LINO), and linolenate (LINOLEN), were intercalated into Mg/Al (3:1) layered double hydroxide (LDH) and the resultant organo-LDH nanohybrid materials were characterized and subsequently evaluated as sorbents of s...

  2. Preparation and burning behaviors of flame retarding biodegradable poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite based on zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-Yi Wang; Andreas Leuteritz; Yu-Zhong Wang; Udo Wagenknecht; Gert Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    A flame retarding biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite based on flame retardant composites (containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine cyanurate (MC) by controlling the weight ratio was 2:2:1) and organomodified zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide (Zn-Al-LDH) has been prepared by melt-compounding directly. The morphology and burning behaviour of nanocomposite with 2 wt% Zn-Al-LDH loadings were investigated. The extent of

  3. Molecular Inclusion Properties of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds by a Modified ?-Cyclodextrin Intercalated within a Layered Double Hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongting Zhao; George F. Vance

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion properties of various nonionic hydrophobic organic compounds by a novel intercalate derived from magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg\\/Al LDH) and carboxymethyl-ß-cyclodextrin with a degree of substitution of 3 [CMCD(3)]. The isotherm sorption results at 25 °C showed that the CMCD(3)-Mg\\/Al LDH intercalate could retain all the organic compounds (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene,

  4. Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qian; Feng Yongjun; Feng Junting [College of Science, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Dianqing, E-mail: lidq@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Science, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-06-15

    2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test. - Graphical abstract: Acid yellow anions were successfully assembled into ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic composite pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Highlights: > Acid yellow 17 was directly intercalated into ZnAl-LDH to form a novel pigment. > The pigment was prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. > The intercalation of dye anions enhances its thermal- and photo-stability.

  5. Calcined Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide as an absorber for the removal of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chao; Dai, Jing; Yu, Jianying; Yin, Jian

    2015-05-01

    In this work, methyl orange (MO) was effectively removed from aqueous solution with the calcined product of hydrothermal synthesized Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH). The structure, composition, morphology and textural properties of the Mg/Fe-LDH before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption apparatus and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was confirmed that MO had been absorbed by calcined Mg/Fe-LDH which had strong interactions with MO. The adsorption of MO onto the Mg/Fe-LDH was systematically investigated by batch tests. The adsorption capacity of the Mg/Fe-LDH toward MO was found to be 194.9 mg • g-1. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption of MO onto Mg/Fe-LDH was a spontaneous and endothermic process. These results indicate that Mg/Fe-LDH is a promising material for the removal of MO.

  6. Sorption/desorption of arsenate on/from Mg-Al layered double hydroxides: influence of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Violante, Antonio; Pucci, Marianna; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Zhu, Jun; Pigna, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    We have studied: (i) the sorption of arsenate on Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing chloride (LDH-Cl) or carbonate (LDH-CO(3)) in the absence or presence of phosphate; (ii) the competitive sorption of arsenate and phosphate as affected by reaction time and pH and; (iii) the desorption of arsenate previously sorbed on the LDH by phosphate. The LDH samples were uncalcined (LDH-Cl-20 and LDH-CO(3)-20) or calcined at 450 degrees C (LDH-Cl-450 and LDH-CO(3)-450). More phosphate than arsenate was sorbed onto all the minerals but LDH-Cl-450 sorbed much lower amounts of both the ligands than LDH-Cl-20; vice versa LDH-CO(3)-450 showed a capacity to sorb arsenate and phosphate much greater than LDH-CO(3)-20. XRD analysis showed that arsenate was included into the layer spaces of LDH-Cl-20, but not in those of LDH-CO(3)-20. Competition in sorption between arsenate and phosphate was affected by pH, reaction time, surface coverage and sequence of addition of the ligands. Phosphate showed a greater affinity for LDHs than arsenate. The final arsenate sorbed/phosphate sorbed molar ratio increased with reaction time or by adding arsenate before phosphate, but decreased by increasing pH and by adding phosphate before arsenate. The effect of reaction time on the desorption of arsenate by phosphate was also studied. PMID:19211108

  7. Layered double hydroxides intercalated with borate anions: Fire and thermal properties in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calistor Nyambo; Charles A. Wilkie

    2009-01-01

    Fire and thermal properties of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) composites prepared by melt blending with layered double hydroxides (LDH) have been studied. Two types of LDHs intercalated with borate anion were prepared using the coprecipitation method and the metals Mg2+, Zn2+ and Al3+. Characterization of the LDHs and the EVA composites was performed using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and cone

  8. One-pot in situ synthesized TiO2/layered double hydroxides (LDHs) composites toward environmental remediation

    E-print Network

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    One-pot in situ synthesized TiO2/layered double hydroxides (LDHs) composites toward environmental. Furthermore, the adsorption test using the typical dye (methylene blue: MB) indicated that the adsorption, one-pot in situ approach is firstly reported to synthesize TiO2/ZnAl LDH composite materials

  9. In situ assembly of layered double hydroxide nano-crystallites within silica mesopores and its high solid base catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Shi, Jianlin

    2008-02-28

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocrystallites with a lateral size less than 9 nm were in situ synthesized within the pore channels of mesoporous silica materials, creating one of the most active heterogeneous base catalysts owing to the high number of active edge sites. PMID:18283361

  10. Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xiaorui, E-mail: gxr_1320@sina.com [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Lei, Lixu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); O'Hare, Dermot [Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Xie, Juan [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); Gao, Pengran [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chang, Tao [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination–rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} solutions imply that Mg{sub 3}Al–VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg{sub 3}Fe–VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} solution. - Graphical abstract: Vitamin C anions have been intercalated in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide and released in CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} solution and deionised water. - Highlights: • Vitamin C intercalated Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides were prepared. • Release property of vitamin C in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} solution is better. • Avrami-Erofe’ev and first-order models provide better fit for release results. • Diffusion-controlled and ion exchange processes occur in deionised water. • An ion exchange process occurs in CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} solution.

  11. Nanosized Ni–Al layered double hydroxides—Structural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jitianu, Mihaela, E-mail: jitianum@wpunj.edu [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry, 300 Pompton Road, Wayne, NJ 07470 (United States); Gunness, Darren C. [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry, 300 Pompton Road, Wayne, NJ 07470 (United States); Aboagye, Doreen E. [Lehman College – City University of New York, Department of Chemistry, Davis Hall, 250 Bedford Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Zaharescu, Maria [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Jitianu, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.jitianu@lehman.cuny.edu [Lehman College – City University of New York, Department of Chemistry, Davis Hall, 250 Bedford Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? The takovite anionic clays were obtained using the sol–gel method. ? The effect of samples’ composition on the structural and textural characteristics has been investigated. ? X-ray analysis. ? FTIR spectroscopy evidenced a disordered interlayer structure. ? FESEM and TEM analysis showed that the samples have high porosity. - Abstract: Takovite, a natural mineral with the formula Ni{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}CO{sub 3}·5H{sub 2}O belongs to the large class of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and contains positively charged Ni(II) and Al(III) layers alternating with layers containing carbonate ions and water molecules. Mesoporous takovite-type layered double hydroxides (LDH) of the general formula [Ni{sub 1?x}Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}]{sup x+}(CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}){sub x/2}·nH{sub 2}O with different Ni/Al molar ratios (1.9–2.8) have been successfully synthesized by the sol–gel method, followed by anionic exchange using nickel acetylacetonate and aluminum isopropylate as cation precursors. A single LDH phase and an anisotropic growth of very small crystallites (below 4 nm) have been evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The effect of samples’ composition on their structural and textural characteristics has been investigated. The BET surface area values are in the range of 100–122 m{sup 2}/g. BJH pore radius decreased with increase in the Al(III) content in the LDHs. FESEM micrographs show large aggregates of highly porous LDH particles, while TEM analysis reveals irregular agglomerates of crystallites, among which some of them displayed a developing hexagonal shape. The average particle size variation with the Al(III) content in the samples follows the same trend as the pore radius, the sample with the highest Ni/Al ratio displaying also the smallest particle size. This sample becomes even more interesting, since TEM analysis shows agglomerates with inside circular structures, feature not observed for the other Ni/Al ratios investigated.

  12. Tungstocobaltate-pillared layered double hydroxides: Preparation, characterization, magnetic and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaocui [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Baicheng College of Higher Medicine, Baicheng 137000 (China); Fu Youzhi [Department of Chemistry, Baicheng Teacher's College, Baicheng 137000 (China); Xu Lin [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)], E-mail: linxu@nenu.edu.cn; Li Fengyan; Bi Bo; Liu Xizheng [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A new polyoxometalate anion-pillared layered double hydroxide (LDH) was prepared by aqueous ion exchange of a Mg-Al LDH precursor in nitrate form with the tungstocobaltate anions [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-}. The physicochemical properties of the product were characterized by the methods of powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and cyclic voltammetry. It was confirmed that [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-} was intercalated between the brucite-type layers of the LDHs without a change in the structure. Magnetic measurement shows the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the magnetic centers. The investigation of catalytic performance for this sample exhibits high activity for the oxidation of benzaldehyde by hydrogen peroxide. - Graphical abstract: A tungstocobaltate anion [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-} pillared layered double hydroxide (LDH) was prepared by aqueous ion exchange with a Mg-Al LDH precursor in nitrate form, demonstrating that [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-} was intercalated between the brucite-type layers of the LDHs without change in structure. Magnetic measurement shows the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the magnetic centers. The investigation of catalytic performance for this sample exhibits high activity for the oxidation of benzaldehyde by hydrogen peroxide.

  13. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lili; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Rongrong; You, Songhui; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Shilong

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16) were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications. PMID:23737669

  14. Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaorui; Lei, Lixu; O'Hare, Dermot; Xie, Juan; Gao, Pengran; Chang, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination-rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO32- solutions imply that Mg3Al-VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg3Fe-VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO32- solution.

  15. Grafting Interlayer MoO42- in Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide by Thermal Treatment Below Collapsing the Layered Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muranishi, Kennichi; Shimamura, Akihiro; Kurashina, Masashi; Kanezaki, Eiji

    Some kinds of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) with oxometalate have been prepared by mean of anion exchange. Products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis and Thermogravimetry - Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). Results showed that the basal spacing of heated LDH decreased with heating to 300 °C. This revealed the decrease of interlayer spacing and the interlayer anion being grafted to the layer of LDH because the decreased interlayer spacing of the heated LDH was smaller than the size of the interlayer anion.

  16. Ni3+ doped monolayer layered double hydroxide nanosheets as efficient electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yufei; Wang, Qing; Bian, Tong; Yu, Huijun; Fan, Hua; Zhou, Chao; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; O'Hare, Dermot; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-04-01

    Ni3+ doped NiTi layered double hydroxide (NiTi-LDH) monolayer nanosheets with a particle size of ~20 nm and a thickness of ~0.9 nm have been successfully prepared through a facile bottom-up approach. These NiTi-LDH monolayer nanosheets exhibit excellent supercapacitor performance, including a high specific pseudocapacitance (2310 F g-1 at 1.5 A g-1) and long durability compared with bulk LDH, owing to highly exposed conductive Ni3+ species (NiOOH) which lead to the increased mobility rate of surface charge and electrolyte-transfer. Therefore, this work is expected to take a significant step towards exploring novel 2D monolayer electrode materials with unique physical and chemical properties for applications in energy storage and conversion.Ni3+ doped NiTi layered double hydroxide (NiTi-LDH) monolayer nanosheets with a particle size of ~20 nm and a thickness of ~0.9 nm have been successfully prepared through a facile bottom-up approach. These NiTi-LDH monolayer nanosheets exhibit excellent supercapacitor performance, including a high specific pseudocapacitance (2310 F g-1 at 1.5 A g-1) and long durability compared with bulk LDH, owing to highly exposed conductive Ni3+ species (NiOOH) which lead to the increased mobility rate of surface charge and electrolyte-transfer. Therefore, this work is expected to take a significant step towards exploring novel 2D monolayer electrode materials with unique physical and chemical properties for applications in energy storage and conversion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and additional characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01320h

  17. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  18. Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyeong Jin; Kang, Joo-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML), 5-FU/LDH (FL), and (MTX + 5-FU)/LDH (MFL) nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy. PMID:24860812

  19. Layered double hydroxide-alginate/polyvinyl alcohol beads: fabrication and phosphate removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi

    2014-01-01

    In the water treatment field, powder form of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has wide applications in adsorptions. However, its applications are limited because of low hydraulic conductivity. Here, LDH-alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) beads were fabricated by entrapment of the Mg-Al LDH powder into alginate/PVA beads. The obtained Mg-Al LDH-alginate/PVA beads were characterized by X-ray diffraction scanning electron microscopy. Their performance for phosphate removal by batch and column adsorption mode was evaluated. The Mg-Al LDH-alginate/PVA beads were found to be efficient adsorbents for phosphate removal. Batch adsorption experiment showed that the phosphate sorption process on the Mg-Al LDH-alginate/PVA beads followed pseudo-second-order reaction order kinetic model and the adsorption isotherm date could be simulated using both Langmiur and Freundlich models. In the column study, the flow rate and inlet phosphate concentration were maintained at 29.62 m³/m² h and 10 mgP/L, respectively. Using 20 cm column depth, the breakthrough and exhaust time were found to be 5 and 31 h, respectively. The percentage of phosphate removal by column was 80.09%. The values of adsorption rate coefficient (K) and the adsorption capacity coefficient (N) were 0.0125 L/mg h and 258.32 mg/L, respectively. PMID:25176487

  20. Superhydrophobic and UV-blocking cotton fabrics prepared by layer-by-layer assembly of organic UV absorber intercalated layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Xu, Zhiguang; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

    2013-12-01

    A dual-functional coating with both superhydrophobic and UV-blocking properties was prepared on cotton fabric using a hybrid layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelet intercalated with 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid (HMBS) molecules and an electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The thermal stability of HMBS was greatly enhanced by the host-guest interaction with LDH layers. The as-prepared HMBS@LDH hybrid had a nearly neutral surface charge. To make it carry enough charge for the electrostatic LbL assembly, the HMBS@LDH nanoplatelet was further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane. The nanoscale roughness generated by LDH nanoplatelets, together with low-surface-energy fluoroalkylsilane, endowed cotton fabrics with superhydrophobicity. The HMBS@LDH coating showed up to four-fold increase in the UV protection ability of cotton fabrics.

  1. In vitro controlled release of vitamin C from Ca/Al layered double hydroxide drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaorui; Chen, Le; Xie, Juan; Yin, Yaobing; Chang, Tao; Duan, Yancong; Jiang, Nan

    2014-06-01

    A new drug delivery system for vitamin C (VC), Ca/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), is demonstrated in this work. VC anions were intercalated successfully in the Ca/Al LDH gallery by a coprecipitation method. The interlayer space of 9.8Å suggests that VC anions are vertical to the LDH layers in the form of interdigitated bilayer. The loading of VC in LDH is 36.4wt.%. The thermal stability of VC is significantly enhanced after intercalation. In vitro VC release results show that the release time of VC in a phosphate buffer at pH7.4 was significantly extended, and the maximal percentage of VC released is 80% of the total. The Avrami-Erofe'ev equation most satisfactorily explains the release kinetics of VC, which is that the release of VC is mainly dominated by the ion-exchange reaction. PMID:24863197

  2. Synthesis of partially exfoliated EPDM\\/LDH nanocomposites by solution intercalation: Structural characterization and properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Acharya; S. K. Srivastava; Anil K. Bhowmick

    2007-01-01

    Partially exfoliated ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM)\\/Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites have been synthesized by solution intercalation using organically modified LDH (DS-LDH) as nanofiller obtained by reconstruction method using sodium dodecyl sulfate and LDH. The nanocomposite structure has been elucidated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and

  3. Migration of nanosized layered double hydroxide platelets from polylactide nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B; Katiyar, V; Plackett, D; Larsen, E H; Gerds, N; Koch, C Bender; Petersen, J H

    2011-01-01

    Melt-extruded L-polylactide (PLA) nanocomposite films were prepared from commercially available PLA and laurate-modified Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH-C12). Three films were tested for total migration as well as specific migration of LDH, tin, laurate and low molecular weight PLA oligomers (OLLA). This is the first reported investigation on the migration properties of PLA-LDH nanocomposite films. The tests were carried out as part of an overall assessment of the suitability of such films for use as food contact materials (FCM). Total migration was determined according to a European standard method. All three films showed migration of nanosized LDH, which was quantified using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection of (26)Mg. Migration of LDH from the films was also confirmed by examining migrates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and was attributed indirectly to the significant PLA molecular weight reduction observed in extruded PLA-LDH-C12 films. Migration of tin was detected in two of the film samples prepared by dispersion of LDH-C12 using a masterbatch technique and migration of the laurate organomodifier took place from all three film types. The results indicate that the material properties are in compliance with the migration limits for total migration and specific lauric acid migration as set down by the EU legislation for FCM, at least if a reduction factor for fresh meat is taken into consideration. The tin detected arises from the use of organotin catalysts in the manufacture of PLA. PMID:21614708

  4. Rapid exchange between atmospheric CO2 and carbonate anion intercalated within magnesium rich layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Pathik; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Deguchi, Kenzo; Ohki, Shinobu; Tansho, Masataka; Shimizu, Tadashi; Eisaku, Nii; Sasai, Ryo; Labuta, Jan; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Iyi, Nobuo

    2014-10-22

    The carbon cycle, by which carbon atoms circulate between atmosphere, oceans, lithosphere, and the biosphere of Earth, is a current hot research topic. The carbon cycle occurring in the lithosphere (e.g., sedimentary carbonates) is based on weathering and metamorphic events so that its processes are considered to occur on the geological time scale (i.e., over millions of years). In contrast, we have recently reported that carbonate anions intercalated within a hydrotalcite (Mg0.75Al0.25(OH)2(CO3)0.125·yH2O), a class of a layered double hydroxide (LDH), are dynamically exchanging on time scale of hours with atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. (Ishihara et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18040-18043). The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by infrared spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between the initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. In this article, we report the significant influence of Mg/Al ratio of LDH on the carbonate anion exchange dynamics. Of three LDHs of various Mg/Al ratios of 2, 3, or 4, magnesium-rich LDH (i.e., Mg/Al ratio = 4) underwent extremely rapid exchange of carbonate anions, and most of the initially intercalated carbonate anions were replaced with carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2 within 30 min. Detailed investigations by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR revealed that magnesium rich LDH has chemical and structural features that promote the exchange of carbonate anions. Our results indicate that the unique interactions between LDH and CO2 can be optimized simply by varying the chemical composition of LDH, implying that LDH is a promising material for CO2 storage and/or separation. PMID:25275963

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Zn\\/Al and Pt\\/Zn\\/Al layered double hydroxides obtained by the sol–gel method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Tichit; Olivier Lorret; Bernard Coq; Federica Prinetto; Giovanna Ghiotti

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the nature of the Zn, Al and Pt precursors, and of the temperature of precipitation and aging have been studied in connection with the preparation of Zn\\/Al and Pt\\/Zn\\/Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) by the sol–gel method. Whatever the precursors the XRD analysis shows that LDH is formed at the expense of ZnO when the precipitation and

  6. Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Line B.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Zorin, Vadim; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2014-11-01

    Ordering of gallium(III) in a series of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides (LDH’s), [Mg1-xGax(OH)2(NO3)x yH2O], was determined using solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy. Depletion of Ga in these LDH’s is demonstrated to be the result of soluble [Ga(OH)4]-complexes formed during synthesis.

  7. Intercalation of p-methycinnamic acid anion into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide to improve UV aging resistance of asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chao; Dai, Jing; Yu, Jianying; Yin, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A UV absorber, p-methycinnamic acid (PMCA), was intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by calcination recovery. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the PMCA anions completely replaced the CO32- anions in the interlayer galleries of Zn-Al-LDH containing PMCA anions (Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the interlayer distance increased from 0.78 nm to 1.82 nm after the substitution of PMCA anions for CO32- anions. The similar diffraction angles of the CO32- anion-containing Zn-Al-LDH (Zn-Al-CO32--LDH) and the Zn-Al-CO32--LDH/styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt implied that the asphalt molecules do not enter into the LDH interlayer galleries to form separated-phase structures. The different diffraction angles of Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH and Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH/SBS modified asphalt indicated that the asphalt molecules penetrated into the LDH interlayer galleries to form an expanded-phase structure. UV-Vis absorbance analyses showed that Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH was better able to block UV light due to the synergistic effects of PMCA and Zn-Al-LDH. Conventional physical tests and atomic force microscopy images of the SBS modified asphalt, Zn-Al-CO32--LDH/SBS modified asphalt and Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH/SBS modified asphalt before and after UV aging indicated that Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH improved the UV aging resistance of SBS modified asphalts.

  8. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles promote self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells through the PI3K signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Youjun; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenrui; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Cheng, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research.Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02339d

  9. Mixed metal oxides for dye-sensitized solar cell using zinc titanium layered double hydroxide as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianqiang; Qin, Yaowei; Zhang, Liangji; Xiao, Hongdi; Song, Jianye; Liu, Dehe; Leng, Mingzhe; Hou, Wanguo; Du, Na

    2013-12-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMO) are always obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) by thermal decomposition. In the present work, a zinc titanium LDH with the zinc titanium molar ratio of 4.25 was prepared by urea method and ZnO-based mixed oxides were obtained by calcining at or over 500°C. The MMO was used as electrodes for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The cells constructed by films of prepared composite materials using a N719 as dye were prepared. The efficiency values of these cells are 0.691%, 0.572% and 0.302% with MMO prepared at 500, 600 and 700°C, respectively.

  10. Removal of arsenate from aqueous solution by nanocrystalline Mg/Al layered double hydroxide: sorption characteristics, prospects, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Goh, K H; Lim, T T; Dong, Z L

    2010-01-01

    Removal of arsenate (As(V)) from aqueous solution using both nanocrystalline and coprecipitated Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was examined under different sorption/desorption conditions. The surface area, pore volume, and pore size of the nanocrystalline LDH were significantly higher than those of the coprecipitated LDH, thus resulting in a higher As(V) sorption maximum than the coprecipitated LDH. The calculated activation energy (E(a)) value was 24.7 kJ/mol, suggesting the occurrence of anion exchange process for As(V) removal by the nanocrystalline LDH. The predominance of anion exchange process was further supported by the investigation of ionic strength effect, and XRD and FTIR analyses. The effect of aqueous matrix on As(V) sorption by the nanocrystalline LDH was found to increase in the order of nitrate < silica < sulfate < carbonate < phosphate. Regeneration study showed that a secondary sorption mechanism might occur concurrently for the As(V) sorption by nanocrystalline LDH besides the predominant anion exchange process. Prospects and challenges for practical application of the nanocrystalline LDH were also discussed in the latter part of this study. PMID:20351419

  11. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles promote self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells through the PI3K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youjun; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenrui; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Cheng, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2015-07-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ?100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research. PMID:26060037

  12. Aluminium substitution in iron(II–III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Ruby; Mustapha Abdelmoula; Rabha Aissa; Ghouti Medjahdi; Michela Brunelli; Michel François

    2008-01-01

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II–III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe4IIFe(2-6y)IIIAl6yIII (OH)12 SO4, 8H2O are followed by pH titration curves, Mössbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO42?), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions

  13. Layered double hydroxide-based nanomaterials as highly efficient catalysts and adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Li, Changming; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2014-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a class of anion clays consisting of brucite-like host layers and interlayer anions, which have attracted increasing interest in the fields of catalysis/adsorption. By virtue of the versatility in composition, morphology, and architecture of LDH materials, as well as their unique structural properties (intercalation, topological transformation, and self-assembly with other functional materials), LDHs display great potential in the design and fabrication of nanomaterials applied in photocatalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, and adsorption/separation processes. Taking advantage of the structural merits and various control synthesis strategies of LDHs, the active center structure (e.g., crystal facets, defects, geometric and electronic states, etc.) and macro-nano morphology can be facilely manipulated for specific catalytic/adsorbent processes with largely enhanced performances. In this review, the latest advancements in the design and preparation of LDH-based functional nanomaterials for sustainable development in catalysis and adsorption are summarized. PMID:25137218

  14. Photocatalytic Activity of Highly Porous Zinc Ferrite Prepared from a Zinc-Iron(III)Sulfate Layered Double Hydroxide Precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiqing Meng; Feng Li; David G. Evans; Xue Duan

    2004-01-01

    A zinc-iron(III)-sulfate layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been prepared from zinc and iron(II) precursors. Calcination at 500°C or above affords a mixture of ZnO (zincite) and ZnFe2O4 (spinel) phases. Treatment of the calcined products with aqueous NaOH leads to dissolution of the ZnO and the formation of a pure zinc ferrite phase with high surface area and pore volume. When

  15. Preparation and intercalation chemistry of magnesium–iron(III) layered double hydroxides containing exchangeable interlayer chloride and nitrate ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiqing Meng; Feng Li; David G. Evans; Xue Duan

    2004-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Mg2+ and Fe3+ cations in the brucite-like layers and having chloride or nitrate ions in the interlayer region have been prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), elemental analysis and thermal analysis. Thermal decomposition of the LDH-nitrate occurs in two steps, with loss of water followed by simultaneous dehydroxylation of the layers and loss

  16. Variation of benzyl anions in MgAl-layered double hydroxides: Fire and thermal properties in PMMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calistor Nyambo; Dan Chen; Shengpei Su; Charles A. Wilkie

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl-LDHs) intercalated with a range of benzyl anions were prepared using the coprecipitation method. The benzyl anions differ in functionality (i.e. carboxylate, sulfonate, and phosphonate) and presence or absence of an amino substituent. Various methods for preparing LDHs (i.e. ion exchange, coprecipitation and rehydration of the calcined LDH methods) have been compared with the MgAl-benzene

  17. New synthetic route to Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide using magnesite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaobo [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 100083 Beijing (China); Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 100083 Beijing (China); Zhao, Dong; Chai, Yupu; Guo, Man; Zhang, Jingyu [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 100083 Beijing (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? The use of magnesite to prepare Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} LDH is novel. ? The result sample is systematically studied. ? Furthermore, the cost of preparing Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} LDH may be reduced through this synthetic route. ? In the synthesis process, there is no CO{sub 2} released. That is significant to environmental protection. - Abstract: A novel synthesis of Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide (LDH) through chemical precipitation and hydrothermal methods has been investigated in this paper. The advantages of this method are using magnesite as magnesium source and no CO{sub 2} released in the process of preparation. Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} LDH (ZY) prepared under the optimized condition (the molar ratio of magnesite and Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O was 2.5:1; the aging time and temperature were 16 h and 100 °C, respectively) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyser (TG–DTA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystal morphology of the prepared LDH displays platelet-like structure with a hexagonal shape, which is agreed with the LDH produced by industrial chemicals. Through elemental analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), the chemical formula of ZY is determined as Mg{sub 0.70}Al{sub 0.30}(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}·0.6H{sub 2}O.

  18. In situ synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)\\/MgAl layered double hydroxide nanocomposite with high transparency and enhanced thermal properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Chen; Li Feng; Baojun Qu

    2004-01-01

    A novel poly(methyl methacrylate)\\/MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite (PMMA-MgAl NC) with high transparency and enhanced thermal properties was synthesized in situ by adding sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to an emulsion consisting of metal ion aqueous solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, methyl methacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide, then followed by the thermal initiation polymerization. The basal spacing of PMMA-MgAl NC was 2.72

  19. Tailoring surface properties and structure of layered double hydroxides using silanes with different number of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qi; He, Hongping; Li, Tian; Frost, Ray L.; Zhang, Dan; He, Zisen

    2014-05-01

    Four silanes, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), dimethyldiethoxylsilane (DMDES), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), were adopted to graft layered double hydroxides (LDH) via an induced hydrolysis silylation method (IHS). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and 29Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (29Si MAS NMR) indicated that APTES and TEOS can be grafted onto LDH surfaces via condensation with hydroxyl groups of LDH, while TMCS and DMDES could only be adsorbed on the LDH surface with a small quantity. A combination of X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and 29Si MAS NMR spectra showed that silanes were exclusively present in the external surface and had little influence on the long range order of LDH. The surfactant intercalation experiment indicated that the adsorbed and/or grafted silane could not fix the interlamellar spacing of the LDH. However, they will form crosslink between the particles and affect the further surfactant intercalation in the silylated samples. The replacement of water by ethanol in the tactoids and/or aggregations and the polysiloxane oligomers formed during silylation procedure can dramatically increase the value of BET surface area (SBET) and total pore volumes (Vp) of the products.

  20. Phosphorus-containing flame retardant modified layered double hydroxides and their applications on polylactide film with good transparency.

    PubMed

    Ding, Peng; Kang, Bai; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Jingwen; Song, Na; Tang, Shengfu; Shi, Liyi

    2015-02-15

    Polylactide (PLA)/layered double hydroxide (LDH) films with good flame retardant property and transparency were synthesized by solution exfoliation and film casting method. The organic-inorganic interfacial interaction between PLA and NiAl-LDH was carefully modified by 2-carboxylethyl-phenyl-phosphinic acid (CEPPA) to well solve the dispersion problem of NiAl-LDH nanolayers and get enhanced flame retardancy of PLA composites. The results showed the NiAl-LDH/CEPPA (LC) nanolayers had exfoliated structures and were homogenously dispersed in PLA matrixes. All the PLA/LDH films had good transparency even LC content was up to 10 wt%. The PLA/LDH films absorbed the ultraviolet light, which alleviates the embrittlement of PLA films in the using procedure. The flame retardant effect characterized by microscale combustion calorimeter was observed when LC contents increased. The total heat release value of the sample with 10 wt% LC decreased to 9.7 kJ/g from 12.0 kJ/g of virgin PLA. PMID:25460688

  1. Controlled drug release from antibiotic-loaded layered double hydroxide coatings on porous titanium implants in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Badar, Muhammad; Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Kieke, Marc; Ebel, Thomas; Rohde, Manfred; Hauser, Hansjörg; Behrens, Peter; Mueller, Peter P

    2015-06-01

    As an alternative to degradable organic coatings the possibility of using layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to generate implant coatings for controlled drug delivery was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Coatings prepared from LDH suspensions dissolved slowly and appeared compatible with cultured cells. LDH coatings loaded with an antibiotic resulted in antibacterial effects in vitro. The LDH coating prolonged the drug release period and improved the proliferation of adherent cells in comparison to pure drug coatings. However, during incubation in physiological solutions the LDH coatings became brittle and pieces occasionally detached from the surface. For stress protection porous titanium implants were investigated as a substrate for the coatings. The pores prevented premature detachment of the coatings. To evaluate the coated porous implants in vivo a mouse model was established. To monitor bacterial infection of implants noninvasive in vivo imaging was used to monitor luminescently labeled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this model porous implants with antibiotic-loaded LDH coatings could antagonize bacterial infections for over 1 week. The findings provide evidence that delayed drug delivery from LDH coatings could be feasible in combination with structured implant surfaces. PMID:25345717

  2. Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin intercalated in Mg2Al-Cl layered double hydroxide and ionic liquid composite material.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Tianrong; Guo, Yaqing; Xu, Li; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Wei; Hou, Wanguo

    2012-05-30

    A novel biocompatible nanocomposite prepared by Mg(2)Al-Cl layered double hydroxide (LDH) and ionic liquid (IL) 1-carboxyl-methyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate was used as the matrix for the immobilization of myoglobin (Mb). The IL-LDH-Mb composite was characterized by UV-vis adsorption spectroscopy and the results indicated that Mb retained its native structure in the IL-LDH nanocomposite. The IL-LDH-Mb bionanocomposite was modified on the surface of carbon ionic liquid electrode to get an Mb modified electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that direct electrochemistry of Mb in the composite was realized with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared, which could be attributed to the specific microenvironment provided by layer structured LDH and high ionic conductive IL present for Mb molecule. The modified electrode exhibited good direct electrocatalytic ability to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide with good stability and reproducibility. Different kinds of real samples were detected by the modified electrode with satisfactory results. So the IL-LDH nanocomposite provided a novel and efficient platform for the immobilization of enzymes, which had potential applications in the fabrication of third-generation biosensors. PMID:22608434

  3. Multi-level three-dimensional Mg-Al layered double hydroxide hierarchical microstructures with enhanced basic catalytic property.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaying; Fan, Guoli; Yang, Yang; Li, Feng

    2014-10-15

    Novel three-dimensional (3D) rosette-like carbonate-type Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) hierarchical microstructures were fabricated successfully by a surfactant-assisted coprecipitation method in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine as precipitant, and the morphology-dependent basic catalytic property was exploited. The morphologies of MgAl-LDH aggregates were diversified depending on the synthesis parameters including the type of precipitant, concentration of sodium stearate surfactant, and hydrothermal aging time. Specifically, the morphology of MgAl-LDH particles could change progressively from platelet-like aggregates to rosette-like microspheres with the increasing concentration of sodium stearate. A possible formation mechanism for special 3D flower-like MgAl-LDH microstructures was proposed based on the synergistic effect of precipitant with surfactant. Moreover, the resulting activated rosette-like MgAl-LDH, which was prepared through calcination-rehydration process, showed a higher catalytic activity in the transesterification of tributyrin with methanol, compared with that derived from the conventional platelet-like MgAl-LDH precursor, which was attributed to its higher specific basicity originating from multi-level hierarchical superstructure offering an advantage in contact with more exposed base sites. PMID:25036381

  4. Preparation of 5-benzotriazolyl-4-hydroxy-3-sec-butylbenzenesulfonate anion-intercalated layered double hydroxide and its photostabilizing effect on polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dianqing [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tuo Zhenjun [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Evans, David G. [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Duan Xue [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: duanx@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2006-10-15

    An organic UV absorber has been intercalated into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) host by ion-exchange method using ZnAl-NO{sub 3}-LDH as a precursor with an aqueous solution of the sodium salt of 5-benzotriazolyl-4-hydroxy-3-sec-butylbenzenesulfonic acid (BZO). After intercalation of the UV absorber, the interlayer distance in the LDHs increases from 0.89 to 2.32 nm. Infrared spectra and thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) curves reveal the presence of a complex system of supramolecular host-guest interactions. The thermostability of BZO is markedly enhanced by intercalation in the LDH host. ZnAl-BZO-LDHs/polypropylene composite materials exhibit excellent UV photostability. - Graphical abstract: Intercalation of an organic UV absorber in a layered double hydroxide host leads to an enhancement of its photo- and thermal stability.

  5. Improvement of pharmacokinetic and antitumor activity of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles by coating with PEGylated phospholipid membrane

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mina; Zhang, Zhaoguo; Cui, Shengmiao; Lei, Ming; Zeng, Ke; Liao, Yunhui; Chu, Weijing; Deng, Yihui; Zhao, Chunshun

    2014-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) has attracted considerable attention as a drug carrier. However, because of its poor in vivo behavior, polyethylene glycolylated (PEGylated) phospholipid must be used as a coformer to produce self-assembled core–shell nanoparticles. In the present study, we prepared a PEGylated phospholipid-coated LDH (PLDH) (PEG-PLDH) delivery system. The PEG-PLDH nanoparticles had an average size of 133.2 nm. Their core–shell structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro liposome-cell-association and cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated its ability to be internalized by cells. In vivo studies showed that PEGylated phospholipid membranes greatly reduced the blood clearance rate of LDH nanoparticles. PEG-PLDH nanoparticles demonstrated a good control of tumor growth and increased the survival rate of mice. These results suggest that PEG-PLDH nanoparticles can be a useful drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:25364245

  6. Layered double hydroxides as supports for intercalation and sustained release of antihypertensive drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Shengjie [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Ni Zheming [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: jchx@zjut.edu.cn; Xu Qian; Hu Baoxiang; Hu Jun [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were intercalated with the anionic antihypertensive drugs Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril by using coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. TG-MS analyses suggested that the thermal stability of Ena{sup -}, Lis{sup -} (arranged with monolayer, resulted from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) analysis was enhanced much more than Cap{sup -} and Ram{sup -} (arranged with bilayer). The release studies show that the release rate of all samples markedly decreased in both pH 4.25 and 7.45. However, the release time of Ena{sup -}, Lis{sup -} were much longer compared with Cap{sup -}, Ram{sup -} in both pH 4.25 and 7.45, it is possible that the intercalated guests, arranged with monolayer in the interlayer, show lesser repulsive force and strong affinity with the LDH layers. And the release data followed both the Higuchi-square-root law and the first-order equation well. Based on the analysis of batch release, intercalated structural models as well as the TG-DTA results, we conclude that for drug-LDH, stronger the affinity between intercalated anions and the layers is, better the thermal property and the stability to the acid attack of drug-LDH, and the intercalated anions are easier apt to monolayer arrangement within the interlayer, were presented. - Graphical abstract: A series of antihypertensive drugs including Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril were intercalated into Zn/Al-NO{sub 3}-LDHs successfully by coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. We focus on the structure, thermal property and low/controlled release property of as-synthesized drug-LDH composite intended for the possibility of applying these LDH-antihypertensive nanohybrids in drug delivery and controlled release systems.

  7. Compositional and Structural Control on Anion Sorption Capability of Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHS)

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang; H. Gao

    2006-03-16

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have shown great promise as anion getters. In this paper, we demonstrate that the sorption capability of a LDH for a specific oxyanion can be greatly increased by appropriately manipulating material composition and structure. A large set of LDH materials have been synthesized with various combinations of metal cations, interlayer anions, and the molar ratios of divalent cation M(II) to trivalent cation M(III). The synthesized materials have then been tested systematically for their sorption capabilities for pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). It is discovered that for a given interlayer anion (either CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} or NO{sub 3}{sup -}) the Ni-Al LDH with a Ni/Al ratio of 3:1 exhibits the highest sorption capability among all the materials tested. The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) is determined to be as high as 307 mL/g for Ni{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(0H){sub 16}CO{sub 3}nH{sub 2}O and 1390 mL/g for Ni{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}NO{sub 3}nH{sub 2}O at a pH of 8. The sorption of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} on M(II)-M(III)-CO{sub 3} LDHs is dominated by the edge sites of LDH layers and strongly correlated with the basal spacing d{sub 003} of the materials, which increases with the decreasing radii of both divalent and trivalent cations. The sorption reaches its maximum when the layer spacing is just large enough for a pertechnetate anion to fit into a cage space between two neighboring octahedra of metal hydroxides at the edge. Furthermore, the sorption is found to increase with the crystallinity of the materials. For a given combination of metal cations and an interlayer anion, a best crystalline LDH material is obtained generally with a M(II)/M(III) ratio of 3:1. Replacement of interlayer carbonate with readily exchangeable nitrate greatly increases the sorption capability of a LDH material for pertechnetate, due to the enhanced adsorption on edge sites and the possible contribution from interlayer anion exchanges. The work reported here will help to establish a general structure-property relationship for the related layered materials.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release anticorrosion behavior of benzoate intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)] [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@qdio.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)] [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The benzoate anion released from Zn-Al LDHs provides a more effective long-term protection against corrosion of Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: {yields} A benzoate anion corrosion inhibitor intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been assembled by coprecipitation method. {yields} The kinetic simulation indicates that the ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process and the diffusion through particle is the rate limiting step. {yields} A significant reduction of the corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive media. -- Abstract: Corrosion inhibitor-inorganic clay composite including benzoate anion intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are assembled by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analyses indicate that the benzoate anion is successfully intercalated into the LDH interlayer and the benzene planes are vertically bilayer-positioned as a quasi-guest ion-pair form in the gallery space. Kinetic simulation for the release data, XRD and FT-IR analyses of samples recovered from the release medium indicate that ion-exchange is responsible for the release process and diffusion through the particle is also indicated to be the rate-limiting step. The anticorrosion capabilities of LDHs loaded with corrosion inhibitor toward Q235 carbon steel are analyzed by polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Significant reduction of corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive medium. This hybrid material may potentially be applied as a nanocontainer in self-healing coatings.

  9. Evidences for decarbonation and exfoliation of layered double hydroxide in N,N-dimethylformamide-ethanol solvent mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordijo, Claudia R. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Leopoldo Constantino, Vera R. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Silva, Denise de [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: deosilva@iq.usp.br

    2007-07-15

    The behavior of a Hydrotalcite-like material (carbonate-containing Mg,Al-layered double hydroxide) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-ethanol mixture, at ambient temperature, has been investigated. The releasing of CO{sub 2} and production of a formate-containing material occurred mainly for 1:1 (v/v) solvent mixture. Decarbonation of Hydrotalcite is promoted by DMF hydrolysis followed by neutralization of brucite-like layers through HCOO{sup -} intercalation. Translucent colloidal dispersion of LDH nanoparticles from the formate-containing phase was characterized by transmission electron (TEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. The absence of (00l) reflection at X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern for dried colloidal dispersion indicated delamination of Hydrotalcite. The restacked sample exhibited broad reflections and typical hydroxide ordered layers non-basal (110) diffraction peaks. A LDH-HCOO{sup -} material was also prepared and characterized by FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Decarbonation and exfoliation of Hydrotalcite in N,N-dimethylformamide-ethanol mixed solvent provide an interesting method for preparation of new intercalated LDH materials. - Graphical abstract: Hydrotalcite suspended in 1:1 (v/v) N,N-dimethylformamide-ethanol solvent mixture, at ambient temperature, undergoes decarbonation and exfoliation. The process is promoted by DMF hydrolysis. Restacking of LDH layers is achieved by evaporating the solvent.

  10. Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets as high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ailing; Li, Lili; Ai, Lunhong

    2015-03-01

    Developing the first-row transition-metal-based oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts with highly efficient electrocatalytic activity to replace precious catalysts, such as RuO2 and IrO2 have recently attracted considerable attention because of their earth abundant nature, low cost, environmentally friendly, multiple valence state and high theoretical activity. In this work, an advanced integrated electrode for high-performance electrochemical water oxidation has been designed and fabricated by directly growing binary nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (NiCo-LDH) nanosheet arrays on nickel foam. Such economical, earth abundant NiCo-LDH nanosheets show excellent OER activity in alkaline medium with an onset overpotential as low as 290 mV, large anodic current density and excellent durability, which makes them comparable to the most active RuO2 catalyst and better than the Pt/C catalyst. The outstanding OER activity of the NiCo-LDH nanosheets can be attributed to their intrinsic layered structure, interconnected nanoarray configuration and unique redox characteristics.

  11. Physical and Chemical Interactions between Mg:Al Layered Double Hydroxide and Hexacyanoferrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boclair, Joseph W.; Braterman, Paul S.; Brister, Brian D.; Wang, Zhiming; Yarberry, Faith

    2001-11-01

    The physical and chemical interactions of ferrocyanide (potassium and ammonium salts) and ferricyanide (potassium salt) with Mg:Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) (having Mg:Al ratios of 2 and 3) are investigated using powder XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. Physically, the potassium ferricyanide is shown to intercalate with a small local field deformation similar to that seen for hexacyanocobaltate (III) in similar materials. Chemically, the reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide upon intercalation is confirmed. Physical interactions of ferrocyanide with 3:1 LDH are shown spectroscopically to include the possible generation of anions in differing environments. Chemically, ferrocyanide is shown to generate cubic ferrocyanides (of the type M2MgFe(CN)6, where M=K+ or NH+4) under conditions where free Mg2+ is likely present in solution, namely, solutions with a pH lower than ?7.5. It is shown that the reported 2112-cm-1 band found in some chemically altered LDH ferrocyanide is indeed due to interlayer ferricyanide, but that the 2080 cm-1 band is due to the cubic material.

  12. Mg,Al layered double hydroxides with intercalated indomethacin: synthesis, characterization, and pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, M; Cebadera, E; Gutiérrez, S; Martín, C; Montero, M J; Rives, V; Rocha, J; Sevilla, M A

    2004-06-01

    Magnesium aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) with a molar Mg/Al ratio of 2.0 have been prepared with intercalated indomethacin following two routes: reconstruction from a previously calcined Mg(2)Al-CO(3) LDH, and coprecipitation from the corresponding chlorides. The solids have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, and (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies and thermal stability (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis). Intercalation of the drug is attained by both routes; however, while coprecipitation leads to a single layered structure, contamination with another layered MgAl-CO(3) phase occurs by the reconstruction method. The amount of drug intercalated, as well as the height of the gallery, are larger by the coprecipitation than by the reconstruction one. The data obtained support a somewhat tilted, upwards orientation of the drug molecules forming an interdigited bilayer, in the case of the sample prepared by coprecipitation, with the carboxylate groups pointing towards the hydroxyl layers. However, in the case of the sample prepared by reconstruction, the molecules are forming a tilted, upwards monolayer. The solids prepared are stable up to 250 degrees C. Pharmacological studies in vivo show that intercalation of the drug in the LDH reduces the ulcerating damage of the drug. PMID:15124221

  13. Direct observation of grafting interlayer phosphate in Mg/Al layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Akihiro; Kanezaki, Eiji; Jones, Mark I.; Metson, James B.

    2012-02-01

    The grafting of interlayer phosphate in synthetic Mg/Al layered double hydroxides with interlayer hydrogen phosphate (LDH-HPO4) has been studied by XRD, TG/DTA, FT-IR, XPS and XANES. The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO4 decreases in two stages with increasing temperature, from 1.06 nm to 0.82 nm at 333 K in the first transition, and to 0.722 nm at 453 K in the second. The first stage occurs due to the loss of interlayer water and rearrangement of the interlayer HPO42-. In the second transition, the interlayer phosphate is grafted to the layer by the formation of direct bonding to metal cations in the layer, accompanied by a change in polytype of the crystalline structure. The grafted phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange with 1-octanesulfonate. The LDH is amorphous at 743 K but decomposes to Mg3(PO4)2, AlPO4, MgO and MgAl2O4 after heated to 1273 K.

  14. Layered double hydroxides as supports for intercalation and sustained release of antihypertensive drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Sheng-Jie; Ni, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Qian; Hu, Bao-Xiang; Hu, Jun

    2008-10-01

    Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were intercalated with the anionic antihypertensive drugs Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril by using coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. TG-MS analyses suggested that the thermal stability of Ena -, Lis - (arranged with monolayer, resulted from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) analysis was enhanced much more than Cap - and Ram - (arranged with bilayer). The release studies show that the release rate of all samples markedly decreased in both pH 4.25 and 7.45. However, the release time of Ena -, Lis - were much longer compared with Cap -, Ram - in both pH 4.25 and 7.45, it is possible that the intercalated guests, arranged with monolayer in the interlayer, show lesser repulsive force and strong affinity with the LDH layers. And the release data followed both the Higuchi-square-root law and the first-order equation well. Based on the analysis of batch release, intercalated structural models as well as the TG-DTA results, we conclude that for drug-LDH, stronger the affinity between intercalated anions and the layers is, better the thermal property and the stability to the acid attack of drug-LDH, and the intercalated anions are easier apt to monolayer arrangement within the interlayer, were presented.

  15. Illustrating the processability of magnetic layered double hydroxides: layer-by-layer assembly of magnetic ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Coronado, E; Martí-Gastaldo, C; Navarro-Moratalla, E; Ribera, A; Tatay, S

    2013-05-20

    We report the preparation of single-layer layered double hydroxide (LDH) two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets by exfoliation of highly crystalline NiAl-NO3 LDH. Next, these unilamellar moieties have been incorporated layer-by-layer (LbL) into a poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/LDH nanosheet multilayer ultrathin film (UTF). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles have been used to follow the uniform growth of the UTF. The use of a magnetic LDH as the cationic component of the multilayered architecture enables study of the resulting magnetic properties of the UTFs. Our magnetic data show the appearance of spontaneous magnetization at ?5 K, thus confirming the effective transfer of the magnetic properties of the bulk LDH to the self-assembled film that displays glassy-like ferromagnetic behavior. The high number of bilayers accessible-more than 80-opens the door for the preparation of more-complex hybrid multifunctional materials that combine magnetism with the physical properties provided by other exfoliable layered inorganic hosts. PMID:23621644

  16. Synthesis and investigation of magnetic nanocomposite of Fe3O4 with cetirizine-intercalated layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejati, K.; Davaran, S.; Baggalzadeh, R.

    2014-11-01

    In this research work the nanocomposite CT-LDH/Fe3O4 was prepared by deposition of cetirizine (CT) intercalated-Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) on Fe3O4 using a co-precipitation method for sustained drug-targeting delivery. The obtained products were characterized by the variety of methods such as (XRD), (FT-IR), (TG) and the elemental analysis. The size and morphology of nanoparticles were examined by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results, showed the coexistence of the strong diffractions of Fe3O4 and cetirizine intercalated LDH. Also, after intercalation, the basal spacing of LDH increased from 0.88 nm to 2.52 nm, indicating that cetirizine anions were successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of LDH as a monolayer. The thermal gravimetric studies indicate the thermal stability of cetirizine molecule has increased with intercalation. In vitro drug release experiments in phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.4) have been investigated. Magnetic measurements revealed that the nanocomposite displayed superparamagnetic properties at room temperature.

  17. Mg-Al and Zn-Fe layered double hydroxides used for organic species storage and controlled release.

    PubMed

    Seftel, E M; Cool, P; Lutic, D

    2013-12-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) containing (Mg and Al) or (Zn and Fe) were prepared by coprecipitation at constant pH, using NaOH and urea as precipitation agents. The most pure LDH phase in the Zn/Fe system was obtained with urea and in Mg/Al system when using NaOH. The incorporation of phenyl-alanine (Phe) anions in the interlayer of the LDH was performed by direct coprecipitation, ionic exchange and structure reconstruction of the mixed oxide obtained by the calcination of the coprecipitated product at 400°C. The reconstruction method and the direct coprecipitation in a medium containing Phe in the initial mixture were less successful in terms of high yields of organic-mineral composite than the ionic exchange method. A spectacular change in sample morphology and yield in exchanged solid was noticed for the Zn3Fe sample obtained by ionic exchange for 6h with Phe solution. A delivery test in PBS of pH=7.4 showed the release of the Phe in several steps up to 25 h indicating different host-guest interactions between the Phe and the LDH matrix. This behavior makes the preparation useful to obtain late delivery drugs, by the incorporation of the anion inside the LDH layer. PMID:24094226

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo antifatigue effect of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for folic acid

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lili; Wang, Wenrui; You, Songhui; Dong, Jingmei; Zhou, Yunhe; Wang, Jibing

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid antioxidants were successfully intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanoparticles according to a previous method with minor modification. The resultant folic acid-LDH constructs were then characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity effect, and in vivo antifatigue were examined by a series of assays. The results showed that folic acid-LDH antioxidant system can scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radicals and chelate pro-oxidative Cu2+. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays indicated that folic acid-LDH antioxidant system had no significant cytotoxic effect or obvious toxicity to normal cells. It also prolonged the forced swimming time of the mice by 32% and 51% compared to folic acid and control groups, respectively. It had an obvious effect on decreasing the blood urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid, while increasing muscle and hepatic glycogen levels. Therefore, folic acid-LDH might be used as a novel antioxidant and antifatigue nutritional supplement. PMID:25506219

  19. Synthesis of Mg-Al and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide nanocrystals using laser ablation in water

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Phuoc, Tran X. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Chyu, Minking K. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we report our results on the synthesis of Mg-Al and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides using the laser ablation in the liquid technique. To prepare these layered double hydroxides (LDH) we first began with the laser generation of a Mg (or zinc) target submerged in deionized water and then ablated an aluminum target submerged in the previously prepared Mg-deionized water suspensions (Mg-dw) to produce Mg-Al LDH and in Zn-dw to prepare Zn-Al LDH. In these ablation tests, the Mg ablation duration was selected to vary from 5 to 60 min, while the Al ablation duration was kept constant at 30 min for all samples. The generated Mg-Al LDH was a gel-like and well crystallized nanoparticles of a rod-like shape and were arranged in a well-organized pattern. When the Mg ablation duration between 25 and 35 min, the synthesized nanocrystals were stoichiometric with a formula of Mg6Al2(OH)(18)4.5 (H2O), the interlayer distance (d((0 0 3))-spacing) was 7.8 angstrom and the average grain size was 8.0 nm. The synthesized Zn-Al LDH revealed various lamellar thin plate-like nanostructures of hexagonal morphologies. The average diameters of these structures was about 500 nm and the thickness of a single layer was approximately about 6.0 nm. The XRD diffraction peaks were indexed in hexagonal lattice with a(o) = 3.07 angstrom and c(o) = 15.12 angstrom. These indexes were (002), (004), and (008) and the corresponding interlayer distances, d-spacing (angstrom), were 7.56 (002), 3.782 (004), and 1.891 (008), respectively.

  20. Thermodynamically Stable Pickering Emulsion Configured with Carbon-Nanotube-Bridged Nanosheet-Shaped Layered Double Hydroxide for Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yuanyuan; Yu, Chang; Yang, Juan; Dong, Qiang; Fan, Xiaoming; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-06-10

    A simple strategy to configure a high thermodynamically stable Pickering emulsion with 2D sheet-shaped layered double hydroxide (LDH) coupled carbon nanotube (CNT) nanohybrid (LDH-CNT) is reported. With the benefit of a unique 2D sheet-shaped structure of the LDH, the as-made LDH-CNTs with amphiphilicity as solid emulsifiers have a good capability for assembling and stabilizing at the water-oil interface, and a superior thermostability emulsion is delivered, indicative of an increased catalytic performance for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Such a unique and excellent thermodynamic stability characteristic makes high reaction interfacial areas well-kept during the reaction process, yielding high catalytic performance. The present strategy provides a simple method for configuration and design of solid nanoparticle emulsifiers with high thermodynamic stability, which will make such a material be of great potential in many important applications such as catalysis and emulsifiers. PMID:25948092

  1. Intercalation of methotrexatum into layered double hydroxides via exfoliation-reassembly process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su-Qing; Li, Shu-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the intercalation of methotrexatum (MTX) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) via an exfoliation-reassembly process was reported and the resulting hybrids were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) patterns etc. In the synthesis procedure, LDHs particles were firstly delaminated into well-dispersed 2D nanosheets in formamide by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature, and then the resulting LDH nanosheets were reassembled in MTX solution to form MTX intercalated LDH (MTX/LDHs) hybrids. AFM images showed that during the exfoliation process a large part of LDHs particles were delaminated into single and double brucite layers. XRD patterns and FTIR investigations manifested the successful intercalation of MTX anions into LDHs interlayers for the final samples. It was also found out that the drug-loading capacity of the hybrids increased with the concentrations of MTX solutions, while the morphology became even aggregated. At last, the cell cytotoxicity of the hybrids was estimated by MTT assays on the human lung cancer cells (A549), and the results stated that MTX/LDHs hybrids had effective suppress role on the proliferation of cancer cells.

  2. Synthesis of mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide spheres: layer-by-layer method and their effects on the flame retardancy of epoxy resins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Man; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Wei-Zhao

    2014-08-27

    Hierarchical mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide (m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH) spheres were prepared through a layer-by-layer assembly process, in order to integrate their excellent physical and chemical functionalities. TEM results depicted that, due to the electrostatic potential difference between m-SiO2 and Co-Al LDH, the synthetic m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH hybrids exhibited that m-SiO2 spheres were packaged by the Co-Al LDH nanosheets. Subsequently, the m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH spheres were incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) to prepare specimens for investigation of their flame-retardant performance. Cone results indicated that m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH incorporated obviously improved fire retardant of EP. A plausible mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized based on the analyses of thermal conductivity, char residues, and pyrolysis fragments. Labyrinth effect of m-SiO2 and formation of graphitized carbon char catalyzed by Co-Al LDH play pivotal roles in the flame retardance enhancement. PMID:25062606

  3. Reversible thermal behavior of the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Mg with Ga and In

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Grace S. [Department of Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560001 (India); Kamath, P. Vishnu [Department of Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560001 (India)]. E-mail: vishnukamath8@hotmail.com

    2005-04-20

    The layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Mg with Ga and In decompose completely on heating to 500 deg. C to yield poorly ordered oxide residues. In the Mg-Ga system, the oxide residue has a rock-salt structure with Ga incorporated in the MgO matrix. In the Mg-In system, the oxide residue is X-ray amorphous. These oxide residues revert back to the original LDH either on standing in a water-saturated atmosphere or on hydrothermal treatment in a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. In contrast, the LDHs of Co with Ga and In yield the thermodynamically stable spinel oxides and the decomposition is irreversible. These results have implications for the synthesis of 'oxide' catalysts by thermal decomposition of the LDHs.

  4. Synthesis of Cd/(Al+Fe) layered double hydroxides and characterization of the calcination products

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.R.; Barriga, C.; Fernandez, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain); Rives, V. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Ulibarri, M.A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: maulibarri@uco.es

    2007-12-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method at a constant pH value of 8. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange at pH 9. The samples have been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and FT-IR spectroscopy. Their thermal stability has been assessed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) and mass spectrometric analysis of the evolved gases. The PXRD patterns of the solids calcined at 800 deg. C show diffraction lines corresponding to Cd(Al)O and spinel-type materials, which precise nature (CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Cd{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4}, or Cd{sub x}Fe{sub 2.66}O{sub 4}) depends on location and concentration of iron in the parent material or precursor. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange. Calcination at 800 deg. C shows diffraction lines corresponding to CdO and to spinel-type materials. SEM micrograph of sample CdAlFe-N-0.

  5. Preparation and characterization of surfactant-free polystyrene/layered double hydroxide exfoliated nanocomposite via soap-free emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Longzhen; Qu, Baojun

    2006-09-15

    The soap-free emulsion polymerization has been applied for preparing the surfactant-free polystyrene/layered double hydroxide exfoliated nanocomposite. The XRD and TEM determinations have been used to monitor the changes of interlayer spacing and morphology during polymerization. The results show that the obtained nanocomposite has the homogeneous structure of polymeric and inorganic components. Due to the absence of organic surfactant, the PS/LDH nanocomposite shows a remarked improvement on the onset decomposition temperature compared with virgin PS. PMID:16793051

  6. Preparation and intercalation chemistry of magnesium-iron(III) layered double hydroxides containing exchangeable interlayer chloride and nitrate ions

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Weiqing; Li Feng; Evans, David G.; Duan Xue

    2004-07-02

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Mg{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations in the brucite-like layers and having chloride or nitrate ions in the interlayer region have been prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), elemental analysis and thermal analysis. Thermal decomposition of the LDH-nitrate occurs in two steps, with loss of water followed by simultaneous dehydroxylation of the layers and loss of NO{sub x}/O{sub 2} arising from the nitrate anions. Thermal decomposition of the LDH-chloride involves an additional step, with chloride ions becoming grafted to the layers, prior to loss of HCl. The interlayer anions may be readily replaced by sulfate, thiosulfate, tartrate and vinylbenzenesulfonate ions suggesting that these materials may be useful precursors to Mg-Fe(III) LDHs intercalated with a variety of inorganic and organic anions.

  7. A novel and easy chemical-clock synthesis of nanocrystalline iron-cobalt bearing layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Jebril; Grangeon, Sylvain; Warmont, Fabienne; Seron, Alain; Greneche, Jean-Marc

    2014-11-15

    A novel synthesis of cobalt-iron layered double hydroxide (LDH) with interlayer chlorides was investigated. The method consists in mixing concentrated solutions of hexaamminecobalt(III) trichloride with ferrous chloride at room temperature and in anoxic conditions. Four initial Fe/Co atomic ratios have been tried out (0.12, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8). Neither heating nor addition of alkali was employed for adjusting the pH and precipitating the metal hydroxides. Still, each mixture led to the spontaneous precipitation of a LDH-rich solid having a crystal-chemistry that depended on the initial solution Fe/Co. These LDHs phases were carefully characterized by mean of X-ray diffraction, (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and chemical analysis (total dissolution and phenanthroline method). Solution Eh and pH were also monitored during the synthesis. Increasing initial Fe/Co ratio impacted the dynamic of the observed stepwise reaction and the composition of the resulting product. Once the two solutions are mixed, a spontaneous and abrupt color change occurs after an induction time which depends on the starting Fe/Co ratio. This makes the overall process acting as a chemical clock. This spontaneous generation of CoFe-LDH arises from the interplay between redox chemistries of iron and cobalt-ammonium complexes. PMID:25173991

  8. The influence of the cationic ratio on the incorporation of Ti 4+ in the brucite-like sheets of layered double hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena M. Seftel; Eveline Popovici; Mirjam Mertens; G. Van Tendeloo; Pegie Cool; Etienne F. Vansant

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of the tetravalent Ti4+ cations into layered double hydroxide (LDH) type materials was studied as a function of the cationic ratio in the brucite-like sheets. Therefore, Zn–Ti-LDHs with different cationic ratio were prepared by the coprecipitation method at constant pH. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that only for the cationic ratio of 3, the characteristic layered structure was

  9. In situ oligomerization of 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate intercalated into Zn2Al layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronto, Jairo; Pinto, Frederico G.; da Costa, Liovando M.; Leroux, Fabrice; Dubois, Marc; Valim, João B.

    2015-01-01

    A layered double hydroxide (LDH) with cation composition Zn2Al was intercalated with 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate (3-TA) monomers. To achieve in situ polymerization and/or oligomerization of the intercalated monomers, soft thermal treatments were carried out, and subsequent hybrid LDH materials were analyzed by means of several characterization techniques using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 13C CP-MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (EPR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and elemental analysis. PXRD analysis suggested that the intercalated monomers formed a bilayer. Thermal treatment of the hybrid LDH assembly above 120 °C provokes partially the breakdown of the layered structure, generating the phase zincite. EPR results indicated that vicinal monomers (oligomerization) were bound to each other after hydrothermal or thermal treatment, leading to a polaron response characteristic of electron conductivity localized on a restricted number of thiophene-based monomer segments. Localized unpaired electrons exist in the material and interact with the 27Al nuclei of the LDH layers by superhyperfine coupling. These unpaired electrons also interact with the surface of ZnO (O2- vacancies), formed during the thermal treatments.

  10. Layered double hydroxide functionalized textile for effective oil/water separation and selective oil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiuzhong; Li, Feng

    2015-01-14

    The removal of oil and organic pollutants from water is highly desired due to frequent oil spill accidents, as well as the increase of industrial oily wastewater. Here, superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textile has been successfully prepared for the application of effective oil/water separation and selective oil adsorption. This textile was fabricated by functionalizing the commercial textile with layered double hydroxide (LDH) microcrystals and low surface energy molecules. The LDH microcrystals were immobilized on the microfibers of the textile through an in situ growth method, and they formed a nestlike microstructure. The combination of the hierarchical structure and the low surface energy molecules made the textile superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. Further experiments demonstrated that the as-prepared textile not only can be applied as effective membrane materials for the separation of oil and water mixtures with high separation efficiency (>97%), but also can be used as a bag for the selective oil adsorption from water. Thus, such superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textile is a very promising material for the application of oil spill cleanup and industrial oily wastewater treatment. PMID:25490110

  11. Part I. Manganese oxide containing layered double hydroxides materials: Synthesis and characterization. Part II. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2): Synthesis, particle size control, characterization, and catalytic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josanlet C. Villegas

    2006-01-01

    The work presented here comprises the development of new routes for the preparation of manganese oxide-based materials with controlled properties. The first part of the research consists of the preparation of a new series of layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials containing intercalated manganese oxide species. Characterization of the resulting materials will be sub-divided in two major parts: (1) Composition, structural,

  12. Comparative X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy study of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides: Vanadate vs nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, Andrei N.; Tedim, João; Kuznetsova, Alena I.; Ribeiro, José L.; Vieira, Luís G.; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Ferreira, Mário G. S.

    2012-03-01

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) are promising as nanocontainers of corrosion inhibitors in self-healing corrosion protection coatings. Zn(2)Al-vanadate (Zn/Al = 2:1) is prepared by anion exchange from the parent composition Zn(2)Al-nitrate at pH ˜ 8. Crystal structure and vibrational spectra of both LDHs have been studied in comparison. Their interlayer distances are rather larger than those corresponding to the most compact arrangement of the intercalated anions. Nevertheless, no sign of a turbostratic disorder has been detected in these LDH. Based on the analysis of the spectroscopic data in combination with the XRD results, it has been shown that vanadate anion, which substitutes nitrate at the anion exchange, is pyrovanadate, VO74-. The observed disorder in the hydroxide layers in Zn(2)Al-V2O7 is likely to result from strong interactions between V5+ and Zn2+/Al3. Although Zn(2)Al-NO3 is less disordered than Zn(2)Al-V2O7, it exhibits no long-range order in arrangement of cations in the hydroxide layers.

  13. Reactivity and applications of layered silicates and layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Thangaraj; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-07-21

    Layered materials, such as layered sodium silicates and layered double hydroxides (LDHs), are well-known for their remarkable adsorption, intercalation and swelling properties. Their tunable interlayers offer an interesting avenue for the fabrication of pillared nanoporous materials, organic-inorganic hybrid materials and catalysts or catalyst supports. This perspective article provides a summary of the reactivity and applications of layered materials including aluminium-free layered sodium silicates (kanemite, ilerite (RUB-18 or octosilicate) and magadiite) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Recent developments in the use of layered sodium silicates as precursors for the preparation of various porous, functional and catalytic materials including zeolites, mesoporous materials, pillared layered silicates, organic-inorganic nanocomposites and synthesis of highly dispersed nanoparticles supported on silica are reviewed in detail. Along this perspective, we have attempted to illustrate the reactivity and transformational potential of LDHs in order to deduce the main differences and similarities between these two types of layered materials. PMID:24841986

  14. New treatment method for boron in aqueous solutions using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-08-15

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with NO3(-) (NO3·Mg-Al LDHs) and with Cl(-) (Cl·Mg-Al LDHs) were found to take up boron from aqueous solutions. Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) in solution with NO3(-) and Cl(-) intercalated in the interlayer of the LDH. Using three times the stoichiometric quantity of NO3·Mg-Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 1.9mgL(-1) in 120min. Using five times the stoichiometric quantity of Cl·Mg-Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 5.6mgL(-1) in 120min. It must be emphasized that, in both cases, the residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan (10mgL(-1)). The rate-determining step of B removal by the NO3·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg-Al LDHs was found to be chemical adsorption involving anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) with intercalated NO3(-) and Cl(-). The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of B by NO3·Mg-Al LDH and Cl·Mg-Al LDH followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. The values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.6mmolg(-1) and 1.7, respectively, for NO3·Mg-Al LDH, and 3.8mmolg(-1) and 0.7, respectively, for Cl·Mg-Al LDH. The B(OH)4(-) in B(OH)4·Mg-Al LDH produced by removal of B was found to undergo anion exchange with NO3(-) and Cl(-) in solution. The NO3·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg-Al LDHs obtained after this regeneration treatment were able to remove B from aqueous solutions, indicating the possibility of recycling NO3·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg-Al LDHs for B removal. PMID:25827268

  15. LDH isoenzymes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body tissues such as the heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, blood cells, and lungs. LDH exists in 5 forms, which ... structure. LDH-1 is found primarily in heart muscle and red blood ... the liver and skeletal muscle. All of these can be measured in ...

  16. Production of succinate by a pfl B ldh A double mutant of Escherichia coli overexpressing malate dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Zhimin Li; Jingli Xie; Qin Ye

    2009-01-01

    The gene encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) was overexpressed in a pflB ldhA double mutant of Escherichia coli, NZN111, for succinic acid production. With MDH overexpression, NZN111\\/pTrc99A-mdh restored the ability to metabolize glucose anaerobically and 0.55 g\\/L of succinic acid was produced from 3 g\\/L of glucose\\u000a in shake flask culture. When supplied with 10 g\\/L of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), the succinic acid yield

  17. Nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide ultrathin nanoflakes decorated on graphene sheets with a 3D nanonetwork structure as supercapacitive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Tao [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li, Ruiyi [The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham BI5 2TT (United Kingdom); Li, Zaijun, E-mail: zaijunli@263.net [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: The microwave heating reflux approach was developed for the fabrication of nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide ultrathin nanoflakes decorated on graphene sheets, in which ammonia and ethanol were used as the precipitator and medium for the synthesis. The obtained composite shows a 3D flowerclusters morphology with nanonetwork structure and largely enhanced supercapacitive performance. - Highlights: • The paper reported the microwave synthesis of nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide/graphene composite. • The novel synthesis method is rapid, green, efficient and can be well used to the mass production. • The as-synthesized composite offers a 3D flowerclusters morphology with nanonetwork structure. • The composite offers excellent supercapacitive performance. • This study provides a promising route to design and synthesis of advanced graphene-based materials with the superiorities of time-saving and cost-effective characteristics. - Abstract: The study reported a novel microwave heating reflux method for the fabrication of nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide ultrathin nanoflakes decorated on graphene sheets (GS/NiCo-LDH). Ammonia and ethanol were employed as precipitant and reaction medium for the synthesis, respectively. The resulting GS/NiCo-LDH offers a 3D flowerclusters morphology with nanonetwork structure. Due to the greatly enhanced rate of electron transfer and mass transport, the GS/NiCo-LDH electrode exhibits excellent supercapacitive performances. The maximum specific capacitance was found to be 1980.7 F g{sup ?1} at the current density of 1 A g{sup ?1}. The specific capacitance can remain 1274.7 F g{sup ?1} at the current density of 15 A g{sup ?1} and it has an increase of about 2.9% after 1500 cycles. Moreover, the study also provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of metallic double hydroxides/graphene hybrid materials with time-saving and cost-effective characteristics, which can be potentially applied in the energy storage/conversion devices.

  18. Structural characterization and thermal and mechanical properties of poly(propylene carbonate)\\/MgAl-LDH exfoliation nanocomposite via solution intercalation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longchao Du; Baojun Qu; Yuezhong Meng; Quan Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Poly(propylene carbonate)\\/MgAl layered double hydroxide (PPC\\/MgAl-LDH) exfoliated nanocomposites were synthesized by solution intercalation of PPC into the galleries of organic modified MgAl-LDH (OMgAl-LDH) in cyclohexanone. The crystal morphological structures, thermal degradation behavior, and mechanical properties have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The nanoscale

  19. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material: alizarin-3-sulfonate in the lamella of zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir b.; Long, Chan W.; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Yahaya, Asmah H.

    2005-02-01

    A series of new organic dye-interleaved nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared by intercalation of alizarin-3-sulfonate anion (Az3S) into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) inorganic lamella host at different concentrations via self-assembly method. The physicochemical properties of the as-synthesized LDH and NCs were studied using PXRD, FTIR, ICP-AES, CHNS, true density and SEM techniques. Basal spacing expansions from 9.0 Å in LDH to about 10.0 and 20.0 Å in the resulting NCs were observed, suggesting that Az3S was probably orientating itself in two or more different ways in the host-matrix due to two different species that co-existed in the mother liquor during the synthesis. FTIR study on NCs further confirmed the interleaving by showing combined patterns of LDH and Az3S. Changes in chemical composition in NC, particularly the increase in carbon and sulfur content compared to the LDH were in strong agreement with the PXRD and FTIR studies. In addition, the inclusion of an organic moiety as interleaving guest in NCs was found to reduce the true density and significantly alter the microscopic surface morphology of the resulting NCs.

  20. Ethanol Sensor of CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 Obtained from Ce-DOPED Layered Double Hydroxides with High Response and Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongmei; Guan, Meiyu; Xu, Qinghong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Yao

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, Ce-doped CdAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) was first synthesized and the derivative CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 composite oxide was prepared by calcining Ce-doped CdAl LDH. The structure, morphology and chemical state of the Ce doped CdAl LDH and CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 were also investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The gas sensing properties of CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 to ethanol were further studied and compared with CdO/Al2O3 prepared from CdAl LDH, CeO2 powder as well as the calcined Ce salt. It turns out that CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 sensor shows best performance in ethanol response. Besides, CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 possesses short response/recovery time (12/72 s) as well as remarkable selectivity in ethanol sensing, which means composite oxides prepared from LDH are very promising in gas sensing application.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of lawsone-lntercalated Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Yamin; Ismail, Nur Mushirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2011-06-01

    A drug-inorganic nanostructured material involving pharmaceutically active compound lawsone intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Law-LDHs) with Zn/AI = 4 has been assembled by co-precipitation and ion exchange methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) analysis indicate a successful intercalation of lawsone between the layers of layered double hydroxides. It suggests that layered double hydroxides may have application as the basis of a drug delivery system. PMID:21830495

  2. Synthesis, structure refinement and chromate sorption characteristics of an Al-rich bayerite-based layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Sylvia, E-mail: sylviabritto11@gmail.com; Kamath, P. Vishnu

    2014-07-01

    “Imbibition” of Zn{sup 2+} ions into the cation vacancies of bayerite–Al(OH){sub 3} and NO{sub 3}{sup ?} ions into the interlayer gallery yields an Al-rich layered double hydroxide with Al/Zn ratio ?3. NO{sub 3}{sup ?} ions are intercalated with their molecular planes inclined at an angle to the plane of the metal hydroxide slab and bonded to it by hydrogen bonds. Rietveld refinement of the structure shows that the monoclinic symmetry of the precursor bayerite is preserved in the product, showing that the imbibition is topochemical in nature. The nitrate ion is labile and is quantitatively replaced by CrO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ions from solution. The uptake of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ions follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm, thus showing that the hydroxide is a candidate material for green chemistry applications for the removal of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ions from waste water. Rietveld refinement of the structure of the hydroxide after CrO{sub 4}{sup 2?} inclusion reveals that the CrO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ion is intercalated with one of its 2-fold axes parallel to the b-crystallographic axis of the crystal, also the principal 2 axis of the monoclinic cell. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the [Zn–Al4-nitrate] LDH viewed along the a-axis. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Al-rich layered double hydroxide with Al/Zn ratio ?3. • Rietveld refinement indicates that the imbibition of Zn into Al(OH){sub 3} is topochemical in nature. • The uptake of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ions follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  3. Removal of boron from oilfield wastewater via adsorption with synthetic layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Delazare, Thais; Ferreira, Letícia P; Ribeiro, Nielson F P; Souza, Mariana M V M; Campos, Juacyara C; Yokoyama, Lídia

    2014-01-01

    Hydrotalcite is a layered double hydroxide (LDH) consisting of brucite-like sheets of metal ions (Mg-Al). In this work, hydrotalcites were synthesized, and boron removal from oilfield wastewater was evaluated. LDHs were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. The calcined products (CLDHs) were obtained by heating at 500°C and characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis and the specific surface area (BET). The affinity of LDHs for borate ions was evaluated for calcined and uncalcined LDHs as a function of contact time, initial pH of the oilfield wastewater (pH ? 9) and the LDH surface area. The tests were conducted at room temperature (approximately 25ºC). The results indicated that 10 min were needed to reach a state of equilibrium during boron removal for calcined LDHs due to the high surface area (202.3 m(2) g(-1)) regardless of the initial pH of the oilfield wastewater, which resulted from the high buffering capacity of the LDHs. The adsorption capacity increased as the adsorbents levels increased for the range studied. After treatment of the oilfield wastewater containing 30 mg L(-1) of boron with Mg-Al-CO3-LDHs, the final concentration of boron was within the discharge limit set by current Brazilian environmental legislation, which is 5 mg L(-1). Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were tested, and the latter was found to fit the experimental data better. Isotherms for boron adsorption by CLDHs were well described using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. PMID:24766593

  4. Anionic poly(p-phenylenevinylene)/layered double hydroxide ordered ultrathin films with multiple quantum well structure: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongpeng; Lu, Jun; Ma, Jing; Wei, Min; Wang, Xinrui; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2010-05-18

    The sulfonated phenylenevinylene polyanion derivate (APPV) and exfoliated Mg-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) monolayers were alternatively assembled into ordered ultrathin films (UTFs) employing a layer-by-layer method, which shows uniform yellow luminescence. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy present a stepwise and regular growth of the UTFs upon increasing deposited cycles. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy demonstrate that the UTFs are orderly periodical layered structure with a thickness of 3.3-3.5 nm per bilayer. The APPV/LDH UTFs exhibit well-defined polarized photoemission characteristic with the maximum luminescence anisotropy of approximately 0.3. Moreover, the UTF exhibit longer fluorescence lifetime (3-3.85-fold) and higher photostability than the drop-casting APPV film under UV irradiation, suggesting that the existence of a LDH monolayer enhances the optical performance of the APPV polyanion. A combination study of electrochemistry and periodic density functional theory was used to investigate the electronic structure of the APPV/LDH system, illustrating that the APPV/LDH UTF is a kind of organic-inorganic hybrid multiple quantum well (MQW) structure with a low band energy of 1.7-1.8 eV, where the valence electrons of APPV can be confined into the energy wells formed by the LDH monolayers effectively. Therefore, this work not only gives a feasible method for fabricating a luminescence ultrathin film but also provides a detailed understanding of the geometric and electronic structures of photoactive polyanions confined between the LDH monolayers. PMID:20092347

  5. Ion exchange and intercalation properties of layered double hydroxides towards halide anions.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Umberto; Vivani, Riccardo; Bastianini, Maria; Costantino, Ferdinando; Nocchetti, Morena

    2014-08-14

    A layered double hydroxide (LDH) obtained by the urea method, having an empirical formula [Zn(0.61)Al(0.39)(OH)2](CO3)(0.195)·0.50H2O, has been converted into the corresponding chloride form [Zn(0.61)Al(0.39)(OH)2]Cl(0.39)·0.47H2O by making the solid come into contact with a suitable HCl solution. The intercalation of the other halide anions (X(-) = F(-), Br(-), I(-)) via the Cl(-)/X(-) anion exchange has been attained and the respective anion exchange isotherms have been obtained with the batch method. The analysis of the isotherms indicates that the selectivity of LDH towards the halides decreases with the increase of the X(-) ionic radius, the selectivity order being F(-) > Cl(-)? Br(-) > I(-). The CO3(2-)/Cl(-) isotherm has also been reported to highlight the extraordinary selectivity of LDH towards carbonate anions. Samples taken from the isotherms at different exchange degrees were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and thermodiffractometry to obtain information about the ion exchange mechanism. The Cl(-)/Br(-) and the reverse Br(-)/Cl(-) exchanges occur with the formation of solid solutions, very likely because of the similar ionic radius of the exchanging anions. In contrast, in the Cl(-)/F(-) and Cl(-)/I(-) exchange, the co-existence of the Cl(-) and F(-) (or I(-)) phases in the same sample was detected, indicating the occurrence of a first order phase transition, in which the starting phase is transformed into the final phase, as the process goes on. The variation of the interlayer distances of ZnAl-X intercalation compounds with the hydration degree has been interpreted with a structural model based on the nesting of the guest species into the trigonal pockets of the brucite-like layer surface. Rietveld refinements of the phases with the maximum F(-), Br(-) and I(-) content were also performed and compared with the above model, giving indications of the arrangement and order/disorder of the halide anions in the interlayer region. PMID:24940938

  6. Aluminium substitution in iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, Christian [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, LCPME UMR7564 CNRS-Nancy Universite, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: Christian.ruby@lcpme.cnrs-nancy.fr; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, LCPME UMR7564 CNRS-Nancy Universite, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Medjahdi, Ghouti [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, LCSM UMR 7555 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Faculte des Sciences, BP239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Brunelli, Michela [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Francois, Michel [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, LCSM UMR 7555 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Faculte des Sciences, BP239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2008-09-15

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe{sub 4}{sup II}Fe{sub (2-6y)}{sup III}Al{sub 6y}{sup III} (OH){sub 12} SO{sub 4}, 8H{sub 2}O are followed by pH titration curves, Moessbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe{sup 3+} species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cell parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe{sup III} and Al{sup III} (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al{sup III} species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount (y{approx}0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe{sup II} species of the material. - Graphical abstract: (a) Crystallographical structure of sulphated green rust: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} point to the Fe{sup 3+} cations (red) that form an ordered array with the Fe{sup 2+} cations (green). (b) Width and asymmetry of the synchrotron XRD peaks increase rapidly when some Al{sup 3+} species substitute the Fe{sup 3+} cations; z is molar ratio Al{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 3+}.

  7. Bacteria encapsulated in layered double hydroxides: towards an efficient bionanohybrid for pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Halma, Matilte; Mousty, Christine; Forano, Claude; Sancelme, Martine; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Prevot, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A soft chemical process was successfully used to immobilize Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP (ADP), a well-known atrazine (herbicide) degrading bacterium, within a Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide host matrix. This approach is based on a simple, quick and ecofriendly direct coprecipitation of metal salts in the presence of a colloidal suspension of bacteria in water. It must be stressed that by this process the mass ratio between inorganic and biological components was easily tuned ranging from 2 to 40. This ratio strongly influenced the biological activity of the bacteria towards atrazine degradation. The better results were obtained for ratios of 10 or lower, leading to an enhanced atrazine degradation rate and percentage compared to free cells. Moreover the biohybrid material maintained this biodegradative activity after four cycles of reutilization and 3 weeks storage at 4°C. The ADP@MgAl-LDH bionanohybrid materials were completely characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM) evidencing the successful immobilization of ADP within the inorganic matrix. This synthetic approach could be readily extended to other microbial whole-cell immobilization of interest for new developments in biotechnological systems. PMID:25497161

  8. A comparative study of supercapacitive performances of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides coated on ZnO nanostructured arrays on textile fibre as electrodes for wearable energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ngoc, Huynh Van; Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-02-21

    We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g(-1), which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 27.53 kW kg(-1), and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the ZnONF/NiCoLDH hybrids is due primarily to the large surface area of the nanoflake structure and the open spaces between nanoflakes, both of which provide a large space for the deposition of NiCoLDH, resulting in reduced internal resistance and improved capacitance performance. Our results are significant for the development of electrode materials for high-performance wearable energy storage devices. PMID:24441593

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and immune efficacy of layered double hydroxide@SiO2 nanoparticles with shell-core structure as a delivery carrier for Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Guo, Chen; Luo, Xiaomei; Kang, Hong; Sun, Yanwei; Dai, Chunxiao; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xin; Jin, Zheng; Cui, Shangjin; Sun, Qingshen

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH)@SiO2 nanoparticles were developed as a delivery carrier for the plasmid DNA expressing the Newcastle disease virus F gene. The LDH was hydrotalcite-like materials. The plasmid DNA encapsulated in the LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles (pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs) was prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the properties of pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results demonstrated that the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs had a regular morphology and high stability with a mean diameter of 371.93 nm, loading capacity of 39.66%±0.45%, and a zeta potential of +31.63 mV. A release assay in vitro showed that up to 91.36% of the total plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs within 288 hours. The LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles had very low toxicity. Additionally, their high transfection efficiency in vitro was detected by fluorescent microscopy. Intranasal immunization of specific pathogen-free chickens with pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and achieved a greater sustained release effect than intramuscular naked plasmid DNA, and the protective efficacy after challenge with the strain F48E9 with highly virulent (mean death time of chicken embryos ?60 hours, intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1 -day-old chickens >1.6) was 100%. Based on the results, LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles can be used as a delivery carrier for mucosal immunity of Newcastle disease DNA vaccine, and have great application potential in the future. PMID:25926734

  10. Hybrid inorganic/organic composites of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with citrate, malate, and tartrate prepared by co-precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kameda, Tomohito [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)], E-mail: kameda@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Takeuchi, Hidenori; Yoshioka, Toshiaki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2009-04-02

    Inorganic/organic composite materials composed of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al LDHs) intercalated with citrate (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{sup 3-}), malate (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 5}{sup 2-}), or tartrate (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2-}) anions were prepared by a co-precipitation technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and compositional analyses. The molecular orientation of the organic component in the interlayer space was determined. At low intercalation levels, citrate ion was inclined at an angle of 26 deg. relative to the brucite-like layers of Mg-Al LDH. At higher solution concentrations, both the Mg(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}){sup -} complex and free C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{sup 3-} were isotropically oriented in the interlayer space. For both malate.Mg-Al LDH and tartrate.Mg-Al LDH, the organic anions were inclined at 26 deg. relative to the Mg-Al LDH layers regardless of anion concentration.

  11. Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides from Ce-containing layered double hydroxide precursors: Controllable preparation and catalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Zheng, E-mail: changzheng@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao Na; Liu Junfeng [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Feng, E-mail: lifeng_70@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Evans, David G.; Duan Xue [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Forano, Claude; Roy, Marie de [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere (France)

    2011-12-15

    Cu/Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors have been synthesized using an anion exchange method with anionic Ce complexes containing the dipicolinate (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) ligand. Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides were obtained by calcination of the Ce-containing LDHs. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, elemental analysis, and low temperature N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements. The results reveal that the inclusion of Ce has a significant effect on the specific surface area, pore structure, and chemical state of Cu in the resulting Cu-Ce-O mixed metal oxides. The resulting changes in composition and structure, particularly the interactions between Cu and Ce centers, significantly enhance the activity of the Ce-containing materials as catalysts for the oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide. - Graphical Abstract: Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides calcined from [Ce(dipic){sub 3}]{sup 3-}- intercalated Cu/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides were synthesized and displayed good catalytic performances in phenol oxidation due to the Cu-Ce interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ce(dipic){sub 3}]{sup 3-}-intercalated Cu/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides derivated from the LDHs were characterized as catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of Ce influenced physicochemical property and catalytic performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu-Ce interaction was largely responsible for enhanced catalytic ability.

  12. CO? sorbents with scaffold-like Ca-Al layered double hydroxides as precursors for CO? capture at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Lee, Tai-Jung; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    A highly stable high-temperature CO? sorbent consisting of scaffold-like Ca-rich oxides (Ca-Al-O) with rapid absorption kinetics and a high capacity is described. The Ca-rich oxides were prepared by annealing Ca-Al-NO? layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors through a sol-gel process with Al(O(i)P)? and Ca(NO?)? with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 7:1. XRD indicated that only LDH powders were formed for Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 2:1. However, both LDH and Ca(OH)? phases were produced at higher ratios. Both TEM and SEM observations indicated that the Ca-Al-NO? LDHs displayed a scaffold-like porous structure morphology rather than platelet-like particles. Upon annealing at 600 °C, a highly stable porous network structure of the CaO-based Ca-Al-O mixed oxide (CAMO), composed of CaO and Ca??Al??O??, was still present. The CAMO exhibited high specific surface areas (up to 191 m(2)g(-1)) and a pore size distribution of 3-6 nm, which allowed rapid diffusion of CO? into the interior of the material, inducing fast carbonation/calcination and enhancing the sintering-resistant nature over multiple carbonation/calcination cycles for CO? absorption at 700 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicated that a CO? capture capacity of approximately 49 wt% could be obtained with rapid absorption from the porous 7:1 CAMO sorbents by carbonation at 700 °C for 5 min. Also, 94-98% of the initial CO? capture capability was retained after 50 cycles of multiple carbonation/calcination tests. Therefore, the CAMO framework is a good isolator for preventing the aggregation of CaO particles, and it is suitable for long-term cyclic operation in high-temperature environments. PMID:23650194

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and {sup 1}H and {sup 71}Ga MAS NMR spectroscopy of a novel Mg/Ga double layered hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Aramendia, M.A.; Borau, V.; Jimenez, C. [Cordoba Univ. (Spain)] [and others] [Cordoba Univ. (Spain); and others

    1997-06-01

    A new brucite-like layered Mg/Ga double hydroxide (LDH) of composition [Mg{sub 0.174}Ga{sub 0.256}(OH){sub 2}](CO{sub 3}){sub 0}.134 {center_dot}mH{sub 2}O was synthesized by coprecipitation at pH 10. The hydroxide and the mixed oxides resulting from its thermal decomposition at 523, 823 and 1073K were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface properties of the solid (specific surface) and its basicity were also determined. The Mg /Ga LDH was found to be stable up to 523 K and to decompose into a mixture of periclase MgO and amorphous Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 823 K. Its changes with temperature were monitored by using {sup 1}H and {sup 71}Ga MAS NMR; {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra revealed the loss of interlayer OH groups supporting the brucite-like structure on calcination at 823 K.

  14. Oxidative stress by layered double hydroxide nanoparticles via an SFK-JNK and p38-NF-?B signaling pathway mediates induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Jin; Paek, Hee-Jeong; Yu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Anionic nanoclays are layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH-NPs) that have been shown to exhibit toxicity by inducing reactive oxidative species and a proinflammatory mediator in human lung epithelial A549 cells. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this LDH-NP-induced toxicity and the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammatory events remains unclear. In this study, we focused on intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors induced in response to oxidative stress caused by exposure to LDH-NPs in A549 cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, were investigated as potential signaling mechanisms responsible for regulation of oxidative stress and cytokine release. Src family kinases (SFKs), which are known to mediate activation of MAPK, together with redox-sensitive transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappa B and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2, were also investigated as downstream events of MAPK signaling. The results obtained suggest that LDH-NP exposure causes oxidative stress, leading to expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, glucose reductase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1, via a SFK-JNK and p38-nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Further, activation of this signaling was also found to regulate release of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, demonstrating the inflammatory potential of LDH-NP. PMID:25995631

  15. Aniosotropically organized LDH on PVDF: a geometrically templated electrospun substrate for advanced anion conducting membranes.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, G S; Zhang, Peilin; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    A bioinspired geometric templating of an electrospun PVDF substrate with hexagonal platelets of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), an intrinsic anion conductor, is presented. The distinctive morphology restructures the internal pore geometry and modulates the dynamic wetting profile of PVDF, transforming it into a highly functional substrate for SAFC anion conducting membranes. The membrane fabricated with PVDF-LDH substrate exhibited exceptionally high durability (>140 °C), high anionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity (IEC), restricted swelling, and improved tensile strength, overcoming critical challenges associated with PVDF electrospun substrates and validating its immense potential as a high-temperature-stable and durable substrate for advanced fuel cell membrane applications. PMID:25782625

  16. Highly Stable and Sensitive Paper-Based Bending Sensor Using Silver Nanowires/Layered Double Hydroxides Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yong; Chen, Shilong; Li, Fucheng; Lin, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Lan

    2015-07-01

    Highly sensitive flexible piezoresistive materials using silver nanowires (AgNWs) composites have been widely researched due to their excellent electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Intrinsically, AgNWs tend to aggregate in polymer matrix because of the intense depletion-induced interactions, which seriously influence the percolation threshold of the composites. In this study, we report a highly stable and sensitive paper-based bending sensor using the AgNWs and layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to construct a hybrid conductive network in waterborne polyurethane that is easy to destruct and reconstruct under bending deformation. The nonconductive 2D LDH nanosheets are embedded into AgNWs network and assist dispersion of AgNWs, which depends on the hydrogen bonding between the two nanostructures. The percolation threshold of the composites decreases from 10.8 vol % (55 wt %) to 3.1 vol % (23.8 wt %), and the composites reaches a very low resistivity (10(-4) ?·cm) with a small amount of AgNWs (8.3 vol %) due to the dispersion improvement of AgNWs with the effect of LDH nanosheets. The as-prepared conductive composites with low percolation threshold can be manufactured on paper via various methods such as rollerball pen writing, inkjet printing, or screen printing. The bending sensor prepared by manufacturing the composites on paper shows low-cost, excellent conductivity, flexibility (>3000 bending cycles), sensitivity (0.16 rad(-1)), fast response (120 ms) and relaxation time (105 ms), and nontoxicity. Therefore, a simple but efficient wearable sensor is developed to monitor the human motions (such as fingers and elbow joints movements) and presents good repeatability, stability, and responsiveness, making the bending sensor possibly able to meet the needs in numerous applications for robotic systems. PMID:26083146

  17. Preparation and controlled-release studies of a protocatechuic acid-magnesium/aluminum-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2013-01-01

    In the study reported here, magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was intercalated with an anticancer drug, protocatechuic acid, using ion-exchange and direct coprecipitation methods, with the resultant products labeled according to the method used to produce them: “PANE” (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the ion-exchange method) and “PAND” (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the direct method), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the intercalation of protocatechuic acid into the inter-galleries of Mg/Al-LDH. The protocatechuic acid between the interlayers of PANE and PAND was found to be a monolayer, with an angle from the z-axis of 8° for PANE and 15° for PAND. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis results revealed that the thermal stability of protocatechuic acid was markedly enhanced upon intercalation. The loading of protocatechuic acid in PANE and PAND was estimated to be about 24.5% and 27.5% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro release study of protocatechuic acid from PANE and PAND in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4, 5.3, and 4.8 revealed that the nanocomposites had a sustained release property. After 72 hours incubation of PANE and PAND with MCF-7 human breast cancer and HeLa human cervical cancer cell lines, it was found that the nanocomposites had suppressed the growth of these cancer cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 35.6 ?g/mL for PANE and 36.0 ?g/mL for PAND for MCF-7 cells, and 19.8 ?g/mL for PANE and 30.3 ?g/mL for PAND for HeLa cells. No half maximal inhibitory concentration for either nanocomposite was found for 3T3 cells. PMID:23737666

  18. Synthesis of Mg-Al-Fe-NO3 layered double hydroxides via a mechano-hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengrong; Du, Na; Li, Haiping; Liu, Jianqiang; Hou, Wanguo

    2014-06-01

    Mg-Al-Fe-NO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a constant Mg2+/(Al3+ + Fe3+) molar ratio but varying Al3+/Fe3+ molar ratios were successfully synthesized by a mechano-hydrothermal (MHT) method from Mg(OH)2, Al(OH)3 and Fe(NO3)3·9H2O or Mg(NO3)2·6H2O as starting materials. The resulting LDHs (MHT-LDHs) were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, FT-IR, and zeta potential, size distribution and specific surface area analyses. It was found that pre-milling played a key role in the LDH formation during subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The MHT route is advantageous in terms of low reaction temperature compared with the conventional hydrothermal method, and the target products are of high crystallinity and good dispersion compared with the conventional mechanochemical (MC) method. The MHT-LDHs had higher specific surface area and zeta potential, and lower hydrodynamic diameter than LDHs obtained by MC method (MC-LDHs). Furthermore, the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using the LDHs was examined, showing that the MHT-LDHs are of higher removal efficiency than MC-LDHs for the heavy metal pollutant.

  19. Direct coating for layered double hydroxide/4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid nanocomposite with silica by seeded polymerization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2004-09-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) ray absorbents have been used as sunscreen materials, but may pose a safety problem when used at high concentration. In order to prevent direct contact of organic UV rays absorbent by the human skin, an organic UV absorbent such as 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DASDSA) was intercalated into Zn 2Al-layered double hydroxide (Zn 2Al-LDHs) by coprecipiation reaction. The problem of deintercalation of organic molecules from LDHs by the anion exchange reaction with carbonate ion could be greatly depressed by forming a protection film of silica on the surface. Zn 2Al-LDH/DASDSA was directly coated with silica by means of a polymerization technique based on the Stöber method. The deintercalation behavior as well as UV-shielding properties were investigated for coated particles.

  20. Removal of SO2 with a Mg-Al oxide slurry via reconstruction of a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Kodama, Aki; Fubasami, Yuki; Kumagai, Shogo; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2012-06-01

    Although effective treatments of SO(x) are essential for preventing air pollution, current methods pose other environmental problems such as increased amounts of desulfurized gypsum and reduced landfill lifetimes. We report a process for removing SO(2) from waste streams using a Mg-Al oxide slurry. The ability of the mixed oxide to remove SO(2) increased with slurry quantity and temperature but decreased with time. SO(2) was removed through the reconstruction of a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) intercalated with SO(3)(2-), which was derived from the dissociation of H(2)SO(3) upon dissolution of SO(2) in the slurry. SO(2) was not adsorbed onto the surface of the Mg-Al oxide. These results suggest that SO(2) removal using a Mg-Al oxide slurry may be possible without the concomitant problems of conventional treatment methods. PMID:22494531

  1. Synthesis and characterisation of a new stable organo-mineral hybrid nanomaterial: 4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate in the zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lakraimi, Mohamed [Ecole Normale Superieure, B.P. S41, Marrakech 40001 (Morocco); Legrouri, Ahmed [School of Science and Engineering, Al Akhawayn University, P.O. Box 1871, Ifrane 53000 (Morocco)]. E-mail: legrouri@aui.ma; Barroug, Allal [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech 40001 (Morocco); De Roy, Andre [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UPRES-A 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere-Cedex (France); Besse, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UPRES-A 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere-Cedex (France)

    2006-09-14

    4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate (4-CBS) was intercalated between layers of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Two methods of incorporation were applied: (1) direct synthesis by coprecipitation of metal nitrates and sodium 4-CBS and (2) ion exchange of the LDH nitrate with the organic ion. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The direct method, effected at different pH values, led to a hybrid material with good degree of intercalation. In order to optimise the exchange conditions, particular attention was given to the effect of solution pH, 4-CBS/NO{sub 3} ratio and exchange temperature. The total exchange was successful and a new stable hybrid nanostructured material was obtained at pH 8 and with a 4-CBS concentration of 0.0028 M. This solid was further characterised by chemical and thermal analyses.

  2. Atomistic Simulation of Nanoporous Layered Double Hydroxide Materials and Transport and Adsorption of Gas

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Atomistic Simulation of Nanoporous Layered Double Hydroxide Materials and Transport and Adsorption of Gas Mixtures and Fluids in Them. Nayong Kim, Muhammad Sahimi, and Theodore T. Tsotsis An atomistic method is used to simulate the adsorption isotherm for . The agreement between the computed and measured

  3. Preparation of melt-spun antimicrobially modified LDH/polyolefin nanocomposite fibers.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Burak; Schröttner, Percy; Leuteritz, Andreas; Boldt, Regine; Jacobs, Enno; Heinrich, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) was synthesized and organically modified with camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) and ciprofloxacin. The thermal stability of CSA was improved remarkably under LDH shielding. A minimal inhibitory concentration of free CSA against tested bacteria was determined in order to define the essential quantity in LDH modification. The modified LDHs were melt-compounded with high density polyethylene and the prepared nanocomposites were further melt-spun using a piston-type spinning device. The melt-spun fibers were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. CSA integrated fibers show susceptibility against Gram-positive bacteria and ciprofloxacin integrated fibers showed activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24907731

  4. LDH nanocages synthesized with MOF templates and their high performance as supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Li, Zhengping; Qin, Zhenhua; Sun, Haiyan; Jiao, Xiuling; Chen, Dairong

    2013-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are currently attracting intense research interest for their various applications. Three LDH hollow nano-polyhedra are synthesized with zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) nanocrystals as the templates. The nanocages well inherit the rhombic dodecahedral shape of the ZIF-67 templates, and the shell is composed of nanosheets assembled with an edge-to-face stacking. This is the first synthesis of the LDH non-spherical structures. And the mechanism of utilizing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanocrystals as templates is explored. Control of the simultaneous reactions, the precipitation of the shells and the template etching, is extremely crucial to the preparation of the perfect nanocages. And the Ni-Co LDH nanocages exhibit superior pseudocapacitance property due to their novel hierarchical and submicroscopic structures.Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are currently attracting intense research interest for their various applications. Three LDH hollow nano-polyhedra are synthesized with zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) nanocrystals as the templates. The nanocages well inherit the rhombic dodecahedral shape of the ZIF-67 templates, and the shell is composed of nanosheets assembled with an edge-to-face stacking. This is the first synthesis of the LDH non-spherical structures. And the mechanism of utilizing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanocrystals as templates is explored. Control of the simultaneous reactions, the precipitation of the shells and the template etching, is extremely crucial to the preparation of the perfect nanocages. And the Ni-Co LDH nanocages exhibit superior pseudocapacitance property due to their novel hierarchical and submicroscopic structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD, TEM, SEM, and XPS images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03829g

  5. Thermodynamical and structural insights of orange II adsorption by Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Mustapha Bouhent, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Catalyse et Environnement, UST d'Oran, Bp 1505 Oran El M'naouer (Algeria); Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Derriche, Zoubir, E-mail: derriche_zoubir@yahoo.co [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Catalyse et Environnement, UST d'Oran, Bp 1505 Oran El M'naouer (Algeria); Denoyel, Renaud [MADIREL, Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Universite d'Aix-Marseille I, II et III, UMR CNRS 6264, Campus de Saint Jerome, Avenue Escadrille-Normandie-Niemen, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    [Mg{sub 1-x} Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}][(NO{sub 3}){sub x}, nH{sub 2}O] Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) sorbents with variable Mg/Al molar (R=(1-x)/x) ratios were investigated for adsorption of azo dye, orange II (OII) at various pH and temperature conditions. Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. Adsorption isotherms have been fitted using the Langmuir model and free energy of adsorption ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were calculated. The experimental values for {Delta}G{sup o} in temperature range between 10 and 40 {sup o}C were found to be negative indicating that a spontaneous process occurred. Positive calculated enthalpy values, characteristic of an endothermic process were found. Characterization of solids (PXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, TGA/DTA, adsorption isotherm BET analysis, SEM and Zetametry) before and after adsorption showed that adsorption proceeds in two steps. First, adsorption occurs at the LDH surface, followed by intercalation via anion exchange. -- Graphical Abstract: Structural and thermodynamical insight of adsorption/Intercalation of OII in Mg{sub R}Al LDH Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The nitrate containing hydrotalcite-like compounds (Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method. {yields} Adsorption of anionic orange dye(OII) is studied on LDHs at different temperatures. {yields} The adsorption process is well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. {yields} Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. {yields} Adsorption process does not occur on the surface of the LDH only but an intercalation process is also occurring concomitantly according to the thermodynamical values.

  6. Ni/Ti layered double hydroxide: synthesis, characterization and application as a photocatalyst for visible light degradation of aqueous methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Priyadarshi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-04-21

    Visible light responsive 2?:?1 Ni/Ti layered double hydroxide (LDH) was synthesized by a single step hydrothermal route using commercially available Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, TiCl4 and urea. The material exhibited significant absorption in the visible range with a very narrow band gap (2.68 eV). This could be attributed to structural defects as confirmed by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. FT-IR, TGA, DTA, DSC, HR-TEM and SEM-EDX measurements yielded information about structural aspects, thermal stability and surface morphology. Surface and pore characteristics of the material were obtained from the BET isotherm for N2 adsorption at 77 K. Zeta potential measurements were used to characterize the electrical properties of the surface while XPS revealed changes in surface states and oxygen deficiencies. The material was found to be an excellent photocatalyst for the degradation of aqueous methylene blue in visible light. The photocatalytic properties of the material were explained on the basis of the narrow band gap, the high surface area and the presence of surface defects. The photocatalytic activity improved in alkaline media [pH 11.0, catalyst load 15 mg in 200 ml dye solution, dye concentration 1 × 10(-6) M (= 0.3198 mg L(-1))] due to the electrostatic attractions between the dye cations and the negative charges on the Ni/Ti LDH surface. The catalytic activity was found to be higher than the common commercial catalysts like ZnO, ZnS, NiO, TiO2 and Degussa P25. The catalytic activity was retained even after five methylene blue degradation cycles, demonstrating that the LDH could be an important addition to the field of wastewater treatment. PMID:25763803

  7. Bifunctional sensor of pentachlorophenol and copper ions based on nanostructured hybrid films of humic acid and exfoliated layered double hydroxide via a facile layer-by-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuang; Peng, Dinghua; Hu, Xianluo; Gong, Jingming

    2013-06-27

    A new, highly sensitive bifunctional electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper ions (Cu(2+)) has been developed, where organic-inorganic hybrid ultrathin films were fabricated by alternate assembly of humic acid (HA) and exfoliated Mg-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets onto ITO substrates via a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach. The multilayer films were then characterized by means of UV-vis spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). These films were found to have a relatively smooth surface with almost equal amounts of HA incorporated in each cycle. Its electrochemical performance was systematically investigated. Our results demonstrate that such a newly designed (LDH/HA)n multilayer films, combining the individual properties of HA (dual recognition ability for organic herbicides and metal ions) together with LDH nanosheets (a rigid inorganic matrix), can be applied to the simultaneous analysis of PCP and Cu(II) without interference from each other. The LBL assembled nanoarchitectures were further investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), which provides insight for bifunctional sensing behavior. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit was found to be as low as 0.4 nM PCP, well below the guideline value of PCP in drinking water (3.7 nM) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), and 2.0 nM Cu(2+), much below the guideline value (2.0 mg L(-1), ~31.2 nM) from the World Health Organization (WHO), respectively. Toward the goal for practical applications, this simple and cost-effective probe was further evaluated by monitoring PCP and Cu(II) in water samples. PMID:23764441

  8. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    Design of functional hybrids lies at the very core of synthetic chemistry as it has enabled the development of an unlimited number of solids displaying unprecedented or even improved properties built upon the association at the molecular level of quite disparate components by chemical design. Multifunctional hybrids are a particularly appealing case among hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Here, chemical knowledge is used to deploy molecular components bearing different functionalities within a single solid so that these properties can coexist or event interact leading to unprecedented phenomena. From a molecular perspective, this can be done either by controlled assembly of organic/inorganic molecular tectons into an extended architecture of hybrid nature or by intercalation of organic moieties within the empty channels or interlamellar space offered by inorganic solids with three-dimensional (MOFs, zeolites, and mesoporous hosts) or layered structures (phosphates, silicates, metal dichalcogenides, or anionic clays). This Account specifically illustrates the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the preparation of magnetic hybrids, in line with the development of soft inorganic chemistry processes (also called "Chimie Douce"), which has significantly contributed to boost the preparation hybrid materials based on solid-state hosts and subsequent development of applications. Several features sustain the importance of LDHs in this context. Their magnetism can be manipulated at a molecular level by adequate choice of constituting metals and interlayer separation for tuning the nature and extent of magnetic interactions across and between planes. They display unparalleled versatility in accommodating a broad range of anionic species in their interlamellar space that encompasses not only simple anions but chemical systems of increasing dimensionality and functionalities. Their swelling characteristics allow for their exfoliation in organic solvents with high dielectric strength, to produce two-dimensional nanosheets with atomic thickness that can be used as macromolecular building blocks in the assembly of nanocomposites. We describe how these advantageous properties turn LDHs into excellent vehicles for the preparation of multifunctional materials with increasing levels of complexity. For clarity, the reader will first find a succinct description of the most relevant aspects controlling the magnetism of LDHs followed by their use in the preparation of magnetic hybrids from a molecular perspective. This includes the intercalation anionic species of increasing nuclearity like paramagnetic mononuclear complexes, stimulus-responsive molecular guests, one- and two-dimensional coordination polymers, or even preassembled 2D networks. This approach allows us to evolve from "dual-function" materials with coexistence, for example, of magnetism and superconductivity, to smart materials in which the magnetic or structural properties of the LDH layers can be tuned by applying an external stimulus like light or temperature. We will conclude with a brief look into the promising features offered by magnetic nanocomposites based on LDHs and our views on the most promising directions to be pursued in this context. PMID:25989182

  9. Phosphate adsorption from sewage sludge filtrate using zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Cheng; Xinrui Huang; Xingzu Wang; Bingqing Zhao; Aiyan Chen; Dezhi Sun

    2009-01-01

    A series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with different metal cations were synthesized to remove phosphate in waste sludge filtrate from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for phosphorus recovery and to help control eutrophication. The highest phosphate adsorption capacity was obtained by using Zn–Al-2-300, that is LDHs with Zn\\/Al molar ratio of 2 and calcined at 300°C for 4h. Circumneutral

  10. Layered double hydroxides as supports for intercalation and sustained release of antihypertensive drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Jie Xia; Zhe-Ming Ni; Qian Xu; Bao-Xiang Hu; Jun Hu

    2008-01-01

    Zn\\/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were intercalated with the anionic antihypertensive drugs Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril by using coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. TG–MS analyses suggested that the thermal stability of Ena?, Lis? (arranged with monolayer, resulted from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) analysis was enhanced much more than Cap– and Ram– (arranged with bilayer). The

  11. Efficient delivery of anticancer drug MTX through MTX-LDH nanohybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae-Min; Park, Man; Kim, Sang-Tae; Jung, Jin-Young; Kang, Yong-Gu; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-05-01

    We have been successful to intercalate anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX), into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg2Al(OH)6(NO3)·0.1H2O, through conventional co-precipitation method. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are endowed with great potential for delivery vector, since their cationic layers lead to safe reservation of biofunctional molecules such as drug molecules or genes. And their ion exchangeability and solubility in acidic media (pH<4) give rise to the controlled release of drug molecules. Moreover, it has been partly confirmed that LDH itself is non-toxic and facilitate the cellular permeation. To check the toxicity of LDHs, the osteosarcoma cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63) and the normal one (human fibroblast) were used for in vitro test. The anticancer efficacy of MTX intercalated LDHs (MTX-LDH nanohybrids) was also estimated in vitro by the bioassay such as MTT and BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine) with the bone cancer cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63). According to the toxicity test results, LDHs do not harm to both the normal and cancer cells upto the concentration of 500 ug/mL. The anticancer efficacy test for the MTX-LDH nanohybrids turn out to be much more effective in cell suppression compared to the MTX itself. According to the cell-line tests, the MTX-LDH shows same drug efficacy to the MTX itself in spite of the low concentration by ˜5000 times. Such a high cancer suppression effect of MTX-LDH hybrid is surely due to the excellent delivery efficiency of inorganic delivery vector, LDHs.

  12. Preparation of Tween 80-Zn/Al-levodopa-layered double hydroxides nanocomposite for drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2014-01-01

    We incorporated anti-Parkinsonian drug, levodopa (dopa), in Zn/Al-LDH by coprecipitation method to form dopa-LDH nanocomposite. Further coating of Tween-80 on the external surfaces of dopa-LDH nanocomposite was achieved through the oxygen of C=O group of Tween-80 with the layer of dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The final product is called Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The X-ray diffraction indicates that the Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was formed by aggregation structure. From the TGA data, the Tween-80 loading on the surface of LDH and dopa-LDH was 8.6 and 7.4%, respectively. The effect of coating process on the dopa release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was also studied. The release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite shows slower release compared to the release of the drug from dopa-LDH nanocomposite as done previously in our study, presumably due to the retarding shielding effect. The cell viability study using PC12 showed improved viability with Tween-80 coating on dopa-LDH nanocomposite as studied by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay). PMID:24782658

  13. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-09-01

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro.

  14. Structural characterization and thermal and chemical stability of bioactive molecule-hydrotalcite (LDH) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Conterosito, Eleonora; Croce, Gianluca; Palin, Luca; Pagano, Cinzia; Perioli, Luana; Viterbo, Davide; Boccaleri, Enrico; Paul, Geo; Milanesio, Marco

    2013-08-28

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are versatile materials used for intercalating bioactive molecules, both in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, with the purpose of protecting them from degradation, enhancing their water solubility to increase bioavailability, and/or obtaining modified release properties. The properties of the intercalation compounds of Mg/Al_LDH and Zn/Al_LDH with different drugs and sunscreens, namely diclofenac, ketoprofen, gliclazide, retinoic acid, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid and 2-phenylbenzimidazolsulfonic (Eusolex) acid, have been studied by crystallographic, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques and by solid state NMR, to shed light on their structure, their molecular interactions and their stability from the thermal and chemical viewpoint. The structural features were described with particular attention to the interaction between the organic and inorganic components and to the stability of the intercalation products. For the first time two synchrotron radiation powder diffraction patterns of organic-containing LDH were solved and refined by Rietveld methods to obtain an experimental crystal structure. PMID:23873340

  15. Effect of intercalated aromatic sulfonates on uptake of aromatic compounds from aqueous solutions by modified Mg-Al layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kameda, Tomohito, E-mail: kameda@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yamazaki, Takashi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    In this study, we utilized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) modified by intercalation with three aromatic sulfonates-2,7-naphthalene disulfonate (2,7-NDS{sup 2-}), benzenesulfonate (BS{sup -}), and benzenedisulfonate (BDS{sup 2-})-for the uptake of two aromatics-1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and anisole (AS)-from aqueous solution and determined the effect of the aromatic sulfonates on the uptake of these aromatics. We found that the electron-rich aromatic ring of the intercalated aromatic sulfonates such as 2,7-NDS{sup 2-} undergoes strong {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions with the electron-poorer benzene ring of DNB in aqueous solution, and these interactions result in a higher uptake of DNB by the modified Mg-Al LDHs. In contrast, the electron-poor aromatic ring of the aromatic sulfonates such as BDS{sup 2-} undergoes weak {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions with the electron-poorer benzene ring of DNB, and these interactions result in a lower uptake of DNB by the modified Mg-Al LDHs.

  16. Phosphate adsorption from sewage sludge filtrate using zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Huang, Xinrui; Wang, Xingzu; Zhao, Bingqing; Chen, Aiyan; Sun, Dezhi

    2009-09-30

    A series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with different metal cations were synthesized to remove phosphate in waste sludge filtrate from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for phosphorus recovery and to help control eutrophication. The highest phosphate adsorption capacity was obtained by using Zn-Al-2-300, that is LDHs with Zn/Al molar ratio of 2 and calcined at 300 degrees C for 4h. Circumneutral and mildly alkaline waters appeared suitable for the possible application of Zn-Al LDHs due to the amphoteric nature of aluminum hydroxide. Phosphate adsorption from the sludge filtrate by the LDHs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium was determined to be approximately 50 mg P/g. Adsorption isotherms showed that phosphate uptake in this study was an endothermic process and had a good fit with a Langmuir-type model. The absorbed phosphate can be effectively desorbed (more than 80%) from LDHs particles by a 5 wt% NaOH solution. The regeneration rate of used LDHs was approximately 60% after six cycles of adsorption-desorption-regeneration. PMID:19443104

  17. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: an experimental and mechanistic modeling study.

    PubMed

    Regelink, Inge C; Temminghoff, Erwin J M

    2011-03-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At pH ? 7.2 both adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation occurred. In batch experiments with the sandy soil up to 70% of oxalate-extractable Al was taken up in LDH formation during 56 days. In a long term column experiment 99% of influent Ni was retained at pH 7.5 due to Ni adsorption (? 34%) and Ni-Al LDH precipitation (? 66%) based on mechanistic reactive transport modeling. The subsequent leaching at pH 6.5 could be largely attributed to desorption. Our results show that even in sandy aquifers with relatively low Al content, Ni-Al LDH precipitation is a promising mechanism to immobilize Ni. PMID:21186070

  18. Preparation and characterization of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS) 2-intercalated layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; Wei, Min; Pu, Min; Li, Xianjun; Chen, Hua; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2005-09-01

    trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS) 2 (TPPTS= tris( m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine) has been intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by the method of ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal stability of the composite material have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and 31P solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The geometry of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS) 2 was fully optimized using the PM3 semiempirical molecular orbital method, and a schematic model for the intercalated species has been proposed. The thermal stability of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS) 2 is significantly enhanced by intercalation, which suggests that such materials may have prospective application as the basis of a supported catalyst system for the hydroformylation of higher olefins.

  19. Preparation and characterization of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS){sub 2}-intercalated layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xian [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Box 98, College of College, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wei Min [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Box 98, College of College, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Pu Min [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Box 98, College of College, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Xianjun [Department of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen Hua [Department of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Evans, David G. [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Box 98, College of College, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Duan Xue [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Box 98, College of College, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: duanx@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2005-09-15

    trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS){sub 2} (TPPTS=tris(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine) has been intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by the method of ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal stability of the composite material have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and {sup 31}P solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The geometry of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS){sub 2} was fully optimized using the PM3 semiempirical molecular orbital method, and a schematic model for the intercalated species has been proposed. The thermal stability of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS){sub 2} is significantly enhanced by intercalation, which suggests that such materials may have prospective application as the basis of a supported catalyst system for the hydroformylation of higher olefins.

  20. Pectin-coated chitosan-LDH bionanocomposite beads as potential systems for colon-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Alcântara, Ana C S; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-03-10

    This work introduces results on a new drug delivery system (DDS) based on the use of chitosan/layered double hydroxide (LDH) biohybrid beads coated with pectin for controlled release in the treatment of colon diseases. Thus, the 5-aminosalicylic acid (5ASA), the most used non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, was chosen as model drug aiming to a controlled and selective delivery in the colon. The pure 5ASA drug and the hybrid material prepared by intercalation in a layered double hydroxide of Mg2Al using the co-precipitation method, were incorporated in a chitosan matrix in order to profit from its mucoadhesiveness. These compounds processed as beads were further treated with the polysaccharide pectin to create a protective coating that ensures the stability of both chitosan and layered double hydroxide at the acid pH of the gastric fluid. The resulting composite beads presenting the pectin coating are stable to water swelling and procure a controlled release of the drug along their passage through the simulated gastrointestinal tract in in vitro experiments, due to their resistance to pH changes. Based on these results, the pectin@chitosan/LDH-5ASA bionanocomposite beads could be proposed as promising candidates for the colon-targeted delivery of 5ASA, with the aim of acting only in the focus of the disease and minimizing side effects. PMID:24374607

  1. Combined chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy using a nanohybrid based on layered double hydroxides to conquer cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Ma, Rong; Yan, Li; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhu, Guangyu

    2015-07-25

    A nanohybrid is assembled by ratiometrically co-loading Pt(iv) prodrugs and photosensitizers into layered double hydroxide nanoparticles. The nanohybrid shows synergistic cell-killing effects and is significantly active against the proliferation of cisplatin-resistant human cancer cells with nanomolar IC50 values. Profound mechanistic investigations confirm its action mode of combined chemo- and photodynamic therapy. PMID:26096645

  2. Comparative study on the flammability of polyethylene modified with commercial fire retardants and a zinc aluminum oleate layered double hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Manzi-Nshuti; Jeanne M. Hossenlopp; Charles A. Wilkie

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was modified by the addition of a layered double hydroxide of zinc aluminum oleate (ZnAl) and\\/or commercial fire retardants. Commercial additives included: melamine polyphosphate (MPP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), triphenol phosphate (TPP), resorcinol diphosphate (RDP), decabromophenyl oxide (DECA) and antimony oxide (AO). The thermal stability and the combustion behaviors of the new composite polymeric materials are evaluated in TGA

  3. Friction behavior of Mg-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide prepared by magnesite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Bai, Zhimin; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Fuyan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, Mg-Al-CO3 LDH was prepared by magnesite under chemical precipitation and hydrothermal methods. In order to improve the dispersion of LDH in base oil, the as-prepared sample was modified with sodium laurate. The obtained material (GMAC-LDH) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analyzer (DSC-TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the modified LDH has platelet morphology with a near hexagon shape. In addition, the tribological properties of GMAC-LDH were evaluated by four-ball friction tester and gear tester. As a lubricant, GMAC-LDH possesses an excellent property on reducing friction and wear of friction pair. The results of friction tests indicated that the friction coefficient, diameter of wear scar and power consumption of the oil with GMAC-LDH was reduced by 11.0%, 8.5% and 2.1% as compared with that of base oil.

  4. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  5. Preparation and characterization of "dextran-magnetic layered double hydroxide-fluorouracil" targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Gou, Guojing; Xue, Bing; Yan, Qianshun; Sun, Yue; Dong, Li-E

    2013-06-25

    This work was aimed at assessing the preparation and characteristics of "dextran-magnetic layered double hydroxide-fluorouracil" liposomes (DMFL). DMFL was prepared by the optimized reverse evaporation method, which concerned the entrapment efficiency and slow-released effect. The factors affecting the entrapment efficiency of DMFL were studied using orthogonal design, and the optimum conditions are: weight ratio of lecithin to cholesterol (2:1), weight ratio of lecithin to DMF (7:1), emulsification time (30 min) and temperature (50 °C). The characteristics of optimized DMFL on encapsulation efficiency, mean diameter and pH value were 85.47±0.83, 160.4±0.55 nm and 6.58±0.05, respectively. In vitro drug release profile of DMFL followed the Higuchi release model equation Q=9.2338t(1/2)+22.821. The magnetic targeting results showed that DMFL had sensitive magnetic targeted responsibility. The results of XRD, FT-IR and TEM indicated that the structure and property of DMF were not destroyed during the process of forming DMFL, and the phospholipid bilayer and the hexagonal skeleton DMF were obvious and complete after being lyophilized powder. This lyophilized method could be used to store the DMFL easily. These results suggested that DMFL had the potential for developing as a practical preparation for administration. PMID:23591010

  6. Morphologies developed by the drying of droplets containing dispersed and aggregated layered double hydroxide platelets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Evans, Julian R G

    2013-04-01

    Despite much interest in the structures formed from droplets of suspension as they dry, there are few studies involving plate-like particles. Layered double hydroxide suspensions were prepared with pH adjusted to give well-dispersed and flocculated variants that were characterised by sedimentation and rheology measurements. In the well-dispersed suspension, the three-phase boundary was pinned and radial flow created a peripheral wall. The platelet structure involved local flat packing but was replete with scrolls that result from the recirculation flows in the droplets as they dry. In contrast, the flocculating suspension produced flatter droplet relics and the microstructure consisted of ordered domains which were disoriented with respect to each other. Although of scientific interest, the control of these structures will make it possible to use direct ink-jet printing to build 3D shapes for the preparation of aligned, ordered nanocomposites based on plate-like particles in which platelet preferred orientation mimics the structures found in nacre. PMID:23375870

  7. Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

  8. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of pesticides using decatungstate intercalated macroporous layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Eliana S; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude; Wong-Wah-Chung, Pascal; Burrows, Hugh D; Sarakha, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Decatungstate W10O32(4-) was efficiently intercalated between the layers of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide. The structural and textural properties of as-prepared intercalated compound were characterized using different solid-state characterization techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies and electronic microscopy. The photocatalytic properties of immobilized W10O32 (4-) within Mg2Al structure were investigated using 2-(1-naphthyl) acetamide (NAD) as a model of pesticide. The influence of different parameters such as amount of catalyst, pH and oxygen concentration were investigated. An optimal NAD degradation was obtained for a photocatalyst concentration of 60 mg l(-1). Under our experimental conditions, this heterogeneous photocatalyst induces photodegradation of 60 % of NAD after 17 h of irradiation at 365 nm and at pH 6.6. Interestingly, pesticide photodegradation leads to the mineralization of substrates to H2O and CO2 and the photocatalyst can be recycled and reused without any loss of activity over four cycles. PMID:24838128

  9. Preparation of layered double hydroxide/chlorophyll a hybrid nano-antennae: a key step.

    PubMed

    Sommer Márquez, Alicia E; Lerner, Dan A; Fetter, Geolar; Bosch, Pedro; Tichit, Didier; Palomares, Eduardo

    2014-07-21

    In the first step to obtain an efficient nano-antenna in a bottom-up approach, new hybrid materials were synthesized using a set of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with basic properties and pure chlorophyll a (Chl a). The stability of the adsorbed monolayer of Chl a was shown to be dependent on the nature and the ratio of the different metal ions present in the LDHs tested. The hybrid materials turned out to be adequate for stabilizing Chl a on Mg/Al LDHs for more than a month under ambient conditions while a limited catalytic decomposition was observed for the Ni/Al LDHs leading to the formation of pheophytin. These changes were followed by namely XRD, DR-UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies of the hybrid antennae and of the solutions obtained from their lixiviation with acetone or diethylether. On Mg/Al hydrotalcites the stability of the adsorbed Chl a was equivalent for values of the metal atom ratio ranging from 2 to 4. The latter hybrids should constitute a good basis to form efficient nanoscale light harvesting units following intercalation of selected dyes. This work describes an efficient preparation of Chl a that allows scale-up as well as the obtention of a stable Chl a monolayer on the surface of various LDHs. PMID:24676400

  10. Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides with a high aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Qi [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Nano-Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Yuanming [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Nano-Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)]. E-mail: tzhangym@vip.163.com; Zhang Xiang [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Nano-Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yuan Peng [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); He Hongping [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]. E-mail: hehp@gig.ac.cn

    2006-03-15

    A new route for synthesis of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (Mg{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}(CO{sub 3}).4H{sub 2}O) has been introduced, which can be considered as a modified calcination-rehydration method. Under the hydrothermal conditions, LDHs with a high aspect ratio were synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma-atom emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal measurement (TG-DTG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns display the crystalline enhanced with the increase of hydrothermal temperature and aging time. TG-DTG curves show the more stable LDHs were synthesized at higher temperature. SEM images indicate the lateral size of the synthesized LDHs locates at ca. 1-6 {mu}m and the thickness at ca. 35-60 nm. And the particle size depends strongly on the treatment temperature and aging time. A buffer solution consisted of HCO{sub 3} {sup -} and CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} keeps the pH of reaction system in a certain range and offers a low supersaturated reaction circumstance. This is of high importance for the formation of LDHs with a high aspect ratio.

  11. Evolution of rheological properties of the nanofluids composed of laponite particles and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Phuoc, Tran X.; Chyu, Minking K.; Romanov, Vyacheslav

    2011-05-04

    The thixotropic clay suspensions composed of laponite particles and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets were examined. By adding a very small amount of the layered double hydroxide nanosheets overall rheological properties of the host laponite suspension have been changed. Though the particle concentration of the mixture suspension is only about 1 wt%, the mixture quickly becomes a gel in a day by the electrostatic attraction between nano-materials. When a constant shear rate is applied to the mixture gel suspension, at short time, stress increases linearly with elastic deformation of the mixture. Beyond the maximum of stress, while the solid-like gel structure is being broken down with time of shearing, the stress increases again by reflecting shear enhanced association of solid phase. This is likely that the mixture suspension shows partially the behavior of memory effect.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc–iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Xing Wen; Yingxia Wang

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc–iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  13. Effect of surface states of layered double hydroxides on conductive and transport properties of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Shiun Liao; Wei-Bin Ye

    2004-01-01

    All solid-state poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanocomposite electrolytes were made containing nanoscale fillers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Two kinds of LDHs with different surface states were prepared by aqueous co-precipitation method. The LDHs were added into PEO matrix to study the structures, conductivities and ionic transport properties of nanocomposite electrolytes. The structures of LDHs were characterized by infrared spectra, thermogravimetric

  14. Cancer therapy and fluorescence imaging using the active release of doxorubicin from MSPs/Ni-LDH folate targeting nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Dian; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Yu, Meng; Guo, Jia; Chaudhary, Deeptangshu; Wang, Chang-Chun

    2013-10-01

    Hierarchical structured nanomaterials with diverse functionality, such as magnetic susceptibility, stimuli-responsiveness, environmental sensing and biocompatibility, are highly sought after for biomedicine and biodetection alike. In this study, we designed and fabricated a new kind of multifunctional core/shell nanospheres as biodegradable targeted drug carriers, the controlled drug release progress and therapeutic effect were monitored in-situ by the fluorescent state of the cells. Firstly, the core/shell nanospheres with biodegradability were synthesized using magnetic supraparticles (MSPs) as core and the layered double hydroxide (LDH) as shell via a hydrothermal route, the reaction parameters were well investigated to obtain the desired structure of the LDH shell. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin was modified with carboxyl group (DOX-COOH) and loaded in the shell of MSPs/LDH nanospheres via an anion-exchange intercalation. To endow the nanospheres with tumor-targeting capability, IDA (iminodiacetic acid)-modified folate was successfully immobilized onto the surface of LDH shell using chelating interaction. These nanospheres behaved as multifunctional carriers for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), within Hela cells and thus, these nano-drugs exhibited clear cytotoxicity and inhibition toward Hela cells as compared to normal cell-lines of HEK 293T cells. Interestingly, after the internalization of these nano-drugs, there was a sharp contrast in illumination between the tumorous Hela cells and the normal HEK 293T cells, the acidic cytoplasm of Hela cell stimulated DOX-COOH in LDH shell quickly degraded into positive-charged DOX, and then rapidly escaped from the positive-charged intercalation of LDH shell by strong repulsive interaction, the released DOX rapidly lit up the whole tumor cells in a short time, but only very weak light was found in HEK 293T cells. PMID:23886730

  15. Synthesis, structure refinement and chromate sorption characteristics of an Al-rich bayerite-based layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britto, Sylvia; Kamath, P. Vishnu

    2014-07-01

    “Imbibition” of Zn2+ ions into the cation vacancies of bayerite-Al(OH)3 and NO3- ions into the interlayer gallery yields an Al-rich layered double hydroxide with Al/Zn ratio ~3. NO3- ions are intercalated with their molecular planes inclined at an angle to the plane of the metal hydroxide slab and bonded to it by hydrogen bonds. Rietveld refinement of the structure shows that the monoclinic symmetry of the precursor bayerite is preserved in the product, showing that the imbibition is topochemical in nature. The nitrate ion is labile and is quantitatively replaced by CrO42- ions from solution. The uptake of CrO42- ions follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm, thus showing that the hydroxide is a candidate material for green chemistry applications for the removal of CrO42- ions from waste water. Rietveld refinement of the structure of the hydroxide after CrO42- inclusion reveals that the CrO42- ion is intercalated with one of its 2-fold axes parallel to the b-crystallographic axis of the crystal, also the principal 2 axis of the monoclinic cell.

  16. Selenium adsorption and speciation with Mg-FeCO? layered double hydroxides loaded cellulose fibre.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Li; An, Myog-Il

    2012-06-15

    A novel adsorbent was developed by coating Mg-FeCO(3) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on cellulose fibre. The LDHs take up significant amount of selenite and selenate in a wide pH range with similar sorption capacities (pH 3.8-8.0 for selenite and pH 5.8-7.0 for selenate). A mini-column packed with Mg-FeCO(3) LDHs layer coated cellulose fibre particles was incorporated into a sequential injection system for uptake of selenite at pH 6.0. The retained selenite was afterwards collected with 70 ? L of 0.8%(m/v) NaOH as eluent, followed by hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometric detection. Total inorganic selenium was adsorbed at pH 6.0 by the LDHs-cellulose fibre mini-column after selenate was pre-reduced to selenite by 2.0 mol L(-1) HCl at 80°C, and selenium speciation was performed by difference. With a sample volume of 1.0 mL, an enrichment factor of 13.3 was derived with a detection limit of 11 ng L(-1) within a linear range of 0.04-4.0 ?g L(-1). A relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.3% (0.5 ?g L(-1), n=11) was achieved. The procedure was validated by analyzing selenium in a certified reference material GBW 10010 (rice), and speciation of inorganic selenium in natural water samples. PMID:22748552

  17. New SnO2/MgAl-layered double hydroxide composites as photocatalysts for cationic dyes bleaching.

    PubMed

    Dvininov, E; Ignat, M; Barvinschi, P; Smithers, M A; Popovici, E

    2010-05-15

    A new type of nanocomposite containing SnO(2) has been obtained by wet impregnation of dehydrated Mg/Al-hydrotalcite-type compounds with ethanolic solutions of SnCl(4).2H(2)O. Tin chloride hydrolysis was achieved using NaOH or NH(4)OH aqueous solutions, at pH around 9, followed by the conversion into corresponding hydroxides through calcinations. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-DR) methods confirmed the structure of as-synthesized solids. The chemical composition and morphology of the synthesized materials were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-synthesized materials were used for photocatalytic studies showing a good activity for methylene blue decolourization, which varies with SnO(2) content and used as a hydrolysing agent. The proposed mechanism is based on the shifting of flat band potential of SnO(2) due to the interaction with Mg/Al-LDH, this being energetically favourable to the formation of hydroxyl radicals responsible for methylene blue degradation. PMID:20045244

  18. Successful transfer of plasmid DNA into in vitro cells transfected with an inorganic plasmid-Mg/Al-LDH nanobiocomposite material as a vector for gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffri Masarudin, Mas; Yusoff, Khatijah; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Zobir Hussein, Mohd

    2009-01-01

    The delivery of a full plasmid, encoding the green fluorescent protein gene into African monkey kidney (Vero3) cells, was successfully achieved using nanobiocomposites based on layered double hydroxides. This demonstrated the potential of using the system as an alternative DNA delivery vector. Intercalation of the circular plasmid DNA, pEGFP-N2, into Mg/Al-NO3- layered double hydroxides (LDH) was accomplished through anion exchange routes to form the nanobiocomposite material. The host was previously synthesized at the Mg2+ to Al3+ molar ratio Ri = 2 and subsequently intercalated with plasmid DNA. Size expansion of the interlamellae host from 8.8 Å in LDH to 42 Å was observed in the resulting nanobiocomposite, indicating stable hybridization of the plasmid DNA. The powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) results, supplemented with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, compositional and electrophoresis studies confirmed the encapsulation episode of the biomaterial. In order to elucidate the use of this resulting nanobiocomposite as a delivery vector, an MTT assay was performed to determine any cytotoxic effects of the host towards cells. The intercalated pEGFP-N2 anion was later successfully recovered through acidification with HNO3 after treatment with DNA-degrading enzymes, thus also showing the ability of the LDH host to protect the intercalated biomaterial from degradation. Cell transfection studies on Vero3 cells were then performed, where cells transfected with the nanobiocomposite exhibited fluorescence as early as 12 h post-treatment compared to naked delivery of the plasmid itself.

  19. Mixed oxides obtained from Co and Mn containing layered double hydroxides: Preparation, characterization, and catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovanda, František; Rojka, Tomáš; Dobešová, Jana; Machovi?, Vladimír; Bezdi?ka, Petr; Obalová, Lucie; Jirátová, Kv?ta; Grygar, Tomáš

    2006-03-01

    Co-Mn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with various Co:Mn:Al molar ratios (4:2:0, 4:1.5:0.5, 4:1:1, 4:0.5:1.5, and 4:0:2) were prepared and characterized. Magnesium containing LDHs Co-Mg-Mn (2:2:2), Co-Mg-Mn-Al (2:2:1:1), and Co-Mg-Al (2:2:2) were also studied. Thermal decomposition of prepared LDHs and formation of related mixed oxides were studied using high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis. The thermal decomposition of Mg-free LDHs starts by their partial dehydration accompanied by shrinkage of the lattice parameter c from ca. 0.76 to 0.66 nm. The dehydration temperature of the Co-Mn-Al LDHs decreases with increasing Mn content from 180 °C in Co-Al sample to 120 °C in sample with Co:Mn:Al molar ratio of 4:1.5:0.5. A subsequent step is a complete decomposition of the layered structure to nanocrystalline spinel, the complete dehydration, and finally decarbonation of the mixed oxide phase. Spinel-type oxides were the primary crystallization products. Mg-containing primary spinels had practically empty tetrahedral cationic sites. A dramatic increase of the spinel cell size upon heating and analysis by Raman spectroscopy revealed a segregation of Co-rich spinel in Co-Mn and Co-Mn-Al specimens. In calcination products obtained at 500 °C, the spinel mean coherence length was 5-10 nm, and the total content of the X-ray diffraction crystalline portion was 50-90%. These calcination products were tested as catalysts in the total oxidation of ethanol and decomposition of N 2O. The catalytic activity in ethanol combustion was enhanced by increasing (Co+Mn) content while an optimum content of reducible components was necessary for high activity in N 2O decomposition, where the highest conversions were found for calcined Co-Mn-Al sample with Co:Mn:Al molar ratio of 4:1:1.

  20. Cu\\/Ni\\/Al layered double hydroxides as precursors of catalysts for the wet air oxidation of phenol aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Alejandre; F Medina; X Rodriguez; P Salagre; Y Cesteros; J. E Sueiras

    2001-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hydrotalcite-like structure containing different amounts of Cu2+\\/Ni2+\\/Al3+ cations with M2+\\/M3+ ratios between 0.5 and 3.0 were prepared. Well-dispersed mixed-oxide and spinel-like phases were obtained by calcining these hydrotalcite-type precursors at different temperatures between 373 and 1173K. We performed thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, BET areas and FT-IR spectroscopy to characterise the hydrotalcite-like compounds synthesised and

  1. Synergetic Effect of SLN-Curcumin and LDH-5-Fu on SMMC-7721 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rongrong; Wu, Xianzheng; Xiao, Yu; Gao, Bo; Xie, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Curcumin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) have been reported to have anticancer potentials and show certain synergetic effect on some cancer cell lines. However, the poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism limited their medical application. In this study, we encapsulated curcumin with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), 5-Fu with Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) separately and tested its properties and anticancer potentials. SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu were determined to be 100 and 60?nm by Transmission Electron Microscopy detection, and the loading efficiency were 28%±2.5% and 16.7%±1.8%, individually. Furthermore, SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu showed a significantly synergetic effect on SMMC-7721 cell stronger than plain drugs together, of which the Idrug loaded nano-carriers was only 0.315. FACS analysis revealed that the combination of SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu induced 80.1% apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, which were 1.7-folds of the sum of the two plain drug loaded carriers. The results demonstrated the significant synergetic anticancer potentials of nano-encapsulated curcumin and 5-Fu, which could be further explored for the treatment of other carcinoma. PMID:23808828

  2. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-05-01

    A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn-Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn-Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  3. Development of a biocompatible nanodelivery system for tuberculosis drugs based on isoniazid-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Saifullah, Bullo; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The primary challenge in finding a treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is patient non-compliance to treatment due to long treatment duration, high dosing frequency, and adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. This study reports on the development of a nanodelivery system that intercalates the anti-TB drug isoniazid into Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Isoniazid was found to be released in a sustained manner from the novel nanodelivery system in humans in simulated phosphate buffer solutions at pH 4.8 and pH 7.4. The nanodelivery formulation was highly biocompatible compared to free isoniazid against human normal lung and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. The formulation was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Thus results show significant promise for the further study of these nanocomposites for the treatment of TB. PMID:25336952

  4. Relevance and performance of LDH platelets in coatings.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Fabrice; Stimpfling, Thomas; Hintze-Bruening, Horst

    2012-11-01

    The present article presents a review devoted to Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) as filler in coatings from the patent domain and the applicative literature. Other than bulk properties generally encountered in polymer nanocomposite aspect, LDHs filler relevance for coatings concerns surface properties as well as requiring diffusion barrier into limited width by isolating or healing substrate from aggressive medium. Enhancement of the substrate is performed with rather low pigment/filler concentration underlining the importance of nanometric dispersion to create large interfacial exposure between filler and polymer as well as being crucial for substrate adhesion. Largely exemplified with corrosion coating protection, LDHs is reported here as a corrosion inhibitor nano-container (C.I.NC.), and the self-healing protective effect is occurring from the delivery of inhibitor on demand, the guest interleaved species possess corrosion inhibition ability triggered when it is spontaneously released from the host matrix into aqueous environments in contact with corroding metal substrates. From the academic and patent literature, the review enlists the strategy to employ LDHs as efficient filler for bare metal substrate, mostly aluminum, magnesium and steel, as well as for polymer coatings and conversion films to prevent corrosion, as well as other properties: anti-UV, anti-abrasion and impact resistance, bactericide and antifouling. LDHs platelets dispersion either exfoliated or intercalated is found to be a key to provide great properties such as barrier properties and energy dissipation through nano-spring effect, respectively. The accent is also underlined on the concerns relative to ecological and economic considerations for coatings in an industrial setting and the chemicals regulation. Finally perspectives point out the topical relevance of LDHs nanofiller to supply adaptive and multifunctional properties to coatings. PMID:22747726

  5. Variable charge and electrical double layer of mineral-water interfaces: silver halides versus metal (hydr)oxides.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Tjisse

    2012-11-01

    Classically, silver (Ag) halides have been used to understand thermodynamic principles of the charging process and the corresponding development of the electrical double layer (EDL). A mechanistic approach to the processes on the molecular level has not yet been carried out using advanced surface complexation modeling (SCM) as applied to metal (hydr)oxide interfaces. Ag halides and metal (hydr)oxides behave quite differently in some respect. The location of charge in the interface of Ag halides is not a priori obvious. For AgI(s), SCM indicates the separation of interfacial charge in which the smaller silver ions are apparently farther away from the surface than iodide. This charge separation can be understood from the surface structure of the relevant crystal faces. Charge separation with positive charge above the surface is due to monodentate surface complex formation of Ag(+) ions binding to I sites located at the surface. Negative surface charge is due to the desorption of Ag(+) ions out of the lattice. These processes can be described with the charge distribution (CD) model. The MO/DFT optimized geometry of the complex is used to estimate the value of the CD. SCM reveals the EDL structure of AgI(s), having two Stern layers in series. The inner Stern layer has a very low capacitance (C(1) = 0.15 ± 0.01 F/m(2)) in comparison to that of metal (hydr)oxides, and this can be attributed to the strong orientation of the (primary) water molecules on the local electrostatic field of the Ag(+) and I(-) ions of the surface (relative dielectric constant ?(r) ? 6). Depending on the extent of water ordering, mineral surfaces may in principle develop a second Stern layer. The corresponding capacitance (C(2)) will depend on the degree of water ordering that may decrease in the series AgI (C(2) = 0.57 F/m(2)), goethite (C(2) = 0.74 F/m(2)), and rutile (C(2) = ?), as discussed. The charging principles of AgI minerals iodargyrite and miersite may also be applied to minerals with the same surface structure (e.g., sphalerite and würtzite (ZnS)). PMID:23057539

  6. Effect of added zinc on the properties of cobalt-containing ceramic pigments prepared from layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bernal, M.E.; Ruano-Casero, R.J. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rives, V., E-mail: vrives@usal.e [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al, or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers and carbonate in the interlayer have been prepared by coprecipitation. The Zn/Co molar ratio was kept to 1 in all samples, while the divalent/trivalent molar ratio was varied from 2/1 to 1/2. The samples have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR spectroscopy. A single hydrotalcite-like phase is formed for samples with molar ratio 2/1, which crystallinity decreases as the Al content is increased, developing small amounts of diaspore and dawsonite and probably an additional amorphous phase. Calcination at 1200 deg. C in air led to formation of spinels; a small amount of NaAlO{sub 2} was observed in the Al-rich samples, which was removed by washing. The nature of the spinels formed (containing Co{sup II}, Co{sup III}, Al{sup III} and Zn{sup II}) strongly depends on the cations molar ratio in the starting materials and the calcination treatment, leading to a partial oxidation of Co{sup II} species to Co{sup III} ones. Colour properties (L*a*b*) of the original and calcined solids have been measured. While the original samples show a pink colour (lighter for the series containing Zn), the calcined Co,Al samples show a dark blue colour and the Zn,Co,Al ones a green colour. Changes due to the different molar ratios within a given calcined series are less evident than between samples with the same composition in different series. These calcined materials could be usable as ceramic pigments. - Abstract: Mixed oxides from layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers are potential candidates for ceramic pigments with tunable colour properties. Display Omitted

  7. The decomposition of the layered double hydroxides of Co and Al: Phase segregation of a new single phase spinel oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babay, Salem; Bulou, Alain; Mercier, Anne Marie; Toumi, Mouhamed

    2015-04-01

    Monophasic Co-Al-CO3-like layered double hydroxides has been prepared by the coprecipitation method. It has been characterised by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, DTA-TGA, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Its structure is trigonal, R 3 bar m with cell parameters a = 0.3061(4) nm and c = 2.252 (3) nm. The decomposition of this hydrotalcite-like structure on heating up to 800 °C yields to a single phase spinel oxide. Besides, infrared and Raman spectroscopies showed the presence of spinel-like domains. The results of Rietveld refinement have revealed that this compound has the Fd 3 bar m space group (a = 0.8088(4) nm), with crystallographic formula [CoII0.75Al0.25]8a[CoII0.252CoIII0.77Al0.98]16dO4, which is of the general formula Co1.77Al1.23O4. This structure is also validated by the charge distribution (CD) analysis.

  8. Removal efficiency of fluoride by novel Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide by batch process from water.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sandip; Tripathy, Swagatika; Padhi, Tapswani; Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2013-05-01

    The fluoride ion removal from aqueous solution using synthesized Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide has been reported. Mg-Cr-Cl was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscope. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode as a function of adsorption dosages, contact time, pH, and initial fluoride concentration to get optimum adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetic study showed that the adsorption process followed first order kinetics. The fluoride removal was 88.5% and 77.4% at pH 7 with an adsorbent dose of 0.6 g/100 mL solution and initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The equilibrium was established at 40 min. Adsorption experiment data were fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with R2 = 0.9924. Thermodynamic constants were also measured and concluded that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The removal percentage decreased slowly with increasing pH. This process is suitable for industrial effluents. The regeneration of the material is not possible. PMID:24218830

  9. Influence of calcination on the adsorptive removal of phosphate by Zn-Al layered double hydroxides from excess sludge liquor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Huang, Xinrui; Wang, Xingzu; Sun, Dezhi

    2010-05-15

    The influence of calcination of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on their phosphate adsorption capacity was studied in order to improve phosphorus removal from an excess sludge liquor. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption were employed to characterize the raw Zn-Al and the calcined products. The results reveal that the Zn-Al LDHs evolved to a phase of mixed metal oxides with the calcination temperature increasing to 300 degrees C and finally to spinel ZnAl(2)O(4) at 600 degrees C. When the Zn-Al was calcined at 300 degrees C, the interlayer carbonate ions were removed and the greatest BET surface area of 81.20 m(2)/g was achieved. The tested phosphate adsorption capacities of the raw and calcined Zn-Al were closely related to the evolution of physicochemical properties of the LDHs during the calcination. The Zn-Al-300 (Zn-Al LDHs calcined at 300 degrees C) exhibited the highest P uptake of 41.26 mg P/g in 24h. The phosphate adsorption by the raw Zn-Al and the Zn-Al-300 both follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model; the adsorption isotherms show a good fit with a Langmuir-type equation. PMID:20060217

  10. An Inexpensive Co-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Composite with Electron Donor-Acceptor Character for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shufang; Lu, Jun; Yan, Dongpeng; Qin, Yumei; Li, Hailong; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the inexpensive 4,4-diaminostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DAS) and 4,4-dinitro-stilbene-2,2- disulfonate (DNS) anions with arbitrary molar ratios were successfully co-intercalated into Zn2Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The DAS(50%)-DNS/LDHs composite exhibited the broad UV-visible light absorption and fluorescence quenching, which was a direct indication of photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process between the intercalated DAS (donor) and DNS (acceptor) anions. This was confirmed by the matched HOMO/LUMO energy levels alignment of the intercalated DAS and DNS anions, which was also compatible for water splitting. The DAS(50%)-DNS/LDHs composite was fabricated as the photoanode and Pt as the cathode. Under the UV-visible light illumination, the enhanced photo-generated current (4.67?mA/cm2 at 0.8?V vs. SCE) was generated in the external circuit, and the photoelectrochemical water split was realized. Furthermore, this photoelectrochemical water splitting performance had excellent crystalline, electrochemical and optical stability. Therefore, this novel inorganic/organic hybrid photoanode exhibited potential application prospect in photoelectrochemical water splitting. PMID:26174201

  11. Preparation and antibacterial property of waterborne polyurethane/Zn-Al layered double hydroxides/ZnO nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-De; Zheng, Yun-Min; Xu, Yang-Sen; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liu, Lihong; Peng, Hong; Ouyang, Yousheng

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a novel environmental-friendly waterborne polyurethane/ZnAl-layered double hydroxides/ZnO nanoparticles composite (WPU/ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO) was synthesized via in-situ polymerization. ZnAl-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO were synthesized by refluxing in an oil bath. In order to disperse ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO homogeneously into WPU matrix, ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO was firstly functionalized by isophorone diisocyanate. The incorporated content of ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO in the composite has profound effect on such physical properties as mechanical strength, thermal stability and water swelling. It is demonstrated that appropriate amount of ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO with good dispersion in the WPU matrix significantly improves the physical performance of the composites. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the composite was tested against G(-) Escherichia coli and G(+) Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that WPU incorporated with ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO shows strong antibacterial activity upon contact. PMID:23646747

  12. Influence of nature of precursors on the formation and structure of Cu Ni Cr mixed oxides from layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihong; Zhu, Jia; Jiang, Xiaorui; Evans, David G.; Li, Feng

    2006-08-01

    Analogous layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the Cu2+/Ni2+/Cr3+ molar ratio of 1/2/1 on the brucite-like layers and interlayer anions (viz sulfate, nitrate and carbonate, respectively) were synthesized by a coprecipitation method. For the first time, the effects of interlayer anions on the structural properties of as-synthesized LDHs and resulting calcined products at 773 K were investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results indicate that the nature of interlayer anions involved within the hydrotalcite (HT)-like structure has a larger influence on the thermal stability of LDHs precursors. Calcination of well-crystallized LDHs leads to the formation of mixed metal oxides including CuO, NiO and Cu2+-, Ni2+- and Cr3+-containing spinel phases, the composition distributions of which obtained from LDHs precursors depend on the nature of interlayer anions, thus resulting in the difference of the reducibility of reducible metal species in the calcined LDHs. Moreover, the surface basicity of the calcined material, which is related to the different behaviour of LDHs precursors during the thermal decomposition depending on the interlayer anions, increases progressively following the order of calcined LDHs from sulfate to nitrate and carbonate.

  13. A comparative study of reactions of methanol over catalysts derived from NiAl and CoAl-layered double hydroxides and their Sn-containing analogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Velu; K. Suzuki; T. Osaki

    2000-01-01

    Ni- and Co-based catalysts derived from NiAl- and CoAl-layered double hydroxides were tested in four kinds of reactions of\\u000a methanol, namely decomposition of methanol (DCM), partial oxidation of methanol (POM), steam reforming of methanol (SRM),\\u000a and oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), for the purpose of H2 production for fuel cells. H2, CO and\\/or CO2 were the predominant products with

  14. Influence of nature of precursors on the formation and structure of Cu–Ni–Cr mixed oxides from layered double hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Zhang; Jia Zhu; Xiaorui Jiang; David G. Evans; Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    Analogous layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the Cu2+\\/Ni2+\\/Cr3+ molar ratio of 1\\/2\\/1 on the brucite-like layers and interlayer anions (viz sulfate, nitrate and carbonate, respectively) were synthesized by a coprecipitation method. For the first time, the effects of interlayer anions on the structural properties of as-synthesized LDHs and resulting calcined products at 773K were investigated by means of powder X-ray

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Ni{sub 1-x}Zn {sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrites from tailored layered double hydroxide precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Feng [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, University of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu Xiaofeng [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, University of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China); Yang Qiaozhen [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, University of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu Junjie [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, University of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China); Evans, David G. [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, University of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China); Duan Xue [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, University of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: duanx@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2005-08-11

    In this paper, a series of pure Ni{sub 1-x}Zn {sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) spinel ferrites have been synthesized successfully using a novel route through calcination of tailored hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxide molecular precursors of the type [(Ni + Zn){sub 1-x-y}Fe {sub y} {sup 2+}Fe {sub x} {sup 3+}(OH){sub 2}] {sup x+}(SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}) {sub x/2}.mH{sub 2}O at 900 deg. C for 2 h, in which the molar ratio of (Ni{sup 2+} + Zn{sup 2+})/(Fe{sup 2+} + Fe{sup 3+}) was adjusted to the same value as that in single spinel ferrite itself. The physico-chemical characteristics of the LDHs and their resulting calcined products were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results indicate that calcination of the as-synthesized LDH precursor affords a pure single Ni{sub 1-x}Zn {sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) spinel ferrite phase. Moreover, formation of pure ferrites starting from LDHs precursors requires a much lower temperature and shorter time, leading to a lower chance of side-reactions occurring, because all metal cations on the brucite-like layers of LDHs can be uniformly distributed at an atomic level.

  16. Comparative study of Mg/Al- and Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide-perindopril erbumine nanocomposites for inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Hussein Al Ali, Samer Hasan; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2012-01-01

    The intercalation of a drug active, perindopril, into Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide for the formation of a new nanocomposite, PMAE, was accomplished using a simple ion exchange technique. A relatively high loading percentage of perindopril of about 36.5% (w/w) indicates that intercalation of the active took place in the Mg/Al inorganic interlayer. Intercalation was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis shows markedly enhanced thermal stability of the active. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite occurred in a controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity effects from either Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide or its nanocomposite, PMAE. Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with 5.6% inhibition after 90 minutes of incubation. On incubation of angiotensin-converting enzyme with 0.5 ?g/mL of the PMAE nanocomposite, inhibition of the enzyme increased from 56.6% to 70.6% at 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. These results are comparable with data reported in the literature for Zn/Al-perindopril. PMID:22904631

  17. Comparative study of Mg/Al- and Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide-perindopril erbumine nanocomposites for inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hussein Al Ali, Samer Hasan; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2012-01-01

    The intercalation of a drug active, perindopril, into Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide for the formation of a new nanocomposite, PMAE, was accomplished using a simple ion exchange technique. A relatively high loading percentage of perindopril of about 36.5% (w/w) indicates that intercalation of the active took place in the Mg/Al inorganic interlayer. Intercalation was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis shows markedly enhanced thermal stability of the active. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite occurred in a controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity effects from either Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide or its nanocomposite, PMAE. Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with 5.6% inhibition after 90 minutes of incubation. On incubation of angiotensin-converting enzyme with 0.5 ?g/mL of the PMAE nanocomposite, inhibition of the enzyme increased from 56.6% to 70.6% at 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. These results are comparable with data reported in the literature for Zn/Al-perindopril. PMID:22904631

  18. Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePLUS

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  19. 5-Fluorouracil intercalated iron oxide@layered double hydroxide core-shell nano-composites with isotropic and anisotropic architectures for shape-selective drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Tuncelli, Gülsevde; Ay, Ahmet Nedim; Zümreoglu-Karan, Birgül

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization and in vitro release behavior of anti-cancer drug carrying iron oxide@layered double hydroxide core-shell nanocomposites with sizes ranging from 40 to 300nm, good drug loading capacities and soft ferromagnetic properties. HRTEM analyses verified that nearly spherical isotropic carriers were obtained by coating spherical magnetite particles while anisotropic carriers were obtained by coating spindle-shaped hematite particles. They both displayed a fluctuating in vitro release profile with a higher release percentage for the anisotropic carrier. PMID:26117790

  20. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of a fatty acid-layered double-metal hydroxide and its application as a chromatographic stationary phase

    SciTech Connect

    Jakupca, M.; Dutta, P.K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The thermal and spectroscopic properties of myristic acid-exchanged lithium aluminum layered double metal hydroxide are examined. In an anaerobic environment, the layered structure is stable up to 250{degrees}C. Differential thermal analysis indicates that in this temperature range there is partial dehydroxylation of the metal layer. This results in a material of considerably higher surface area. The myristic acid chains after heat treatment assume a disordered state, which is retained upon cooling the sample. The high porosity and the hydrophobicity make this material a candidate for a stationary phase in gas chromatography. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Controlled release and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition properties of an antihypertensive drug based on a perindopril erbumine-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Al Ali, Samer Hasan Hussein; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2012-01-01

    Background The intercalation of perindopril erbumine into Zn/Al-NO3-layered double hydroxide resulted in the formation of a host-guest type of material. By virtue of the ion-exchange properties of layered double hydroxide, perindopril erbumine was released in a sustained manner. Therefore, this intercalated material can be used as a controlled-release formulation. Results Perindopril was intercalated into the interlayers and formed a well ordered, layered organic-inorganic nanocomposite. The basal spacing of the products was expanded to 21.7 Å and 19.9 Å by the ion-exchange and coprecipitation methods, respectively, in a bilayer and a monolayer arrangement, respectively. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite synthesized by the coprecipitation method was slower than that of its counterpart synthesized by the ion-exchange method. The rate of release was governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. An in vitro antihypertensive assay showed that the intercalation process results in effectiveness similar to that of the antihypertensive properties of perindopril. Conclusion Intercalated perindopril showed better thermal stability than its free counterpart. The resulting material showed sustained-release properties and can therefore be used as a controlled-release formulation. PMID:22619549

  2. In Vitro Inhibition of Histamine Release Behavior of Cetirizine Intercalated into Zn/Al- and Mg/Al-Layered Double Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2012-01-01

    The intercalation of cetirizine into two types of layered double hydroxides, Zn/Al and Mg/Al, has been investigated by the ion exchange method to form CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites, respectively. The basal spacing of the nanocomposites were expanded to 31.9 Å for CTZAN and 31.2 Å for CTMAN, suggesting that cetirizine anion was intercalated into Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and arranged in a tilted bilayer fashion. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study supported the formation of both the nanocomposites, and the intercalated cetirizine is thermally more stable than its counterpart in free state. The loading of cetirizine in the nanocomposite was estimated to be about 57.2% for CTZAN and 60.7% CTMAN. The cetirizine release from the nanocomposites show sustained release manner and the release rate of cetirizine from CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8, presumably due to the different release mechanism. The inhibition of histamine release from RBL2H3 cells by the free cetirizine is higher than the intercalated cetirizine both in CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites. The viability in human Chang liver cells at 1000 ?g/mL for CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites are 74.5 and 91.9%, respectively. PMID:22754339

  3. Incorporation of rare-earth ions in Mg-Al layered double hydroxides: intercalation with an [Eu(EDTA)]{sup -} chelate

    SciTech Connect

    Li Cang [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology (China); Wang Ge [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology (China); Evans, David G. [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology (China); Duan Xue [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical Reactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology (China)]. E-mail: duanx@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2004-12-01

    Reaction of an aqueous slurry of an Mg{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide with a four-fold excess of Na[Eu(EDTA)] gives a material which analyses for Mg{sub 0.68}Al{sub 0.32}(OH){sub 2}[Eu(EDTA)]{sub 0.10}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.11}.0.66H{sub 2}O. The interlayer spacing of the material is 13.8A, corresponding to a gallery height of 9.0A, which accords with the maximal dimensions (9-10A) of the anion in metal-EDTA complex salts as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Geometrical considerations show that the charge density on the layered double hydroxide layers is too high to be balanced by intercalation of [Eu(EDTA)]{sup -} alone, necessitating the co-intercalation of carbonate ions which have a much higher charge density.

  4. Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

    2014-10-31

    A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

  5. Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate Noriko U-lim- iting step for the formation of Ni­Al LDH is Al dissolu- Nickel contamination of soils is a serious

  6. DNA-enhanced peroxidase-like activity of layered double hydroxide nanosheets and applications in H2O2 and glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijian; Sun, Kaifang; Li, Peipei; Fan, Xianzhong; Sun, Jianchao; Ai, Shiyun

    2013-10-01

    LDH nanosheets were obtained via continuous impaction and exfoliation by herring sperm DNA molecules using a constant vibration method. DNA-LDH nanohybrids were composed by electrostatic forces and they exhibited DNA-enhanced peroxidase-like activity. The morphology and structure of DNA-LDH nanohybrids were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization. On the basis of the high catalytic activity of DNA/CuAl-LDH nanosheets, a rapid, sensitive, and convenient approach was developed for colorimetric detection of H2O2 and blood glucose. This method can be potentially applied in medical diagnostics and biotechnology fields.LDH nanosheets were obtained via continuous impaction and exfoliation by herring sperm DNA molecules using a constant vibration method. DNA-LDH nanohybrids were composed by electrostatic forces and they exhibited DNA-enhanced peroxidase-like activity. The morphology and structure of DNA-LDH nanohybrids were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization. On the basis of the high catalytic activity of DNA/CuAl-LDH nanosheets, a rapid, sensitive, and convenient approach was developed for colorimetric detection of H2O2 and blood glucose. This method can be potentially applied in medical diagnostics and biotechnology fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03031h

  7. New SnO 2\\/MgAl-layered double hydroxide composites as photocatalysts for cationic dyes bleaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Dvininov; M. Ignat; P. Barvinschi; M. A. Smithers; E. Popovici

    2010-01-01

    A new type of nanocomposite containing SnO2 has been obtained by wet impregnation of dehydrated Mg\\/Al-hydrotalcite-type compounds with ethanolic solutions of SnCl4·2H2O. Tin chloride hydrolysis was achieved using NaOH or NH4OH aqueous solutions, at pH around 9, followed by the conversion into corresponding hydroxides through calcinations. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-DR) methods confirmed the structure

  8. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  9. Enhancing selectivity in stripping voltammetry by different adsorption behaviors: the use of nanostructured Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides to detect Cd(II).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Xia; Yu, Xin-Yao; Gao, Chao; Liu, Jin-Huai; Compton, Richard G; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-03-21

    We report the use of nanostructured layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for the highly selective and sensitive detection of Cd(2+) using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). In particular, the modification of a glassy carbon electrode promotes the sensitivity and selectivity towards Cd(2+) in the presence of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). The electrochemical characterization and anodic stripping voltammetric performance of Cd(2+) were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) analysis. Operational parameters, including supporting electrolytes, pH value, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized. In addition, the selectivity, interference and stability were also investigated under the optimized conditions. The results showed that the fabricated electrode possessed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility. The proposed electrochemical sensing strategy is thus expected to open new opportunities to broaden the use of ASV in analysis for detecting heavy metal ions in the environment. PMID:23370265

  10. Spherical LDH-Ag°-montmorillonite heterocoagulated system with a pH-dependent sol-gel structure for controlled accessibility of AgNPs immobilized on the clay lamellae.

    PubMed

    Deák, Ágota; Janovák, László; Tallósy, Szabolcs Péter; Bitó, Tamás; Seb?k, Dániel; Buzás, Norbert; Pálinkó, István; Dékány, Imre

    2015-02-17

    Aqueous suspensions of spherical ZnMgAl-layered double hydroxides [LDH(sph)] and antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited on the lamellae of montmorillonite were used for the synthesis of composites, which behave like coherent gels at low pH (?4.5) and incoherent sols at higher pH (?4.5). The composition of the composite was chosen as LDH(sph)/Ag°-montm. = 25:75 wt % in order to ensure a sol-gel transition that can also be characterized by viscometry. This pH-sensitive heterocoagulated system consisting of oppositely charged colloid particles was suitable for the release of antimicrobial AgNPs immobilized on the clay lamellae via a pH-controlled gel-sol transition. The heterocoagulation process was also characterized by surface charge titration measurements. Spherical LDH/Ag°-montmorillonite composite samples were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The morphological properties of the composites were studied, and the presence of the heterocoagulated structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanoscale structure of the LDH(sph)-Ag°-montmorillonite composite obtained was also verified by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the rheological characteristics were studied at various pH values. The viscosity and yield value of the composite decreased by an order of magnitude upon increasing the pH from 3.0 to 5.5. The sol-gel transition of the composite suspension was reversible in the previously mentioned pH range. PMID:25619227

  11. Synthesis and characterization of the LDH hydrotalcite-pyroaurite solid-solution series

    SciTech Connect

    Rozov, K., E-mail: urs.berner@psi.c [Waste Management Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5210 Villigen (Switzerland); Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 (Switzerland); Berner, U. [Waste Management Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5210 Villigen (Switzerland); Taviot-Gueho, C.; Leroux, F.; Renaudin, G. [Laboratoire de Materiaux Inorganiques, CNRS UMR 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Kulik, D. [Waste Management Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5210 Villigen (Switzerland); Diamond, L.W. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 3, CH-3012 (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    A layered double hydroxide (LDH) hydrotalcite-pyroaurite solid-solution series Mg{sub 3}(Al{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x})(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}(OH){sub 8} with 1 - x = 0.0, 0.1...1.0 was prepared by co-precipitation at 23 {+-} 2 {sup o}C and pH = 11.40 {+-} 0.03. The compositions of the solids and the reaction solutions were determined using ICP-OES (Mg, Al, Fe, and Na) and TGA techniques (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and H{sub 2}O). Powder X-ray diffraction was employed for phase identification and determination of the unit cell parameters a{sub o} and c{sub o} from peak profile analysis. The parameter a{sub o} = b{sub o} was found to be a linear function of the composition. This dependency confirms Vegard's law and indicates the presence of a continuous solid-solution series in the hydrotalcite-pyroaurite system. TGA data show that the temperatures at which interlayer H{sub 2}O molecules and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions are lost, and at which dehydroxylation of the layers occurs, all decrease with increasing mole fraction of iron within the hydroxide layers. Features of the Raman spectra also depend on the iron content. The absence of Raman bands for Fe-rich members (x{sub Fe} > 0.5) is attributed to possible fluorescence phenomena. Based on chemical analysis of both the solids and the reaction solutions after synthesis, preliminary Gibbs free energies of formation have been estimated. Values of {Delta}G{sup o}{sub f}(hydrotalcite) = - 3773.3 {+-} 51.4 kJ/mol and {Delta}G{sup o}{sub f}(pyroaurite) = - 3294.5 {+-} 95.8 kJ/mol were found at 296.15 K. The formal uncertainties of these formations constants are very high. Derivation of more precise values would require carefully designed solubility experiments and improved analytical techniques.

  12. Synthesis and anion exchange properties of a Zn/Ni double hydroxide salt with a guarinoite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, F.; Seron, A.; Licheron, M.; Veron, E.; Giovannelli, F.; Beny, C.; Jean-Prost, V.; Martineau, D.

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the first route to synthesize a compound with the guarinoite structure (Zn,Co,Ni) 6(SO 4)(OH,Cl) 10·5H 2O is reported. Zn/Ni guarinoite is obtained from the reaction of NiSO 4·7H 2O with solid ZnO in aqueous solution. The resulting green Zn/Ni guarinoite ((Zn 3.52Ni 1.63)(SO 4) 1.33(OH 7.64)·4.67H 2O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrometry, UV-Visible spectrometry and thermal analysis. It is shown that its structure is similar to the one described for the layered Zn sulfate hydroxide hydrate, i.e. brucite layers with {1}/{4} empty octahedra presenting tetrahedrally coordinated divalent atoms above and below the empty octahedra. Ni atoms are located in the octahedra and zinc atoms in tetrahedra and octahedra. In this structure the exchangeable anions are located at the apex of tetrahedra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that the Zn/Ni guarinoite is composed of aggregates of hexagonal plates of several hundreds of nanometers. Due to its interest for industrial or environmental applications, the exchange of sulfate groups by carbonates has been investigated. Results show a limited exchange and a higher affinity of the Zn/Ni guarinoite for sulfates compared to carbonates.

  13. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Ruan, Chongying

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification. PMID:26086702

  14. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Ruan, Chongying

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification. PMID:26086702

  15. Adsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned Layered Double Hydroxides: Batch and Flow

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Waters. Water Res. 1972, 6, 1259. (2) Lepkowski, W.; Arsenic Crisis in Bangladesh. Chem. Eng. News 1998 in power plant discharges, as well as, in fresh water supplies. Inorganic As may be present in the 3+ (AsAdsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned Layered Double

  16. Synthesis and anion exchange properties of a Zn/Ni double hydroxide salt with a guarinoite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, F., E-mail: delormef@corning.co [BRGM, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 ORLEANS Cedex 2 (France); CORNING SAS, CETC, 7 bis Avenue Valvins, 77210 AVON (France); Seron, A. [BRGM, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 ORLEANS Cedex 2 (France); Licheron, M.; Veron, E. [CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique 45071 ORLEANS Cedex 2 (France); Giovannelli, F. [LEMA, UMR 6157 CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, 3 place Jean Jaures 41029, BLOIS (France); Beny, C.; Jean-Prost, V.; Martineau, D. [BRGM, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 ORLEANS Cedex 2 (France)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, the first route to synthesize a compound with the guarinoite structure (Zn,Co,Ni){sub 6}(SO{sub 4})(OH,Cl){sub 10}.5H{sub 2}O is reported. Zn/Ni guarinoite is obtained from the reaction of NiSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O with solid ZnO in aqueous solution. The resulting green Zn/Ni guarinoite ((Zn{sub 3.52}Ni{sub 1.63})(SO{sub 4}){sub 1.33}(OH{sub 7.64}).4.67H{sub 2}O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrometry, UV-Visible spectrometry and thermal analysis. It is shown that its structure is similar to the one described for the layered Zn sulfate hydroxide hydrate, i.e. brucite layers with 1/4 empty octahedra presenting tetrahedrally coordinated divalent atoms above and below the empty octahedra. Ni atoms are located in the octahedra and zinc atoms in tetrahedra and octahedra. In this structure the exchangeable anions are located at the apex of tetrahedra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that the Zn/Ni guarinoite is composed of aggregates of hexagonal plates of several hundreds of nanometers. Due to its interest for industrial or environmental applications, the exchange of sulfate groups by carbonates has been investigated. Results show a limited exchange and a higher affinity of the Zn/Ni guarinoite for sulfates compared to carbonates. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph (secondary electrons) of the synthesized Zn/Ni guarinoite showing that aggregates are composed of small plate-like particles.

  17. Homogeneous precipitation of nickel hydroxide powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavis, Bora

    Structure of nickel precipitate from decomposition of urea was found to be alpha-Ni(OH)2. FTIR analysis revealed the intercalation of cyanate (OCN), which is an intermediate product of urea decomposition. This observation implied that the assumption of single step decomposition of urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia was over simplified. Role of critical experimental parameters like initial pH and metal ion concentration on the powder characteristics was carried out. Numerical solutions to reaction pathways predicted significant accumulation of the intermediate cyanate in the time-temperature range investigated. Numerical simulations included the effects of hydrolysis products of Ni2+ and Ni-amine, Ni-cyanate, and Ni-carbonate complexes. Chemical analysis of the precipitate showed a decrease in nitrogen content with increasing reaction times. This was consistent with the predicted decrease in concentration of Ni-cyanate complexes with time. Layer double hydroxides (LDHs) are intercalation compounds represented by the formula [M2+1-xM3+ x(OH)2]x+[An-x/n ]x-·mH2O. alpha-Ni(OH) 2 and Ni-Al layer double hydroxides precipitated by urea were investigated with FTIR and XPS. The role of cyanate in nucleation and growth of precipitates is demonstrated. In the early stages, cyanate ion is found mainly to be grafted into alpha-Ni(OH)2 via nitrogen, whereas later in the growth stages, it is bonded through oxygen. In LDHs cyanate remains N-bonded. Precipitation with substituted ureas, revealed the link between spectral features and structures observed in XRD patterns. With slower decomposition rates and low levels of supersaturation an extensively hydrated structure was observed. From the two phases of Ni(OH)2, alpha-phase, with its larger interlayer spacing, offers enhanced electrochemical properties but it transforms into thermodynamically stable beta-phase. Stabilizing effects of Ni2+ substitution with Co2+ and Al3+ was investigated. A number of three-component LDHs (TCLDHs) with Ni2+1-(x+y) /Co2+x and Al3+y (x and y were varied between 0.00 and, 0.25) were produced by urea precipitation. From the compositions studied, the ones containing [Al3+] o ? 0.015 M resulted with the LDH structure and proved to be stable in the electrolyte for prolonged times. Chronopotentiometry results indicated that TC-LDHs could deliver capacities up to about 30% higher than the beta-phase.

  18. A superlattice of alternately stacked Ni-Fe hydroxide nanosheets and graphene for efficient splitting of water.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Wang, Chengxiang; Liang, Jianbo; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-02-24

    Cost-effective electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals for efficient water splitting are crucial for various technological applications represented by fuel cell. Here, 3d transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with varied contents of Ni and Fe were successfully synthesized through a homogeneous precipitation. The exfoliated Ni-Fe LDH nanosheets were heteroassembled with graphene oxide (GO) as well as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into superlattice-like hybrids, in which two kinds of oppositely charged nanosheets are stacked face-to-face in alternating sequence. Heterostructured composites of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets and GO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-GO) exhibited an excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) efficiency with a small overpotential of about 0.23 V and Tafel slope of 42 mV/decade. The activity was further improved via the combination of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets with more conductive rGO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-rGO) to achieve an overpotential as low as 0.21 V and Tafel plot of 40 mV/decade. The catalytic activity was enhanced with an increased Fe content in the bimetallic Ni-Fe system. Moreover, the composite catalysts were found to be effective for hydrogen evolution reaction. An electrolyzer cell powered by a single AA battery of 1.5 V was demonstrated by using the bifunctional catalysts. PMID:25605063

  19. Synthesis of self-assembled layered double hydroxides/carbon composites by in situ solvothermal method and their application in capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jinbo [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: junwangzhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Song, Yanchao; Li, Zhanshuang; Gao, Zan; Mann, Tom; Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxides/carbon (Ni-Al LDHs/C) composites have been successfully fabricated via a facile in situ water-ethanol system. LDHs nanosheets could highly disperse on the surface of colloidal carbonaceous spheres through the interfacial electrostatic force. Ni-Al LDHs/C composite electrode prepared at 50% ethanol system exhibits the highest capacitance of 1064 F g{sup -1} at a current of 2.5 A g{sup -1}, leading to a significant improvement in relation to each individual counterpart (3.5 and 463 F g{sup -1} for carbon and Ni-Al LDHs at 2.5 A g{sup -1}, respectively). And a possible mechanism was proposed for the formation of the composites. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Al LDHs/C composites have been self-assembled by an in situ solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible growth mechanism to explain the composite is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Al LDHs/C composites display better electrochemical performance.

  20. Solvothermal synthesis of NiAl double hydroxide microspheres on a nickel foam-graphene as an electrode material for pseudo-capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Momodu, Damilola; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Barzeger, Farshad; Taghizadeh, Fatimeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa. (South Africa); Johnson, A. T. Charlie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate excellent pseudo-capacitance behavior of nickel-aluminum double hydroxide microspheres (NiAl DHM) synthesized by a facile solvothermal technique using tertbutanol as a structure-directing agent on nickel foam-graphene (NF-G) current collector as compared to use of nickel foam current collector alone. The structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies respectively. NF-G current collector was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition followed by an ex situ coating method of NiAl DHM active material which forms a composite electrode. The pseudocapacitive performance of the composite electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode with the NF-G current collector exhibits an enhanced electrochemical performance due to the presence of the conductive graphene layer on the nickel foam and gives a specific capacitance of 1252 F g{sup ?1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup ?1} and a capacitive retention of about 97% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This shows that these composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  1. Ultratrace determination of arsenic in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with Mg-Al-Fe ternary layered double hydroxide nano-sorbent.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amini, Roghayeh

    2013-11-15

    A selective solid phase extraction method, based on nano-structured Mg-Al-Fe(NO3(-)) ternary layered double hydroxide as a sorbent, is developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of arsenic (As) prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. It is found that both As(III) and As(V) could be quantitatively retained on the sorbent within a wide pH range of 4-12. Accordingly, the presented method is applied to determination of total inorganic As in aqueous solutions. Maximum analytical signal of As is achieved when the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures are close to 900 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency including pH, sample flow rate, amount of nano-sorbent, elution conditions and sample volume are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (3Sb/m) and the relative standard deviation are 4.6 pg mL(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 15.0-650 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979, sorption capacity and pre-concentration factor are 8.68 mg g(-1) and 300, respectively. The developed method is validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 1643e) and is successfully applied to the determination of ultra-trace amounts of As in different water samples. PMID:24148451

  2. Characteristics of selective fluoride adsorption by biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites from protein solutions: kinetics and equilibrium isotherms study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Lv, Tengfei; Song, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Zihong; Duan, Shibo; Xin, Gang; Liu, Fujun; Pan, Decong

    2014-03-15

    In the study, two novel applied biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites (CPLDH and CPLDH-Ca) were successfully prepared and characterized by TEM, ICP-AES, XFS, EDS, FTIR, XRD, BET and pHpzc. The fluoride removal efficiency (RF) and protein recovery ratio (RP) of the adsorbents were studied in protein systems of lysozyme (LSZ) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that the CPLDH-Ca presented remarkable performance for selective fluoride removal from protein solution. It reached the maximum RF of 92.1% and 94.8% at the CPLDH-Ca dose of 2.0g/L in LSZ and BSA system, respectively. The RP in both systems of LSZ and BSA were more than 90%. Additionally, the RP of CPLDH-Ca increased with the increase of ionic strengths, and it almost can be 100% with more than 93% RF. Fluoride adsorption by the CPLDH-Ca with different initial fluoride concentrations was found to obey the mixed surface reaction and diffusion controlled adsorption kinetic model, and the overall reaction rate is probably controlled by intra-particle diffusion, boundary layer diffusion and reaction process. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride in BSA system fit the Langmuir-Freundlich model well. The BSA has synergistic effect on fluoride adsorption and the degree increased with the increase of the initial BSA concentration. PMID:24486617

  3. One-pot synthesis of water-swellable Mg-Al layered double hydroxides and graphene oxide nanocomposites for efficient removal of As(V) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tao; Wu, Xilin; Tan, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, Anwu

    2013-04-24

    In this Article, we report a remarkably simple and efficient method for the preparation of layered double hydroxides and graphene oxide (LDHs/GO) nanocomposites with varying GO amounts via a hydrothermal process. The graphene nature in the resulting LDHs/GO nanocomposites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The LDHs/GO nanocomposites exhibited swelling behavior in water and forming a gel. The adsorption performance of the LDHs/GO nanocomposites was evaluated for the removal of arsenate (As(V)) from aqueous solutions, and the results showed that the ratio of GO to LDHs in the nanocomposites significantly affected the adsorption capacity. Higher and lower amounts of GO in LDHs/GO nanocomposites showed lower adsorption capacity of As(V). A maximum adsorption capacity of 183.11 mg/g (2.44 mmol/g) was achieved on the LDHs/GO containing 6.0% GO due to the higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area than other samples. Owing to their high uptake capability of As(V), water-swellable LDHs/GO nanocomposites are expected to have potential applications as adsorbents for As(V) polluted water cleanup. PMID:23528072

  4. Enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl phthalate with nano-TiO2 immobilized onto hydrophobic layered double hydroxides: a mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Lu, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhu, Nengwu; Dang, Zhi

    2013-02-15

    The organic layered double hydroxides (LHDs)/TiO(2) composites with various mass ratios were prepared by the reconstruction of mixed metal oxides to photodegrade dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the TiO(2) particles and the organic LDHs were combined together through chemical bonds, and TiO(2) particles were well distributed on the surface of the interconnecting organic LDHs nano-flakes. According to the experimental results of adsorptive and photodegradation of DMP, the organic LDHs with flaky structure could effectively adsorb the DMP molecules and the adsorption isotherm by the composites modeled well with the Langmuir equation. The enrichment of DMP onto the composites and the external hydroxyl groups of the composites produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhance the rate of DMP photocatalytic degradation by the obtained composites. PMID:23287410

  5. Synthesis of layered cathode material Li[Co xMn 1-x]O 2 from layered double hydroxides precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanluo; Wei, Min; Yang, Lan; Li, Congju

    2007-05-01

    Cathode materials Li[Co xMn 1-x]O 2 for lithium secondary batteries have been prepared by a new route—precursor method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) were used to monitor the structural transformation during the reaction of CoMn LDHs and LiOH·H 2O: firstly the layered structure of LDHs transformed to an intermediate phase with spinel structure; then the distortion of the structure occurred with the intercalation of Li + into the lattice, resulting in the formation of layered Li[Co xMn 1-x]O 2 with ?-NaFeO 2 structure. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data showed that the Co-O bonding length and the coordination number of Co were close to those of Mn in Li[Co xMn 1-x]O 2, which indicates that the local environments of the transitional metals are rather similar. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to measure the oxidation state of Co and Mn. The influences of Co/Mn ratio on both the structure and electrochemical property of Li[Co xMn 1-x]O 2 have been investigated by XRD and electrochemical tests. It has been found that the products synthesized by the precursor method demonstrated a rather stable cycling behavior, with a reversible capacity of 122.5 mAh g -1 for the layered material Li[Co 0.80Mn 0.20]O 2.

  6. Formation and yield of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized via chemical vapour deposition routes using different metal-based catalysts of FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl-LDH.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Jaafar, Adila Mohamad; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a series of different catalysts, derived from FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Catalyst-active particles were obtained by calcination of LDHs at 800 °C for 5 h. Nitrogen and hexane were used as the carrier gas and carbon source respectively, for preparation of MWCNTs using CVD methods at 800 °C. MWCNTs were allowed to grow for 30 min on the catalyst spread on an alumina boat in a quartz tube. The materials were subsequently characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that size and yield of MWCNTs varied depending on the type of LDH catalyst precursor that is used during synthesis. MWCNTs obtained using CoNiAl-LDH as the catalyst precursor showed smaller diameter and higher yield compared to FeCoNiAl and FeNiAl LDHs. PMID:25380526

  7. Small-molecule inhibitors of human LDH5

    PubMed Central

    Granchi, Carlotta; Paterni, Ilaria; Rani, Reshma; Minutolo, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    The latest findings on the role played by human LDH5 (hLDH5) in the promotion of glycolysis in invasive tumor cells indicates that this enzyme subtype is a promising therapeutic target for invasive cancer. Compounds able to selectively inhibit hLDH5 hold promise for the cure of neoplastic diseases. hLDH5 has so far been a rather unexplored target, since its importance in the promotion of cancer progression has been neglected for decades. This enzyme should also be considered as a challenging target due the high polar character (mostly cationic) of its ligand cavity. Recently, significant progresses have been reached with small-molecule inhibitors of hLDH5 displaying remarkable potencies and selectivities. This review provides an overview of the newly developed hLDH5 inhibitors. The roles of hLDH isoforms will be briefly discussed, and then the inhibitors will be grouped into chemical classes. Furthermore, general pharmacophore features will be emphasized throughout the structural subgroups analyzed. PMID:24175747

  8. Small-molecule inhibitors of human LDH5.

    PubMed

    Granchi, Carlotta; Paterni, Ilaria; Rani, Reshma; Minutolo, Filippo

    2013-10-01

    The latest findings on the role played by human LDH5 (hLDH5) in the promotion of glycolysis in invasive tumor cells indicates that this enzyme subtype is a promising therapeutic target for invasive cancer. Compounds able to selectively inhibit hLDH5 hold promise for the cure of neoplastic diseases. hLDH5 has so far been a rather unexplored target, since its importance in the promotion of cancer progression has been neglected for decades. This enzyme should also be considered as a challenging target due the high polar character (mostly cationic) of its ligand cavity. Recently, significant progresses have been reached with small-molecule inhibitors of hLDH5 displaying remarkable potencies and selectivities. This review provides an overview of the newly developed hLDH5 inhibitors. The roles of hLDH isoforms will be briefly discussed, and then the inhibitors will be grouped into chemical classes. Furthermore, general pharmacophore features will be emphasized throughout the structural subgroups analyzed. PMID:24175747

  9. Aluminum hydroxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.S.; Weaver, M.L.

    1988-07-05

    A method is described for the production of aluminum hydroxide, comprising reacting water in the liquid phase and aluminum of surface area of at least 20 mm/sup 2/ per gram at a pH above about 12.4 for producing a reaction mixture containing aluminum hydroxide, and collecting solid aluminum hydroxide from the reaction mixture, the reaction being carried out in the presence of choline at a concentration of about 0.05 to 2 mols per liter.

  10. Unusual hydrocarbon chain packing mode and modification of crystallite growth habit in the self-assembled nanocomposites zinc-aluminum-hydroxide oleate and elaidate (cis-and trans-[Zn2Al(OH)6(CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COO-)] and magnesium analogues.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Braterman, Paul S. (University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Xu, Zhi-Ping (University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Yu, Kui

    2004-05-01

    We report a novel packing mode specific to the cis unsaturated hydrocarbon chain in the title compound, a self-assembled layered double hydroxide-surfactant hybrid nanomaterial, and its influence on crystallite morphology and structure. The kink imposed by the cis double bond in oleate leads to partial overlap between chains on adjacent layers, with incomplete space filling, in contrast to the more usual (and more efficient) mono- and bilayer packings exhibited by the trans analogues. Incorporation of surfactant into the growing crystallite leads to a reversal of the usual LDH growth habit and results in crystallite shapes featuring ribbonlike sheets. The thermal decomposition behavior of the as-prepared organic/inorganic nanocomposites in air and N{sub 2} is described.

  11. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  12. Epilepsy treatment. Targeting LDH enzymes with a stiripentol analog to treat epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sada, Nagisa; Lee, Suni; Katsu, Takashi; Otsuki, Takemi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-20

    Neuronal excitation is regulated by energy metabolism, and drug-resistant epilepsy can be suppressed by special diets. Here, we report that seizures and epileptiform activity are reduced by inhibition of the metabolic pathway via lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a component of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. Inhibition of the enzyme LDH hyperpolarized neurons, which was reversed by the downstream metabolite pyruvate. LDH inhibition also suppressed seizures in vivo in a mouse model of epilepsy. We further found that stiripentol, a clinically used antiepileptic drug, is an LDH inhibitor. By modifying its chemical structure, we identified a previously unknown LDH inhibitor, which potently suppressed seizures in vivo. We conclude that LDH inhibitors are a promising new group of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:25792327

  13. Construction and immunological assessment of Salmonella typhimurium expressing fox sperm LDH-C4.

    PubMed

    Bird, P; Hayes, C; de Jersey, J; Bradley, M

    1998-01-01

    This study examined immune responses of foxes to oral doses of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium expressing fox sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (fLDH). The cDNA for fLDH was cloned into the expression plasmid pKK233.2 (pKKfLDH). Salmonella typhimurium aroA- (SL3261) was transformed with either the pKK233.2 plasmid alone (SpKK) or the pKKfLDH construct (SpKfLDH). The fLDH expressed by SpKfLDH retained enzymatic activity and was recognized by human LDH-C4-specific antibody. Male European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were given an initial oral dose of 1 x 10(11) cfu of either SpKK (control, n = 3) or SpKfLDH (test, n = 6), followed four weeks later with a further dose of 1 x 10(11) cfu. Antibodies to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS-04) and fLDH were measured in plasma and saliva for eight consecutive weeks after the initial doses. Both LPS-04 IgG- and IgA-specific antibodies as well as fLDH-specific IgG antibodies were detected in plasma and saliva. However, there was a marked fLDH-specific IgA response in saliva consistent with induction of the common mucosal immune system. The antibody measurements demonstrated the feasibility of using recombinant Salmonella as an oral vaccine to elicit gamete antigen-specific mucosal immune responses in foxes. PMID:11596868

  14. Nickel hydroxide electrode. 3: Thermogravimetric investigations of nickel (II) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennstedt, W.; Loeser, W.

    1982-01-01

    Water contained in Ni hydroxide influences its electrochemical reactivity. The water content of alpha and beta Ni hydroxides is different with respect to the amount and bond strength. Thermogravimetric experiments show that the water of the beta Ni hydroxides exceeding the stoichiometric composition is completely removed at 160 deg. The water contained in the interlayers of the beta hydroxide, however, is removed only at higher temperatures, together with the water originating from the decomposition of the hydroxide. These differences are attributed to the formation of II bonds within the interlayers and between interlayers and adjacent main layers. An attempt is made to explain the relations between water content and the oxidizability of the Ni hydroxides.

  15. Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria R. Fantin; Julie St-Pierre; Philip Leder

    2006-01-01

    Summary Alterations in cellular metabolism are among the most consistent hallmarks of cancer. Herein we have investigated the re- lationship between increased aerobic lactate production and mitochondrial physiology in tumor cells. To diminish the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) levels were knocked down by means of LDH-A short hairpin RNAs. Reduction in

  16. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. Karchevskyite, [Mg18Al9(OH)54][Sr2(CO3,PO4)9(H2O,H3O)11], a new mineral species of the layered double hydroxide family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britvin, S. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Bekenova, G. K.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Antonov, A. V.; Bogdanova, A. N.; Krasnova, N. I.

    2008-12-01

    Karchevskyite, a new mineral related to the family of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), has been found in the Iron open pit at the Kovdor carbonatite massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral occurs as spherulites of up to 1.5 mm in diameter composed of thin, curved lamellae. Dolomite, magnetite, quintinite-3 T, strontium carbonate, and fluorapatite are associated minerals. Karchevskyite is white in aggregates and colorless in separate platelets. Its luster is vitreous with a pearly shine on the cleavage surface. The new mineral is nonfluorescent. The Mohs hardness is 2. The cleavage is eminent (micalike), parallel to {001}. The measured density is 2.21(2) g/cm3, and the calculated value is 2.18(1) g/cm3. Karchevskyite is colorless and nonpleochroic in immersion liquids. It is uniaxial, negative, ? = 1.542(2), and ? = 1.534(2). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of ten point analyses, standard deviation in parentheses, wt %) is as follows: 29.7(1.1) MgO, 18.3(0.7) Al2O3, 7.4(0.4) SrO, 0.2(0.1) CaO, 1.3(0.2) P2O5, 14.5(0.4) CO2, and 28.6 H2O (estimated by difference); the total is 100. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of nine Al atoms is Mg18.00Al9.00(OH)54.00(Sr1.79Mg0.48Ca0.09)2.36 (Ca3)8.26(PO4)0.46(H2O)6.54(H3O)4.18. The idealized formula is [Mg18Al9(OH)54][Sr2(CO3, PO4)9(H2O, H3O)11]. The new mineral slowly dissolves in 10% HCl with weak effervescence. Karchevskyite is trigonal; possible space groups are P3, P3, P overline 3 1 m, P31 m, P312, P312, P3 m1, or P3 m1; unit-cell dimensions are a = 16.055(6), c = 25.66(1) Å, V = 5728(7) Å3, Z = 3. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, ( I, %)( hkl)] are: 8.52(10)(003), 6.41(4)(004), 5.13(3)(005), 4.27(6)(006), 3.665(9)(007), 3.547(9)(107), 3.081(6)(315). Wavenumbers of absorption bands in the infrared spectrum of the new mineral are (cm-1; s is shoulder): 3470, 3420s, 3035, 2960s, 1650, 1426, 1366, 1024, 937, 860, 779, 678, 615s, 553, 449, 386. Results of thermogravimetric analysis: total weight loss is 42.0 wt %, with three stages of loss: 12.2%, maximum rate at 230°C; 6.1%, maximum rate at 320°C; and 23.7%, maximum rate at 440°C. Karchevskyite is a late-stage hydrothermal mineral. The mineral is named in memory of Russian mineralogist Pavel Karchevsky (1976-2002), who made a significant contribution to the study of carbonatites. The type material of karchevskyite is deposited at the Mineralogical Museum, Division of Mineralogy, St. Petersburg State University, and the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  6. Identification of mono-ubiquitinated LDH-A in skeletal muscle cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yuko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ishihara, Ibuki; Oarada, Motoko; Goto, Jumpei; Ogawa, Takayuki; Suzue, Naoto; Nakano, Shunji; Furochi, Harumi; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2005-10-28

    We previously reported that oxidative stress is associated with unloading-mediated ubiquitination of muscle proteins. To further elucidate the involvement of oxidative stress in ubiquitination, we examined the ubiquitination profile in rat myoblastic L6 cells after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide induced many ubiquitinated proteins with low molecular masses (less than 60 kDa) as well as high molecular masses (more than 160 kDa). Among them, a 42-kDa-ubiquitinated protein was abundantly accumulated and immediately disappeared after the treatment. Microsequencing revealed that the 42-kDa-protein was identical to the mono-ubiquitinated form of rat lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), and we confirmed that hydrogen peroxide induced the mono-ubiquitination of LDH-A in COS7 cells overexpressing LDH-A and ubiquitin. Under unloading conditions, such as tail-suspension and spaceflight, mono-ubiquitinated LDH was accumulated in gastrocnemius muscle. Interestingly, E-64-d plus pepstatin, lysosomal protease inhibitors, further accumulated mono-ubiquitinated LDH-A in the cells after treatment with hydrogen peroxide, while they did not affect the amount of poly-ubiquitinated LDH. In contrast, epoxomicin, a potent proteasome inhibitor, did not change the amount of mono-ubiquitinated LDH-A in L6 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, although it significantly increased the amount of poly-ubiquitinated LDH. Our results suggest that oxidative stress induces not only poly-ubiquitination but also mono-ubiquitination of LDH-A, which may be involved in its lysosomal degradation during unloading. PMID:16154111

  7. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of kinetic components of a reaction which was set to stoichiometric constant with which the species appear in the reaction in KINSIM by default. For instance, in the case of LDH precipitation, the new program allows to change the order of species in the reactions associated with Al{sup 3+} and let the Ni{sup 2+} reactions take over. This could be carried on iteratively until a good fit between the experimental data and the predictions were observed. However for such studies availability of accurate equilibrium constants (especially for the solubility products for the solid phase) is a prerequisite.

  8. M-LDH physically associated with sarcolemmal K ATP channels mediates cytoprotection in heart embryonic H9C2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jovanovi?, Sofija; Du, Qingyou; Sukhodub, Andriy; Jovanovi?, Aleksandar

    2009-11-01

    Muscle form of lactate dehydrogenase (M-LDH) physically associate with K(ATP) channel subunits, Kir6.2 and SUR2A, and is an integral part of the ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel protein complex in the heart. Here, we have shown that concomitant introduction of viral constructs containing truncated and mutated forms of M-LDH (Delta M-LDH) and 193gly-M-LDH respectively, generate a phenotype of rat heart embryonic H9C2 cells that do not contain functional M-LDH as a part of the K(ATP) channel protein complex. The K(+) current was increased in wild type cells, but not in cells expressing Delta M-LDH/193gly-M-LDH, when they were exposed to chemical hypoxia induced by 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP; 10mM). At the same time, the outcome of chemical hypoxia was much worse in Delta M-LDH/193gly-M-LDH phenotype than in the control one, and that was associated with increased loss of intracellular ATP in cells infected with Delta M-LDH/193gly-M-LDH. On the other hand, cells expressing Kir6.2AFA, a Kir6.2 mutant that abolishes K(ATP) channel conductance without affecting intracellular ATP levels, survived chemical hypoxia much better than cells expressing Delta M-LDH/193gly-M-LDH. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that M-LDH physically associated with Kir6.2/SUR2A regulates the activity of sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels as well as an intracellular ATP production during metabolic stress, both of which are important for cell survival. PMID:19464385

  9. The role of the spleen in a lactate dehydrogenase mutant mouse (Ldh-1c/Ldh-1c) with hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Datta, T; Kremer, J P; Hültner, L; Dörmer, P

    1988-05-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase mouse mutant Ldh-1c/Ldh-1c is afflicted with a severe hemolytic anemia associated with extreme reticulocytosis (95%) and splenomegaly. Ninety-one percent of the total body colony-forming units--erythroid (CFU-E) have been quantified in the seven- to ten-times enlarged spleens of the mutant mice. Moreover, the splenic fraction of morphologically recognizable erythroid precursors was 134 times normal. From these data it was apparent that the spleen crucially contributes to the maintenance of steady state erythropoiesis in the mutants. On the other hand, an enhanced sequestration of red blood cells in the enlarged spleen may augment the anemia. Splenectomy experiments were performed with LDH mutant and wild type mice in order to investigate the role of the spleen in this particular hemolytic disease. Following splenectomy, the peripheral blood values and the frequency of femoral stem and progenitor cells were determined, and histological investigations were carried out. The life span of the splenectomized mutants was not shortened, in spite of a very low red blood cell count (25% of the untreated mutant value). Compared to the splenic loss only a moderate increase in bone marrow erythropoiesis was observed, such as a 250% increase of CFU-E. It is concluded that the reduction in red blood cell survival due to splenic sequestration in the mutants is of such a magnitude that it counterbalances a significant portion of splenic erythropoiesis. PMID:3360065

  10. Purification of mercury contaminated lithium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Bronfin; D. M. Jenkins; E. E. Jr. Wright

    1960-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to determine an economical method of preparing pure lithium hydroxide from a mercury-contaminated lithium hydroxide monohydrate salt presently produced as a waste product. Pure lithium hydroxide has application for chemical removal of carbon dioxide from air and general open market sale if the mercury contamination is reduced to approximately one part per billion. Because

  11. Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm creatine kinase, HspA2 chaperone protein (creatine kinase-M type), LDH, LDH-X, and lipid peroxidation product levels in infertile men with varicocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Çetin Ye?illi; Görkem Mungan; Ilker Seçkiner; Bülent Akduman; ?erefden Açikgöz; Korhan Altan; Aydin Mungan

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine the total sperm creatine kinase, HspA2 chaperone protein (creatine kinase-M isoform), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), LDH-X activities, and lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde [MDA]) levels in infertile men with varicocele and to examine the possible effect of varicocelectomy on these parameters.

  12. Particle-induced artifacts in the MTT and LDH viability assays

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro testing is a common first step in assessing combustion generated and engineered nanoparticle related health hazards. Commercially available viability assays are frequently used to compare the toxicity of different particle types and to generate dose response data. Nanoparticles, well known for having large surface areas and chemically active surfaces, may interfere with viability assays, producing a false assessment of toxicity and making it difficult to compare toxicity data. The objective of this study is to measure the extent of particle interference in two common viability assays, the MTT reduction and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Diesel particles, activated carbon, flame soot, oxidized flame soot, and titanium dioxide particles are assessed for interactions with the MTT and LDH assay under cell-free conditions. Diesel particles, at concentrations as low as 0.05 ?g/ml, reduce MTT. Other particle types reduce MTT only at a concentration of 50 ?g/ml and higher. The activated carbon, soot, and oxidized soot particles bind LDH to varying extents, reducing the concentration measured in the LDH assay. The interfering effects of the particles explain in part the different toxicities measured in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o). We conclude that valid particle toxicity assessments can only be assured after first performing controls to verify that the particles under investigation do not interfere with a specific assay at the expected concentrations. PMID:22799765

  13. Adsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned LDH

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    , cont. Batch Studies: Adsorption Kinetics Adsorption Isotherms Effect of Particle Size Effect of p 3000 4000 5000 Amountadsorbed(g/g) 180-300 90-180 75-90 53-75 #12;ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS Sips Isotherm 1Adsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned LDH: Batch and Flow

  14. Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

  15. Comparative Study of Some Layered Hydroxide Salts Containing Exchangeable Interlayer Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Steven P.; Jones, William

    1999-11-01

    Anion-exchange reactions of layered Zn, Cu, Ni, or La hydroxide nitrates with the organic anions acetate, terephthalate, and benzoate are compared. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) are used to characterize the materials. Exchange of the interlayer nitrate anions for these organic anions is generally possible, although no exchange is observed for the parent nickel hydroxide material. The organo derivatives obtained may be considered inorganic-organic hybrids, consisting of alternating hydroxide and A- layers, where A is the incorporated organic anion. The materials are structurally similar to the layered double hydroxide family of materials, which also exhibit an anion-exchange capacity.

  16. Reducing lactate secretion by ldhA Deletion in L-glutamate- producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dalong; Guan, Dan; Liang, Jingbo; Guo, Chunqian; Xie, Xixian; Zhang, Chenglin; Xu, Qingyang; Chen, Ning

    2014-01-01

    L-lactate is one of main byproducts excreted in to the fermentation medium. To improve L-glutamate production and reduce L-lactate accumulation, L-lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene ldhA was knocked out from L-glutamate producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9, designated GDK-9?ldhA. GDK-9?ldhA produced approximately 10.1% more L-glutamate than the GDK-9, and yielded lower levels of such by-products as ?-ketoglutarate, L-lactate and L-alanine. Since dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of main factors affecting L-lactate formation during L-glutamate fermentation, we investigated the effect of ldhA deletion from GDK-9 under different DO conditions. Under both oxygen-deficient and high oxygen conditions, L-glutamate production by GDK-9?ldhA was not higher than that of the GDK-9. However, under micro-aerobic conditions, GDK-9?ldhA exhibited 11.61% higher L-glutamate and 58.50% lower L-alanine production than GDK-9. Taken together, it is demonstrated that deletion of ldhA can enhance L-glutamate production and lower the unwanted by-products concentration, especially under micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25763057

  17. MOF membrane synthesis in the confined space of a vertically aligned LDH network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Nanyi; Diestel, Lisa; Steinbach, Frank; Caro, Jürgen

    2014-04-25

    MOF membranes have gained widespread attention due to their unprecedented gas separation performance. Relying on physical interactions, we successfully deposited MOF seeds on a substrate modified with a network of vertically aligned LDH walls before secondary growth of the MOF layer. ZIF-8 membranes thus prepared show considerable H2 permeance with high H2-CH4 selectivity. This approach is in general suitable for the deposition of nanoparticles on solid surface and their subsequent growth into a dense layer. PMID:24627890

  18. Cytogenetic Analysis of Pseudolinkage of Ldh Loci in the Teleost Genus Salvelinus

    PubMed Central

    Davisson, Muriel Trask; Wright, James E.; Atherton, Louisa M.

    1973-01-01

    Cytological and genetic analyses provide evidence that spontaneous centric fusion and fission can account for curious patterns of pseudolinkage of two LDH loci in males of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and in the F1, F2 and backcross generations of lake trout (S. namaycush) x brook trout hybrids. Intraindividual polymorphisms for acrocentric and metacentric chromosomes in somatic and gonadal tissue of these fish have been related to the proposed polyploid evolution in Salmonidae. PMID:17248602

  19. Prevalence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescent Males in Seoul, Korea: Prevalence of Adolescent LDH in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Keun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Myoung Seok; Park, Hyung-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2011-01-01

    Objective The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria. Methods The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings. Results The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade. Conclusions In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH.

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) overexpression in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues is linked to tumour hypoxia, angiogenic factor production and poor prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M I Koukourakis; A Giatromanolaki; E Sivridis; G Bougioukas; V Didilis; K C Gatter; A L Harris

    2003-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) catalyses the reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate, having a principal position in the anaerobic cellular metabolism. Induction of LDH-5 occurs during hypoxia and LDH-5 transcription is directly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Serum LDH levels have been correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various neoplastic diseases. The expression, however,

  1. The role of LDH serum levels in predicting global outcome in HCC patients treated with sorafenib: implications for clinical management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many tumour types serumlactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels proved to represent an indirect marker of tumour hypoxia, neo-angiogenesis and worse prognosis. As we previously reported LDH is an important predictive factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Sorafenib represents the therapeutic stronghold in advanced HCC patients. As a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) mainly directed against the angiogenetic pathway, the correlation of sorafenib administration with markers of hypoxia could be an important tool in patients management. Aim of our analysis was to evaluate the role of LDH pre-treatment levels and its variation during treatment in HCC patients receiving sorafenib. Methods 78 patients were available for our analysis. For all patients LDH values were collected within one month before the start of treatment and after the end of therapy. For study purposes we divided our patients into two groups, according to LDH pre-treatment levels, cut-off levels was determined with ROC curve analysis. Patients were, also, classified according to the variation in LDH serum levels pre- and post-treatment (increased vs decreased). Results Patients proved homogeneous for all clinical characteristics analyzed. In patients with LDH values under the cut-off median progression free survival (PFS) was 6.7 months, whereas it was 1.9 months in patients above the cut-off (p?=?0.0002). Accordingly median overall survival (OS) was 13.2 months and 4.9 months (p?=?0.0006). In patients with decreased LDH values after treatment median PFS was 6.8 months, and median OS was 21.0 months, whereas PFS was 2.9 months and OS 8.6 months in patients with increased LDH levels (PFS: p?=?0.0087; OS: p?=?0.0035). Conclusions In our experience, LDH seemed able to predict clinical outcome in terms of PFS and OS for HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Given the correlation between LDH levels and tumour angiogenesis we can speculate that patients with high LDH pretreatment levels may be optimal candidates for other emerging therapeutic agents or strategies targeting different molecular pathways. PMID:24552144

  2. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). 721.10504...Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). 721.10504...Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326 Food...Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326 Food...Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic...

  6. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  7. Molecular genetic characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) of Lactobacillus helveticus and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Savijoki, K; Palva, A

    1997-01-01

    The Lactobacillus helveticus L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) gene (ldhL) was isolated from a lambda library. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene was determined and shown to have the capacity to encode a protein of 323 amino acids (35.3 kDa). The deduced sequence of the 35-kDa protein revealed a relatively high degree of identity with other lactobacillar L-LDHs. The highest identity (80.2%) was observed with the Lactobacillus casei L-LDH. The sizes and 5' end analyses of ldhL transcripts showed that the ldhL gene is a monocistronic transcriptional unit. The expression of ldhL, studied as a function of growth, revealed a high expression level at the logarithmic phase of growth. The ldhL gene is preceded by two putative -10 regions, but no corresponding -35 regions could be identified. By primer extension analysis, the ldhL transcripts were confirmed to be derived from the -10 region closest to the initiation codon. However, upstream of these regions additional putative -10/-35 regions could be found. The L-LDH was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by two chromatographic steps. The purified L-LDH was shown to be a nonaliosteric enzyme, and amino acid residues involved in allosteric regulation were not conserved in L. helveticus L-LDH. However, a slight enhancement of enzyme activity was observed in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, particularly at neutral pH. A detailed enzymatic characterization of L-LDH was performed. The optimal reaction velocity was at pH 5.0, where the kinetic parameters K(m), and Kcat for pyruvate were 0.25 mM and 643 S-1, respectively. PMID:9212432

  8. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112 nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3 µm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity. PMID:24188959

  9. The Adaptive Cline at LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) in Killifish Fundulus heteroclitus Remains Stationary After 40 Years of Warming Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tina M; Strand, Allan E; Sotka, Erik E

    2014-03-11

    Since the 1970s, water temperatures along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States have risen by an average of 0.5 °C in summer months and 2.2 °C in winter months. In response, the distribution and abundance of several nearshore species have changed dramatically, but no study has attempted to document whether estuarine populations have evolved greater thermal tolerance. Here, we re-examine the classic latitudinal cline at lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus that was originally described by Dennis Powers and associates from samples collected between 1970 and 1972. Laboratory and field evidences indicated that northern and southern isozymes at muscle LDH are locally adapted to cold and warm temperatures, respectively. Despite the potential for evolutionary response at this adaptive locus, we detected no significant shift of the LDH cline from 20 to 30 F. heteroclitus collected at each of 13 locations between the early 1970s and 2010. We conclude that the microevolution of LDH-mediated thermal tolerance has not occurred, that shifts in alleles are too incremental to be distinguished from random processes, or that F. heteroclitus uses phenotypic and genetic mechanisms besides LDH to respond to warmer waters. PMID:24620002

  10. [Geographical variation of allele frequencies at the LDH-A* locus in the arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus Pall. and in the European grayling Thymallus arcticus L].

    PubMed

    Shubin, P N; Efimtseva, é A; shubin, Iu P; Chelpanova, T I

    2004-10-01

    The allele frequencies of LDH-A* locus were studied in the population of Siberian grayling from the Kozhym River (Pechora basin) and in the population of European grayling from Pechora, Mezen', and Vym' rivers (Northern Dvina basin). In samples of both species (n = 134), three LDH-A phenotypes have been identified in total, which proved to be under the control of two alleles: LDH-A*100 and LDH-A*50. The alternative alleles of LDH-A* locus were identified in the populations of Siberian grayling from Kozhym River and in the population of European grayling from the same river and other Pechora tributaries, namely, LDH-A*100 and LDH-A*50 in the Siberian and the European grayling, respectively. However, in the European grayling populations from the Mezen' and Vym' rivers, both alleles occur at the frequencies of the rare LDH-A*100 allele of 0.143 and 0.222, respectively. According to the published data, the frequency of LDH-A*100 allele increases in the European grayling populations of northwestern (Finland) and southern (France) rivers, reaching 0.872 and 1.000 in Rhone and Loire, respectively, i.e., the values characteristic of the Siberian grayling populations. PMID:15575515

  11. SOLUBILITY CONSTANTS OF METAL OXIDES, METAL HYDROXIDES AND METAL HYDROXIDE SALTS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Feitknecht; P. Schindler

    1963-01-01

    A critical compilation of solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, and ; hydroxide salts is presented. The literature up to 1957 and, as far as possible, ; since 1957 is covered. The methods used in deriving the solubility constants are ; discussed. A bibliography of 146 references is included. (D.L.C.);

  12. The synthesis of beta alumina from aluminum hydroxide and oxyhydroxide precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Zyl, A. van; Thackeray, M.M.; Duncan, G.K.; Kingon, A.I. (Div. of Materials Science and Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)); Heckroodt, R.O. (Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa))

    1993-02-01

    Two aluminum oxyhydroxides, boehmite and pseudoboehmite, and two aluminium hydroxides, bayerite and gibbsite, have been investigated as precursors for the synthesis of the solid electrolyte, beta alumina. Reaction pathways and products have been characterized by thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. A solid state reaction model for the formation of [beta][double prime]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is proposed.

  13. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24?h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles. PMID:25992482

  14. POSTNATAL EFFECTS OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB) ON CARDIAC LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) AND CREATINE KINASE (CK) ISOZYMES IN CD-1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by gavage at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 50 mg HCB/kg body weight on days 6-17 of gestation and studied on day 1 or 21 postpartum (pp). Hearts of the dams and pups were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kina...

  15. Geographical Variation of Allele Frequencies at the LDH-A* Locus in the Arctic Grayling Thymallus arcticus Pall. and in the European Grayling Thymallus thymallus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Shubin; E. A. Efimtzeva; Yu. P. Shubin; T. I. Chelpanova

    2004-01-01

    The allele frequencies of LDH-A* locus were studied in the populations of Siberian grayling from the Kozhym River (Pechora basin) and in the population of European grayling from Pechora, Mezen', and Vym' rivers (Northern Dvina basin). In samples of both species (n = 134), three LDH-A phenotypes have been identified in total, which proved to be under the control of

  16. SEM-EBSD based Realistic Modeling and Crystallographic Homogenization FE Analyses of LDH Formability Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2007-05-01

    Homogenization algorithm is introduced to the elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element (FE) procedure to develop multi-scale analysis code to predict the formability of sheet metal in macro scale, and simultaneously the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in micro scale. The isotropic and kinematical hardening lows are employed in the crystalline plasticity constitutive equation. For the multi-scale structure, two scales are considered. One is a microscopic polycrystal structure and the other a macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. We measure crystal morphologies by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), and define a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE) of micro ploycrystal structure, which satisfy the periodicity condition of crystal orientation distribution. Since nonlinear multi-scale FE analysis requires large computation time, development of parallel computing technique is needed. To realize the parallel analysis on PC cluster system, the dynamic explicit FE formulations are employed. Applying the domain partitioning technique to FE mesh of macro continuum, homogenized stresses based on micro crystal structures are computed in parallel without solving simultaneous linear equation. The parallel FEM code is applied to simulate the limit dome height (LDH) test problem and hemispherical cup deep drawing problem of aluminum alloy AL6022, mild steel DQSK, high strength steel HSLA, and dual phase steel DP600 sheet metals. The localized distribution of thickness strain and the texture evolution are obtained.

  17. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  18. PROCESS DESIGN IN EXTRACTIVE CRYSTALLIZATION OF LITHIUM HYDROXIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria E. Taboada; Javier S. Vega; Luis A. Cisternas; Teófilo A. Graber

    The present study examines the technology of addition of a second solvent, ethanol, to aqueous solutions of lithium hydroxide for obtaining lithium hydroxide crystals. First, solubility diagrams and densities were obtained using the ternary system of lithium hydroxide-water-ethanol at different temperatures. Using results obtained on the general analysis of data on solubility for the LiOH - water - ethanol ternary

  19. Mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide: a critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Siqueira Jr; H. P. Lopes

    1999-01-01

    Siqueira Jr JF, Lopes HP. Mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide: a critical review (Review). Interna- tional Endodontic Journal, 32, 361-369, 1999. Literature review The primary function of calcium hydroxide as a routine intracanal medicament is to provide antimicrobial activity. However, the mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide are not well known. Physicochemical properties of this substance may

  20. Understanding Arsenate Reaction Kinetics with Ferric Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James; Chaudhary, Binod K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding arsenic reactions with ferric hydroxides is important in understanding arsenic transport in the environment and in designing systems for removing arsenic from potable water. Many experimental studies have shown that the kinetics of arsenic adsorption on ferric hydroxides is biphasic, where a fraction of the arsenic adsorption occurs on a time scale of seconds while full equilibrium may require weeks to attain. This research employed density functional theory modeling in order to understand the mechanisms contributing to biphasic arsenic adsorption kinetics. The reaction energies and activation barriers for three modes of arsenate adsorption to ferric hydroxides were calculated. Gibbs free energies of reaction depended on the net charge of the complexes, which is a function of the system pH value. Physical adsorption of arsenate to ferric hydroxide proceeded with no activation barrier, with Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from ?21 to ?58 kJ/mol. The highest Gibbs free energies of reaction for physical adsorption resulted from negative charge assisted hydrogen bonding between H atoms on the ferric hydroxide and O atoms in arsenate. The conversion of physically adsorbed arsenate into monodentate surface complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 62 to 73 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from ?23 to ?38 kJ/mol. The conversion of monodentate surface complexes to bidentate, binuclear complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 79 to 112 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from ?11 to ?55 kJ/mol. For release of arsenate from uncharged bidentate complexes, energies of activation as high as 167 kJ/mol were encountered. Increasingly negative charges on the complexes lowered the activation barriers for desorption of arsenate, and in complexes with ?2 charges, the highest activation barrier was 65 kJ/mol. This study shows that the slow kinetics associated with arsenic adsorption and desorption can be attributed to the high Gibbs free energies of activation for forming and breaking bonds with the ferric hydroxide. PMID:23806140

  1. Synthesis of polypropylene/Mg3AlX (X CO3 ) LDH nanocomposites using a solvent mixing

    E-print Network

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Synthesis of polypropylene/Mg3Al­X (X ¼ CO3 2À , NO3 À , ClÀ , SO4 2À ) LDH nanocomposites using, polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites with four different inorganic anion (CO3 2À , NO3 À , ClÀ , and SO4 2À with the ller size larger than 100 nm.8­10 Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most widely used commodity

  2. Predicting As removal during metal hydroxide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-01-01

    A simplified isotherm is described that can predict the extent of arsenate removal at drinking water utilities practicing coagulation or iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) removal. If all possible sources of particulate iron and aluminum hydroxide present in the system are accounted for, the model predicts arsenic (As) removal to within {+-}13 percent (90 percent confidence) for Fe coagulation at pH 6.5--8 and alum coagulation at pH < 7.6. Analysis of full-scale treatment data suggests that colloidal aluminum (Al) flocs with sorbed arsenate [As(V)] may pass through filters, thereby decreasing overall As removal efficiency. Thus, Al solubility and particle stability must be minimized to improve As removal. If stability and solubility of aluminum hydroxide flocs are not a problem, alum and Fe coagulants have nearly equal capacity for sorbing As(V). Survey results also demonstrate the importance of particulate As.

  3. Discolored bondpads caused by aluminum hydroxide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zong M.; Oh, Chong K.; Neo, Soh P.; Redkar, Shailesh

    2000-08-01

    Discolored bondpads and poor adhesion or non-stick failure during bonding was investigated. The bondpads looked either brown in color at corners or just discolored without brownish corners. SEM inspection showed such bondpads had porous surface that was worse at corners. EDX, FIB and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) were used to analyze and identify the root cause. Failure analysis showed that the discolored bondpads were caused by the formation of aluminum hydroxide. This process was an oxidation or corrosion process that could not be avoided when bondpads were exposed to atmospheric environment. EDX analysis further confirmed the existence of Al-O chemical bonding. FIB/SEM analysis showed clearly the porous layer grew thicker towards the bondpad edge by consuming more aluminum. The layer of aluminum hydroxide on the bondpads created a barrier for good bonding. It is the responsibility of both fab and assembly plant to take preventative action to avoid the excessive exposure of bondpads to moisture during manufacturing.

  4. Crystallization processes in aluminium hydroxide gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Bye; J. G. Robinson

    1964-01-01

    Summary Changes in specific surface area, interpreted in conjunction withX-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy, have been used to follow the formation of pseudoboehmite and bayerite from amorphous aluminium hydroxide. Precipitates, essentially free from foreign ions, were prepared by the hydrolysis of aluminium s-butoxide and ageing in water, aqueous ethanol and aqueous glycerol was studied. A comparison of rates of

  5. Synthesis of yttrium hydroxide and oxide nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qun Tang; Zhaoping Liu; Shu Li; Shuyuan Zhang; Xianming Liu; Yitai Qian

    2003-01-01

    Yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were hydrothermally synthesized via a metastable precursor, PEG–Y(NO3)3 complex. XRD patterns showed the product was a pure hexagonal phase of Y(OH)3. TEM images displayed that the nanotubes have outer diameters ranging from 80 to 200nm, wall thicknesses of about 30nm, and lengths up to several micrometers. The nanotube growth may have three stages: formation of a metastable

  6. Sono-electrocoagulation of iron hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria K Kovatcheva; Marin D Parlapanski

    1999-01-01

    A low-frequency sonic field was used in order to improve the process of obtaining colloidal iron hydroxides by electrocoagulation and electroflotation in model solutions containing sulphates and chlorides as well as in waste water. For this purpose a combined sono-electrochemical appliance was constructed and used.It was established that the low-frequency acoustic treatment increases significantly the quantity of the obtained iron

  7. Carcinogenicity of beryllium hydroxide and alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Groth; C. Kommineni; G. R. Mackay

    1980-01-01

    Animal experiments are presented which show that Be metal, BeAl alloy, passivated Be metal, and beryllium hydroxide are pulmonary carcinogens in rats. These findings are supported by successful transplantation experiments. In addition, other alloys of Be, VBeââ, TiBeââ, TaBeââ, NbBeââ, BeâB, and BeâB were found to produce pulmonary metaplasia, frequently a preneoplastic lesion in rats. Old rats are shown to

  8. Hydroxide catalysis bonding for astronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veggel, Anna-Maria A.; Killow, Christian J.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) as a jointing technique has been under development for astronomical applications since ˜1998 (patented by D.-H. Gwo). It uses an aqueous hydroxide solution to form a chemical bond between oxide or oxidisable materials (e.g., SiO2, sapphire, silicon and SiC). It forms strong, extremely thin bonds, and is suitable for room temperature bonding, precision alignment, operation in ultra-low vacuum and down to temperatures of 2.5 K. It has been applied in the NASA satellite mission Gravity Probe B and in the ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detector GEO600. It will soon fly again on the ESA LISA Pathfinder mission and is currently being implemented in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo ground-based GW detectors. This technique is also of considerable interest for use in other astronomical fields and indeed more broadly, due to its desirable, and adjustable, combination of properties. This paper gives an overview of how HCB has been and can be applied in astronomical instruments, including an overview of the current literature on the properties of hydroxide catalysis bonds.

  9. High temperature performances of yttrium-doped spherical nickel hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X Mi; X. P Gao; C. Y Jiang; M. M Geng; J Yan; C. R Wan

    2004-01-01

    The regular and yttrium-doped spherical ?-phase nickel hydroxides were synthesized by means of chemically co-precipitation. The yttrium-doping with long needle-like nanocrystallites observed by TEM promoted the formation of the spherical nickel hydroxide with the larger diameter of about 5?m. The discharge capacity of the yttrium-doped spherical nickel hydroxide was measured to be slightly lower than that of the regular spherical

  10. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  12. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  13. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  14. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface treated with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface treated with...

  17. ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIPHENYLTIN HYDROXIDE TO THREE CLADOCERAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of an organotin pesticide, triphenyltin hydroxide, was assessed with several freshwater cladoceran species, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed for 48 h to triphenyltin hydroxide in static acute toxicity tests. Values of the 48-h trimmed...

  18. Standard enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burylev

    1995-01-01

    Available experimental data on standard enthalpies of formation of alkali metal hydroxide hydrates have been summarized. Using equations derived, the authors have calculated previously unknown enthalpies of formation of some lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium hydroxide hydrates. Taking into account the contribution of water to the enthalpies of formation of monohydrates, the authors have estimated the enthalpies of formation

  19. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of calcium hydroxide points.

    PubMed

    Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide points by using a broth dilution test. Extracts of calcium hydroxide points and a calcium hydroxide paste (Calasept) were tested by using 2 facultative anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 27352) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). Saline solution was used as a control. Each tested agent was kept in contact with the bacterial species used for the experiment for 5 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 2 days, and 5 days. Results showed that Calasept paste was effective in killing the tested bacteria, whereas calcium hydroxide points and saline showed bacterial survival in all experimental periods. It was concluded that calcium hydroxide points extract is not an effective antimicrobial agent against the tested bacteria. PMID:12075210

  20. Paradoxical hypomagnesemia caused by excessive ingestion of magnesium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Joo Suk, Oh

    2008-09-01

    Excessive ingestion of magnesium may lead to hypermagnesemia even without kidney dysfunction. Several cases of development of hypermagnesemia after overdose of magnesium hydroxide have been reported. Although magnesium hydroxide is widely used as laxative, its overdose may induce diarrhea, which is followed by excessive magnesium loss. I report a case of paradoxical hypomagnesemia developed after excessive ingestion of magnesium hydroxide. A 39-year-old woman was presented to the emergency department complaining of severe watery diarrhea and carpopedal spasm after ingesting a handful of magnesium hydroxide tablets. The laboratory tests detected hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and normokalemia. Calcium gluconate was given to the patient, but her symptom did not improve shortly. The symptom disappeared spontaneously 2 days after the watery diarrhea subsided. This case shows that overdose of magnesium hydroxide, which leads to massive diarrhea, might induce hypomagnesemia unexpectedly. This case also suggests that it should be treated, as well as typical magnesium deficiency. PMID:18774056

  1. Complex Microfiltration Behavior of Metal Hydroxide Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-02-28

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance against waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicate that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux loses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current research is to develop an understanding of the roles of cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. Metal hydroxide wastes were tested to examine the role of particle-filter interaction on filter performance.

  2. Nickel hydroxide/cobalt-ferrite magnetic nanocatalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pooja B; Inam, Fawad; Bhat, Badekai Ramachandra

    2014-08-11

    A magnetically separable, active nickel hydroxide (Brønsted base) coated nanocobalt ferrite catalyst has been developed for oxidation of alcohols. High surface area was achieved by tuning the particle size with surfactant. The surface area of 120.94 m2 g(-1) has been achieved for the coated nanocobalt ferrite. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained by synergistic effect of transition metal hydroxide (basic hydroxide) on nanocobalt ferrite. The nanocatalyst oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols efficiently (87%) to corresponding carbonyls in good yields. PMID:25075969

  3. A Ternary Catalytic System for the Room Temperature Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction in Water

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Aires da Conceição; Senra, Jaqueline Dias; de Souza, Andréa Luzia Ferreira; Brum Malta, Luiz Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The formation of Pd(0) in the absence of any classical reducing agent in a medium containing Mg2+/Al3+ layered double hydroxide (LDH) and N,N-dimethylformamide was evidenced. XRD analysis showed the presence of crystalline phases of palladium in the Pd/LDH composite. Suzuki-Miyaura reactions in aqueous medium were carried out at room temperature, and good yields were obtained with bromoarenes and iodoarenes using the ternary system LDH-Pd-CD (cyclodextrin) as catalyst. PMID:24288484

  4. Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide...applied to the interior of a prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide...applied to the interior of a prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide...prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a tooth. (b)...

  10. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. Probing cytotoxicity of gadolinium hydroxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Eva; Kohl, Yvonne; Colquhoun, Victoria; Thielecke, Hagen; Soga, Kohei; Mathur, Sanjay

    2010-04-01

    Gadolinium hydroxide, Gd(OH)(3), nanostructures were examined for their possible use in imaging and tracking of cells and tissues by investigating their cellular interactions and cytotoxic behaviors. For this purpose, Gd(OH)(3) nanorods (length, several hundred nanometers; diameter, approximately 40 nm) and spherical nanoparticles (average diameter, <10 nm) were synthesized by solvothermal decomposition of gadolinium containing molecular precursors. After comprehensive characterization of material properties, human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco2) and human lung epithelial (A549) cells were incubated with Gd(OH)(3) nanostructures in concentrations up to 900 microg/mL to perform cytotoxicity assays (BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine), WST-1 (4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzol-disulfonate)) and living/dead staining. As observed in all in vitro assays, the investigated Gd(OH)(3) nanostructures do not induce any significant cytotoxic effect, making them promising candidates for a new class of contrast agents, which may overcome the limitations of organic stains such as photobleaching and single usage. PMID:20218658

  12. Characterization of Silica-Containing Aluminum Hydroxide and Oxide Aerogels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcella Trombetta; Guido Busca; Ronald J. Willey

    1997-01-01

    Pure and silica-containing Al hydroxide aerogels were prepared by the supercritical drying method. The samples were later calcined, giving rise to alumina and Si–Al mixed oxides. The materials were characterized from the points of view of their bulk and surface structures. The Si-free material before calcination is well-crystallized boehmite that converts to ?-alumina by calcination. The silica-containing hydroxides are composed

  13. Dysprosium ( 165 Dy) hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy — animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley McLaren; Eric Hetherington; Des Maddalena; Graeme Snowdon

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a new chemical formulation, Dy-HMA, to utilise the advantages of dysprosium 165 in radiation synovectomy of certain forms of arthritis. Dy-HMA is a sterile suspension of dysprosium hydroxide macroaggregates (approximately 6 mg Dy\\/ml) in saline with the majority of particles in the 3–5 µm range. The absence of ferric hydroxide and a higher concentration

  14. Combined effects of anions on arsenic removal by iron hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoguang Meng; George P. Korfiatis; Sunbaek Bang; Ki Woong Bang

    2002-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effects of phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate on the removal of arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater (BGW) and simulated groundwater by iron hydroxides. The apparent adsorption constants indicated that the affinity of the anions for iron hydroxide sites decreased in the following order arsenate>phosphate>arsenite>silicate>bicarbonate. Phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate decreased the removal of As(III) even

  15. Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winnie Chien; Victor Anbalagan; Melvin Zandler; Michael Van Stipdonk; Dorothy Hanna; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold

    2004-01-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates\\u000a for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate ? nitrate ? hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of\\u000a the donation of electron density by the

  16. Recovery of Lithium Hydroxide from Spent Lithium Carbonate using Crystallizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    Recovery of LiOH from the spent Li2CO3 used as absorbent for carbon dioxide in breathing apparatus was successfully explored by precipitation and crystallization. A lithium hydroxide solution was prepared by precipitation of calcium carbonate using reaction of spent Li2CO3 and calcium hydroxide. The effects of the operating conditions on the reaction were investigated. Conversion of calcium carbonate was about 95%.

  17. Ferrimagnetism of hydrothermally treated Mn(II)\\/Fe(III)-hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wolski; J. Kaczmarek

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous Mn(II)\\/Fe(III)-hydroxides coprecipitated from the corresponding nitrates by sodium hydroxide at pH = 9.5 have been washed with distilled water and as aqueous suspensions, submitted to age at various temperatures. Aliquots of the suspensions after given time intervals have been filtered, dried in air, powdered and identified by magnetic measurements and X-ray determination. The highest specific magnetization was obtained in

  18. Physical and electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured nickel hydroxide powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. S. Song; Y. Y. Li; S. L. I. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured nickel hydroxide powder has been synthesized by a chemical precipitation method with the aid of ultrasound radiation, and the physical properties of the synthesized material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that nanostructured nickel hydroxide was crystalline ß-Ni(OH)2 with a nanocrystalline and nanoporous surface structure. The crystallite

  19. The role of calcium hydroxide in the formation of thaumasite

    SciTech Connect

    Bellmann, F. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Department of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar (Germany)], E-mail: frank.bellmann@bauing.uni-weimar.de; Stark, J. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Department of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    It has recently been derived by thermodynamic calculation that the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide plays a vital role in the resistance of cement paste or concrete against the formation of thaumasite. To obtain experimental data on this matter, special binders have been mixed and used for the preparation of mortar bars. These specimens were exposed to moderate sulphate attack for a period of 18 months at a temperature of 8 deg. C. Mortar bars containing calcium hydroxide showed visual signs of attack a few months after exposure, leading to expansion, mass loss and complete failure. In contrast to this, no signs of attack were observed when no calcium hydroxide was present in the microstructure. These results confirm the conclusions of earlier thermodynamic calculations that the presence of calcium hydroxide has an important impact on the formation of thaumasite. Calcium-rich C-S-H formed in the presence of calcium hydroxide is vulnerable against sulphate attack and the formation of thaumasite. In the absence of calcium hydroxide, C-S-H has a much lower calcium/silicon ratio and a higher resistance against the formation of thaumasite.

  20. Formation of Cr(III) hydroxides from chrome alum solutions. 1: Precipitation of active chromium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Avena, M.J.; Giacomelli, C.E.; De Pauli, C.P. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)] [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    1996-06-25

    The hydrolysis of Cr(III) and precipitation of colloidal chromium hydroxides are important processes occurring in soils and natural waters. The formation of active chromium hydroxide, Cr(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, was studied through potentiometric titrations and turbidimetric measurements. UV-Vis and IR spectroscopies were also employed to characterize the synthesized solid. The rapid addition of NaOH solution to aqueous chrome alum (KCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O) solutions caused the immediate precipitation of the active material. Only monomeric Cr(III) species seemed to be participating in the precipitation process; neither chromium polymers nor complexes with anions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) influenced the fast formation of Cr(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O. Titration studies allowed the determination of several hydrolysis and precipitation constants for Cr(III). Nevertheless, they cannot be used for the estimate of Cr(OH){sub 3}{sup 0} formation constant.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qwchem@gmail.com [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Chunhong [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Ming [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Sun, Lingna [ShenZhen Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Hu, Changwen [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education of China, The Institute for Chemical Physics and Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes.

  2. Zinc hydroxide sulphate and its transformation to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2013-10-28

    The thermal transformation of zinc hydroxide sulphate hydrate to zinc oxide has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. By collecting X-ray diffraction data in situ, we found that the dehydration of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate proceeded in discrete steps to form anhydrous zinc hydroxide sulphate. This compound then decomposed to a mixture of zinc oxide and a compound tentatively identified as Zn3(OH)2(SO4)2 at ~235 °C. At ~360 °C, the final dehydroxylation occurred with the formation of zinc oxy-sulphate, Zn3O(SO4)2, which then decomposed to ZnO at about ~800 °C. Interruption of the dehydration process can be used to synthesize the intermediate compounds. PMID:23963063

  3. Magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianming; Yan, Hong; Zhang, Xuehu; Wei, Liqiao; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2008-08-01

    Well-dispersed magnesium hydroxide nanoplatelets were synthesized by a simple water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion process, blowing gaseous ammonia (NH(3)) into microemulsion zones solubilized by magnesium chloride solution (MgCl(2)). Typical quaternary microemulsions of Triton X-100/cyclohexane/n-hexanol/water were used as space-confining microreactors for the nucleation, growth, and crystallization of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles. The obtained magnesium hydroxide was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission election microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), laser light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). The mole ratio of water to surfactant (omega(0)) played an important role in the sizes of micelles and nanoparticles, increasing with the increase of omega(0). The compatibility and dispersibility of nanoparticles obtained from reverse micelles were improved in the organic phase. PMID:18511061

  4. Hydroxide Anion at the Air-Water Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mundy, Christopher J.; Kuo, I-F W.; Tuckerman, Mark E.; Lee, Hee-Seung; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2009-10-19

    Here we use first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, in which the forces are obtained "on the fly" from electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory, to determine the intrinsic propensity of the hydroxide anion for the air-water interface. We find that the hydroxide anion is stabilized by about 0.5 kcal/mol at the air-water interface vs. in bulk water, and we predict, therefore, that the population of the ion is enhanced roughly twofold at the interface.

  5. The Global Repressor SugR Controls Expression of Genes of Glycolysis and of the l-Lactate Dehydrogenase LdhA in Corynebacterium glutamicum?

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Verena; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator SugR from Corynebacterium glutamicum represses genes of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). Growth experiments revealed that the overexpression of sugR not only perturbed the growth of C. glutamicum on the PTS sugars glucose, fructose, and sucrose but also led to a significant growth inhibition on ribose, which is not taken up via the PTS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with DNA microarray analysis and gel retardation experiments were performed to identify further target genes of SugR. Gel retardation analysis confirmed that SugR bound to the promoter regions of genes of the glycolytic enzymes 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (fba), enolase (eno), pyruvate kinase (pyk), and NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA). The deletion of sugR resulted in increased mRNA levels of eno, pyk, and ldhA in acetate medium. Enzyme activity measurements revealed that SugR-mediated repression affects the activities of PfkA, Fba, and LdhA in vivo. As the deletion of sugR led to increased LdhA activity under aerobic and under oxygen deprivation conditions, l-lactate production by C. glutamicum was determined. The overexpression of sugR reduced l-lactate production by about 25%, and sugR deletion increased l-lactate formation under oxygen deprivation conditions by threefold. Thus, SugR functions as a global repressor of genes of the PTS, glycolysis, and fermentative l-lactate dehydrogenase in C. glutamicum. PMID:18849435

  6. Structural and Functional Differences in the Promoter and 5' Flanking Region of Ldh-B within and between Populations of the Teleost Fundulus Heteroclitus

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, P. M.; Gomez-Chiarri, M.; Powers, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms underlying differences in the transcriptional regulation of lactate dehydrogenase-B (Ldh-B) between northern and southern populations of a teleost fish, Fundulus heteroclitus. A 1-kb region immediately 5' of the gene was sequenced from populations throughout the species range. There were two major allele classes in the sample, one containing alleles from Maine and another containing those from Florida. Populations from intermediate localities contained both allele classes. Some individuals from Georgia had sequences intermediate between the two classes, representing either ancestral alleles or recombinants. Tests of neutrality were applied to determine whether observed variation was consistent with neutral expectations. Significant deviations from neutral expectations were detected for the 5' flanking region, but not for other loci. The functional consequences of flanking sequence variation were assessed by transfection of reporter gene constructs into cultured cells and injection into living fish. Consistent with observed variation in Ldh-B transcription rate between populations, significant differences in reporter gene activity were driven by flanking regions from northern and southern populations both in cell culture and in vivo. This functional differentiation, coupled with departures from neutral expectations, suggests that selection may have acted on the regulation of Ldh-B in F. heteroclitus. PMID:9055085

  7. Page 1 of 18 Tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis for the analysis of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Page 1 of 18 Accepted M anuscript Tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis for the analysis to perform but yet time-consuming. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is the most common reagent used

  8. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides Wei the mechanism of phosphate sorption on aluminum hydroxides under different environ- mental conditions, including

  9. Association between HRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test band positivity and malaria-related anemia at a peripheral health facility in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ross; Reyes, Raquel; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Matte, Michael; Boum, Yap; Siedner, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    The detection of severe malaria in resource-constrained settings is often difficult because of requirements for laboratory infrastructure and/or clinical expertise. The aim of this study, therefore, was to explore the utility of a multiple antigen (HRP-2/pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) as a low-cost, surrogate marker of patients at high risk for complications of severe malaria. We reviewed programmatic data at a peripheral health center in Western Uganda. Available demographic and clinical data on all individuals presenting to the center who underwent an RDT for suspected malaria infection were reviewed. We fit logistic regression models to identify correlates of two outcomes of interest: 1) severe malaria-related anemia, defined here as hemoglobin ?7g/dL and 2) receipt of parenteral quinine. 1509 patients underwent malaria testing with an SD FK60 RDT during the observation period. A total of 637 (42%) RDTs were positive for at least one species of malaria, of which 326 (51%) exhibited a single HRP-2 band and 307 (48%) exhibited both HRP-2 and pLDH bands, while 4 exhibited only a single pLDH band. There was a trend towards more severe anemia in patients with a HRP-2/pLDH positive RDT compared to a HRP-2 only RDT (??=?-0.99 g/dl, 95% CI -1.99 to 0.02, P?=?0.055). A HRP-2/pLDH positive RDT was associated with an increased risk of severe malaria-related anemia compared to a negative RDT (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 18.8, 95% CI 4.32 to 82.0, P?

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF COPPER HYDROXIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper, applied in the form of copper hydroxide, is a widely used fungicide/bactericide for control of plant diseases. Copper has been shown to have adverse effects on aquatic organisms including a reduction in macroinvertebrate survival and structural and functional effects on fish nervous systems....

  11. Proton Diffusion in Nickel Hydroxide Prediction of Active Material Utilization

    E-print Network

    Weidner, John W.

    Proton Diffusion in Nickel Hydroxide Prediction of Active Material Utilization Sathya Motupally Galvanostatic charge and discharge experiments reveal that the active material in nickel electrodes cannot and discharge currents, and material loading (i.e., film thickness, concentration of nickel sites) in order

  12. XAFS Study of Arsenical Nickel Hydroxide , Z. Arthur2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aqueous arsenate into a nickel sulfate solution, with a final Ni:As molar ratio of 4:1 [4]. Sodium such as nickel and aluminum have been found enhancing the arsenic retention under certain coprecipitiaon-ionized water; the pH was kept constant by the addition of sodium hydroxide. Crystalline annabergite

  13. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (inventors)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  14. Phase Stability of Nickel Hydroxides and Oxyhydroxides A. Van der Ven,a,z

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Phase Stability of Nickel Hydroxides and Oxyhydroxides A. Van der Ven,a,z D. Morgan,b Y. S. Meng of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA We investigate phase stability of several nickel hydroxides manuscript received September 12, 2005. Available electronically December 14, 2005. Nickel hydroxide

  15. Flame retardant and mechanical properties of natural fibre–PP composites containing magnesium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Sain; S. H Park; F Suhara; S Law

    2004-01-01

    Flammability of polypropylene, sawdust\\/rice husk filled polypropylene composites and flame retarding effect of magnesium hydroxide for these composites was studied by horizontal burning rate and oxygen index tests. Effect of flame-retardants such as boric acid or zinc borate in combination with magnesium hydroxide was also studied. It was found that magnesium hydroxide can effectively reduce the flammability (almost 50%) of

  16. Effect of preparation parameters on electrolytic behaviour of turbostratic nickel hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Acharya; T Subbaiah; S Anand; R. P Das

    2003-01-01

    Turbostratic nickel hydroxide samples were prepared by neutralising nickel sulphate solution with urea. Initial nickel concentration and urea to nickel ratio were the two parameters changed for studying their effect on physico-chemical and electrolytic properties of nickel hydroxide. Depending on the preparation conditions the electrolytically active component of nickel hydroxide varied between 63 and 91% with respect to the theoretical

  17. Characterization and properties of boron-doped aluminum hydroxide for Mn 2+ adsorption and soil acidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuijiao Liao; Guanglong Liu; Duanwei Zhu; Yue Li; Liying Ren; Jingzhen Cui

    2011-01-01

    Al hydroxide was prepared by hydrolysis of Al(NO3)3, and oc-B-Al hydroxide was prepared by hydrolysis of Al(NO3)3 in the presence of boric acid solution. Curve-fitted B1s XPS spectrum of oc-B-Al hydroxide demonstrated that the boron atom was probably incorporated with Al hydroxide to some extent.\\u000a The IR band of Al–OH at 1,074 cm?1 of oc-B-Al hydroxide was weaker than that of

  18. Clinical use of p-proteasome in discriminating metastatic melanoma patients: comparative study with LDH, MIA and S100B protein.

    PubMed

    Henry, Laurent; Fabre, Cécile; Guiraud, Isabelle; Bastide, Sophie; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Martinez, Jean; Lavabre-Bertrand, Thierry; Meunier, Laurent; Stoebner, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    Plasmatic proteasome (p-proteasome) has recently been described as a new marker for metastatic melanoma. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic and prognostic values of p-proteasome with three other melanoma serological markers: S100B protein, melanoma inhibitory activity protein (MIA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the plasma of 121 stage I-IV melanoma patients. Laboratory analyses were performed by standardized ELISA (p-proteasome, MIA), immunoluminometric assay (S100B) and colorimetry (LDH). We found that all markers were relevant for discriminating metastatic from nonmetastatic patients but p-proteasome displayed the highest diagnostic accuracy. P-proteasome and S100B were the most sensitive (58.1%) and p-proteasome and MIA the most specific (98.7 and 100%) in detecting metastatic disease. P-proteasome and S100B had the highest area under receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.811 (95% CI: 0.725-0.897) and 0.822 (95% CI: 0.738-0.906), respectively. These two markers were the best in detecting patients with lymph node metastases. S100B, MIA and LDH diagnostic accuracy was increased when these markers were combined with p-proteasome. As shown with univariate analysis, shorter progression-free and overall survival rates were significantly associated with elevated plasma levels of each markers. The multivariate Cox regression analysis identified p-proteasome as the only independent predictor of a poorer progression-free survival (p = 0.030). In conclusion, this comparative study established that p-proteasome quantification in combination with other melanoma biomarkers is an attractive approach for the biological follow-up of melanoma patients. PMID:23238767

  19. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  20. Hierarchical cobalt-based hydroxide microspheres for water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Cui, Bai; Derr, Olivia; Yao, Zhibo; Qin, Zhaotong; Deng, Xiangyun; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Hong

    2014-02-01

    3D hierarchical cobalt hydroxide carbonate hydrate (Co(CO3)0.5(OH).0.11H2O) has been synthesized featuring a hollow urchin-like structure by a one-step hydrothermal method at modest temperature on FTO glass substrates. The functionalities of precursor surfactants were isolated and analyzed. A plausible formation mechanism of the spherical urchin-like microclusters has been furnished through time-dependent investigations. Introduction of other transitional metal doping (Cu, Ni) would give rise to a substantial morphological change associated with a surface area drop. The directly grown cobalt-based hydroxide composite electrodes were found to be capable of catalyzing oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under both neutral pH and alkaline conditions. The favorable 3D dendritic morphology and porous structure provide large surface areas and possible defect sites that are likely responsible for their robust electrochemical activity.

  1. Hierarchical cobalt-based hydroxide microspheres for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Cui, Bai; Derr, Olivia; Yao, Zhibo; Qin, Zhaotong; Deng, Xiangyun; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Hong

    2014-03-21

    3D hierarchical cobalt hydroxide carbonate hydrate (Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O) has been synthesized featuring a hollow urchin-like structure by a one-step hydrothermal method at modest temperature on FTO glass substrates. The functionalities of precursor surfactants were isolated and analyzed. A plausible formation mechanism of the spherical urchin-like microclusters has been furnished through time-dependent investigations. Introduction of other transitional metal doping (Cu, Ni) would give rise to a substantial morphological change associated with a surface area drop. The directly grown cobalt-based hydroxide composite electrodes were found to be capable of catalyzing oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under both neutral pH and alkaline conditions. The favorable 3D dendritic morphology and porous structure provide large surface areas and possible defect sites that are likely responsible for their robust electrochemical activity. PMID:24525520

  2. On the recombination of hydronium and hydroxide ions in water

    PubMed Central

    Hassanali, Ali; Prakash, Meher K.; Eshet, Hagai; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The recombination of hydronium and hydroxide ions following water ionization is one of the most fundamental processes determining the pH of water. The neutralization step once the solvated ions are in close proximity is phenomenologically understood to be fast, but the molecular mechanism has not been directly probed by experiments. We elucidate the mechanism of recombination in liquid water with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and it emerges as quite different from the conventional view of the Grotthuss mechanism. The neutralization event involves a collective compression of the water-wire bridging the ions, which occurs in approximately 0.5 ps, triggering a concerted triple jump of the protons. This process leaves the neutralized hydroxide in a hypercoordinated state, with the implications that enhanced collective compressions of several water molecules around similarly hypercoordinated states are likely to serve as nucleation events for the autoionization of liquid water. PMID:22143756

  3. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  4. A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.

    PubMed

    Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  5. Improvement in electrochromic stability of electrodeposited nickel hydroxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Nogami, G. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    The electrochromic nickel hydroxide thin film was anodically deposited from an aqueous solution. The effect of solution temperature, postheat-treatment temperature, and addition of cadmium on the electrochromic behavior (color/bleach durability cycle, response time, and coloration efficiency of the nickel hydroxide films in NaOH) were investigated. A significant increase in the color/bleach durability cycle from 500 (for the as-deposited film) to more than 5000 cycles (for the heat-treated film) was observed. The addition of cadmium increased the utilization of the active materials. It was found that the coloration efficiency was 40 cm{sup 2}/C and coloration and bleaching response time were 20 to 30 s and 8 to 10 s, respectively. The change in the electrochromic properties with heat-treatment temperature is discussed based on the physical and electrochemical analysis.

  6. Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)] [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Lian, Suoyuan [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China) [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Liu, Yang [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)] [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)] [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)] [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

  7. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  8. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    SciTech Connect

    Perdue, D.G.; Gordon, L.H.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed an engineering evaluation of storage prototypes to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. This report describes the testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module developed by Comstock and Wescott, Inc. The module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  9. Characterization of the tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis products of carbohydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Fabbri; R Helleur

    1999-01-01

    The identification of the thermochemolysis products (in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH) of carbohydrates is presented. Analysis was carried out using on-line flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS) and off-line flash (vacuum) pyrolysis followed by GC\\/MS. Standard samples of hexoses, pentoses, deoxyhexoses, lactose, cellulose and starch were treated with 25% aqueous TMAH (100 times excess by weight). Approximately 50 ?g

  10. Carbonization kinetics of lithium hydroxide and its monohydrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Zho; V. A. Chashchin; A. V. Vishnyakov

    2007-01-01

    The carbonization kinetics of anhydrous and hydrated lithium hydroxide has been studied in the constant-volume batch mode\\u000a at various pressures and temperatures. The carbonization rate of LiOH is tens times higher than that of LiOH ? H2O; it is virtually independent of temperature but increases in proportion to the 0.30 power of the CO2 pressure. The monohydrate carbonization rate is

  11. Lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide for sulfur dioxide control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Kirchgessner; Jeffrey M. Lorrain

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)â for sulfur dioxide (SOâ) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from coal-burning utility boilers. The most effective commercial calcium-based sorbent for this process is Ca(OH)â, with SOâ

  12. Augmentin bioavailability following cimetidine, aluminum hydroxide and milk.

    PubMed

    Staniforth, D H; Clarke, H L; Horton, R; Jackson, D; Lau, D

    1985-03-01

    Previous studies [Jackson et al. 1980] have shown that the bioavailability of Augmentin is not affected by food. The present work has shown that aluminum hydroxide, milk and cimetidine do have some influence on the bioavailability of a single dose of oral Augmentin, but the small differences observed are unlikely to be of therapeutic importance. It is concluded that Augmentin may be administered in clinical practice with any of these substances. PMID:3838971

  13. Physical and electrochemical characteristics of aluminium-substituted nickel hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Liu; X. Y. Wang; H. T. Yuan; Y. S. Zhang; D. Y. Song; Z. X. Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Substitution of 20 aluminium for nickel in the lattice of nickel hydroxide, prepared by coprecipitation, leads to a hydrotalcite-like compound of formula Ni0.8Al0.2(OH)2(CO3)0.1.0.66H2O. It has been found that the compound has prolonged stability in 6m KOH solution and can be used as the positive electrode material in rechargeable alkaline batteries. The structure, morphology and composition of the compound have been

  14. Double Chooz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Buck

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter theta13. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor bar nue flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from

  15. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloylglucose within Galla Chinensis Inhibits Human LDH-A and Attenuates Cell Proliferation in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deiab, Shihab; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Eyunni, Suresh; McTier, Oshlii; Mateeva, Nelly; Elshami, Faisel; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of aggressive malignancy is the overexpression of lactic acid dehydrogenase- (LDH-) A, concomitant to pericellular accumulation of lactate. In a recent high-throughput screening, we identified Rhus chinensis (Mill.) gallnut (RCG) (also known as Galla Chinensis) extract as a potent (IC50 < 1?µg/mL) inhibitor of human LDH-A (hLDH-A). In this study, through bioactivity guided fractionation of the crude extract, the data demonstrate that penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) was a primary constituent responsible for hLDH-A inhibition, present at ~9.95 ± 0.34% dry weight. Theoretical molecular docking studies of hLDH-A indicate that PGG acts through competitive binding at the NADH cofactor site, effects confirmed by functional enzyme studies where the IC50 = 27.32?nM was reversed with increasing concentration of NADH. Moreover, we confirm protein expression of hLDH-A in MDA-231 human breast carcinoma cells and show that PGG was toxic (LC50 = 94.18?µM), parallel to attenuated lactic acid production (IC50 = 97.81?µM). In a 72-hour cell proliferation assay, PGG was found to be a potent cytostatic agent with ability to halt cell division (IC50 = 1.2?µM) relative to paclitaxel (IC50 < 100?nM). In summary, these findings demonstrate that PGG is a potent hLDH-A inhibitor with significant capacity to halt proliferation of human breast cancer cells. PMID:25918543

  16. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of the microorganisms are the major contributing factors. Extensive research on the effects of magnesium hydroxide on anaerobic sludge digestion is still underway.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of new copper-chromium layered double hydroxides pillared with polyoxovanadates

    SciTech Connect

    Depege, C.; Bigey, L.; Forano, C. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France)] [and others] [Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France); and others

    1996-11-01

    In this study, the authors have focused on the intercalation by ion-exchange of some polyoxovanadate anions from aqueous solution (decavanadate V{sub 10}O{sub 28{sup 6-}}, tetravanadate V{sub 4}O{sub 12}{sup 4-}, and pyrovanadate V{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-}) into the layers of a copper chromium hydrotalcite-like compound, PXRD, FTIR, TGA, and EXAFS studies have provided information about the specific oxovanadate ions in the interlayers and their orientation. Thermal treatment of these LDHs was also examined. A grafting process of pyrovanadate anions onto the hydroxylated sheets has been demonstrated at room temperature.

  18. Synthesis and intracrystalline oxidation of nitrite-intercalated layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Nygil; Pradeep Kumar, G. [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Lalbagh Road, Bangalore 560027 (India); Rajamathi, Michael [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Lalbagh Road, Bangalore 560027 (India)], E-mail: mikerajamathi@rediffmail.com

    2009-03-15

    Nitrite-intercalated LDHs could be prepared by a two-stage process that involves coprecipitation in the presence of nitrite ions followed by stirring the product with excess of nitrite ions. The nitrite ion lies flat in these LDHs with its c{sub 2}-axis lying approximately perpendicular to the crystallographic c-axis. The interlayer nitrite ions in these LDHs could be quantitatively oxidized to nitrate ions using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. In the LDHs thus obtained the nitrate ion lies flat with its c{sub 3}-axis parallel to the crystallographic c-axis (D{sub 3h} symmetry) in the interlayer region resulting in lower basal spacing. - Graphical abstract: Nitrite-intercalated LDHs could be prepared by a two-stage process that involves coprecipitation in the presence of nitrite ions followed by stirring the product with excess of nitrite ions. The interlayer nitrite ions in these LDHs could be quantitatively oxidized to nitrate ions.

  19. Evaluation of alternatives for upgrading double shell tank corrosion monitoring at Hanford

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    Recent discovery of low hydroxide conditions in Double Shell Tanks have demonstrated that the current corrosion control system of waste sampling and analysis is inadequate to monitor and maintain specified chemistries for dilute and low volume waste tanks. Moreover, waste sampling alone cannot provide adequate information to resolve the questions raised regarding tank corrosion. This report evaluates available technologies which

  20. Selected-control synthesis of dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods by adjusting hydrothermal temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Song Xuchun [Department of Chemistry, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)], E-mail: songxuchunfj@163.com; Zheng Yifan [Coll Chem Engn and Mat Sci, Zhejiang Univ Technol, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014 (China); Wang Yun [Department of Chemistry, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2008-05-06

    Dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were prepared directly from commercial bulk Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals by facile hydrothermal process at 130 and 210 deg. C, respectively. The as-synthesized dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were investigated by various techniques of XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDS. In the process, the temperature was found to play important roles in determining produce dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods.

  1. Organic Additive-Mediated Synthesis of Novel Cobalt(II) Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, J.; Ahmed, M. F.; Kamath, P. Vishnu; Subbanna, G. N.; Uma, S.; Gopalakrishnan, J.

    1995-02-01

    Electrochemical precipitation of cobalt(II) hydroxide from nitrate solutions containing organic molecules, such as glucose, fructose, lactose, glycerol, and citric acid, yields a new modification of cobalt(II) hydroxide ( a = 3.09 ± 0.03 Å, c = 23.34 ± 0.36 Å) that is isostructural with ?-nickel hydroxide; precipitation in the absence of organic additives gives the stable, brucite-like, ?Co(OH) 2.

  2. The reaction of cesium hydroxide with 4-phenylvaleric acid 

    E-print Network

    Caughfield, Arvie Jeane

    1967-01-01

    , it seems rcasona'ole to concluc -. that there occurs no z-bondin& to thc phenyl r'ng o ti-, e acid since no significant change in thc position or shape of the ring proton. peak is evident. Typical examples of these '. I~K spectra aze shown in Figures 14... Acid Added (ml. ) Figure 4bs Potentiometric Titration of Cesium Hydroxide with 4-Phenylvaleric Acid 29 1. 5 0. 85 Holes of Acid 0 per ''!ole o Bas ' 1. 3 1. 2 D 1 0 0. 6 0. 5 30. 0 ml. of 0. 925 ". ! CsOH 0. 4 0. 3 0. 2 0. 1 7 Moles...

  3. Raman spectroscopic study of four isotopically substituted lithium hydroxide monohydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Hase

    1981-01-01

    Raman spectral data of polycrystals of four isotopically substituted lithium hydroxide monohydrates,6LiOH·H2O,7LiOH·H2O,6LiOD·D2O and7LiOD·D2O, have been investigated in the 4,000–50 cm-1 region. The observed spectra have been analyzed and discussed taking into account the results of the factor group analysis and the H\\/D and6Li\\/7Li isotope effects on the fundamental wavenumbers.

  4. Iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower assisted removal of arsenic from water

    SciTech Connect

    Raul, Prasanta Kumar, E-mail: prasanta.drdo@gmail.com [Defence Research Laboratory, Post Bag No. 2, Tezpur 784001, Assam (India); Devi, Rashmi Rekha; Umlong, Iohborlang M. [Defence Research Laboratory, Post Bag No. 2, Tezpur 784001, Assam (India); Thakur, Ashim Jyoti [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Banerjee, Saumen; Veer, Vijay [Defence Research Laboratory, Post Bag No. 2, Tezpur 784001, Assam (India)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 ?g L{sup ?1} to less than 10 ?g L{sup ?1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. TEM image clearly reveals that the nanoparticle looks flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 ?g g{sup ?1} for arsenic at room temperature and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. The material can be regenerated up to 70% using dilute hydrochloric acid and it would be utilized for de-arsenification purposes. - Highlights: • The work includes synthesis of iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower and its applicability for the removal of arsenic from water. • The nanoparticle was characterized using modern instrumental methods like FESEM, TEM, BET, XRD, etc. • The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 ?g g{sup ?1} for arsenic at room temperature. • The sorption is multilayered on the heterogeneous surface of the nano adsorbent. • The mechanism of arsenic removal of IOH nanoflower follows both adsorption and ion-exchange. - Abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 ?g L{sup ?1} to less than 10 ?g L{sup ?1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. The nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), BET surface area, FTIR, FESEM and TEM images. TEM image clearly reveals flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The nanoflower morphology is also supported by FESEM images. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 ?g g{sup ?1} for arsenic and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. Study on adsorption kinetics shows that adsorption of arsenic onto iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower follows pseudo-second order kinetic. The material can be regenerated up to 70% using dilute hydrochloric acid and it would be utilized for de-arsenification purposes.

  5. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  6. Ions in water: The microscopic structure of concentrated hydroxide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imberti, S.; Botti, A.; Bruni, F.; Cappa, G.; Ricci, M. A.; Soper, A. K.

    2005-05-01

    Neutron-diffraction data on aqueous solutions of hydroxides, at solute concentrations ranging from 1 solute per 12 water molecules to 1 solute per 3 water molecules, are analyzed by means of a Monte Carlo simulation (empirical potential structure refinement), in order to determine the hydration shell of the OH- in the presence of the smaller alkali metal ions. It is demonstrated that the symmetry argument between H+ and OH- cannot be used, at least in the liquid phase at such high concentrations, for determining the hydroxide hydration shell. Water molecules in the hydration shell of K+ orient their dipole moment at about 45° from the K+-water oxygen director, instead of radially as in the case of the Li+ and Na+ hydration shells. The K+-water oxygen radial distribution function shows a shallower first minimum compared to the other cation-water oxygen functions. The influence of the solutes on the water-water radial distribution functions is shown to have an effect on the water structure equivalent to an increase in the pressure of the water, depending on both ion concentration and ionic radius. The changes of the water structure in the presence of charged solutes and the differences among the hydration shells of the different cations are used to present a qualitative explanation of the observed cation mobility.

  7. Lithium hydroxide, LiOH, at elevated densities.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N W; Hoffmann, Roald

    2014-07-14

    We discuss the high-pressure phases of crystalline lithium hydroxide, LiOH. Using first-principles calculations, and assisted by evolutionary structure searches, we reproduce the experimentally known phase transition under pressure, but we suggest that the high-pressure phase LiOH-III be assigned to a new hydrogen-bonded tetragonal structure type that is unique amongst alkali hydroxides. LiOH is at the intersection of both ionic and hydrogen bonding, and we examine the various ensuing structural features and their energetic driving mechanisms. At P = 17 GPa, we predict another phase transition to a new phase, Pbcm-LiOH-IV, which we find to be stable over a wide pressure range. Eventually, at extremely high pressures of 1100 GPa, the ground state of LiOH is predicted to become a polymeric structure with an unusual graphitic oxygen-hydrogen net. However, because of its ionic character, the anticipated metallization of LiOH is much delayed; in fact, its electronic band gap increases monotonically into the TPa pressure range. PMID:25028025

  8. Intrinsic Hydration of Uranyl-Hydroxide, -Nitrate and -Acetate Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Winnie Chien; Dorothy Hanna; Victor Anbalagan; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold; Michael Van Stipdonk

    2004-06-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate = nitrate >> hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH- to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H2O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)2]+ were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H2O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO2OH)(H2O)2]+ was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate.

  9. Nickel hydroxide and other nanophase cathode materials for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, David E.; Salkind, Alvin J.; Strutt, Peter R.; Xiao, T. Danny

    The staff of US Nanocorp, Inc. are developing unique nanostructured materials for a wide range of applications in the areas of energy storage (batteries and ultracapacitors) and energy conversion (fuel cells and thermoelectric) devices. Many of the preparations of these materials exploit a wet synthesis process (patent pending) that is scaleable to large volume manufacturing and anticipated to be low in cost. Specifically, both the ?-form of nickel hydroxide and the hollandite form of manganese dioxide have been synthesized. The hexagonal Ni(OH) 2 is anticipated to significantly boost energy densities in nickel-alkaline batteries, including nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride and nickel/zinc. The nanophase MnO 2 microstructure exhibits an unusual tunnelled tubular geometry within a 'bird's nest' superstructure, and is expected to be of interest as an intercalation cathode material in lithium-ion systems as well as a catalyst for fuel cells. Characterization of these materials has been by the techniques of high resolution SEM and TEM, as well as XRD. Both Hg porosimetry and BET surface measurements for conventional and spherical nickel hydroxides are summarized. Pore distribution and electrochemical activity for the nanophase materials will be examined in the future.

  10. Seeing Double

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this math lesson, learners encounter the magical effect of reflection as they use a mirror to visually experience the concept of doubling quantities. This experience focuses learners' attention to using doubles as a strategy to make number operations easier, specifically addition. Literature is used as an introduction to provide a connection and motivation, a game is used for discovery and practice, and writing is used as closure to this lesson. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

  11. Compatibilization of polyethylene\\/aluminum hydroxide (PE\\/ATH) and polyethylene\\/magnesium hydroxide (PE\\/MH) composites with functionalized polyethylenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Hippi; J Mattila; M Korhonen; J Seppälä

    2003-01-01

    Study was made of the compatibilization of polyethylene\\/aluminum hydroxide (PE\\/ATH) and polyethylene\\/magnesium hydroxide (PE\\/MH) composites with composition 60\\/40wt%. Compatibilizers were hydroxyl or carboxylic acid functionalized copolymers prepared in our laboratory with metallocene catalysts and commercial butyl acrylate, maleic anhydride, epoxy, and acrylic acid functionalized polyethylenes. Comparison was made with stearic acid treatment of the composites. The effect of polymeric compatibilizers

  12. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Bishop; Q. Wu; T. Keener; L. A. Zhuang; R. Gurusamy; S. Pehkonen

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to

  13. Effect of production conditions on physicochemical properties of aluminum and magnesium hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Ivanova; M. M. Pugach; É. M. Moroz; G. S. Litvak; G. N. Kryukova; V. M. Mastikhin; O. P. Krivoruchko

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of the effect of production conditions on chemical and phase composition, morphological structure, and surface area of aluminum and magnesium hydroxides synthesized in “equilibrium” and “nonequilibrium” conditions. Preliminary polycondensation in concentrated solutions of nitrate salts of aluminum and magnesium at different temperatures does not affect the properties of the resulting hydroxides substantially. The determining factors

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline yttrium oxide prepared with tetraalkylammonium hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Fokema; Eugene Chiu; Jackie Y. Ying

    2000-01-01

    Controlled chemical precipitation of yttrium hydroxynitrate has been used to synthesize nanocrystalline yttrium oxide powders with high thermal stability. The type of base employed as the precipitating agent has a significant effect on the properties of the yttrium oxide product. Precipitation with tetraalkylammonium hydroxides was shown to produce a much finer-grained product than a conventional ammonium hydroxide synthesis route. This

  15. Preparation of plate-shape nano-magnesium hydroxide from asbestos tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao-xiang, Du; Shui-lin, Zheng

    2009-09-01

    To prepare magnesium hydroxide is one of the effective methods to the comprehensive utilization of asbestos tailings. Nano-scale magnesium hydroxide was prepared and mechanisms of in-situ surface modification were characterized in the paper. Process conditions of preparation of magnesium hydroxide from purified hydrochloric acid leachate of asbestos tailings were optimized and in-situ surface modification of the product was carried out. Results showed that optimum process conditions for preparing nano-scale magnesium hydroxide were as follows: initial concentration of Mg2+ in the leachate was 22.75g/L, precipitant was NaOH solution (mass concentration 20%), reaction temperature was 50°C, and reaction time was 5min. The diameter and thickness of the plate nano-scale magnesium hydroxide powder prepared under optimal conditions were about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. However, particle agglomeration was obvious, the particle size increased to micron-grade. Dispersity of the magnesium hydroxide powder could be elevated by in-situ modification by silane FR-693, titanate YB-502 and polyethylene glycol and optimum dosages were 1.5%, 1.5% and 0.75% of the mass of magnesium hydroxide, respectively. All of the modifiers adsorbed chemically on surfaces of magnesium hydroxide particles, among which Si-O-Mg bonds formed among silane FR-693 and the particle surfaces and Ti-O-Mg among titanate YB-502 and the surfaces.

  16. BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING ARSENIC SPECIATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE COATED SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic mobilization from solid phase Fe (III) hydroxides is an issue of concern, as water-borne arsenic can migrate into pristine environments, endangering aquatic and human life. In general, metal oxide (hydroxides) exerts a dominating effect on the fate and transport of arseni...

  17. Speciation of heavy metal ions as influenced by interactions with montmorillonite, Al hydroxide polymers and citrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. T. Janssen

    1995-01-01

    Clay minerals, metal-hydroxides and organic matter can bind metal ions; moreover they also interact with each other. These mutual interactions influence the metal binding to a significant extent. In this study, the speciation of the heavy metal ions Zn and Ph was investigated in model systems consisting of various combinations of the clay mineral montmorillonite (Na saturated), Al hydroxide polymers

  18. Effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the relaxation spectrum of concentrated agar-agar gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Watase; K. Nishinari

    1981-01-01

    Summary Stress relaxation and ultrasonic absorption measurements were made for agar-agar pretreated by various concentrations of sodium hydroxide, in order to clarify the dominating factors in its rheological properties. Stress relaxation measurements were made up to 30 hours. Relaxation spectra were obtained by the reduced variable method. Gels prepared from agar-agar pretreated by concentrated sodium hydroxide show a larger relaxation

  19. An intermediate-temperature direct ammonia fuel cell with a molten alkaline hydroxide electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason C. Ganley

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a direct ammonia fuel cell utilizing a molten alkaline hydroxide electrolyte at temperatures between 200 and 450°C. The advantages of a molten hydroxide fuel cell include the use of a highly conductive and very low-cost electrolyte, inexpensive base metal electrocatalysts, a wide operating temperature range, fuel flexibility, and fast electrode kinetics. The

  20. The effect of calcium hydroxide on the antibiotic component of Odontopaste® and Ledermix® paste

    PubMed Central

    Athanassiadis, M; Jacobsen, N; Nassery, K; Parashos, P

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the chemical interaction of calcium hydroxide with the antibiotics demeclocycline calcium in Ledermix® Paste and clindamycin hydrochloride in Odontopaste®. Methodology Validated methods were developed to analyse the interaction of calcium hydroxide in two forms, Pulpdent® and calcium hydroxide powder, with the two antibiotics. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyse the mixed samples of the pastes and calcium hydroxide. The concentration of demeclocycline calcium over 0-, 1-, 18-, 24-, 72-h and 7-day time-points was determined. The concentration of clindamycin hydrochloride over 1-, 6-, 24-, 72-h and 7-day time-points was determined. All tests with HPLC involved testing of the standard in duplicate alongside the samples. Linearity, precision and specificity of the testing procedures and apparatus were validated. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results The antibiotics in both Odontopaste® and Ledermix® Paste were affected by the addition of calcium hydroxide. When mixed with calcium hydroxide powder, Odontopaste® had a 2% loss of clindamycin hydrochloride over 7 days, but when mixed with Pulpdent®, there was a 36% loss over 7 days. Ledermix® Paste showed an 80% loss of demeclocycline calcium over 7 days when mixed with calcium hydroxide powder and a 19% loss when mixed with Pulpdent® over the 7-day period. Conclusion The addition of calcium hydroxide to Odontopaste® or Ledermix® Paste results in reductions of the respective antibiotic over a 7-day time period. PMID:23186004

  1. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER GENERATION FROM CARBON IN FUEL CELLS WITH MOLTEN HYDROXIDE ELECTROLYTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Strahinja Zecevic; Edward M. Patton; Parviz Parhami

    2005-01-01

    Historically, despite its compelling cost and performance advantages, the use of a molten metal hydroxide electrolyte has been ignored by direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) researchers, primarily due to the potential for formation of carbonate salt in the cell. This article describes the electrochemistry of a patented medium-temperature DCFC based on a molten hydroxide electrolyte, which overcomes the historical carbonate

  2. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  3. Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    E-print Network

    ) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) of cultured and sediment-derived Lingulodinium polyedrum­GC­MS), with and without tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) of purified culture derived cyst walls, which indi- cated

  4. Effects of aluminosilicate minerals in clay soil fractions on pore water hydroxide ion concentrations in soil/cement matrices 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Evan Russell

    1998-01-01

    between clay minerals and calcium hydroxide. Pozzolanic reactions between aluminosilicate minerals in soils and portiandite or calcium silicate hydrate, generated by cement hydration, may significantly reduce the hydroxide ion concentration in soi...

  5. Decomposition of Niobium Ore by Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Chang; Zheng, Shi-Li; Sun, Qing

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition kinetics of niobium ore in the NaOH system was studied experimentally. The results show that the reaction products are sodium metaniobate and sodium niobate formed by the reaction of pyrochlore with sodium hydroxide under roasting. The effects of temperature, particle size, and mass ratio of alkali-to-ore were studied. The conversion rate of niobium exceeded 99 pct after 20 minutes at 923 K (650 °C) with a mass ratio of alkali-to-ore 1.2:1 and with initial particle size 75 to 106 ?m. The kinetic study indicates that the shrinking core model is applicable and the process is controlled by a chemical reaction. The activation energy was calculated to be 78.82 kJ mol-1.

  6. Hydroxide decomposition of dimethylsulfoniopropionate to form dimethylsulfide. [in sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Blough, Neil V.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of DMS production resulting from reaction of OH(-) with DMSP were investigated as a function of hydroxide concentration and temperature. The reaction was first-order with respect to DMSP and OH(-). The second order rate constant at 20+/-1 C is 0.0044/M/sec. The activation energy for this reaction is 14.4 kcal/mode. The investigation indicates that the rate of reaction of DMSP with OH(-) is very slow at the pH of seawater, suggesting that DMSP, which may be a major precursor of DMS in seawater, decomposes in the ocean by other mechanisms. A bacterium which produces DMS from DMSP quantitatively at rates many orders of magnitude higher than indicated by OH(-1) decomposition has been cultured, suggesting that enzymatic processes accelerate the production of DMS from DMSP in seawater.

  7. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, G.S.; Eschen, V.G.

    1993-08-01

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; favorable public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). This paper presents the results from a series of TCLP tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP`s commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various mixed waste streams.

  8. An Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate-based Skin Barrier Protection Cream Used for the Management of Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhambri, Sanjay; Michaels, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Eczematous dermatoses can often be very difficult to treat. An aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream has recently become available for clinical use. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream provides an alternative option in treating these dermatoses while providing barrier protection against external allergens and irritants. This article reviews various studies evaluating aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream. PMID:21212843

  9. Is a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-based assay a valid tool for detecting risky malaria blood donations in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is a leading cause of mortality in southern Benin. The main causative agent, Plasmodium falciparum, poses a threat on critical transfusions in pregnant women and children. This study’s objective was to compare the performance of different malaria screening methods in blood donors in southern Benin, a malaria-endemic country. Methods Blood from 2,515 voluntary blood donors in Benin was collected over a period of 10 months in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes, which were then classified according to extraction time: long rainy season, short dry season, short rainy season, and long dry season. Microscopic examination was used to count parasites. Parasite density (PD) was expressed as the number of parasites per ?L of blood. Pan Plasmodium pLDH detection was assessed by an ELISA-malaria antigen test. Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies. Results Among the 2,515 blood donors (2,025 males and 488 females) screened, the rate of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage was 295/2,515 (11.72%, 95% CI: 10.5-13.1%). Males had a higher infection rate (12.4%) than did females (8.8%). Parasite density was very low: between seven and100 parasites per ?L of blood was reported in 80% of donors with parasitaemia. Three Plasmodium species were diagnosed: P. falciparum in 280/295 patients (95.0%), Plasmodium malariae in 14/295 (5.0%), and Plasmodium ovale in 1/295 (0.34%). Malaria prevalence in donors was higher during the rainy seasons (13.7%) compared with the dry seasons (9.9%). The use of a highly sensitive assay enabled pan Plasmodium pLDH detection in 966/2,515 (38.4%, 95% CI: 36.5%-40.3%). Malaria antibody prevalence was 1,859/2,515 (73.9%, 95% CI: 72.16-75.6%). Donors’ antigenaemia and antibody levels varied significantly (P <0.05) over the course of the four seasons. The highest antigenaemia rate 323/630 (51.3%), was observed during the short rainy season, while the highest antibody prevalence, 751/886 (84.7%), was recorded during the long dry season. Conclusion Blood donations infected with Plasmodium can transmit malaria to donation recipients. Malaria diagnostic methods are currently available, but the feasibility criteria for mass screening in endemic areas become preponderant. Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite presence. Routine screening of all donated blood would prevent infected blood donations and reduce P. falciparum transmission in critical patients, such as children and pregnant women. This tool would also decrease medical prophylaxis in donation recipients and contribute to lower Plasmodium resistance. PMID:23927596

  10. Defect crystal structure of new TiO(OH)2 hydroxide and related lithium salt Li2TiO3.

    PubMed

    Tarakina, Nadezda V; Neder, Reinhard B; Denisova, Tatyana A; Maksimova, Lidiya G; Baklanova, Yana V; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P; Zubkov, Vladimir G

    2010-09-21

    Crystal structures of TiO(OH)(2) and Li(2)TiO(3) have been studied in detail and refined using X-ray powder diffraction data. Both compounds possess a high concentration of defects in the structure. The crystal structure of the Li(2)TiO(3) salt obtained at 700 degrees C reveals stacking faults of LiTi(2) metal layers, which leads to the appearance of short-range order in three possible space groups: C2/c, C2/m, P3(1)12. The possibility to stabilise this imperfect state increases the mobility of the Li(+) ions in the structure and allows the complete exchange of lithium by hydrogen in acid water solutions with formation of TiO(OH)(2). The crystal structure of TiO(OH)(2) belongs to the layered double hydroxide structure type with the 3R(1) sequence of oxygen layers and can be described as a stacking of charge-neutral metal oxyhydroxide slabs [(OH)(2)OTi(2)O(OH)(2)]. TiO(OH)(2) is the first layered double hydroxide structure formed by a cation with oxidation state +4 only. PMID:20697660

  11. Interaction between liquid water and hydroxide revealed by core-hole de-excitation.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Emad F; Ottosson, Niklas; Faubel, Manfred; Hertel, Ingolf V; Winter, Bernd

    2008-09-01

    The hydroxide ion plays an important role in many chemical and biochemical processes in aqueous solution. But our molecular-level understanding of its unusual and fast transport in water, and of the solvation patterns that allow fast transport, is far from complete. One proposal seeks to explain the properties and behaviour of the hydroxide ion by essentially regarding it as a water molecule that is missing a proton, and by inferring transport mechanisms and hydration structures from those of the excess proton. A competing proposal invokes instead unique and interchanging hydroxide hydration complexes, particularly the hypercoordinated OH(-)(H(2)O)(4) species and tri-coordinated OH(-)(H(2)O)(3) that can form a transient hydrogen bond between the H atom of the OH(-) and a neighbouring water molecule. Here we report measurements of core-level photoelectron emission and intermolecular Coulombic decay for an aqueous hydroxide solution, which show that the hydrated hydroxide ion is capable of transiently donating a hydrogen bond to surrounding water molecules. In agreement with recent experimental studies of hydroxide solutions, our finding thus supports the notion that the hydration structure of the hydroxide ion cannot be inferred from that of the hydrated excess proton. PMID:18769437

  12. Electrochromic nickel hydroxide films and the effects of foreign metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Corrigan, D.A.; Carpenter, M.K. [General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (United States). Physical Chemistry Dept.

    1990-12-31

    Studies of the electrochromic properties of nickel hydroxide and related nickel oxide materials have revealed promising characteristics for smart window applications including a high coloration efficiency throughout the visible region. In addition, good durability in electrochromic switching (over 5,000 coloration/bleaching cycles with no significant degradation in response) has been reported for sputtered nickel oxide films. However, there have also been some unfavorable reports about the durability of electrochromic nickel hydroxide films. For example, a significant deterioration in the electrochromic response of cathodically deposited nickel hydroxide films has been observed in less than 500 cycles. Estimates of the number of coloration/bleaching cycles needed for automotive smart window applications are in the range of 10{sup 5} cycles--enough to allow switching once per mile during a 100,000 mile car lifetime. It is reasonable to expect that the electrochromic switching performance of nickel hydroxide films may be improved by the introduction of foreign metal ions since the performance of nickel battery electrodes, also comprised of nickel hydroxide, can be improved by certain foreign metal ions. For example, it is well-known that lithium, added to the electrolyte, and cobalt, coprecipitated into nickel hydroxide, can have beneficial effects on the long-term charge storage properties of nickel battery electrodes. In the present chapter, the authors discuss cathodically deposited electrochromic nickel hydroxide films in terms of their electrochromic response and aging characteristics together with the effects of foreign metal ions on these properties.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline yttrium oxide prepared with tetraalkylammonium hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Fokema, M.D.; Chiu, E.; Ying, J.Y.

    2000-04-04

    Controlled chemical precipitation of yttrium hydroxynitrate has been used to synthesize nanocrystalline yttrium oxide powders with high thermal stability. The type of base employed as the precipitating agent has a significant effect on the properties of the yttrium oxide product. Precipitation with tetraalkylammonium hydroxides was shown to produce a much finer-grained product than a conventional ammonium hydroxide synthesis route. This is attributed to the higher pH that can be achieved with tetraalkylammonium hydroxides, as well as the ability of tetraalkylammonium cations to inhibit precipitate particle growth by lowering the rate of diffusion of soluble precursors to the particle surface.

  14. Reactive transport modeling at uranium in situ recovery sites: uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Tutu, Hlanganani

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical changes that can occur down gradient from uranium in situ recovery (ISR) sites are important for various stakeholders to understand when evaluating potential effects on surrounding groundwater quality. If down gradient solid-phase material consists of sandstone with iron hydroxide coatings (no pyrite or organic carbon), sorption of uranium on iron hydroxides can control uranium mobility. Using one-dimensional reactive transport models with PHREEQC, two different geochemical databases, and various geochemical parameters, the uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides are evaluated, because these oxidized zones create a greater risk for future uranium transport than fully reduced zones where uranium generally precipitates.

  15. Double Chooz

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Takeo [Niigata University, Department of Physics, Niigata 950 2181 (Japan)

    2008-02-21

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor experiment is the measurement of the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing angle using two identical detectors at two different distance. The R and D is in the last stage and the detector construction is being started. The far detector is planned to start in 2009 and the near detector in 2010. After 3 years of operation, the sensitivity on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be 0.03. The paper presents the overview, the status and prospects of the experiment.

  16. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 274 (2004) 613624 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcis

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    2004-01-01

    dodecyl sulfate (DDS) and magnesium­aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al LDH with a Mg/Al molar ratio sulfate­hydrotalcite nanocomposites for trapping chlorinated organic pollutants in water Hongting Zhao organic­inorganic nanocomposite materials was synthesized by three different procedures using sodium

  17. Layered and intercalated hydrotalcite-like materials as thermal stabilizers in PVC resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yanjun; Wang, Jianrong; Evans, David G.; Li, Dianqing

    2006-05-01

    In the light of the accepted mechanism of thermal stabilization of PVC by layered double hydroxides (LDHs), the layer cations and interlayer counterions in LDHs were tailored to give MgZnAl-CO3-LDH and MgZnAl-maleate-LDH. These materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and TG DTA. The thermal stability of PVC composites containing different LDH additives was tested in sheets having a thickness of about 1 mm. The results showed that compared with MgAl-CO3-LDH, MgZnAl-CO3-LDH enhances the thermal stability of PVC in terms of both long-term stability and early coloring. After intercalation of maleate in the LDH by reaction of maleic acid with the MgZnAl-CO3-LDH precursor, the interlayer distance increases from 0.75 to 1.11 nm. Since Cl- promotes the autocatalytic dehydrochlorination of PVC, which is responsible for its degradation, an increased interlayer distance should facilitate entry of Cl- into the interlayer galleries and inhibit the decomposition of PVC. In addition, maleic acid has a conjugated C=C double bond which can react with double bond formed in the dehydrochlorination of PVC and thus further inhibit the autocatalytic degradation reaction. The results show that the early coloring of PVC is markedly improved and the long-term stability slightly reduced by addition of the MgZnAl-maleate-LDH.

  18. Proton Transfer in Concentrated Aqueous Hydroxide Visualized using Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Sean Thomas

    While it is generally recognized that the hydroxide ion can rapidly diffuse through aqueous solution due to its ability to accept a proton from a neighboring water molecule, a description of the OH? solvation structure and ...

  19. Nested potassium hydroxide etching and protective coatings for silicon-based microreactors

    E-print Network

    de Mas, Nuria

    We have developed a multilayer, multichannel silicon-based microreactor that uses elemental fluorine as a reagent and generates hydrogen fluoride as a byproduct. Nested potassium hydroxide etching (using silicon nitride ...

  20. Improved Electrochromic Response Time of Nickel Hydroxide Thin Film by Ultra-Thin Nickel Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Do Jin; Kim, Woo-Seong; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2001-07-01

    Improvements in the optical switching properties of electrochromic nickel hydroxide/nickel/glass thin film are reported. Nickel metal film was deposited on glass by e-beam evaporation prior to following electrochemical redox cycling to form nickel hydroxide for electrochromic activation. In the absence of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer as an electrical conductor, this electrode showed a more rapid coloration rate than a nickel hydroxide film on ITO substrate in terms of change in electric voltage and optical transmittance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the existence of ultra-thin nickel metal layer between the electrochemically grown nickel hydroxide and the glass substrate. We conclude that the nickel metal nano-layer can be attributed to the conduction layer and the enhanced response time.

  1. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu; Abdel Moneim, Soha S. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Eshed, Michal [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shah, Vijay H. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu{sup III}(OH){sub 3}] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  2. Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

  3. Dielectric, magnetic, and phonon properties of nickel hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermet, P.; Gourrier, L.; Bantignies, J.-L.; Ravot, D.; Michel, T.; Deabate, S.; Boulet, P.; Henn, F.

    2011-12-01

    We carried out a complete study (magnetic, electronic, dielectric, dynamic, and elastic properties) of the nickel hydroxide [Ni(OH)2] from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. No theoretical investigations of these physical properties have been previously reported in literature. Our work supports that Ni(OH)2 is an A-type antiferromagnetic material. In addition, it is negative uniaxial and semiconducting with a direct band gap at the ? point around 3 eV. By contrast to its electronic dielectric tensor, its static tensor is strongly anisotropic in the plane orthogonal to its optical axis. This anisotropy is mainly governed by a highly polar phonon centered around 510 cm-1 and assigned as a rotational Eu mode. Both Raman and infrared spectra have been computed to clarify the longstanding debate on the assignment of the Ni(OH)2 phonon modes reported in literature. All these theoretical results are fruitfully compared to the experimental ones obtained on large Ni(OH)2 “pseudosingle” crystals when available.

  4. Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm to antibiotics and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wen L; Hamimah, Hassan; Cheng, Soo C; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Mariam

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of six groups of antibiotics and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in a membrane filter model. Two-day-old E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) biofilm was exposed to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythr omycin, oxytetracycline, vancomycin, vancomycin followed by gentamicin, Ca(OH)(2), and phosphate-buffered saline (control). After 1 h of exposure, the antimicrobial activity was neutralized by washing each disc five times in PBS, and then the colony-forming units of the remaining viable bacteria on each disc were counted. The results revealed that only erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 showed 100% biofilm kill. An ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test (P < 0.05) detected significant differences among the test agents, except in the ampicillin group versus the co-trimoxazole group. It is concluded that erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 are 100% effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilm, whereas ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, vancomycin, and vancomycin followed by gentamicin are ineffective. PMID:17634730

  5. Redox processes at iron hydroxide layers formed on platinum substrates in alkaline solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Galindo; M. E. Martins; J. R. Vilche; A. J. Arvia

    1990-01-01

    Redox processes taking place at precipitated hydrous iron hydroxide layers chemically formed on platinum substrates in sodium hydroxide solutions are investigated at 25°C. The electrochemical behaviour of these layers depends considerably on the electroreduction level reached in chargedischarge cycles. The accumulation of Fe3O4 during oxidation-reduction cycles can produce an increasing irreversibility of the Fe(II)\\/Fe(III) redox couple. Data are compared to

  6. The effect of aluminum hydroxide upon food utilization in human subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond D. Grondahl; Edward S. West

    1945-01-01

    Summary  Administration of aluminum hydroxide to a normal subject did not interfere with the utilization of carbohydrate, fats, or\\u000a proteins of the diet. Apparently there was no interference with carbohydrate and fat utilization in a gastric ulcer subject,\\u000a but results on protein utilization were inconclusive.\\u000a \\u000a Aluminum hydroxide administration caused slight increases in urinary pH and very definite decreases in total urinary

  7. Flotation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coprecipitated with aluminum hydroxide containing sodium dodecyl sulfate and magnesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Saitoh; Seiichi Matsushima; Masataka Hiraide

    2007-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for concentrating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water was developed. Al(III) and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were added into the aqueous sample solution. Subsequently, the solution pH was adjusted to 7 by adding 2 and 0.1mol\\/L sodium hydroxide solutions to form aluminum hydroxide precipitaties. Hydrophobic PAHs were well incorporated into the hydrophobic

  8. Modification Effects of Hematite with Aluminum Hydroxide on the Removal of Fluoride Ions from Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Teutli-Sequeira; Marcos Solache-Ríos; P. Balderas-Hernández

    The modification effects of hematite with aluminum hydroxide were investigated on the removal of fluoride ions from water\\u000a using batch experiments. The effects of pH, contact time, fluoride concentration, and the dose of sorbent on the sorption\\u000a of fluoride ions by a modified hematite were studied. Characterization of hematite before and after the modification with\\u000a aluminum hydroxide was studied by

  9. Sr(OH)Br, a Metal Hydroxide Halide with Unusual Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Peter; F. Altorfer; W. Bührer; H. D. Lutz

    2000-01-01

    The disorder of the hydroxide ions of the cubic polymorph of strontium hydroxide bromide Sr(OH)Br(cP16) between the two OH? ion positions I and II has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance spectroscopy (electric conductivity), and temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy (90–630 K). We found that the OH? position I, which is involved in weak trifurcated O–H···Br hydrogen bonds (?OH=3543 cm?1

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of ?-nickel hydroxide nanocrystalline thin film and growth of oriented carbon nanofibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enlei Zhang; Yuanhong Tang; Yong Zhang; Chi Guo; Lei Yang

    2009-01-01

    Novel well-crystallized ?-nickel hydroxide nanocrystalline thin films were successfully synthesized at low temperature on the quartz substrates by hydrothermal method, and the oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by acetylene cracking at 750°C on thin film as the catalyst precursor. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurement shows that thin films were constructed mainly with hexagonal ?-nickel hydroxide nanosheets. The

  11. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process in Rm 230C\\/234-5Z. The magnesium hydroxide process control software Rev 0 is being updated to include control programming for a second hot plate. The process control

  12. Bacterial growth inhibition produced by root canal sealer cements with a calcium hydroxide base.

    PubMed

    Canalda, C; Pumarola, J

    1989-07-01

    Inhibition of growth of six bacterial strains produced by two root canal sealers with a calcium hydroxide base, CRCS and Sealapex sealers, is studied. The results are compared with those obtained with two zinc oxide eugenol sealers and one epoxy resin. The inhibition produced with the calcium hydroxide sealers is similar to that obtained with the other sealers. The component of paraformaldehyde in a sealer increases the inhibition significantly. PMID:2755695

  13. Modelling the leaching of calcium hydroxide from cement paste: effects on pore space percolation and diffusivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Bentz; E. J. Garboczi

    1992-01-01

    As concrete is exposed to the elements, its underlying microstructure can be attacked by a variety of aggressive agents. For\\u000a example, rainwater and groundwater can degrade the concrete by dissolving soluble constituents such as calcium hydroxide.\\u000a Using computer simulation, this paper examines the effects of calcium hydroxide dissolution on two material properties: the\\u000a percolation properties or connectivity of the capillary

  14. Simple route for the synthesis of supercapacitive Co-Ni mixed hydroxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dubal, D.P. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India) [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jagadale, A.D.; Patil, S.V. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)] [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel method for deposition of Co-Ni mixed hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle network of Co-Ni hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific capacitance of 672 F g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High discharge/charge rates. -- Abstract: Facile synthesis of Co-Ni mixed hydroxides films with interconnected nanoparticles networks through two step route is successfully established. These films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared technique (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wettability test. Co-Ni film formation is confirmed from XRD and FTIR study. SEM shows that the surface of Co-Ni films is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilic nature of films which is feasible for the supercapacitor. The electrochemical performance of the film is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and constant-current charge/discharge cycling techniques. Specific capacitance of the Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode achieved 672 F g{sup -1}. Impedance analysis shows that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode provides less resistance for the intercalation and de-intercalation of ions. The Co-Ni mixed electrode exhibited good charge/discharge rate at different current densities. The results demonstrated that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide composite is very promising for the next generation high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  15. Formation reaction mechanisms of hydroxide anions from Mg(OH)2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaiss, Viviane S.; Borges, Itamar; Wypych, Fernando; Leitão, Alexandre A.

    2013-06-01

    DFT calculations with periodic boundary conditions were used to study two formation reaction mechanisms of adsorbed free hydroxide anions on the surface of the brucite, Mg(OH)2. In the first mechanism, we investigated the migration of a hydroxide anion present in the structure of Mg(OH)2 to the layer surface. In the second, a mechanism composed of three elementary reactions was examined for the reaction of H2O molecules with the brucite layer surface. The result in both mechanisms is the formation of hydroxide anions and a hydroxide vacancy in the positively charged Mg(OH)2 layer. The global reaction is the same in both cases and the computed Gibbs free energy variation equals 37.5 kcal/mol at room temperature. The reaction barrier for the formation of hydroxide anion on Mg(OH)2 surface from H2O dissociation (27.6 kcal/mol) is lower than the reaction barrier for the formation of hydroxide anions from Mg(OH)2 dissociation (43.2 kcal/mol).

  16. Double Chooz

    SciTech Connect

    Horton-Smith, G. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66503 (United States)

    2005-12-02

    The Double Chooz collaboration proposes to measure the value of the neutrino mixing angle {theta}13. The experiment will measure the flux of electron antineutrinos at two detectors placed {approx_equal}150 m and {approx_equal}1 km from the reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power station. With 3 years of data and a relative detector normalization uncertainty of 0.6%, the error on the quantity sin2 2{theta}13 will be {+-}0.02; if {theta}13 is small, then an upper limit of 0.03 (90% CL) will be established on sin2 2{theta}13. This experiment, which could start as early as the spring of 2007, will rapidly and substantially improve on the current best limit established by CHOOZ, and will guide future experiments.

  17. Double Chooz

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Timothy [University of California Davis 1 Shields Ave Davis, Ca 95616 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Double Chooz experiment will probe the last unmeasured neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with an improved sensitivity compared to previous experiments. The initial phase of the experiment will use a single detector at a baseline of {approx}1 km to reach a sensitivity to sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) of 0.06 over 1.5 years of running. The second phase of the experiment will include a second identical detector at a baseline of {approx}400 m. Comparison of the neutrino rate and energy spectra between the two detectors will allow for an ultimate sensitivity to sin{sup 2}(2{theta}13) of 0.03 over a combined runtime of 5 years for both phases.

  18. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques

    PubMed Central

    PHILLIPS, Mark; McCLANAHAN, Scott; BOWLES, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the setting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone. PMID:25760272

  19. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in zeolite cages. Progress report, January 15, 1990--August 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.K.

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes work in the two areas of zeolites and layered double hydroxides. Results of studies on structural aspects of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}-zeolite Y are summarized. Photoinduced electron transfer between entrapped Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and methylviologen (MV) in neighboring supercages was examined. Benzylviologen was also used. Since molecules larger than 13 {angstrom} cannot be accomodated in zeolite cages, the layered double metal hydroxides (LDH) LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}{sup +}X{sup {minus}} is being investigated. Organized assemblies of hydrophobic domains are made by introducing into the interlayer long-chain carboxylic acids R(CH{sub 2}){sub n}COOH. Zinc tetraphenylporphyrin sulfonate (ZnTPPS) is introduced into myristate-LiAl-LDH; photolysis of ZnTPPS-AiAl-LDH with MV{sup 2+} in solution was examined.

  20. Sustainability Double Degree Double Degree Info

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    Sustainability Double Degree Double Degree Info: · 36 credits in B for graduation. Sustainability Core: Take each course below for a total of 17 -20 credits. Term/Grade Course _____ ____ *NR 350 (4) Sustainable

  1. Hydrogen bonding Part 31. IR and thermodynamic evidence for unusual hydrogen bonding in the higher alkali metal hydroxide monohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Kenneth M.; Avci, Günsel F.; Duffy, Dorothy L.; Janos, Marcia S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a significant and progressive change in the IR spectra associated with H 2O hydrogen bonding in alkali metal hydroxide monohydrates as cation size increases from Li + to Cs +. Lithium and sodium hydroxide monohydrates show IR bands typical of normal electrostatic hydrogen bonds; in contrast, the IR spectra of cesium and rubidium hydroxide monohydrates resemble that of potassium dihydrogen trifluoride, and suggest that covalent three-center hydrogen bonds might be present. The spectrum of potassium hydroxide monohydrate shows both types of absorptions. The IR spectra are not in accord with diffraction studies, which support the presence of electrostatic hydrogen bonds in all of these hydrates. Equilibrium dissociation vapor pressure measurements show that the ? hydrogen bonds in sodium hydroxide monohydrate have a minimum strength of ˜ 15 kcal mol -1, twice as great as those in lithium hydroxide monohydrate. The physical properties of the higher alkali metal monohydrates demonstrate that water is extraordinarily tightly bound in these compounds.

  2. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Magnesium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent for radioactive hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.J.; Fife, K.W.

    1995-10-01

    The current technology at Los Alamos for removing actinides from acidic chloride waste streams is precipitation with approximately 10 M potassium hydroxide. Although successful, there are many inherent drawbacks to this precipitation technique which will be detailed in this paper. Magnesium hydroxide (K{sub sp} = 1.3 x 10{sup -11}) has limited solubility in water and as a result of the common ion effect, cannot generate a filtrate with a pH greater than 9. At a pH of 9, calcium (K{sub sp} = 5.5 x 10{sup -6}) will not coprecipitate as the hydroxide. This is an important factor since many acidic chloride feeds to hydroxide precipitation contain significant amounts of calcium. In addition, neutralization with Mg(OH){sub 2} produces a more filterable precipitate because neutralization occurs as the Mg(OH){sub 2} is dissolved by the acid rather than as a result of the much faster liquid/liquid reaction of KOH with the waste acid. This slower solid/liquid reaction allows time for crystal growth to occur and produces more easily filterable precipitates. On the other hand, neutralization of spent acid with strong KOH that yields numerous hydroxide ions in solution almost instantaneously forming a much larger volume of small crystallites that result in gelatinous, slow-filtering precipitates. Magnesium hydroxide also offers a safety advantage. Although mildly irritating, it is a weak base and safe and easy to handle. From a waste minimization perspective, Mg(OH){sub 2} offers many advantages. First, the magnesium hydroxide is added as a solid. This step eliminates the diluent water used in KOH neutralizations. Secondly, because the particle size of the precipitate is larger, more actinides are caught on the filter paper resulting in a smaller amount of actinide being transferred to the TA-50 Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Third, the amount of solids that must be reprocessed is significantly smaller resulting in less waste generation from the downstream processes.

  4. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  5. Crystallization behaviour of hydroxide cobalt carbonates by aging: Environmental implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Angeles; Jimenez, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Cobalt is a naturally occurring element widely distributed in water, sediments and air that is essential for living species, since it is a component of B12 vitamin and it is also a strategic and critical element used in a number of commercial, industrial and military applications. However, relatively high accumulations of cobalt in environment can be toxic for human and animal health. Cobalt usually occurs as Co2+ and Co3+ in aqueous solutions, where Co2+ is the most soluble and hence its mobility in water is higher. The study of the precipitation of cobalt carbonates is of great interest due to the abundance of carbonate minerals in contact with surface water and groundwater which can be polluted with Co2+. Previous works have demonstrated that the formation of Co-bearing calcium carbonates and Co-rich low crystallinity phases takes place at ambient conditions. With the aim of investigating the crystallization behavior of Co- bearing carbonates at ambient temperature, macroscopic batch-type experiments have been carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of CoCl2 (0.05M) and Na2CO3 (0.05M) during increasing reaction times (5 minutes and 1, 5, 24, 48, 96, 168, 720 and 1440 hours). The main goals of this work were (i) to analyse the physicochemical evolution of the system and (ii) to study the evolution of the crystallinity of the solid phases during aging. After a given reaction period, pH, alkalinity and dissolved Co2+ in the aqueous solutions were analysed. The evolution of the morphology and chemical composition of the solids with aging time was examined by SEM and TEM. The precipitates were also analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the crystallinity degree was followed by the intensity and the full width at high medium (FWHM) of the main peaks. The results show that a low crystallinity phase was obtained at the very beginning of aging. This phase evolves progressively to form hydroxide carbonate cobalt (Co2CO3(OH)2) which crystallize with the spatial group P21/a (monoclinic system) after about 4 days. At the same time, the most important fall of cobalt content takes place, but pH and alkalinity values do not show significant changes. The evolution of the aqueous solutions is closely related to the increases of crystallinity degree. TEM study confirms the evolution of the shape of crystals, which exhibit platelet morphology at the end of aging time.

  6. The importance of second shell effects in the simulation of hydrated Sr(2+) hydroxide complexes.

    PubMed

    Makkos, Eszter; Kerridge, Andrew; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2015-06-17

    Density functional theory at the meta-GGA level is employed to study the microsolvation of Sr(2+) hydroxides, in order to establish likely candidate species for the interaction of nuclear fission-generated strontium with corroded Magnox fuel cladding in high pH spent nuclear fuel storage ponds. A combination of the COSMO continuum solvation model and one or two shells of explicit water molecules is employed. Inclusion of only a single explicit solvation shell is unsatisfactory; open regions are present in the strontium coordination shell which would not exist in real aqueous complexes, and many optimised structures possess unavoidable energetic instabilities. Incorporation of a second shell of explicit waters, however, yields energetically minimal structures without open regions in the first strontium coordination shell. The most stable systems with one, two or three hydroxide ions are all 6-coordinated with a distorted trigonal antiprismatic geometry, whereas systems with four OH(-) ions have a most stable coordination number of five. Transformation, via a proton transfer mechanism, from one coordination mode to another (e.g. from a system with two hydroxides bound directly to the strontium to one in which a hydroxide ion migrates into the second coordination shell) is found to be energetically facile. It is concluded that the most likely strontium-hydroxide complexes to be found in high pH aqueous solutions are mono- and dihydroxides, and that these coexist. PMID:26041401

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Li, E-mail: tianli_cl@163.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun, QiLiang; Zhao, RuiNi; He, HuiLin; Xue, JianRong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Lin, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF{sub 4} to hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} and to hexagonal Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98}. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation.

  8. Iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex in iron deficiency anemia / review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Brignoli, Reto

    2007-01-01

    Iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC) is an iron preparation with non-ionic iron and polymaltose in a stable complex. The usefulness of IPC in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has recently been a topic of much debate. By reviewing the published literature an overview is provided of the existing comparative evidence vs. ferrous sulfate as reference. For this purpose the standard methods and criteria as described by the Cochrane group are employed. The aim was to establish whether there are differences concerning efficacy (primary end-point: hemoglobin after approx. 2 months of treatment) and concerning safety (number of patients with adverse drug reactions [ADRs]). From an initial group of 14 comparative trials identified, 6 comparative studies (1 double blind) conducted in adults could be retained for analysis. Four pediatric studies initially selected had to be rejected because of heterogeneity of data at baseline. In adults (319 IPC, 238 ferrous sulfate) at the end of the study period (8-13 weeks) the mean hemoglobin values were 12.13 +/- 1.19 g/dl with IPC vs. 11.94 +/- 1.84 g/dl with ferrous sulfate (weighted mean difference WMD = 0.01 [95% CI -0.23, 0.21] g/dl). Not all studies reported on ferremia (higher with IPC), transferrin saturation (no difference) or ferritin (lower with IPC). Adverse drug reactions were reported less frequently with IPC (14.9%) than with ferrous sulfate (34.1%; p < 0.001), particularly upper digestive troubles, stained teeth and diarrhea. The meta-analysis of studies conducted in adult patients with iron deficiency anemia, comparing IPC with ferrous sulfate in equivalent doses, showed that the two compounds attained similar hemoglobin levels, thus suggesting similar efficacy. The tolerance of IPC in adults was clearly better than that of ferrous sulfate; the differences were also significant for the individual adverse reactions. This probably reflects a better risk/benefit ratio of IPC in adults. Properly conducted randomized controlled trials, particularly in pediatrics, are needed. PMID:17691593

  9. Design and synthesis of hydroxide ion-conductive metal-organic frameworks based on salt inclusion.

    PubMed

    Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Kasai, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamauchi, Miho

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate a metal-organic framework (MOF) design for the inclusion of hydroxide ions. Salt inclusion method was applied to an alkaline-stable ZIF-8 (ZIF = zeolitic imidazolate framework) to introduce alkylammonium hydroxides as ionic carriers. We found that tetrabutylammonium salts are immobilized inside the pores by a hydrophobic interaction between the alkyl groups of the salt and the framework, which significantly increases the hydrophilicity of ZIF-8. Furthermore, ZIF-8 including the salt exhibited a capacity for OH(-) ion exchange, implying that freely exchangeable OH(-) ions are present in the MOF. ZIF-8 containing OH(-) ions showed an ionic conductivity of 2.3 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that of the blank ZIF-8. This is the first example of an MOF-based hydroxide ion conductor. PMID:24422498

  10. A facile hydrothermal approach to the synthesis of nanoscale rare earth hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengyin; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Nanosized rare earth (RE) hydroxides including La(OH)3, Nd(OH)3, Pr(OH)3, Sm(OH)3, Gd(OH)3, and Er(OH)3 with rod-like morphology are fabricated via a convenient hydrothermal approach. This strategy calls for the first preparation of metal complexes between RE precursors and dodecylamine (DDA) in water/ethanol mixture at room temperature and subsequent thermal decomposition at elevated temperature. The influence of reaction time and water/ethanol volume ratios on the morphology and size of as-prepared RE hydroxides are investigated. CeO2 nanoparticles with spherical shape could be directly obtained by hydrothermal treatment of complexes formed between Ce precursors and DDA. In addition, by further calcinating the RE hydroxides at high temperature in air, RE oxide nanorods could be readily produced.

  11. Ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on single-layered nickel hydroxide with high hydrogen evolution activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huajie; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Muqsit, Abdul; Tang, Hongjie; Chang, Lin; Zhao, Huijun; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-01

    Design and synthesis of effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline environments is critical to reduce energy losses in alkaline water electrolysis. Here we report a hybrid nanomaterial comprising of one-dimensional ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on two-dimensional single-layered nickel hydroxide. Judicious surface chemistry to generate the fully exfoliated nickel hydroxide single layers is explored to be the key for controllable growth of ultrathin platinum nanowires with diameters of about 1.8?nm. Impressively, this hybrid nanomaterial exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline solution, which outperforms currently reported catalysts, and the obviously improved catalytic stability. We believe that this work may lead towards the development of single-layered metal hydroxide-based hybrid materials for applications in catalysis and energy conversion.

  12. A role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water: acceleration of the reaction under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hiroyasu; Tsujino, Hidekazu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Saito, Hiroshi; Kawase, Masaya

    2014-04-01

    Organic environmental pollutants are now being detected with remarkably high frequency in the aquatic environment. Photodegradation by ultraviolet light is sometimes used as a method for removing organic chemicals from water; however, this method is relatively inefficient because of the low degradation rates involved, and more efficient methods are under development. Here we show that the removal of various organic pollutants can be assisted by calcined dolomite in aqueous solution under irradiation with ultraviolet light. It was possible to achieve substantial removal of bisphenol A, chlorophenols, alkylphenols, 1-naphthol and 17?-estradiol. The major component of dolomite responsible for the removal was calcium hydroxide. Our results demonstrate that the use of calcium hydroxide with ultraviolet light irradiation can be a very effective method of rapidly removing organic environmental pollutants from water. This is a new role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water treatment. PMID:24359914

  13. Development of a direct ammonia-fueled molten hydroxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental study on direct ammonia fuel cells with a molten hydroxide electrolyte was conducted. The electrochemical oxidation of ammonia on Pt electrode in a molten NaOH-KOH electrolyte was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry. Ammonia was proved to be oxidized to N2 on the Pt electrode during anodic polarization in the molten hydroxide electrolyte. Furthermore, the direct ammonia fuel cell, i.e., Pt gas diffusion electrode|molten NaOH-KOH electrolyte|Pt gas diffusion electrode, was assembled and operated at 200-220 °C. The cell achieved the maximum power density of ca. 16 mW cm-2 at 220 °C with the supply of NH3 and humidified O2 to the anode and cathode, respectively. The mechanism of ammonia oxidation over Pt electrodes in a molten hydroxide electrolyte was discussed based on the results obtained.

  14. Dental stem cell therapy with calcium hydroxide in dental pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young-Min; Jeon, Soung Hoo; Park, Joo-Young; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2010-06-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been extensively and steadily used for direct pulp capping in modern clinical dentistry. As it was known to have potential to induce hard tissue repair, this chemical has been applied to the exposed dental pulp and the hard tissue is expected to be regenerated above the pulp. During the reparative process of exposed pulp, primary odontoblasts that were lost as a result of extensive damage are replaced with newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells. This process is known to follow the sequential steps of proliferation, migration, and differentiation of progenitor cells. This research will examine the relationship between calcium hydroxide and the recruitment, proliferation, and mineralization of postnatal dental stem cells, obtained from an immature dental tissue of beagle dogs. Immunocytochemical staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the putative stem cell markers. Immunoblot analysis, wound healing assay, cell migration assay, and alizarin red staining were used to evaluate proliferation, migration, and mineralization capacity of the calcium hydroxide-treated stem cells. As an in vivo study, a combination of calcium hydroxide and autologous dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) was applied for the treatment of intentionally created tooth defects on the premolars and the molars in beagle dogs to observe dentin regeneration. Ex vivo expanded DPSCs and periodontal ligament stem cells expressed STRO-1 and CD146, the mesenchymal stem cell markers. It was evident that calcium hydroxide increased recruitment, migration, proliferation, and mineralization of the DPSCs and periodontal ligament stem cells. Such results are valuable for future availability of DPSCs, which are recently focused as the stem cell reservoir for regeneration of dentin upon tooth injury, as well as for elucidation of the role of calcium hydroxide in pulp capping therapy. PMID:20055661

  15. An improved method for analysis of hydroxide and carbonate in alkaline electrolytes containing zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method for titration of carbonate and hydroxide in alkaline battery electrolyte is presented involving a saturated KSCN solution as a complexing agent for zinc. Both hydroxide and carbonate can be determined in one titration, and the complexing reagent is readily prepared. Since the pH at the end point is shifted from 8.3 to 7.9-8.0, m-cresol purple or phenol red are used as indicators rather than phenolphthalein. Bromcresol green is recommended for determination of the second end point of a pH of 4.3 to 4.4.

  16. Development of drug delivery systems based on layered hydroxides for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Layered hydroxides (LHs) have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment of diseases. Layered hydroxides, as green nanoreservoirs with sustained drug release and cell targeting properties hold great promise of improving health and prolonging life. PMID:24802876

  17. Lithium-catalyzed hydroxide attack at the carbon atom of methyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Richard; Zhao, Frances

    2004-07-21

    The spontaneous hydrolysis of phosphate ester monoanions is relatively easy, but the reaction of water with simple phosphate ester dianion appears to be the slowest biomimetic reaction whose spontaneous rate has been measured in water, with an estimated half time of approximately 1012 years at room temperature in the absence of a catalyst. Here, we report an alternative mode of cleavage of methyl phosphate that involves hydroxide attack at the carbon atom of methyl phosphate and proceeds at a rate proportional to the square of the concentration of lithium hydroxide. PMID:15250705

  18. Development of Drug Delivery Systems Based on Layered Hydroxides for Nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Layered hydroxides (LHs) have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment of diseases. Layered hydroxides, as green nanoreservoirs with sustained drug release and cell targeting properties hold great promise of improving health and prolonging life. PMID:24802876

  19. Synthesis, characterization and stability of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Papassiopi, N; Vaxevanidou, K; Christou, C; Karagianni, E; Antipas, G S E

    2014-01-15

    Chromium is a common contaminant of soils and aquifers and constitutes a major environmental problem. In nature, chromium usually exists in the form of two oxidation states, trivalent, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous for biota and for the aquatic environment, and hexavalent, Cr(VI) which is toxic, carcinogenic and very soluble. Accordingly, the majority of wastewater and groundwater treatment technologies, include a stage where Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), in order to remove chromium from the aqueous phase and bind the element in the form of environmentally stable solid compounds. In the absence of iron the final product is typically of the form Cr(OH)3·xH2O whereas in the presence of iron the precipitate is a mixed Fe(1-x)Crx(OH)3 phase. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterisation and stability of mixed (Fex,Cr1-x)(OH)3 hydroxides as compared to the stability of Cr(OH)3. We established that the plain Cr(III) hydroxide, abiding to the approximate molecular formula Cr(OH)3·3H2O, was crystalline, highly soluble, i.e. unstable, with a tendency to transform into the stable amorphous hydroxide Cr(OH)3(am) phase. Mixed Fe0.75Cr0.25(OH)3 hydroxides were found to be of the ferrihydrite structure, Fe(OH)3, and we correlated their solubility to that of a solid solution formed by plain ferrihydrite and the amorphous Cr(III) hydroxide. Both our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides are more effective enhancers of groundwater quality, in comparison to the plain amorphous or crystalline Cr(III) hydroxides, the latter found to have a solubility typically higher than 50?g/l (maximum EU permitted Cr level in drinking water), while the amorphous Cr(OH)3(am) phase was within the drinking water threshold in the range 5.7hydroxides studied were of extended stability in the 4.8

  20. Anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanying; Wu, Guangming; Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Xing, Guangjian; Li, Donglin

    2009-09-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. However, the rapid degradation rate has limited their application in biomedical field. A great deal of studies have been done to improve the resistance of magnesium alloys. In this article, An anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating with a thickness of approximately 100?m was formed on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method. The morphology of the coatings were observed by an optical microscope and SEM. And the samples were soaked in hank's solution (37°C) to investigate the corrosion resistance. Magnesium alloy AZ31 with magnesium hydroxide coatings present superior corrosion resistance than untreated samples.

  1. Dissolution nature of the lithium hydroxide by water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerman, Anupriya; Lee, Han Myoung; Kim, Kwang S.

    2005-08-01

    The structures, stabilities, thermodynamic quantities, dissociation energies, infrared spectra, and electronic properties of LiOH hydrated by up to seven water molecules are investigated by using the density-functional theory and the Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2). Further accurate analysis based on the coupled-cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples excitations agrees with the MP2 results. The Li-OH stretch mode significantly shifts with the increase of water molecules, and it eventually disappears upon dissociation. It is revealed that seven water molecules are needed for the stable dissociation of LiOH (as a completely dissociated conformation), in contrast to the cases of RbOH and CsOH which require four and three water molecules, respectively.

  2. Dissolution nature of the lithium hydroxide by water molecules.

    PubMed

    Veerman, Anupriya; Lee, Han Myoung; Kim, Kwang S

    2005-08-22

    The structures, stabilities, thermodynamic quantities, dissociation energies, infrared spectra, and electronic properties of LiOH hydrated by up to seven water molecules are investigated by using the density-functional theory and the Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2). Further accurate analysis based on the coupled-cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples excitations agrees with the MP2 results. The Li-OH stretch mode significantly shifts with the increase of water molecules, and it eventually disappears upon dissociation. It is revealed that seven water molecules are needed for the stable dissociation of LiOH (as a completely dissociated conformation), in contrast to the cases of RbOH and CsOH which require four and three water molecules, respectively. PMID:16164305

  3. Gas chromatographic analysis of free fatty acids and glycerides of milk fat using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as catalyste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Martínez-Castro; L. Alonso; M. Juárez

    1986-01-01

    Summary  Tetramethylammonium hydroxide in methanol has been proposed as a catalyst for preparing methyl esters of both free fatty acids and glycerides of fats. Nevertheless, procedures normally recognized as suitable can be inadequate when the fat under study contains noticeable amounts of low relative molecular mass esters. The method using tetramethylammonium hydroxide has been examined and modified in order to analyze

  4. Ab initio simulation of ammonia monohydrate ,,NH3"H2O... and ammonium hydroxide ,,NH4OH...

    E-print Network

    Vocadlo, Lidunka

    Ab initio simulation of ammonia monohydrate ,,NH3"H2O... and ammonium hydroxide ,,NH4OH... A. D pseudopotential plane-wave simulations of the static properties of ammonia monohydrate phase I AMH I and ammonium hydroxide. Our calculated fourth-order logarithmic equation of state, at zero pressure and temperature, has

  5. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by ferric hydroxide microcapsule-loaded alginate beads in packed adsorption column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyabrata Sarkar; Priyabrata Pal; Dipankar Bhattacharyay; Suchanda Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have presented a unique low cost arsenic removal technique using ferric hydroxide microcapsule-loaded alginate beads (FHMCA) as an adsorbent in a continuous packed column. The microencapsulated particles of ferric hydroxide were produced in a spray dryer and subsequently coated with calcium alginate to form spherical beads of about 2 mm diameter. Batch experiments were conducted with

  6. A facile one-pot synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide nanoparticles on magnetic silica: Aqueous hydration of nitriles to amides

    EPA Science Inventory

    One-pot synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide nanoparticles on magnetic silica is described which involve the in situ generation of magnetic silica (Fe3O4@ SiO2) and ruthenium hydroxide immobilization; the hydration of nitriles occurs in high yield and excellent selectivity using this...

  7. Endodontic Therapy Associated with Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Dressing: Microbiologic Evaluation by the Checkerboard DNA-DNA Hybridization Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Alberto Soriano de Souza; Ricardo Palmier Teles; Renata Souto; Mario Augusto Escobar Chaves; Ana Paula Vieira Colombo

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the predominant microbiota of infected necrotic pulps and the effects of calcium hydroxide therapy on these microorganisms by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Conventional endodontic therapy associated with calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing was performed in 12 single-rooted teeth with pulp necrosis and periradicular bone lesion. Samples were collected from the canal at baseline and 14 days

  8. Structural and thermal interpretation of the synergy and interactions between the fire retardants magnesium hydroxide and zinc borate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonietta Genovese; Robert A. Shanks

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of cooperative action of commercial fire retardants is interpreted as resulting from specific chemical reaction and phase changes. This investigation focuses on the thermally initiated interactions between two forms of commercially available fire retardant compounds. The fire performance of a polyolefin with a metal hydroxide fire retardant, magnesium hydroxide, can significantly reduce the heat release rate through absorption

  9. Cross-linked poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA)\\/low density polyethylene (LDPE)\\/metal hydroxides composites for wire and cable applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed A. Bahattab; Jaroslav Mosná?ek; Ahmed A. Basfar; Tariq M. Shukri

    2010-01-01

    Formulations of chemically cross-linked poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends containing\\u000a metal hydroxides flame retardants such as aluminum hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) were prepared. Comparison\\u000a of both type of metal hydroxides in respect of their influence on flammability as well as mechanical, thermal, and electrical\\u000a properties of EVA\\/LDPE composites is presented. Most of the

  10. Preparation and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate/polycaprolactone nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liau, Cha Ping; Bin Ahmad, Mansor; Shameli, Kamyar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Then, Yoon Yee

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/stearate Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites were prepared via solution casting intercalation method. Coprecipitation method was used to prepare the anionic clay Mg-Al LDH from nitrate salt solution. Modification of nitrate anions by stearate anions between the LDH layers via ion exchange reaction. FTIR spectra showed the presence of carboxylic acid (COOH) group which indicates that stearate anions were successfully intercalated into the Mg-Al LDH. The formation of nanocomposites only involves physical interaction as there are no new functional groups or new bonding formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the mixtures of nanocomposites are intercalated and exfoliated types. XRD results showed increasing of basal spacing from 8.66 to 32.97 Å in modified stearate Mg-Al LDH, and TEM results revealed that the stearate Mg-Al LDH layers are homogeneously distributed in the PHB/PCL polymer blends matrix. Enhancement in 300% elongation at break and 66% tensile strength in the presence of 1.0 wt % of the stearate Mg-Al LDH as compare with PHB/PCL blends. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that clay improves compatibility between polymer matrix and the best ratio 80PHB/20PCL/1stearate Mg-Al LDH surface is well dispersed and stretched before it breaks. PMID:24600329

  11. Deuterium and oxygen-18 correlation: Clay minerals and hydroxides in Quaternary soils compared to meteoric waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Lawrence; Hugh P. Taylor Jr.

    1971-01-01

    D and O 18 of clay minerals and hydroxides in Quaternary soils of the United States correlate directly with D and O 18 of corresponding present-day meteoric waters. Samples from Montana and Idaho are much lower in both D and O 18 than those from coastal areas. The Hawaiian and Gulf Coast samples are highest in D and O 18

  12. HRTEM study of activated carbons prepared by alkali hydroxide activation of anthracite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Lillo-Ródenas; D. Cazorla-Amorós; A. Linares-Solano; F. Béguin; C. Clinard; J. N. Rouzaud

    2004-01-01

    A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study has been made of the structure and porosity of activated carbons prepared by activation of anthracites by hydroxides. The results show the structural changes occurring during chemical activation and present several experimental parameters that can be observed to determine the activation degree of the materials.

  13. Plasma graft-polymerization for synthesis of highly stable hydroxide exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chengxu; Jiang, Lin; Fang, Shidong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiangke; Meng, Yuedong

    2014-02-01

    A novel plasma graft-polymerization approach is adopted to prepare hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) using cardo polyetherketone powders (PEK-C) and vinylbenzyl chloride. The benzylic chloromethyl groups can be successfully introduced into the PEK-C polymer matrix via plasma graft-polymerization. This approach enables a well preservation in the structure of functional groups and formation of a highly cross-linked structure in the membrane, leading to an improvement on the stability and performance of HEMs. The chemical stabilities, including alkaline and oxidative stability, are evaluated under severe conditions by measuring hydroxide conductivity and weight changes during aging. The obtained PGP-NOH membrane retains 86% of the initial hydroxide conductivity in 6 mol L-1 KOH solution at 60 °C for 120 h, and 94% of the initial weight in 3 wt% H2O2 solution at 60 °C for 262 h. The PGP-NOH membrane also possesses excellent thermal stability (safely used below 120 °C), alcohol resistance (ethanol permeability of 6.6 × 10-11 m2 s-1 and diffusion coefficient of 3.7 × 10-13 m2 s-1), and an acceptable hydroxide conductivity (8.3 mS cm-1 at 20 °C in deionized water), suggesting a good candidate of PGP-NOH membrane for HEMFC applications.

  14. Ion Association versus Ion Interaction Models in Examining Electrolyte Solutions: Application to Calcium Hydroxide Solubility Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menéndez, M. Isabel; Borge, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous equilibrium of the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is used to predict both its solubility product from solubility and solubility values from solubility product when inert salts, in any concentration, are present. Accepting the necessity of including activity coefficients to treat the saturated solution of calcium…

  15. The contribution of polyhydroxyl aromatic compounds to tetramethylammonium hydroxide lignin-based proxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy R. Filley; Klaas G. J. Nierop; Ying Wang

    2006-01-01

    A problem inherent in analytical procedures where thermochemolyis or pyrolysis is coupled with in situ methylation by tetramethylammonium hydroxide is the inability to determine if an observed aromatic methoxyl group was originally present as a hydroxyl or a methoxyl functionality. This analytical insensitivity makes it impossible to ascertain relative inputs of fresh lignin, demethylated lignin and polyphenols (hydrolysable) into natural

  16. Determination of trace elements in biological materials using tetramethylammonium hydroxide for sample preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patr??cia Martins; Dirce Pozebon; Valderi L Dressler; Gisele A Kemieciki

    2002-01-01

    A method to prepare milk powder, bovine liver and bovine muscle samples for analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is proposed. Samples are mixed with a small amount of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and a stable and homogeneous slurry is produced in ca. 2h with heating at 60–70°C. After such sample preparation and dilution with water, trace elements are determined

  17. Characterization of peatified and coalified wood by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. McKinney; P. G. Hatcher

    1996-01-01

    Seven samples of peatified and coalified wood, varying in rank from peat to subbituminous coal, have been analyzed using a new technique: thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The preserved lignin in the coal undergoes thermochemolysis reactions when subjected to treatment with TMAH at 300°C for 10 min, yielding a series of methylated guaiacyl derivatives that originate from the cleavage of

  18. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis of the aliphatic biopolymer cutan: insights into the chemical structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Mckinney; J. M. Bortiatynski; D. M. Carson; D. J. Clifford; J. W. De Leeuw; P. G. Hatcher

    1996-01-01

    Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis has been applied to the diagenetically resistant aliphatic biopolymer cutan derived from the leaf cuticles of Agave americana. Data obtained from the cutan sample using this new analytical method are vastly different in comparison with conventional flash pyrolysis data of the same sample. Under conventional flash pyrolysis conditions, the dominant products were alkanes, alkenes, and ?,

  19. Characterization of organic matter from natural waters using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis GC-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W Frazier; Kirk O Nowack; Fred S Cannon; Louis A Kaplan; Patrick G Hatcher

    2003-01-01

    The tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis method was recently introduced for the qualitative characterization of organic matter from natural waters (NOM). Such characterizations were usually of a qualitative nature, and any semiquantitative assessments of individual compounds were often achieved by measuring relative areas and assuming unity as a response factor. In this paper we evaluate the quantitative measurement of many identified

  20. Effect of copper hydroxide sprays for citrus canker control on wild type Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were performed in vitro with bacteria grown in broth and then subjected to the same copper hydroxide concentrations as are sprayed on citrus trees in Florida throughout the growing season. Studies were also undertaken with grapefruit leaves and the survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on t...

  1. Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clement B. Sledge; Joseph D. Zuckerman; Michael R. Zalutsky; Robert W. Atcher; Sonya Shortkroff; David R. Lionberger; Howard A. Rose; Brian J. Hurson; Peter A. Lankenner; Ronald J. Anderson; William A. Bloomer

    1986-01-01

    One hundred eight knees of 93 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and persistent synovitis of the knee were treated with an intraarticular injection of 270 mCi of dysprosium 165 bound to ferric hydroxide macroaggregate. Leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint was minimal. Mean leakage to the venous blood 3 hours after injection was 0.11% of the injected dose; this

  2. Repeat radiation synovectomy with dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates in rheumatoid knees unresponsive to initial injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Vella; Joseph D. Zuckerman; Sonya Shortkroff; Prasanna Venkatesan; Clement B. Sledge

    1988-01-01

    Because of failure to fully respond to an initial intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates, 17 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis underwent repeat radiation synovectomy using this agent. Of the 13 patients who were evaluated 1 year later, 54% (7 knees) had good results, 31% (4 knees) had fair results, and 15% (2 knees) had poor results. The initial

  3. Preparation of high surface area activated carbon from corn by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narges Bagheri; Jalal Abedi

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared through chemical activation of corn cob precursor, using potassium hydroxide as the chemical agent. The effect of different parameters, such as particle size, method of mixing, chemical\\/corn ratio, activation time and activation temperature, on weight loss and BET surface area of the produced activated carbons were discussed. The porosity of the activated carbons was evaluated through

  4. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    PubMed

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method. PMID:21832599

  5. Formation of the Morphology of Continuous-Precipitation Aluminum Hydroxides in the Course of Industrial Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Lamberov; A. G. Aptikasheva; S. R. Egorova; O. V. Levin; Kh. Kh. Gil’manov

    2005-01-01

    X-ray phase and differential thermal analyses were used to study in detail how the morphology of aluminum hydroxides changes in separate stages of the technological process. The assumption that two pseudoboehmite modifications differing in crystallite dimensions and lattice constants can be formed in the course of precipitation was considered.

  6. Anaerobic Treatment of Tetra-Methyl Ammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) Containing Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-Foo Chang; Show-Ying Yang; Huey-Song You; Jill Ruhsing Pan

    2008-01-01

    Toxicity of tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) by anaerobic toxicity assay test. System performance was determined by monitoring total organic carbon (TOC) and ion chromatograph (IC) analysis. The result indicates that TMAH concentration less than 10000 mg\\/L is nontoxic to the anaerobic archaea. TMAH containing in the wastewater was completely degraded under

  7. Intercalation and functionalization of zinc hydroxide nitrate with mono- and dicarboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Wypych; Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal Arízaga; José Eduardo Ferreira da Costa Gardolinski

    2005-01-01

    The intercalation of ions derived from succinic, glutaric, and adipic acid into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate by ionic exchange reaction is reported. Different reaction conditions are investigated and the materials are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis (simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry) and elemental analysis. The dicarboxylic acids can be grafted to the matrix

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles via sequential formation of iron hydroxide precipitates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Iwasaki; Naoya Mizutani; Satoru Watano; Takeshi Yanagida; Tomoji Kawai

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for preparing fine magnetite nanoparticles without using any additives and organic solvents has been developed. In this method, a sequential precipitates formation method, ferrous and ferric hydroxides are not coprecipitated but sequentially formed in an alkaline solution, and then the resulting suspension is subjected to a hydrothermal treatment. The obtained magnetite nanoparticles were characterised through scanning electron

  9. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  10. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution (w/v). Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing li...

  11. Kinetics of phenolic resol resin formation by HPLC. 2. Barium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Astarloa-Aierbe; J. M. Echeverría; M. D. Martin; I. Mondragon

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of phenolic resol resin catalysed by barium hydroxide under controlled temperature, formaldehyde to phenol ratio and water dilutability was quantitatively followed by liquid chromatography. Disappearance of phenol and formaldehyde and formation of addition products were quantitatively followed during synthesis. Higher molecular species formed by condensation reactions were diaryl compounds bonded by methylene bridges via para,para and ortho,para positions.

  12. Chemical dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene with polyethylene glycol and hydroxide: Dominant effect of temperature and ionic potential

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ye; Jiang, Jianguo; Huang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) originating from POP waste are playing an increasingly important role in the elevation of regional POP levels. In this study we realized the complete dechlorination of high concentration hexachlorobenzene (HCB) waste in the presence of polyethylene glycol and hydroxide, rather than using conventional high temperature incineration. Here, we demonstrate the dominant effect of temperature and hydroxide on HCB dechlorination in this process. Complete dechlorination of HCB was only observed at temperature about 200°C or above within 4?h reaction, and the apparent activation energy of this process was 43.1?kJ/mol. The alkalinity of hydroxides had notable effects on HCB dechlorination, and there was a considerable linear relationship between the natural logarithm of the HCB dechlorination rate constant and square root of the ionic potential of metal cation (R2 = 0.9997, p = 0.0081, n = 3). This study highlights a promising technology to realize complete dechlorination of POP waste, especially at high concentrations, in the presence of PEG in conjunction with hydroxide. PMID:25200551

  13. TRANSFORMATION AND MOBILIZATION OF ARSENIC ADSORBED ON GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE UNDER BIO-REDUCTIVE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotic and abiotic reduction of arsenic (V) and iron (III) influences the partioning of arsenic (As) between the solid and aqueous phases in soils, sediments and wastes. In this study, laboratory experiments on arsenic adsorbed on granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) was performed to ...

  14. Utilization of by-products from alkaline hydroxide preservation of whole broiler carcasses 

    E-print Network

    Niemeyer, Truitt Preston

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline hydroxides can be used as a preservation method for on-farm storage of broiler mortalities. This method creates two by-products: alkaline preserved whole broiler carcasses, which can be rendered into an Alkaline Poultry By-Product Meal...

  15. Further insights into the activation process of sewage sludge-based precursors by alkaline hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Angeles Lillo-Ródenas; Anna Ros; Enrique Fuente; Miguel A. Montes-Morán; María J. Martin; Angel Linares-Solano

    2008-01-01

    The present work extends previous activation results obtained with a sewage sludge to others and deepens into the study and characterisation of sewage sludge-based sorbents prepared by alkaline hydroxide activation. Results obtained show that different sewage sludges, whose compositions and treatments vary from each other, can be successfully activated by KOH. A wide range of porosities are achieved, being remarkable

  16. The modifying effect of ammonium nitrate and sodium hydroxide on poly(ethylene terephthalate) materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Prorokova; S. Yu. Vavilova

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of modification of PET with aqueous solutions of equimolar amounts of ammonium nitrate and sodium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that such treatment of the polymer is not equivalent to treatment with weak aqueous solutions of ammonia. It removes a significant amount of oligomers contained in the polyester but does not cause their intensive decomposition. It was

  17. Double Action Gripper

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes a cut-away animation of a pneumatic double action gripper. Objective: Describe how the double action gripper works. You can find the animation under the heading "Automation Technology."

  18. 40 CFR 721.10018 - Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2(Si2O5)3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH...Chemical Substances § 721.10018 Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6 (OH...The chemical substance identified as calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10018 - Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2(Si2O5)3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH...Chemical Substances § 721.10018 Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH...The chemical substance identified as calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10018 - Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2(Si2O5)3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH...Chemical Substances § 721.10018 Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH...The chemical substance identified as calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10018 - Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2(Si2O5)3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH...Chemical Substances § 721.10018 Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6 (OH...The chemical substance identified as calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10018 - Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2(Si2O5)3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH...Chemical Substances § 721.10018 Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6 (OH...The chemical substance identified as calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6...

  3. Aluminum affects heterogeneous Fe(III) (Hydr)oxide nucleation, growth, and ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Li, Qingyun; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous coprecipitation of iron and aluminum oxides is an important process for pollutant immobilization and removal in natural and engineered aqueous environments. Here, using a synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering technique, we studied heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz under conditions found in acid mine drainage (at pH = 3.7 ± 0.2, [Fe(3+)] = 10(-4) M) with different initial aqueous Al/Fe ratios (0:1, 1:1, and 5:1). Interestingly, although the atomic ratios of Al/Fe in the newly formed Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were less than 1%, the in situ particle size and volume evolutions of the precipitates on quartz were significantly influenced by aqueous Al/Fe ratios. At the end of the 3 h experiments, with aqueous Al/Fe ratios of 0:1, 1:1, and 5:1, the average radii of gyration of particles on quartz were 5.7 ± 0.3, 4.6 ± 0.1, and 3.7 ± 0.3 nm, respectively, and the ratio of total particle volumes on quartz was 1.7:3.4:1.0. The Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were poorly crystallized, and were positively charged in all solutions. In the presence of Al(3+), Al(3+) adsorption onto quartz changed the surface charge of quartz from negative to positive, which caused the slower heterogeneous growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz. Furthermore, Al affected the amount of water included in the Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, which can influence their adsorption capacity. This study yielded important information usable for pollutant removal not only in natural environments, but also in engineered water treatment processes. PMID:24289329

  4. Hydrogen bonding. Part 22. Re-evaluation of stoichimetry and structure in the lower hydrates of tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Kenneth M.; Avci, Günsel F.; Gabriele, Julie M.; Jacks, Marsha J.

    1987-07-01

    A compound previously reported to be tetramethylammonium hydroxide monohydrate is re-examined, and actually found to be a heretofore unknown dihydrate. Stoichiometric considerations suggest that this dihydrate is a channel framework clathrate hydrate. Authentic tetramethylammonium hydroxide monohydrate has also been prepared; the infrared spectrum of this compound is consonant with the presence of a planar (OH -·H 2O) 2 cluster of C2h symmetry, similar to that found in lithium hydroxide monohydrate. Some observations on the nature of the trihydrate are discussed.

  5. Zinc stable isotope fractionation during its adsorption on oxides and hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Pokrovsky, O S; Viers, J; Freydier, R

    2005-11-01

    Adsorption of Zn on goethite, hematite, birnessite, pyrolusite, corundum, and gibbsite was studied using a batch adsorption technique as a function of pH, zinc concentration in solution, and time of exposure. Adsorption from 0.01 M NaNO3 solutions undersaturated with respect to zinc (hydr)oxide at 3double layer (CCM) and postulates the formation of positively charged >MeOZn+ complexes, where Me=Fe, Mn, and Al, was used to describe the dependence of adsorption equilibria on aqueous solution composition in a wide range of pH and Zn concentration. The logarithms of surface stability constant for Zn interaction with metal oxy(hydr)oxides (>MeOH0+Zn2+-->MeOZn+) vary from -2.5 to 0.5. They are higher for oxy(hydr)oxides than for anhydrous oxides. Stable isotopes of zinc in several filtrates were measured using an ICP-MS Neptune multicollector which made it possible, for the first time, to assess the degree of isotopic fractionation between 66Zn and 64Zn during zinc adsorption on mineral surfaces. The isotopic offset between aqueous solution and mineral surfaces (Delta(66/64)Zn(soln/solid)=delta((66/64)Zn)(solution)-delta((66/64)Zn)(surface)) was found to be weakly dependent on percentage of adsorbed metal and equals 0.20+/-0.03, 0.17+/-0.06, -0.10+/-0.03, -0.10+/-0.09, and -0.13+/-0.12 per thousand for goethite, birnessite, pyrolusite, corundum, and Al(OH)3. For hematite, Delta(66/64)Zn varies from -0.61+/-0.10 per thousand at pH 5.5 to -0.02+/-0.09 per thousand at 5.8MeOZn(H2O)(n) complexes (available literature data on X-ray absorption spectroscopy). Apparently, the fine structure of surface complexes and the position and bond strength for second neighbors of zinc are likely to control its isotopic fractionation during adsorption on mineral surfaces. Our results strongly suggest that inorganic processes controlling zinc isotope adsorption on soil and sediment minerals should be of second-order importance compared to biological factors. PMID:15963523

  6. Comparison of PfHRP-2/pLDH ELISA, qPCR and Microscopy for the Detection of Plasmodium Events and Prediction of Sick Visits during a Malaria Vaccine Study

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Ismail Mahat; Otsyula, Nekoye; Awinda, George; Spring, Michele; Schneider, Petra; Waitumbi, John Njenga

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to expert malaria microscopy, malaria biomarkers such as Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2), and PCR provide superior analytical sensitivity and specificity for quantifying malaria parasites infections. This study reports on parasite prevalence, sick visits parasite density and species composition by different diagnostic methods during a phase-I malaria vaccine trial. Methods Blood samples for microscopy, PfHRP-2 and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISAs and real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were collected during scheduled (n?=?298) or sick visits (n?=?38) from 30 adults participating in a 112-day vaccine trial. The four methods were used to assess parasite prevalence, as well as parasite density over a 42-day period for patients with clinical episodes. Results During scheduled visits, qPCR (39.9%, N?=?119) and PfHRP-2 ELISA (36.9%, N?=?110) detected higher parasite prevalence than pLDH ELISA (16.8%, N?=?50) and all methods were more sensitive than microscopy (13.4%, N?=?40). All microscopically detected infections contained P. falciparum, as mono-infections (95%) or with P. malariae (5%). By qPCR, 102/119 infections were speciated. P. falciparum predominated either as monoinfections (71.6%), with P. malariae (8.8%), P. ovale (4.9%) or both (3.9%). P. malariae (6.9%) and P. ovale (1.0%) also occurred as co-infections (2.9%). As expected, higher prevalences were detected during sick visits, with prevalences of 65.8% (qPCR), 60.5% (PfHRP-2 ELISA), 21.1% (pLDH ELISA) and 31.6% (microscopy). PfHRP-2 showed biomass build-up that climaxed (1813±3410 ng/mL SD) at clinical episodes. Conclusion PfHRP-2 ELISA and qPCR may be needed for accurately quantifying the malaria parasite burden. In addition, qPCR improves parasite speciation, whilst PfHRP-2 ELISA is a potential predictor for clinical disease caused by P. falciparum. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00666380 PMID:23554856

  7. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in zeolite cages

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes work in the two areas of zeolites and layered double hydroxides. Results of studies on structural aspects of Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+]-zeolite Y are summarized. Photoinduced electron transfer between entrapped Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+] and methylviologen (MV) in neighboring supercages was examined. Benzylviologen was also used. Since molecules larger than 13 [angstrom] cannot be accomodated in zeolite cages, the layered double metal hydroxides (LDH) LiAl[sub 2](OH)[sub 6][sup +]X[sup [minus

  8. Volumetric properties of vapor saturated aqueous potassium hydroxide solutions from 0° to 400° and vapor saturated aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions from 0° to 350° based on a regression of the available literature data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Brown; R. W. II Potter

    1977-01-01

    Pressure-volume-temperature-composition (P-V-T-X) data for brines are required to establish optimum operating conditions for the production of geothermal brine fields; to minimize scaling and corrosion; and to intelligently design turbines for production of electricity. An internally consistent set of density values is tabulated for vapor-saturated, aqueous potassium hydroxide solutions from 0°C to 400°C and for vapor-saturated, aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions from

  9. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  10. Strength testing and SEM imaging of hydroxide-catalysis bonds between silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veggel, A. A.; Scott, J.; Skinner, D. A.; Bezensek, B.; Cunningham, W.; Hough, J.; Martin, I.; Murray, P.; Reid, S.; Rowan, S.

    2009-09-01

    Silicon is under consideration as a substrate material for the mirror masses and quasi-monolithic suspension stages of 'third generation' gravitational wave detectors. Identifying a jointing technique to attach the silicon suspension elements to the optics with repeatable high strength and low mechanical loss is critical. Hydroxide-catalysis bonding is the method of choice for current quasi-monolithic silica suspensions. Here we present measurements of the shear strength of hydroxide-catalysis bonds between silicon samples. Strengths of approximately 3.9 N mm-2 are found, comparable to strengths found for silica to silica bonds. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows that the bonds between two silicon parts with thermally grown SiO2 layers are wedged with bond thicknesses varying from 30 nm to several micrometres. We suggest a possible explanation for this observation.

  11. Cryogenic and room temperature strength of sapphire jointed by hydroxide-catalysis bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, R.; van Veggel, A. A.; Cunningham, L.; Haughian, K.; Hough, J.; Rowan, S.

    2014-02-01

    Hydroxide-catalysis bonding is a precision technique used for jointing components in opto-mechanical systems and has been implemented in the construction of quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in gravitational wave detectors. Future detectors are likely to operate at cryogenic temperatures which will lead to a change in test mass and suspension material. One candidate material is mono-crystalline sapphire. Here results are presented showing the influence of various bonding solutions on the strength of the hydroxide-catalysis bonds formed between sapphire samples, measured both at room temperature and at 77 K, and it is demonstrated that sodium silicate solution is the most promising in terms of strength, producing bonds with a mean strength of 63 MPa. In addition the results show that the strengths of bonds were undiminished when tested at cryogenic temperatures.

  12. Magnesium hydroxide coagulation performance and floc properties in treating high pH reactive orange wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meile; Lu, Jingfang; Wei, Lei; Wang, Kang; Zhao, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Application of magnesium hydroxide as a coagulant for treating high pH reactive orange wastewater was studied. The coagulation performance and magnesium hydroxide-reactive orange floc properties were investigated under different dosages, feeding modes and pH values. Flocculation index (FI) was then discussed with controlled experiments using an intelligent particle dispersion analyzer and optimum coagulant dose of 150 mg/L (magnesium ion) was obtained for pH value 12. The results showed that the optimum magnesium ion dose tended to decrease with the increase of initial pH value. One time addition feeding mode led to relatively large FI value and higher removal efficiency compared with other addition modes. All of the flocs under investigation showed a limited capacity for re-growth when they had been previously broken. Based on the changes of zeta potential and floc properties, charge neutralization and precipitate enmeshment were proposed to be the main coagulation mechanisms. PMID:25945846

  13. Growth of Pseudomonas mendocina on Fe(III) (Hydr)Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Hersman, L. E.; Forsythe, J. H.; Ticknor, L. O.; Maurice, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Although iron (Fe) is an essential element for almost all living organisms, little is known regarding its acquisition from the insoluble Fe(III) (hydr)oxides in aerobic environments. In this study a strict aerobe, Pseudomonas mendocina, was grown in batch culture with hematite, goethite, or ferrihydrite as a source of Fe. P. mendocina obtained Fe from these minerals in the following order: goethite > hematite > ferrihydrite. Furthermore, Fe release from each of the minerals appears to have occurred in excess, as evidenced by the growth of P. mendocina in the medium above that of the insoluble Fe(III) (hydr)oxide aggregates, and this release was independent of the mineral's surface area. These results demonstrate that an aerobic microorganism was able to obtain Fe for growth from several insoluble Fe minerals and did so with various growth rates. PMID:11571141

  14. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  15. Three-dimensionally networked graphene hydroxide with giant pores and its application in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensionally networked and layered structure of graphene hydroxide (GH) was investigated. After lengthy immersion in a NaOH solution, most of the epoxy groups in the graphene oxide were destroyed, and more hydroxyl groups were generated, transforming the graphene oxide into graphene hydroxide. Additionally, benzoic acid groups were formed, and the ether groups link the neighboring layers, creating a near-3D structure in the GH. To utilize these unique structural features, electrodes with large pores for use in supercapacitors were fabricated using thermal reduction in vacuum. The reduced GH maintained its layered structure and developed a lot of large of pores between/inside the layers. The GH electrodes exhibited high gravimetric as well as high volumetric capacitance. PMID:25492227

  16. Facile synthesis of CuO nanosheets via the controlled delamination of layered copper hydroxide acetate.

    PubMed

    Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Jirka, Ivan; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2015-08-15

    CuO nanosheets were prepared by the controlled delamination of layered copper hydroxide acetate followed by the in situ solvothermal transformation of hydroxide to oxide. The reaction was performed in 1-butanol in order to prevent recrystallization or nanoparticle aggregation. Analyses by small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the CuO nanosheets are approximately 1nm thin, corresponding to three to four stacked CuO6 octahedral layers. The average lateral size is approximately 5nm. The nanosheets form stable dispersions in 1-butanol that are suitable for the fabrication of transparent and homogeneous CuO thin films by spin-coating or inkjet printing techniques. The present synthesis is a rare example of the top down strategy leading to the nanometric two-dimensional nanosheets of non-layered oxide materials. PMID:25942095

  17. Like-charge ion pairs of hydronium and hydroxide in aqueous solution?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Choi, Tae Hoon; Choi, Cheol Ho

    2015-07-01

    The like-charge ion pairings of hydronium and hydroxide were investigated using both ab initio cluster calculations and QM/MM-MD aqueous simulations. While only a two-water-bridged H3O(+)(H2O)2H3O(+) is found in hydronium cluster calculations, three clusters of HO(-)(H2O)2HO(-), HO(-)(H2O)3HO(-) and HO(-)(H2O)4HO(-) are stable dihydroxide aggregates. In addition, an interesting yet very stable parallelogram structure of [O-HH-O](2-) without any bridging water was also discovered using QM/MM-MD simulations. According to our analysis, its unique structure reduces the electrostatic repulsion and allows stable coordination with solvents at the same time. In conclusion, hydroxide can form stronger like-ion pairs than hydronium in aqueous solution mostly due to its versatile coordination ability with solvents. PMID:26055250

  18. Synthesis of high-density nickel cobalt aluminum hydroxide by continuous coprecipitation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongseon; Kim, Doyu

    2012-02-01

    Spherical nickel cobalt aluminum hydroxide (Ni(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)-hydroxide, NCA) was prepared by a continuous coprecipitation method. A new design of the Al solution and the feeding method was applied, which enabled to prevent rapid precipitation of Al(OH)(3) and to obtain spherical NCA with large enough particle size and high density. The active material (LiNi(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O(2) or LNCA) prepared from it showed higher tap-density than that made from NCA prepared by general processes, and homogeneity of Al-distribution was also improved. It is expected that the electrode density of lithium ion batteries adopting LNCA could be improved with the new process proposed in this study. PMID:22233834

  19. Three-dimensionally networked graphene hydroxide with giant pores and its application in supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensionally networked and layered structure of graphene hydroxide (GH) was investigated. After lengthy immersion in a NaOH solution, most of the epoxy groups in the graphene oxide were destroyed, and more hydroxyl groups were generated, transforming the graphene oxide into graphene hydroxide. Additionally, benzoic acid groups were formed, and the ether groups link the neighboring layers, creating a near-3D structure in the GH. To utilize these unique structural features, electrodes with large pores for use in supercapacitors were fabricated using thermal reduction in vacuum. The reduced GH maintained its layered structure and developed a lot of large of pores between/inside the layers. The GH electrodes exhibited high gravimetric as well as high volumetric capacitance. PMID:25492227

  20. Setting process of lime-based conservation mortars with barium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Karatasios, Ioannis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: ikarat@ims.demokritos.gr; Kilikoglou, Vassilis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece); Colston, Belinda [Department of Forensic and Biomedical Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Theoulakis, Panagiotis [Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, TEI of Athens, Athens, 122 10 (Greece); Watt, David [Hutton and Rostron Environmental Investigations Limited/Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents the effect of barium hydroxide on the setting mechanism of lime-based conservation mortars, when used as an additive material. The study focuses on the monitoring of the setting process and the identification of the mineral phases formed, which are essential for furthering the study of the durability of barium mixtures against chemical degradation. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were used to monitor the setting processes of these mixtures and identify new phases formed. The results suggest that barium hydroxide is evenly distributed within the lime and produces a homogeneous binding material, consisting of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), witherite (BaCO{sub 3}) and barium-calcium carbonate [BaCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}]. Finally, it was found that barium carbonate can be directly bonded to calcitic aggregates and therefore increases its chemical compatibility with the binding material.