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1

A pH-Responsive Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH)-Phthalocyanine Nanohybrid for Efficient Photodynamic Therapy.  

PubMed

A pH-responsive nanohybrid (LDH-ZnPcPS4 ), in which a highly hydrophilic zinc(II) phthalocyanine tetra-?-substituted with 4-sulfonatophenoxy groups (ZnPcPS4 ) is incorporated with a cationic layered double hydroxide (LDH) based on electrostatic interaction, has been specially designed and prepared through a facile co-precipitation approach. ZnPcPS4 is an excellent singlet-oxygen generator with strong absorption at the near-infrared region (692?nm) in cellular culture media, whereas the photoactivities of ZnPcPS4 were remarkably inhibited after incorporation with the LDH. The nanohybrid is essentially stable in aqueous media at pH?7.4; nevertheless, in slightly acidic media of pH?6.5 or 5.0, ZnPcPS4 can be efficiently released from the LDH matrix, thus leading to restoration of the photoactivities. The nanohybrid shows a high photocytotoxicity against HepG2 cells as a result of much more efficient cellular uptake and preferential accumulation in lysosomes, whereby the acidic environment leads to the release of ZnPcPS4 . The IC50 value of LDH-ZnPcPS4 is as low as 0.053??M, which is 24-fold lower than that of ZnPcPS4 . This work provides a facile approach for the fabrication of photosensitizers with high photocytotoxicity, potential tumor selectivity, and rapid clearance character. PMID:25639348

Li, Xing-Shu; Ke, Mei-Rong; Huang, Wei; Ye, Chun-Hong; Huang, Jian-Dong

2015-02-16

2

Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method  

SciTech Connect

Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rives, V., E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

2011-11-15

3

Start | Author Index 741-8 Real Time Kinetics of Ni-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Formation on Pyrophyllite.  

E-print Network

precursor phyllosilicate-like structures with aging. Their formation could be an important naturalStart | Author Index 741-8 Real Time Kinetics of Ni-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Formation, University of Delaware, University of Delaware, 152 Townsend Hall, Newark, DE 19717 and Donald Sparks, 152

Sparks, Donald L.

4

Removal of Trace Levels of Arsenic and Selenium from Aqueous Solutions by Calcined and Uncalcined Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of As and Se from dilute aqueous solutions, representing model power-plant effluent streams, by calcined and uncalcined layered double hydroxide (LDH) adsorbents has been investigated. The results indicate that As(V) has a greater adsorption capacity than Se(IV) for both calcined and uncalcined LDHs. An mth-order kinetic rate equation describes the adsorption kinetics of As and Se on these

Li Yang; Zoya Shahrivari; Paul K. T. Liu; Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore T. Tsotsis

2005-01-01

5

Anomalous self-reduction of layered double hydroxide (LDH): from ?-Ni(OH)2 to hexagonal close packing (HCP) Ni/NiO by annealing without a reductant.  

PubMed

The traditional concept that nickel layered double hydroxide (Ni LDH, also known as ?-Ni(OH)2) converts to NiO after annealing has been taken without doubt and utilized to fabricate NiO for years. This work reports that an anomalous self-reduction phenomenon can occur for Ni LDH synthesized from an ionic liquid system. PMID:25358246

Ge, X; Gu, C D; Wang, X L; Tu, J P

2015-01-21

6

Synthesis of well-dispersed layered double hydroxide core@ordered mesoporous silica shell nanostructure (LDH@mSiO2) and its application in drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an efficient synthesis of novel layered double hydroxide mesoporous silica core-shell nanostructures (LDH@mSiO2) that have a hexagonal MgAl-LDH nanoplate core and an ordered mesoporous silica shell with perpendicularly oriented channels via a surfactant-templating method. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 sorption analyses confirmed that the obtained nanostructures have uniform accessible mesopores (~2.2 nm), high surface area (~430 m2 g-1), and large pore volume (~0.22 cm3 g-1). Investigations of drug release and bio-imaging showed that this material has a slow release effect of ibuprofen and good biocompatibility. This work provides an economical approach to fabricate LDH@mSiO2 core-shell nanostructures, which may have great potential in broad drug delivery and hyperthermia therapy applications.We demonstrate an efficient synthesis of novel layered double hydroxide mesoporous silica core-shell nanostructures (LDH@mSiO2) that have a hexagonal MgAl-LDH nanoplate core and an ordered mesoporous silica shell with perpendicularly oriented channels via a surfactant-templating method. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 sorption analyses confirmed that the obtained nanostructures have uniform accessible mesopores (~2.2 nm), high surface area (~430 m2 g-1), and large pore volume (~0.22 cm3 g-1). Investigations of drug release and bio-imaging showed that this material has a slow release effect of ibuprofen and good biocompatibility. This work provides an economical approach to fabricate LDH@mSiO2 core-shell nanostructures, which may have great potential in broad drug delivery and hyperthermia therapy applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional XRD, SEM, TEM, DLS and LSCM data. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10718f

Bao, Haifeng; Yang, Jianping; Huang, Yan; Xu, Zhi Ping; Hao, Na; Wu, Zhangxiong; Lu, Gao Qing (Max); Zhao, Dongyuan

2011-10-01

7

Highly biocompatible behaviour and slow degradation of a LDH (layered double hydroxide)-coating on implants in the middle ear of rabbits.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation can irreversibly damage components of the ossicular chain which may lead to sound conduction deafness. The replacement of impaired ossicles with prostheses does not reduce the risk of bacterial infections which may lead to loss of function of the implant and consequently to additional damage of the connected structures such as inner ear, meninges and brain. Therefore, implants that could do both, reconstruct the sound conduction and in addition provide antibacterial protection are of high interest for ear surgery. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are promising novel biomaterials that have previously been used as an antibiotic-releasing implant coating to curb bacterial infections in the middle ear. However, animal studies of LDHs are scarce and there exist only few additional data on the biocompatibility and hardly any on the biodegradation of these compounds. In this study, middle ear prostheses were coated with an LDH compound, using suspensions of nanoparticles of an LDH containing Mg and Al as well as carbonate ions. These coatings were characterized and implanted into the middle ear of healthy rabbits for 10 days. Analysis of the explanted prostheses showed only little signs of degradation. A stable health constitution was observed throughout the whole experiment in every animal. The results show that LDH-based implant coatings are biocompatible and dissolve only slowly in the middle ear. They, therefore, appear as promising materials for the construction of controlled drug delivery vehicles. PMID:25577215

Duda, Franziska; Kieke, Marc; Waltz, Florian; Schweinefuß, Maria E; Badar, Muhammad; Müller, Peter Paul; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Behrens, Peter; Prenzler, Nils Kristian

2015-01-01

8

The application of layered double hydroxide clay (LDH)-poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film composites for the controlled release of antibiotics.  

PubMed

Many sites of bacterial infection such as in-dwelling catheters and orthopedic surgical sites require local rather than systemic antibiotic administration. However, currently used controlled release vehicles, such as polymeric films, release water-soluble antibiotics too quickly, whereas nonporous bone cement, used in orthopedics, release very little drug. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of nanoparticulates composed of layered double hydroxide clays to bind various antibiotics and release them in a controlled manner. Mg-Al (carbonate) layered double hydroxides were synthesized and characterized using established methods. These clay particles were suspended in solutions of the antibiotics tetracycline, doxorubicin (DOX), 5-fluorouracil, vancomycin (VAN), sodium fusidate (SF) and antisense oligonucleotides and binding was determined following centrifugation and quantitation of the unbound fraction by UV/Vis absorbance or HPLC analysis. Drug release from layered double hydroxide clay/drug complexes dispersed in polymeric films was measured by incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 37 °C using absorbance or HPLC analysis. Antimicrobial activity of drug released from film composites was determined using zonal inhibition studies against S. epidermidis. All drugs bound to the clay particles to various degrees. Generally, drugs released with a large burst phase of release (except DOX) with little further drug release after 4 days. Dispersion of drug/clay complexes in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films resulted in a reduced burst phase of release and a slow continuous release for many weeks with effective antimicrobial amounts of VAN and SF released at later time points. Layered double hydroxide clays may be useful for controlled release applications at sites requiring long-term antibiotic exposure as they maintain the drug in a non-degraded state and release effective amounts of drug over long time periods. LDH clay/drug complexes are amenable to homogenous dispersion in polymeric films where implant coating may be optimal or required. PMID:22528072

Chakraborti, Michelle; Jackson, John K; Plackett, David; Gilchrist, Samuel E; Burt, Helen M

2012-07-01

9

Durability of nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery cathode using nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide/carbon (Ni-Al LDH/C) composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the durability of the optimized nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide/carbon (Ni-Al LDH/C) composite prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) as cathode active materials in nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) secondary battery. The positive electrode was used for charge-discharge measurements under two different current: 5 mA for 300 cycles in half-cell conditions, and 5.8 mA for 569 cycles in battery regime, respectively. The optimized Ni-Al LDH/C composite exhibits a good lifespan and stability with the capacity retention above 380 mA h gcomp-1 over 869 cycles. Cyclic voltammetry shows that the ?-Ni(OH)2/?-NiOOH redox reaction is maintained even after 869 cycles, and the higher current regime is beneficial in terms of materials utilization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the cathode after charge and discharge confirms that the ?-Ni(OH)2/?-NiOOH redox reaction occurs without any intermediate phase.

Béléké, Alexis Bienvenu; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Mizuhata, Minoru

2014-02-01

10

Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides (LDH) intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)  

SciTech Connect

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite type structure and a Mg:Al ratio of two have been prepared, with salicylate or naproxen in the interlayer. Two synthetic routes have been used: reconstruction from a mildly calcined hydrotalcite-CO{sub 3} precursor, and a coprecipitation method with chlorides of the metals. The solids have been characterized using several physicochemical techniques, i.e., powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies and thermal analysis (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses). The gallery height determined is in all cases larger than the size of the drug, 11.5A for salicylate and 15.8 and 16.6A for naproxen, depending on the specific synthesis route followed. Experimental data suggest the anion molecules form a tilted bilayer, with the carboxylate groups pointing towards the brucite-like layers. The solids are stable up to 230{sup o}C and their evolution from 350{sup o}C upwards is very similar to that observed for a carbonate-containing hydrotalcite, forming mostly amorphous solids with a large specific surface area.

Arco, Margarita del [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Gutierrez, Sonia [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Martin, Cristina [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Rives, Vicente [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)]. E-mail: vrives@usal.es; Rocha, Joao [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2004-11-01

11

Effects of the composition on the properties of nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide/carbon (Ni-Al LDH/C) composite fabricated by liquid phase deposition (LPD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the optimized preparation by liquid phase deposition (LPD) of nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide/carbon (Ni-Al LDH/C) composites as nickel-based cathode materials. We investigate the influence of the LDH content on the properties of the composites prepared with various total volumes of the reaction solution while the solution composition and the amount of carbon are maintained constant. Diffraction patterns show that the crystallinity of the composite increases with increasing the LDH content. Gravimetric studies indicate that there is no correlation between the amount of the deposit and the total volume of the reaction solution. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) reveals that the optimal Al3+/(Al3+ + Ni2+) is obtained for the sample with the highest LDH content. The optimized composition results in high performance cathode materials; a high discharge capacity (>390 mAh gcomp-1) at the 1.0 C-rate, a good cycle life at 2.0 C-rate over 300 cycles and excellent electrochemical stability.

Béléké, Alexis Bienvenu; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Mizuhata, Minoru

2013-03-01

12

Effective inhibition of colon cancer cell growth with MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) loaded 5-FU and PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor BEZ-235 through apoptotic pathways  

PubMed Central

Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the third largest cause of cancer-related death. Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer. However, its response rate is less than 60%, even in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The side effects of 5-FU also limit its application. Nanoparticles have been used to deliver 5-FU, to increase its effectiveness and reduce side effects. Another common approach for colon cancer treatment is targeted therapy against the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. A recently-invented inhibitor of this pathway, BEZ-235, has been tested in several clinical trials and has shown effectiveness and low side effects. Thus, it is a very promising drug for colon cancer treatment. The combination of these two drugs, especially nanoparticle-packed 5-FU and BEZ-235, has not been studied. In the present study, we demonstrated that nanoparticles of layered double hydroxide (LDH) loaded with 5-FU were more effective than a free drug at inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, and that a combination treatment with BEZ-235 further increased the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to the treatment of LDH-packed 5-FU (LDH-5-FU). BEZ-235 alone can decrease colon cancer HCT-116 cell viability to 46% of the control, and the addition of LDH-5-FU produced a greater effect, reducing cell survival to 8% of the control. Our data indicate that the combination therapy of nanodelivered 5-FU with a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, BEZ-235, may promise a more effective approach for colon cancer treatment. PMID:25075187

Chen, Jiezhong; Shao, Renfu; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping; Gu, Wenyi

2014-01-01

13

Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

1999-01-01

14

Effects of Layer Double Hydroxide Nanoclays on the Toxicity of Copper to Daphnia Magna.  

E-print Network

??Nanoparticles may affect secondary pollutants such as copper. Layer Double Hydroxides (LDH) are synthetically produced nanoparticles that adsorb copper via cation exchange. Pretreatment of copper… (more)

Blake, Deanne Renee

2012-01-01

15

Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 A in pristine LDH to 21.3 A in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion. - Graphical abstract: ZnAl-layered double hydroxide intercalated with methotrexate ({approx}34% loading) promises the possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in controlled delivery. Highlights: > ZnAl-layered double hydroxide methotrexate nanohybrid has been synthesized. > XRD and TEM studies on nanohybrid revealed successful intercalation of methotrexate. > TG and CHN analyses showed {approx}34 wt% of methotrexate loading into the nanohybrid. > Possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in delivery.

Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakraborty, Jui, E-mail: jui@cgcri.res.in [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ghosh, Swapankumar, E-mail: swapankumar.ghosh2@mail.dcu.ie [National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR, Trivandrum 695019 (India); Mitra, Manoj K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Basu, Debabrata [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2011-09-15

16

Synthesis and characterization of crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol)/layered double hydroxide composite polymer  

E-print Network

Synthesis and characterization of crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol)/layered double hydroxide Direct ethanol fuel cell Poly (vinyl alcohol) Layered double hydroxide Ionic conductivity Anion exchange by synthesizing crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol)/layered double hydroxide (PVA/LDH) hybrid membranes with solution

Zhao, Tianshou

17

Intercalation of perfluorobutane sulfonate into layered double hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnMgAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnMgAl–NO3–LDH) intercalated with perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were investigated as a new flame retardant for acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resins. Powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectra confirmed the intercalation of PFBS by exchange of nitrate ions. The enhanced performance of the ZnMgAl–PFBS–LDH\\/ABS composites was possibly due to the high char residue of ZnMgAl–PFBS–LDH. Preliminary combustion tests showed that the ZnMgAl–PFBS–LDH\\/ABS

Lixia Zhang; Yanjun Lin; Sailong Xu; Rushi Li; Xiuting Zheng; Fazhi Zhang

2010-01-01

18

Hierarchical layered double hydroxide nanocomposites: structure, synthesis and applications.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based nanocomposites, constructed by interacting LDH nanoparticles with other nanomaterials (e.g. silica nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles) or polymeric molecules (e.g. proteins), are an emerging yet active area in healthcare, environmental remediation, energy conversion and storage. Combining advantages of each component in the structure and functions, hierarchical LDH-based nanocomposites have shown great potential in biomedicine, water purification, and energy storage and conversion. This feature article summarises the recent advances in LDH-based nanocomposites, focusing on their synthesis, structure, and application in drug delivery, bio-imaging, water purification, supercapacitors, and catalysis. PMID:25562489

Gu, Zi; Atherton, John James; Xu, Zhi Ping

2015-02-01

19

Layered double hydroxides as anion- and cation-exchanging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered double hydroxides (LDH) have been principally known as anion-exchanging, clay-like materials for several decades, and continues to be the main driving force for current and future research. The chemical interactions of LDH, with transition metallocyanides, have been a popular topic of investigation for many years, partly due to the use of powder x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy as the

Mickey Charles Richardson

2007-01-01

20

Part I. Layered Double Hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new general method for the preparation of well -ordered layered double hydroxides (LDHs), (Mg_ {rm 1-x}Al_{ rm x} (OH)_2) (X^{rm n-}) _{rm n/x}{cdot}yH _2O, interlayered by organic anions has been developed. It is based on the reaction of meixnerite, (Mg_3Al(OH)_8) (OH) cdot2H_2O, with the free acid form of the desired anion--using glycerol as a swelling agent--to yield single crystalline products that are not readily available by conventional synthetic methods. The (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) -adipate and -p-toluenesulfonate derivatives undergo facile ion exchange reactions with Keggin-type (XM_{12}O_ {40}) ^{rm n -} or lacunary (XM_{11 }O_{39}) ^{rm m-} polyoxometalates (POMs) to form well-ordered, microporous pillared derivatives with the highest N_2 BET surface areas reported to date, namely 107 and 155 m^2 /g, respectively. Meixnerite, (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) (OH) cdot2H _2O, has unexpectedly been found to undergo similar ion exchange reactions, in a topotactic way, with retention of the structure of the intercalated POMs. The meixnerite was conveniently prepared for the first time from calcination of (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) (CO_3) _{0.5}{cdot}2H _2O and aqueous hydrolysis of the resulting NaCl-type solid solution. Metal carbonyl clusters have also been examined for ion-exchange (i.e., { (Pt _3(CO)_6) _{rm n}}^ {2-}) in these LDH-precursors. This chemistry is compared with the surface chemistry of (Mg_3 Al(OH)_8) (X^ {rm n-}) _{ rm 1/n}{cdot}2H _2O (X = CO_3^{2 -} or OH^{-}). It has been shown that the surface hydrolysis reaction: CO _3^{2-} + H _2O longrightarrow HCO_3^{-} + OH ^-, causes reductive condensation reactions of neutral carbonyl clusters with the LDH. The reactions were as efficient as with Na metal in solution. In part II of this work, Li-fluorohectorite, has been pillared with titanium polyoxocations derived from the acidic hydrolysis of TiCl_4 or Ti(i-OC_3H_7) _4. Raman spectroscopy of the product indicates that the pillars have a structure analogous to TiO_2(B) phase. It is proposed that the pillars consist of aggregates of condensed (Ti _8O_{12} (H_2O)_{24 }) ^{8+} cations.

Dimotakis, Emmanuel Dimitrios

21

Intracellular release of fluorescein anion from layered double hydroxide nanoparticles indicating endosomal escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been attempted to be applied to a molecular container due to their anion exchange ability, low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. In this paper, we investigated the intracellular behaviour of LDH particles in mammalian cells after internalization. Nanoparticles of fluorescein (Fluo) intercalated LDH, Fluo/LDH, were prepared by the coprecipitation followed by subsequent hydrothermal treatment. As-prepared Fluo/LDH particles have the LDH structure and morphology of hexagonal sheet of 100 nm on the average. In addition, Fluo/LDH also exhibited high green fluorescence and low cytotoxicity. By a confocal laser scanning microscopy, the dim green fluorescence was observed throughout cells, including the nucleus. This result indicated that Fluo/LDH released guest anion (Fluo) from LDH structure inside cells. Furthermore, because the fluorescence was observed throughout the cell, Fluo was not retained within endosome structure, i.e., Fluo/LDH was dissolved to release Fluo from endosome.

Tanaka, M.; Aisawa, S.; Hidetoshi, H.; Narita, E.; Dong, Q.; Yin, S.; Sato, T.

2013-12-01

22

Synthesis of layered double hydroxide nanosheets by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of Mg{sub 2}Al–NO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor is reported. Aqueous LDH nanosheet dispersions were obtained. The LDH nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and particle size analysis, and the transmittance and viscosity of LDH nanosheet dispersions were examined. The two-dimensional LDH nanosheets consisted of 1–2 brucite-like layers and were stable for ca. 16 h at room temperature. In addition, the co-assembly between LDH nanosheets and dodecyl sulfate (DS) anions was carried out, and a DS intercalated LDH nanohybrid was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LDH nanosheets being directly prepared in bulk aqueous solution. This simple, cheap method can provide naked LDH nanosheets in high quantities, which can be used as building blocks for functional materials. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets were synthesized by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor, and could be used as basic building blocks for LDH-based functional materials. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LDH nanosheets were synthesized by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor. • Naked LDH nanosheets were dispersed in aqueous media. • LDH nanosheets can be used as building blocks for functional materials.

Pang, Xiujiang; Sun, Meiyu; Ma, Xiuming [State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Hou, Wanguo, E-mail: wghou@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

2014-02-15

23

GEOC Andrew Stack Sunday, March 16, 2014 28 Spectroscopic evidence of mixed divalent metal layered double hydroxide phase formation from the cosorption  

E-print Network

layered double hydroxide phase formation from the cosorption of Fe(II) and Zn with Albearing mineral Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States Layered double hydroxide (LDH

Sparks, Donald L.

24

Formation of Crystalline Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Precipitates on Alumina: The Role of Mineral Dissolution  

E-print Network

Formation of Crystalline Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Precipitates on Alumina: The Role the sequestration of toxic metals such as nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) as layered double hydroxide (LDH layered double hydroxides (LDHs), which have a chemical formula commonly represented as [Mez+ 1-xAl3+ x

Sparks, Donald L.

25

The preparation of layered double hydroxide wrapped carbon nanotubes and their application as a flame retardant for polypropylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrapped with layered double hydroxide (LDH-w-CNTs) were facilely obtained through in situ introduction of CNTs into the hydrothermal reaction system of LDH, with the goal of combining their unique physical and chemical characteristics to meet new advanced applications. Morphological observations indicated that LDH lamellae enwrapped the surface of CNTs and the wrapping degree was dependent on the

Baoxian Du; Zhengping Fang

2010-01-01

26

Adsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned Layered Double Hydroxides: Batch and Flow  

E-print Network

calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH) adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH3. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been invariant with particle size4. The removal of As(V) on conditioned, calcined LDH adsorbents was also

Southern California, University of

27

Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 Å in pristine LDH to 21.3 Å in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion.

Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mitra, Manoj K.; Basu, Debabrata

2011-09-01

28

Highly oriented nanoplates of layered double hydroxides as an ultra slow release system.  

PubMed

A novel controlled molecular release based on highly oriented nanoplates of layered double hydroxide was fabricated on indium tin oxide substrates by electrophoretic deposition of exfoliated LDH nanosheets. The LDH particle coating exhibited a superior release performance of the order of hours. PMID:22531710

Lee, Jong Hyeon; Jung, Duk-Young

2012-06-01

29

Heterogeneous Catalysis by Polyoxometalate-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation, characterisation and catalytic performance of layered double hydroxides (LDH) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing different polyoxometalates (POM) in the interlayer are studied. Special attention is paid to the preparation procedures, as they control the properties of the solids formed and thus their catalytic behaviour. The study is extended to solids prepared upon thermal decomposition of these POM-LDH systems. It is concluded that the LDH does not act as a simple support, but that its specific properties, such as nature of the cations in the brucite-like layers, specific surface area and the method followed for its preparation, have an outstanding effect on the final catalytic properties of the POM-LDH systems.

Rives, Vicente; Carriazo, Daniel; Martín, Cristina

30

Intercalation of Hydrogen Phosphate Into Mg/Al-LAYERED Double Hydroxides with Dbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intercalation of hydrogen phosphate (HPO4) into Mg/Al-Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) with DodecylBenzeneSulfonate (DBS) was investigated with regard to anion exchange, rehydration and a combination of delamination and anion exchange. HPO4 could not be intercalated into the interlayer space of LDH with DBS when using either anion exchange or rehydration methods. However, HPO4 was successfully intercalated into the Mg/Al-LDH using a combination of delamination and anion exchange methods.

Shimamura, Akihiro; Jones, Mark I.; Metson, James B.

31

Intercalation of collagen and soybean peptides into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide.  

PubMed

In order to develop a new type biocompatible organic/inorganic nanohybrid material, an intercalation of collagen peptides (CP) and soybean peptide (SP) into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by the coprecipitation reaction has been investigated. The peptide/LDH has been characterized by chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the XRD patterns and Raman spectra, the solid products were found to contain peptide and to show broad diffraction peaks with LDH structures. The CP/LDH and SP/LDH possess the expanding LDH structure, d(00l) = 2-3 nm, confirming that both peptides were intercalated into the LDH interlayer space with low organized stacking arrangement. PMID:18468096

Aisawa, Sumio; Yasutake, Aiko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Narita, Eiichi

2008-01-01

32

Adsorption of dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxy benzoic acid) in aqueous solution by calcined–layered double hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are anionic clays with high anion exchange capacities. Calcination of LDHs increases their anion-exchange capacities significantly, resulting in calcined-LDHs that are better adsorbents for removal of anion pollutants than uncalcined-LDHs. In this study, layered double hydroxides, LDH–CO32? and calcined-LDH, were prepared and characterized by FT-IR and X-ray diffraction analysis, with the products evaluated for their ability

Youwen You; Hongting Zhao; George F Vance

2002-01-01

33

Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement  

PubMed Central

We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH). The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1%) of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 ?g/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement. PMID:25490138

Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-A; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

2014-01-01

34

Uptake of chloride ion from aqueous solution by calcined layered double hydroxides: Equilibrium and kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered double hydroxides (LDH) calcined within a certain temperature range (denoted as CLDH) have been shown to recover their original layered structure in the presence of appropriate anions. In the light of this so-called “memory effect”, uptake of chloride ion from aqueous solution by calcined MgAl–CO3 LDH was investigated in batch mode. The equilibrium isotherm showed that the uptake of

Liang Lv; Jing He; Min Wei; D. G. Evans; Xue Duan

2006-01-01

35

Facile synthesis of NiAl-layered double hydroxide\\/graphene hybrid with enhanced electrochemical properties for detection of dopamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like anionic clays, have been investigated widely as promising electrochemical active materials. Due to the inherently weak conductivity, the electrochemical properties of LDHs were improved typically by utilization of either functional molecules intercalated between LDH interlayer galleries, or proteins confined between exfoliated LDH nanosheets. Here, we report a facile protocol to prepare NiAl-LDH\\/graphene

Meixia Li; Jun E. Zhu; Lili Zhang; Xu Chen; Huimin Zhang; Fazhi Zhang; Sailong Xu; David G. Evans

2011-01-01

36

Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Biocompatible clay materials have attracted particular attention as the efficient drug delivery systems (DDS). In this article, we review developments in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for controlled drug release and delivery. We show how advances in the ability to synthesize intercalated structures have a significant influence on the development of new applications of these materials. We also show how modification and/or functionalization can lead to new biotechnological and biomedical applications. This review highlights the most recent progresses in research on LDH-based controlled drug delivery systems, focusing mainly on: (i) DDS with cardiovascular drugs as guests; (ii) DDS with anti-inflammatory drugs as guests; and (iii) DDS with anti-cancer drugs as guests. Finally, future prospects for LDH-based drug carriers are also discussed. PMID:24940733

Bi, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Dou, Liguang

2014-01-01

37

Catalytic applications of layered double hydroxides: recent advances and perspectives.  

PubMed

This review surveys recent advances in the applications of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in heterogeneous catalysis. By virtue of the flexible tunability and uniform distribution of metal cations in the brucite-like layers and the facile exchangeability of intercalated anions, LDHs-both as directly prepared or after thermal treatment and/or reduction-have found many applications as stable and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts or catalyst supports for a variety of reactions with high industrial and academic importance. A major challenge in this rapidly growing field is to simultaneously improve the activity, selectivity and stability of these LDH-based materials by developing ways of tailoring the electronic structure of the catalysts and supports. Therefore, this Review article is mainly focused on the most recent developments in smart design strategies for LDH materials and the potential catalytic applications of the resulting materials. PMID:25001024

Fan, Guoli; Li, Feng; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

2014-10-21

38

Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.  

PubMed

Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals. PMID:24442186

Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

2014-05-01

39

Pillaring of layered double hydroxides (LDH's) by polyoxometalate anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered silicate clays (LSC's) intercalated by pillaring polyoxocations are precursors to an important class of microporous catalysts for a large number of reactions, including shape selective petroleum cracking. To date, smectite clays are the only host structures known to be pillarable by purely inorganic oxo ions. In the present work they report the oxo ion pillaring of a new family

Taehyun. Kwon; George A. Tsigdinos; Thomas J. Pinnavaia

1988-01-01

40

A templated electrosynthesis of macroporous NiAl layered double hydroxides thin films.  

PubMed

Colloidal crystals of polystyrene (PS) beads self-assembled on Pt electrode were used as a sacrificial template to electrosynthesis thin films of macroporous Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH). Such nanostructured materials display a high internal surface area and porosity leading to enhanced electrochemical performance. PMID:21125133

Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude; Khenifi, Aicha; Ballarin, Barbara; Scavetta, Erika; Mousty, Christine

2011-02-14

41

Bionanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides as drug delivery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work introduces new biohybrid materials involving layered double hydroxides (LDH) and biopolymers to produce bionanocomposites, able to act as effective drug delivery systems (DDS). Ibuprofen (IBU) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been chosen as model drugs, being intercalated in a Mg-Al LDH matrix. On the one side, the LDHIBU intercalation compound prepared by ion-exchange reaction was blended with the biopolymers zein, a highly hydrophobic protein, and alginate, a polysaccharide widely applied for encapsulating drugs. On the other side, the LDH- 5-ASA intercalation compound prepared by co-precipitation was assembled to the polysaccharides chitosan and pectin, which show mucoadhesive properties and resistance to acid pH values, respectively. Characterization of the intercalation compounds and the resulting bionanocomposites was carried out by means of different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, chemical and thermal analysis, as well as optical and scanning electron microscopies. Data on the swelling behavior and drug release under different pH conditions are also reported.

Aranda, Pilar; Alcântara, Ana C. S.; Ribeiro, Ligia N. M.; Darder, Margarita; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

2012-10-01

42

Mechanism of the anion exchange reactions of the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Ca and Mg with Al  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nitrate containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Ca with Al on reaction with aqueous solutions of Na 2CO 3 and Na 3PO 4 yields CaCO 3 and Ca 5(PO 4) 3OH respectively rather than the carbonate/phosphate containing LDHs. The LDH of Mg with Al on reacting with dissolved phosphate ions also leads to the formation of unitary phosphates. This shows that the anion exchange reactions of layered double hydroxides take place by the dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism rather than by the topotactic mechanism.

Radha, A. V.; Vishnu Kamath, P.; Shivakumara, C.

2005-10-01

43

Scalable preparation of alginate templated-layered double hydroxide mesoporous composites with enhanced surface areas and surface acidities.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like layered clays, have previously been investigated as a potential solid alkaline catalyst. A necessary calcinations/rehydration procedure, however, is utilized to enhance surface area and catalytic activity of LDHs involved. Here we report on a scalable preparation of sodium alginate-templated MgAI-LDH (LDH/SA) mesoporous composites with high surface area and surface acidity. The powdery LDH/SA mesoporous composites are prepared using alginate as template by a scalable method of separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Comparison with the pristine MgAl-LDH shows that the obtained LDH/SA composites exhibit the greatly enhanced surface area and surface activity of surface acid sites at the elevated high temperatures which have scarcely been reported previously. Our results may allow designing a variety of mesoporous LDH-containing composites with potential applications in specific catalysis and purification processes. PMID:21776699

Zhao, Lina; Xu, Ting; Lei, Xiaodong; Xu, Sailong; Zhang, Fazhi

2011-04-01

44

Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test. - Graphical abstract: Acid yellow anions were successfully assembled into ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic composite pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Highlights: > Acid yellow 17 was directly intercalated into ZnAl-LDH to form a novel pigment. > The pigment was prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. > The intercalation of dye anions enhances its thermal- and photo-stability.

Wang Qian; Feng Yongjun; Feng Junting [College of Science, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Dianqing, E-mail: lidq@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Science, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2011-06-15

45

Treatment of gaseous hydrogen chloride using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with carbonate ion.  

PubMed

It is important to treat gaseous HCl from incineration streams efficiently to avoid adverse environmental consequences. In this paper, a new treatment method for gaseous HCl is presented-the application of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with CO(3)(2-) (CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH) to treat gaseous HCl continuously. The degree of HCl removal without water vapor is higher than that with water vapor; further, this reaction does not require H(2)O. In addition, the degree of HCl removal increases with increasing temperature, CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH quantity, HCl concentration, and improved contact between CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH and HCl gas. The treatment of HCl gas by CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH leads to the production of Mg-Al LDH intercalated with Cl(-). Further, HCl is also absorbed on the surface of CO(3)·Mg-Al LDH. Our proposed treatment method works effectively for the treatment of gaseous HCl from incinerator streams. PMID:20800264

Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

2010-10-01

46

Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

Yilmaz, Ceren [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Unal, Ugur [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Yagci Acar, Havva, E-mail: fyagci@ku.edu.tr [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey)

2012-03-15

47

Cation ordering and superstructures in natural layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) constitute an important group of materials with many applications ranging from catalysis and absorption to carriers for drug delivery, DNA intercalation and carbon dioxide sequestration. The structures of LDHs are based upon double brucite-like hydroxide layers [M(2+)(n)M(3+)(m)(OH)(2(m+n)](m+), where M(2+) = Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), etc.; M(3+) = Al(3+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Mn(3+), etc. Structural features of LDHs such as cation ordering, charge distribution and polytypism have an immediate influence upon their properties. However, all the structural studies on synthetic LDHs deal with powder samples that prevent elucidation of such fine details of structure architecture as formation of superstructures due to cation ordering. In contrast to synthetic materials, natural LDHs are known to form single crystals accessible to single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, which provides a unique possibility to investigate 3D cation ordering in LDHs that results in formation of complex superstructures, where 2D cation order is combined with a specific order of layer stacking (polytypism). Therefore LDH minerals provide an indispensable source of structural information for modeling of structures and processes happening in LDHs at the molecular and nanoscale levels. PMID:21138162

Krivovichev, Sergey V; Yakovenchuk, Victor N; Zolotarev, Andrey A; Ivanyuk, Gregory N; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A

2010-01-01

48

Novel HCN sorbents based on layered double hydroxides: Sorption mechanism and performance.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and layered double oxides (LDOs) have been prepared and used as sorbents for hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Based on results from sorbent optimization experiments, the optimal performance for HCN removal was found in Ni-Al LDH. As evidenced by fixed-bed sorption studies, the Ni-Al LDO with the greatest surface area showed better performance and outperformed products calcined at 200, 400, or 500°C, whereas, the Ni-Al LDH showed a more twofold higher sorption capacity than the Ni-Al LDO. Investigation of the mechanisms between HCN and sorbents reveals that the HCN removal by the Ni-Al LDH and Ni-Al LDO leads to the formation of the complex anion, [Ni(CN)4](2-). Nevertheless, the [Ni(CN)4](2-) can enter interlayer region of the Ni-Al LDH due to its anion exchangeability, which endows this LDH with more binding sites, not only on its external surfaces, but also on its internal surfaces located in the interlayer region. In contrast, [Ni(CN)4](2-) were only adsorbed on the external surface of the Ni-Al LDO. As a result, the sorption capacity of the Ni-Al LDH for HCN is twice as high as that of the Ni-Al LDO, which is at 21.55mg/g. PMID:25497317

Zhao, Qian; Tian, Senlin; Yan, Linxia; Zhang, Qiulin; Ning, Ping

2015-03-21

49

Study of organo-hybrid layered double hydroxides by medium and near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) containing carbonate ion in its interlayer region was examined by medium infrared (MIR) and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). The MIR and NIR spectroscopy techniques was also used to study two organo-hybrid LDHs containing interlayer dodecylbenzenesulphonate (DBS) and dodecylsulphate (DS) ions, respectively. The NIR spectra for the latter solids were found to exhibit the overtone and combination bands for the hydroxyl groups in addition to those typical bands of the organic host functions.

Mora, Manuel; López, M. Isabel; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, J. Rafael

2011-03-01

50

Synthesis of ACECLOFENAC/HYDROXYPROPYL-?-CYCLODEXTRIN Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides and Controlled Release Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aceclofenac (AC)/hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) complex intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by reconstruction method. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and thermal gravimetric analyses indicated a successful intercalation of AC/HP-?-CD complex into the LDHs gallery. The AC release properties were also studied in different pH values buffer solution. The results indicate that the AC/HP-?-CD intercalated LDH has a potential application in drug delivery agent.

Li, Shifeng; Shen, Yanming; Liu, Dongbin; Fan, Lihui; Wu, Keke; Xiao, Min

2013-06-01

51

Rearrangement of layered double hydroxide nanoplatelets during hollow colloidosome preparation.  

PubMed

Hollow colloidosomes consisting of plate-like Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have been prepared by a facile route from a Pickering emulsion. The particles are first adsorbed onto the surface of paraffin oil-in-water emulsion droplets. After the core oil is dissolved in the surrounding bulk liquid, using solvents that are miscible with both the internal and external phases of the droplets, colloidosomes are formed. In this process, we find that the diameters of the colloidosomes are significantly reduced compared to those of the emulsion droplets. The reduction in the diameter is caused by rearrangement of the LDH platelets. That is, the platelets change their orientation from lying flat on the emulsion droplet surface to standing erect in a dense, face-to-face connecting pattern in the colloidosome shell. The main reason for the particle rearrangement is the increase of the attractive forces among the particles due to the reduced polarity of the solvents used during colloidosome preparation. PMID:20219203

Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Shangying; Dong, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Fei; Sun, Dejun

2010-05-15

52

Hierarchical construction of an ultrathin layered double hydroxide nanoarray for highly-efficient oxygen evolution reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are essential components of renewable energy technologies, such as solar fuel synthesis and water splitting processes for powering fuel cells. Here, ultrathin NiCoFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplates, which directly grow on a cobalt-based nanowire array, forming a hierarchical nanoarray structure, are constructed as efficient oxygen evolution electrodes. In alkaline media, the ordered ultrathin hierarchical LDH nanoarray electrode shows dramatically increased catalytic activity compared to that of LDH nanoparticles and pure nanowire arrays due to the small size, large surface area, and high porosity of the NiCoFe LDH nanoarray. Only a small water oxidation overpotential (?) of 257 mV is needed for a current density of 80 mA cm-2 with a Tafel slope of 53 mV per decade. The hierarchical LDH nanoarray also shows excellent structural stability in alkaline media. After continuous testing under a high OER current density (~300 mA cm-2) for 10 h, the sample maintains the ordered hierarchical structure with no significant deactivation of the catalytic properties.Efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are essential components of renewable energy technologies, such as solar fuel synthesis and water splitting processes for powering fuel cells. Here, ultrathin NiCoFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplates, which directly grow on a cobalt-based nanowire array, forming a hierarchical nanoarray structure, are constructed as efficient oxygen evolution electrodes. In alkaline media, the ordered ultrathin hierarchical LDH nanoarray electrode shows dramatically increased catalytic activity compared to that of LDH nanoparticles and pure nanowire arrays due to the small size, large surface area, and high porosity of the NiCoFe LDH nanoarray. Only a small water oxidation overpotential (?) of 257 mV is needed for a current density of 80 mA cm-2 with a Tafel slope of 53 mV per decade. The hierarchical LDH nanoarray also shows excellent structural stability in alkaline media. After continuous testing under a high OER current density (~300 mA cm-2) for 10 h, the sample maintains the ordered hierarchical structure with no significant deactivation of the catalytic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the Ni foam and Co-based nanowire arrays; XPS and EDS results of the hierarchical LDH nanoarrays, and gas bubble adhesive force data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03371j

Yang, Qiu; Li, Tian; Lu, Zhiyi; Sun, Xiaoming; Liu, Junfeng

2014-09-01

53

The preparation of layered double hydroxide wrapped carbon nanotubes and their application as a flame retardant for polypropylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrapped with layered double hydroxide (LDH-w-CNTs) were facilely obtained through in situ introduction of CNTs into the hydrothermal reaction system of LDH, with the goal of combining their unique physical and chemical characteristics to meet new advanced applications. Morphological observations indicated that LDH lamellae enwrapped the surface of CNTs and the wrapping degree was dependent on the functionalization of CNTs. ?-potential measurements showed that the interaction between the positive charge of LDH and the negative charge of CNTs was the main driving force of the wrapping process. Both hybrids led to a reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR) of polypropylene, indicating that they could confer better flame retardancy on polypropylene with respect to LDH and CNTs.

Du, Baoxian; Fang, Zhengping

2010-08-01

54

Eu-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxide as a responsive fluorescent material and its interaction with glutamic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a study on the fluorescence of a Eu-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Eu-doped LDH) response to glutamic acid (Glu). Various characterizations (UV-Vis transmittance, TG-DTA and IR-spectrum) indicated that there is an interaction between the Eu-doped LDH and Glu. Fluorescent study was found that the red emissions resulted from 5D0-7FJ transition (J = 1, 2) of Eu3+ markedly decreased, while the blue emission at 440 nm contributed to Glu shifted to low energy after the addition of Glu to the Eu-doped LDH. The fluorescent changes may be relevant to the hydrogen-bond interaction between the Eu-doped LDH and Glu, and the mechanism of the interaction between Eu-doped LDH and Glu was discussed.

Chen, Yufeng; Li, Fei; Yu, Gensheng; Wei, Junchao

2012-10-01

55

Layered Double Hydroxide Based Polymer Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocomposites based on polymers and inorganic filler materials not only create enormous interest\\u000a among researchers because of their unique way of preparation and properties, but also promise development\\u000a of new hybrid materials for specific applications in the field of polymer composites. The present article\\u000a deals with the application of a relatively new class of inorganic materials, namely layered double\\u000a hydroxides (LDHs),

Francis Reny Costa; Marina Saphiannikova; Udo Wagenknecht; Gert Heinrich

56

Thermal decomposition of silylated layered double hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anionic surfactant and silane modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized through an in situ coprecipitation\\u000a method. The structure and morphology were characterized by XRD and TEM techniques, and their thermal decomposition processes\\u000a were investigated using infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) combined with thermogravimetry (TG). The surfactant modified\\u000a LDHs (H-DS) shows three diffractions located at 1–7° (2?), while there is only

Qi TaoHongping; Hongping He; Ray L. Frost; Peng Yuan; Jianxi Zhu

2010-01-01

57

Tungstocobaltate-pillared layered double hydroxides: Preparation, characterization, magnetic and catalytic properties  

SciTech Connect

A new polyoxometalate anion-pillared layered double hydroxide (LDH) was prepared by aqueous ion exchange of a Mg-Al LDH precursor in nitrate form with the tungstocobaltate anions [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-}. The physicochemical properties of the product were characterized by the methods of powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and cyclic voltammetry. It was confirmed that [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-} was intercalated between the brucite-type layers of the LDHs without a change in the structure. Magnetic measurement shows the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the magnetic centers. The investigation of catalytic performance for this sample exhibits high activity for the oxidation of benzaldehyde by hydrogen peroxide. - Graphical abstract: A tungstocobaltate anion [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-} pillared layered double hydroxide (LDH) was prepared by aqueous ion exchange with a Mg-Al LDH precursor in nitrate form, demonstrating that [CoW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 5-} was intercalated between the brucite-type layers of the LDHs without change in structure. Magnetic measurement shows the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the magnetic centers. The investigation of catalytic performance for this sample exhibits high activity for the oxidation of benzaldehyde by hydrogen peroxide.

Wei Xiaocui [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Baicheng College of Higher Medicine, Baicheng 137000 (China); Fu Youzhi [Department of Chemistry, Baicheng Teacher's College, Baicheng 137000 (China); Xu Lin [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)], E-mail: linxu@nenu.edu.cn; Li Fengyan; Bi Bo; Liu Xizheng [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

2008-06-15

58

Enhanced Cellular Delivery and Biocompatibility of a Small Layered Double Hydroxide–Liposome Composite System  

PubMed Central

The various classes of gene delivery vectors possess distinct advantages and disadvantages, each of which impacts on cargo loading, delivery and, ultimately, its function. With this in mind, herein we report on a small layered double hydroxide (sLDH)–liposome composite system, drawing upon the salient features of LDH and liposome classes of vectors, while avoiding their inherent shortfalls when used independently. sLDH–liposome composites were prepared by the hydration of freeze-dried matrix method. These composite systems, with a Z-average size of ?200 nm, exhibited low cytotoxicity and demonstrated good suspension stability, both in water and cell culture medium after rehydration. Our studies demonstrate that short dsDNAs/ssDNAs were completely bound and protected in the composite system at an sLDH:DNA mass ratio of 20:1, regardless of the approach to DNA loading. This composite system delivered DNA to HCT-116 cells with ?3-fold greater efficiency, when compared to sLDH alone. Our findings point towards the sLDH-liposome composite system being an effective and biocompatible gene delivery system. PMID:25431895

Dong, Haiyan; Parekh, Harendra S.; Xu, Zhi Ping

2014-01-01

59

The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids  

PubMed Central

Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16) were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications. PMID:23737669

Qin, Lili; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Rongrong; You, Songhui; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Shilong

2013-01-01

60

Preparation and capacitance properties of graphene/NiAl layered double-hydroxide nanocomposite.  

PubMed

Graphene/NiAl layered double-hydroxide (LDH) composite with high capacitive properties has been prepared in a friendly one-step process. It is found that NiAl-LDH is formed in the addition of precipitator agent (NaOH and NaNO3) by hydrothermal method, at the same time graphene oxide (GO) is reduced to graphene. The morphology and structure of the obtained material are examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. It is revealed that the NiAl-LDH disperses well on the surface of graphene and the formation of NiAl-LDH nanoparticles is beneficial to the peeling of graphene (RGO). More importantly, the addition of NiAl-LDH to graphene endows the materials with desirable specific surface areas and higher porosity. These structural advantages result in higher specific capacitance compared with pristine graphene. Electrochemical property investigations show that the graphene/NiAl-LDH had a higher specific capacitance than graphene. PMID:23411355

Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Junhui; Zou, Linda; Liu, Zhaotie; Hao, Zhengping

2013-04-15

61

Intracrystalline structure of DNA molecules stabilized in the layered double hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA was successfully intercalated into layered double hydroxide (LDH), Mg2Al(OH)6NO3·0.1H2O, through ion exchange reaction to form DNA LDH nanohybrid. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic results demonstrate that the DNA molecules are stabilized between the hydroxide layers. According to the circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies, the B-form DNA molecules are electrostatically bound in the interlayer space of LDHs upon satisfying the charge neutralization condition. However, the intercalated DNA molecules are supposed to be more or less twisted due to the charge mismatch between anionic DNA and cationic LDH. To verify the size of DNA strands in the LDH lattice, the DNA molecules with different length of 0.2 5 kbps were intercalated into the LDHs with various particle size. Three kinds of LDHs with discrete particle size were synthesized through both coprecipitation and hydrothermal methods. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the particle sizes were determined as ˜80, 150, and 300 nm, respectively. Thus prepared DNA LDH nanohybrids with various particle size were treated with DNA destroying enzyme such as DNase I. Since the LDHs (80, 150, 300 nm) are smaller in size than the DNA molecules, some parts of the intercalated DNA chains are eventually dangling outside of the host LDH layer. Therefore, the dangling part of DNA chains and the surface adsorbed DNA were decomposed quickly by DNase I treatment. The DNA strands protected by LDH layers could intentionally be recovered by treating with an acidic solution. The length of DNA strands thus recovered were confirmed by electrophoresis, and determined to be ˜200 bps irrespective of the particle size of LDHs.

Oh, Jae-Min; Kwak, Seo-Young; Choy, Jin-Ho

2006-05-01

62

Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination-rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO32- solutions imply that Mg3Al-VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg3Fe-VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO32- solution.

Gao, Xiaorui; Lei, Lixu; O'Hare, Dermot; Xie, Juan; Gao, Pengran; Chang, Tao

2013-07-01

63

Aerosol-assisted self-assembly of hybrid Layered Double Hydroxide particles into spherical architectures.  

PubMed

Acetate intercalated NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxide nanoparticles were prepared by polyol process and further used as building blocks to form hybrid LDH spheres by a spray drying technique. The spherical aggregated LDH particles display a polydispersed size with a diameter ranging from 47 nm to 2 ?m. The analysis of the thermal behavior evidenced that the spherical form was maintained upon calcination up to 1100°C, giving rise to derived mixed oxide (NiO+NiAl(2)O(4)) nanospheres. Interestingly, the spherical morphology of the LDH materials was also retained during anion exchange process. The replacement of the intercalated acetate anion by of a voluminous anion such as dodecylsulfate induces an increase of the nanosphere mean diameter of 65%. The different materials were deeply characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, dynamic light scattering, thermal analysis and nitrogen sorption. PMID:21315370

Prevot, Vanessa; Szczepaniak, Claire; Jaber, Maguy

2011-04-15

64

Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

1999-01-01

65

Nitrogen-enriched, double-shelled carbon/layered double hydroxide hollow microspheres for excellent electrochemical performance.  

PubMed

A unique, double-shelled, hollow, carbon-based composite with enriched nitrogen has been prepared through a facile and versatile synthetic strategy. The hierarchical composite employs the nitrogen-enriched carbon hollow sphere as an interior shell and intercrossed Ni/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets as an exterior shell. The obtained N-C@LDH hollow microspheres (HMS) have high nitrogen enrichment, large specific surface area (337 m(2) g(-1)), and uniform and open mesoporous structure. Taking advantage of these characteristics, the composite exhibits obviously superior capacitive behavior, including high specific capacitance, excellent rate capability and good cycling stability, compared with nitrogen-free carbon@LDH composite and hollow LDH without carbon shell. The composite displays high specific capacitance of 1711.51 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). In particular, the high specific capacitance can be kept to 997.3 F g(-1) at a high current density of 10 A g(-1), which still retains 94.97% of the initial specific capacitance after 500 cycles at this high current density. This N-enriched, hollow carbon/LDH composite can be expected to be a promising electrode material for electrochemical capacitors due to its high electrochemical performance. PMID:25117560

Xu, Jie; He, Fei; Gai, Shili; Zhang, Shenghuan; Li, Lei; Yang, Piaoping

2014-09-21

66

Thermal decomposition behavior of Cu–Al layered double hydroxide, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate-intercalated Cu–Al layered double hydroxide reconstructed from Cu–Al oxide for uptake of Y{sup 3+} from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Decomposition of CO{sub 3}·Cu–Al LDH occurred in four stages. ? The edta·Cu–Al LDH was found to take up Y{sup 3+} in aqueous solution. ? The edta·Cu–Al LDH could selectively take up rare earth ions from a mixed solution. -- Abstract: CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}-intercalated Cu–Al layered double hydroxide (CO{sub 3}·Cu–Al LDH) was calcined to yield Cu–Al oxide, and then ethylenediaminetetraacetate-intercalated Cu–Al LDH (edta·Cu–Al LDH) was prepared by reconstructing Cu–Al oxide in edta solution. Decomposition of CO{sub 3}·Cu–Al LDH occurred in four stages. The production of Cu–Al oxide was caused by the thermal decomposition of CO{sub 3}·Cu–Al LDH until the third stage. The first stage was the elimination of adsorbed surface water and interlayer water in CO{sub 3}·Cu–Al LDH. The second and third stages were the dehydroxylation of the brucite-like octahedral layers and the elimination of CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} intercalated in the interlayers. The edta·Cu–Al LDH was found to take up Y{sup 3+} in aqueous solution. The uptake of Y{sup 3+} was caused not only by the chelating function of Hedta{sup 3?} in the interlayer but also by the chemical behavior of Cu–Al LDH itself. The edta·Cu–Al LDH was found to selectively take up rare earth ions from a mixed solution. The degree of uptake was high, in the order Sc{sup 3+} > Y{sup 3+} > La{sup 3+} for all time durations, which was attributable to differences among the stabilities of Sc(edta){sup ?}, Y(edta){sup ?} and La(edta){sup ?}.

Kameda, Tomohito, E-mail: kameda@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hoshi, Kazuaki; Yoshioka, Toshiaki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2012-12-15

67

Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML), 5-FU/LDH (FL), and (MTX + 5-FU)/LDH (MFL) nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy. PMID:24860812

Lee, Gyeong Jin; Kang, Joo-Hee

2014-01-01

68

Hierarchical NiAl layered double hydroxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/nickel foam electrodes with excellent pseudocapacitive properties.  

PubMed

The performances of pseudocapacitors usually depend heavily on their hierarchical architectures and composition. Herein, we report a three-dimensional hierarchical NiAl layered double hydroxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/nickel foam (NiAl-LDH/MWCNT/NF) electrode prepared by a facile three-step fabrication method: in situ hydrothermal growth of NiAl-LDH film on a Ni foam, followed by direct chemical vapor deposition growth of dense MWCNTs onto the NiAl-LDH film, and finally the growth of NiAl-LDH onto the surface of the MWCNTs via an in situ hydrothermal process in the presence of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. The MWCNT surface was fully covered by NiAl-LDH hexagonal platelets, and this hierarchical architecture led to a much enhanced capacitance. The NiAl-LDH/MWCNT/NF electrode has an areal loading mass of 5.8 mg of LDH per cm(2) of MWCNT/NF surface. It also possesses exceptional areal capacitance (7.5 F cm(-2)), specific capacitance (1293 F g(-1)), and cycling stability (83% of its initial value was preserved after 1000 charge-discharge cycles). The NiAl-LDH/MWCNT/NF material is thus a highly promising electrode with potential applications in electrochemical energy storage. PMID:25185026

Wang, Bo; Williams, Gareth R; Chang, Zheng; Jiang, Meihong; Liu, Junfeng; Lei, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

2014-09-24

69

Intercalation of IR absorber into layered double hydroxides: Preparation, thermal stability and selective IR absorption  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMIDA anions were intercalated into Mg{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH by anion-exchange method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared material has highly selective IR absorption property in 9-11 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained material has practical applications as heat-retaining additive. -- Abstract: N-phosphonomethyl aminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) was intercalated into the interlayer spacing of layered double hydroxides (LDH) by an anion-exchange method. The intercalated LDHs were characterized by various techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and simultaneous thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry (TG-MS) in details. The results show the formation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH based on the expansion of d-spacing from 0.89 nm to 1.22 nm and the disappearance of the characteristic IR absorption band at 1384 cm{sup -1} for NO{sub 3}{sup -} anions. The incorporation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH into the low density polyethylene (LDPE) as an additive enhances the selectivity of IR absorption in the main wavelength region 9-11 {mu}m for radiant heat loss at night. Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH as a heat-retaining additive has practical application in agricultural plastic films.

Zhu, Haifeng; Tang, Pinggui [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Feng, Yongjun, E-mail: yjfeng@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Lijing; Li, Dianqing [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2012-03-15

70

Hierarchical construction of an ultrathin layered double hydroxide nanoarray for highly-efficient oxygen evolution reaction.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are essential components of renewable energy technologies, such as solar fuel synthesis and water splitting processes for powering fuel cells. Here, ultrathin NiCoFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplates, which directly grow on a cobalt-based nanowire array, forming a hierarchical nanoarray structure, are constructed as efficient oxygen evolution electrodes. In alkaline media, the ordered ultrathin hierarchical LDH nanoarray electrode shows dramatically increased catalytic activity compared to that of LDH nanoparticles and pure nanowire arrays due to the small size, large surface area, and high porosity of the NiCoFe LDH nanoarray. Only a small water oxidation overpotential (?) of 257 mV is needed for a current density of 80 mA cm(-2) with a Tafel slope of 53 mV per decade. The hierarchical LDH nanoarray also shows excellent structural stability in alkaline media. After continuous testing under a high OER current density (?300 mA cm(-2)) for 10 h, the sample maintains the ordered hierarchical structure with no significant deactivation of the catalytic properties. PMID:25162938

Yang, Qiu; Li, Tian; Lu, Zhiyi; Sun, Xiaoming; Liu, Junfeng

2014-10-21

71

Layered double hydroxide-alginate/polyvinyl alcohol beads: fabrication and phosphate removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In the water treatment field, powder form of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has wide applications in adsorptions. However, its applications are limited because of low hydraulic conductivity. Here, LDH-alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) beads were fabricated by entrapment of the Mg-Al LDH powder into alginate/PVA beads. The obtained Mg-Al LDH-alginate/PVA beads were characterized by X-ray diffraction scanning electron microscopy. Their performance for phosphate removal by batch and column adsorption mode was evaluated. The Mg-Al LDH-alginate/PVA beads were found to be efficient adsorbents for phosphate removal. Batch adsorption experiment showed that the phosphate sorption process on the Mg-Al LDH-alginate/PVA beads followed pseudo-second-order reaction order kinetic model and the adsorption isotherm date could be simulated using both Langmiur and Freundlich models. In the column study, the flow rate and inlet phosphate concentration were maintained at 29.62 m³/m² h and 10 mgP/L, respectively. Using 20 cm column depth, the breakthrough and exhaust time were found to be 5 and 31 h, respectively. The percentage of phosphate removal by column was 80.09%. The values of adsorption rate coefficient (K) and the adsorption capacity coefficient (N) were 0.0125 L/mg h and 258.32 mg/L, respectively. PMID:25176487

Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi

2014-01-01

72

Polarized immune responses modulated by layered double hydroxides nanoparticle conjugated with CpG.  

PubMed

Modulation of the immune response is an important step in the induction of protective humoral and cellular immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a nanomaterial conjugated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand CpG to modulate the immune response towards the preferred polarity. MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterial has a very similar chemical composition to Alum, an FDA approved adjuvant for human vaccination. We used a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) to demonstrate that MgAl-LDH had comparable adjuvant activity to Alum, but much weaker inflammation. Conjugation of TLR9 ligand CpG to LDH nanoparticles significantly enhanced the antibody response and promoted a switch from Th2 toward Th1 response, demonstrated by a change in the IgG2a:IgG1 ratio. Moreover, immunization of mice with CpG-OVA-conjugated LDH before challenge with OVA-expressing B16/F10 tumor cells retarded tumor growth. Together, these data indicate that LDH nanomaterial can be used as an immune adjuvant to promote Th1 or Th2 dominant immune responses suitable for vaccination purposes. PMID:25145853

Yan, Shiyu; Rolfe, Barbara E; Zhang, Bing; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Gu, Wenyi; Xu, Zhi P

2014-11-01

73

Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH) and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH), against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis. PMID:25114509

Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

2014-01-01

74

In vitro controlled release of vitamin C from Ca/Al layered double hydroxide drug delivery system.  

PubMed

A new drug delivery system for vitamin C (VC), Ca/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), is demonstrated in this work. VC anions were intercalated successfully in the Ca/Al LDH gallery by a coprecipitation method. The interlayer space of 9.8Å suggests that VC anions are vertical to the LDH layers in the form of interdigitated bilayer. The loading of VC in LDH is 36.4wt.%. The thermal stability of VC is significantly enhanced after intercalation. In vitro VC release results show that the release time of VC in a phosphate buffer at pH7.4 was significantly extended, and the maximal percentage of VC released is 80% of the total. The Avrami-Erofe'ev equation most satisfactorily explains the release kinetics of VC, which is that the release of VC is mainly dominated by the ion-exchange reaction. PMID:24863197

Gao, Xiaorui; Chen, Le; Xie, Juan; Yin, Yaobing; Chang, Tao; Duan, Yancong; Jiang, Nan

2014-06-01

75

Prolate spheroidal hematite particles equatorially belt with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide disks: Ring Nebula-like nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

A new nanocomposite architecture is reported which combines prolate spheroidal hematite nanoparticles with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide [LDH] disks in a single structure. Spindle-shaped hematite nanoparticles with average length of 225 nm and width of 75 nm were obtained by thermal decomposition of hydrothermally synthesized hematite. The particles were first coated with Mg-Al-NO3-LDH shell and then subjected to anion exchange with salicylate ions. The resulting bio-nanohybrid displayed a close structural resemblance to that of the Ring Nebula. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the LDH disks are stacked around the equatorial part of the ellipsoid extending along the main axis. This geometry possesses great structural tunability as the composition of the LDH and the nature of the interlayer region can be tailored and lead to novel applications in areas ranging from functional materials to medicine by encapsulating various guest molecules. PMID:21711652

2011-01-01

76

Double layered hydroxides as potential anti-cancer drug delivery agents.  

PubMed

The emergence of nanotechnology has changed the scenario of the medical world by revolutionizing the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of cancer. This nanotechnology has been proved miraculous in detecting cancer cells, delivering chemotherapeutic agents and monitoring treatment from non-specific to highly targeted killing of tumor cells. In the past few decades, a number of inorganic materials have been investigated such as calcium phosphate, gold, carbon materials, silicon oxide, iron oxide, and layered double hydroxide (LDH) for examining their efficacy in targeting drug delivery. The reason behind the selection of these inorganic materials was their versatile and unique features efficient in drug delivery, such as wide availability, rich surface functionality, good biocompatibility, potential for target delivery, and controlled release of the drug from these inorganic nanomaterials. Although, the drug-LDH hybrids are found to be quite instrumental because of their application as advanced anti-cancer drug delivery systems, there has not been much research on them. This mini review is set to highlight the advancement made in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as anti-cancer drug delivery agents. Along with the advantages of LDHs as anti-cancer drug delivery agents, the process of interaction of some of the common anti-cancer drugs with LDH has also been discussed. PMID:23170959

Riaz, Ufana; Ashraf, S M

2013-04-01

77

Intercalation behavior of amino acids into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide by calcination-rehydration reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intercalation of amino acids for the Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been investigated by the calcination-rehydration reaction at 298 K using mainly phenylalanine (Phe) as a guest amino acid. The Zn-Al oxide precursor prepared by the calcination of Zn-Al-carbonated LDH at 773 K for 2 h was used as the host material. The amount of Phe intercalated by the rehydration was remarkably influenced by the initial solution pH and reached ca. 2.7 times for anion exchange capacity (AEC) of the LDH at neutral and weak alkaline solutions, suggesting that Phe was intercalated as amphoteric ion form into the LDH interlayer. As Phe is intercalated for the LDH as monovalent anion in alkaline solution, the amount of Phe intercalated at pH 10.5 corresponded with AEC of the LDH. The solid products were found to have the expanded LDH structure, which confirmed that Phe was intercalated into the LDH interlayer as amphoteric ion or anion form. The basal spacing, d003, of the Phe/LDH was 1.58 nm at pH 7.0 and 0.80 nm at pH 10.5; two kinds of expansion suggested for Phe in the interlayer space as vertical (pH 7.0) and horizontal (pH 10.5) orientations. The intercalation behavior of various amino acids for the LDH was also found to be greatly influenced by the feature of the amino acid side-chain, namely, its carbon-chain length, structure and physicochemical property. In particular, ?-amino acids possessing a hydrophobic or negative-charged side-chain were preferentially intercalated for the LDH.

Aisawa, Sumio; Kudo, Hiroko; Hoshi, Tomomi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

2004-11-01

78

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Ordering of gallium(III) in a series of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides (LDH’s), [Mg1-xGax(OH)2(NO3)x yH2O], was determined using solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy. Depletion of Ga in these LDH’s is demonstrated to be the result of soluble [Ga(OH)4]-complexes formed during synthesis.

Petersen, Line B.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Zorin, Vadim; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

2014-11-01

79

Layered double hydroxide-carbon dot composite: high-performance adsorbent for removal of anionic organic dye.  

PubMed

It would be of significance to design a green composite for efficient removal of contaminants. Herein, we fabricated a facile and environmentally friendly composite via direct assembly of surface passivated carbon dots with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the positively charged layered double hydroxide (LDH). The resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The adsorption performances of the resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were evaluated for the removal of anionic methyl blue dye. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of LDH and carbon dots, the as-prepared composites exhibited high uptake capability of methyl blue (185 mg/g). The adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The reasons for the excellent adsorption capacity of methyl blue on the surface of the LDH-carbon dot hybrid were further discussed. A probable mechanism was speculated to involve the cooperative contributions of hydrogen bonding between methyl blue and carbon dots and electrostatic attraction between methyl blue and LDH, in the adsorption process. This work is anticipated to open up new possibilities in fabricating LDH-carbon dot materials in dealing with anionic dye pollutants. PMID:25313875

Zhang, Manlin; Yao, Qingfeng; Lu, Chao; Li, Zenghe; Wang, Wenxing

2014-11-26

80

Facile synthesis of NiAl-layered double hydroxide/graphene hybrid with enhanced electrochemical properties for detection of dopamine.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like anionic clays, have been investigated widely as promising electrochemical active materials. Due to the inherently weak conductivity, the electrochemical properties of LDHs were improved typically by utilization of either functional molecules intercalated between LDH interlayer galleries, or proteins confined between exfoliated LDH nanosheets. Here, we report a facile protocol to prepare NiAl-LDH/graphene (NiAl-LDH/G) nanocomposites using a conventional coprecipitation process under low-temperature conditions and subsequent reduction of the supporting graphene oxide. Electrochemical tests showed that the NiAl-LDH/G modified electrode exhibited highly enhanced electrochemical performance of dopamine electrooxidation in comparison with the pristine NiAl-LDH modified electrode. Results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectra provide convincing information on the nanostructure and composition underlying the enhancement. Our results of the NiAl-LDH/G modified electrodes with the enhanced electrochemical performance may allow designing a variety of promising hybrid sensors via a simple and feasible approach. PMID:21853213

Li, Meixia; Zhu, Jun E; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Sailong; Evans, David G

2011-10-01

81

Cobalt-based layered double hydroxides as oxygen evolving electrocatalysts in neutral electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-M (M= Co, Ni, Fe, Mn) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were successfully fabricated by a hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) pyrolysis method. Composite electrodes were made using a self-assembly fashion at inorganic/organic surface binder-free and were used to catalyze oxygen evolution reaction. Water oxidation can take place in neutral electrolyte operating with modest overpotential. The doping of other transitional metal cations affords mix valences and thus more intimate electronic interactions for reversible chemisorption of dioxygen molecules. The application of employing LDH materials in water oxidation process bodes well to facilitate future hydrogen utilization.

Lin, Hong; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Gang; Li, Jian-Bao

2012-06-01

82

Study of organo-hybrid layered double hydroxides by medium and near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) containing carbonate ion in its interlayer region was examined by medium infrared (MIR) and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). The MIR and NIR spectroscopy techniques was also used to study two organo-hybrid LDHs containing interlayer dodecylbenzenesulphonate (DBS) and dodecylsulphate (DS) ions, respectively. The NIR spectra for the latter solids were found to exhibit the overtone and combination bands for the hydroxyl groups in addition to those typical bands of the organic host functions. PMID:21227740

Mora, Manuel; López, M Isabel; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, J Rafael

2011-03-01

83

Layered double hydroxides as an effective additive in polymer gelled electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxides (LDH), a class of anionic clay materials, were developed as an effective additive for polymer gelled electrolytes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Carbonate and chloride intercalated Zn-Al LDHs, ZnAl-CO3 LDH, and ZnAl-Cl LDH were prepared with coprecipitation methods. The addition of the two LDHs significantly improved, in terms of power conversion efficiency (PCE), over the plain poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) gelled electrolyte and competed favorably with the liquid electrolyte based DSSCs, 8.13% for the liquid electrolyte, 7.48% for the plain PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte, 8.11% for the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte, and 8.00% for the ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs. The good performance in PCEs achieved by the LDH-loaded DSSCs came mainly from the significant boost in open circuit voltages (Voc), from 0.74 V for both the liquid electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs to 0.79 V for both the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP and ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs. The boost in Voc was contributed mainly by the positive shift in redox potential of the redox couple, I(-)/I3(-), as revealed from cyclic voltammetry analyses. As for the long-term stability, PCE retention rates of 96 and 99% after 504 h were achieved by the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP and ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs, respectively, appreciably better than 92% achieved by the liquid electrolyte based one after 480 h. PMID:25245099

Ho, Hsu-Wen; Cheng, Wei-Yun; Lo, Yu-Chun; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Lu, Shih-Yuan

2014-10-22

84

Synthesis and characterization of 5-fluorocytosine intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the intercalation of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into a layered inorganic host, Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), has been carried out using coprecipitation method to obtain 5-FC/LDH nanohybrids. The intercalated amount (A{sub In}) of 5-FC into the LDH is remarkably dependent on the molar ratio (R{sub F/M}) of 5-FC to metal ions and the pH of coprecipitation system. The morphology of 5-FC molecules in 5-FC/LDH nanohybrids is dependent on the A{sub In}. It is interestingly found that the morphology of the nanohybrid particles may be changed with the increase of R{sub F/M} from hexagonal plate particles to threadlike particles. The in vitro drug release from the nanohybrids is remarkably lower than that from the corresponding physical mixture and pristine 5-FC at either pH 4.8 or pH 7.5. In addition, the release rate of 5-FC from the nanohybrid at pH 7.5 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8, this is due to a possible difference in the release mechanism. The obtained results show these drug-inorganic nanohybrids can be used as a potential drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: The 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) has been intercalated into layered double hydroxide using coprecipitation method. The morphology of 5-FC molecules in obtained nanohybrids was dependent on the intercalated amount of 5-FC. The in vitro drug release from the nanohybrids was remarkably lower than that from the corresponding physical mixture, which shows these drug-inorganic nanohybrids can be used as a potential drug delivery system.

Liu Chunxia [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hou Wanguo [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)], E-mail: wghou@sdu.edu.cn; Li Lifang [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agriculture University, Taian 271018 (China); Li Yan; Liu Shaojie [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

2008-08-15

85

New synthetic route to Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide using magnesite  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? The use of magnesite to prepare Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} LDH is novel. ? The result sample is systematically studied. ? Furthermore, the cost of preparing Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} LDH may be reduced through this synthetic route. ? In the synthesis process, there is no CO{sub 2} released. That is significant to environmental protection. - Abstract: A novel synthesis of Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide (LDH) through chemical precipitation and hydrothermal methods has been investigated in this paper. The advantages of this method are using magnesite as magnesium source and no CO{sub 2} released in the process of preparation. Mg–Al–CO{sub 3} LDH (ZY) prepared under the optimized condition (the molar ratio of magnesite and Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O was 2.5:1; the aging time and temperature were 16 h and 100 °C, respectively) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyser (TG–DTA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystal morphology of the prepared LDH displays platelet-like structure with a hexagonal shape, which is agreed with the LDH produced by industrial chemicals. Through elemental analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), the chemical formula of ZY is determined as Mg{sub 0.70}Al{sub 0.30}(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}·0.6H{sub 2}O.

Wang, Xiaobo [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 100083 Beijing (China); Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 100083 Beijing (China); Zhao, Dong; Chai, Yupu; Guo, Man; Zhang, Jingyu [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 100083 Beijing (China)

2013-03-15

86

Interactions of Clay Minerals and a Layered Double Hydroxide with Water Stable, Nano Scale Fullerene Aggregates (nC 60)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented details specific interactions of underivatized C60 as an aggregate suspension in water (termed nC60) with clay minerals (montmorillonite and kaolinite), and a synthetic layered double hydroxide LDH. Batch and 1-D flow-through column interactions were analysed via UV\\/Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate that nC60 suspended in water interacted with all the solid

J. D. Fortner; C. Solenthaler; J. B. Hughes; A. M. Puzrin; M. Plötze

87

Thermal, solution and reductive decomposition of Cu-Al layered double hydroxides into oxide products  

SciTech Connect

Cu-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with [Cu]/[Al] ratio 2 adopt a structure with monoclinic symmetry while that with the ratio 0.25 adopt a structure with orthorhombic symmetry. The poor thermodynamic stability of the Cu-Al LDHs is due in part to the low enthalpies of formation of Cu(OH){sub 2} and CuCO{sub 3} and in part to the higher solubility of the LDH. Consequently, the Cu-Al LDH can be decomposed thermally (150 deg. C), hydrothermally (150 deg. C) and reductively (ascorbic acid, ambient temperature) to yield a variety of oxide products. Thermal decomposition at low (400 deg. C) temperature yields an X-ray amorphous residue, which reconstructs back to the LDH on soaking in water or standing in the ambient. Solution decomposition under hydrothermal conditions yields tenorite at 150 deg. C itself. Reductive decomposition yields a composite of Cu{sub 2}O and Al(OH){sub 3}, which on alkali-leaching of the latter, leads to the formation of fine particles of Cu{sub 2}O (<1 {mu}m). - Graphical abstract: SEM image of (a) the Cu{sub 2}O-Al(OH){sub 3} composite obtained on reductive decomposition of CuAl{sub 4}-LDH and (b) Cu{sub 2}O obtained on leaching of Al(OH){sub 3} from (a).

Britto, Sylvia [Department of Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Vishnu Kamath, P., E-mail: vishnukamath8@hotmail.co [Department of Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001 (India)

2009-05-15

88

Hydrothermal Continuous Flow Synthesis and Exfoliation of NiCo Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets for Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Catalysis.  

PubMed

We report the controlled synthesis of NiCo layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplates using a newly developed high temperature high pressure hydrothermal continuous flow reactor (HCFR), which enables direct growth onto conductive substrates in high yield and, most importantly, better control of the precursor supersaturation and, thus, nanostructure morphology and size. The solution coordination chemistry of metal-ammonia complexes was utilized to synthesize well-defined NiCo LDH nanoplates directly in a single step without topochemical oxidation. The as-grown NiCo LDH nanoplates exhibit a high catalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). By chemically exfoliating LDH nanoplates to thinner nanosheets, the catalytic activity can be further enhanced to yield an electrocatalytic current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 367 mV and a Tafel slope of 40 mV dec(-1). Such enhancement could be due to the increased surface area and more exposed active sites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests the exfoliation also caused some changes in electronic structure. This work presents general strategies to controllably grow nanostructures of LDH and ternary oxide/hydroxides in general and to enhance the electrocatalytic performance of layered nanostructures by exfoliation. PMID:25633476

Liang, Hanfeng; Meng, Fei; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; Li, Linsen; Forticaux, Audrey; Xiu, Lichen; Wang, Zhoucheng; Jin, Song

2015-02-11

89

Intercalation of biomolecules into NiAl-NO 3 layered double hydroxide films synthesized in situ on anodic alumina/aluminium support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered double hydroxide (LDH) films were synthesized in situ on anodic alumina/aluminium (AAO/Al). Glucose oxidase (GOD) and L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) were intercalated respectively into the in-situ grown LDH films by anion-exchange in aqueous solutions. Dodecylsulfate (SDS) was used to expand the lamellar structure before GOD intercalation into the LDH film. The resulting products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that VC and GOD were successfully intercalated into the in-situ synthesized LDH film. These biomolecules loaded LDH films could have potential applications in electrode modification, safe storage and effective delivery of bioactive compounds.

Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Chang, Ying-Yue; Yang, Jing; Yang, Qin-Zheng

2013-03-01

90

Phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxides: Crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate  

SciTech Connect

The nitrate-form of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) was synthesized via co-precipitation method, and its phosphate-intercalates were prepared by ion-exchange reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ca-Fe-LDH-NO{sub 3}{sup -} compound and its H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}-intercalate showed hexagonal layered structures, whereas the ion-exchange reaction with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} caused a frustration of the layer ordering of LDH. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice with trivalent iron ions was well-maintained after the ion-exchange with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under acidic conditions, phosphate ions were slowly released from the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice and the simultaneous release of hydroxide caused the neutralization of acidic media. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. This study strongly suggested that Ca-Fe-LDH is applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil. -- Graphical abstract: We synthesized phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-LDH materials that can act as bifunctional inorganic vectors for the slow release of phosphate fertilizer and also the neutralization of acid soil. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} The phosphate forms of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate of the phosphate-intercalates were investigated. These Ca-Fe-LDH materials are applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil.

Woo, Myong A.; Woo Kim, Tae; Paek, Mi-Jeong; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Choy, Jin-Ho [Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM), Department of Chemistry and Nano Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seong-Ju, E-mail: hwangsju@ewha.ac.k [Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM), Department of Chemistry and Nano Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

91

Ultrathin cobalt-manganese layered double hydroxide is an efficient oxygen evolution catalyst.  

PubMed

Cost-effective production of solar fuels requires robust and earth-abundant oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts. Herein, we report that ultrathin nanoplates of cobalt-manganese layered double hydroxide (CoMn LDH) are a highly active and stable oxygen evolution catalyst. The catalyst was fabricated by a one-pot coprecipitation method at room temperature, and its turnover frequency (TOF) is more than 20 times higher than the TOFs of Co and Mn oxides and hydroxides, and 9 times higher than the TOF of a precious IrO2 catalyst. The activity of the catalyst was promoted by anodic conditioning, which was proposed to form amorphous regions and reactive Co(IV) species on the surface. The stability of the catalyst was demonstrated by continued electrolysis. PMID:25380057

Song, Fang; Hu, Xile

2014-11-26

92

Controlled drug release from antibiotic-loaded layered double hydroxide coatings on porous titanium implants in a mouse model.  

PubMed

As an alternative to degradable organic coatings the possibility of using layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to generate implant coatings for controlled drug delivery was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Coatings prepared from LDH suspensions dissolved slowly and appeared compatible with cultured cells. LDH coatings loaded with an antibiotic resulted in antibacterial effects in vitro. The LDH coating prolonged the drug release period and improved the proliferation of adherent cells in comparison to pure drug coatings. However, during incubation in physiological solutions the LDH coatings became brittle and pieces occasionally detached from the surface. For stress protection porous titanium implants were investigated as a substrate for the coatings. The pores prevented premature detachment of the coatings. To evaluate the coated porous implants in vivo a mouse model was established. To monitor bacterial infection of implants noninvasive in vivo imaging was used to monitor luminescently labeled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this model porous implants with antibiotic-loaded LDH coatings could antagonize bacterial infections for over 1 week. The findings provide evidence that delayed drug delivery from LDH coatings could be feasible in combination with structured implant surfaces. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25345717

Badar, Muhammad; Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Kieke, Marc; Ebel, Thomas; Rohde, Manfred; Hauser, Hansjörg; Behrens, Peter; Mueller, Peter P

2014-10-24

93

Tailoring surface properties and structure of layered double hydroxides using silanes with different number of functional groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four silanes, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), dimethyldiethoxylsilane (DMDES), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), were adopted to graft layered double hydroxides (LDH) via an induced hydrolysis silylation method (IHS). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and 29Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (29Si MAS NMR) indicated that APTES and TEOS can be grafted onto LDH surfaces via condensation with hydroxyl groups of LDH, while TMCS and DMDES could only be adsorbed on the LDH surface with a small quantity. A combination of X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and 29Si MAS NMR spectra showed that silanes were exclusively present in the external surface and had little influence on the long range order of LDH. The surfactant intercalation experiment indicated that the adsorbed and/or grafted silane could not fix the interlamellar spacing of the LDH. However, they will form crosslink between the particles and affect the further surfactant intercalation in the silylated samples. The replacement of water by ethanol in the tactoids and/or aggregations and the polysiloxane oligomers formed during silylation procedure can dramatically increase the value of BET surface area (SBET) and total pore volumes (Vp) of the products.

Tao, Qi; He, Hongping; Li, Tian; Frost, Ray L.; Zhang, Dan; He, Zisen

2014-05-01

94

Multi-level three-dimensional Mg-Al layered double hydroxide hierarchical microstructures with enhanced basic catalytic property.  

PubMed

Novel three-dimensional (3D) rosette-like carbonate-type Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) hierarchical microstructures were fabricated successfully by a surfactant-assisted coprecipitation method in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine as precipitant, and the morphology-dependent basic catalytic property was exploited. The morphologies of MgAl-LDH aggregates were diversified depending on the synthesis parameters including the type of precipitant, concentration of sodium stearate surfactant, and hydrothermal aging time. Specifically, the morphology of MgAl-LDH particles could change progressively from platelet-like aggregates to rosette-like microspheres with the increasing concentration of sodium stearate. A possible formation mechanism for special 3D flower-like MgAl-LDH microstructures was proposed based on the synergistic effect of precipitant with surfactant. Moreover, the resulting activated rosette-like MgAl-LDH, which was prepared through calcination-rehydration process, showed a higher catalytic activity in the transesterification of tributyrin with methanol, compared with that derived from the conventional platelet-like MgAl-LDH precursor, which was attributed to its higher specific basicity originating from multi-level hierarchical superstructure offering an advantage in contact with more exposed base sites. PMID:25036381

Yu, Jiaying; Fan, Guoli; Yang, Yang; Li, Feng

2014-10-15

95

One-pot synthesis of organophilic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing aliphatic carboxylates: extended "homogeneous precipitation" method.  

PubMed

One-pot synthesis of aliphatic carboxylate/LDH hybrids (org-LDHs) was accomplished via the so-called "homogeneous precipitation" method developed for preparing carbonate-type layered double hydroxides (CO(3)(2-) LDHs) with ammonia-releasing reagents such as hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and urea. An aqueous solution of an aliphatic carboxylate (C2-C18) was added to a mixed aqueous solution of metal salts and HMT and then heated at 140-160 degrees C in a pressure vessel for 1day. Two kinds of LDHs were investigated: MgAl-LDH and NiAl-LDH. We found that only aliphatic carboxylates longer than decanoate (C10) and dodecanoate (C12) were incorporated successfully in the MgAl-LDH and NiAl-LDH interlayers without any CO(3)(2-) contamination, respectively. Shorter carboxylates were not incorporated, only yielding CO(3)(2-)LDHs. Isolation of the hydrophobic org-LDH phase from the aqueous medium containing carbonate ions was assumed to be the main reason for the lack of CO(3)(2-) contamination in the org-LDHs having longer-alkyl carboxylates. This method was also used successfully for preparing MgAl-LDHs containing dodecylbenzene sulfonate(DBS), a sulfonate-type anionic surfactant. PMID:19762037

Iyi, Nobuo; Tamura, Kenji; Yamada, Hirohisa

2009-12-01

96

Synthesis and release behavior of composites of camptothecin and layered double hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

A simple method, reconstruction of calcinated layered double hydroxides (CLDH) in an organic (ethanol)-water mixed solvent medium containing drug, was developed to intercalate partially a non-ionic and poorly water-soluble drug (camptothecin) into the gallery of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to form the drug-LDH composites. The purpose of choosing organic-water mixed solvent is to increase remarkably the solubility of camptothecin (CPT) in the reconstruction medium. A probable morphology of CPT molecules in the gallery of LDHs is that CPT molecules arrange as monolayer with the long axis parallel to the LDH layers. The in vitro drug release from the composites was remarkably lower than that from the corresponding physical mixture, which shows these drug-inorganic composites can be used as a potential drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: A simple method, reconstruction of calcinated LDHs in an organic-water medium containing drug, was developed to intercalate non-ionic and poorly water-soluble camptothecin into the gallery of LDHs.

Dong Lun [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yan Li [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hou Wanguo, E-mail: wghou@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu Shaojie [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

2010-08-15

97

Layered double hydroxide supported gold nanoclusters by glutathione-capped Au nanoclusters precursor method for highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols.  

PubMed

M3Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH, M = Mg, Ni, Co) supported Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) catalysts have been prepared for the first time by using water-soluble glutathione-capped Au nanoclusters as precursor. Detailed characterizations show that the ultrafine Au nanoclusters (ca. 1.5 ± 0.6 nm) were well dispersed on the surface of LDH with a loading of Au below ?0.23 wt% upon synergetic interaction between AuNCs and M3Al-LDH. AuNCs/Mg3Al-LDH-0.23 exhibits much higher catalytic performance for the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol in toluene than Au/Mg3Al-LDH(DP) by the conventional deposition precipitation method and can be applied for a wide range of alcohols without basic additives. This catalyst can also be reused without loss of activity or selectivity. The AuNCs/M(= Ni, Co)3Al-LDH catalysts present even higher alcohol oxidation activity than AuNCs/Mg3Al-LDH. Particularly, AuNCs/Ni3Al-LDH-0.22 exhibits the highest activity (46?500 h(-1)) for the aerobic oxidation of 1-phenylethanol under solvent-free conditions attributed to its strongest Au-support synergy. The excellent activity and stability of AuNCs/M3Al-LDH catalysts render these materials promising candidates for green base-free selective oxidation of alcohols by molecular oxygen. PMID:24573343

Li, Lun; Dou, Liguang; Zhang, Hui

2014-04-01

98

Layered double hydroxides as supports for intercalation and sustained release of antihypertensive drugs  

SciTech Connect

Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were intercalated with the anionic antihypertensive drugs Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril by using coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. TG-MS analyses suggested that the thermal stability of Ena{sup -}, Lis{sup -} (arranged with monolayer, resulted from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) analysis was enhanced much more than Cap{sup -} and Ram{sup -} (arranged with bilayer). The release studies show that the release rate of all samples markedly decreased in both pH 4.25 and 7.45. However, the release time of Ena{sup -}, Lis{sup -} were much longer compared with Cap{sup -}, Ram{sup -} in both pH 4.25 and 7.45, it is possible that the intercalated guests, arranged with monolayer in the interlayer, show lesser repulsive force and strong affinity with the LDH layers. And the release data followed both the Higuchi-square-root law and the first-order equation well. Based on the analysis of batch release, intercalated structural models as well as the TG-DTA results, we conclude that for drug-LDH, stronger the affinity between intercalated anions and the layers is, better the thermal property and the stability to the acid attack of drug-LDH, and the intercalated anions are easier apt to monolayer arrangement within the interlayer, were presented. - Graphical abstract: A series of antihypertensive drugs including Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril were intercalated into Zn/Al-NO{sub 3}-LDHs successfully by coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. We focus on the structure, thermal property and low/controlled release property of as-synthesized drug-LDH composite intended for the possibility of applying these LDH-antihypertensive nanohybrids in drug delivery and controlled release systems.

Xia Shengjie [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Ni Zheming [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: jchx@zjut.edu.cn; Xu Qian; Hu Baoxiang; Hu Jun [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

2008-10-15

99

Facile synthesis of methotrexate intercalated layered double hydroxides: Particle control, structure and bioassay explore.  

PubMed

To study the influence of particle size on drug efficacy and other properties, a series of methotrexate intercalated layered double hydroxides (MTX/LDHs) were synthesized through the traditional coprecipitation method, using a mixture of water and polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) as the solvent. To adjust the particle size of MTX/LDHs, the dropping way, the volume ratio of water to PEG-400 and different hydrothermal treatment time changed accordingly, and the results indicate that the particle size can be controlled between 90 and 140nm. Elemental C/H/N and inductive coupled plasma (ICP) analysis indicated that different synthesis conditions almost have no effect on the compositions of the nanohybrids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns manifested the successful intercalation of MTX anions into the LDH interlayers, and it's also found out that different volume ratios of water to PEG-400 and variable dropping way can affect the crystallinity of the final samples, i.e., the volume ratio of 3:1 and pH decreasing are proved to be optimum conditions. Furthermore, both antiparallel monolayer and bilayers adopting different orientations are suggested for four samples from XRD results. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations proved the coexistence of CO3(2-) and MTX anions in the interlayer of the nanohybrids. MTX/LDH particles exhibited hexagonal platelet morphology with round corner and different dropping ways can affect the morphology greatly. Moreover, a DSC study indicated that longer time treatment can weaken the bond between the MTX anions and LDH layers. The kinetic release profiles told us that larger MTX/LDH particles have enhanced the ability of LDH layers to protect interlayer molecules. At last, the bioassay study indicated that the nanohybrids with larger diameters have higher tumor suppression efficiency. PMID:25491832

Tian, De-Ying; Liu, Zhen-Lei; Li, Shu-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

100

Compositional and Structural Control on Anion Sorption Capability of Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHS)  

SciTech Connect

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have shown great promise as anion getters. In this paper, we demonstrate that the sorption capability of a LDH for a specific oxyanion can be greatly increased by appropriately manipulating material composition and structure. A large set of LDH materials have been synthesized with various combinations of metal cations, interlayer anions, and the molar ratios of divalent cation M(II) to trivalent cation M(III). The synthesized materials have then been tested systematically for their sorption capabilities for pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). It is discovered that for a given interlayer anion (either CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} or NO{sub 3}{sup -}) the Ni-Al LDH with a Ni/Al ratio of 3:1 exhibits the highest sorption capability among all the materials tested. The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) is determined to be as high as 307 mL/g for Ni{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(0H){sub 16}CO{sub 3}nH{sub 2}O and 1390 mL/g for Ni{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}NO{sub 3}nH{sub 2}O at a pH of 8. The sorption of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} on M(II)-M(III)-CO{sub 3} LDHs is dominated by the edge sites of LDH layers and strongly correlated with the basal spacing d{sub 003} of the materials, which increases with the decreasing radii of both divalent and trivalent cations. The sorption reaches its maximum when the layer spacing is just large enough for a pertechnetate anion to fit into a cage space between two neighboring octahedra of metal hydroxides at the edge. Furthermore, the sorption is found to increase with the crystallinity of the materials. For a given combination of metal cations and an interlayer anion, a best crystalline LDH material is obtained generally with a M(II)/M(III) ratio of 3:1. Replacement of interlayer carbonate with readily exchangeable nitrate greatly increases the sorption capability of a LDH material for pertechnetate, due to the enhanced adsorption on edge sites and the possible contribution from interlayer anion exchanges. The work reported here will help to establish a general structure-property relationship for the related layered materials.

Y. Wang; H. Gao

2006-03-16

101

Physical and Chemical Interactions between Mg:Al Layered Double Hydroxide and Hexacyanoferrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and chemical interactions of ferrocyanide (potassium and ammonium salts) and ferricyanide (potassium salt) with Mg:Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) (having Mg:Al ratios of 2 and 3) are investigated using powder XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. Physically, the potassium ferricyanide is shown to intercalate with a small local field deformation similar to that seen for hexacyanocobaltate (III) in similar materials. Chemically, the reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide upon intercalation is confirmed. Physical interactions of ferrocyanide with 3:1 LDH are shown spectroscopically to include the possible generation of anions in differing environments. Chemically, ferrocyanide is shown to generate cubic ferrocyanides (of the type M2MgFe(CN) 6, where M=K + or NH +4) under conditions where free Mg 2+ is likely present in solution, namely, solutions with a pH lower than ˜7.5. It is shown that the reported 2112-cm -1 band found in some chemically altered LDH ferrocyanide is indeed due to interlayer ferricyanide, but that the 2080 cm -1 band is due to the cubic material.

Boclair, Joseph W.; Braterman, Paul S.; Brister, Brian D.; Wang, Zhiming; Yarberry, Faith

2001-11-01

102

Optimization of UV absorptivity of layered double hydroxide by intercalating organic UV-absorbent molecules.  

PubMed

Intercalation of Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) with benzophenone 9 (B9), a strong ultraviolet (UV) absorber, had been carried out by two different routes; co-precipitation and ion exchange method. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns of co-precipitated (ZB9C) and ion exchanged product (ZB91) showed basal spacing of 15.9 angstrom and 16.6 angstrom, respectively, as a result of the intercalation of B9 anions into the lamellae spaces of LDH. Intercalation was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur (CHNS) and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TGA/DTG) studies. UV-vis absorption properties of the nanocomposite was investigated with diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectrometer and showed broader UV absorption range. Furthermore, stability of sunscreen molecules in LDH interlayer space was tested in deionized water, artificial sea water and skin pH condition to show slow deintercalation and high retention in host. Cytotoxicity study of the synthesized nanocomposites on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells shows no significant cytotoxicity after 24 h exposure for test concentrations up to 25 microg/mL. PMID:25016649

Mohsin, Sumaiyah Megat Nabil; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

2014-08-01

103

Methotrexatum intercalated layered double hydroxides: Statistical design, mechanism explore and bioassay study.  

PubMed

A series of methotrexatum intercalated layered double hydroxide (MTX/LDH for short) hybrids have been synthesized by a mechanochemical-hydrothermal method, the statistical experiments are planned and conducted to find out the critical factor influencing the physicochemical properties. Four variables, i.e., addition of NaOH solution, grinding duration, hydrothermal temperature and time, are chosen to play as the examined factors in the orthogonal design. Furthermore, three respective levels, i.e., high, medium and low levels, are conducted in the design. The resulting hybrids are then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, transmission electron microscope (TEM) graphs and Zeta potentials. XRD diffractions indicate that MTX anions have been successfully intercalated into LDH interlayers and the amount of NaOH solution can change the gallery height greatly. The information from TEM graphs and Zeta potentials state that the increase of alkali solution gives rise to regular morphology and the increase of Zeta potentials. As a result of the statistical analysis, addition of alkali solution is the major factor affecting the morphology and drug-loading capacity. At last, the mechanism of particle growth is explored emphatically, and the anticancer efficacy of some MTX/LDH hybrids is estimated by MTT assay on A549 cells as well. PMID:25686957

Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Su-Qing; Li, Shu-Ping

2015-04-01

104

Characterization and film properties of electrophoretically deposited nanosheets of anionic titanate and cationic MgAl-layered double hydroxide.  

PubMed

Anionic hydrated titanate (H(n)TiO(m): HTO) nanosheets and cationic magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanosheets were electrophoretically deposited on positively and negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates, respectively. The HTO nanosheets and Mg-Al LDH nanosheets obtained were identified in neutral water as H(2)Ti(4)O(9)·nH(2)O with a ?-potential of -23 mV and Mg(6)Al(2)(OH)(18)·4.5H(2)O with a ?-potential of +41 mV, respectively. Dense and smooth HTO and Mg-Al LDH films with layered structures with thicknesses of about 10-15 ?m were prepared in 300 s at 7.5 V by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from the nanosheet suspensions. Both EPD HTO and LDH films showed elasticity because of their layered laminate structures. The HTO thick films demonstrated large adsorption properties and high photocatalytic activity, while the Mg-Al LDH thick films showed relatively high ionic conductivity of 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 80 °C and 80% relative humidity. PMID:23205857

Matsuda, Atsunori; Sakamoto, Hisatoshi; Mohd Nor, Mohd Arif Bin; Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki

2013-02-14

105

Mg-Al and Zn-Fe layered double hydroxides used for organic species storage and controlled release.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxides (LDH) containing (Mg and Al) or (Zn and Fe) were prepared by coprecipitation at constant pH, using NaOH and urea as precipitation agents. The most pure LDH phase in the Zn/Fe system was obtained with urea and in Mg/Al system when using NaOH. The incorporation of phenyl-alanine (Phe) anions in the interlayer of the LDH was performed by direct coprecipitation, ionic exchange and structure reconstruction of the mixed oxide obtained by the calcination of the coprecipitated product at 400°C. The reconstruction method and the direct coprecipitation in a medium containing Phe in the initial mixture were less successful in terms of high yields of organic-mineral composite than the ionic exchange method. A spectacular change in sample morphology and yield in exchanged solid was noticed for the Zn3Fe sample obtained by ionic exchange for 6h with Phe solution. A delivery test in PBS of pH=7.4 showed the release of the Phe in several steps up to 25 h indicating different host-guest interactions between the Phe and the LDH matrix. This behavior makes the preparation useful to obtain late delivery drugs, by the incorporation of the anion inside the LDH layer. PMID:24094226

Seftel, E M; Cool, P; Lutic, D

2013-12-01

106

Synthesis and investigation of magnetic nanocomposite of Fe3O4 with cetirizine-intercalated layered double hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research work the nanocomposite CT-LDH/Fe3O4 was prepared by deposition of cetirizine (CT) intercalated-Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) on Fe3O4 using a co-precipitation method for sustained drug-targeting delivery. The obtained products were characterized by the variety of methods such as (XRD), (FT-IR), (TG) and the elemental analysis. The size and morphology of nanoparticles were examined by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results, showed the coexistence of the strong diffractions of Fe3O4 and cetirizine intercalated LDH. Also, after intercalation, the basal spacing of LDH increased from 0.88 nm to 2.52 nm, indicating that cetirizine anions were successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of LDH as a monolayer. The thermal gravimetric studies indicate the thermal stability of cetirizine molecule has increased with intercalation. In vitro drug release experiments in phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.4) have been investigated. Magnetic measurements revealed that the nanocomposite displayed superparamagnetic properties at room temperature.

Nejati, K.; Davaran, S.; Baggalzadeh, R.

2014-11-01

107

Illustrating the processability of magnetic layered double hydroxides: layer-by-layer assembly of magnetic ultrathin films.  

PubMed

We report the preparation of single-layer layered double hydroxide (LDH) two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets by exfoliation of highly crystalline NiAl-NO3 LDH. Next, these unilamellar moieties have been incorporated layer-by-layer (LbL) into a poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/LDH nanosheet multilayer ultrathin film (UTF). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles have been used to follow the uniform growth of the UTF. The use of a magnetic LDH as the cationic component of the multilayered architecture enables study of the resulting magnetic properties of the UTFs. Our magnetic data show the appearance of spontaneous magnetization at ?5 K, thus confirming the effective transfer of the magnetic properties of the bulk LDH to the self-assembled film that displays glassy-like ferromagnetic behavior. The high number of bilayers accessible-more than 80-opens the door for the preparation of more-complex hybrid multifunctional materials that combine magnetism with the physical properties provided by other exfoliable layered inorganic hosts. PMID:23621644

Coronado, E; Martí-Gastaldo, C; Navarro-Moratalla, E; Ribera, A; Tatay, S

2013-05-20

108

Reduced graphene oxide/Ni(1-x)Co(x)Al-layered double hydroxide composites: preparation and high supercapacitor performance.  

PubMed

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheet and ternary-component Ni(1-x)Co(x)Al-layered double hydroxide (Ni(1-x)Co(x)Al-LDH) hybrid composites with an interesting sandwich structure have been fabricated by an in situ growth route. The as-obtained composite displays a sandwich architecture constructed by the self-assembly of sheet-like LDH crystals on both sides of the rGO sheets. It was found that the Co content doped in Ni(1-x)Co(x)Al-LDH plays an important role in the shape and structure of the final products. When the Co doped content is 17%, the rGO/Ni(0.83)Co(0.17)Al-LDH has a high surface area (171.5 m(2) g(-1)) and exhibits a perfect sandwich structure. In addition, this structure and morphology is favorable for a supercapacitor electrode material with a high performance. The influence of cobalt content on the electrochemical behavior of rGO/Ni(1-x)Co(x)Al-LDH has been systematically studied. The results indicate that the rGO/Ni(0.83)Co(0.17)Al-LDH composite exhibits the highest electrochemical performance, with a specific capacitance of 1902 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), and an excellent cycling stability. The markedly improved electrochemical performance is superior to undoped rGO/NiAl-LDH and can be attributed to the enhanced conductivity achieved through cobalt doping. Such composites could be used as a type of potential energy storage/conversion material for supercapacitors. PMID:24950435

Xu, Jie; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Niu, Na; Gao, Peng; Chen, Yujin; Yang, Piaoping

2014-08-14

109

Controllable Nanocage Structure Derived from Cyclodextrin-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides and Its Inclusion Properties for Dodecylbenzene  

E-print Network

Controllable Nanocage Structure Derived from Cyclodextrin-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides carboxymethyl- -cyclodextrins (CMCDs) intercalated in layered double hydroxides (LDHs), whose gates can or large-sized guests within the "empty" core domain. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs, also known

Wang, Zhong L.

110

Synthesis of Cd/(Al+Fe) layered double hydroxides and characterization of the calcination products  

SciTech Connect

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method at a constant pH value of 8. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange at pH 9. The samples have been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and FT-IR spectroscopy. Their thermal stability has been assessed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) and mass spectrometric analysis of the evolved gases. The PXRD patterns of the solids calcined at 800 deg. C show diffraction lines corresponding to Cd(Al)O and spinel-type materials, which precise nature (CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Cd{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4}, or Cd{sub x}Fe{sub 2.66}O{sub 4}) depends on location and concentration of iron in the parent material or precursor. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange. Calcination at 800 deg. C shows diffraction lines corresponding to CdO and to spinel-type materials. SEM micrograph of sample CdAlFe-N-0.

Perez, M.R.; Barriga, C.; Fernandez, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain); Rives, V. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Ulibarri, M.A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: maulibarri@uco.es

2007-12-15

111

Synthesis of mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide spheres: layer-by-layer method and their effects on the flame retardancy of epoxy resins.  

PubMed

Hierarchical mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide (m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH) spheres were prepared through a layer-by-layer assembly process, in order to integrate their excellent physical and chemical functionalities. TEM results depicted that, due to the electrostatic potential difference between m-SiO2 and Co-Al LDH, the synthetic m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH hybrids exhibited that m-SiO2 spheres were packaged by the Co-Al LDH nanosheets. Subsequently, the m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH spheres were incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) to prepare specimens for investigation of their flame-retardant performance. Cone results indicated that m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH incorporated obviously improved fire retardant of EP. A plausible mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized based on the analyses of thermal conductivity, char residues, and pyrolysis fragments. Labyrinth effect of m-SiO2 and formation of graphitized carbon char catalyzed by Co-Al LDH play pivotal roles in the flame retardance enhancement. PMID:25062606

Jiang, Shu-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Man; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Wei-Zhao

2014-08-27

112

Preparation and intercalation chemistry of magnesium-iron(III) layered double hydroxides containing exchangeable interlayer chloride and nitrate ions  

SciTech Connect

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Mg{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations in the brucite-like layers and having chloride or nitrate ions in the interlayer region have been prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), elemental analysis and thermal analysis. Thermal decomposition of the LDH-nitrate occurs in two steps, with loss of water followed by simultaneous dehydroxylation of the layers and loss of NO{sub x}/O{sub 2} arising from the nitrate anions. Thermal decomposition of the LDH-chloride involves an additional step, with chloride ions becoming grafted to the layers, prior to loss of HCl. The interlayer anions may be readily replaced by sulfate, thiosulfate, tartrate and vinylbenzenesulfonate ions suggesting that these materials may be useful precursors to Mg-Fe(III) LDHs intercalated with a variety of inorganic and organic anions.

Meng Weiqing; Li Feng; Evans, David G.; Duan Xue

2004-07-02

113

A novel and easy chemical-clock synthesis of nanocrystalline iron-cobalt bearing layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

A novel synthesis of cobalt-iron layered double hydroxide (LDH) with interlayer chlorides was investigated. The method consists in mixing concentrated solutions of hexaamminecobalt(III) trichloride with ferrous chloride at room temperature and in anoxic conditions. Four initial Fe/Co atomic ratios have been tried out (0.12, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8). Neither heating nor addition of alkali was employed for adjusting the pH and precipitating the metal hydroxides. Still, each mixture led to the spontaneous precipitation of a LDH-rich solid having a crystal-chemistry that depended on the initial solution Fe/Co. These LDHs phases were carefully characterized by mean of X-ray diffraction, (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and chemical analysis (total dissolution and phenanthroline method). Solution Eh and pH were also monitored during the synthesis. Increasing initial Fe/Co ratio impacted the dynamic of the observed stepwise reaction and the composition of the resulting product. Once the two solutions are mixed, a spontaneous and abrupt color change occurs after an induction time which depends on the starting Fe/Co ratio. This makes the overall process acting as a chemical clock. This spontaneous generation of CoFe-LDH arises from the interplay between redox chemistries of iron and cobalt-ammonium complexes. PMID:25173991

Hadi, Jebril; Grangeon, Sylvain; Warmont, Fabienne; Seron, Alain; Greneche, Jean-Marc

2014-11-15

114

Evidences for decarbonation and exfoliation of layered double hydroxide in N, N-dimethylformamide-ethanol solvent mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of a Hydrotalcite-like material (carbonate-containing Mg,Al-layered double hydroxide) in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-ethanol mixture, at ambient temperature, has been investigated. The releasing of CO 2 and production of a formate-containing material occurred mainly for 1:1 (v/v) solvent mixture. Decarbonation of Hydrotalcite is promoted by DMF hydrolysis followed by neutralization of brucite-like layers through HCOO - intercalation. Translucent colloidal dispersion of LDH nanoparticles from the formate-containing phase was characterized by transmission electron (TEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. The absence of (00?) reflection at X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern for dried colloidal dispersion indicated delamination of Hydrotalcite. The restacked sample exhibited broad reflections and typical hydroxide ordered layers non-basal (110) diffraction peaks. A LDH-HCOO - material was also prepared and characterized by FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Decarbonation and exfoliation of Hydrotalcite in N, N-dimethylformamide-ethanol mixed solvent provide an interesting method for preparation of new intercalated LDH materials.

Gordijo, Claudia R.; Leopoldo Constantino, Vera R.; de Oliveira Silva, Denise

2007-07-01

115

Synthesis and characterization of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated with cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate anions.  

PubMed

In the present work, Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate anions was prepared from the reaction of solutions of Mg(ii) and Al(iii) nitrate salts with an alkaline solution of cubane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid by using the coprecipitation method. The successful preparation of a nanohybrid of cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate(cubane-dc) anions with LDH was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The increase in the basal spacing of LDHs from 8.67 Å to 13.40 Å shows that cubane-dc anions were successfully incorporated into the interlayer space. Thermogravimetric analyses confirm that the thermal stability of the intercalated cubane-dc anions is greater than that of the pure form before intercalation because of host-guest interactions involving hydrogen bonds. The interlayer structure, hydrogen bonding, and subsequent distension of LDH compounds containing cubane-dc anions were shown by molecular simulation. The RDF (radial distribution function), mean square displacement (MSD), and self-diffusion coefficient were calculated using the trajectory files on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the results indicated that the cubane-dc anions were more stable when intercalated into the LDH layers. A good agreement was obtained between calculated and measured X-ray diffraction patterns and between experimental and calculated basal spacings. PMID:25407836

Rezvani, Zolfaghar; Arjomandi Rad, Farzad; Khodam, Fatemeh

2015-01-21

116

Co-delivery of siRNAs and anti-cancer drugs using layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this research we employed layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDHs) to simultaneously deliver an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and Allstars Cell Death siRNA (CD-siRNA) for effective cancer treatment. The strategy takes advantage of the LDH anion exchange capacity to intercalate 5-FU into its interlayer spacing and load siRNA on the surface of LDH nanoparticles. LDH nanoparticles have been previously demonstrated as an effective cellular delivery system for 5-FU and siRNA separately in various investigations. More excitedly, the combination of CD-siRNA and anticancer drug 5-FU with the same LDH particles significantly enhanced cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines, e.g. MCF-7, U2OS and HCT-116, compared to the single treatment with either CD-siRNA or 5-FU. This enhancement is probably a result of coordinate mitochondrial damage process. Thus, the strategy to co-deliver siRNA and an anticancer drug by LDHs has great potential to overcome the drug resistance and enhance cancer treatment. PMID:24456604

Li, Li; Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Jiezhong; Chen, Weiyu; Xu, Zhi P

2014-03-01

117

In situ oligomerization of 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate intercalated into Zn2Al layered double hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A layered double hydroxide (LDH) with cation composition Zn2Al was intercalated with 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate (3-TA) monomers. To achieve in situ polymerization and/or oligomerization of the intercalated monomers, soft thermal treatments were carried out, and subsequent hybrid LDH materials were analyzed by means of several characterization techniques using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 13C CP-MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (EPR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and elemental analysis. PXRD analysis suggested that the intercalated monomers formed a bilayer. Thermal treatment of the hybrid LDH assembly above 120 °C provokes partially the breakdown of the layered structure, generating the phase zincite. EPR results indicated that vicinal monomers (oligomerization) were bound to each other after hydrothermal or thermal treatment, leading to a polaron response characteristic of electron conductivity localized on a restricted number of thiophene-based monomer segments. Localized unpaired electrons exist in the material and interact with the 27Al nuclei of the LDH layers by superhyperfine coupling. These unpaired electrons also interact with the surface of ZnO (O2- vacancies), formed during the thermal treatments.

Tronto, Jairo; Pinto, Frederico G.; da Costa, Liovando M.; Leroux, Fabrice; Dubois, Marc; Valim, João B.

2015-01-01

118

Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release antibacterial behavior of antibiotic intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: The antibiotic anion released from Mg–Al LDHs provides a controlled release antibacterial activity against the growth of Micrococcus lysodeikticus in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: ? Antibiotic anion intercalated LDHs were synthesized and characterized. ? The ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process. ? The diffusion through particle is the release rate limiting step. ? LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion have high antibacterial capabilities. -- Abstract: Antibiotic–inorganic clay composites including four antibiotic anions, namely, benzoate (BZ), succinate (SU), benzylpenicillin (BP), and ticarcillin (TC) anions, intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via ion-exchange. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrum analyses showed the successful intercalation of antibiotic anion into the LDH interlayer. BZ and BP anions were accommodated in the interlayer region as a bilayer, whereas SU and TC anions were intercalated in a monolayer arrangement. Kinetic simulation of the release data indicated that ion-exchange was responsible for the release process, and the diffusion through the particles was the rate-limiting step. The antibacterial capabilities of LDHs loaded with antibiotic anion toward Micrococcus lysodeikticus growth were analyzed using a turbidimetric method. Significant high inhibition rate was observed when LDH nanohybrid was introduced in 3.5% NaCl solution. Therefore, this hybrid material may be applied as nanocontainer in active antifouling coating for marine equipment.

Wang, Yi [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)] [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@qdio.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)] [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

2012-11-15

119

Potential for Layered Double Hydroxides-Based, Innovative Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs)-based drug delivery systems have, for many years, shown great promises for the delivery of chemical therapeutics and bioactive molecules to mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. This system offers high efficiency and drug loading density, as well as excellent protection of loaded molecules from undesired degradation. Toxicological studies have also found LDHs to be biocompatible compared with other widely used nanoparticles, such as iron oxide, silica, and single-walled carbon nanotubes. A plethora of bio-molecules have been reported to either attach to the surface of or intercalate into LDH materials through co-precipitation or anion-exchange reaction, including amino acid and peptides, ATPs, vitamins, and even polysaccharides. Recently, LDHs have been used for gene delivery of small molecular nucleic acids, such as antisense, oligonucleotides, PCR fragments, siRNA molecules or sheared genomic DNA. These nano-medicines have been applied to target cells or organs in gene therapeutic approaches. This review summarizes current progress of the development of LDHs nanoparticle drug carriers for nucleotides, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer drugs and recent LDH application in medical research. Ground breaking studies will be highlighted and an outlook of the possible future progress proposed. It is hoped that the layered inorganic material will open up new frontier of research, leading to new nano-drugs in clinical applications. PMID:24786098

Zhang, Kai; Xu, Zhi Ping; Lu, Ji; Tang, Zhi Yong; Zhao, Hui Jun; Good, David A.; Wei, Ming Qian

2014-01-01

120

A novel method to get methotrexatum/layered double hydroxides intercalation compounds and their release properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this context, the methotrexatum/layered double hydroxides (MTX/LDHs) intercalation compounds have been synthesized by a mechanochemical-hydrothermal method, which involves a grinding process and subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The influence of R (molar ratio of Mg2+ to Al3+ to MTX) values on the structure and morphology of the intercalation compounds and their release properties were investigated systematically. The resulting compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. All the results indicate that R value has significant influence on the intercalation of MTX anions into LDH interlayer and the optimal R value is 2:1:0.5. Furthermore, four dissolution-diffusion kinetic models were used to fit the in vitro release of MTX from LDH layers. The release process can be divided into two stages: firstly surface diffusion and secondly intraparticle diffusion. The study also revealed that the properties of the intercalation compounds is comparable to that obtained from standard methods such as co-precipitation method, but with time, solvent and energy saving.

Qi, Fenglin; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Shuping

2013-08-01

121

Formation of layered single- and double-metal hydroxide precipitates at the mineral/water interface: A multiple-scattering XAFS analysis  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic and microscopic studies have shown that Ni and Co sorption by clay minerals may proceed via formation of surface precipitates. Several studies employing X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy suggested the formation of turbostratic, a-type metal hydroxides, of layered double hydroxides (LDH) with Al-for-metal substitution, and of 1:1 or 2:1 phyllosilicates. Distinction of these phases is difficult because they have low crystallinity and/or a small mass compared to the sorbents, and because they have similar metal-metal distances in their hydroxide layers/sheets. Distinction of these phases is crucial, however, because they have substantially differing solubilities. In this paper the authors show that an XAFS beat pattern at about 8 {angstrom} {sup {minus}1} can be used as a fingerprint to unequivocally distinguish LDH from the {alpha}-type hydroxides and phyllosilicates. Full multiple-scattering simulations and experimental spectra of model compounds indicate that the beat pattern is due to focused multiple scattering at Me/Al ratios between 1 and 4(Me = Ni,Co). By applying the fingerprint method to new and to already published XAFS data on Ni and Co surface precipitates, the authors found that LDH preferentially forms in the presence of the Al-containing sorbents pyrophyllite, illite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and alumina above pH 7.0. However, {alpha}-type metal hydroxides form in the presence of the Al-free sorbents talc, silica, and rutile, and in the presence of the Al-containing clay minerals montmorillonite and vermiculite. The authors believe, that the high permanent charge of these latter minerals prevents or retards the release of Al. When Al is available, the formation of LDH seems to be thermodynamically and/or kinetically favored over the formation of {alpha}-type hydroxides.

Scheinost, A.C.; Sparks, D.L.

2000-03-15

122

Visible-light-responsive photocatalysts toward water oxidation based on NiTi-layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide composite materials.  

PubMed

A visible-light responsive photocatalyst was fabricated by anchoring NiTi-layered double hydroxide (NiTi-LDH) nanosheets to the surface of reduced graphene oxide sheets (RGO) via an in situ growth method; the resulting NiTi-LDH/RGO composite displays excellent photocatalytic activity toward water splitting into oxygen with a rate of 1.968 mmol g(-1) h(-1) and a quantum efficiency as high as 61.2% at 500 nm, which is among the most effective visible-light photocatalysts. XRD patterns and SEM images indicate that the NiTi-LDH nanosheets (diameter: 100-200 nm) are highly dispersed on the surface of RGO. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy exhibits that the introduction of RGO enhances the visible-light absorption range of photocatalysts, which is further verified by the largely decreased band gap (?1.78 eV) studied by cyclic voltammetry measurements. Moreover, photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate a more efficient separation of electron-hole pairs; electron spin resonance (ESR) and Raman scattering spectroscopy confirm the electrons transfer from NiTi-LDH nanosheets to RGO, accounting for the largely enhanced carrier mobility and the resulting photocatalytic activity in comparison with pristine NiTi-LDH material. Therefore, this work demonstrates a facile approach for the fabrication of visible-light responsive NiTi-LDH/RGO composite photocatalysts, which can be used as a promising candidate in solar energy conversion and environmental science. PMID:24066609

Li, Bei; Zhao, Yufei; Zhang, Shitong; Gao, Wa; Wei, Min

2013-10-23

123

Bioinorganic magnetic core-shell nanocomposites carrying antiarthritic agents: intercalation of ibuprofen and glucuronic acid into Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides supported on magnesium ferrite.  

PubMed

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a composite constituted by an antiarthritic agent (AA) intercalated into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) supported on magnesium ferrite. Core-shell nanocomposites were prepared by depositing Mg-Al-NO(3)-LDH on a MgFe(2)O(4) core prepared by calcination of a nonstoichiometric Mg-Fe-CO(3)-LDH. Intercalation of ibuprofen and glucuronate anions was performed by ion-exchange with nitrate ions. The structural characteristics of the obtained products were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, element chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Morphologies of the nanocomposite particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The products were shown to intercalate substantial amounts of AA with enhanced thermal stabilities. Room-temperature magnetic measurements by vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the products show soft ferromagnetic properties suitable for potential utilization in magnetic arthritis therapy. PMID:19691269

Ay, Ahmet Nedim; Zümreoglu-Karan, Birgül; Temel, Abidin; Rives, Vicente

2009-09-21

124

Effect of inorganic and organic ligands on the sorption/desorption of arsenate on/from Al-Mg and Fe-Mg layered double hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, a class of anionic clays known as layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has attracted substantial attention due to the potential use in many applications, such as photochemistry, electrochemistry, polymerization, magnetization and biomedical science. There has also been considerable interest in using LDHs as adsorbents to remove environmental contaminants due to their large surface area, high anion exchange capacity and good thermal stability. We studied the sorption of arsenate on Al-Mg and Fe-Mg layered double hydroxides (easily reproducible at low-cost) as affected by pH and varying concentrations of inorganic (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, selenite and sulphate) and organic (oxalate and tartrate) ligands, ii) the effect of residence time on the arsenate desorption by these ligands, and iii) the kinetics of arsenate desorption by phosphate. The Fe-Mg-LDH sorbed nearly twice the amount of arsenate compared to the Al-Mg-LDH, due, in part, to its greater surface area and lower degree of crystallinity. Moreover, the Fe-Mg-LDH sorbed more arsenate than phosphate, in contrast to the Al-Mg-LDH, which adsorbed more phosphate than arsenate, probably because of the greater affinity of arsenate than phosphate for Fe sites and, vice versa, the greater affinity of phosphate than arsenate for Al sites. Arsenate sorption onto samples decreased by increasing pH, due, maybe, to the high affinity of hydroxyl ions for LDHs and/or to the value of zero point charge of two sorbents. The rate of decline in the amount of arsenate sorbed was, however, relatively constant, decreasing the fastest for the Fe-Mg-LDH compared to the Al-Mg-LDH. The capacity of ligands to inhibit the fixation of arsenate followed the sequence: nitrate < nitrite < sulphate < selenite < tartrate < oxalate << phosphate on Al-Mg-LDH and nitrate < sulphate ? nitrite < tartrate < oxalate < selenite << phosphate on Fe-Mg-LDH. The inhibition of arsenate sorption increased by increasing the initial ligand concentration and was greater on Al-Mg-LDH than on Fe-Mg-LDH, evidently because arsenate anions have a stronger affinity for Fe than Al and for the presence in Fe-Mg-LDH of short-range-ordered materials on which arsenate forms very strong inner-sphere complexes not easily desorbable by competing ligands. The longer the arsenate residence time on the LDH surfaces the less effective the competing ligands were in desorbing arsenate from sorbents. The effect of increasing residence time on desorbing arsenate was similar for all ligands. However, for Al-Mg-LDH systems with phosphate, tartrate and oxalate, more arsenate was desorbed compared to Fe-Mg-LDH systems, at the same residence time. The amounts of arsenate desorbed by phosphate from LDHs increased with time, being characterized by an initially very fast desorption reaction followed by a much slower desorption reaction until a plateau was reached. A greater percentage of arsenate was removed by phosphate from Al-Mg-LDH than from Fe-Mg-LDH, suggesting that the main difference between two LDHs was in the amount of more easily desorbable arsenate. The implementation of decontamination systems of As-contaminated sources by providing for LDHs use would be able to combine the lower costs of remediation and effective removal of As from them.

Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Dynes, J. J.; Cozzolino, V.; Zhu, J.; Violante, A.

2012-04-01

125

Synthesis, characterization and release of a-naphthaleneacetate from thin films containing Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active agent a-naphthaleneacetate (NAA), a plant growth regulator was intercalated into the layered double hydroxides Mg/Al-LDH by ion-exchange method. And we prepared the films by the method of layer-by-layer self-assembly with Cationic Polyacrylamide, Polyacrylic acid sodium and LDH. The obtained compounds were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. The XRD datas demonstrated the guest size and the orientation of anions between the layers was determined. After intercalation, it was proposed that the NAA anions were accommodated in the interlayer region as a bilayer of species with the carboxyl attaching to the upper and lower layers. The FT-IR of the powder from film shows that Mg/Al-NAA-LDH was absorbed on the quartz glass. The film was putted into various solutions, and the release of NAA from the film showed obvious release effect. The release mechanism may be based on the dissolution and ion-exchange process according to first-order kinetics.

Liu, Yanfang; Song, Jian; Jiao, Feipeng; Huang, Jian

2014-05-01

126

Synthesis and characterization of lawsone-lntercalated Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

A drug-inorganic nanostructured material involving pharmaceutically active compound lawsone intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Law-LDHs) with Zn/AI = 4 has been assembled by co-precipitation and ion exchange methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) analysis indicate a successful intercalation of lawsone between the layers of layered double hydroxides. It suggests that layered double hydroxides may have application as the basis of a drug delivery system. PMID:21830495

Yasin, Yamin; Ismail, Nur Mushirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Aminudin, Norhaniza

2011-06-01

127

Preparation and characterization of a new nano-structural material, Co-Sn LDH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anionic clays or layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are one of the nano ordered layered materials. The layered double hydroxide well known for its ability to intercalate anionic compounds is prepared conventionally only with divalent and trivalent cations, hi this study, Co-Sn LDH consisting of divalent and tetravalent cations was prepared and reacted with monocarboxylic acids at room temperature. The Co-Sn LDH and intercalated compounds were characterized by chemical analysis (C, H, N analysis, ICP and ESCA), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The insertion of cyanate and carbonate anions into LDH was confirmed by chemical analysis and IR spectra. XRD patterns of the prepared Co-Sn LDH showed that the interlayer spacing of the LDH was 0.78 nm. The spacing was similar to that of usual LDH in which chloride, carbonate or bromide anion is the guest. SEM images showed that the aging time plays a vital role in the formation of Co-Sn LDH. The morphology of Co-Sn LDH was plate-like structure and/or fibrous structure depending on the aging time and the kind of interlayer anion.

Saber, O.

2007-04-01

128

Carboxylate-intercalated layered double hydroxides aged under microwave-hydrothermal treatment  

SciTech Connect

Carboxylate-intercalated (terephthalate, TA and oxalate, ox) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are aged under a microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The influence of the nature of the interlayer anion during the ageing process is studied. Characterization results show that the microwave-hydrothermal method can be extended to synthesize LDHs with anions different than carbonate, like TA. LDH-TA compounds are stable under microwave irradiation for increasing periods of time and the solids show an improved order both in the layers and in the interlayer region as evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, cleaning of the surface through removal of some organic species adsorbed on the surface of the particles also occurs during the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. Conversely, although the expected increase in crystallinity is observed in LDH-ox samples, the side-reaction between Al{sup 3+} and ox is also enhanced under microwave irradiation, and a partial destruction of the structure takes place with an increase in the M{sup 2+}/M{sup 3+} ratio and consequent modification of the cell parameters. - Graphical Abstract: The influence of the nature of the interlayer anion during the ageing process of carboxylate-intercalated (TA and ox) hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) is studied. Well crystallized for TA-containing compounds were obtained. However, the non-desired side-reaction of ox with the aluminum of the layers is enhanced by the microwaves and a partial destruction of the structure takes place.

Benito, P.; Labajos, F.M. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca 37008 (Spain); Mafra, L.; Rocha, J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, CICECO (Portugal); Rives, V. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca 37008 (Spain)], E-mail: vrives@usal.es

2009-01-15

129

Nanohybrid based on antibiotic encapsulated layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Nanohybrid of cefuroxime (CFO) with layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been prepared, and the rate of dissolution and bioavailability of CFO using nanohybrid as a drug delivery system has been broadly studied. The intercalation process was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The CFO contents were found to be 19.0 wt% in the nanohybrid. The release mechanism of CFO was investigated with respect to anion and pH of the dissolution media such as gastric, intestinal and blood simulated media. The effect of pH was evaluated on the release of CFO from nanohybrid, and the dissolution of CFO from the nanohybrid was found to be a slow process at pH 4.0, 6.8, and 7.4. Further the addition of Cl ion and PAM in release media did not affect the release rate of drug at pH 4.0 and 6.8, while at pH 7.4, Cl ion and PAM have significant role on the drug release. At pH 1.2, the release study shows that LDH dissolved in the acidic medium and CFO released in its molecular form. The release behavior suggests two mechanisms that are responsible for the release of CFO from nanohybrid: weathering (dependent on the pH) and ion exchange (highly dependent on the anions). Surface reactions mediated by solid weathering ruled the release in gastric fluid, whereas anion exchange determined CFO release in lysosomal, intestinal, and blood medium. In order to evaluate the drug release mechanism, the released data were fitted by mathematical models describing various kinetic. PMID:25399066

Khan, Sher Bahadar; Alamry, Khalid A; Alyahyawi, Nedaa A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Marwani, Hadi M

2015-02-01

130

Biodiesel synthesis using calcined layered double hydroxide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic properties of calcined Li-Al, Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were examined in two transesterification reactions, namely, the reaction of glyceryl tributyrate with methanol, and the reaction of soybean oil with methanol. While the Li-Al catalysts showed high activity in these reactions at the reflux temperature of methanol, the Mg-Fe and Mg-Al catalysts exhibited much lower methyl ester yields. CO2 TPD measurements revealed the presence of sites of weak, medium and strong basicity on both Mg-Al and Li-Al catalysts, the latter showing higher concentrations of medium and strong base sites; by implication, these are the main sites active in transesterification catalyzed by calcined Li-Al LDHs. Maximum activity was observed for the Li-Al catalysts when a calcination temperature of 450-500 aC was applied, corresponding to decomposition of the layered double hydroxide to the mixed oxide without formation of crystalline lithium aluminate phases.

Schumaker, J. Link [University of Kentucky; Crofcheck, Czarena [University of Kentucky; TAckett, S. Adam [University of Kentucky; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo [University of Kentucky; Morgan, Tonya [University of Kentucky; Ji, Yaying [University of Kentucky; Crocker, Mark [University of Kentucky; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

2008-01-01

131

Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h). After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties. PMID:24858732

Gu, Zi; Wu, Aihua; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping

2014-01-01

132

Ethanol Sensor of CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 Obtained from Ce-DOPED Layered Double Hydroxides with High Response and Selectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Ce-doped CdAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) was first synthesized and the derivative CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 composite oxide was prepared by calcining Ce-doped CdAl LDH. The structure, morphology and chemical state of the Ce doped CdAl LDH and CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 were also investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The gas sensing properties of CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 to ethanol were further studied and compared with CdO/Al2O3 prepared from CdAl LDH, CeO2 powder as well as the calcined Ce salt. It turns out that CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 sensor shows best performance in ethanol response. Besides, CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 possesses short response/recovery time (12/72 s) as well as remarkable selectivity in ethanol sensing, which means composite oxides prepared from LDH are very promising in gas sensing application.

Xu, Dongmei; Guan, Meiyu; Xu, Qinghong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Yao

2013-06-01

133

Preparation of Fe3O4@SiO2@layered double hydroxide core-shell microspheres for magnetic separation of proteins.  

PubMed

Three-component microspheres containing an SiO(2)-coated Fe(3)O(4) magnetite core and a layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelet shell have been synthesized via an in situ growth method. The resulting Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)@NiAl-LDH microspheres display three-dimensional core-shell architecture with flowerlike morphology, large surface area (83 m(2)/g), and uniform mesochannels (4.3 nm). The Ni(2+) cations in the NiAl-LDH shell provide docking sites for histidine and the materials exhibit excellent performance in the separation of a histidine (His)-tagged green fluorescent protein, with a binding capacity as high as 239 ?g/mg. The microspheres show highly selective adsorption of the His-tagged protein from Escherichia coli lysate, demonstrating their practical applicability. Moreover, the microspheres possess superparamagnetism and high saturation magnetization (36.8 emu/g), which allows them to be easily separated from solution by means of an external magnetic field and subsequently reused. The high stability and selectivity of the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)@NiAl-LDH microspheres for the His-tagged protein were retained over several separation cycles. Therefore, this work provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of multifunctional LDH microspheres, which can be used for the practical purification of recombinant proteins, as well as having other potential applications in a variety of biomedical fields including drug delivery and biosensors. PMID:22191643

Shao, Mingfei; Ning, Fanyu; Zhao, Jingwen; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

2012-01-18

134

Immobilization of layered double hydroxides in the fluidic system for nanoextraction of specific DNA molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to immobilize inorganic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on the poly(methylmethacrylate) substrate as the media to extract the specific DNA molecules through fluidic system to enhance the efficiency of extract specific DNA molecules from extremely low concentration in sample solution. LDH immobilized through solvent swelling and plasma treatment on the polymer surface captured the specific DNA molecules lysed from Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells as the target DNA molecules with 2×10-4g/l of concentration in sample solution mixed biomacromolecules lysed from human blood. The encapsulated DNA molecules released through dissolving of LDHs by slight acid (pH=4-5) solution then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process through the primers for E. coli cells. The DNA molecules amplified by PCR process were characterized by gel electrophoresis to recognize the existence of E. coli cells. The results show that immobilized LDHs could be regarded as the specific DNA detector for rapid disease diagnosis through fluidic system.

Chen, Jem-Kun; Chan, Chia-Hao; Chang, Feng-Chih

2008-02-01

135

Synthesis of protocatechuic acid-zinc/aluminium-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite as an anticancer nanodelivery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protocatechuic acid, an active anticancer agent, has been intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide at Zn/Al=2) using two different preparation methods, co-precipitation and ion-exchange, which are labelled as PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The release of protocatechuate from the nanocomposites occurred in a controlled manner and was fitted satisfactorily to pseudo-second order kinetics. The basal spacing of the resulting nanocomposites PZAE and PZAC was 10.2 and 11.0 Å, respectively, indicating successful intercalation of protocatechuate anions into the interlayer galleries of Zn/Al-NO3-LDH in a monolayer arrangement with angles of 24 and 33° from the z-axis in PZAE and PZAC, respectively. The formation of nanocomposites was further confirmed by a Fourier transform infrared study. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the thermal stability of the intercalated protocatechuic acid was significantly enhanced compared to its free protocatechuic acid, and the drug content in the nanocomposites was estimated to be approximately 32.6% in PZAE and 29.2% in PZAC. Both PZAE and PZAC nanocomposites inhibit the growth of human cervical, liver and colorectal cancer cell lines and exhibit no toxic effects towards normal fibroblast 3T3 cell after 72 h of treatment.

Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Gani, Shafinaz Abd; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

2015-01-01

136

ISOLATION OF CAFFEIC ACID FROM EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENG BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND SYNTHESIS OF CAFFEIC ACID-INTERCALATED LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE  

PubMed Central

Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for isolation and purification of caffeic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng with a solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water at a volume ratio of 10:1:10, v/v. Using a preparative unit of the HSCCC centrifuge, about a 938 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 63.2 mg of caffeic acid at purity of 96.0%. Then, the anti-microbial and anti-virus drug caffeic acid (C9H8O4) was intercalated into layered double hydroxides for the first time by anion exchange under a nitrogen atmosphere. The product caffeic acid–LDH has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron micrographs (SEM), indicating that the drug has been successfully intercalated into LDH. PMID:20454592

Wei, Yun; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Kai; Ito, Yoichiro

2010-01-01

137

ISOLATION OF CAFFEIC ACID FROM EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENG BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND SYNTHESIS OF CAFFEIC ACID-INTERCALATED LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE.  

PubMed

Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for isolation and purification of caffeic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng with a solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water at a volume ratio of 10:1:10, v/v. Using a preparative unit of the HSCCC centrifuge, about a 938 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 63.2 mg of caffeic acid at purity of 96.0%. Then, the anti-microbial and anti-virus drug caffeic acid (C(9)H(8)O(4)) was intercalated into layered double hydroxides for the first time by anion exchange under a nitrogen atmosphere. The product caffeic acid-LDH has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron micrographs (SEM), indicating that the drug has been successfully intercalated into LDH. PMID:20454592

Wei, Yun; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Kai; Ito, Yoichiro

2010-01-01

138

Characterization of self-assembled films of NiGa layered double hydroxide nanosheets and their electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have demonstrated the synthesis and delamination of a rarely studied NiGa layered double hydroxide (LDH) system. Hydrothermal treatment under agitation conditions at 200 °C for 4 h resulted in the formation of highly crystalline NiGa LDHs in a shorter time than those synthesized without agitation. The LDH was delaminated into the individual nanosheets in formamide. The most significant finding in this study is the electrochemical behavior of interlayer ferricyanide anions intercalated with the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method. The morphology of LBL film with one layer is also monitored with atomic force microscopy. The cyclic voltammogram is similar to potassium metal hexacyanoferrate systems with its unique two-peak wave. Raman spectrum of the film revealed that the metal center of the interlayer cyano complex is in interaction with the Ni 2+ of the host layer. It was concluded that the two-peak cyclic voltammogram of the film is a result of two different forms of the hexacyanoferrate in the interlayer.

Altuntasoglu, Ozge; Unal, Ugur; Ida, Shintaro; Goto, Motonobu; Matsumoto, Yasumichi

2008-12-01

139

Thermodynamical and structural insights of orange II adsorption by Mg RAlNO 3 layered double hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[Mg 1- x Al x(OH) 2][(NO 3) x, nH 2O] Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) sorbents with variable Mg/Al molar ( R=(1- x)/ x) ratios were investigated for adsorption of azo dye, orange II (OII) at various pH and temperature conditions. Mg 2AlNO 3 displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg 2AlNO 3 at 40 °C. Adsorption isotherms have been fitted using the Langmuir model and free energy of adsorption (? G°), enthalpy (? H°) and entropy (? S°) were calculated. The experimental values for ? G° in temperature range between 10 and 40 °C were found to be negative indicating that a spontaneous process occurred. Positive calculated enthalpy values, characteristic of an endothermic process were found. Characterization of solids (PXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, TGA/DTA, adsorption isotherm BET analysis, SEM and Zetametry) before and after adsorption showed that adsorption proceeds in two steps. First, adsorption occurs at the LDH surface, followed by intercalation via anion exchange.

Mustapha Bouhent, Mohamed; Derriche, Zoubir; Denoyel, Renaud; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude

2011-05-01

140

Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film.  

PubMed

Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH(4) as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s(-1). Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 ?m with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. PMID:22373876

Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

2012-04-01

141

Magnetic nanomaterial derived from graphene oxide/layered double hydroxide hybrid for efficient removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Magnetic hybrid nanomaterials composed of reduced graphene oxide, zero-valent nickel, and NiAl-mixed metal oxides (rGO/Ni/MMO) have been synthesized by calcining graphene oxide (GO)/layered double hydroxide (LDH) hybrid in nitrogen atmosphere. Structural characterizations demonstrate that with the presence of GO substrate, NiAl-LDHs can be reduced into zero-valent Ni and NiAl-MMOs during calcination. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to investigate the morphology of the as-prepared hybrid nanomaterials, demonstrating that the introduction of GO substrate prevents the aggregation of LDHs. Magnetism characterization proves the ferromagnetic property of rGO/Ni/MMO hybrid. This magnetic hybrid nanomaterial exhibits excellent adsorption ability toward methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm are investigated. The MO removal process is found to obey the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model, and its kinetics follows pseudo-second-order rate equation. In addition, the magnetic hybrid also exhibits good recycle ability for MO removal. This novel magnetic hybrid nanomaterial derived from GO/LDH hybrid demonstrates great potential in the applications of water treatment. PMID:23928490

Yang, Zhe; Ji, Shanshan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Lulu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

2013-10-15

142

Formation of Zn-rich phyllosilicate, Zn-layered double hydroxide and hydrozincite in contaminated calcareous soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies demonstrated that Zn-phyllosilicate- and Zn-layered double hydroxide-type (Zn-LDH) precipitates may form in contaminated soils. However, the influence of soil properties and Zn content on the quantity and type of precipitate forming has not been studied in detail so far. In this work, we determined the speciation of Zn in six carbonate-rich surface soils (pH 6.2-7.5) contaminated by aqueous Zn in the runoff from galvanized power line towers (1322-30,090 mg/kg Zn). Based on 12 bulk and 23 micro-focused extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the number, type and proportion of Zn species were derived using principal component analysis, target testing, and linear combination fitting. Nearly pure Zn-rich phyllosilicate and Zn-LDH were identified at different locations within a single soil horizon, suggesting that the local availabilities of Al and Si controlled the type of precipitate forming. Hydrozincite was identified on the surfaces of limestone particles that were not in direct contact with the soil clay matrix. With increasing Zn loading of the soils, the percentage of precipitated Zn increased from ˜20% to ˜80%, while the precipitate type shifted from Zn-phyllosilicate and/or Zn-LDH at the lowest studied soil Zn contents over predominantly Zn-LDH at intermediate loadings to hydrozincite in extremely contaminated soils. These trends were in agreement with the solubility of Zn in equilibrium with these phases. Sequential extractions showed that large fractions of soil Zn (˜30-80%) as well as of synthetic Zn-kerolite, Zn-LDH, and hydrozincite spiked into uncontaminated soil were readily extracted by 1 M NH 4NO 3 followed by 1 M NH 4-acetate at pH 6.0. Even though the formation of Zn-precipitates allows for the retention of Zn in excess to the adsorption capacity of calcareous soils, the long-term immobilization potential of these precipitates is limited.

Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Villard, André; Marcus, Matthew A.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2008-10-01

143

Coexistence of adsorption and coagulation processes of both arsenate and NOM from contaminated groundwater by nanocrystallined Mg/Al layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

In this study, nanocrystallined Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDH-CO3) and chloridion intercalated nanocrystallined Mg/Al LDHs (LDH-Cl) were synthesized and used for simultaneous removal of arsenic and natural organic matter (NOM) from contaminated groundwater. Humic acid (HA) was selected as a model compound of NOM. The maximum adsorption capacities of arsenate (As(V)) on LDH-CO3 and LDH-Cl are 44.66 and 88.30 mg/g, respectively, and those of HA on LDH-CO3 and LDH-Cl are 53.16 and 269.24 mg/g, respectively. It was found that more than 98% of arsenic and 94% of NOM were eliminated by LDH-Cl from both arsenic and NOM-rich groundwater, which is used as drinking water in Togtoh County, Inner Mongolia, China. The arsenic concentration declined from 231 to 4 ?g/L, which meets the drinking water standard. The adsorption mechanisms were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy techniques (EXAFS). The results showed that the removal of HA was mainly via surface complexation as well as coagulation at the surface of LDHs, while the adsorption of As(V) was mainly via ion-exchange process. The presence of HA exhibited little inhibiting effect on As(V) adsorption by occupying partial binding sites on LDH surfaces. Nevertheless, it could not affect the ion-exchange process of As(V) with the interlayer anions of LDHs. The removal of As(V) and HA can be carried out independently due to the different adsorption mechanisms. By integrating the experimental results, it is clear that LDH-Cl can be potentially used as a cost-effective material for the purification of both arsenic and NOM contaminated groundwater. PMID:23582669

Wu, Xilin; Tan, Xiaoli; Yang, Shitong; Wen, Tao; Guo, Hongli; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, Anwu

2013-08-01

144

Synthesis of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate-zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite: physico-chemical and controlled release properties.  

PubMed

Layered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material was synthesised using 4-chlorophenoxyacetate (4CPA) as guest anion intercalated into the Zn-Al layered double hydroxide inorganic host by direct co-precipitation method at pH = 7.5 and Zn to Al molar ratio of 4. Both PXRD and FTIR results confirmed that the 4CPA was successfully intercalated into the Zn-AI-LDH interlayer. As a result, a well-ordered nanolayered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite, with the expansion of the basal spacing from 8.9 angstroms in the layered double hydroxide to 20.1 angstroms in the resulting nanocomposite was observed. The FTIR spectrum of the nanocomposite (ZAC) showed that it composed spectral features of Zn-AI-LDH (ZAL) and 4CPA. The nanocomposites synthesized in this work are of mesoporous-type containing 39.8% (w/w) of 4CPA with mole fraction of Al3+ in the inorganic brucite-like layers (xAI) of 0.224. The release studies showed a rapid release of the 4CPA for the first 600 min, and more sustained thereafter. The total amount of 4CPA released from the nanocomposite interlayer into the aqueous solution were 21%, 66%, and 72% in 0.0001, 0.00025, and 0.0005 M sodium carbonate, respectively. In distilled water, about 75, 35, and 57% of 4CPA could be released in 1000 min, when the pH of the release media was set at 3, 6.25, and 12, respectively. In comparison with a structurally similar organic moiety with one more chlorine atom at the 2-position of the aromatic ring, namely 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (24D), the 4CPA showed a slower release rate. The slightly bulkier organic moiety of 24D together with the presence of chlorine atom at the 2-position presumably had contributed to its higher release rate, and it seems that these factors may be exploited for tuning the release rate of intercalated guest anions with similar properties. This study suggests that layered double hydroxide can be used as a carrier for an active agent and the chemical structure of the intercalated moiety can be used to tune the desired release kinetics of the beneficial agent. PMID:17685307

Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Zainal, Zulkarnain

2007-08-01

145

LDPE\\/Mg–Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposite: Thermal and flammability properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are new nanofillers which exhibit improved thermal and flammability properties in various kinds of polymer matrices. These materials have certain advantages over conventional metal hydroxides and also layered silicates so far as the flame retardancy is concerned. In this article, flammability and thermal properties of the nanocomposite based on low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Mg–Al based

Francis Reny Costa; Udo Wagenknecht; Gert Heinrich

2007-01-01

146

Heterogeneous ultrathin films fabricated by alternate assembly of exfoliated layered double hydroxides and polyanionw  

E-print Network

Heterogeneous ultrathin films fabricated by alternate assembly of exfoliated layered double September 2008 DOI: 10.1039/b807479h Transparent heterogeneous ultrathin films of exfoliated layered double. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also well-known as hydro- talcite-like compounds or anionic clays

Wang, Zhong L.

147

Controlled release of ketorolac through nanocomposite films of hydrogel and LDH nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel nanocomposite film for sustained release of anionic ophthalmic drugs through a double-control process has been examined\\u000a in this study. The film, made as a drug-loaded contact lens, consists principally of a polymer hydrogel of 2-hydroxyethyl\\u000a methacrylate (HEMA), in whose matrix MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) nanoparticles intercalated with the anionic\\u000a drug are well dispersed. Such nanocomposite films (hydrogel-LDH-drug) contained

Zhi Ping Xu; Zi Gu; Xiaoxi Cheng; Firas Rasoul; Andrew K. Whittaker; Gao Qing Max Lu

2011-01-01

148

The intercalation of phenylphosphonic acid in layered double hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium–aluminum hydroxy nitrates ((NO3)-MgAl-LDHs) and zinc analogues ((NO3)-ZnAl-LDHs) with MII\\/MIII ratios between 1\\/1 and 4\\/1 were synthesized by the method of coprecipitation. Intercalation experiments with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) revealed a correlation between the MII\\/MIII ratio of the LDH and the type of reaction it undergoes with PPA. For ratios smaller than or equal to 2\\/1, complete intercalation was accomplished (room

Herbert Nijs; Abraham Clearfield; Etienne F Vansant

1998-01-01

149

Co intake mediated formation of ultrathin nanosheets of transition metal LDH-an advanced electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.  

PubMed

By controlling the ratio of tri- and bi-valent ions, multi-transition metal based layered double hydroxide (LDH) ultrathin nanosheets are synthesized. They show advanced OER performance with low overpotentials (?0.2 V) and decreased Tafel slopes with increasing Co incorporation due to the modulated electronic structures of catalytic centers and the increased surface area and electronic conductivity. PMID:25467629

Long, Xia; Xiao, Shuang; Wang, Zilong; Zheng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shihe

2015-01-21

150

Reversible thermally-responsive electrochemical energy storage based on smart LDH@P(NIPAM-co-SPMA) films.  

PubMed

A smart supercapacitor was fabricated by loading a thermosensitive polymer P(NIPAM-co-SPMA) onto the surface of NiAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanowalls grown on a flexible Ni foil substrate, which displays temperature-triggered on-off ion channels for controlling the electrochemical behavior. PMID:23939250

Dou, Yibo; Pan, Ting; Zhou, Awu; Xu, Simin; Liu, Xiaoxi; Han, Jingbin; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

2013-10-01

151

Reversible hydration and aqueous exfoliation of the acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxide of Ni and Al: Observation of an ordered interstratified phase  

SciTech Connect

Acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Ni and Al undergo reversible hydration in the solid state in response to the ambient humidity. The LDH with a high layer charge (0.33/formula unit) undergoes facile hydration in a single step, whereas the LDH with a lower layer charge (0.24/formula unit) exhibits an ordered interstratified intermediate, comprising the hydrated and dehydrated layers stacked alternatively. This phase, also known as the staged S-2 phase, coexists with the end members suggesting the existence of a solution-type equilibrium between the S-2 phase and the end members of the hydration cycle. These LDHs also undergo facile aqueous exfoliation into 2-5 nm-thick tactoids with a radial dimension of 0.2-0.5 {mu}m. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the hydrated, dehydrated and interstratified phases observed during the hydration-dehydration of Ni/Al-CH{sub 3}COO LDH. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni/Al-acetate LDHs were synthesized by HPFS method by hydrolysis of acetamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intercalated acetate ion shows reversible hydration with variation in humidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An ordered interstratified phase was observed during hydration/dehydration cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A solution type equilibrium is observed between hydration-dehydration phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LDHs undergo facile aqueous exfoliation.

Manohara, G.V. [Department of Chemistry, The Central College Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, The Central College Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Vishnu Kamath, P., E-mail: vishnukamath8@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, The Central College Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Milius, Wolfgang [Department of Inorganic Chemistry I, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth D-95440 (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry I, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth D-95440 (Germany)

2012-12-15

152

Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH4 as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s-1. Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 ?m with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications.Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH4 as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s-1. Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 ?m with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr00043a

Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

2012-03-01

153

Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition  

PubMed Central

The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids. PMID:25080007

Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

2014-01-01

154

Effect of hydrothermal treatment on properties of Ni-Al layered double hydroxides and related mixed oxides  

SciTech Connect

The Ni-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Ni/Al molar ratio of 2, 3, and 4 were prepared by coprecipitation and treated under hydrothermal conditions at 180 deg. C for times up to 20 h. Thermal decomposition of the prepared samples was studied using thermal analysis and high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Hydrothermal treatment increased significantly the crystallite size of coprecipitated samples. The characteristic LDH diffraction lines disappeared completely at ca. 350 deg. C and a gradual crystallization of NiO-like mixed oxide was observed at higher temperatures. Hydrothermal treatment improved thermal stability of the Ni2Al and Ni3Al LDHs but only a slight effect of hydrothermal treatment was observed with the Ni4Al sample. The Rietveld refinement of powder XRD patterns of calcination products obtained at 450 deg. C showed a formation of Al-containing NiO-like oxide and a presence of a considerable amount of Al-rich amorphous component. Hydrothermal aging of the LDHs resulted in decreasing content of the amorphous component and enhanced substitution of Al cations into NiO-like structure. The hydrothermally treated samples also exhibited a worse reducibility of Ni{sup 2+} components. The NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and NiO still containing a marked part of Al in the cationic sublattice were detected in the samples calcined at 900 deg. C. The Ni2Al LDHs hydrothermally treated for various times and related mixed oxides obtained at 450 deg. C showed an increase in pore size with increasing time of hydrothermal aging. The hydrothermal treatment of LDH precursor considerably improved the catalytic activity of Ni2Al mixed oxides in N{sub 2}O decomposition, which can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains. - Graphical Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of Ni-Al LDH precursors influenced the porous structure of related mixed oxides and considerably improved their catalytic activity in N{sub 2}O decomposition; the higher catalytic activity of hydrothermally treated samples can be explained by suppressing internal diffusion effect in catalysts grains.

Kovanda, Frantisek [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: Frantisek.Kovanda@vscht.cz; Rojka, Tomas [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Bezdicka, Petr [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Jiratova, Kveta [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v. v. i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague (Czech Republic); Obalova, Lucie; Pacultova, Katerina [Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Bastl, Zdenek [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Dolejskova 3, 182 23 Prague (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

2009-01-15

155

Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids  

SciTech Connect

Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, CP 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (Mexico)

2012-01-15

156

Synthesis of Mg-Al-Fe-NO3 layered double hydroxides via a mechano-hydrothermal route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg-Al-Fe-NO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a constant Mg2+/(Al3+ + Fe3+) molar ratio but varying Al3+/Fe3+ molar ratios were successfully synthesized by a mechano-hydrothermal (MHT) method from Mg(OH)2, Al(OH)3 and Fe(NO3)3·9H2O or Mg(NO3)2·6H2O as starting materials. The resulting LDHs (MHT-LDHs) were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, FT-IR, and zeta potential, size distribution and specific surface area analyses. It was found that pre-milling played a key role in the LDH formation during subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The MHT route is advantageous in terms of low reaction temperature compared with the conventional hydrothermal method, and the target products are of high crystallinity and good dispersion compared with the conventional mechanochemical (MC) method. The MHT-LDHs had higher specific surface area and zeta potential, and lower hydrodynamic diameter than LDHs obtained by MC method (MC-LDHs). Furthermore, the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using the LDHs was examined, showing that the MHT-LDHs are of higher removal efficiency than MC-LDHs for the heavy metal pollutant.

Zhang, Fengrong; Du, Na; Li, Haiping; Liu, Jianqiang; Hou, Wanguo

2014-06-01

157

Acid and redox properties of mixed oxides prepared by calcination of chromate-containing layered double hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Mg and Al in the layers and carbonate, nitrate or chloride in the interlayer, or with Zn and Al in the layers and chloride in the interlayer, have been prepared by coprecipitation, and have been used as precursors to prepare chromate-containing LDHs. All these systems, as well as those obtained upon their calcination up to 800 deg. C, have been characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and vis-UV spectroscopies, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), nitrogen adsorption at -196 deg. C for surface texture and porosity assessment, and FT-IR monitoring of pyridine adsorption for surface acidity determination. The results obtained show that the crystallinity of the chromate-containing LDH depends on the precursor used. The layered structure of the Mg, Al systems is stabilised up to 400 deg. C upon incorporation of chromate; however, the Zn,Al-chromate samples collapse between 200 and 300 deg. C, with simultaneous formation of ZnO. Calcination of the samples above 400 deg. C gives rise to a reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), as concluded from vis-UV spectroscopic studies. The TPR profiles show that chromate in ZnAl hydrotalcite is more easily reduced than that incorporated in the magnesium ones. Moderately strong surface Lewis acid sites exist in all samples calcined below 500 deg. C.

Arco, M. del [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Carriazo, D. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Martin, C. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Perez-Grueso, A.M. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Rives, V. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain)]. E-mail: vrives@usal.es

2005-11-15

158

Sorption of MS2 Bacteriophage to Layered Double Hydroxides: Effects of Reaction Time, pH, and Competing Anions  

E-print Network

Sorption of MS2 Bacteriophage to Layered Double Hydroxides: Effects of Reaction Time, p,to investigate the potential of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to remove bacteriophage MS2 from contaminated waters. All four of 70% of bacteriophages (T4 and MS2) were removed the LDHs evaluated in this study had

Sparks, Donald L.

159

A facile synthesis of strong near infrared fluorescent layered double hydroxide nanovehicles with an anticancer drug for tumor optical imaging and therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a new multifunctional nanovehicle for tumor optical imaging and therapy was developed using Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles as near infrared fluorescent nanophosphors, and MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets as anticancer drug nanovehicles. Monodispersed Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanophosphors were readily synthesized by the urea assisted homogenous precipitation method. Hierarchically structured LDH nanosheets intercalated with an anticancer drug, fluorouracil (5FU), were deposited on the surface of Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2 by a simple precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The resultant Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2@LDH-5FU nanovehicles exhibit strong red upconversion fluorescence under the excitation of a 980 nm laser, which allows tracking of the nanovehicles after localization in cancer cells. A better anticancer efficiency was obtained over the nanovehicles than the free drug which can be attributed to their positively charged surfaces for favorable interaction with the negatively charged cell membranes. The multifunctional nanovehicles designed in this work are expected to be promising material candidates for simultaneous tumor optical imaging and therapy.In this work, a new multifunctional nanovehicle for tumor optical imaging and therapy was developed using Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles as near infrared fluorescent nanophosphors, and MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets as anticancer drug nanovehicles. Monodispersed Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanophosphors were readily synthesized by the urea assisted homogenous precipitation method. Hierarchically structured LDH nanosheets intercalated with an anticancer drug, fluorouracil (5FU), were deposited on the surface of Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2 by a simple precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The resultant Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2@LDH-5FU nanovehicles exhibit strong red upconversion fluorescence under the excitation of a 980 nm laser, which allows tracking of the nanovehicles after localization in cancer cells. A better anticancer efficiency was obtained over the nanovehicles than the free drug which can be attributed to their positively charged surfaces for favorable interaction with the negatively charged cell membranes. The multifunctional nanovehicles designed in this work are expected to be promising material candidates for simultaneous tumor optical imaging and therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2 synthesized by using different amounts of TEOS, and confocal scanning laser microscopy images (Z stack) of MCF-7 cells incubated with Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2@LDH-5FU for 30 min and 24 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00781b

Chen, Chunping; Yee, Lee Kim; Gong, Hua; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Rong

2013-05-01

160

Multiple and configurable optical logic systems based on layered double hydroxides and chromophore assemblies.  

PubMed

Multiple and configurable fluorescence logic gates were fabricated via self-assembly of layered double hydroxides and various chromophores. These logic gates were operated by observation of different emissions with the same excitation wavelength, which achieve YES, NOT, AND, INH and INHIBIT logic operations, respectively. PMID:25418921

Shi, Wenying; Fu, Yi; Li, Zhixiong; Wei, Min

2015-01-14

161

Soft Chemical Conversion of Layered Double Hydroxides to Superparamagnetic Spinel Platelets  

E-print Network

Soft Chemical Conversion of Layered Double Hydroxides to Superparamagnetic Spinel Platelets Yoji report the synthesis of a wide range of single-crystal spinel platelets with exposed (111) faces, lateral micrometer-size lateral dimensions. The accessibility of a wide range of superpara- magnetic spinel platelets

162

Preparation of melt-spun antimicrobially modified LDH/polyolefin nanocomposite fibers.  

PubMed

Layered double hydroxide (LDH) was synthesized and organically modified with camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) and ciprofloxacin. The thermal stability of CSA was improved remarkably under LDH shielding. A minimal inhibitory concentration of free CSA against tested bacteria was determined in order to define the essential quantity in LDH modification. The modified LDHs were melt-compounded with high density polyethylene and the prepared nanocomposites were further melt-spun using a piston-type spinning device. The melt-spun fibers were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. CSA integrated fibers show susceptibility against Gram-positive bacteria and ciprofloxacin integrated fibers showed activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24907731

Kutlu, Burak; Schröttner, Percy; Leuteritz, Andreas; Boldt, Regine; Jacobs, Enno; Heinrich, Gert

2014-08-01

163

Magnetic, luminescent Eu-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxide and its intercalation for ibuprofen.  

PubMed

A magnetic, luminescent Eu-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxide with ibuprofen (IBU) intercalated in the gallery has been successfully prepared by a simple coprecipitation method. The physicochemical properties of the samples were well characterized by powder XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA, inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and fluorospectrophotometry. The results revealed that Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles are coated on the surface of layered double hydroxides and the obtained (Mg(2)Al(0.95)Eu(0.05))(Fe)-(IBU) sample exhibits both superparamagnetic and luminescent properties, with a saturation magnetization value of 1.86?emu? g(-1) and a strong emission band at 610?nm, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the ibuprofen loading amount is about 31?% (w/w), and the intercalated ibuprofen possesses sustained release behavior when the magnetic, luminescent composite is immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). PMID:21038324

Wang, Jun; Zhou, Jideng; Li, Zhanshuang; Song, Yanchao; Liu, Qi; Jiang, Zhaohua; Zhang, Milin

2010-12-27

164

Interplay between chemical composition and cation ordering in the magnetism of Ni/Fe layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of a family of ferrimagnetic NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a variable Ni(2+)/Fe(3+) in-plane composition of [Ni(1-x)Fe(x)(OH)2](CO3)(x/2)·yH2O (x = 0.20, 0.25, and 0.33) by following a modified homogeneous precipitation. These layered magnets display high crystallinity, homogeneous hexagonal morphologies, and micrometric size that enable their quantitative exfoliation into single layers by sonomechanical treatment of the solids in polar solvents. This was confirmed by dynamic light scattering, UV-vis spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron miscroscopy, and atomic force microscopy methodologies to study the resulting steady suspensions. Our magnetic study reflects that the iron content in the LDH layers controls the overall magnetism of these lamellae. Hence, the gradual replacement of Ni(2+) with Fe(3+) centers introduces a larger amount of antiferromagnetically coupled Fe-OH-Fe pairs across the layers, provoking that the compound with the highest Fe/Ni ratio displays spontaneous magnetization at higher temperatures (T(irr) = 15.1 K) and the hardest coercive field (3.6 kG). Mössbauer spectroscopy confirms that the cation distribution in the layers is not random and reflects the occurrence of Fe clustering due to the higher affinity of Fe(3+) ions to accommodate other homometallic centers in their surroundings. In our opinion, this clarifies the origin of the glassy behavior, also reported for other magnetic LDHs, and points out spin frustration as the most likely cause. PMID:23961761

Abellán, Gonzalo; Coronado, Eugenio; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Waerenborgh, Joao; Ribera, Antonio

2013-09-01

165

Interlayer dynamics of a fatty acid exchanged lithium alumium layered double hydroxide monitored by infrared spectroscopy and pyrene fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interlayers of layered metal double hydroxides provide a novel environment for arrangement of molecular species as well as their reactions. In this study, we report on a system which has a dense packing of myristic acid molecules (CH[sub 3](CH[sub 2])[sub 12]COOH) in a Li-Al layered double hydroxide (LiAl[sub 2](OH)[sub 6][sup +]), the acid chains being aligned perpendicular to the

Prabir K. Dutta; Daniel S. Robins

1994-01-01

166

Preparation of Tween 80-Zn/Al-Levodopa-Layered Double Hydroxides Nanocomposite for Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

We incorporated anti-Parkinsonian drug, levodopa (dopa), in Zn/Al-LDH by coprecipitation method to form dopa-LDH nanocomposite. Further coating of Tween-80 on the external surfaces of dopa-LDH nanocomposite was achieved through the oxygen of C=O group of Tween-80 with the layer of dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The final product is called Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The X-ray diffraction indicates that the Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was formed by aggregation structure. From the TGA data, the Tween-80 loading on the surface of LDH and dopa-LDH was 8.6 and 7.4%, respectively. The effect of coating process on the dopa release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was also studied. The release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite shows slower release compared to the release of the drug from dopa-LDH nanocomposite as done previously in our study, presumably due to the retarding shielding effect. The cell viability study using PC12 showed improved viability with Tween-80 coating on dopa-LDH nanocomposite as studied by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay). PMID:24782658

Kura, Aminu Umar; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida

2014-01-01

167

Efficient delivery of anticancer drug MTX through MTX-LDH nanohybrid system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been successful to intercalate anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX), into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg2Al(OH)6(NO3)·0.1H2O, through conventional co-precipitation method. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are endowed with great potential for delivery vector, since their cationic layers lead to safe reservation of biofunctional molecules such as drug molecules or genes. And their ion exchangeability and solubility in acidic media (pH<4) give rise to the controlled release of drug molecules. Moreover, it has been partly confirmed that LDH itself is non-toxic and facilitate the cellular permeation. To check the toxicity of LDHs, the osteosarcoma cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63) and the normal one (human fibroblast) were used for in vitro test. The anticancer efficacy of MTX intercalated LDHs (MTX-LDH nanohybrids) was also estimated in vitro by the bioassay such as MTT and BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine) with the bone cancer cell culture lines (Saos-2 and MG-63). According to the toxicity test results, LDHs do not harm to both the normal and cancer cells upto the concentration of 500 ug/mL. The anticancer efficacy test for the MTX-LDH nanohybrids turn out to be much more effective in cell suppression compared to the MTX itself. According to the cell-line tests, the MTX-LDH shows same drug efficacy to the MTX itself in spite of the low concentration by ˜5000 times. Such a high cancer suppression effect of MTX-LDH hybrid is surely due to the excellent delivery efficiency of inorganic delivery vector, LDHs.

Oh, Jae-Min; Park, Man; Kim, Sang-Tae; Jung, Jin-Young; Kang, Yong-Gu; Choy, Jin-Ho

2006-05-01

168

Anionexchange and thermal change of layered zinc hydroxides formed in the presence of Al(III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc hydroxide chloride particles of ZHC (simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) and layered double hydroxides (LDH, Zn–Al–Cl) were prepared by hydrolysis of ZnCl2 solutions dissolving AlCl3 at Al\\/Zn=0.1 and 0.6 in atomic ratio, respectively. The anion-exchange and thermal change of ZHC and LDH were investigated by XRD, TEM, FTIR, analysis of Zn, Al, and Cl and gas adsorption of N2, H2O, and CCl4.

Tatsuo Ishikawa; Kumi Matsumoto; Kazuhiko Kandori; Takenori Nakayama

2007-01-01

169

Double layer hydroxide minerals as host structures for bioorganic molecules. [Abstract only  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A central problem in molecular evolution concerns the selective concentration from dilute, multicomponent solution of source molecules into a reactive environment, where formation of larger molecular assemblages can take place. Minerals consisting of positively charged, separable metal hydroxide sheets have proven capable of these functions. This common structural type is represented by minerals such as pyroaurite (Mg-Fe(3+) hydroxide), hydrotalcite (Mg-Al), green rust Fe(2+)-Fe(3+) and others. Effective interlayer sorption is demonstrated for orthophosphate and condensed phosphates, anionic alkyl compounds, polypeptides, nucleic acids, cyanide complexes and glycolaldehyde phosphate, the latter shown to readily oligomerize to form and selectively retain racemic hexose -2, 4, 6-phosphates, preferentially of altrose (Pitsch, et al, 1993). The selective aldomerization and retention effects correlate with the charge distribution in the host mineral structure and the stereochemistry of the substrate molecules. Interaction between nucleic acid bases, and between the cyanide groups of glycolaldehyde phosphate nitrile at the low water activity in the mineral interlayer is indicated by doubling of the monomeric separation of the hydroxide mineral sheets.

Lee, Ton; Arrhenius, Meichia L.; Hui, Stella S.-Y.; Ring, Ken M.; Gedulin, Benjamin I.; Orgel, Leslie E.; Arrhenius, Gustaf

1994-01-01

170

Co-Ni layered double hydroxides for water oxidation in neutral electrolyte.  

PubMed

The electrochemical properties of Co-Ni layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as efficient electrocatalysts for water oxidation were investigated in potassium phosphate electrolyte under neutral pH condition. The Co-Ni LDHs with a core-shell structure were fabricated using a facile route from a Co-Ni hydroxide precursor with iodine as a topotactic oxidizer. The unique core-shell morphology is likely due to the enrichment of Co(III) hydroxide in the inner core indicated by selected area electron diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Through a self-assembling process at the organic/inorganic interface and dip-coating, the Co-Ni LDHs were deposited onto FTO glass substrates to prepare composite electrodes. Low over-potential and high current density was achieved in the oxygen evolution reaction. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of Co-Ni LDHs may be attributed to more accessible Co active sites and rapid movement of interlayer ions within their layered structure. PMID:23579333

Zhang, Ye; Cui, Bai; Zhao, Chunsong; Lin, Hong; Li, Jianbao

2013-05-21

171

Structural characterization and thermal properties of polyamide 6.6/Mg, Al/adipate-LDH nanocomposites obtained by solid state polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new nanocomposite was obtained by dispersing an adipate-modified layered double hydroxide (Ad-LDH) with adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine. These samples were polymerized in the solid phase under a nitrogen flow for 200 min at 190 °C. The structural and compositional details of the nanocomposite were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, focused ion beam (FIB), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The PXRD patterns and FIB images show a partially intercalated and partially exfoliated dispersion of layered crystalline materials in the polyamide 6.6 matrix. The best dispersion level is achieved in polyamide 6.6/LDH nanocomposites with low LDH loading. Some residual tactoids and particle agglomerates are also evident at high concentration. The best thermal stability of the nanocomposites is shown by the sample with 0.1% LDH content, for which it is higher than that of pure polyamide.

Herrero, M.; Benito, P.; Labajos, F. M.; Rives, V.; Zhu, Y. D.; Allen, G. C.; Adams, J. M.

2010-07-01

172

Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro.

Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

2014-09-01

173

Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C.

Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

2012-01-01

174

Organo/layered double hydroxide nanohybrids used to remove non ionic pesticides.  

PubMed

The preparation and characterization of organo/layered double hydroxide nanohybrids with dodecylsulfate and sebacate as interlayer anion were studied in detail. The aim of the modification of the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was to change the hydrophilic character of the interlayer to hydrophobic to improve the ability of the nanohybrids to adsorb non-ionic pesticides such as alachlor and metolachlor from water. Adsorption tests were conducted on organo/LDHs using variable pH values, contact times and initial pesticide concentrations (adsorption isotherms) in order to identify the optimum conditions for the intended purpose. Adsorbents and adsorption products were characterized several physicochemical techniques. The adsorption test showed that a noticeable increase of the adsorption of the non-ionic herbicides was produced. Based on the results, the organo/LDHs could be good adsorbents to remove alachlor and metolachlor from water. Different organo/LDHs complexes were prepared by a mechanical mixture and by adsorption. The results show that HTSEB-based complex displays controlled release properties that reduce metolachlor leaching in soil columns compared to a technical product and the other formulations. The release was dependent on the nature of the adsorbent used to prepare the complexes. Thus, it can be concluded that organo/LDHs might act as suitable supports for the design of pesticide slow release formulations with the aim of reducing the adverse effects derived from rapid transport losses of the chemical once applied to soils. PMID:21978582

Chaara, D; Bruna, F; Ulibarri, M A; Draoui, K; Barriga, C; Pavlovic, I

2011-11-30

175

Speciation of As(III)/As(V) in water samples by a magnetic solid phase extraction based on Fe?O?/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide nano-hybrid followed by chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

A novel magnetic solid phase extraction method was developed for the speciation of As(III)/As(V) in aqueous solutions utilizing Fe3O4-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) as a nano-sorbent. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of As(V) by Fe3O4/Mg-Al LDH nano-hybrid prior to determination by a chemiluminescence (CL) technique. The CL route involves the oxidation of luminol by vanadomolybdoarsenate heteropoly acid in a basic media. Since the existing cations cannot be adsorbed by positively charged layers of the LDH and other potentially interferent anions had no considerable effect on the CL reaction, it provides a very selective and sensitive determination approach for As(V). The determination of total arsenic and hence indirectly As(III) involve the pre-oxidation of As(III) to As(V) by a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide. Several factors affecting the extraction and determination of the analyte were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5.0-5000 ng L(-1). The limit of detection and enrichment factor was 2.0 ng L(-1) and 80, respectively. The method was validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e), and successfully applied to the speciation of arsenic in several water samples with recoveries in the range of 93.3-106.7% for the spiked samples. PMID:25059142

Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Talleb, Zeynab

2014-10-01

176

Near-infrared and mid-infrared investigations of Na-dodecylbenzenesulfate intercalated into hydrocalumite chloride (CaAl-LDH-Cl)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocalumite (CaAl-LDH-Cl) belongs to layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The intercalation of Na-dodecylbenzenesulfate (SDBS) into CaAl-LDH-Cl has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The mid-infrared spectra indicated that SDBS could be intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl, with the same lattice structure to that of CaAl-LDH-Cl, and the interlayer distance of resultant product was expanded to 2.78 nm as confirmed by XRD. The near-infrared spectra (9200-4000 cm -1) showed that a special spectral range from 6200 to 5600 cm -1 and prominent bands of CaAl-LDH-Cl intercalated with SDBS around 8300 cm -1. This band was assigned to the second overtone of the first fundamental of C-H stretching vibrations of SDBS, and can be used to determinate the result of CaAl-LDH-Cl modified by anionic surfactants. The bands of water stretching vibrations and -OH groups shifted to higher wavenumbers when CaAl-LDH-Cl was intercalated by SDBS, and their intensity of MIR and NIR spectra became lower in intensity.

Zhang, Ping; Qian, Guangren; Cheng, Hongfei; Yang, Jing; Shi, Huisheng; Frost, Ray L.

2011-08-01

177

Near-infrared and mid-infrared investigations of Na-dodecylbenzenesulfate intercalated into hydrocalumite chloride (CaAl-LDH-Cl).  

PubMed

Hydrocalumite (CaAl-LDH-Cl) belongs to layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The intercalation of Na-dodecylbenzenesulfate (SDBS) into CaAl-LDH-Cl has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The mid-infrared spectra indicated that SDBS could be intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl, with the same lattice structure to that of CaAl-LDH-Cl, and the interlayer distance of resultant product was expanded to 2.78 nm as confirmed by XRD. The near-infrared spectra (9200-4000 cm(-1)) showed that a special spectral range from 6200 to 5600 cm(-1) and prominent bands of CaAl-LDH-Cl intercalated with SDBS around 8300 cm(-1). This band was assigned to the second overtone of the first fundamental of C-H stretching vibrations of SDBS, and can be used to determinate the result of CaAl-LDH-Cl modified by anionic surfactants. The bands of water stretching vibrations and -OH groups shifted to higher wavenumbers when CaAl-LDH-Cl was intercalated by SDBS, and their intensity of MIR and NIR spectra became lower in intensity. PMID:21531615

Zhang, Ping; Qian, Guangren; Cheng, Hongfei; Yang, Jing; Shi, Huisheng; Frost, Ray L

2011-08-01

178

[Adsorption of perchlorate by calcined Mg/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides].  

PubMed

The adsorption capacity of perchlorate by Mg/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the adsorption isothermal model and dynamic model were discussed. The effect of calcination temperature, Mg/Zn/Al molar ratio, pH value of solution, adsorption time and dosage on the adsorption capacity of samples were studied. The experiment results showed that the removal ratio and adsorption capacity reached the highest and the pH value had good applicability when the molar ratio was Mg/Zn/Al = 2: 1 : 1. The adsorption of perchlorate basically conformed to the pseudo-second kinetics and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm model. PMID:25244841

Wang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Yan

2014-07-01

179

Mesoporous mixed metal oxides derived from P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preparation of mesoporous mixed metal oxides (MMOs) through a soft template method. Different amounts of P123 were used as structure directing agent to synthesize P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). After calcination of as-synthesized LDHs at 500 °C, the ordered mesopores were obtained by removal of P123. The mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs fabricated by using 2 wt% P123 exhibited a high specific surface area of 108.1 m 2/g, and wide distribution of pore size (2-18 nm). An investigation of the "memory effect" of the mesoporous MMOs revealed that they were successfully reconstructed to ibuprofen intercalated LDHs having different gallery heights, which indicated different intercalation capacities. Due to their mesoporosity these unique MMOs have particular potential as drug or catalyst carriers.

Wang, Jun; Zhou, Jideng; Li, Zhanshuang; He, Yang; Lin, Shuangshuang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Milin; Jiang, Zhaohua

2010-11-01

180

Stabilization of Co{sup 2+} in layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by microwave-assisted ageing  

SciTech Connect

Co-containing layered double hydroxides at different pH have been prepared, and aged following different routes. The solids prepared have been characterized by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (both in nitrogen and in oxygen), FT-IR and Vis-UV spectroscopies, temperature-programmed reduction and surface area assessment by nitrogen adsorption at -196 deg. C. The best conditions found to preserve the cobalt species in the divalent oxidation state are preparing the samples at controlled pH, and then submit them to ageing under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: The use of microwave-hydrothermal treatment, controlling both temperature and ageing time, permits to synthesize well-crystallized nanomaterials with controlled surface properties. An enhancement in the crystallinity degree and an increase in the particle size are observed when the irradiation time is prolonged.

Herrero, M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca-37008 (Spain); Benito, P. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca-37008 (Spain); Labajos, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca-37008 (Spain); Rives, V. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca-37008 (Spain)], E-mail: vrives@usal.es

2007-03-15

181

Intercalation of amino acids and oligopeptides into Zn Al layered double hydroxide by coprecipitation reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coprecipitation of amino acids and oligopeptides with the Zn Al LDH was investigated using phenylalanine (Phe), phenylalanyl-phenylalanine (Phe-Phe), glycyl-phenylalanine (Gly Phe), glycine (Gly), glycyl-glycine (Gly Gly), glycyl-glycyl-glycine (Gly Gly Gly) and N-(N-?-glutamyl-cysteinyl)-glycine (GSH) as guest species. The coprecipitation behavior of amino acids and oligopeptides was found to be influenced by the solution pH and the kind of their side chain groups, and reached the maximum at pH 8 or 9. The basal spacing, d003, of the Phe, Phe-Phe and GSH/LDH was 1.81, 2.41 and 1.64 nm, supporting that guests were arranged vertical to the LDH basal layer. Acceding to the basal spacing of the Gly, Gly Gly and Gly Gly Gly/LDH (d003=0.84 0.88 nm), these guests were oriented horizontal to the LDH basal layer with the co-intercalated NO3-. Moreover, the amount of Phe-Phe, Gly Gly and Gly Gly Gly intercalated was almost the same as that of Phe and Gly despite increasing the number peptide bond and the molecular size. GSH was intercalated into the LDH interlayer space as GSH oxidized form with bridged LDH layers by their carboxylate groups.

Aisawa, Sumio; Sasaki, Shuji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Narita, Eiichi

2006-05-01

182

Friction behavior of Mg-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide prepared by magnesite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Mg-Al-CO3 LDH was prepared by magnesite under chemical precipitation and hydrothermal methods. In order to improve the dispersion of LDH in base oil, the as-prepared sample was modified with sodium laurate. The obtained material (GMAC-LDH) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analyzer (DSC-TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the modified LDH has platelet morphology with a near hexagon shape. In addition, the tribological properties of GMAC-LDH were evaluated by four-ball friction tester and gear tester. As a lubricant, GMAC-LDH possesses an excellent property on reducing friction and wear of friction pair. The results of friction tests indicated that the friction coefficient, diameter of wear scar and power consumption of the oil with GMAC-LDH was reduced by 11.0%, 8.5% and 2.1% as compared with that of base oil.

Wang, Xiaobo; Bai, Zhimin; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Fuyan

2013-07-01

183

DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

2007-10-31

184

Hydrolysis of mixed Ni(2+)-Fe3+ and Mg(2+)-Fe3+ solutions and mechanism of formation of layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

The hydrolytic behavior of mixed metallic solutions containing Ni(2+)-Fe(3+) and Mg(2+)-Fe(3+) has been studied with respect to the relative proportion of the divalent and trivalent cations in solution as well as the quantity of NaOH added. The combination of X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy provides a deep insight into both the nature of the phases and the structure of the formed LDH. The relative abundance of each phase is determined by using a mass balance diagram and is in good agreement with the solid characterization. We showed that the slow hydrolysis of mixed metallic solutions involved first the precipitation of Fe(3+) to form an akaganeite phase, and then the formation of a precursor on the iron oxyhydroxide surface, which transforms into LDH by diffusion of Fe(III) species from the akaganeite phase to the precursor. Interestingly, whatever the iron content in solution, the same fraction of Fe(III) is incorporated into the LDH phase which is correlated to the nature of the formed precursor. For Ni(2+)-Fe(3+) solution, the precursor is an ?-Ni hydroxide, which formed a LDH phase with a very low iron content (x(layer) = 0.1), but a high charge density provided by structural hydroxyl default. This result unambiguously demonstrated that the LDH phase is formed from the precursor structure. For Mg(2+)-Fe(3+) solution, the precursor is structurally equivalent to a ?-Mg(OH)2 phase, leading to a LDH with a higher x(layer) value of ~0.2. In both cases, at the end of the titration experiments, a mixture of different phases was systematically observed. Hydrothermal treatment allows the recovery of a pure LDH phase exclusively for the Ni(2+)-Fe(3+) solution. PMID:24048362

Grégoire, Brian; Ruby, Christian; Carteret, Cédric

2013-11-28

185

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01

186

Mesoporous mixed metal oxides derived from P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

We report the preparation of mesoporous mixed metal oxides (MMOs) through a soft template method. Different amounts of P123 were used as structure directing agent to synthesize P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). After calcination of as-synthesized LDHs at 500 {sup o}C, the ordered mesopores were obtained by removal of P123. The mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs fabricated by using 2 wt% P123 exhibited a high specific surface area of 108.1 m{sup 2}/g, and wide distribution of pore size (2-18 nm). An investigation of the 'memory effect' of the mesoporous MMOs revealed that they were successfully reconstructed to ibuprofen intercalated LDHs having different gallery heights, which indicated different intercalation capacities. Due to their mesoporosity these unique MMOs have particular potential as drug or catalyst carriers. - Graphical abstract: Ordered mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs can be obtained through the calcination of P123-templated Mg-Al-CO{sub 3} LDHs. The pore diameter is 2.2 nm. At the presence of ibuprofen, the Mg-Al MMOs can recover to Mg-Al-IBU LDHs, based on its 'remember effect'. Display Omitted

Wang Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.co [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Zhou Jideng; Li Zhanshuang; He Yang; Lin Shuangshuang; Liu Qi [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Jiang Zhaohua [College of Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2010-11-15

187

Chromium and yttrium-doped magnesium aluminum oxides prepared from layered double hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structures, containing Mg 2+ and Al 3+, doped with Cr 3+ and Y 3+, have been prepared by precipitation at constant pH. The weight percentages of Cr 3+ and Y 3+ were 1, 2, or 3%, and 0.5 or 1%, respectively. Single phases were obtained in all cases, whose crystallinity decreased as the content in Cr and Y was increased. The solids have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (differential, thermogravimetric and programmed reduction), FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies; the specific surface areas have been determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. Upon calcination at 1200 °C for 5 h in air all solids display a mixed structure (spinel and rock salt for MgO); these solids have also been characterised by these techniques and their chromatic coordinates (CIE - L?a?b?) have been determined. Their pink colour makes these solids suitable for being used as ceramic pigments.

García-García, J. M.; Pérez-Bernal, M. E.; Ruano-Casero, R. J.; Rives, V.

2007-12-01

188

Short-time hydrothermal synthesis and delamination of ion exchangeable Mg/Ga layered double hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal synthesis of magnesium-gallium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Ga LDHs) was studied under static and agitated conditions. Not only well-crystallized and large-sized Mg/Ga LDHs having hexagonal morphology were obtained but also the reaction time was comparatively decreased from 24 to 2 h by means of agitation during hydrothermal synthesis. In static conditions, mainly GaOOH and magnesite phases were formed. The elemental analysis results show that the final Mg/Ga ratio is significantly different from the initial ratio. The reason was attributed to the difference in the hydrolytic behavior of Mg 2+ and Ga 3+. Furthermore, the anion exchange studies with glycine, dodecyl sulfate, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were performed to investigate the intercalation behavior of the anions into Mg/Ga LDHs. In addition, delamination of Mg/Ga LDHs was performed in formamide for the glycine exchanged forms. Large size of nanosheets thus obtained can be utilized in the fabrication of functional thin films.

Unal, Ugur

2007-09-01

189

Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

190

Preparation of layered double hydroxide/chlorophyll a hybrid nano-antennae: a key step.  

PubMed

In the first step to obtain an efficient nano-antenna in a bottom-up approach, new hybrid materials were synthesized using a set of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with basic properties and pure chlorophyll a (Chl a). The stability of the adsorbed monolayer of Chl a was shown to be dependent on the nature and the ratio of the different metal ions present in the LDHs tested. The hybrid materials turned out to be adequate for stabilizing Chl a on Mg/Al LDHs for more than a month under ambient conditions while a limited catalytic decomposition was observed for the Ni/Al LDHs leading to the formation of pheophytin. These changes were followed by namely XRD, DR-UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies of the hybrid antennae and of the solutions obtained from their lixiviation with acetone or diethylether. On Mg/Al hydrotalcites the stability of the adsorbed Chl a was equivalent for values of the metal atom ratio ranging from 2 to 4. The latter hybrids should constitute a good basis to form efficient nanoscale light harvesting units following intercalation of selected dyes. This work describes an efficient preparation of Chl a that allows scale-up as well as the obtention of a stable Chl a monolayer on the surface of various LDHs. PMID:24676400

Sommer Márquez, Alicia E; Lerner, Dan A; Fetter, Geolar; Bosch, Pedro; Tichit, Didier; Palomares, Eduardo

2014-07-21

191

An acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on graphene-gold nanocomposite and calcined layered double hydroxide.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel acetylcholinesterase-based biosensor was fabricated. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with the aid of Cu-Mg-Al calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH). CLDH can provide a bigger effective surface area for AChE loading, which could improve the precision and stability of AChE biosensor. However, the poor electroconductibility of CLDHs could lead to the low sensitivity of AChE biosensor. In order to effectively compensate the disadvantages of CLDHs, graphene-gold nanocomposites were used for improving the electron transfer rate. Thus, the graphene-gold nanocomposite (GN-AuNPs) was firstly modified onto the GCE, and then the prepared CLDH-AChE composite was immobilized onto the modified GCE to construct a sensitive AChE biosensor for pesticides detection. Relevant parameters were studied in detail and optimized, including the pH of the acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) solution, the amount of AChE immobilized on the biosensor and the inhibition time governing the analytical performance of the biosensor. The biosensor detected chlorpyrifos at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 150?g/L. The detection limit for chlorpyrifos was 0.05?g/L. PMID:24731819

Zhai, Chen; Guo, Yemin; Sun, Xia; Zheng, Yuhe; Wang, Xiangyou

2014-05-10

192

Evolution of rheological properties of the nanofluids composed of laponite particles and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets  

SciTech Connect

The thixotropic clay suspensions composed of laponite particles and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets were examined. By adding a very small amount of the layered double hydroxide nanosheets overall rheological properties of the host laponite suspension have been changed. Though the particle concentration of the mixture suspension is only about 1 wt%, the mixture quickly becomes a gel in a day by the electrostatic attraction between nano-materials. When a constant shear rate is applied to the mixture gel suspension, at short time, stress increases linearly with elastic deformation of the mixture. Beyond the maximum of stress, while the solid-like gel structure is being broken down with time of shearing, the stress increases again by reflecting shear enhanced association of solid phase. This is likely that the mixture suspension shows partially the behavior of memory effect.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Phuoc, Tran X.; Chyu, Minking K.; Romanov, Vyacheslav

2011-05-04

193

Study of bi-enzyme immobilization onto layered double hydroxides nanomaterials for histamine biosensor application.  

PubMed

In this work, we present the development of a hybrid biomembrane based on the immobilization of diamine oxidase (DAO) into LDH thin films for histamine detection. The LDHs preselected as host matrixes are: hydrotalcites (Mg2Al(CO3)0.5(OH)6), lowaite (Mg4Fe(OH)10Cl) and hydrocalumite (Ca2Al(OH)6Cl). The immobilized probes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (IR-ATR mode). The analysis of these results shows that the immobilization of DAO occurs with all type of selected LDH and is stable after a 7 day-immersion in phosphate buffer solution. The LDH incorporating magnesium or calcium divalent cations present high-quality surface topology for DAO immobilization and the ability to keep the enzyme in a well conformation for biogenic amines catabolism and histamine detection. PMID:22400262

Baccar, Z M; Hidouri, S; Errachid, A; Sanchez, O Ruiz

2011-10-01

194

Influence of reduction temperature on composition, particle size, and magnetic properties of CoFe alloy nanomaterials derived from layered double hydroxide precursors.  

PubMed

Individual CoFe alloy nanoparticles and CoFe-MgO nanocomposites were prepared through thermal reduction of single-source layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors at various temperatures. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analyses to investigate the influence of reduction temperature on the composition, particle size and size distribution, as well as the magnetic properties of the resulting materials. XRD and SEM results show that the as-prepared CoFe alloy nanoparticles and CoFe-MgO nanocomposites display high crystallinity and high purity. The average particle size of individual CoFe nanoparticles increases with the increase of reduction temperature. In the presence of the MgO matrix, uniform CoFe alloy nanoparticles with a narrow diameter distribution (8-11 nm) were obtained. Magnetic measurements indicate that the saturation magnetization strength (Ms) of the resulting materials increases with reduction temperature. The individual CoFe alloy nanoparticles exhibit excellent soft magnetic behavior with an extremely high Ms value (213 emu g(-1) at 800 °C), comparable to that of bulk CoFe alloy (230 emu g(-1)). For CoFe-MgO nanocomposites, small Ms values were obtained due to the small CoFe alloy particle size and low percentage of magnetic component. However, the coercivities are greatly enhanced (663 Oe at 450 °C) for the composites, implying their potential applications in data storage and other magnetic devices. PMID:24695765

Yang, Shuangxia; Wang, Lianying; Yue, Shuang; Lu, Yanluo; He, Jing; Zhao, Dongye

2014-06-14

195

Glyphosate and glufosinate detection at electrogenerated NiAl-LDH thin films.  

PubMed

An amperometric sensor based on Ni(1-x)Al(x)(OH)(2)NO(3x).nH(2)O layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been developed for the electrochemical analysis in one step of two herbicides: glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, Glyp) and glufosinate ((DL-homoalanine-4-yl)-methylphosphinic acid, Gluf). NiAl-LDH was prepared by coprecipitation or by electrodeposition at the Pt electrode surface. Inorganic films were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Adsorption isotherms of Glyp onto this inorganic lamellar material have been established. Electrocatalytic oxidation of Glyp and Gluf is possible at the Ni(3+) centres of the structure. The electrochemical responses of the NiAl-LDH modified electrode were obtained by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at 0.49V/SCE as a function of herbicide concentration in 0.1M NaOH solution. The electrocatalytic response showed a linear dependence on the Glyp concentration ranging between 0.01 and 0.9mM with a detection limit of 1muM and sensitivity 287mA/Mcm(2). The sensitivity found for Gluf was lower (178mA/Mcm(2)). PMID:19854339

Khenifi, Aicha; Derriche, Zoubir; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa; Mousty, Christine; Scavetta, Erika; Ballarin, Barbara; Guadagnini, Lorella; Tonelli, Domenica

2009-11-10

196

Analysis of ldh genes in Lactobacillus casei BL23: role on lactic acid production.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium that produces L-lactate as the main product of sugar fermentation via L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh1) activity. In addition, small amounts of the D-lactate isomer are produced by the activity of a D-hydroxycaproate dehydrogenase (HicD). Ldh1 is the main L-lactate producing enzyme, but mutation of its gene does not eliminate L-lactate synthesis. A survey of the L. casei BL23 draft genome sequence revealed the presence of three additional genes encoding Ldh paralogs. In order to study the contribution of these genes to the global lactate production in this organism, individual, as well as double mutants (ldh1 ldh2, ldh1 ldh3, ldh1 ldh4 and ldh1 hicD) were constructed and lactic acid production was assessed in culture supernatants. ldh2, ldh3 and ldh4 genes play a minor role in lactate production, as their single mutation or a mutation in combination with an ldh1 deletion had a low impact on L-lactate synthesis. A Deltaldh1 mutant displayed an increased production of D-lactate, which was probably synthesized via the activity of HicD, as it was abolished in a Deltaldh1 hicD double mutant. Contrarily to HicD, no Ldh1, Ldh2, Ldh3 or Ldh4 activities could be detected by zymogram assays. In addition, these assays revealed the presence of extra bands exhibiting D-/L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, which could not be attributed to any of the described genes. These results suggest that L. casei BL23 possesses a complex enzymatic system able to reduce pyruvic to lactic acid. PMID:18231816

Rico, Juan; Yebra, María Jesús; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

2008-06-01

197

New SnO2/MgAl-layered double hydroxide composites as photocatalysts for cationic dyes bleaching.  

PubMed

A new type of nanocomposite containing SnO(2) has been obtained by wet impregnation of dehydrated Mg/Al-hydrotalcite-type compounds with ethanolic solutions of SnCl(4).2H(2)O. Tin chloride hydrolysis was achieved using NaOH or NH(4)OH aqueous solutions, at pH around 9, followed by the conversion into corresponding hydroxides through calcinations. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-DR) methods confirmed the structure of as-synthesized solids. The chemical composition and morphology of the synthesized materials were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-synthesized materials were used for photocatalytic studies showing a good activity for methylene blue decolourization, which varies with SnO(2) content and used as a hydrolysing agent. The proposed mechanism is based on the shifting of flat band potential of SnO(2) due to the interaction with Mg/Al-LDH, this being energetically favourable to the formation of hydroxyl radicals responsible for methylene blue degradation. PMID:20045244

Dvininov, E; Ignat, M; Barvinschi, P; Smithers, M A; Popovici, E

2010-05-15

198

Adsorption of phosphate from seawater on calcined MgMn-layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

Adsorptive properties of MgMn-3-300 (MgMn-type layered double hydroxide with Mg/Mn mole ratio of 3, calcined at 300 degrees C) for phosphate were investigated in phosphate-enriched seawater with a concentration of 0.30 mg-P/dm3. It showed the highest phosphate uptake from the seawater among the inorganic adsorbents studied (hydrotalcite, calcined hydrotalcite, activated magnesia, hydrous aluminum oxide, manganese oxide (delta-MnO2)). The phosphate uptake by MgMn-3-300 reached 7.3 mg-P/g at an adsorbent/solution ratio of 0.05 g/2 dm3. The analyses of the uptakes of other constituents (Na+, K+, Ca(+, Cl-, and SO(2-)4) of seawater showed that the adsorbent had a markedly high selectivity for the adsorption of phosphate ions. Effects of initial phosphate concentration, temperature, pH, and salinity on phosphate uptake were investigated in detail by a batch method. The phosphate uptake increased slightly with an increase in the adsorption temperature. The adsorption isotherm followed Freundlich's equation with constants of logK(F)=1.25 and 1/n=0.65, indicating that it could effectively remove phosphate even from a solution of markedly low phosphate concentration as well as with large numbers of coexisting ions. The pH dependence showed a maximum phosphate uptake around pH 8.5. The pH dependence curve suggested that selective phosphate adsorption progresses mainly by the ion exchange of HPO(2-)4. The study on the effect of salinity suggested the presence of two kinds of adsorption sites in the adsorbent: one nonspecific site with weak interaction and one specific site with strong interaction. The effective desorption of phosphate could be achieved using a mixed solution of 5 M NaCl + 0.1 M NaOH (1 M = 1 mol/dm3), with negligible dissolution of adsorbent. The adsorbent had high chemical stability against the adsorption/desorption cycle; it kept a good phosphate uptake even after the repetition of the seventh cycle. PMID:15925378

Chitrakar, Ramesh; Tezuka, Satoko; Sonoda, Akinari; Sakane, Kohji; Ooi, Kenta; Hirotsu, Takahiro

2005-10-01

199

Toxicity and metabolism of layered double hydroxide intercalated with levodopa in a Parkinson's disease model.  

PubMed

Layered hydroxide nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, and less toxic than most inorganic nanoparticles, making them an acceptable alternative drug delivery system. Due to growing concern over animal welfare and the expense of in vivo experiments both the public and the government are interested to find alternatives to animal testing. The toxicity potential of zinc aluminum layered hydroxide (ZAL) nanocomposite containing anti-Parkinsonian agent may be determined using a PC 12 cell model. ZAL nanocomposite demonstrated a decreased cytotoxic effect when compared to levodopa on PC12 cells with more than 80% cell viability at 100 µg/mL compared to less than 20% cell viability in a direct levodopa exposure. Neither levodopa-loaded nanocomposite nor the un-intercalated nanocomposite disturbed the cytoskeletal structure of the neurogenic cells at their IC50 concentration. Levodopa metabolite (HVA) released from the nanocomposite demonstrated the slow sustained and controlled release character of layered hydroxide nanoparticles unlike the burst uptake and release system shown with pure levodopa treatment. PMID:24722565

Kura, Aminu Umar; Ain, Nooraini Mohd; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan

2014-01-01

200

Synthesis and characterization of a mixture of CoFe2O4 and MgFe2O4 from layered double hydroxides: Band gap energy and magnetic responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixture of nanocrystals of cobalt ferrite and magnesium ferrite was obtained from Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) through a co-precitation method with a theoretical molar ratio M2+:Fe3+=3:1, where M2+represents Mg2+ and/or Co2+. The molar ratios between Co2+:Fe3+ were 0.0 (0Co), 0.2 (5Co), and 0.4 (10Co). In order to assess the effect on the properties of the LDH and their oxides, the molar percentages were 0, 5 and 10%. Two different synthesis methods were evaluated; (i) ageing at room temperature (rt), and (ii) hydrothermal ageing at 200 °C in autoclave (ht), both methods needed 15 h of ageing. Then, these LDH were calcined in air atmosphere at 550 °C for 10 h. The calcined materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravymetric analysis (TGA), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR), Diffuse Reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS), Mössbauer spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The magnetic response was analyzed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The band gap energy of the iron oxides was determined through the UV-vis-DRS analysis. Through these studies it was possible to identify the presence of a mixture of cobalt ferrite and magnesium ferrite. Samples did not show hematite and cobalt oxides, but the presence of MgO in the periclase phase was determined. This magnesium oxide promoted a good dispersion of the ferrites. Moreover, when a single ferrite phase of Co or Mg was formed, a diminution of the crystal size with consequent enlarged values of band gap energy was observed. Thus, materials synthesized by room temperature ageing promoted the superparamagnetic behaviour of samples, attributed to the content of the cobalt ferrite structure in nanocrystals. In regard to the estimated band gap energy, all samples exhibited low levels. These results indicate that these solids would be suitable for photocatalysts use in all visible light range, and that they could be easily removed from the reaction medium by a simple magnetic separation procedure.

Agú, Ulises A.; Oliva, Marcos I.; Marchetti, Sergio G.; Heredia, Angélica C.; Casuscelli, Sandra G.; Crivello, Mónica E.

2014-11-01

201

Synthesis and characterization of terephthalate-intercalated NiAl layered double hydroxides with high Al content.  

PubMed

Terephthalate-intercalated nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were prepared by a co-precipitation method, with nominal x values in the general formula Ni((1-x))Al(x)(OH)(2)(C(8)H(4)O(4))(x/2) in the range 0.3-0.8. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, CHN analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, EXAFS at the Ni edge and (27)Al NMR spectroscopy. A combination of XRD, XRF and CHN analysis indicated that crystalline LDHs with true x values up to 0.5 were obtained, along with increasing segregation of an aluminum hydroxide phase with increasing aluminum content. The EXAFS analysis indicated an upper limit of ca. 0.6 for the atomic fraction of aluminum at the second nickel coordination sphere. The (27)Al NMR analysis suggested that a phase containing octahedrally co-ordinated Al(3+) is segregated for nominal x values from 0.6 upwards. PMID:23188191

Arias, Santiago; Eon, Jean Guillaume; San Gil, Rosane A S; Licea, Yordy E; Palacio, Luz Amparo; Faro, Arnaldo C

2013-02-14

202

Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide  

MedlinePLUS

Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

203

Effect of Silicate on the Formation and Stability of Ni-Al LDH at the ?-Al2O3 Surface.  

PubMed

The formation of mixed metal precipitates has been identified as a significant mechanism for the immobilization and elimination of heavy metal ions. Silicate is present in natural systems ubiquitously, which may interfere with metal uptake on the mineral surface and thereby influences the solubility of the precipitate. Herein, kinetic sorption and dissolution experiments combined with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) were performed to elucidate the effect of silicate on the formation of Ni precipitates at the ?-Al2O3 surfaces. The uptake of Ni on ?-Al2O3 decreased with increasing amounts of silicate coated onto the ?-Al2O3 surface. Results of EXAFS analyses suggested the formation of Ni-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases. The surface coating of silicate on ?-Al2O3 reduced Al release and finally resulted in a high Ni:Al ratio due to a lower extent of Al substitution into the precipitates. The presence of silicate prevented the growth of the precipitates and led to the formation of less stable Ni-Al LDH. The influence of silicate on the precipitate formation provided the evidence for the growth relationship between the precipitate and mineral substrate in the real environment. Increased rates of proton-promoted dissolution of Ni surface precipitates were mainly attributed to higher Ni:Al ratios in Ni-Al LDH precipitates formed in the presence of silicate. PMID:25339547

Tan, Xiaoli; Fang, Ming; Ren, Xuemei; Mei, Huiyang; Shao, Dadong; Wang, Xiangke

2014-11-18

204

Synergetic effect of SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu on SMMC-7721 liver cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Curcumin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) have been reported to have anticancer potentials and show certain synergetic effect on some cancer cell lines. However, the poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism limited their medical application. In this study, we encapsulated curcumin with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), 5-Fu with Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) separately and tested its properties and anticancer potentials. SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu were determined to be 100 and 60?nm by Transmission Electron Microscopy detection, and the loading efficiency were 28%±2.5% and 16.7%±1.8%, individually. Furthermore, SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu showed a significantly synergetic effect on SMMC-7721 cell stronger than plain drugs together, of which the Idrug loaded nano-carriers was only 0.315. FACS analysis revealed that the combination of SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu induced 80.1% apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, which were 1.7-folds of the sum of the two plain drug loaded carriers. The results demonstrated the significant synergetic anticancer potentials of nano-encapsulated curcumin and 5-Fu, which could be further explored for the treatment of other carcinoma. PMID:23808828

Zhu, Rongrong; Wu, Xianzheng; Xiao, Yu; Gao, Bo; Xie, Qian; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shilong

2013-10-01

205

Nanohybrids from NiCoAl-LDH coupled with carbon for pseudocapacitors: understanding the role of nano-structured carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are one of the great potential electrode materials for pseudocapacitors. However, the aggregation and low conductivity of these metal compounds will constrain electrolyte ion and electron transfer and further affect their electrochemical performances. The nano-structured carbon coupled with the LDH matrix can act as an active component or conducting scaffold to enhance or improve the rate capacity and cycle life. Here, various nano-structured carbon species, including zero-dimensional carbon black (CB), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and CNT/RGO composites were used to couple with the NiCoAl-LDHs to construct LDH-carbon nanohybrid electrodes for pseudocapacitors, and the role of the nanostructured carbon was investigated and discussed in terms of the pore structure of nanohybrids and electrical conductivity. The results show that all of the carbons can be well incorporated into the LDH nanosheets to form homogeneous nanohybrid materials. The pore structure properties and electrical conductivity of nanohybrids have statistically significant effects on the electrochemical performances of the LDH-carbon nanohybrids. Of the electrodes adopted, the nanohybrid electrode consisting of NiCoAl-LDHs, CNTs, and RGO exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance as high as 1188 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 due to the synergistic effect of NiCoAl-LDHs, RGO, and CNTs, in which the RGO nanosheets are favorable for high specific surface area while the CNT has a fast electron transport path for enhancing the electrical conductivity of nanohybrids. This will shed a new light on the effect of nano-structured carbon within the electrode matrix on the electrochemical activity and open a new way for the carbon-related electrode configuration/design for supercapacitors, and other energy storage and conversion devices.Transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are one of the great potential electrode materials for pseudocapacitors. However, the aggregation and low conductivity of these metal compounds will constrain electrolyte ion and electron transfer and further affect their electrochemical performances. The nano-structured carbon coupled with the LDH matrix can act as an active component or conducting scaffold to enhance or improve the rate capacity and cycle life. Here, various nano-structured carbon species, including zero-dimensional carbon black (CB), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and CNT/RGO composites were used to couple with the NiCoAl-LDHs to construct LDH-carbon nanohybrid electrodes for pseudocapacitors, and the role of the nanostructured carbon was investigated and discussed in terms of the pore structure of nanohybrids and electrical conductivity. The results show that all of the carbons can be well incorporated into the LDH nanosheets to form homogeneous nanohybrid materials. The pore structure properties and electrical conductivity of nanohybrids have statistically significant effects on the electrochemical performances of the LDH-carbon nanohybrids. Of the electrodes adopted, the nanohybrid electrode consisting of NiCoAl-LDHs, CNTs, and RGO exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance as high as 1188 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 due to the synergistic effect of NiCoAl-LDHs, RGO, and CNTs, in which the RGO nanosheets are favorable for high specific surface area while the CNT has a fast electron transport path for enhancing the electrical conductivity of nanohybrids. This will shed a new light on the effect of nano-structured carbon within the electrode matrix on the electrochemical activity and open a new way for the carbon-related electrode configuration/design for supercapacitors, and other energy storage and conversion devices. Electronic supplementary information available: FE-SEM images, TEM images, TGA curves, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and the corresponding pore s

Yu, Chang; Yang, Juan; Zhao, Changtai; Fan, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Qiu, Jieshan

2014-02-01

206

Reversible intercalation of ammonia molecules into a layered double hydroxide structure without exchanging nitrate counter-ions  

SciTech Connect

A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 A, typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 A. Thermal treatment at 150 {sup o}C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 A. Intense N-H stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup +} species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia, the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 A basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 A basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 {sup o}C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. - Graphical abstract: LDH-nitrate precipitated with ammonia expands the interlayer space if ammonia is bubbled up to pH 10. The basal distance decreased when the compound was heated at 150 {sup o}C or stirred in acetone. Nitrate ions are not exchanged.

Carbajal Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Wypych, Fernando [CEPESQ-Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Parana, P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Castillon Barraza, Felipe; Contreras Lopez, Oscar Edel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

2010-10-15

207

Effect of added zinc on the properties of cobalt-containing ceramic pigments prepared from layered double hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al, or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers and carbonate in the interlayer have been prepared by coprecipitation. The Zn/Co molar ratio was kept to 1 in all samples, while the divalent/trivalent molar ratio was varied from 2/1 to 1/2. The samples have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR spectroscopy. A single hydrotalcite-like phase is formed for samples with molar ratio 2/1, which crystallinity decreases as the Al content is increased, developing small amounts of diaspore and dawsonite and probably an additional amorphous phase. Calcination at 1200 deg. C in air led to formation of spinels; a small amount of NaAlO{sub 2} was observed in the Al-rich samples, which was removed by washing. The nature of the spinels formed (containing Co{sup II}, Co{sup III}, Al{sup III} and Zn{sup II}) strongly depends on the cations molar ratio in the starting materials and the calcination treatment, leading to a partial oxidation of Co{sup II} species to Co{sup III} ones. Colour properties (L*a*b*) of the original and calcined solids have been measured. While the original samples show a pink colour (lighter for the series containing Zn), the calcined Co,Al samples show a dark blue colour and the Zn,Co,Al ones a green colour. Changes due to the different molar ratios within a given calcined series are less evident than between samples with the same composition in different series. These calcined materials could be usable as ceramic pigments. - Abstract: Mixed oxides from layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers are potential candidates for ceramic pigments with tunable colour properties. Display Omitted

Perez-Bernal, M.E.; Ruano-Casero, R.J. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rives, V., E-mail: vrives@usal.e [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

2009-09-15

208

Bactericidal properties of ZnO-Al(2)O (3) composites formed from layered double hydroxide precursors.  

PubMed

ZnO-Al(2)O(3) composites with different Zn/Al molar ratios (R) have been prepared using zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDHs) Zn( R )Al-CO(3) as precursor. The samples were characterized by XRD, ICP, EDX, EPR and FT-IR. The results show that ZnO is highly dispersed in all of the ZnO-Al(2)O(3) composites. Bactericidal experiments against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 were carried out by contacting the bacteria and spores with the ZnO-Al(2)O(3) composites. The composites all showed high bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and the bactericidal efficiency against Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 increased with increasing content of ZnO. The mechanism of bactericidal activity of ZnO-Al(2)O(3) has also been investigated. It is suggested that highly active O(2) (-) and *OH species generated on the surface of ZnO-Al(2)O(3) particles react with the peptide linkages in the cell walls of bacteria or spores resulting in their destruction. PMID:18853242

Lin, Yan-Jun; Xu, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Lei; Evans, David G; Li, Dian-Qing

2009-02-01

209

Horseradish peroxidase immobilization on carbon nanodots/CoFe layered double hydroxides: Direct electrochemistry and hydrogen peroxide sensing.  

PubMed

Carbon nanodots and CoFe layered double hydroxide composites (C-Dots/LDHs) were prepared via simply mixing C-Dots and CoFe-LDHs. The as-prepared composites were used for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the glass carbon (GC) electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the HRP/C-Dots/LDHs/GC electrode and its application as a H2O2 biosensor were investigated. The results indicated that HRP immobilized by C-Dots/LDHs retained the activity of enzyme and displayed quasi-reversible redox behavior and fast electron transfer with an electron transfer rate constant ks of 8.46s(-1). Under optimum experimental conditions, the HRP/C-Dots/LDHs/GC electrode displayed good electrocatalytic reduction activity and excellent analytic performance toward H2O2. The H2O2 biosensor showed a linear range of 0.1-23.1?M (R(2)=0.9942) with a calculated detection limit of 0.04?M (S/N=3). In addition, the biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good selectivity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. The superior properties of this biosensor are attributed to the synergistic effect of HRP, C-Dots and CoFe-LDHs, which has been proved by investigating their electrochemical response to H2O2. Thus the C-Dots and LDHs composites provide a promising platform for the immobilization of redox enzymes and construction of sensitive biosensors. PMID:25194796

Wang, Yinling; Wang, Zhangcui; Rui, Yeping; Li, Maoguo

2015-02-15

210

Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study of mass transport in thin film of a redox active Ni–Al–Cl layered double hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films of redox active Ni–Al–Cl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) lost mass on oxidation and gained mass on reduction. The size of the mass changes depended on the composition and on the pH of the electrolyte solutions. In pH 8 potassium borate or phosphate buffers, the decreases in mass on oxidation were small. An apparent mass per mole of electrons transferred

Roto Roto; Akihiko Yamagishi; Gilles Villemure

2004-01-01

211

The influence of carbon nanotubes, organically modified montmorillonites and layered double hydroxides on the thermal degradation and fire retardancy of polyethylene, ethylene–vinyl acetate copolymer and polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocomposites of polyethylene, ethylene–vinyl acetate copolymer and polystyrene with single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, organically modified montmorillonites and layered double hydroxides were prepared by melt blending. Their morphologies were assessed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the flammability properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimetry. The relative amounts and the identity of the degradation products are

Marius C. Costache; Matthew J. Heidecker; E. Manias; Giovanni Camino; Alberto Frache; Gunter Beyer; Rakesh K. Gupta; Charles A. Wilkie

2007-01-01

212

Cyclic voltammetry of metal bipyridyl cations at redox active Ni–Al–Cl layered double hydroxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very large increase in the [Os(bpy)3]2+ cathodic peak was observed when an electrode modified with a Ni–Al–Cl LDH film was cycled in solution of the cation. The cathodic charge increased from 0.16mC to 3.0mC when the switching potential was increased from 0.9 to 1.4V. This was not observed for Zn–Al–Cl LDH films. Addition of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ resulted in an additional

Roto Roto; Gilles Villemure

2007-01-01

213

Comparative study of Mg/Al- and Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide-perindopril erbumine nanocomposites for inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme.  

PubMed

The intercalation of a drug active, perindopril, into Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide for the formation of a new nanocomposite, PMAE, was accomplished using a simple ion exchange technique. A relatively high loading percentage of perindopril of about 36.5% (w/w) indicates that intercalation of the active took place in the Mg/Al inorganic interlayer. Intercalation was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis shows markedly enhanced thermal stability of the active. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite occurred in a controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity effects from either Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide or its nanocomposite, PMAE. Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with 5.6% inhibition after 90 minutes of incubation. On incubation of angiotensin-converting enzyme with 0.5 ?g/mL of the PMAE nanocomposite, inhibition of the enzyme increased from 56.6% to 70.6% at 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. These results are comparable with data reported in the literature for Zn/Al-perindopril. PMID:22904631

Hussein Al Ali, Samer Hasan; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

2012-01-01

214

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrodes modified with thin films of Mg Mn CO 3 layered double hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical impedance spectra of MgMnCO3 LDH films oxidized at different dc potentials were recorded. The results were fitted to a Randles type cell by replacing the Warburg impedance with a mass transfer resistance in parallel with a constant phase element. The films charge transfer resistances decreased dramatically at the onset of manganese oxidation. In thin films, Rct decreased from

Roto Roto; Gilles Villemure

2006-01-01

215

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrodes modified with thin films of Ni?Al?Cl layered double hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impedance spectra of Ni?Al?Cl LDH-modified electrodes after oxidation at different dc potentials were recorded. The data were fitted to a simple Randles type cell by replacing the Warburg impedance with a mass transfer resistance in parallel with a constant phase element. The film charge transfer resistance decreased dramatically at the onset of nickel oxidation, from more than 106 ?

Roto Roto; Gilles Villemure

2002-01-01

216

Aluminum Hydroxide  

MedlinePLUS

Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

217

Magnesium Hydroxide  

MedlinePLUS

Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

218

PII S0016-7037(00)00385-9 Stability of layered Ni hydroxide surface precipitates--A dissolution kinetics study  

E-print Network

and dissolution agent on the release of nickel from three sorbents, pyrophyllite, talc, and gibbsite, and -Ni hydroxide formed with talc, in line with former studies. The stability of the phases decreased from Ni-Al LDH on pyrophyllite to -Ni hydroxide on talc to Ni-Al LDH on gibbsite. This sequence could

Sparks, Donald L.

219

Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol with MgAlTi mixed oxides catalysts obtained from layered double hydroxides.  

PubMed

MgAl and MgAlTi mixed oxides were obtained from the thermal treatment of LDH materials synthesized by the sol-gel method; these materials were characterized by N2 physisorption, XRD, UV-vis, XPS, EDS-SEM and TEM techniques. According to the results, Ti was incorporated in the LDH layer when content in the material was low. The MgAl and MgAlTi mixed oxides were evaluated in the photo-degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in the presence of UV light. A superior efficiency in the photo-degradation of 2,4-DCP, in comparison with the Degussa P-25 TiO2 reference catalyst was observed, reaching a total decomposition of the 2,4-DCP molecule in less than 60 min. According to the results, Ti was incorporated in the LDH layer when the content in the material was low. The MgAl and MgAlTi mixed oxides were evaluated in the photo-degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in the presence of UV light. A superior efficiency in the photo-degradation of 2,4-DCP with the MgAl and MgAlTi mixed oxides, in comparison with the Degussa P-25 TiO2 reference catalyst was observed, reaching a total decomposition of the 2,4-DCP molecule in less than 60 min. PMID:24184126

Mendoza-Damián, G; Tzompantzi, F; Mantilla, A; Barrera, A; Lartundo-Rojas, L

2013-12-15

220

Synthesis route to supported gold nanoparticle layered double hydroxides as efficient catalysts in the electrooxidation of methanol.  

PubMed

This work describes a new one-step method for the preparation of AuNP/LDH nanocomposites via the polyol route. The novelty of this facile, simple synthesis is the absence of additional reactants such as reductive agents or stabilizer, which gives the possibility to obtain phase-pure systems free of undesiderable effect. The AuNP formation is confirmed by SEM, TEM, PXRD, and XAS; moreover, the electrochemical characterization is also reported. The electrocatalytic behavior of AuNP/LDH nanocomposites has been investigated with respect to the oxidation of methanol in basic media and compared with that of pristine NiAl-Ac. The 4-fold highest catalytic efficiency observed with AuNP/LDH nanocomposites suggests the presence of a synergic effect between Ni and AuNP sites. The combination of these experimental findings with the low-cost synthesis procedure paves the way for the exploitation of the presented nanocomposites materials as catalysts for methanol fuel cells. PMID:23025480

Ballarin, Barbara; Mignani, Adriana; Scavetta, Erika; Giorgetti, Marco; Tonelli, Domenica; Boanini, Elisa; Mousty, Christine; Prevot, Vanessa

2012-10-23

221

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of mixed oxides derived from ZnAlTi ternary layered double hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series of Ti4+ containing ZnAl-LDHs with varying Zn:Al:Ti (~3:1:0-3:0.5:0.5) ratio were prepared by coprecipitation of homogeneous solution metal salts and characterized by various physicochemical methods. Powder XRD revealed the formation of well crystallized LDH even at the highest Ti4+ content. On thermal treatment at 450 °C, the well crystallized LDH precursors yielded mixed oxides with BET surface area in the range 92-118 m2/g. UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) showed a marginal decrease of band gap energy for calcined ZnAlTi-LDHs in comparison to either ZnO or TiO2-P25. The TEM analyses of a representative sample (as-synthesized and calcined) indicated more or less uniform distribution of titanium species. The derived mixed oxides from titanium containing LDH precursors demonstrated better activity toward photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B than those of a physical mixture of ZnO and TiO2. Moreover, the present work not only provided a first hand understanding about semiconductor properties of ZnAlTi-LDHs but also demonstrated their potential as photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants.

Sahu, R. K.; Mohanta, B. S.; Das, N. N.

2013-09-01

222

Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

2014-10-31

223

Microwave-treated layered double hydroxides containing Ni{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+}: The effect of added Zn{sup 2+}  

SciTech Connect

Ni containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been prepared by precipitation and hydrothermally treated under microwave irradiation for different periods of time. The solids have been calcined at three temperatures corresponding to stable phases formed during thermal decomposition of LDHs. The properties of the irradiated samples and of the calcined products were studied in order to ascertain whether the ageing treatment under microwave irradiation modifies not only the properties of the layered materials, but also the properties of the calcined products. A structural and textural study was carried out by PXRD, FT-IR and Vis-UV spectroscopy, thermal analyses (DTA and TG), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption at -196 {sup o}C and TEM microscopy; the reducibility of the nickel species was studied as well by TPR. The results show that the microwave treatment leads to better crystallized LDHs with modified thermal stability and reducibility. In addition, the degree of crystallinity of the layered precursors and their textural properties determine the properties of their thermal decomposition products. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides were prepared by the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. This method allows obtaining in short periods of time well crystallized LDHs with well-defined hexagonal-shaped particles, and improved thermal stability and the textural properties. In addition, the degree of crystallinity of the layered precursors and their textural properties determine the properties of t thermal decomposition products.

Benito, P. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca-37008 (Spain); Labajos, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca-37008 (Spain); Rives, V. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca-37008 (Spain)]. E-mail: vrives@usal.es

2006-12-15

224

Preparation, physicochemical characterisation and magnetic properties of Cu-Al layered double hydroxides with CO 32- and anionic surfactants with different alkyl chains in the interlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structure, containing Cu(II) and Al(III) in the layers, and different alkyl sulphonates in the interlayer, have been prepared and characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Their magnetic properties have been also studied. Except for the sample containing octadecanesulphonate in the interlayer, for which an excess of sulphonate exists, pure crystalline phases have been obtained in the other cases. Upon heating, combustion of the organic chain takes place at lower temperature than for the corresponding sodium salts. A two-dimensional antiferromagnetic behaviour is observed at 200 K in all samples containing intercalated sulphonate. The ?T value is lower for the samples containing interlayer sulphonates (with layer-layer distances in the 21-31 Å range), than for a carbonate-containing analogue (basal spacing 7.51 Å).

Trujillano, Raquel; Holgado, María Jesús; Pigazo, Fernando; Rives, Vicente

2006-03-01

225

NICKEL HYDROXIDES  

SciTech Connect

Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

MCBREEN,J.

1997-11-01

226

Mass transport in thin films of [Fe(CN) 6] 4? exchanged Ni–Al layered double hydroxide monitored with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the resonant frequency of quartz crystals coated with thin films of a Ni–Al–Cl LDH exchanged with [Fe(CN)6]4? were monitored. Impedance measurements show no changes in the conductance spectra of the nickel LDH films, before and after adsorption of [Fe(CN)6]4?, or before and after potential scanning, indicating that the films were rigid and that the frequency shifts were due

Roto Roto; Gilles Villemure

2006-01-01

227

Spherical LDH-Ag°-Montmorillonite Heterocoagulated System with a pH-Dependent Sol-Gel Structure for Controlled Accessibility of AgNPs Immobilized on the Clay Lamellae.  

PubMed

Aqueous suspensions of spherical ZnMgAl-layered double hydroxides [LDH(sph)] and antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited on the lamellae of montmorillonite were used for the synthesis of composites, which behave like coherent gels at low pH (?4.5) and incoherent sols at higher pH (?4.5). The composition of the composite was chosen as LDH(sph)/Ag°-montm. = 25:75 wt % in order to ensure a sol-gel transition that can also be characterized by viscometry. This pH-sensitive heterocoagulated system consisting of oppositely charged colloid particles was suitable for the release of antimicrobial AgNPs immobilized on the clay lamellae via a pH-controlled gel-sol transition. The heterocoagulation process was also characterized by surface charge titration measurements. Spherical LDH/Ag°-montmorillonite composite samples were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The morphological properties of the composites were studied, and the presence of the heterocoagulated structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanoscale structure of the LDH(sph)-Ag°-montmorillonite composite obtained was also verified by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the rheological characteristics were studied at various pH values. The viscosity and yield value of the composite decreased by an order of magnitude upon increasing the pH from 3.0 to 5.5. The sol-gel transition of the composite suspension was reversible in the previously mentioned pH range. PMID:25619227

Deák, Ágota; Janovák, László; Tallósy, Szabolcs Péter; Bitó, Tamás; Seb?k, Dániel; Buzás, Norbert; Pálinkó, István; Dékány, Imre

2015-02-17

228

Organo-modified layered double hydroxide-catalyzed Fenton-like ultra-weak chemiluminescence for specific sensing of vitamin B?? in egg yolks.  

PubMed

In general, the chemiluminescence (CL) sensing of vitamin B12 is achieved by determining Co(II) liberated from acidified vitamin B12 by a luminol system. However, the luminol system for sensing vitamin B12 has poor selectivity due to serious interference from other metal ions. In this study, as a novel CL amplifier of the Co(II)+H2O2+OH(-) ultra-weak CL reaction (Fenton-like system), dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS)-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been applied to the specific determination of vitamin B12 by liberating Co(II). The CL intensity increased with increasing the concentration of vitamin B12 in a wide range from 1.0 ng mL(-1) to 5 ?g mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.57 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine vitamin B12 in egg yolk with simple procedures, shorter time and higher selectivity. Recoveries from spiked real samples were 96-103%. The results of the proposed method for sensing vitamin B12 in real samples were agreed with those obtained by the standard inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the CL sensing of vitamin B12 with high selectivity in the absence of luminol. PMID:25127574

Zhang, Lijuan; Rong, Wanqi; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia

2014-11-01

229

Preservation of Fe complexes into layered double hydroxides improves the efficiency and the chemical stability of Fe complexes used as heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe complexes ([Fe(Ox)3]3- and [Fe(Cit)2]3-) have been heterogenized through preservation into MgAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The SEM images and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm showed that the obtained products were mesoporous materials and the specific surface area of LDHs/Fe-complex composites were obviously greater than pristine LDHs, which is beneficial for the adsorption of organic pollutants. Measurement of adsorptive and heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of methylene blue (MB) suggested that the LDHs/Fe-complex composites had an excellent adsorption capacity at different pHs and the adsorption isotherm modeled well with the Langmuir equation. The enhancement of adsorption capacity may be attributed to the external hydroxyl groups of LDHs. MB was enriched on the surface of LDHs/Fe-complex composites, which favors MB degradation in situ. The obtained composites displayed an high photocatalytic activity in a pH range from 4.0 to 6.0 with dissolved Fe cation at a low concentration. Therefore, Fe complexes intercalated into LDHs can be an effective heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for oxidation of organic pollutants in a relatively wide pH range.

Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Gong, Beini; Lu, Yonghong; Zhu, Nengwu; Hu, Zhixian

2013-12-01

230

Antituberculosis nanodelivery system with controlled-release properties based on para-amino salicylate–zinc aluminum-layered double-hydroxide nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

We report the intercalation and characterization of para-amino salicylic acid (PASA) into zinc/aluminum-layered double hydroxides (ZLDHs) by two methods, direct and indirect, to form nanocomposites: PASA nanocomposite prepared by a direct method (PASA-D) and PASA nanocomposite prepared by an indirect method (PASA-I). Powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the PASA drugs were accommodated within the ZLDH interlayers. The anions of the drug were accommodated as an alternate monolayer (along the long-axis orientation) between ZLDH interlayers. Drug loading was estimated to be 22.8% and 16.6% for PASA-D and PASA-I, respectively. The in vitro release properties of the drug were investigated in physiological simulated phosphate-buffered saline solution of pH 7.4 and 4.8. The release followed the pseudo-second-order model for both nanocomposites. Cell viability (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide [MTT] assays) was assessed against normal human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The results showed that the nanocomposite formulations did not possess any cytotoxicity, at least up to 72 hours. PMID:24255593

Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

2013-01-01

231

Preparation and characterization of lactate-intercalated Co-Fe layered double hydroxides and exfoliated nanosheet film with low infrared emissivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactate-intercalated Co-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were successfully prepared by coprecipitation and hydrothermal method. In this process, divalent metal ions as precursors can be obtained from the reduction reaction of lactic acid and metal powder (cobalt and ferrous). In order to obtain Fe3+, H2O2 (30%) was used to oxidize Fe2+. Meanwhile, the produced lactate was intercalated into the LDHs interlayers to compensate the positively charged layers. The as-synthesized LDHs were studied by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravitry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), TEM. The results indicated that the basal spacing value of the LDHs was larger than that of lactate-intercalated Mg-Al or Zn-Al LDHs. It proved that the lactate anions were inserted into the gallery in the form of dimers which made it easy to be delaminated in water. The obtained nanosheets were deposited on the substrates to form the film which was characterized by TEM and AFM, and infrared emissivity value (8-14 ?m) was also investigated. The infrared emissivity values of Co-Fe LDHs were lower than that of Zn-Al which took advantage of the special electronic structure in Co and Fe. Besides, the orderly structure and the reduction of the interfacial deficiency of the film made the values further reduced.

Zhu, Yunxia; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Tao; He, Man; Wang, Yongjuan; Yang, Xiaoming; Yang, Yong

2012-12-01

232

Efficient removal of dyes by a novel magnetic Fe3O4/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent from heavy metal wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent was produced from electroplating wastewater and pickling waste liquor via a two-step microwave hydrothermal method. Adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from water was studied using this material. The effects of three variables have been investigated by a single-factor method. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was successfully applied to the optimization of the preparation conditions. The maximum adsorption capacity of MO was found to be 240.16 mg/g, indicating that this material may be an effective adsorbent. It was shown that 99% of heavy metal ions (Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), and Zn(2+)) can be effectively removed into precipitates and released far less in the adsorption process. In addition, this material with adsorbed dye can be easily separated by a magnetic field and recycled after catalytic regeneration with advanced oxidation technology. Meanwhile, kinetic models, FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction pattern were applied to the experimental data to examine uptake mechanism. The boundary layer and intra-particle diffusion played important roles in the adsorption mechanisms. PMID:23122732

Chen, Dan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhou, Jizhi; Shao, Li; Qian, Guangren

2012-12-01

233

Solvothermal synthesis of NiAl double hydroxide microspheres on a nickel foam-graphene as an electrode material for pseudo-capacitors  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we demonstrate excellent pseudo-capacitance behavior of nickel-aluminum double hydroxide microspheres (NiAl DHM) synthesized by a facile solvothermal technique using tertbutanol as a structure-directing agent on nickel foam-graphene (NF-G) current collector as compared to use of nickel foam current collector alone. The structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies respectively. NF-G current collector was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition followed by an ex situ coating method of NiAl DHM active material which forms a composite electrode. The pseudocapacitive performance of the composite electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode with the NF-G current collector exhibits an enhanced electrochemical performance due to the presence of the conductive graphene layer on the nickel foam and gives a specific capacitance of 1252 F g{sup ?1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup ?1} and a capacitive retention of about 97% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This shows that these composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage devices.

Momodu, Damilola; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Barzeger, Farshad; Taghizadeh, Fatimeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa. (South Africa); Johnson, A. T. Charlie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2014-09-15

234

Solvothermal synthesis of NiAl double hydroxide microspheres on a nickel foam-graphene as an electrode material for pseudo-capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate excellent pseudo-capacitance behavior of nickel-aluminum double hydroxide microspheres (NiAl DHM) synthesized by a facile solvothermal technique using tertbutanol as a structure-directing agent on nickel foam-graphene (NF-G) current collector as compared to use of nickel foam current collector alone. The structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies respectively. NF-G current collector was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition followed by an ex situ coating method of NiAl DHM active material which forms a composite electrode. The pseudocapacitive performance of the composite electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode with the NF-G current collector exhibits an enhanced electrochemical performance due to the presence of the conductive graphene layer on the nickel foam and gives a specific capacitance of 1252 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and a capacitive retention of about 97% after 1000 charge-discharge cycles. This shows that these composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage devices.

Momodu, Damilola; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Barzeger, Farshad; Taghizadeh, Fatimeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

2014-09-01

235

Formation and yield of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized via chemical vapour deposition routes using different metal-based catalysts of FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl-LDH.  

PubMed

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a series of different catalysts, derived from FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Catalyst-active particles were obtained by calcination of LDHs at 800 °C for 5 h. Nitrogen and hexane were used as the carrier gas and carbon source respectively, for preparation of MWCNTs using CVD methods at 800 °C. MWCNTs were allowed to grow for 30 min on the catalyst spread on an alumina boat in a quartz tube. The materials were subsequently characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that size and yield of MWCNTs varied depending on the type of LDH catalyst precursor that is used during synthesis. MWCNTs obtained using CoNiAl-LDH as the catalyst precursor showed smaller diameter and higher yield compared to FeCoNiAl and FeNiAl LDHs. PMID:25380526

Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Jaafar, Adila Mohamad; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Zainal, Zulkarnain

2014-01-01

236

Originalartikel Untersuchungen ber Isoformen der LDH bei Apis mellifera L  

E-print Network

Originalartikel Untersuchungen über Isoformen der LDH bei Apis mellifera L im Verlauf der expression during ontogenesis of Apis mellifera L. We report here results of an investigation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene expression dynamics in the ontogenesis of Apis mellifera. We studied1 000 specimens

Boyer, Edmond

237

Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene families.  

PubMed

In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences were found to be larger for a human-killifish pair than a human-lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions separately for several species pairs and found that the transitions tend to be saturated in the distantly related species pair, while transversions are increasing. We conclude that transversions maintain a conservative rate through the evolutionary time. Kimura's two-parameter model for multiple-hit correction on transversions only was used to derive a distance measure and then construct a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Three findings were revealed from the NJ tree: (i) the branching order of the tree is consistent with the common branch pattern of major vertebrates; (ii) Ldh-A and Ldh-B genes were duplicated near the origin of vertebrates; and (iii) Ldh-C and Ldh-A in mammals were produced by an independent gene duplication in early mammalian history. Furthermore, a relative rate test showed that mammalian Ldh-C evolved more rapidly than mammalian Ldh-A. Under a two-rate model, this duplication event was calibrated to be approximately 247 million years ago (mya), dating back to the Triassic period. Other gene duplication events were also discovered in Xenopus, the first duplication occurring approximately 60-70 mya in both Ldh-A and Ldh-B, followed by another recent gene duplication event, approximately 20 mya, in Ldh-B. PMID:11965434

Li, Yi-Ju; Tsoi, Stephen C-M; Mannen, Hideyuka; Shoei-lung Li, Steven

2002-05-01

238

The Effect of Single, Binary and Ternary Anions of Chloride, Carbonate and Phosphate on the Release of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate Intercalated into the Zn–Al-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid  

PubMed Central

Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic–inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) intercalated into the interlayer of Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN) have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree,Hevea brasiliensis. PMID:20628454

2009-01-01

239

The Effect of Single, Binary and Ternary Anions of Chloride, Carbonate and Phosphate on the Release of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate Intercalated into the Zn-Al-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic-inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) intercalated into the interlayer of Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN) have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis.

Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Jaafar, Adila Mohamad; Yahaya, Asmah Hj.; Zainal, Zulkarnain

2009-11-01

240

Validation of an LDH Assay for Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Studies showed that certain cytotoxicity assays were not suitable for assessing nanoparticle (NP) toxicity. We evaluated a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for assessing copper (Cu-40, 40 nm), silver (Ag-35, 35 nm; Ag-40, 40 nm), and titanium dioxide (TiO2-25, 25 nm) NPs by examining their potential to inactivate LDH and interference with ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a substrate for the assay. We also performed a dissolution assay for some of the NPs. We found that the copper NPs, because of their high dissolution rate, could interfere with the LDH assay by inactivating LDH. Ag-35 could also inactivate LDH probably because of the carbon matrix used to cage the particles during synthesis. TiO2-25 NPs were found to adsorb LDH molecules. In conclusion, NP interference with the LDH assay depends on the type of NPs and the suitability of the assay for assessing NP toxicity should be examined case by case. PMID:21722700

Han, Xianglu; Gelein, Robert; Corson, Nancy; Wade-Mercer, Pamela; Jiang, Jingkun; Biswas, Pratim; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; Elder, Alison; Oberdörster, Günter

2014-01-01

241

Small-molecule inhibitors of human LDH5  

PubMed Central

The latest findings on the role played by human LDH5 (hLDH5) in the promotion of glycolysis in invasive tumor cells indicates that this enzyme subtype is a promising therapeutic target for invasive cancer. Compounds able to selectively inhibit hLDH5 hold promise for the cure of neoplastic diseases. hLDH5 has so far been a rather unexplored target, since its importance in the promotion of cancer progression has been neglected for decades. This enzyme should also be considered as a challenging target due the high polar character (mostly cationic) of its ligand cavity. Recently, significant progresses have been reached with small-molecule inhibitors of hLDH5 displaying remarkable potencies and selectivities. This review provides an overview of the newly developed hLDH5 inhibitors. The roles of hLDH isoforms will be briefly discussed, and then the inhibitors will be grouped into chemical classes. Furthermore, general pharmacophore features will be emphasized throughout the structural subgroups analyzed. PMID:24175747

Granchi, Carlotta; Paterni, Ilaria; Rani, Reshma; Minutolo, Filippo

2014-01-01

242

Pediococcus acidilactici ldhD gene: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding D-lactate dehydrogenase was isolated on a 2.9-kb insert from a library of Pediococcus acidilactici DNA by complementation for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate-formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of ldhD encodes a protein of 331 amino acids (predicted molecular mass of 37,210 Da) which shows similarity to the family of D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. The enzyme encoded by the cloned fragment is equally active on pyruvate and hydroxypyruvate, indicating that the enzyme has both D-lactate and D-glycerate dehydrogenase activities. Three other open reading frames were found in the 2.9-kb insert, one of which (rpsB) is highly similar to bacterial genes coding for ribosomal protein S2. Northern (RNA) blotting analyses indicated the presence of a 2-kb dicistronic transcript of ldhD (a metabolic gene) and rpsB (a putative ribosomal protein gene) together with a 1-kb monocistronic rpsB mRNA. These transcripts are abundant in the early phase of exponential growth but steadily fade away to disappear in the stationary phase. Primer extension analysis identified two distinct promoters driving either cotranscription of ldhD and rpsB or transcription of rpsB alone. PMID:7539419

Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delplace, B; Delcour, J

1995-01-01

243

Phylogenetic Analysis of Vertebrate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Multigene Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we analyzed 49 lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) sequences, mostly from vertebrates. The amino acid sequence differences\\u000a were found to be larger for a human–killifish pair than a human–lamprey pair. This indicates that some protein sequence convergence\\u000a may occur and reduce the sequence differences in distantly related species. We also examined transitions and transversions\\u000a separately for several species

Yi-Ju Li; Stephen C.-M. Tsoi

2002-01-01

244

Regulation of the ldhA gene, encoding the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentative lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Escherichia coli is induced by low pH under anaerobic conditions. Both translational and transcriptional gene fusions to ldhA, which encodes the fermentative LDH, have now been made. Both types of ldhA-lacZ fusion were induced by low pH, but only in the absence of air. However, the translational fusions were consistently expressed at a five-

Gene Ruijun Jiang; Sonia Nikolova; David P. Clark

2001-01-01

245

REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK  

SciTech Connect

A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

2010-05-11

246

Relative catalytic efficiency of ldhL- and ldhD-encoded products is crucial for optical purity of lactic acid produced by lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

NAD-dependent l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases coexist in Lactobacillus genomes and may convert pyruvic acid into l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, respectively. Our findings suggest that the relative catalytic efficiencies of ldhL- and ldhD-encoded products are crucial for the optical purity of lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus strains. PMID:22344644

Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Ma, Cuiqing; Zhang, Haiwei; Gao, Chao; Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

2012-05-01

247

Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

2003-01-01

248

Fine tuning the transcription of ldhA for D-lactate production.  

PubMed

Fine tuning of the key enzymes to moderate rather than high expression levels could overproduce the desired metabolic products without inhibiting cell growth. The aims of this investigation were to regulate rates of lactate production and cell growth in recombinant Escherichia coli through promoter engineering and to evaluate the transcriptional function of the upstream region of ldhA (encoding fermentative lactate dehydrogenase in E. coli). Twelve ldhA genes with sequentially shortened chromosomal upstream regions were cloned in an ldhA deletion, E. coli CICIM B0013-080C (ack-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA ldhA). The varied ldhA upstream regions were further analyzed using program NNPP2.2 (Neural Network Promoter Prediction 2.2) to predict the possible promoter regions. Two-phase fermentations (aerobic growth and oxygen-limited production) of these strains showed that shortening the ldhA upstream sequence from 291 to 106 bp successively reduced aerobic lactate synthesis and the inhibition effect on cell growth during the first phase. Simultaneously, oxygen-limited lactate productivity was increased during the second phase. The putative promoter downstream of the -96 site of ldhA could function as a transcriptional promoter or regulator. B0013-080C/pTH-rrnB-ldhA8, with the 72-bp upstream segment of ldhA, could be grown at a high rate and achieve a high oxygen-limited lactate productivity of 1.09 g g(-1) h(-1). No transcriptional promoting region was apparent downstream of the -61 site of ldhA. We identified the latent transcription regions in the ldhA upstream sequence, which will help to understand regulation of ldhA expression. PMID:22430499

Zhou, Li; Shen, Wei; Niu, Dan-Dan; Tian, Kang-Ming; Prior, Bernard A; Shi, Gui-Yang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

2012-08-01

249

Molecular Structure of Hydroxide ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1923, Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry proposed that a Bronsted-Lowry base is any substance that can accept a proton. They found that hydroxide anion acts as a proton acceptor. When high concentrations of hydroxide are present in solution, the solution is said to be basic, having a pH above 7. It falls into the Bronstead-Lowry definition of a base because it acts as a proton acceptor. Hydroxide, when combined with other elements, serves many purposes. Aluminum hydroxide is a safe antacid used to treat indigestion, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and efflux oesophagitis.

2002-09-11

250

Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alterations in cellular metabolism are among the most consistent hallmarks of cancer. Herein we have investigated the re- lationship between increased aerobic lactate production and mitochondrial physiology in tumor cells. To diminish the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) levels were knocked down by means of LDH-A short hairpin RNAs. Reduction in

Valeria R. Fantin; Julie St-Pierre; Philip Leder

2006-01-01

251

Involvement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae hydrolase Ldh1p in lipid homeostasis.  

PubMed

Here, we report the functional characterization of the newly identified lipid droplet hydrolase Ldh1p. Recombinant Ldh1p exhibits esterase and triacylglycerol lipase activities. Mutation of the serine in the hydrolase/lipase motif GXSXG completely abolished esterase activity. Ldh1p is required for the maintenance of a steady-state level of the nonpolar and polar lipids of lipid droplets. A characteristic feature of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?ldh1 strain is the appearance of giant lipid droplets and an excessive accumulation of nonpolar lipids and phospholipids upon growth on medium containing oleic acid as a sole carbon source. Ldh1p is thought to play a role in maintaining the lipid homeostasis in yeast by regulating both phospholipid and nonpolar lipid levels. PMID:21478434

Debelyy, Mykhaylo O; Thoms, Sven; Connerth, Melanie; Daum, Günther; Erdmann, Ralf

2011-06-01

252

Relationships between LDH-A, Lactate and Metastases in 4T1 Breast Tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the relationship between LDH-A expression, lactate concentration, cell metabolism and metastases in murine 4T1 breast tumors. Experimental Design Inhibition of LDH-A expression and protein levels were achieved in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (4T1) using shRNA technology. The relationship between tumor LDH-A protein levels and lactate concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging-MRSI) and metastases was assessed. Results LDH-A knockdown cells (KD9) showed a significant reduction in LDH-A protein and LDH activity, less acid production, decreased transwell migration and invasion, lower proliferation, reduced glucose utilization and glycolysis and increase in oxygen consumption, ROS and cellular ATP levels, compared to control (NC) cells cultured in 25 mM glucose. In vivo studies showed lower lactate levels in KD9, KD5, KD317 tumors than in NC or 4T1 wild-type tumors (p<0.01), and a linear relationship between tumor LDH-A protein expression and lactate concentration. Metastases were delayed and primary tumor growth rate decreased. Conclusions We show for the first time that LDH-A knockdown inhibited the formation of metastases, and was accompanied by in vivo changes in tumor cell metabolism. Lactate MRSI can be used as a surrogate to monitor targeted inhibition of LDH-A in a pre-clinical setting and provides a non-invasive imaging strategy to monitor LDH-A targeted therapy. This imaging strategy can be translated to the clinic to identify and monitor patients who are at high risk of developing metastatic disease. PMID:23833310

Rizwan, Asif; Serganova, Inna; Khanin, Raya; Karabeber, Hazem; Ni, Xiaohui; Thakur, Sunitha; Zakian, Kristen L.; Blasberg, Ronald; Koutcher, Jason A.

2013-01-01

253

21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

254

21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

255

21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

256

21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

257

21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

258

21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

259

Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of kinetic components of a reaction which was set to stoichiometric constant with which the species appear in the reaction in KINSIM by default. For instance, in the case of LDH precipitation, the new program allows to change the order of species in the reactions associated with Al{sup 3+} and let the Ni{sup 2+} reactions take over. This could be carried on iteratively until a good fit between the experimental data and the predictions were observed. However for such studies availability of accurate equilibrium constants (especially for the solubility products for the solid phase) is a prerequisite.

Bora Mavis

2003-12-12

260

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2013-04-01

261

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

262

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2011-04-01

263

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2012-04-01

264

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the...

2010-04-01

265

Comparison of the epoxidation of cyclohexene, dicyclopentadiene and 1,5-cyclooctadiene over LDH hosted Fe and Mn sulfonato-salen complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfonato-salen metal complexes containing Fe or Mn metal centres have been synthesised and intercalated into Zn\\/Al layered double hydroxide hosts and used as catalyst for the epoxidation of cyclohexene, dicyclopentadiene and 1,5-cyclooctadiene. Using a combination of pivalaldehyde and molecular oxygen at atmospheric or higher pressures to produce the corresponding peracid as oxidant, cyclohexene gave two oxidation products, cyclohexene oxide and

Samiran Bhattacharjee; James A. Anderson

2006-01-01

266

Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

1981-01-01

267

Particle-induced artifacts in the MTT and LDH viability assays  

PubMed Central

In vitro testing is a common first step in assessing combustion generated and engineered nanoparticle related health hazards. Commercially available viability assays are frequently used to compare the toxicity of different particle types and to generate dose response data. Nanoparticles, well known for having large surface areas and chemically active surfaces, may interfere with viability assays, producing a false assessment of toxicity and making it difficult to compare toxicity data. The objective of this study is to measure the extent of particle interference in two common viability assays, the MTT reduction and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Diesel particles, activated carbon, flame soot, oxidized flame soot, and titanium dioxide particles are assessed for interactions with the MTT and LDH assay under cell-free conditions. Diesel particles, at concentrations as low as 0.05 ?g/ml, reduce MTT. Other particle types reduce MTT only at a concentration of 50 ?g/ml and higher. The activated carbon, soot, and oxidized soot particles bind LDH to varying extents, reducing the concentration measured in the LDH assay. The interfering effects of the particles explain in part the different toxicities measured in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o). We conclude that valid particle toxicity assessments can only be assured after first performing controls to verify that the particles under investigation do not interfere with a specific assay at the expected concentrations. PMID:22799765

Holder, Amara L.; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.

2012-01-01

268

LDH-C can be differentially expressed during fermentation of CHO cells  

PubMed Central

Expression of CHO mRNA was measured with special microarrays from the Consortium for Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cell Genomics led by Prof. Wei-Shou Hu of the University of Minnesota and Prof. Miranda Yap of the Bioprocess Technology Institute of A*STAR, Singapore (http://hugroup.cems.umn.edu/CHO/cho_index.html). Cultivation experiments were performed in small scale 2L stirred tank bioreactors. During fermentation a temperature shift of -3°C was performed. This was accompanied by a reduction of the cell specific lactate production rate. The analysis of transcriptome samples before and after the temperature shift with microarrays showed several changes in the expression of available gene markers. LDH-C expression raised about 2 fold after temperature shift. LDH-A did not change. As LDH-C is known to be a specialized isoenzyme in sperm cells for consuming lactate in a lactate containing milieu, LDH-C could be proposed as a target for genetic engineering, facilitating lactate consumption in the late phase of high cell density cultures and prolonging longevity of CHO production cultures by reducing lactate and base accumulation.

2011-01-01

269

Control of lactate production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a bacterial LDH gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential industrial applications for lactate, such as the production of chemicals, has led to interest in producing this organic acid by metabolically engineered yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Such microorganisms are more acid tolerant than lactic acid bacteria. This paper deals with the potential of the genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain K1-LDH (the lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus plantarum has

S Dequin; J. M Sablayrolles

2003-01-01

270

Different effects of LDH-A inhibition by oxamate in non-small cell lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Higher rate of glycolysis has been long observed in cancer cells, as a vital enzyme in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) has been shown with great potential as an anti-cancer target. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of LDH-A induces apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in cancer cells. To date, it's still unclear that whether autophagy can be induced by LDH-A inhibition. Here, we investigated the effects of oxamate, one classic inhibitor of LDH-A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells as well as normal lung epithelial cells. The results showed that oxamate significantly suppressed the proliferation of NSCLC cells, while it exerted a much lower toxicity in normal cells. As previous studies reported, LDH-A inhibition resulted in ATP reduction and ROS (reactive oxygen species) burst in cancer cells, which lead to apoptosis and G2/M arrest in H1395 cells. However, when being exposed to oxamate, A549 cells underwent autophagy as a protective mechanism against apoptosis. Furthermore, we found evidence that LDH-A inhibition induced G0/G1 arrest dependent on the activation of GSK-3? in A549 cells. Taken together, our results provide useful clues for targeting LDH-A in NSCLC treatment and shed light on the discovery of molecular predictors for the sensitivity of LDH-A inhibitors. PMID:25361010

Yang, Yang; Su, Dan; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Dan; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Jianmei; Fan, Saijun; Chen, Ming

2014-12-15

271

Different effects of LDH-A inhibition by oxamate in non-small cell lung cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Higher rate of glycolysis has been long observed in cancer cells, as a vital enzyme in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) has been shown with great potential as an anti-cancer target. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of LDH-A induces apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in cancer cells. To date, it's still unclear that whether autophagy can be induced by LDH-A inhibition. Here, we investigated the effects of oxamate, one classic inhibitor of LDH-A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells as well as normal lung epithelial cells. The results showed that oxamate significantly suppressed the proliferation of NSCLC cells, while it exerted a much lower toxicity in normal cells. As previous studies reported, LDH-A inhibition resulted in ATP reduction and ROS (reactive oxygen species) burst in cancer cells, which lead to apoptosis and G2/M arrest in H1395 cells. However, when being exposed to oxamate, A549 cells underwent autophagy as a protective mechanism against apoptosis. Furthermore, we found evidence that LDH-A inhibition induced G0/G1 arrest dependent on the activation of GSK-3? in A549 cells. Taken together, our results provide useful clues for targeting LDH-A in NSCLC treatment and shed light on the discovery of molecular predictors for the sensitivity of LDH-A inhibitors. PMID:25361010

Yang, Yang; Su, Dan; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Dan; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Jianmei; Fan, Saijun; Chen, Ming

2014-01-01

272

Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

273

Typing for brown trout LDH-C1* alleles together with microsatellites by automated sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C1) locus is a genetic marker of evolutionary and ecological interests for brown\\u000a trout. We developed a new protocol to genotype the point mutation responsible for this polymorphism by automated sequencing.\\u000a To that end, we designed and employed two primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction, each pair including one allele-specific\\u000a primer. This new method

Joëlle Chat; Aurélie Manicki; Nacira Merchermek

2008-01-01

274

Cytogenetic Analysis of Pseudolinkage of Ldh Loci in the Teleost Genus Salvelinus  

PubMed Central

Cytological and genetic analyses provide evidence that spontaneous centric fusion and fission can account for curious patterns of pseudolinkage of two LDH loci in males of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and in the F1, F2 and backcross generations of lake trout (S. namaycush) x brook trout hybrids. Intraindividual polymorphisms for acrocentric and metacentric chromosomes in somatic and gonadal tissue of these fish have been related to the proposed polyploid evolution in Salmonidae. PMID:17248602

Davisson, Muriel Trask; Wright, James E.; Atherton, Louisa M.

1973-01-01

275

The role of LDH serum levels in predicting global outcome in HCC patients treated with sorafenib: implications for clinical management  

PubMed Central

Background In many tumour types serumlactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels proved to represent an indirect marker of tumour hypoxia, neo-angiogenesis and worse prognosis. As we previously reported LDH is an important predictive factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Sorafenib represents the therapeutic stronghold in advanced HCC patients. As a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) mainly directed against the angiogenetic pathway, the correlation of sorafenib administration with markers of hypoxia could be an important tool in patients management. Aim of our analysis was to evaluate the role of LDH pre-treatment levels and its variation during treatment in HCC patients receiving sorafenib. Methods 78 patients were available for our analysis. For all patients LDH values were collected within one month before the start of treatment and after the end of therapy. For study purposes we divided our patients into two groups, according to LDH pre-treatment levels, cut-off levels was determined with ROC curve analysis. Patients were, also, classified according to the variation in LDH serum levels pre- and post-treatment (increased vs decreased). Results Patients proved homogeneous for all clinical characteristics analyzed. In patients with LDH values under the cut-off median progression free survival (PFS) was 6.7 months, whereas it was 1.9 months in patients above the cut-off (p?=?0.0002). Accordingly median overall survival (OS) was 13.2 months and 4.9 months (p?=?0.0006). In patients with decreased LDH values after treatment median PFS was 6.8 months, and median OS was 21.0 months, whereas PFS was 2.9 months and OS 8.6 months in patients with increased LDH levels (PFS: p?=?0.0087; OS: p?=?0.0035). Conclusions In our experience, LDH seemed able to predict clinical outcome in terms of PFS and OS for HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Given the correlation between LDH levels and tumour angiogenesis we can speculate that patients with high LDH pretreatment levels may be optimal candidates for other emerging therapeutic agents or strategies targeting different molecular pathways. PMID:24552144

2014-01-01

276

METAL VALUE RECOVERY FROM METAL HYDROXIDE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-year study investigating the potential for metal value recovery from metal hydroxide sludges has been completed. The objectives of the study were to: Develop a flowsheet to separate and recover metal values from metal finishing hydroxide sludge materials and operate on a la...

277

21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section... § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity...The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

2012-04-01

278

21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).  

...2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section... § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity...The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

2014-04-01

279

21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section... § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity...The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

2011-04-01

280

21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section... § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity...The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

2013-04-01

281

40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721.4467 Section 721...Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a quaternary ammonium hydroxide (PMN P-95-1806)...

2010-07-01

282

21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white, odorless, tasteless, amorphous powder consisting essentially of aluminum hydroxide (Al2 O3 · XH2 O). (2) Color...

2010-04-01

283

40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).  

...2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). 721.10504...Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is...

2014-07-01

284

40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). 721.10504...Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is...

2013-07-01

285

Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine  

SciTech Connect

A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

Trowbridge, L.D.

2003-01-28

286

Cetuximab reverses the Warburg effect by inhibiting HIF-1-regulated LDH-A.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in reprogramming cancer metabolism toward aerobic glycolysis (i.e., the Warburg effect), which is critical to supplying cancer cells with the biomass needed for proliferation. Previous studies have shown that cetuximab, an EGF receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, downregulates the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1?) through the inhibition of EGF receptor downstream cell signaling and that downregulation of HIF-1? is required for cetuximab-induced antiproliferative effects. However, the mechanism underlying these actions has yet to be identified. In this study, we used the Seahorse XF96 extracellular flux analyzer to assess the effect of cetuximab treatment on changes in glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, the two major energy-producing pathways, in live cells. We found that cetuximab downregulated lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) and inhibited glycolysis in cetuximab-sensitive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells in an HIF-1? downregulation-dependent manner. HNSCC cells with acquired cetuximab resistance expressed a high level of HIF-1? and were highly glycolytic. Overexpression of a HIF-1? mutant (HIF-1?/?ODD) conferred resistance to cetuximab-induced G1 phase cell-cycle arrest, which could be overcome by knockdown of LDH-A expression. Inhibition of LDH-A activity with oxamate enhanced the response of cetuximab-resistant cells to cetuximab. Cetuximab had no noticeable inhibitory effect on glycolysis in nontransformed cells. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights into cetuximab-induced cell-cycle arrest from the perspective of cancer metabolism and suggest novel strategies for enhancing cetuximab response. PMID:23920275

Lu, Haiquan; Li, Xinqun; Luo, Zhongguang; Liu, Jie; Fan, Zhen

2013-10-01

287

Kinetics of leaching of the aluminum hydroxide in bauxites by alkaline solutions at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of leaching of the aluminum hydroxide from the gibbsite bauxites of Guinea (Kindia deposit) is studied under atmospheric conditions. The activation energy of the process is found to be 34.75 kJ/mol, which indicates that the process proceeds in a kinetic mode. The leaching of the aluminum hydroxide from bauxite in an alkaline solution is simulated using acid-base equilibria (ion exchange) and the electrochemical theory of the structure of a double electrical layer (Gram-Parsons theory).

Burtsev, A. V.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Gorichev, I. G.; Kipriyanov, N. A.; Izotov, A. D.

2011-11-01

288

Associative detachment of rubidium hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed calculations of the optimized structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and dissociation energies of RbOH and its anion, and investigate the interactions between Rb and OH- leading to possible associative detachment pathways. The electron affinity of RbOH was computed to be 0.2890 eV, with a bond energy of Rb+OH- half that of Rb+OH. To determine other possible charge loss pathways, the Rb+OH and Rb+OH- dissociation curves were computed using coupled-cluster methods along all possible collisional angles. An adiabatic curve crossing between the neutral and charged molecule was found at the inner wall of the molecular potential curve for linear geometries. Associative detachment rates were estimated using the Langevin ion capture cross section for hydroxide. We find for v?2 an associative detachment rate of >2×10-9 cm3s-1, while for v=0 and 1 no appreciable rate exists. This strong dependence on vibrational level suggests the ability to control the associative detachment rate directly.

Byrd, Jason N.; Michels, H. Harvey; Montgomery, John A., Jr.; Côté, Robin

2013-09-01

289

21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...potash lye, and potassa. The empirical formula is KOH. It is a white, highly deliquescent caustic solid, which is marketed in several forms, including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

2010-04-01

290

21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

...mineral brucite. It is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

2014-04-01

291

21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mineral brucite. It is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

2013-04-01

292

21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mineral brucite. It is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

2011-04-01

293

21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mineral brucite. It is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

2012-04-01

294

21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mineral brucite. It is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

2010-04-01

295

21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...several forms, including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution in the presence of a porous diaphragm. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2012-04-01

296

21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...several forms, including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution in the presence of a porous diaphragm. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2013-04-01

297

21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.  

...several forms, including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution in the presence of a porous diaphragm. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2014-04-01

298

21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...several forms, including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution in the presence of a porous diaphragm. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2011-04-01

299

Molecular genetic characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) of Lactobacillus helveticus and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.  

PubMed Central

The Lactobacillus helveticus L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) gene (ldhL) was isolated from a lambda library. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene was determined and shown to have the capacity to encode a protein of 323 amino acids (35.3 kDa). The deduced sequence of the 35-kDa protein revealed a relatively high degree of identity with other lactobacillar L-LDHs. The highest identity (80.2%) was observed with the Lactobacillus casei L-LDH. The sizes and 5' end analyses of ldhL transcripts showed that the ldhL gene is a monocistronic transcriptional unit. The expression of ldhL, studied as a function of growth, revealed a high expression level at the logarithmic phase of growth. The ldhL gene is preceded by two putative -10 regions, but no corresponding -35 regions could be identified. By primer extension analysis, the ldhL transcripts were confirmed to be derived from the -10 region closest to the initiation codon. However, upstream of these regions additional putative -10/-35 regions could be found. The L-LDH was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by two chromatographic steps. The purified L-LDH was shown to be a nonaliosteric enzyme, and amino acid residues involved in allosteric regulation were not conserved in L. helveticus L-LDH. However, a slight enhancement of enzyme activity was observed in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, particularly at neutral pH. A detailed enzymatic characterization of L-LDH was performed. The optimal reaction velocity was at pH 5.0, where the kinetic parameters K(m), and Kcat for pyruvate were 0.25 mM and 643 S-1, respectively. PMID:9212432

Savijoki, K; Palva, A

1997-01-01

300

Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles  

PubMed Central

Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112 nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3 µm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity. PMID:24188959

Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

2013-01-01

301

Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

2003-08-01

302

Technical note: comparison of the PrestoBlue and LDH release assays with the MTT assay for skin viability assessment.  

PubMed

MTT assay is the gold standard for assessing skin sample viability but it is time-consuming. Here we compared the MTT test with two other assays for the assessment of skin viability. The MTT, PrestoBlue (colorimetric method) and LDH release assays were applied to fresh and cryopreserved skin. Skin viability was considered proportional to the optical density values of the relevant analytes. PrestoBlue did not reliably distinguish between fresh and cryopreserved skin. The LDH release assay did not allow us to establish a viability index. We recommend the MTT assay for assessing skin viability. PMID:25330757

Gaucher, Sonia; Jarraya, Mohamed

2014-10-22

303

[Geographical variation of allele frequencies at the LDH-A* locus in the arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus Pall. and in the European grayling Thymallus arcticus L].  

PubMed

The allele frequencies of LDH-A* locus were studied in the population of Siberian grayling from the Kozhym River (Pechora basin) and in the population of European grayling from Pechora, Mezen', and Vym' rivers (Northern Dvina basin). In samples of both species (n = 134), three LDH-A phenotypes have been identified in total, which proved to be under the control of two alleles: LDH-A*100 and LDH-A*50. The alternative alleles of LDH-A* locus were identified in the populations of Siberian grayling from Kozhym River and in the population of European grayling from the same river and other Pechora tributaries, namely, LDH-A*100 and LDH-A*50 in the Siberian and the European grayling, respectively. However, in the European grayling populations from the Mezen' and Vym' rivers, both alleles occur at the frequencies of the rare LDH-A*100 allele of 0.143 and 0.222, respectively. According to the published data, the frequency of LDH-A*100 allele increases in the European grayling populations of northwestern (Finland) and southern (France) rivers, reaching 0.872 and 1.000 in Rhone and Loire, respectively, i.e., the values characteristic of the Siberian grayling populations. PMID:15575515

Shubin, P N; Efimtseva, é A; shubin, Iu P; Chelpanova, T I

2004-10-01

304

Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering {sup 129}I. Sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering {sup 129}I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (< 10{sup 1.7} mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K{sub d}'s greater than 10{sup 3} mL/g for both I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

2006-03-28

305

Analyses of Nuclear ldhA Gene and mtDNA Control Region Sequences of Atlantic Northern Bluen Tuna  

E-print Network

Analyses of Nuclear ldhA Gene and mtDNA Control Region Sequences of Atlantic Northern Blue®n Tuna: There has been considerable debate about whether the Atlantic northern blue®n tuna exist as a single®n tuna from the Mediterranean Sea and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Pairwise comparisons of multiple

Ely, Bert

306

Detoxification of endotoxin by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant.  

PubMed

Langmuir adsorption isotherms of endotoxin and aluminum-containing adjuvants at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C revealed that aluminum hydroxide adjuvant has a greater adsorption capacity (283 microg/mg Al) and adsorption coefficient (1.3x10(4) ml/miccrog) than aluminum phosphate adjuvant (3.0 microg/mg Al, 0.20 ml/microg). The difference in endotoxin adsorption was related to two adsorption mechanisms: electrostatic attraction and covalent bonding. The isoelectric point (iep) of endotoxin is approximately 2. An electrostatic attractive force will be present with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (iep=11.4), and an electrostatic repulsive force will operate with aluminum phosphate adjuvant (iep=4.6). Endotoxin contains two phosphate groups in the lipid A portion. Covalent bonding occurs with surface aluminum in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant but is inhibited by surface phosphate in aluminum phosphate adjuvant. In-vitro desorption experiments using components of interstitial fluid showed that endotoxin adsorbed by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was not desorbed by interstitial anions (5 mM phosphate or 2.7 mM citrate) or interstitial proteins (25 mg albumin/ml). The effect of aluminum-containing adjuvants on the systemic response of Sprague-Dawley rats to a 15 microg/kg subcutaneous dose of endotoxin was determined by measuring the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). TNF-alpha and IL-6 were observed in the group which received an endotoxin solution or endotoxin and aluminum phosphate adjuvant. No TNF-alpha or IL-6 was detected in the group that received endotoxin and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant detoxifies endotoxin by adsorbing it in the vaccine and then not releasing it in interstitial fluid upon administration. PMID:11166900

Shi, Y; HogenEsch, H; Regnier, F E; Hem, S L

2001-02-01

307

Distribution & diagnostic efficacy of cardiac markers CK-MB & LDH in pericardial fluid for postmortem diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of biochemical markers creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and LDH in pericardial fluid for postmortem diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We studied 119 medico-legal autopsies selected during a period of 2 years. Subjects were assigned into diagnostic groups upon final cause of death as follows: (1) sudden cardiac death due to IHD's (n = 52), (2) violent asphyxia (n = 24); (3) polytraumatic deaths (n = 20); (4) natural deaths excluding cardiac causes (n = 23). Pericardial fluid samples were tested for estimating enzyme levels. Histological examination was performed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain on myocardial tissue samples. We observed highest levels of CK-MB & LDH in deaths due to IHD's. Kruskal-Wallis test revels significant differences in activities of CK-MB (P = 0.0001) and LDH (P = 0.0065) amongst all diagnostic groups. Mann-Whitney test showed highly significant (P < 0.0001) levels of CK-MB in group 1 as compared to other diagnostic groups. However, LDH levels were non-discriminatory (P = 0.0827) between cases of IHD's and cases of other natural deaths. CK-MB levels were statistically non-significant between cases divided as myocardial infarction (MI) and severe coronary artery disease in group 1, hence its role for postmortem detection of MI is somewhat limiting. However, sensitivity and negative predictive values of its cut off level obtained in cases of IHD's are nearly equal to diagnostic efficacy in clinical settings. Hence, it can be useful additional diagnostic tool for autopsy diagnosis of IHD's. Whereas, LDH is not useful for postmortem diagnosis in these cases. PMID:25440147

Ghormade, Pankaj Suresh; Kumar, Narendra Baluram; Tingne, Chaitanya Vidyadhar; Keoliya, Ajay Narmadaprasad

2014-11-01

308

Geographical Variation of Allele Frequencies at the LDH-A* Locus in the Arctic Grayling Thymallus arcticus Pall. and in the European Grayling Thymallus thymallus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allele frequencies of LDH-A* locus were studied in the populations of Siberian grayling from the Kozhym River (Pechora basin) and in the population of European grayling from Pechora, Mezen', and Vym' rivers (Northern Dvina basin). In samples of both species (n = 134), three LDH-A phenotypes have been identified in total, which proved to be under the control of

P. N. Shubin; E. A. Efimtzeva; Yu. P. Shubin; T. I. Chelpanova

2004-01-01

309

The formation mechanism and photocatalytic activity of hierarchical NiAl-LDH films on an Al substrate prepared under acidic conditions.  

PubMed

NiAl-LDH films with hierarchical morphology have been fabricated by immersion of an Al substrate in Ni(2+)-containing solutions under strong acidic conditions, and the growth processes of the films are discussed in this communication. The as-prepared LDH films exhibit high activity in the photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants. PMID:24445754

Xue, Li; Cheng, Yingzhi; Sun, Xiuyu; Zhou, Ziyan; Xiao, Xiaoling; Hu, Zhongbo; Liu, Xiangfeng

2014-03-01

310

Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

1983-01-01

311

Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

1992-05-01

312

Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

1986-01-01

313

Sono-electrocoagulation of iron hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-frequency sonic field was used in order to improve the process of obtaining colloidal iron hydroxides by electrocoagulation and electroflotation in model solutions containing sulphates and chlorides as well as in waste water. For this purpose a combined sono-electrochemical appliance was constructed and used.It was established that the low-frequency acoustic treatment increases significantly the quantity of the obtained iron

Valeria K Kovatcheva; Marin D Parlapanski

1999-01-01

314

Iodine sequestration using delafossites and layered hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this document is to report on the early success for sequestering 129I. Sorption coefficients (K\\u000a d) for I? and IO3\\u000a ? onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured and compared for their applicability to sequester 129I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain\\u000a area. Delafossites

Jason D. Pless; J. Benjamin Chwirka; James L. Krumhansl

2007-01-01

315

Effect of whole body gamma radiation on hepatic LDH activity, lactate, pyruvate concentration and rate of oxygen consumption in Bufo melanostictus.  

PubMed

Whole body Co60 gamma radiation induced changes in lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, pyruvate, lactate content and rate of oxygen (O2) consumption in a tropical hibernating anuran (Bufo melanostictus). In 3.5 and 7 Gy treated groups, a significant increase in LDH activity and lactate/pyruvate ratio was observed, whereas a significant decrease in O2 consumption rate was observed in treated animals on post-irradiation day (PID) 1, 5 and 10. Increase in LDH activity was observed on PID-1 in both the treated groups, reached to a peak on PID-5 in 7 Gy treated group and then declined on PID-10. PMID:13677637

Mishra, J; Mittra, B; Mittra, A

2002-11-01

316

Hydroxide catalysis bonding for astronomical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) as a jointing technique has been under development for astronomical applications since ˜1998 (patented by D.-H. Gwo). It uses an aqueous hydroxide solution to form a chemical bond between oxide or oxidisable materials (e.g., SiO2, sapphire, silicon and SiC). It forms strong, extremely thin bonds, and is suitable for room temperature bonding, precision alignment, operation in ultra-low vacuum and down to temperatures of 2.5 K. It has been applied in the NASA satellite mission Gravity Probe B and in the ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detector GEO600. It will soon fly again on the ESA LISA Pathfinder mission and is currently being implemented in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo ground-based GW detectors. This technique is also of considerable interest for use in other astronomical fields and indeed more broadly, due to its desirable, and adjustable, combination of properties. This paper gives an overview of how HCB has been and can be applied in astronomical instruments, including an overview of the current literature on the properties of hydroxide catalysis bonds.

van Veggel, Anna-Maria A.; Killow, Christian J.

2014-06-01

317

Dangerous Doubles (Doubling Numbers)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students to use the strategy doubling numbers and doubles plus or minus one in order to use mental math to add one digit numbers. The students are engaged in learning through the read aloud of Double the Ducks by Stephen Murphy and then get to work with a partner to draw doubles and write equations that relate to their drawings. Students individually work on solving word problems using these strategies and manipulatives as necessary to solve.

Sharrer, Stephanie

2012-07-14

318

Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

1978-01-01

319

The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

Feitknecht, W.

1984-01-01

320

Lightweight nanoporous metal hydroxide-rich zeotypes.  

PubMed

Nanoporous materials have important industrial applications as molecular sieves, catalysts and in gas separation and storage. They are normally produced as moderately dense silicates (SiO(2)) and aluminosilicates making their specific capacities for the uptake and storage of gases, such as hydrogen, relatively low. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of lightweight, nanoporous structures formed from the metal hydroxide Be(OH)(2) in combination with relatively low levels of framework phosphate or arsenate. Three new zeotype structures are described, constructed mainly of Be(OH)(4) tetrahedra bridged through hydroxide into three-membered rings; these units link together to produce several previously unknown zeotype cage types and some of the most structurally complex, nanoporous materials ever discovered. These materials have very low densities between 1.12 and 1.37?g?cm(-3) and theoretical porosities of 63-68% of their total volume thereby yielding very high total specific pore volumes of up to 0.60?cm(3)?g(-1). PMID:23047672

Littlefield, Benjamin T R; Weller, Mark T

2012-01-01

321

An Aluminium Hydroxide Gel Adsorbed Inactivated Egg Drop Syndrome Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inactivated vaccine was prepared from local isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus using aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. A total of 30 commercial layers at the age of 16 weeks were procured and divided in to two groups, A and B having 20 and 10 birds, respectively. The birds of group A were vaccinated with 0.5ml aluminium hydroxide

2004-01-01

322

STRUCTURAL CHANGES DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the production of calcium hydroxides with surface areas of 6-74 sq m/g, in an attempt to develop more reactive sorbents for SO2 capture during furnace injection. It was found that adding alcohol to the water of hydration yielded hydroxides with surface areas u...

323

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2011-07-01

324

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2010-07-01

325

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2012-07-01

326

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2013-07-01

327

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2014-07-01

328

40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface treated with...

2014-07-01

329

40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface treated with...

2013-07-01

330

Intramuscular Oxygen-Ozone Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Back Pain With Lumbar Disc Herniation A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial of Active and Simulated Lumbar Paravertebral Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. Multicenter randomized, double-blind, simulated therapy-controlled trial in a cohort of patients with acute low back pain (LBP) due to lumbar disc herni- ation (LDH). Objective. To assess the benefit of intramuscular-para- vertebral injections of an oxygen-ozone (O2O3) mixture. Summary of Background Data. Recent findings have shown that O2O3 therapy can be used to treat LDH that fails to

Marco Paoloni; Angelo Cacchio; Dario Apuzzo; Salvatore Marotta; Michele Razzano; Marianno Franzini; Valter Santilli

331

Electrochemical behavior of cobalt hydroxide used as additive in the nickel hydroxide electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an attempt to understand better how cobalt hydroxide additives improve the nickel electrode performance, the Co(OH)â\\/CoOOH redox system has been investigated through electrochemical cycling starting from a commercial Co(OH)â sample. A study of the influence of texture and morphology as well as cycling parameters was performed. For charge rates greater than C\\/5, relative to the amount of Co(OH)â, the

V. Pralong; A. Delahaye-Vidal; B. Beaudoin; J. B. Leriche; J. M. Tarascon

2000-01-01

332

Bortezomib and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma: higher AST and LDH levels associated with a worse prognosis on overall survival  

PubMed Central

Background Bortezomib offers a novel approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma producing rapid control. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of bortezomib and dexamethasone-treated patients with multiple myeloma. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 44 consecutively-treated multiple myeloma patients with bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle or 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously 1, 8, 15, and 22 of every 35-day cycle) and dexamethasone. Results The median time to progression, progression free survival time, and overall survival time in the treatment groups was 14.9, 14.9, and 38.3 months, respectively. The present study also suggests the possibility that the prognosis of patients with high levels of AST and LDH might be worse. Conclusions Our results indicate that the treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib and dexamethasone is feasible. PMID:24952705

2014-01-01

333

Design and immunological properties of topographic immunogenic determinants of a protein antigen (LDH-C4) as vaccines.  

PubMed

Antibodies elicited by immunization with short peptides containing antigenic determinants have been shown, in general, to bind with greatly reduced affinity to the corresponding region in the native proteins. Thus, contiguous linear peptides have not proven to be effective immunogens in generating high affinity neutralizing or protective antibodies and consequently appear to be poor prospects for vaccines. The molecular basis for such reduced reactivity is clear from the crystal structure determination of antibody Fabs bound to protein antigens, which showed the complementarity between interfaces to be lock-and-key-like and extending over a large area (750 A2) involving discontinuous segments of the polypeptide chain. Thus, small perturbations in the secondary and tertiary structure of the antigen have profound effects on the fit of the antigen and its corresponding antibody. Because short peptides are unlikely to assume any particular conformation in solution, the fit is likely to be poor. New strategies are therefore required to produce conformationally stable peptides that mimic the critical structural features of the protein antigenic site. Here we show that a putative topographic determinant of the testis-specific isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4), designed and synthesized to adopt a well defined alpha-helical secondary and tertiary structure (four-helix bundle motif) in aqueous solutions, is highly immunogenic in both rabbits and mice, inducing IgG antibodies that bind to native LDH-C4. This engineered conformational 40-residue peptide is considerably more effective in inducing antibodies, as compared with the corresponding linear peptide. The antibody response is obtained without coupling the peptide to a carrier protein, suggesting that the peptide contains a T-cell antigenic determinant. The strategy described here to produce a conformationally stable peptide that mimics the native structure may have general applications in vaccine design. PMID:1372905

Kaumaya, P T; VanBuskirk, A M; Goldberg, E; Pierce, S K

1992-03-25

334

Exposing local adaptation: synergistic stressors elicit population-specific lactate dehydrogenase-B ( ldh - b ) expression profiles in Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular response of fish to independently and\\/or concurrently applied ecological stressors (e.g. thermal and\\/or aerobic\\u000a stress) can be quantified at the level of transcript abundance (i.e. gene expression). In temperate fish, the expression of\\u000a the metabolic candidate gene lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b) responds to both aerobic swimming challenge and extended acclimation to various ecologically relevant temperatures. We examined\\u000a hepatic ldh-b

Richard C. Edmunds; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Lynne van Herwerden; Christopher J. Fulton; Dean R. Jerry

335

Nickel hydroxide/cobalt-ferrite magnetic nanocatalyst for alcohol oxidation.  

PubMed

A magnetically separable, active nickel hydroxide (Brønsted base) coated nanocobalt ferrite catalyst has been developed for oxidation of alcohols. High surface area was achieved by tuning the particle size with surfactant. The surface area of 120.94 m2 g(-1) has been achieved for the coated nanocobalt ferrite. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained by synergistic effect of transition metal hydroxide (basic hydroxide) on nanocobalt ferrite. The nanocatalyst oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols efficiently (87%) to corresponding carbonyls in good yields. PMID:25075969

Bhat, Pooja B; Inam, Fawad; Bhat, Badekai Ramachandra

2014-08-11

336

Sorption of terephthalate anions by calcined and uncalcined hydrotalcite-like compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of terephthalate anions (TA) from aqueous solutions by Mg–Al–CO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been investigated. The sorption process, that takes place by the reconstruction of the calcined LDH and involves the intercalation and adsorption of TA, is much more efficient in the uptake of such anion than the pure adsorption process occurring in the parent LDH. The

Eduardo L. Crepaldi; Jairo Tronto; Lucelena P. Cardoso; João B. Valim

2002-01-01

337

Copyright 2013 Copyright Information, Privacy Statement, and Terms of Use American Society of Agronomy | Crop Science Society of America | Soil Science Society of America  

E-print Network

by Section/Division of Interest Author Index 13113 Kinetics of NiAl Layer Double Hydroxide Precipitate an hour. Importantly, the data revealed that a transition from surface adsorbed Ni to NiAl LDH was carried out and confirmed the formation of NiAl LDH phases and further indicated that the precipitates

Sparks, Donald L.

338

Amorphous cobalt hydroxide with superior pseudocapacitive performance.  

PubMed

Cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) has received extensive attention for its exceptional splendid electrical properties as a promising supercapacitor electrode material. Co(OH)2 study so far prefers to crystal instead of amorphous, in spite of amorphous impressive electrochemical properties including the ability to improve the electrochemical efficiency based on the disorder structure. The amorphous Co(OH)2 nanostructures with excellent electrochemical behaviors were successfully synthesized by a simple and green electrochemistry. Our as-prepared Co(OH)2 electrode exhibited ultrahigh capacitance of 1094 F g(-1) and super long cycle life of 95% retention over 8000 cycle numbers at a nominal 100 mV s(-1) scan rate. The united pseudo-capacitive performances of the amorphous Co(OH)2 nanostructures in electrochemical capacitors are totally comparable to those of the crystalline Co(OH)2 nanomaterials. These findings actually open a door to applications of amorphous nanomaterials in the field of energy storage as superior electrochemical pseudocapacitors materials. PMID:24386890

Li, H B; Yu, M H; Lu, X H; Liu, P; Liang, Y; Xiao, J; Tong, Y X; Yang, G W

2014-01-22

339

21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive chromium hydroxide green...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2010-04-01

340

21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive chromium hydroxide green...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2011-04-01

341

Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

2002-01-01

342

40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydroxide; tolerances for residues. 180.236 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...Parts per million Beet, sugar, roots 0.05...

2010-07-01

343

40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydroxide; tolerances for residues. 180.236 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...Parts per million Beet, sugar, roots 0.05...

2011-07-01

344

40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydroxide; tolerances for residues. 180.236 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...Parts per million Beet, sugar, roots 0.05...

2013-07-01

345

40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydroxide; tolerances for residues. 180.236 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...Parts per million Beet, sugar, roots 0.05...

2012-07-01

346

40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.  

...hydroxide; tolerances for residues. 180.236 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...Parts per million Beet, sugar, roots 0.05...

2014-07-01

347

68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

348

Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

2008-01-01

349

21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive chromium hydroxide green...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2013-04-01

350

21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.  

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive chromium hydroxide green...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2014-04-01

351

21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive chromium hydroxide green...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2012-04-01

352

Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures  

DOEpatents

Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chambliss, C. Kevin (Macon, GA); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Keever, Tamara J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2001-01-01

353

Dysprosium ( 165 Dy) hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy — animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of a new chemical formulation, Dy-HMA, to utilise the advantages of dysprosium 165 in radiation synovectomy of certain forms of arthritis. Dy-HMA is a sterile suspension of dysprosium hydroxide macroaggregates (approximately 6 mg Dy\\/ml) in saline with the majority of particles in the 3–5 µm range. The absence of ferric hydroxide and a higher concentration

Ashley McLaren; Eric Hetherington; Des Maddalena; Graeme Snowdon

1990-01-01

354

The role of calcium hydroxide in the formation of thaumasite  

SciTech Connect

It has recently been derived by thermodynamic calculation that the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide plays a vital role in the resistance of cement paste or concrete against the formation of thaumasite. To obtain experimental data on this matter, special binders have been mixed and used for the preparation of mortar bars. These specimens were exposed to moderate sulphate attack for a period of 18 months at a temperature of 8 deg. C. Mortar bars containing calcium hydroxide showed visual signs of attack a few months after exposure, leading to expansion, mass loss and complete failure. In contrast to this, no signs of attack were observed when no calcium hydroxide was present in the microstructure. These results confirm the conclusions of earlier thermodynamic calculations that the presence of calcium hydroxide has an important impact on the formation of thaumasite. Calcium-rich C-S-H formed in the presence of calcium hydroxide is vulnerable against sulphate attack and the formation of thaumasite. In the absence of calcium hydroxide, C-S-H has a much lower calcium/silicon ratio and a higher resistance against the formation of thaumasite.

Bellmann, F. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Department of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar (Germany)], E-mail: frank.bellmann@bauing.uni-weimar.de; Stark, J. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Department of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar (Germany)

2008-10-15

355

New Ideas for an Old Enzyme: A Short, Question-Based Laboratory Project for the Purification and Identification of an Unknown LDH Isozyme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enzyme purification projects are an excellent way to introduce many aspects of protein biochemistry, but can be difficult to carry out under the constraints of a typical undergraduate laboratory course. We have designed a short laboratory project for the purification and identification of an "unknown" lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme that can…

Coleman, Aaron B.

2010-01-01

356

Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the size and orderliness of the polymeric aggregates and was accompanied by a decrease in the pH of the solution. The kinetic experiments and stoichiometric data for solutions aged for long periods provided a means of determining activities of polymerized aluminum. From these values the solubility product for microcrystalline gibbsite was determined to be 2.24 x 10 -3, and its free energy of formation, -? 272.3 0.4 kcal per mole. Where polymerization was observed, the process did not stop with small polynuclear complexes containing a few aluminum ions, but proceeded with aging until macromolecules or colloidal-sized particles were formed.

Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer

1967-01-01

357

Structure and magnetism of new hybrid cobalt hydroxide materials built from decorated brucite layers.  

PubMed

The structure, synthesis and magnetic properties of three new complex cobalt hydroxyl oxalates are presented, showing a modification of the 2-D double layer hydroxide structure. Co(12)(OH)(18)(ox)(3)(pip) [ox = oxalate, C(2)O(4)(2-); pip = piperazine, C(4)N(2)H(10)] (1), is essentially built from brucite-like layers with a one ninth depletion of the octahedral sites and a preservation of a trigonal crystallographic symmetry. ACo(28)(OH)(43)(ox)(6)Br(2)(H(2)O)(2) [A = Na (2), K (3)] are similarly composed of a brucite-like layer with three nineteenths depletion of octahedral sites, again preserving a trigonal symmetry. Both 2 and 3 show a small degree of structural disorder within the framework. All of these compounds have alternating layers of a mineral-like metal hydroxide structure and a metal oxalate coordination network, with the depletion in the hydroxyl layers being templated by the coordination network. Magnetic studies of 1 reveal a metamagnetic character, with the onset of an antiferromagnetic phase below T(c) = 23.5 K (H = 0 G), and a first order antiferromagnet to metamagnet transition at H(c) = 500-1000 G (T = 20-6 K). Compound 3 shows a more conventional ferrimagnetic ordering below 33(±1) K with a small coercive field of 107(±5) G at 10 K. PMID:21327226

Keene, Tony D; Light, Mark E; Hursthouse, Michael B; Price, Daniel J

2011-03-28

358

Toxicity of triphenyltin hydroxide to fish.  

PubMed

Triphenyltin (TPhT) is used worldwide in pesticide formulas for agriculture. Toxic effects of this compound to aquatic life have been reported; however, the biochemical response of fish exposed to different concentrations of TPhT hydroxide (TPhTH) was investigated for the first time in this study. The lethal concentration (LC50) of TPhTH to silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, was calculated from an acute-exposure experiment (96 h). In addition, acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle-as well as glucose, glycogen, lactate, total protein, ammonia, and free amino acids in liver and muscle-were evaluated in a chronic-exposure experiment (15-day exposure). Speciation analysis of tin (Sn) was performed in fish tissues at the end of both experiments using gas chromatography coupled to a pulsed-flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Concentrations of TPhT, diphenyltin, and monophenyltin (reported as Sn) were lower than limits of quantification (10? criteria). Waterborne TPhTH concentration used through the experiment was also evaluated by GC-PFPD, and no degradation of this species was observed. The LC50 value for silver catfish juveniles was 9.73 ?g L(-1) (as Sn). Decreased brain and muscle AChE activities were observed in fish exposed to TPhTH in relation to unexposed fish (control). Liver glycogen and lactate levels were significantly higher in fish kept at the highest waterborne TPhTH concentration compared with the control. Liver and muscle glucose levels of fish exposed to all TPhTH concentrations were significantly lower than those of control fish. Silver catfish exposed to all TPhTH concentrations showed lower total protein values and higher total free amino acids levels in liver and muscle compared with controls. Total ammonia levels in liver and muscle were significantly higher for the highest TPhTH concentration compared with controls. In conclusion, TPhTH caused metabolic alterations in silver catfish juveniles, and the analyzed parameters can also be used as bioindicators for TPhTH contamination. PMID:23929383

Antes, Fabiane G; Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Clasen, Barbara; Lópes, Thais; Loro, Vania L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

2013-11-01

359

Biocompatibility of intracanal medications based on calcium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ? 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

2012-01-01

360

Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ? 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

2012-01-01

361

High glutamate attenuates S100B and LDH outputs from rat cortical slices enhanced by either oxygen-glucose deprivation or menadione.  

PubMed

One hour incubation of rat cortical slices in a medium without oxygen and glucose (oxygen-glucose deprivation, OGD) increased S100B release to 6.53 ± 0.3 ng/ml/mg protein from its control value of 3.61 ± 0.2 ng/ml/mg protein. When these slices were then transferred to a medium containing oxygen and glucose (reoxygenation, REO), S100B release rose to 344 % of its control value. REO also caused 192 % increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutamate added at millimolar concentration into the medium decreased OGD or REO-induced S100B release and REO-induced LDH leakage. Alpha-ketoglutarate, a metabolic product of glutamate, was found to be as effective as glutamate in decreasing the S100B and LDH outputs. Similarly lactate, 2-ketobutyrate and ethyl pyruvate, a lipophilic derivative of pyruvate, also exerted a glutamate-like effect on S100B and LDH outputs. Preincubation with menadione, which produces H2O2 intracellularly, significantly increased S100B and LDH levels in normoxic medium. All drugs tested in the present study, with the exception of pyruvate, showed a complete protection against menadione preincubation. Additionally, each OGD-REO, menadione or H2O2-induced mitochondrial energy impairments determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and OGD-REO or menadione-induced increases in reactive oxygen substances (ROS) determined by 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) were also recovered by glutamate. Interestingly, H2O2-induced increase in fluorescence intensity derived from DCFH-DA in a slice-free physiological medium was attenuated significantly by glutamate and alpha-keto acids. All these drug actions support the conclusion that high glutamate, such as alpha-ketoglutarate and other keto acids, protects the slices against OGD- and REO-induced S100B and LDH outputs probably by scavenging ROS in addition to its energy substrate metabolite property. PMID:24710790

Demircan, Celaleddin; Gül, Zülfiye; Büyükuysal, R Levent

2014-07-01

362

Effect of oxide formation mechanisms on lead adsorption by biogenic manganese (hydr)oxides, iron (hydr)oxides, and their mixtures.  

PubMed

The effects of iron and manganese (hydr)oxide formation processes on the trace metal adsorption properties of these metal (hydr)oxides and their mixtures was investigated by measuring lead adsorption by iron and manganese (hydr)oxides prepared by a variety of methods. Amorphous iron (hydr)oxide formed by fast precipitation at pH 7.5 exhibited greater Pb adsorption (gamma(max) = 50 mmol of Pb/mol of Fe at pH 6.0) than iron (hydr)oxide formed by slow, diffusion-controlled oxidation of Fe(II) at pH 4.5-7.0 or goethite. Biogenic manganese(III/IV) (hydr)oxide prepared by enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II) by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS-1 adsorbed five times more Pb (per mole of Mn) than an abiotic manganese (hydr)oxide prepared by oxidation of Mn(II) with permanganate, and 500-5000 times more Pb than pyrolusite oxides (betaMnO2). X-ray crystallography indicated that biogenic manganese (hydr)oxide and iron (hydr)oxide were predominantly amorphous or poorly crystalline and their X-ray diffraction patterns were not significantly affected by the presence of the other (hydr)oxide during formation. When iron and manganese (hydr)oxides were mixed after formation, or for Mn biologically oxidized with iron(III) (hydr)oxide present, observed Pb adsorption was similar to that expected for the mixture based on Langmuir parameters for the individual (hydr)oxides. These results indicate that interactions in iron/manganese (hydr)oxide mixtures related to the formation process and sequence of formation such as site masking, alterations in specific surface area, or changes in crystalline structure either did not occur or had a negligible effect on Pb adsorption by the mixtures. PMID:11871557

Nelson, Yarrow M; Lion, Leonard W; Shuler, Michael L; Ghiorse, William C

2002-02-01

363

Comparative characterization of a temperature responsive gene (lactate dehydrogenase-B, ldh-b) in two congeneric tropical fish, Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of candidate loci is a critical step in obtaining insight into adaptation and acclimation of organisms. In this study of two non-model tropical (to sub-tropical) con- generic perciformes (Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus) we characterized both coding and non-coding regions of lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b), a locus which exhibits tempera- ture-adaptive differences among temperate and sub-tropical populations of the

Richard C. Edmunds; Lynne van Herwerden; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Dean R. Jerry

364

Effect of HEMADO on Level of CK-MB and LDH Enzymes after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ischemia/Reperfusion (IR) injury mainly causes the increase of enzymes involved in myocytes injury including CK-MB (creatine kinase-MB) isoenzyme and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). Leakage of CK-MB isoenzyme and LDH from myocardial tissues to blood is indicator of acute myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of HEMADO on IR injury and its relationship with mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels (mitoKATP) in rat heart. Methods: Twenty eight male Wistar rats (250-300g) were divided into four groups (seven members in each group): control (without ischemia), I/R (with ischemia+without HEMADO), ischemia received HEMADO (HEMADO), ischemia received HEMADO and 5-HD (5-hydroxydecanoate, specific mitoKATP channel blocker) (HEMADO+5-HD). The animals were anesthetized and the hearts were quickly removed and mounted on Langendorff apparatus and perfused by Krebs-Henseleit solution under constant pressure and temperature of 37ºC. After 20 minutes of stabilization, ischemic groups were exposed to 40 minutes of global ischemia and consecutive 90 minutes of reperfusion. Results: IR injury increased the level of LDH and CK-MB in the collected coronary flow during 5 minutes since start of reperfusion. HEMADO reduced the enzymes’ levels and using 5-HD abolished the effect of HEMADO. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that HEMADO could protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by decreasing the CK-MB and LDH levels. The cardioprotective effect of HEMADO may be mediated in part by mitoKATP. PMID:23878794

Amani, Mohammad; jeddi, sajad; Ahmadiasl, Nasser; Usefzade, Nasibe; Zaman, Jalal

2013-01-01

365

Organo-LDH synthesized via tricalcium aluminate hydration in the present of Na-dodecylbenzenesulfate aqueous solution and subsequent investigated by near-infrared and mid-infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Na-dodecylbenzenesulfate (SDBS), a natural anionic surfactant, has been successfully intercalated into a Ca based LDH host structure during tricalcium aluminate hydration in the presence of SDBS aqueous solution (CaAl-SDBS-LDH). The resulting product was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique, thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and scan electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results revealed that the interlayer distance of resultant product was expanded to 30.46 Å. MIR combined with NIR spectra offered an effective method to illustrate this intercalation. The NIR spectra (6000-5500 cm-1) displayed prominent bands to expound SDBS intercalated into hydration product of C3A. And the bands around 8300 cm-1 were assigned to the second overtone of the first fundamental of Csbnd H stretching vibrations of SDBS. In addition, thermal analysis showed that the dehydration and dehydroxylation took place at ca. 220 °C and 348 °C, respectively. The SEM results appeared approximately hexagonal platy crystallites morphology for CaAl-SDBS-LDH, with particle size smaller and thinner.

Zhang, Ping; Wang, Tianqi; Qian, Guangren; Frost, Ray L.

366

Endothelial cell-laminin interaction: modulation of LDH expression involves alpha6beta4 integrin-FAK-p38MAPK pathway.  

PubMed

One of the possible mechanisms of the angiogenic effect of laminin (Ln) involves modulation of the biological activity of VEGF by regulating poly ADP ribosylation (PAR). PAR modification of VEGF was found to be related with the changes in NAD(+) associated with a shift in LDH isoenzymes. Further investigations on LDH gene expression in HUVECs suggested that the effect of Ln was mediated through alpha(6)beta(4) integrin-FAK-src-p38 MAPK pathway. This was evidenced by (a) co-immunoprecipitation of beta(4) integrin with alpha(6) subunit, (b) activation by tyrosine phosphorylation of beta(4) integrin and FAK, (c) co-immunoprecipitation of FAK with beta(4) and with adapter protein, src, (d) increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in cells maintained on Ln and (e) blocking of effect of Ln on LDH-B gene expression by inhibition of p38 MAPK. Increase in serine phosphorylation of c-fos and c-jun and higher levels of heterodimers of AP-1 in the nucleus in cells maintained on Ln suggested activation of AP-1 transcription factor. These results provide evidence for modulation of endothelial cell function relevant to angiogenesis by Ln through alpha(6)beta(4) integrin. PMID:18814027

Sudhakaran, P R; Viji, R I; Kiran, M S; Sameer Kumar, V B

2009-08-01

367

Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides  

E-print Network

Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides Wei the mechanism of phosphate sorption on aluminum hydroxides under different environ- mental conditions, including

Sparks, Donald L.

368

TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid drainage from mining activities is of major environmental concern in South Africa. These effluents require neutralisation and metal removal prior to release to public watercourses. A novel process is proposed whereby magnesium hydroxide is being used for neutralization of free acid and subsequent raising of the mine wastewater pH to above 7 to facilitate rapid iron (II) oxidation and

V. BOLOGO; J. P. MAREE; C. M. ZVINOWANDA

369

Proton Diffusion in Nickel Hydroxide Prediction of Active Material Utilization  

E-print Network

to the previ- ously proposed mechanism which assumes that the redox reaction in nickel hydroxide involves-of-charge dependent D+ into a Ni/H2 cell model. However, they did not experimentally verify the assumed reaction the diffusion of pro- tons between the film/electrolyte interface and nickel sites in the film. This reaction

Weidner, John W.

370

Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (inventors)

1969-01-01

371

LIGNOSULFONATE-MODIFIED CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides...

372

Physical and electrochemical characteristics of nickel hydroxide as a positive material for rechargeable alkaline batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel hydroxide is widely used as an active material in pasted-type nickel electrodes. Physical properties of several nickel hydroxide powders have been examined by laser diffraction, BET, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and SEM. Nickel hydroxide powder with a smaller crystalline size shows better charge-discharge cyclic characteristics. The chemical diffusion coefficients of the proton in the nickel hydroxide sample are measured

K. Watanabe; T. Kikuoka; N. Kumagai

1995-01-01

373

Response of Soil and Plant to Boron-Doped Aluminum Hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this work are to test whether boron (B) may alleviate soil acidification and aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity to rape (Brassica napus L.) in acidic soil. The Al hydroxide that reacted with borax was called ad-B-Al hydroxide. Point of zero charge (PZC) of Al hydroxide (pH 4.86) was greater than that of ad-B-Al hydroxide (pH 4.68). Compared with the

Shuijiao Liao; Liying Ren; Duanwei Zhu; Wenbing Zhou; Jingzhen Cui; Guanglong Liu

2011-01-01

374

Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral)  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral of polynuclear metal hydroxide complexes and surface precipitates can be an important mechanism for metal has been shown to result in the formation of mixed metal-Al hydroxide precipitates

Sparks, Donald L.

375

LDH-A and alpha-actin as tools to assess the effects of temperature on the vertebrate genome: some problems.  

PubMed

In a recent paper written with the purpose of shedding light on the question of whether genomic GC levels are related to temperature in vertebrates, Ream et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 20 (2003) 105] offered an analysis of two sets of homologous genes: those coding for alpha-actin and lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A). The conclusion was that "there is no consistent relationship between adaptation temperature and the percentage of thermal stability-enhancing G+C base pairs in protein-coding genes". We argue here that the data presented neither prove nor suggest such a conclusion because of conceptual and methodological errors. PMID:14604804

Clay, Oliver; Arhondakis, Stilianos; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Giorgio

2003-10-23

376

Assessing the differential action on cancer cells of LDH-A inhibitors based on the N-hydroxyindole-2-carboxylate (NHI) and malonic (Mal) scaffolds†  

PubMed Central

A head-to-head study of representative examples of N-hydroxyindole-2-carboxylates (NHI) and malonic derivatives (Mal) as LDH-A inhibitors was conducted, comparing enzyme inhibition potency, cellular uptake, reduction of lactate production in cancer cells and anti-proliferative activity. Among the compounds tested, methyl 1-hydroxy-6-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-indole-2-carboxylate (2, NHI-2), a methyl ester belonging to the NHI class, displayed optimal properties in the cell-based assays, proving to be an efficient anti-glycolytic agent against cancer cells. PMID:23986182

Granchi, Carlotta; Calvaresi, Emilia C.; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Paterni, Ilaria; Macchia, Marco; Martinelli, Adriano; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Minutolo, Filippo

2013-01-01

377

Calcium hydroxide pulpotomy for primary teeth: a clinical study.  

PubMed

Calcium hydroxide pulpotomies were performed in 17 carious primary mandibular molars. Variables in the pulpotomy procedure were recognized and controlled in an attempt to obtain a more favorable result or end product. The effects of two methods of hemorrhage control were also evaluated. The duration of treatment for the study ranged from three to nine months. Treatment was clinically successful for all 17 teeth. The radiographic evaluations were more favorable for the experimental group than for the control group. Treatment was radiographically successful for 15 teeth, questionable for one tooth, and unsuccessful for one other tooth. The results of this study suggest that the aluminum chloride-calcium hydroxide pulpotomy may be a viable alternative to formocresol pulpotomies in the primary dentition. Although these findings encourage continued research, including a long-term follow-up, a histologic study is indicated. PMID:6588119

Heilig, J; Yates, J; Siskin, M; McKnight, J; Turner, J

1984-05-01

378

On the recombination of hydronium and hydroxide ions in water  

PubMed Central

The recombination of hydronium and hydroxide ions following water ionization is one of the most fundamental processes determining the pH of water. The neutralization step once the solvated ions are in close proximity is phenomenologically understood to be fast, but the molecular mechanism has not been directly probed by experiments. We elucidate the mechanism of recombination in liquid water with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and it emerges as quite different from the conventional view of the Grotthuss mechanism. The neutralization event involves a collective compression of the water-wire bridging the ions, which occurs in approximately 0.5 ps, triggering a concerted triple jump of the protons. This process leaves the neutralized hydroxide in a hypercoordinated state, with the implications that enhanced collective compressions of several water molecules around similarly hypercoordinated states are likely to serve as nucleation events for the autoionization of liquid water. PMID:22143756

Hassanali, Ali; Prakash, Meher K.; Eshet, Hagai; Parrinello, Michele

2011-01-01

379

Hierarchical cobalt-based hydroxide microspheres for water oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D hierarchical cobalt hydroxide carbonate hydrate (Co(CO3)0.5(OH).0.11H2O) has been synthesized featuring a hollow urchin-like structure by a one-step hydrothermal method at modest temperature on FTO glass substrates. The functionalities of precursor surfactants were isolated and analyzed. A plausible formation mechanism of the spherical urchin-like microclusters has been furnished through time-dependent investigations. Introduction of other transitional metal doping (Cu, Ni) would give rise to a substantial morphological change associated with a surface area drop. The directly grown cobalt-based hydroxide composite electrodes were found to be capable of catalyzing oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under both neutral pH and alkaline conditions. The favorable 3D dendritic morphology and porous structure provide large surface areas and possible defect sites that are likely responsible for their robust electrochemical activity.

Zhang, Ye; Cui, Bai; Derr, Olivia; Yao, Zhibo; Qin, Zhaotong; Deng, Xiangyun; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Hong

2014-02-01

380

Pharmacokinetics of iron salts and ferric hydroxide-carbohydrate complexes.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic measurements of ferrous sulphate and ferric hydroxide-polymaltose complex on anaemic and non-anaemic rats have shown different postabsorption serum iron levels, invasion and elimination constants and distribution volumes for the two preparations. But nevertheless the absorption and utilization ratios of iron from both preparations are equal. It is therefore not justified to calculate utilization ratios for chemically different iron preparations on the basis of postabsorption serum iron measurements. Similar pharmacokinetic differences of these two iron preparations could also be found in clinical trials, which means that different serum iron increase results in an equal utilization ratio for both preparations. It is clear that ferrous sulphate and ferric hydroxide-polymaltose complex must have a different absorption mechanism. The postulated absorption mechanism is in agreement with all the facts known today and does explain the pharmacokinetic difference between the investigated preparations. PMID:3566862

Geisser, P; Müller, A

1987-01-01

381

Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

Li, Changyu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)] [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Lian, Suoyuan [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China) [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Liu, Yang [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)] [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)] [College of Material Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)] [Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory, Soochow University, No. 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

2010-02-15

382

Mixed-valence hydroxides as bioorganic host minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A range of naturally occurring divalent-trivalent metal cation hydroxides and modified artifical analogs have been synthesized and characterized. Structural and chemical properties of these minerals, determining their capability to selectively concentrate, order and alter molecules of prebiotic interest, include their anion exchange capacity and specificity, photochemical reactivity, production of nascent hydrogen, and catalytic efficiency. Properties relevant to these functions have been investigated and are discussed.

Kuma, K.; Paplawsky, W.; Gedulin, B.; Arrhenius, G.

1989-01-01

383

Cuprous hydroxide in a solid form: does it exist?  

PubMed

Experimental studies have been performed to obtain the unknown cuprous hydroxide compound, which has recently been predicted theoretically (P. A. Korzhavyi et. al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2012, 109, 686-689) to be metastable in a solid form. The reduction of Cu(2+) with ferrous ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) results in the formation of a yellow powder precipitate whose composition corresponds to CuOH × H2O as probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and cryogenic X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A similar compound has been found on the surface of Cu-CuH powder stored in water, as detected by XPS. The reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+) with free radicals in aqueous solutions results in a Cu2O precipitate as the final product, while the formation of the yellow cuprous hydroxide colloids may be an intermediate step. Our studies reveal that cuprous hydroxide does exist in a solid form and most likely has a hydrated form, CuOH × H2O. PMID:23673918

Soroka, Inna L; Shchukarev, Andrey; Jonsson, Mats; Tarakina, Nadezda V; Korzhavyi, Pavel A

2013-07-14

384

Concentration of Simple Aldehydes by Sulfite-Containing Double-Layer Hydroxide Minerals: Implications for Biopoesis  

E-print Network

aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mm. Introduction. ± One of the favored (formally) derived from some of these sugar phosphates. Specifically, oligonucleotides based on pentose 2

Arrhenius, Gustaf

385

Effect of gliclazide immobilization into layered double hydroxide on drug release.  

PubMed

This paper deals with a new hydrotalcite-like compound used as a matrix to improve dissolution rate of the poorly water-soluble drug gliclazide and to administer at the same time micro- and oligo-elements useful to improve insulin performance. Gliclazide is a second-generation sulfonylurea compound used in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. As a consequence of the poor water solubility, its absorption is limited. Thus, a new hydrotalcite-like compound containing Zinc and Chromium, micronutrients directly involved in the physiology of insulin and in the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, was synthesized. The gliclazide-hydrotalcite-like clay nanohybrid was prepared via ion-exchange in its nitrate form and was characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis. The drug loading resulted in 42.9% (w/w). As a consequence of the intercalation, the interlayer distance of the host increased from 0.89 nm (interlayer distance of nitrate form) to 1.5 nm. The intercalation product was submitted to solubility measurements and in vitro dissolution test. A remarkable improvement of the apparent solubility and dissolution rate in comparison to the crystalline drug was observed in acid fluids (pH 1.2 and 3). The presence of chromium and zinc cations was also found in the medium. These results showed that the hybrid nanostructure could represent a promising system to improve drug dissolution rate and to release cations involved in the performance of insulin. PMID:19539757

Ambrogi, V; Perioli, L; Ciarnelli, V; Nocchetti, M; Rossi, C

2009-10-01

386

Effect of gliclazide immobilization into layered double hydroxide on drug release  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new hydrotalcite-like compound used as a matrix to improve dissolution rate of the poorly water-soluble drug gliclazide and to administer at the same time micro- and oligo-elements useful to improve insulin performance. Gliclazide is a second-generation sulfonylurea compound used in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. As a consequence of the poor water solubility,

V. Ambrogi; L. Perioli; V. Ciarnelli; M. Nocchetti; C. Rossi

2009-01-01

387

Phosphate uptake behavior of ZnAlZr ternary layered double hydroxides through surface precipitation.  

PubMed

Tetravalent Zr(4+) ion incorporated ZnAl hydrotalcite-like material with varying Zn/(Al+Zr) atomic ratio (2-4) and Al/Zr atomic ratio 0.7:0.3 with CO(3)(2-) as interlayer anion were successfully synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical methods. The phosphate uptake studies were carried out over these materials by batch method with the objective of enhancing the uptake through creation of higher positive charge on brucite-like layers by the incorporation of Zr(4+). The studies revealed that ternary ZnAlZr hydrotalcites show good uptake capacity for phosphate, among which ZnAlZr4-HT depicts a maximum uptake of around 91 mg P/g. We observed that phosphate uptake results in the formation of layered hopeite mineral (Zn(3)(PO(4))(3) x 4 H(2)O) on the surface of material by the surface precipitation of dissolved zinc ion through the outer-sphere complex formation of phosphate. The phosphate uptake increases with a decrease in Zn/Al and Zn/(Al+Zr) atomic ratios. Effects of initial phosphate concentration, contact time, adsorbent amount and temperature variation on phosphate uptake were studied. Co-presence of competitive anion like nitrate enhances the uptake of phosphate to 148 mg P/g. Recycle studies of the material shows a decrease in the uptake of phosphate with the number of cycles due to an increase in the crystallinity. Very high uptake of phosphate by these materials even in the presence of other anions/cations suggests their potential role in waste water remediation. PMID:19857873

Koilraj, P; Kannan, S

2010-01-15

388

Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

2015-01-01

389

Influence of aluminium precursor on physico-chemical properties of aluminium hydroxides and oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An attempt to obtain aluminium hydroxide that could give aluminium oxides of increased thermal stability was made. Aluminium\\u000a hydroxide was precipitated during a hydrolysis of aluminium chloride in ammonia medium. The influence of preparative conditions,\\u000a such as a dosing rate of aluminium precursor, pH, duration of the precipitate refluxing and temperature of calcination, on\\u000a the properties of obtained hydroxides and

Olga Kluk-P?osko?ska; D. Szychowski

390

Charging and ion adsorption behaviour of different iron (hydr)oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal (hydr)oxides are of importance for many soil systems. All metal (hydr)oxides have a surface charge that varies with the pH. The variation in this surface charge is caused by adsorption and desorption of protons. The adsorption of cat- and anions on the metal (hydr)oxide surface is strongly influenced by their variable surface charge. The description of the charging behaviour

P. Venema

1997-01-01

391

Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid material as a precursor to produce carbon nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid was prepared using stearate anion as an organic guest, and zinc layered hydroxide nitrate, as a layered inorganic host by the ion-exchange method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared results indicated that the stearate anion was actually intercalated into the interlayer of zinc layered hydroxide nitrate and confirmed the formation of the host–guest nanohybrid material.

Mohammad Yeganeh Ghotbi; Narjes Bagheri; S. K. Sadrnezhaad

2011-01-01

392

Selected-control synthesis of dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods by adjusting hydrothermal temperature  

SciTech Connect

Dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were prepared directly from commercial bulk Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals by facile hydrothermal process at 130 and 210 deg. C, respectively. The as-synthesized dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were investigated by various techniques of XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDS. In the process, the temperature was found to play important roles in determining produce dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods.

Song Xuchun [Department of Chemistry, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)], E-mail: songxuchunfj@163.com; Zheng Yifan [Coll Chem Engn and Mat Sci, Zhejiang Univ Technol, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014 (China); Wang Yun [Department of Chemistry, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

2008-05-06

393

Method of treating inflammatory diseases using a radiolabeled ferric hydroxide calloid  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1992-01-01

394

Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to have exposed hydroxyl groups and that can be chemically linked, by hydroxide catalysis, to a silicate-like network. The silicate-like network could be generated in situ from the filling material and/or substrate material, or could be originally present in the bonding material.

Gwo, Dz-Hung

2008-01-01

395

Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicans colony forming units at a depth of 0–100 µm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100–200 µm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans. PMID:23538639

Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

2013-01-01

396

Double Layers in Astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

Williams, Alton C. (editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (editor)

1987-01-01

397

Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1998-08-01

398

Structure and electrochemical properties of nanometer Cu substituted ?-nickel hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Cu substituted ?-nickel hydroxide was prepared by ultrasonic assisted precipitation. ? The XRD peaks are anisotropic broadening. ? The electrode for 0.9 wt.% Cu has the highest capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C. -- Abstract: Nanometer Cu-substituted ?-nickel hydroxide was synthesized by means of ultrasonic-assisted precipitation. Particle size distribution (PSD) measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) were used to characterize the physical properties of the synthesized samples. The results indicate that the average particle size of the samples is about 96–110 nm and the XRD diffraction peaks are anisotropic broadening. The crystal grains are mainly polycrystal structure with columnar or needle-like morphology, containing many defects. With increase of Cu content, the shape of primary particles transform from columnar to needle-like. The influences of doping amounts of Cu on the electrochemical performance were investigated through constant current charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetric measurements. The specific capacity increases initially and then decreases with increasing Cu-doping ratio, the electrode C containing 0.9 wt.% Cu shows the maximum discharge capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C, and it has the lowest charging voltage, higher discharge voltage plateau, better cycle performance and larger proton diffusion coefficient than the other electrodes.

Bao, Jie [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China); Zhu, Yanjuan, E-mail: YanJuanZhu007@126.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China); Zhang, Zhongju [Guangzhou Tiger Head Battery Group Co., Ltd., 568 Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510655, Guangdong Province (China)] [Guangzhou Tiger Head Battery Group Co., Ltd., 568 Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510655, Guangdong Province (China); Xu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Weiren [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, Jian [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong Province (China)] [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong Province (China); Zhang, Wei; Han, Quanyong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China)

2013-02-15

399

Lithium hydroxide, LiOH, at elevated densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the high-pressure phases of crystalline lithium hydroxide, LiOH. Using first-principles calculations, and assisted by evolutionary structure searches, we reproduce the experimentally known phase transition under pressure, but we suggest that the high-pressure phase LiOH-III be assigned to a new hydrogen-bonded tetragonal structure type that is unique amongst alkali hydroxides. LiOH is at the intersection of both ionic and hydrogen bonding, and we examine the various ensuing structural features and their energetic driving mechanisms. At P = 17 GPa, we predict another phase transition to a new phase, Pbcm-LiOH-IV, which we find to be stable over a wide pressure range. Eventually, at extremely high pressures of 1100 GPa, the ground state of LiOH is predicted to become a polymeric structure with an unusual graphitic oxygen-hydrogen net. However, because of its ionic character, the anticipated metallization of LiOH is much delayed; in fact, its electronic band gap increases monotonically into the TPa pressure range.

Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

2014-07-01

400

Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect

A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

1996-10-01

401

Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations.  

PubMed

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO(2)A)(+) (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)](+), with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate > or = nitrate > hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH(-) to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H(2)O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)(2)](+) were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H(2)O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO(2)OH)(H(2)O)(2)](+) was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate. PMID:15144967

Chien, Winnie; Anbalagan, Victor; Zandler, Melvin; Van Stipdonk, Michael; Hanna, Dorothy; Gresham, Garold; Groenewold, Gary

2004-06-01

402

Doubled ? '-geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop doubled-coordinate field theory to determine the ? ' corrections to the massless sector of oriented bosonic closed string theory. Our key tool is a string current algebra of free left-handed bosons that makes O(D,D) T-duality manifest. While T-dualities are unchanged, diffeomorphisms and b-field gauge transformations receive corrections, with a gauge algebra given by an ? '-deformation of the duality-covariantized Courant bracket. The action is cubic in a double metric field, an unconstrained extension of the generalized metric that encodes the gravitational fields. Our approach provides a consistent truncation of string theory to massless fields with corrections that close at finite order in ? '.

Hohm, Olaf; Siegel, Warren; Zwiebach, Barton

2014-02-01

403

Double Helix  

E-print Network

Daniels, Christine Wertheim, Johanna Drucker, Langston Hughes, Ed Dorn, Lisa Jarnot, and Tom Phillips. The second part consists of an original sixty-four-page long poem / poetic sequence titled ?diluvium.? ?diluvium? utilizes all the techniques...,? as Dick Higgins calls them, are not as common as vocal poems but nonetheless present in most any language associated with a large civilization. Examples hail from ancient Greece (e.g. a poem in the shape of a double axe) through and beyond...

Stumpo, Jeffrey David

2012-07-16

404

Preparation of high-performance hydroxide exchange membrane by a novel ablation restriction plasma polymerization approach.  

PubMed

A novel approach of ablation restriction plasma polymerization has been successfully demonstrated for the first time in hydroxide exchange membrane synthesis. The membrane possesses high hydroxide conductivity, alkaline stability, and the ability of fully encompassing catalyst particles, without solubility in low boiling point water-soluble solvents. PMID:21670832

Zhang, Chengxu; Hu, Jue; Meng, Yuedong; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Toyoda, Hirotaka

2011-10-01

405

Rapid collection of iron hydroxide for determination of Th isotopes in seawater.  

PubMed

This work introduces a novel method of recovery of iron hydroxide using a DIAION CR-20 chelating resin column to determine Th isotopes in seawater with a sector field (SF) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Thorium isotopes in seawater were co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and this precipitate was sent to chelating resin column. Ferric ions in the iron hydroxide were bonded to functional groups of the chelating resin directly, resulting in a pH increase of the effluent by release of hydroxide ion from the iron hydroxide. The co-precipitated thorium isotopes were quantitatively collected within the column, which indicated that thorium was retained on the iron hydroxide remaining on the chelating column. The chelating column quantitatively collected (232)Th with iron hydroxide in seawater at flow rates of 20-25 mL min(-1). Based on this flow rate, a 5 L sample was processed within 3-4 h. The >20 h aging of iron hydroxide tends to reduce the recovery of (232)Th. The rapid collection method was successfully applied to the determination of (230)Th and (232)Th in open-ocean seawater samples. PMID:24267072

Okubo, Ayako; Obata, Hajime; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi; Ogawa, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

406

BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING ARSENIC SPECIATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE COATED SAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic mobilization from solid phase Fe (III) hydroxides is an issue of concern, as water-borne arsenic can migrate into pristine environments, endangering aquatic and human life. In general, metal oxide (hydroxides) exerts a dominating effect on the fate and transport of arseni...

407

Influence of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressings on the prognosis of teeth with endodontically induced periapical lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weiger R, Rosendahl R, Los t C. Influence of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressings on the prognosis of teeth with endodontically induced periapical lesions. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 219-226, 2000. Aim This prospective clinical study explored the influence of calcium hydroxide as an interappointment dressing on the healing of periapical lesions associated with pulpless teeth that had not been endodontically treated

R. Weiger; R. Rosendahl; C. Lost

2000-01-01

408

Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant trapper  

E-print Network

treatment, CrVI 1 Introduction Industrial aqueous pollution (heavy metals) accounts for 30 to 40% of all1 Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant@emse.fr Abstract: For the valorisation of metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent of pollutant, it is necessary to make

Boyer, Edmond

409

Encapsulation of Iron Hydroxide Flocs in Composite Cement Nick Collier*, J Hill, N B Milestone  

E-print Network

Encapsulation of Iron Hydroxide Flocs in Composite Cement Nick Collier*, J Hill, N B Milestone-precipitating uranium, plutonium and other actinides, as well as some other radioactive species, with iron to form an iron hydroxide floc. Four different flocs with different chemical compositions are produced depending

Sheffield, University of

410

An unsupported metal hydroxide for the design of molecular ?-oxo bridged heterobimetallic complexes.  

PubMed

A terminal and unsupported chromium(III) hydroxide is reported. The terminal hydroxide is used to synthesize the first example of a heterobimetallic Ti-O-Cr compound containing an unsupported ?-oxo bridge. The heterobimetallic complex exhibits a new absorbance at 288 nm (4.32 eV), which is assigned to a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition. PMID:24419147

Falzone, A J; Nguyen, J; Weare, W W; Sommer, R D; Boyle, P D

2014-02-28

411

Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Iranian Propolis and Calcium Hydroxide on Dental Pulp Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Since intracanal medicaments can affect the cell viability in periapical tissues, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide and propolis on pulp fibroblasts. Materials and methods. Two healthy third molars were used as a source to obtain fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were cultured and subjected to 1 mg/mL of propolis and calcium hydroxide. This experiment was performed in six replicates and cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay. Statistical analysis was performed by t-test. Results. Comparison of cell viability with the use of 1 mg/mL of calcium hydroxide and propolis showed that cells subjected to propolis were more viable when compared to calcium hydroxide (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In this study, calcium hydroxide reduced fibroblast viability, significantly more than Iranian propolis. Other properties should be evaluated before Iranian propolis could be indicated for use as intracanal medicament. PMID:25346830

Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Ranjbarian, Parisa; Shiravi, Samaneh

2014-01-01

412

Rapeseed-straw enzymatic digestibility enhancement by sodium hydroxide treatment under ultrasound irradiation.  

PubMed

In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 °C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated experiments to validate the predicted value, 98.9 ± 0.3 % enzymatic digestibility was obtained, which was well within the range of the predicted model. Moreover, sonication irradiation was found to have a good effect on pretreatment in the lower temperature range and at all concentrations of sodium hydroxide. According to scanning electron microscopy images, the surface area and pore size of the pretreated rapeseed straw were modified by the sodium hydroxide pretreatment under sonication irradiation. PMID:23124436

Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

2013-08-01

413

The effects of lithium hydroxide solution on alkali silica reaction gels created with opal  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of Nevada opal with calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions was investigated. In addition, opal was exposed to a combined solution of these three hydroxides. The progress of the three reactions was followed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated the presence of a low-angle peak exclusive to the lithium-based reactions. The NMR results suggested a change in the silicate structure in the presence of lithium. These techniques indicated that the reaction of the alkali with the opal starting material is inhibited and perhaps stopped in the presence of lithium hydroxide. SEM revealed that the morphology of the reaction products on the surface of the reacted opal grains is markedly different invariably. It was concluded that evidence to support the theory of a protective layer exists and that the nature of the layer varies with ion type.

Mitchell, Lyndon D.; Beaudoin, James J.; Grattan-Bellew, Patrick

2004-04-01

414

Extended development of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The post-test evaluation of a single heat exchanger sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module for use in solar electric generation is reported. Chemical analyses of the storage medium used in the experimental model are presented. The experimental verification of the module performance using an alternate heat transfer fluid, Caloria HT-43, is described. Based on these results, a design analysis of a dual heat exchanger concept within the storage module is presented. A computer model and a reference design for the dual system (storage working fluid/power cycle working fluid) were completed. The dual system is estimated to have a capital cost of approximately one half that of the single heat exchanger concept.

Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.; Cohen, B. M.

1980-01-01

415

Mechanism of simmondsin decomposition during sodium hydroxide treatment.  

PubMed

Jojoba seed meal shows appetite-suppressing activity due to the presence of simmondsin. This pharmacological activity disappears with treatment of the meal with sodium hydroxide. To elucidate this mechanism of inactivation, the reaction of simmondsin in 1 N NaOH at 20 degrees C was monitored as a function of time. The end products of the reaction as well as intermediates were isolated and identified. The half-life of simmondsin was approximately 60 min with d-glucose and 2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile as reaction end products. The reaction mechanism could be elucidated by the isolation of isosimmondsin and a simmondsin lactone derivative. Those compounds were isolated and purified by a combination of column chromatography and HPLC and identified mainly by HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12590465

Van Boven, M; Laga, M; Leonard, S; Busson, R; Holser, R; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Cokelaere, M

2003-02-26

416

Is a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-based assay a valid tool for detecting risky malaria blood donations in Africa?  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a leading cause of mortality in southern Benin. The main causative agent, Plasmodium falciparum, poses a threat on critical transfusions in pregnant women and children. This study’s objective was to compare the performance of different malaria screening methods in blood donors in southern Benin, a malaria-endemic country. Methods Blood from 2,515 voluntary blood donors in Benin was collected over a period of 10 months in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes, which were then classified according to extraction time: long rainy season, short dry season, short rainy season, and long dry season. Microscopic examination was used to count parasites. Parasite density (PD) was expressed as the number of parasites per ?L of blood. Pan Plasmodium pLDH detection was assessed by an ELISA-malaria antigen test. Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies. Results Among the 2,515 blood donors (2,025 males and 488 females) screened, the rate of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage was 295/2,515 (11.72%, 95% CI: 10.5-13.1%). Males had a higher infection rate (12.4%) than did females (8.8%). Parasite density was very low: between seven and100 parasites per ?L of blood was reported in 80% of donors with parasitaemia. Three Plasmodium species were diagnosed: P. falciparum in 280/295 patients (95.0%), Plasmodium malariae in 14/295 (5.0%), and Plasmodium ovale in 1/295 (0.34%). Malaria prevalence in donors was higher during the rainy seasons (13.7%) compared with the dry seasons (9.9%). The use of a highly sensitive assay enabled pan Plasmodium pLDH detection in 966/2,515 (38.4%, 95% CI: 36.5%-40.3%). Malaria antibody prevalence was 1,859/2,515 (73.9%, 95% CI: 72.16-75.6%). Donors’ antigenaemia and antibody levels varied significantly (P <0.05) over the course of the four seasons. The highest antigenaemia rate 323/630 (51.3%), was observed during the short rainy season, while the highest antibody prevalence, 751/886 (84.7%), was recorded during the long dry season. Conclusion Blood donations infected with Plasmodium can transmit malaria to donation recipients. Malaria diagnostic methods are currently available, but the feasibility criteria for mass screening in endemic areas become preponderant. Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite presence. Routine screening of all donated blood would prevent infected blood donations and reduce P. falciparum transmission in critical patients, such as children and pregnant women. This tool would also decrease medical prophylaxis in donation recipients and contribute to lower Plasmodium resistance. PMID:23927596

2013-01-01

417

Effect of hydroxides and hydroxycarbonate structure on fire retardant effectiveness and mechanical properties in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flame retardant effect of inorganic hydroxides, like aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, was evaluated and compared with that of other inorganic fillers such as boehmite and hydrotalcite. The thermal decomposition of the fillers and the mixtures with EVA polymer were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The most

G. Camino; A. Maffezzoli; M. Braglia; M. De Lazzaro; M. Zammarano

2001-01-01

418

Properties and applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology.  

PubMed

Calcium hydroxide has been included within several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in a number of treatment modalities in endodontics. These include, inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, pulp-capping agents and root canal sealers. Calcium hydroxide formulations are also used during treatment of root perforations, root fractures and root resorption and have a role in dental traumatology, for example, following tooth avulsion and luxation injuries. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties and clinical applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology including its antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, effect on bacterial biofilms, the synergism between calcium hydroxide and other agents, its effects on the properties of dentine, the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through dentine and its toxicity. Pure calcium hydroxide paste has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. Its main actions are achieved through the ionic dissociation of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions and their effect on vital tissues, the induction of hard-tissue deposition and the antibacterial properties. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also an effective anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:21535021

Mohammadi, Z; Dummer, P M H

2011-08-01

419

Morphology-controlled nonaqueous synthesis of anisotropic lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of lanthanum hydroxide and manganese oxide nanoparticles is presented, based on a nonaqueous sol-gel process involving the reaction of La(OiPr){sub 3} and KMnO{sub 4} with organic solvents such as benzyl alcohol, 2-butanone and a 1:1 vol. mixture thereof. The lanthanum manganese oxide system is highly complex and surprising results with respect to product composition and morphology were obtained. In dependence of the reaction parameters, the La(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles undergo a shape transformation from short nanorods with an average aspect ratio of 2.1 to micron-sized nanofibers (average aspect ratio is more than 59.5). Although not directly involved, KMnO{sub 4} plays a crucial role in determining the particle morphology of La(OH){sub 3}. The reason lies in the fact that KMnO{sub 4} is able to oxidize the benzyl alcohol to benzoic acid, which presumably induces the anisotropic particle growth in [0 0 1] direction upon preferential coordination to the {+-}(1 0 0), {+-}(0 1 0) and {+-}(-110) crystal facets. By adjusting the molar La(OiPr){sub 3}-to-KMnO{sub 4} ratio as well as by using the appropriate solvent mixture it is possible to tailor the morphology, phase purity and microstructure of the La(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles. Postsynthetic thermal treatment of the sample containing La(OH){sub 3} nanofibers and {beta}-MnOOH nanoparticles at the temperature of 800 deg. C for 8 h yielded polyhedral LaMnO{sub 3} and worm-like La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as final products. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles are synthesized based on a nonaqueous sol-gel process involving the reaction of La(OiPr){sub 3} and KMnO{sub 4} with organic solvents such as benzyl alcohol, 2-butanone and a 1:1 vol. mixture thereof. In dependence of the reaction parameters, the La(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles undergo a shape transformation from short nanorods to micron-sized nanofibers.

Djerdj, Igor [ETH Zuerich, Department of Materials, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, P.O. Box 331, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Garnweitner, Georg [Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Research Campus Golm, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany); Sheng Su, Dang [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of the Max-Planck-Society, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Niederberger, Markus [ETH Zuerich, Department of Materials, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: markus.niederberger@mat.ethz.ch

2007-07-15

420

In Vivo Toxicity Studies of Europium Hydroxide Nanorods in Mice  

PubMed Central

Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence properties and pro-angiogenic to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mgKg?1day?1) and time dependent manner (8–60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice sacrificed on day 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods. PMID:19616569

Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

2009-01-01

421

Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

2015-01-01

422

Reactions of cumene hydroperoxide mixed with sodium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was undertaken in a free radical chain reaction. The peroxyl group is very active and unstable, while the remainder of the molecule is inert. CHP reacted with various concentrations of dilute sodium hydroxide as a catalyst to cleave at ambient and decomposition temperature. The products were verified by GC/MS, and were quantitatively analyzed by chromatography. CHP cleaved heterolytic with NaOH at 250 degrees C, whose major product was dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC); however, the main products become acetophenone and alpha-methylstyrene by cleaved homolytic pathway. The catalytic concentrations of NaOH significantly affected the branch ratios of DMPC under decomposition. Based on the experimental results, a radical cleavage mechanism was proposed. To sum up, the reaction parameters, such as temperature, Lewis base, etc., could affect the incompatibilities and decomposition pathways for proper CHP cleavage process. In addition, exothermic onset temperatures (T0) and heat of decomposition (Delta Hd) of incompatible mixtures and CHP itself were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Comparisons of T0, Delta Hd and peak power were assessed to corroborate the severity of thermal hazards. From the decay rate of CHP concentration, the reaction order was determined to be 0.5, and the Arrhenius parameters were measured as Ea=92.1 kJ/mol and frequency factor A=2.42 x 10(10)min(-1). PMID:17889997

Hou, Hung-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min; Tsai, Tung-Lin

2008-04-15

423

Lack of teratogenicity of aluminum hydroxide in mice  

SciTech Connect

The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of aluminum hydroxide, a therapeutic drug used as an antacid and phosphate binder, was investigated in Swiss mice. Mated female mice were given by gavage daily doses of 0, 66.5, 133 or 266 mg/kg of A1(OH)/sub 3/ on gestation days 6 through 15 and killed on gestation day 18. Females were evaluated for body weight gain, food consumption appearance and behavior, survival rates, and reproduction data. No significant effects attributable to A1(OH)/sub 3/ were noted in comparisons of maternal body weight and food consumption values, appearance and behavior. No treatment-related changes were recorded in the number of total implants, resorptions, the number of live and dead fetuses, fetal size parameters or fetal sex distribution data. Gross external, soft tissue and skeletal examination of the A1-treated fetuses did not reveal differences at any dose in comparison with the controls. Thus, no evidence of maternal toxicity, embryo/fetal toxicity or teratogenicity was observed with A1(OH)/sub 3/ in mice.

Domingo, J.S.; Mercedes Gomez, M.A.B.; Corbella, J.

1989-01-01

424

Nested potassium hydroxide etching and protective coatings for silicon-based microreactors  

E-print Network

We have developed a multilayer, multichannel silicon-based microreactor that uses elemental fluorine as a reagent and generates hydrogen fluoride as a byproduct. Nested potassium hydroxide etching (using silicon nitride ...

de Mas, Nuria

425

Improved Electrochromic Response Time of Nickel Hydroxide Thin Film by Ultra-Thin Nickel Metal Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements in the optical switching properties of electrochromic nickel hydroxide/nickel/glass thin film are reported. Nickel metal film was deposited on glass by e-beam evaporation prior to following electrochemical redox cycling to form nickel hydroxide for electrochromic activation. In the absence of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer as an electrical conductor, this electrode showed a more rapid coloration rate than a nickel hydroxide film on ITO substrate in terms of change in electric voltage and optical transmittance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the existence of ultra-thin nickel metal layer between the electrochemically grown nickel hydroxide and the glass substrate. We conclude that the nickel metal nano-layer can be attributed to the conduction layer and the enhanced response time.

Jeong, Do Jin; Kim, Woo-Seong; Sung, Yung-Eun

2001-07-01

426

The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.

May, Charles E

1958-01-01

427

Proton Transfer in Concentrated Aqueous Hydroxide Visualized using Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

While it is generally recognized that the hydroxide ion can rapidly diffuse through aqueous solution due to its ability to accept a proton from a neighboring water molecule, a description of the OH? solvation structure and ...

Roberts, Sean Thomas

428

75 FR 28608 - Calcium Hydroxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nurseries to control Eleutherodactylus frogs. The applicant proposes the use of a new...nurseries to control Eleutherodactylus frogs. Information in accordance with 40 CFR...hydroxide is necessary to control the tropical frogs, Eleutherodactylus coqui and E....

2010-05-21

429

Sustainability Double Degree Double Degree Info  

E-print Network

Sustainability Double Degree Double Degree Info: · 36 credits in B for graduation. Sustainability Core: Take each course below for a total of 17 -20 credits. Term/Grade Course _____ ____ *NR 350 (4) Sustainable

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

430

Surface complexation of condensed phosphate to aluminum hydroxide: An ATR-FTIR spectroscopic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two model compounds, sodium pyrophosphate (pyro-P) and sodium tripolyphosphate (tripoly-P), were employed to elucidate the binding mechanisms of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide by utilizing attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Peak assignments for the condensed phosphates in the solution phase and those adsorbed on the surface of aluminum hydroxide were made. Electron delocalization and polarization were employed to

Xiao-Hong Guan; Qing Liu; Guang-Hao Chen; Chii Shang

2005-01-01

431

Nickel Hydroxide as an Active Material for the Positive Electrode in Rechargeable Alkaline Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spherical nickel hydroxide powders coprecipitated with the additives Ca(OH)2, Co(OH)2, and Zn(OH)2 were prepared through a spraying technique. These powders, which have a higher tapping density and a much smaller pore volume and crystalline size than conventional powders, were used as the active materials of nickel hydroxide electrodes. The effects of the Ca(OH)2, Co(OH)2, and Zn(OH)2 additions on electrode properties

J. Chen; D. H. Bradhurst; S. X. Dou; H. K. Liu

1999-01-01

432

Bioverfügbarkeit des in einem oralen Eisenpräparat enthaltenen Eisen(III)-Hydroxid-Dextrin-Komplexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An iron(III)-hydroxide-polymaltose complex used in the FRG for oral iron therapy was labeled with59Fe and investigated for bioavailability in subjects with normal and depleted iron stores. Following the oral application of a 100 mg Fe(III)-equivalent of the59Fe(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex the postabsorptive serum increase after 3 h as well as the whole body retention and erythrocyte incorporation of absorbed59Fe after

H. C. Heinrich; R. Fischer; E. E. Gabbe; N. Theobald

1983-01-01

433

Electrooxidation\\/electroreduction processes at composite iron hydroxide layers in carbonate-bicarbonate buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrooxidation\\/electroreduction processes at precipitated iron hydroxide layers on platinum electrodes have been studied in carbonate-bicarbonate buffers at 25°C by using electrochemical methods. The initial characteristics and properties of the hydrous iron hydroxide were changed by varying the precipitation conditions of the chemically formed active materials. Different potentialtime perturbation programs were employed to analyse the contribution of redox couples within

E. B. Castro; J. R. Vilche

1991-01-01

434

Performance of a HRP-2/pLDH based rapid diagnostic test at the Bangladesh-India-Myanmar border areas for diagnosis of clinical malaria  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) has been adopted in contemporary malaria control and management programmes around the world as it represents a fast and apt alternative for malaria diagnosis in a resource-limited setting. This study assessed the performance of a HRP-2/pLDH based RDT (Parascreen® Pan/Pf) in a laboratory setting utilizing clinical samples obtained from the field. Methods Whole blood samples were obtained from febrile patients referred for malaria diagnosis by clinicians from two different Upazila Health Complexes (UHCs) located near the Bangladesh-India and Bangladesh-Myanmar border where malaria is endemic. RDT was performed on archived samples and sensitivity and specificity evaluated with expert microscopy (EM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results A total of 327 clinical samples were made available for the study, of which 153 were Plasmodium falciparum-positive and 54 were Plasmodium vivax-positive. In comparison with EM, for P. falciparum malaria, the RDT had sensitivity: 96.0% (95% CI, 91.2-98.3) and specificity: 98.2% (95% CI, 94.6-99.5) and for P. vivax, sensitivity: 90.7% (95% CI, 78.9-96.5) and specificity: 98.9% (95% CI, 96.5-99.7). Comparison with qPCR showed, for P. falciparum malaria, sensitivity: 95.4% (95% CI, 90.5-98.0) and specificity: 98.8% (95% CI, 95.4-99.7) and for P. vivax malaria, sensitivity: 89.0% (95% CI,77.0-95.4) and specificity: 98.8% (95% CI, 96.5-99.7). Sensitivity varied according to different parasitaemia for falciparum and vivax malaria diagnosis. Conclusion Parascreen® Pan/Pf Rapid test for malaria showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity in border belt endemic areas of Bangladesh when compared with EM and qPCR. PMID:24172045

2013-01-01

435

The structure of amorphous bulk and silica-supported copper(II) hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the structure of surface hydroxocompounds is one of the most delicate areas of environmental chemistry, geochemistry, and catalysis. In nature, these compounds are formed everywhere, mostly by absorption of multicharged metal cations on different soil constitutents from water solutions. The data obtained show that at pH 7 copper(II) ions are adsorbed on a SiO{sub 2} surface as polymeric species of hydroxide nature. The structure of these species is similar to that of the bulk amorphous copper hydroxide. The amorphous state of supported Cu(OH){sub 2} is caused by a small (ca. 11 {angstrom}) size of the surface particles. In contrast, the overstoichiometric water molecules seem to act as ``amorphizers`` of the bulk copper hydroxide. The structures of the bulk and dispersed amorphous copper(II) hydroxide were determined. The amorphous Cu(OH){sub 2} has a layered structure close to the structure of the crystalline hydroxide, but the layers in the amorphous hydroxide are shifted toward one another approximately for {1/4} of the c period of the lattice.

Kriventsov, V.V.; Kochubey, D.I.; Elizarova, G.L.; Matvienko, L.G.; Parmon, V.N. [Boreskov Inst. of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [Boreskov Inst. of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1999-07-01