Sample records for double neutron star

  1. Double Neutron Star Systems and Natal Neutron Star Kicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Fryer; Vassiliki Kalogera

    1997-01-01

    We study the four double neutron star systems found in the Galactic disk in terms of the orbital characteristics of their immediate progenitors and the natal kicks imparted to neutron stars. Analysis of the effect of the second supernova explosion on the orbital dynamics, combined with recent results from simulations of rapid accretion onto neutron stars, lead us to conclude

  2. Double Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for LIGO

    E-print Network

    Chang-Hwan Lee; Gerald E. Brown

    2005-10-13

    Double neutrons are especially important because they give most accurate informations on the masses of neutron stars. Observations on double neutron stars show that all masses of the neutron stars are below 1.5$\\msun$. Furthermore, two neutron stars in a given double pulsar are nearly equal in mass. With hypercritical accretion, we found that the probability of having companion mass $>1.5\\msun$ is larger than 90%, while there is no observations on such systems. We believe that those companions with masses higher than $1.5\\msun$ went into black holes, which is consistent with our preferred maximum neutron star mass $M_{NS}^{max} \\approx 1.5\\msun$ due to the kaon condensation. In this work, we point out that the black-hole neutron star binaries are 10 times more dominant than double neutron star binaries. As a result, black-hole, neutron star binaries can increase the LIGO detection rate by a factor 20.

  3. Double Neutron Star Systems and Natal Neutron Star Kicks

    E-print Network

    Chris Fryer; Vassiliki Kalogera

    1997-06-03

    We study the four double neutron star systems found in the Galactic disk in terms of the orbital characteristics of their immediate progenitors and the natal kicks imparted to neutron stars. Analysis of the effect of the second supernova explosion on the orbital dynamics, combined with recent results from simulations of rapid accretion onto neutron stars lead us to conclude that the observed systems could not have been formed had the explosion been symmetric. Their formation becomes possible if kicks are imparted to the radio-pulsar companions at birth. We identify the constraints imposed on the immediate progenitors of the observed double neutron stars and calculate the ranges within which their binary characteristics (orbital separations and masses of the exploding stars) are restricted. We also study the dependence of these limits on the magnitude of the kick velocity and the time elapsed since the second explosion. For each of the double neutron stars, we derive a minimum kick magnitude required for their formation, and for the two systems in close orbits we find it to exceed 200km/s. Lower limits are also set to the center-of-mass velocities of double neutron stars, and we find them to be consistent with the current proper motion observations.

  4. Stochastic background from inspiralling double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Tania Regimbau

    2006-12-30

    We review the contribution of extra galactic inspiralling double neutron stars, to the LISA astrophysical gravitational wave foreground. Using recent fits of the star formation rate, we show that sources beyond $z_*=0.005$ contribute to a truly continuous background, which may dominate the LISA instrumental noise in the range $3 \\simeq 10^{-4}$ - $1 \\times 10^{-2}$ Hz and overwhelm the galactic WD-WD confusion noise at frequencies larger than $\

  5. THE ROLE OF HELIUM STARS IN THE FORMATION OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS N. Ivanova,1

    E-print Network

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    THE ROLE OF HELIUM STARS IN THE FORMATION OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS N. Ivanova,1 K. Belczynski,1,2 V:5 6 M with a 1.4 M neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems phase) leads to the formation of extremely short-period double neutron star systems (with Pd0:1 days

  6. Coalescence Rates of Double Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    1999-04-17

    Merger events of close double neutron stars (DNS) lie at the basis of a number of current issues in relativistic astrophysics, such as the indirect and possible direct detection of gravitational waves, the production of gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances, and the origin of r-process elements in the universe. In assessing the importance or relevance of DNS coalescence to these issues, knowledge of the rate of coalescence in our Galaxy is required. In this paper, I review the current estimates of the DNS merger rate (theoretical and empirical) and discuss new ways to obtain limits on this rate using all information available at present.

  7. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    E. P. J. van den Heuvel

    2007-04-26

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (neutron stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the neutron stars received hardly any velocity kick at birth (Pfahl et al. 2002). The masses of the second-born neutron stars in five of the six low-eccentricity double neutron stars are remarkably low (between 1.18 and 1.30 Msun). It is argued that these low-mass, low-kick neutron stars were formed by the electron-capture collapse of the degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of helium stars less massive than about 3.5 Msun, whereas the higher-mass, higher kick-velocity neutron stars were formed by the collapses of the iron cores of higher initial mass. The absence of low-velocity single young radio pulsars (Hobbs et al. 2005) is consistent with the model proposed by Podsiadlowski et al. (2004), in which the electron-capture collapse of degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores can only occur in binary systems, and not in single stars.

  8. Merger Sites of Double Neutron Stars and their Host Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Belczynski; Tomasz Bulik; Vassiliki Kalogera

    2002-04-24

    Using the StarTrack population synthesis code we analyze the formation channels possibly available to double neutron star binaries and find that they can be richer than previously thought. We identify a group of short lived, tight binaries, which do not live long enough to escape their host galaxies, despite their large center-of-mass velocities. We present our most recent results on all possible evolutionary paths leading to the formation of double neutron stars, calculate their coalescence rates, and also revisit the question of the distribution of merger sites around host galaxies. For a wide variety of binary evolution models and galaxy potentials, we find that most of neutron star mergers take place within galaxies. Our results stem from allowing for radial and common envelope evolution of helium-rich stars (testable in the future with detailed stellar-structure and hydrodynamic calculations) and indicate that double neutron star binaries may not be excluded as Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) progenitors solely on the basis of their spatial distribution around host galaxies. We also find, in contrast to Bethe & Brown (1998), that in a significant fraction of common envelope (CE) phases neutron stars do not accrete enough material to become black holes, and thus the channels involving CEs are still open for the formation of double neutron stars.

  9. The late stages of evolution of helium star-neutron star binaries and the formation of double neutron star systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols

    2003-01-01

    With a view to understanding the formation of double neutron-stars (DNS), we\\u000ainvestigate the late stages of evolution of helium stars with masses of 2.8 -\\u000a6.4 Msun in binary systems with a 1.4 Msun neutron-star companion. We found\\u000athat mass transfer from 2.8 - 3.3 Msun helium stars and from 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in\\u000avery close orbits (P_orb

  10. The Cosmic Coalescence Rates for Double Neutron Star Binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer; M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo

    2004-01-01

    We report on the newly increased event rates due to the recent discovery of the highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. Using a rigorous statistical method, we present the calculations reported by Burgay et al., which produce a coalescence rate for Galactic double neutron star (DNS) systems that is higher by a factor of 6-7 compared to estimates made prior to

  11. Stochastic background from extra-galactic double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    T. Regimbau; B. Chauvineau

    2007-07-30

    We present Monte Carlo simulations of the extra galactic population of inspiralling double neutron stars, and estimate its contribution to the astrophysical gravitational wave background, in the frequency range of ground based interferometers, corresponding to the last thousand seconds before the last stable orbit when more than 96 percent of the signal is released. We show that sources at redshift z>0.5 contribute to a truly continuous background which may be detected by correlating third generation interferometers.

  12. The Role of Helium Stars in the Formation of Double Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ivanova; K. Belczynski; V. Kalogera; F. A. Rasio; R. E. Taam

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the evolution of 60 model binary systems consisting of helium stars in the mass range of MHe=2.5-6Msolar with a 1.4 Msolar neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems. Orbital periods ranging from 0.09 to 2 days are considered, corresponding to Roche lobe overflow starting from the helium main sequence to after the

  13. The Role of Helium Stars in the Formation of Double Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    N. Ivanova; K. Belczynski; V. Kalogera; F. A. Rasio; R. E. Taam

    2003-07-13

    We have calculated the evolution of 60 model binary systems consisting of helium stars in the mass range of M_He= 2.5-6Msun with a 1.4Msun neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems.Orbital periods ranging from 0.09 to 2 days are considered, corresponding to Roche lobe overflow starting from the helium main sequence to after the ignition of carbon burning in the core. We have also examined the evolution into a common envelope phase via secular instability, delayed dynamical instability, and the consequence of matter filling the neutron star's Roche lobe. The survival of some close He-star neutron-star binaries through the last mass transfer episode (either dynamically stable or unstable mass transfer phase) leads to the formation of extremely short-period double neutron star systems (with Pstar masses (~ 2.6-3.3Msun). The existence of a short-period population of double neutron stars increases the predicted detection rate of inspiral events by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors and impacts their merger location in host galaxies and their possible role as gamma-ray burst progenitors. We use a set of population synthesis calculations and investigate the implications of the mass-transfer results for the orbital properties of DNS populations.

  14. Millisecond Pulsar Searches and Double Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    John Middleditch

    2004-05-06

    A unified strategy is developed that can be used to search for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with ~solar mass companions (including neutron star companions in double neutron star binaries [DNSBs]) belonging to both very short period binaries, and those with periods so long that they could be appropriate targets for acceleration searches, and to bridge the gap between these two extremes. In all cases, the orbits are assumed to be circular. Applications to searches for binary pulsars similar to PSR J0737-3039 are discussed. The most likely candidates for more DNSBs consist of weakly magnetized neutron stars, spinning only moderately fast, like J0737-3039A, with periods generally longer than 15 ms, though this issue is not yet settled. Because of the similarity between the MSP components of DNSBs, and the longer period MSP population specific to massive condensed or core collapsed globular clusters, as well as the uncertainties about accretion-driven spinup, doubts linger about the standard models of DNSB formation.

  15. Complex orbital dynamics of a double neutron star system revolving around a massive black hole

    E-print Network

    Grant N. Remmen; Kinwah Wu

    2013-01-14

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of hierarchical three-body systems containing a double neutron star system orbiting around a massive black hole. These systems show complex dynamical behaviour because of relativistic coupling between orbits of the neutron stars in the double neutron star system and the orbit of the double neutron star system around the black hole. The orbital motion of the neutron stars around each other drives a loop mass current, which gives rise to gravito-magnetism. Generally, gravito-magnetism involves a rotating black hole. The hierarchical three-body system that we consider is an unusual situation in which black hole rotation is not required. Using a gravito-electromagnetic formulation, we calculate the orbital precession and nutation of the double neutron star system. These precession and nutation effects are observable, thus providing probes to the spacetime around black holes as well as tests of gravito-electromagnetism in the framework of general relativity.

  16. Complex orbital dynamics of a double neutron star system revolving around a massive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmen, Grant N.; Wu, Kinwah

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of hierarchical three-body systems containing a double neutron star system orbiting around a massive black hole. These systems show complex dynamical behaviour because of relativistic coupling between orbits of the neutron stars in the double neutron star system and the orbit of the double neutron star system around the black hole. The orbital motion of the neutron stars around each other drives a loop mass current, which gives rise to gravitomagnetism. Generally, gravitomagnetism involves a rotating black hole. The hierarchical three-body system that we consider is an unusual situation in which black hole rotation is not required. Using a gravitoelectromagnetic formulation, we calculate the orbital precession and nutation of the double neutron star system. These precession and nutation effects are observable, thus providing probes to the space-time around black holes as well as tests of gravitoelectromagnetism in the framework of general relativity.

  17. Complex Orbital Dynamics of a Double Neutron Star System Revolving around a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmen, Grant; Wu, Kinwah

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of hierarchical three-body systems containing a double neutron star system orbiting around a massive black hole. These systems show complex dynamical behavior because of relativistic coupling between orbits of the neutron stars in the double neutron star system and the orbit of the double neutron star system around the black hole. The orbital motion of the neutron stars around each other drives a loop mass current, which gives rise to gravito-magnetism. Generally, gravito-magnetism involves a rotating black hole. The hierarchical three-body system that we consider is an unusual situation in which black hole rotation is not required. Using a gravito-electromagnetic formulation, we calculate the orbital precession and nutation of the double neutron star system. These precession and nutation effects are observable, thus providing probes to the spacetime around black holes as well as tests of gravito-electromagnetism in the framework of general relativity.

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON NATAL KICKS IN GALACTIC DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki, E-mail: TsingWong2012@u.northwestern.ed, E-mail: b-willems@northwestern.ed, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s{sup -1} and 190-450 km s{sup -1} (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M{sub sun} and 1.4-5.0 M{sub sun} (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s{sup -1} (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M{sub sun} (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s{sup -1}, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as {approx}1.5 M{sub sun} or as high as {approx}8 M{sub sun}. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  19. Constraints on Natal Kicks in Galactic Double Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s-1 and 190-450 km s-1 (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M sun and 1.4-5.0 M sun (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s-1 (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M sun (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s-1, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as ~1.5 M sun or as high as ~8 M sun. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  20. The late stages of evolution of helium star-neutron star binaries and the formation of double neutron star systems

    E-print Network

    J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols

    2003-06-03

    With a view to understanding the formation of double neutron-stars (DNS), we investigate the late stages of evolution of helium stars with masses of 2.8 - 6.4 Msun in binary systems with a 1.4 Msun neutron-star companion. We found that mass transfer from 2.8 - 3.3 Msun helium stars and from 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in very close orbits (P_orb > 0.25d) will end up in a common-envelope (CE) and spiral-in phase due to the development of a convective helium envelope. If the neutron star has sufficient time to complete the spiraling-in process before the core collapses, the system will produce very tight DNSs (P_orb ~ 0.01d) with a merger timescale of the order of 1 Myr or less. These systems would have important consequences for the detection rate of GWR and for the understanding of GRB progenitors. On the other hand, if the time left until the explosion is shorter than the orbital-decay timescale, the system will undergo a SN explosion during the CE phase. Helium stars with masses 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in wider orbits (P_orb > 0.25d) and those more massive than 3.8 Msun do not go through CE evolution. The remnants of these massive helium stars are DNSs with periods in the range of 0.1 - 1 d. This suggests that this range of mass includes the progenitors of the galactic DNSs with close orbits (B1913+16 and B1534+12). A minimum kick velocity of 70 km/s and 0 km/s (for B1913+16 and B1534+12, respectively) must have been imparted at the birth of the pulsar's companion. The DNSs with wider orbits (J1518+4904 and probably J1811-1736) are produced from helium star-neutron star binaries which avoid RLOF, with the helium star more massive than 2.5 Msun. For these systems the minimum kick velocities are 50 km/s and 10 km/s (for J1518+4904 and J1811-1736, respectively).

  1. Polar kicks and the spin period - eccentricity relation in double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    B. Willems; J. Andrews; V. Kalogera; K. Belczynski

    2007-10-01

    We present results of a population synthesis study aimed at examining the role of spin-kick alignment in producing a correlation between the spin period of the first-born neutron star and the orbital eccentricity of observed double neutron star binaries in the Galactic disk. We find spin-kick alignment to be compatible with the observed correlation, but not to alleviate the requirements for low kick velocities suggested in previous population synthesis studies. Our results furthermore suggest low- and high-eccentricity systems may form through two distinct formation channels distinguished by the presence or absence of a stable mass transfer phase before the formation of the second neutron star. The presence of highly eccentric systems in the observed sample of double neutron stars may furthermore support the notion that neutron stars accrete matter when moving through the envelope of a giant companion.

  2. The Cosmic Coalescence Rates for Double Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer; M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo

    2004-08-11

    This manuscript is an updated version of Kalogera et al. (2004) published in ApJ Letters to correct our calculation of the Galactic DNS in-spiral rate. The details of the original erratum submitted to ApJ Letters are given in page 6 of this manuscript. We report on the newly increased event rates due to the recent discovery of the highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737--3039 (Burgay et al. 2003). Using a rigorous statistical method, we present the calculations reported by Burgay et al., which produce a in-spiral rate for Galactic double neutron star (DNS) systems that is higher by a factor of 5-7 compared to estimates made prior to the new discovery. Our method takes into account known pulsar-survey selection effects and biases due to small-number statistics. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For the initial Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, the most probable detection rates for DNS in-spirals are one event per 10-630 yr; at 95% confidence, we obtain rates up to one per 3 yr. For the advanced LIGO detectors, the most probable rates are 10-500 events per year. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by the initial LIGO detectors to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes Multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of four binary pulsars similar to those known at present.

  3. Members of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 : neutron stars or strange stars ?

    E-print Network

    Manjari Bagchi; Jishnu Dey; Sushan Konar; Gour Bhattacharya; Mira Dey

    2008-04-29

    One interesting method of constraining the dense matter Equations of State is to measure the advancement of the periastron of the orbit of a binary radio pulsar (when it belongs to a double neutron star system). There is a great deal of interest on applicability of this procedure to the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 (A/B). Although the above method can be applied to PSR A in future within some limitations, for PSR B this method can not be applied. On the other hand, the study of genesis of PSR B might be useful in this connection and its low mass might be an indication that it could be a strange star.

  4. A New Formation Channel for Double Neutron Stars Without Recycling: Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Belczynski; Vassiliki Kalogera

    2001-01-01

    We report on a new evolutionary path leading to the formation of close double neutron stars (NSs), with the unique characteristic that none of the two NSs ever had the chance to be recycled by accretion. The existence of this channel stems from the evolution of helium-rich stars (cores of massive NS progenitors), which has been neglected in most previous

  5. The spin period - eccentricity relation of double neutron stars: evidence for weak supernova kicks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. M. Dewi; Ph. Podsiadlowski; O. R. Pols

    2005-01-01

    Double neutron stars (DNSs), binary systems consisting of a radio pulsar and\\u000aa generally undetected second neutron star (NS), have proven to be excellent\\u000alaboratories for testing the theory of general relativity. The seven systems\\u000adiscovered in our Galaxy exhibit a remarkably well-defined relation between the\\u000apulsar spin period and the orbital eccentricity. Here we show, using a simple\\u000amodel

  6. The Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron Star Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kalogera; R. Narayan; D. N. Spergel; J. H. Taylor

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the coalescence rate of close binaries with two neutron stars\\u000a(NS) and discuss the prospects for the detection of NS-NS inspiral events by\\u000aground-based gravitational-wave observatories, such as LIGO. We derive the\\u000aGalactic coalescence rate using the observed sample of close NS-NS binaries\\u000a(PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1534+12) and examine in detail each of the sources of\\u000auncertainty

  7. Double-core evolution and the formation of neutron-star binaries with compact companions

    E-print Network

    J. D. M. Dewi; Ph. Podsiadlowski; A. Sena

    2006-02-23

    We present the results of a systematic exploration of an alternative evolutionary scenario to form double neutron-star binaries, first proposed by Brown (1995), which does not involve a neutron star passing through a common envelope. In this scenario, the initial binary components have very similar masses, and both components have left the main sequence before they evolve into contact; preferably the primary has already developed a CO core. We have performed population synthesis simulations to study the formation of double neutron star binaries via this channel and to predict the orbital properties and system velocities of such systems. We obtain a merger rate for DNSs in this channel in the range of 0.1 - 12/Myr. These rates are still subject to substantial uncertainties such as the modelling of the contact phase.

  8. Constraints on Supernova Kicks from the Double Neutron Star System PSR B1913+16

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Wex; V. Kalogera; M. Kramer

    2000-01-01

    We use recent information on geodetic precession of the binary pulsar B1913+16 along with measurements of its orbital parameters and proper motion to derive new constraints on the immediate progenitor of this double neutron star system. As part of our analysis, we model the motion of the binary in the Galaxy after the second supernova explosion, and we derive constraints

  9. The Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron Star Systems

    E-print Network

    V. Kalogera; R. Narayan; D. N. Spergel; J. H. Taylor

    2001-03-21

    We estimate the coalescence rate of close binaries with two neutron stars (NS) and discuss the prospects for the detection of NS-NS inspiral events by ground-based gravitational-wave observatories, such as LIGO. We derive the Galactic coalescence rate using the observed sample of close NS-NS binaries (PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1534+12) and examine in detail each of the sources of uncertainty associated with the estimate. Specifically, we investigate (i) the dynamical evolution of NS-NS binaries in the Galactic potential and the vertical scale height of the population, (ii) the pulsar lifetimes, (iii) the effects of the faint end of the radio pulsar luminosity function and their dependence on the small number of observed objects, (iv) the beaming fraction, and (v) the extrapolation of the Galactic rate to extragalactic distances expected to be reachable by LIGO. We find that the dominant source of uncertainty is the correction factor (up to about 200) for faint (undetectable) pulsars. All other sources are much less important, each with uncertainty factors smaller than 2. Despite the relatively large uncertainty, the derived coalescence rate is approximately consistent with previously derived upper limits, and is more accurate than rates obtained from population studies. We obtain a most conservative lower limit for the LIGO II detection rate of 2 events per year. Our upper limit on the detection rate lies between 300 to more than 1000 events per year.

  10. Accretion onto neutron stars with the presence of a double layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. C.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; Darbro, W.; Sutherland, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    It is known from laboratory experiments that double layers can form in plasmas, usually in the presence of an electric current. It is argued that a double layer may be present in the accretion column of a neutron star in a binary system. It is suggested that the double layer may be the predominant deceleration mechanism for the accreting ions, especially for sources with X-ray luminosities of less than about 10 to the 37th erg/s. Previous models have involved either a collisionless shock or an assumed gradual deceleration of the accreting ions to thermalize the energy of the infalling matter.

  11. Accretion onto neutron stars with the presence of a double layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. C.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; Darbro, W.; Sutherland, P. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is known, from laboratory experiments, that double layers will form in plasmas, usually in the presence of an electric current. It is argued that a double layer may be present in the accretion column of a neutron star in a binary system. It is suggested that the double layer may be the predominant deceleration mechanism for the accreting ions, especially for sources with X-ray luminosities of less than about 10 to the 37th erg/s. Previous models have involved either a collisionless shock or an assumed gradual deceleration of the accreting ions to thermalize the energy of the infalling matter.

  12. The formation of the double neutron star pulsar J0737--3039

    E-print Network

    J. D. M. Dewi; E. P. J. van den Heuvel

    2003-12-05

    We find that the orbital period (2.4 hours), eccentricity (0.09), dipole magnetic field strength (6.9 x 10^9 Gauss) and spin period (22 ms) of the new highly relativistic double neutron star system PSR J0737-3039 can all be consistently explained if this system originated from a close helium star plus neutron star binary (HeS-NS) in which at the onset of the evolution the helium star had a mass in the range 4.0 to 6.5 M_sun and an orbital period in the range 0.1 to 0.2 days. Such systems are the post-Common-Envelope remnants of wide Be/X-ray binaries (orbital period ~ 100 to 1000 days) which consist of a normal hydrogen-rich star with a mass in the range 10 - 20 M_sun and a neutron star. The close HeS-NS progenitor system went through a phase of mass transfer by Roche-lobe overflow at a high rate lasting a few times 10^4 years; assuming Eddington-limited disk accretion onto the neutron star this star was spun up to its present rapid spin rate. At the moment of the second supernova explosion the He star had a mass in the range 2.3 to 3.3 M_sun and in order to obtain the present orbital parameters of PSR J0737-3039 a kick velocity in the range 70 - 230 km/s must have been imparted to the second neutron star at its birth.

  13. An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly relativistic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo; V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer

    2003-01-01

    The merger of close binary systems containing two neutron stars should produce a burst of gravitational waves, as predicted by the theory of general relativity. A reliable estimate of the double-neutron-star merger rate in the Galaxy is crucial in order to predict whether current gravity wave detectors will be successful in detecting such bursts. Present estimates of this rate are

  14. The spin period - eccentricity relation of double neutron stars: evidence for weak supernova kicks?

    E-print Network

    J D M Dewi; Ph Podsiadlowski; O R Pols

    2005-07-27

    Double neutron stars (DNSs), binary systems consisting of a radio pulsar and a generally undetected second neutron star (NS), have proven to be excellent laboratories for testing the theory of general relativity. The seven systems discovered in our Galaxy exhibit a remarkably well-defined relation between the pulsar spin period and the orbital eccentricity. Here we show, using a simple model where the pulsar is spun up by mass transfer from a helium-star companion, that this relation can only be produced if the second neutron star received a kick that is substantially smaller (with a velocity dispersion of less than 50 km/s) than the standard kick received by a single radio pulsar. This demonstrates that the kick mechanism depends on the evolutionary history of the NS progenitor and that the orbital parameters of DNSs are completely determined by the evolution in the preceding helium star - neutron star phase. This has important implications for estimating the rates of NS-NS mergers, one of the major potential astrophysical sources for the direct detection of gravitational waves, and for short-period gamma-ray bursts.

  15. PSR J1756-2251: a new relativistic double neutron star system

    E-print Network

    A. J. Faulkner; M. Kramer; A. G. Lyne; R. N. Manchester; M. A. McLaughlin; I. H. Stairs; G. Hobbs; A. Possenti; D. R. Lorimer; N. D'Amico; F. Camilo; M. Burgay

    2004-11-30

    We report the discovery during the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey of PSR J1756-2251, a 28.5 ms pulsar in a relativistic binary system. Subsequent timing observations showed the pulsar to have an orbital period of 7.67 hrs and an eccentricity of 0.18. They also revealed a significant advance of periastron, 2.585+/-0.002 deg./yr. Assuming this is entirely due to general relativity implies a total system mass (pulsar plus companion) of 2.574+/-0.003 solar mass. This mass and the significant orbital eccentricity suggest that this is a double neutron star system. Measurement of the gravitational redshift, gamma, and an evaluation of the Shapiro delay shape, s, indicate a low companion mass of double neutron star systems.

  16. Pulsar Timing Observations and Tests of General Relativity in Double-Neutron-Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    I. H. Stairs

    2001-05-04

    We describe the techniques used in pulsar timing observations, and show how these observations may be applied to tests of strong-field general relativity for double-neutron-star binary systems. We describe the tests of GR resulting from the PSRs B1913+16 and B1534+12 systems. For the latter pulsar, 5 "Post-Keplerian" timing parameters are measurable, including the orbital period derivative and the two Shapiro delay parameters.

  17. Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  18. An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly relativistic system.

    PubMed

    Burgay, M; D'Amico, N; Possenti, A; Manchester, R N; Lyne, A G; Joshi, B C; McLaughlin, M A; Kramer, M; Sarkissian, J M; Camilo, F; Kalogera, V; Kim, C; Lorimer, D R

    2003-12-01

    The merger of close binary systems containing two neutron stars should produce a burst of gravitational waves, as predicted by the theory of general relativity. A reliable estimate of the double-neutron-star merger rate in the Galaxy is crucial in order to predict whether current gravity wave detectors will be successful in detecting such bursts. Present estimates of this rate are rather low, because we know of only a few double-neutron-star binaries with merger times less than the age of the Universe. Here we report the discovery of a 22-ms pulsar, PSR J0737-3039, which is a member of a highly relativistic double-neutron-star binary with an orbital period of 2.4 hours. This system will merge in about 85 Myr, a time much shorter than for any other known neutron-star binary. Together with the relatively low radio luminosity of PSR J0737-3039, this timescale implies an order-of-magnitude increase in the predicted merger rate for double-neutron-star systems in our Galaxy (and in the rest of the Universe). PMID:14654834

  19. An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly relativistic system

    E-print Network

    M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo; V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer

    2003-12-02

    The merger of close binary systems containing two neutron stars should produce a burst of gravitational waves, as predicted by the theory of general relativity. A reliable estimate of the double-neutron-star merger rate in the Galaxy is crucial in order to predict whether current gravity wave detectors will be successful in detecting such bursts. Present estimates of this rate are rather low, because we know of only a few double-neutron-star binaries with merger times less than the age of the Universe. Here we report the discovery of a 22-ms pulsar, PSR J0737-3039, which is a member of a highly relativistic double-neutron-star binary with an orbital period of 2.4 hours. This system will merge in about 85 Myr, a time much shorter than for any other known neutron-star binary. Together with the relatively low radio luminosity of PSR J0737-3039, this timescale implies an order-of-magnitude increase in the predicted merger rate for double-neutron-star systems in our Galaxy (and in the rest of the Universe).

  20. On the Eccentricities and Merger Rates of Double Neutron Star Binaries and the Creation of "Double Supernovae"

    E-print Network

    H. K. Chaurasia; M. Bailes

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate that a natural consequence of an asymmetric kick imparted to neutron stars at birth is that the majority of double neutron star binaries should possess highly eccentric orbits. This leads to greatly accelerated orbital decay, due to the enormous increase in the emission of gravitational radiation at periastron as originally demonstrated by Peters (1964). A uniform distribution of kick velocities constrained to the orbital plane would result in ~24% of surviving binaries coalescing at least 10,000 times faster than an unperturbed circular system. Even if the planar kick constraint is lifted, ~6% of bound systems still coalesce this rapidly. In a non-negligible fraction of cases it may even be possible that the system could coalesce within 10 years of the final supernova, resulting in what we might term a "double supernova''. For systems resembling the progenitor of PSR J0737-3039A, this number is as high as \\~9% (in the planar kick model). Whether the kick velocity distribution extends to the range required to achieve this is still unclear. We do know that the observed population of binary pulsars has a deficit of highly eccentric systems at small orbital periods. In contrast, the long-period systems favour large eccentricities, as expected. We argue that this is because the short-period highly eccentric systems have already coalesced and are thus selected against by pulsar surveys. This effect needs to be taken into account when using the scale-factor method to estimate the coalescence rate of double neutron star binaries. We therefore assert that the coalesence rate of such binaries is underestimated by a factor of several.

  1. Neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron stars are laboratories for dense matter and gravitational physics. Observations of neutron stars from sources such as radio pulsars, low-mass X-ray binaries, X-ray bursts and thermally-emitting neutron stars are setting bounds to neutron star masses, radii, rotation rates, temperatures and ages. Mass measurements constrain the equation of state at the highest densities and set firm bounds to the highest possible density of cold matter. Radii constrain the equation of state in the vicinity of the nuclear saturation density and yield information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are in remarkable agreement with observational bounds.

  2. Possible high-energy neutrino and photon signals from gravitational wave bursts due to double neutron star mergers

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Bing

    Possible high-energy neutrino and photon signals from gravitational wave bursts due to double-breaking discovery of gravitational-wave bursts (GWBs) associated with mergers of double neutron stars (NS a massive millisecond magnetar as the merger product. Here we show that protons accelerated in the forward

  3. Observation time to first detection of double neutron star mergers by gravitational wave observatories

    E-print Network

    D. M. Coward

    2008-06-15

    We constrain the uncertainty in waiting times for detecting the first double-neutron-star (DNS) mergers by gravitational wave observatories. By accounting for the Poisson fluctuations in the rate density of DNS mergers and galaxy space density inhomogeneity in the local Universe, we define a detection `zone' as a region in a parameter space constrained by the double neutron star merger rate and two LIGO operations parameters: an observation horizon distance and science run duration. Assuming a mean rate of about 80 DNS mergers per Milky Way galaxy Myr^{-1}, we find a 1/20 chance of observing a merger by Enhanced LIGO in only 1 yr of observation. The minimum waiting time and temporal zone width for an Advanced LIGO sensitivity are much shorter and imply that there is a 95% probability of detecting a DNS merger in less than 60 days and a 1/20 chance of a first detection in about 1 day. At the 5% probability threshold for a first detection, we find that the effect of galaxy clusters on detection is smoothed out and may only influence detection rates after 5-10 years observation time.

  4. CXOU J121538.2+361921 in the galaxy NGC 4214: a double neutron star in the making?

    E-print Network

    J. Dewi

    2006-07-05

    CXOU J121538.2+361921 is the brightest X-ray source in the galaxy NGC 4214, with an X-ray luminosity of up to 0.7 x 10^39 erg/s. The observed periodicity of 3.62 hr is interpreted as the orbital period of the system. It has been suggested that the system is a low-mass helium star with a lower-mass compact companion. If this idea is correct, then CXOU J121538.2+361921 will evolve into a double neutron star, a binary consisting of a radio pulsar and another neutron star. In this study we investigate further this possibility. We find that the X-ray luminosity is consistent with super-Eddington accretion in a helium star-neutron star binary. The binary is in a state of mass transfer phase which is initiated when the helium-star donor is on the helium shell burning stage. A donor star with a current mass in the range of around 2.2 - 3.6 Msun is required to explain the observed orbital period. Helium stars in this mass range are massive enough to collapse in a supernova explosion, making CXOU J121538.2+361921 the immediate progenitor of a double neutron star.

  5. A New Formation Channel for Double Neutron Stars Without Recycling: Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    E-print Network

    K. Belczynski; V. Kalogera

    2001-02-12

    We report on a new evolutionary path leading to the formation of close double neutron stars (NS), with the unique characteristic that none of the two NS ever had the chance to be recycled by accretion. The existence of this channel stems from the evolution of helium-rich stars (cores of massive NS progenitors), which has been neglected in most previous studies of double compact object formation. We find that these non-recycled NS-NS binaries are formed from bare carbon-oxygen cores in tight orbits, with formation rates comparable to or maybe even higher than those of recycled NS-NS binaries. On the other hand, their detection probability as binary pulsars is greatly reduced (by about 1000) relative to recycled pulsars, because of their short lifetimes. We conclude that, in the context of gravitational-wave detection of NS-NS inspiral events, this new type of binaries calls for an increase of the rate estimates derived from the observed NS-NS with recycled pulsars, typically by factors of 1.5-3 or even higher.

  6. Erratum: ``The Cosmic Coalescence Rates for Double Neutron Star Binaries''(ApJ, 601, L179 [2004])

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer; M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo

    2004-01-01

    In our original Letter, we calculated the likely size of the Galactic double neutron star (DNS) population in two stages. First, we simulated the DNS distribution in the Galaxy. At this stage, in addition to storing the spatial properties and luminosities of the model pulsars, we also computed their expected dispersion measures and pulse scatter broadening times using a model

  7. Demagnified gravitational waves from cosmological double neutron stars and gravitational wave foreground cleaning around 1 Hz

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Naoki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Gravitational waves (GWs) from cosmological double neutron star binaries (NS+NS) can be significantly demagnified by the strong gravitational lensing effect, and the proposed future missions such as the Big Bang Observer or Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory might miss some of the demagnified GW signals below a detection threshold. The undetectable binaries would form a GW foreground, which might hamper detection of a very weak primordial GW signal. We discuss the outlook of this potential problem, using a simple model based on the singular isothermal sphere lens profile. Fortunately, it is expected that, for a presumable merger rate of NS+NSs, the residual foreground would be below the detection limit {omega}{sub GW,lim}{approx}10{sup -16} realized with the Big Bang Observer/Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory by correlation analysis.

  8. Demagnified GWs from Cosmological Double Neutron Stars and GW Foreground Cleaning Around 1Hz

    E-print Network

    Naoki Seto

    2009-10-26

    Gravitational waves from cosmological double neutron star binaries can be significantly demagnified by strong gravitational lensing effect, and the proposed future missions such as BBO or DECIGO might miss some of the demagnified GW signals below a detection threshold. The undetectable binaries would form a GW foreground which might hamper detection of a very weak primordial GW signal. We discuss the outlook of this potential problem, using a simple model based on the singular-isothermal-sphere lens profile. Fortunately, it is expected that, for presumable merger rate of NS+NSs, the residual foreground would be below the detection limit Omega_{GW} ~ 10^{-16} realized with BBO/DECIGO by correlation analysis.

  9. Cyg X-3: a Galactic double black hole or black hole-neutron star progenitor

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Belczynski; Tomasz Bulik; Ilya Mandel; B. S. Sathyaprakash; Andrzej Zdziarski; Joanna Mikolajewska

    2012-09-12

    There are no known double black hole (BH-BH) or black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) systems. We argue that Cyg X-3 is a very likely BH-BH or BH-NS progenitor. This Galactic X-ray binary consists of a compact object, wind-fed by a Wolf-Rayet (WR) type companion. Based on a comprehensive analysis of observational data, it was recently argued that Cyg X-3 harbors a 2-4.5 Msun BH and a 7.5-14.2 Msun WR companion. We find that the fate of such a binary leads to the prompt (13 Msun). For the low- to mid-mass range of the WR star (M_WR=7-10 Msun) Cyg X-3 is most likely (probability 70%) disrupted when WR ends up as a supernova. However, with smaller probability, it may form a wide (15%) or a close (15%) BH-NS system. The advanced LIGO/VIRGO detection rate for mergers of BH-BH systems from the Cyg X-3 formation channel is 10 per year, while it drops down to 0.1 per year for BH-NS systems. If Cyg X-3 in fact hosts a low mass BH and massive WR star, it lends additional support for the existence of BH-BH/BH-NS systems.

  10. The Probability Distribution of the Double Neutron Star Coalescence Rate and Predictions for More Detections

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Chunglee Kim; Duncan R. Lorimer

    2002-12-02

    We present an analysis method that allows us to estimate the Galactic formation of radio pulsar populations based on their observed properties and our understanding of survey selection effects. More importantly, this method allows us to assign a statistical significance to such rate estimates and calculate the allowed ranges of values at various confidence levels. Here, we apply the method to the question of the double neutron star (NS-NS) coalescence rate using the current observed sample, and we find calculate the most likely value for the total Galactic coalescence rate to lie in the range 3-22 Myr^{-1}, for different pulsar population models. The corresponding range of expected detection rates of NS--NS inspiral are (1-9)x10^{-3} yr^{-1} for the initial LIGO, and 6-50 yr^{-1} for the advanced LIGO. Based on this newly developed statistical method, we also calculate the probability distribution for the expected number of pulsars that could be observed by the Parkes Multibeam survey, when acceleration searches will alleviate the effects of Doppler smearing due to orbital motions. We suggest that the Parkes survey will probably detect 1-2 new binary pulsars like PSRs B1913+16 and/or B1534+12.

  11. Evolution of the double neutron star merging rate and the cosmological origin of gamma-ray burst sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Lipunov; K. A. Postnov; M. E. Prokhorov; I. E. Panchenko; H. E. Jorgensen

    1995-01-01

    Evolution of the coalescence rate of double neutron stars (NS) and neutron\\u000astar -- black hole (BH) binaries are computed for model galaxies with different\\u000astar formation rates. Assuming gamma-ray bursts (GRB) to originate from NS+NS\\u000aor NS+BH merging in distant galaxies, theoretical logN--logS distributions and\\u000a tests of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are calculated for the first time\\u000ataking the

  12. An Upper Limit on the Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron-Star Binaries in the Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Duncan R. Lorimer

    2000-01-01

    In the context of assessing the detectability of the coalescence of two neutron stars (NS) by currently built gravitational wave experiments, we present a way of obtaining an upper limit to the coalescence rate in the Galaxy. We consider the NS\\/NS progenitors just before the second supernova explosion. We combine the theoretical understanding of orbital dynamics at NS formation with

  13. Evolution of the double neutron star merging rate and the cosmological origin of gamma-ray burst sources

    E-print Network

    V. M. Lipunov; K. A. Postnov; M. E. Prokhorov; I. E. Panchenko

    1995-04-13

    Evolution of the coalescence rate of double neutron stars (NS) and neutron star -- black hole (BH) binaries are computed for model galaxies with different star formation rates. Assuming gamma-ray bursts (GRB) to originate from NS+NS or NS+BH merging in distant galaxies, theoretical logN--logS distributions and tests of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are calculated for the first time taking the computed merging rates into account. We use a flat cosmological model (Omega=1) with different values of the cosmological constant Lambda and under various assumptions about the star formation history in galaxies. The calculated source evolution predicts a 5-10 times increase of the source statistics at count rates 3-10 times lower than the exising BATSE sensitivity limit. The most important parameter in fitting the 2nd BATSE catalogue is the initial redshift of star formation, which is found to be z_*=2-5 depending on a poorly determined average spectral index of GRB.

  14. Double core evolution. 7: The infall of a neutron star through the envelope of its massive star companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terman, James L.; Taam, Ronald E.; Hernquist, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Binary systems with properties similar to those of high-mass X-ray binaries are evolved through the common envelope phase. Three-dimensional simulations show that the timescale of the infall phase of the neutron star depends upon the evolutionary state of its massive companion. We find that tidal torques more effectively accelerate common envelope evolution for companions in their late core helium-burning stage and that the infall phase is rapid (approximately several initial orbital periods). For less evolved companions the decay of the orbit is longer; however, once the neutron star is deeply embedded within the companion's envelope the timescale for orbital decay decreases rapidly. As the neutron star encounters the high-density region surrounding the helium core of its massive companion, the rate of energy loss from the orbit increases dramatically leading to either partial or nearly total envelope ejection. The outcome of the common envelope phase depends upon the structure of the evolved companion. In particular, it is found that the entire common envelope can be ejected by the interaction of the neutron star with a red supergiant companion in binaries with orbital periods similar to those of long-period Be X-ray binaries. For orbital periods greater than or approximately equal to 0.8-2 yr (for companions of mass 12-24 solar mass) it is likely that a binary will survive the common envelope phase. For these systems, the structure of the progenitor star is characterized by a steep density gradient above the helium core, and the common envelope phase ends with a spin up of the envelope to within 50%-60% of corotation and with a slow mass outflow. The efficiency of mass ejection is found to be approximately 30%-40%. For less evolved companions, there is insufficient energy in the orbit to unbind the common envelope and only a fraction of it is ejected. Since the timescale for orbital decay is always shorter than the mass-loss timescale from the common envelope, the two cores will likely merge to form a Thorne-Zytkow object. Implications for the origin of Cyg X-3, an X-ray source consisting of a Wolf-Rayet star and a compact companion, and for the fate of the remnant binary consisting of a helium star and a neutron star are briefly discussed.

  15. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  16. Merger rates of double neutron stars and stellar origin black holes: The Impact of Initial Conditions on Binary Evolution Predictions

    E-print Network

    de Mink, S E

    2015-01-01

    The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations and eccentricities) are indispensable input for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor 10-100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a fac...

  17. An Upper Limit on the Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron-Star Binaries in the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Duncan Lorimer

    1999-09-30

    In the context of assessing the detectability of the coalescence of two neutron stars (NS) by currently built gravitational-wave experiments, we present a way of obtaining an upper limit to the coalescence rate in the Galaxy. We consider the NS/NS progenitors just before the second supernova explosion. By combining our theoretical understanding of orbital dynamics at NS formation with methods of empirically estimating pulsar birth rates we derive an upper limit of a few mergers every 100,000 yr. Such a Galactic rate implies a possible detection by the ``enhanced'' LIGO of up to a few to ten mergers per year.

  18. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  19. Expected Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron Stars for Ground Based Interferometers

    E-print Network

    T. Regimbau; J. A. de Freitas Pacheco; A. Spallicci; S. Vincent

    2005-06-14

    In this paper we present new estimates of the coalescence rate of neutron star binaries in the local universe and we discuss its consequences for the first generations of ground based interferometers. Our approach based on both evolutionary and statistical methods gives a galactic merging rate of 1.7 10$^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$, in the range of previous estimates 10$^{-6}$ - 10$^{-4}$ yr$^{-1}$. The local rate which includes the contribution of elliptical galaxies is two times higher, in the order of 3.4 10$^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$. We predict one detection every 148 and 125 years with initial VIRGO and LIGO, and up to 6 events per year with their advanced configuration. Our recent detection rate estimates from investigations on VIRGO future improvements are quoted.

  20. ORBITAL VARIATION OF THE X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR BINARY J1537+1155

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Volkov, Igor; Pavlov, George G., E-mail: martin.durant@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: oyk100@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: pavlov@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    We observed the double neutron star binary (DNSB) containing PSR J1537+1155 (also known as B1534+12) with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. This is one of the two DNSBs detected in X-rays and the only one where a hint of variability with orbital phase was found (in the previous Chandra observation). Our follow-up observation supports the earlier result: the distribution of photon arrival times with orbital phase again shows a deficit around apastron. The significance of the deficit in the combined data set exceeds 99%. Such an orbital light curve suggests that the X-ray emission is seen only when neutron star (NS) B passes through the equatorial pulsar wind of NS A. We describe statistical tests that we used to determine the significance of the deficit, and conclusions that can be drawn from its existence, such as interaction of the pulsar wind with the NS companion. We also provide better constrained spectral model parameters obtained from the joint spectral fits to the data from both observations. A power law successfully fits the data, with best-fit photon index {Gamma} = 3.1 {+-} 0.4 and unabsorbed flux f = (3.2 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (0.3-8 keV range).

  1. Introduction to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  2. Neutron star models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Bowers, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of neutron star structure calculations is reviewed. Uncertainties in the equation of state for matter at and above nuclear density remain. The role of the delta resonance, pion condensates, and quark matter is reviewed. It is found that recent models yield stable neutron star masses which are consistent with observational estimates.

  3. Hyperons in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tetsuya; Saito, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    Using the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of 2.08M?, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  4. The Double Star mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. X. Liu; C. P. Escoubet; Z. Pu; H. Laakso; J. K. Shi; C. Shen; M. Hapgood

    2005-01-01

    The Double Star Programme (DSP) was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances

  5. Possible High-Energy Neutrino and Photon Signals from Gravitational Wave Bursts due to Double Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2013-01-01

    As the technology of gravitational-wave and neutrino detectors becomes increasingly mature, a multi-messenger era of astronomy is ushered in. Advanced gravitational wave detectors are close to making a ground-breaking discovery of gravitational wave bursts (GWBs) associated with mergers of double neutron stars (NS-NS). It is essential to study the possible electromagnetic (EM) and neutrino emission counterparts of these GWBs. Recent observations and numerical simulations suggest that at least a fraction of NS-NS mergers may leave behind a massive millisecond magnetar as the merger product. Here we show that protons accelerated in the forward shock powered by a magnetar wind pushing the ejecta launched during the merger process would interact with photons generated in the dissipating magnetar wind and emit high energy neutrinos and photons. We estimate the typical energy and fluence of the neutrinos from such a scenario. We find that $\\sim$PeV neutrinos could be emitted from the shock front as long as the ejec...

  6. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  7. Strangeness in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Weber, F; Negreiros, R P; Rosenfield, P; Weber, Fridolin; Ho, Alexander; Negreiros, Rodrigo P.; Rosenfield, Philip

    2006-01-01

    It is generally agreed on that the tremendous densities reached in the centers of neutron stars provide a high-pressure environment in which several intriguing particles processes may compete with each other. These range from the generation of hyperons to quark deconfinement to the formation of kaon condensates and H-matter. There are theoretical suggestions of even more exotic processes inside neutron stars, such as the formation of absolutely stable strange quark matter. In the latter event, neutron stars would be largely composed of strange quark matter possibly enveloped in a thin nuclear crust. This paper gives a brief overview of these striking physical possibilities with an emphasis on the role played by strangeness in neutron star matter, which constitutes compressed baryonic matter at ultra-high baryon number density but low temperature which is no accessible to relativistic heavy ion collision experiments.

  8. Strangeness in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Weber, F

    2001-01-01

    It is generally agreed on that the tremendous densities reached in the centers of neutron stars provide a high-pressure environment in which numerous novel particles processes are likely to compete with each other. These processes range from the generation of hyperons to quark deconfinement to the formation of kaon condensates and H-matter. There are theoretical suggestions of even more exotic processes inside neutron stars, such as the formation of absolutely stable strange quark matter, a configuration of matter even more stable than the most stable atomic nucleus, iron. In the latter event, neutron stars would be largely composed of pure quark matter, eventually enveloped in a thin nuclear crust. No matter which physical processes are actually realized inside neutron stars, each one leads to fingerprints, some more pronounced than others though, in the observable stellar quantities. This feature combined with the unprecedented progress in observational astronomy, which allows us to see vistas with remarkab...

  9. Matter accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.

    1981-09-01

    Some of the fundamental neutron star parameters, such as the mass and the magnetic field strength, were experimentally determined in accreting neutron star systems. Some of the relevant data and the models used to derive useful information from them, are reviewed concentrating mainly on X-ray pulsars. The latest advances in our understanding of the radiation mechanisms and the transfer in the strongly magnetized polar cap regions are discussed.

  10. The Violent Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Neutron stars enable us to study both the highest densities and the highest magnetic fields in the known Universe. In this article I review what can be learned about such fundamental physics using magnetar bursts. Both the instability mechanisms that trigger the bursts, and the subsequent dynamical and radiative response of the star, can be used to explore stellar and magnetospheric structure and composition.

  11. The Probability Distribution of Binary Pulsar Coalescence Rates. I. Double Neutron Star Systems in the Galactic Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kim; V. Kalogera; D. R. Lorimer

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of the Galactic coalescence rate (R) of close binaries with two neutron stars (NS-NS) are known to be uncertain by large factors (about 2 orders of magnitude) mainly because of the small number of systems detected as binary radio pulsars. We present an analysis method that allows us to estimate the Galactic NS-NS coalescence rate using the current observed

  12. Neutron rich nuclei and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz

    2013-03-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  13. Neutron rich nuclei and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, C J

    2013-01-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  14. Neutron Rich Nuclei and Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-09-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  15. $??$ Interaction and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Yeunhwan Lim; Chang Ho Hyun; Kyujin Kwak; Chang-Hwan Lee

    2014-12-18

    We investigate the effect of the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interactions on the bulk properties of neutron star (NS). We employ a few Skyrme-type models and a finite-range force model in order to describe the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions for the nuclear matter of NS. With the model parameters that reproduce the binding energies of the double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we calculate the equation of state (EoS) for the matter of NS self-consistently. By solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation with the new EoS, we find that the bulk properties of NS, such as mass and radius, strongly depend on the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions. It has been generally known (as "hyperonization puzzle") that the existence of hyperons in NS matter is not well supported by the recent discovery of the high mass NS ($M_{NS} \\approx 2 M_\\odot$) because hyperons make the EoS soft. However, we find that some of our NS models can predict both the existence of the $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$ NS and the observationally constrained mass-radius relations. Our results indicate that the $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ interactions could provide a clue to this puzzle.

  16. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  17. The Neutron Star Zoo

    E-print Network

    Harding, Alice K

    2013-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.

  18. Radius of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.; Riffert, H.

    1987-12-01

    Consideration is given to recent calculations of general relativistic effects in the beaming, spectrum, and pulse properties of accreting neutron stars. Some possible models for X-ray pulsars and QPOs are analyzed, which indicate that current observational and theoretical requirements can be explained with a value of the radius smaller than about two Schwarzschild radii. Concurrent information and calculations on several X-ray burster sources are compatible with this conclusion. 33 references.

  19. Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star #12;Birth of a Neutron Star & neutrinos. The birth temperature of a neutron star is ~5×1011 K, but neutrino emission cools it to `only' 106 to 107 K. #12;Sizes of Neutron Stars Google Maps: Oahu #12;Sizes of Neutron Stars Artist

  20. Superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. N.; Shen, H. [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-02-15

    We study the {sup 1}S{sub 0} superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons in neutron star matter and neutron stars. We use the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to calculate the properties of neutron star matter. In the RMF approach, the meson-hyperon couplings are constrained by reasonable hyperon potentials that include the updated information from recent developments in hypernuclear physics. To examine the {sup 1}S{sub 0} pairing gap of {Lambda} hyperons, we employ several {Lambda}{Lambda} interactions based on the Nijmegen models and used in double-{Lambda} hypernuclei studies. It is found that the maximal pairing gap obtained is a few tenths of a MeV. The magnitude and the density region of the pairing gap are dependent on the {Lambda}{Lambda} interaction and the treatment of neutron star matter. We calculate neutron star properties and find that whether the {sup 1}S{sub 0} superfluidity of {Lambda} hyperons exists in the core of neutron stars mainly depends on the {Lambda}{Lambda} interaction used.

  1. On Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Luiz L. Lopes; Debora P. Menezes

    2015-03-11

    In this work we review the formalism normally used in the literature about the effects of density-dependent magnetic fields on the properties of neutron stars, expose some ambiguities that arise and propose a way to solve the related problem. Our approach explores more deeply the concept of pressure, yielding the so called chaotic magnetic field formalism for the stress tensor. We also use a different way of introducing a variable magnetic field, which depends on the energy density rather than on the baryonic density, which allows us to build a parameter free model.

  2. Neutron Stars for Undergraduates

    E-print Network

    Richard R. Silbar; Sanjay Reddy

    2003-11-26

    Calculating the structure of white dwarf and neutron stars would be a suitable topic for an undergraduate thesis or an advanced special topics or independent study course. The subject is rich in many different areas of physics accessible to a junior or senior physics major, ranging from thermodynamics to quantum statistics to nuclear physics to special and general relativity. The computations for solving the coupled structure differential equations (both Newtonian and general relativistic) can be done using a symbolic computational package, such as Mathematica. In doing so, the student will develop computational skills and learn how to deal with dimensions. Along the way he or she will also have learned some of the physics of equations of state and of degenerate stars.

  3. Axion emission from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwamoto, N.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that axion emission from neutron stars is the dominant energy-loss mechanism for a range of values of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale (F) not excluded by previous constraints. This gives the possibility of obtaining a better bound on F from measurements of surface temperature of neutron stars.

  4. Grand unification of neutron stars

    PubMed Central

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  5. QCD in Neutron Stars and Strange Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Fridolin [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-1233 (United States); Negreiros, Rodrigo [FIAS, Goethe University, Ruth Moufang Str 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-05-24

    This paper provides an overview of the possible role of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) for neutron stars and strange stars. The fundamental degrees of freedom of QCD are quarks, which may exist as unconfined (color superconducting) particles in the cores of neutron stars. There is also the theoretical possibility that a significantly large number of up, down, and strange quarks may settle down in a new state of matter known as strange quark matter, which, by hypothesis, could be more stable than even the most stable atomic nucleus, {sup 56}Fe. In the latter case new classes of self-bound, color superconducting objects, ranging from strange quark nuggets to strange quark stars, should exist. The properties of such objects will be reviewed along with the possible existence of deconfined quarks in neutron stars. Implications for observational astrophysics are pointed out.

  6. The Probability Distribution of Binary Pulsar Coalescence Rates. I. Double Neutron Star Systems in the Galactic Field

    E-print Network

    C. Kim; V. Kalogera; D. R. Lorimer

    2002-10-21

    Estimates of the Galactic coalescence rate (R) of close binaries with two neutron stars (NS-NS) are known to be uncertain by large factors (about two orders of magnitude) mainly due to the small number of systems detected as binary radio pulsars. We present an analysis method that allows us to estimate the Galactic NS-NS coalescence rate using the current observed sample and, importantly, to assign a statistical significance to these estimates and to calculate the allowed ranges of values at various confidence levels. The method involves the simulation of selection effects inherent in all relevant radio pulsar surveys and a Bayesian statistical analysis for the probability distribution of the rate. The most likely values for the total Galactic coalescence rate (R_peak) lie in the range 2-60 per Myr depending on different pulsar population models. For our reference model 1, where the most likely estimates of pulsar population properties are adopted, we obtain R_tot = 8_{-5}^{+9} per Myr at a 68% statistical confidence level. The corresponding range of expected detection rates of NS-NS inspiral are 3_{-2}^{+4}x10^{-3} per yr for the initial LIGO and 18_{-11}^{+21} per yr for the advanced LIGO.

  7. Hyperon-Mixed Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuka, T.

    Hyperon mixing in neutron star matter is investigated by the G-matrix-based effective interaction approach under the attention to use the YN and the YY potentials compatible with hypernuclear data and is shown to occur at densities relevant to neutron star cores, together with discussions to clarify the mechanism of hyperon contamination. It is remarked that developed Y-mixed phase causes a dramatic softening of the neutron star equation of state and leads to the serious problem that the resulting maximum mass Mmax for neutron star model contradicts the observed neutron star mass (Mmax Mobs) the threshold densities for ? and ?- are pushed to higher density side, from ˜2?0 to ˜ 4?0 (?0 being the nuclear density). On the basis of a realistic Y-mixed neutron star model, occurrence of Y-superfluidity essential for "hyperon cooling" scenario is studied and both of ?- and ?-- superfluids are shown to be realized with their critical temperatures 108-9 K, meaning that the "hyperon cooling" is a promising candidate for a fast non-standard cooling demanded for some neutron stars with low surface temperature. A comment is given as to the consequence of less attractive ?? interaction suggested by the "NAGARA event" 6??He.

  8. EUVE Observations of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Eric J. Korpela; Stuart Bowyer

    1998-03-04

    We present the results of searches for EUV emission from neutron stars conducted with the EUVE Deep Survey and Scanner Telescopes. To date, 21 fields containing known neutron stars have been observed in the Lexan/Boron (40--190 angstrom) band. Of these, 11 fields were simultaneously observed in the Aluminum/Carbon (160-385 angstrom) band. Five neutron stars which have been detected in the EUV have been reported previously; no new detections have been made in the studies reported here. For those sources not detected, we have used the observations to obtain limits on the spectral flux from the neutron stars in these bands. We provide means to convert these fluxes into intrinsic source fluxes for black-body and power law spectra for varying levels of absorption by the interstellar medium.

  9. The Neutron Star Zoo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not clear how effective it is or on what timescale a buried field might re-emerge. One piece of evidence in favor of accretion-driven field reduction is the fact that NSs in LMXBs, which are older systems (> 108 yr), have mostly low fields and NSs in HMXBs, which are younger systems (107 - 108 yr), have higher fields. This may be an indication that accretion-driven field reduction or decay has not had enough time to operate in HMXBs but has in LMXBs. However, there does not seem to be any evidence of decaying fields in either the LMXB or HMXB populations; e.g. smaller magnetic fields in older systems. On the other hand, CCOs are very young so if they acquired their low fields through mass fallback accretion, the field submergence would have had to operate on much faster timescales than it apparently does in LMXBs. But as we continue to find new species in the NS zoo, one of these may someday be the "Rosetta Stone" that will give us the clues for solving these puzzles.

  10. The Zoo of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    S. B. Popov

    2007-01-22

    In these lecture notes I briefly discuss the present day situation and new discoveries in astrophysics of neutron stars focusing on isolated objects. The latter include soft gamma repeaters, anomalous X-ray pulsars, central compact objects in supernova remnants, the Magnificent seven, and rotating radio transients. In the last part of the paper I describe available tests of cooling curves of neutron stars and discuss different additional constraints which can help to confront theoretical calculations of cooling with observational data.

  11. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Pacini

    1999-01-01

    I briefly summarize some facts and ideas concerning the presence of neutron\\u000astars in Supernova remnants. While sources similar to the Crab Nebula require\\u000athe presence of a central energetic object, shell-type remnants such as Cas A\\u000aare compatible with the presence of neutron stars releasing a weak relativistic\\u000awind.

  12. Superfluid Hydrodynamics in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, Gregory Allen

    Superfluidity is predicted to exist in neutron stars. Superfluid effects on the dynamics of these stars have not been investigated in depth in the past. In this thesis, superfluid hydrodynamics in neutron stars is developed extensively. It is shown that superfluidity has important effects on the oscillation modes, dissipative properties, and stability of these stars. Very general hydrodynamic equations are derived which describe superfluid mixtures. The fluid equations are coupled to the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Forces due to the quantized vortices of the superfluids are also included. It is shown that new vorticity-preserving forces can be introduced into the superfluid-mixture equations. The equations are then adapted to describe neutron stars composed primarily of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and degenerate electrons and muons. The set of equations is closed by constructing a model of the total energy density and using it to express the dependent variables in terms of the independent variables. The low-frequency long-wavelength limit of the equations is determined. The results can be used to study superfluid effects on the global oscillations of neutron stars. The equations are generalized further to include dissipative effects. Most important is a form of dissipation known as mutual friction, which occurs only in superfluids. In neutron stars, mutual friction is due to electron scattering off the neutron and proton vortices. An energy functional is constructed which determines the damping time of a mode due to the various forms of dissipation, including mutual friction. Plane-wave solutions are found to the equations. Mutual friction is shown to be the dominant form of dissipation in neutron stars for sufficiently large angular velocities. Gravitational radiation tends to make all rotating stars unstable, while internal dissipation tends to counteract this instability. This, gravitational radiation can limit the maximum angular velocity of neutron stars. The most important conclusion of this thesis is that mutual friction completely suppresses the gravitational-radiation instability in rotating neutron stars cooler than the superfluid-transition temperature.

  13. The nuclear physics of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  14. Neutron Stars are Follicly Challenged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo; Pappas, George; Apostolatos, Theocharis; Kyutoku, Koutarou

    2015-04-01

    Black holes satisfy certain no-hair relations through which all multipole moments of the spacetime can be specified in terms of just a few quantities, like their mass and spin angular momentum. I will describe how neutron stars and quark stars also satisfy similar no-hair relations that are approximately independent of their equation of state. I will show how these results hold for both slowly- and rapidly-rotating stars in full General Relativity, provided the stars are uniformly rotating and uncharged. I will then explain why such relations may be relevant to observations of the pulse profile of hot spots on rotating neutron stars with NICER, as well as how they could be used to test General Relativity with binary pulsar and gravitational wave observations. I acknowledge support from the NSF CAREER Award PHY-1250636.

  15. Old and new neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. The neutron star mass distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kiziltan, Bülent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bkiziltan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ?} and 1.55 M {sub ?}, suggesting significant mass accretion (?m ? 0.22 M {sub ?}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ?2.1 M {sub ?} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ?} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  17. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. Adam; C. Naya; J. Sanchez-Guillen; R. Vazquez; A. Wereszczynski

    2015-02-26

    The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) provide an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather natural proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide excellent results as well as some new perspectives for the description of bulk properties of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is a few solar masses, the precise value depending on the precise values of the model parameters, and the resulting neutron star radius is of the order of 10 km.

  18. Coalescing binary neutron star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Alan C.; Swesty, F. Douglas; Wang, Edward Y. M.

    2001-10-01

    We present numerical studies of coalescing neutron star pairs with Newtonian hydrodynamics coupled to the 2.5 Post-Newtonian radiation reaction of Blanchet, Damour, and Schäfer [1]. Our simulations evolve the Euler equations using a modification of the ZEUS 2-D algorithm [2] and use a Fast Fourier Transformation method for solving the Poisson equation for the gravitational and radiation reaction potentials. We find that the radiation reaction produces a significant effect on a neutron star pair when compared to a purely Newtonian simulation. .

  19. Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. Piekarewicz

    2009-01-28

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between the pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the special role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the EOS of cold baryonic matter and its impact on the properties of neutron stars.

  20. Maximally incompressible neutron star matter

    E-print Network

    Timothy S. Olson

    2000-12-07

    Relativistic kinetic theory, based on the Grad method of moments as developed by Israel and Stewart, is used to model viscous and thermal dissipation in neutron star matter and determine an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars. In the context of kinetic theory, the equation of state must satisfy a set of constraints in order for the equilibrium states of the fluid to be thermodynamically stable and for perturbations from equilibrium to propagate causally via hyperbolic equations. Application of these constraints to neutron star matter restricts the stiffness of the most incompressible equation of state compatible with causality to be softer than the maximally incompressible equation of state that results from requiring the adiabatic sound speed to not exceed the speed of light. Using three equations of state based on experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and properties of light nuclei up to twice normal nuclear energy density, and the kinetic theory maximally incompressible equation of state at higher density, an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars averaging 2.64 solar masses is derived.

  1. Magnetic fields in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Daniele

    2013-09-01

    This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

  2. Holographic Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Jan de Boer; Kyriakos Papadodimas; Erik Verlinde

    2009-07-23

    We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the "Chandrasekhar limit" beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.

  3. From supernovae to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai

    2014-04-01

    Gravitational collapse, bounce, and explosion of an iron core of an 11.2 M? star are simulated by two-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic code. The explosion is driven by the neutrino heating aided by multi-dimensional hydrodynamic effects such as convection. Following the explosion phase, we continue the simulation focusing on the thermal evolution of the protoneutron star up to ˜ 70 s when the crust of the neutron star is formed, using one-dimensional simulation. We find that the crust forms at a high-density region (? ˜ 1014 g cm-3) and it proceeds from inside to outside. This is the first self-consistent simulation that successfully follows from the collapse phase to the protoneutron star cooling phase based on multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation.

  4. William Doberck - double star astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKeown, P. Kevin

    2007-03-01

    We outline the role of astronomy in the career of William Doberck (1852-1941). After taking a PhD in astronomy at the University of Jena in 1873, he accepted a position as superintendent of Markree Observatory in the west of Ireland. There he refurbished the great 13-inch refractor and spent nine years observing mostly double star systems, paying only such attention to meteorological monitoring as was required of his position. In 1883 he became the founding Director of a new observatory in Hong Kong, a post which he held for 24 years. His frustrations in attempting to continue his purely astronomical work, not assuaged by his combative and prickly personality, and in the face of the strictly practical demands of that mercantile society for comprehensive storm forecasting, are described. Finally, his observations in retirement in England, and his overall contribution to astronomy, are summarised.

  5. The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. Piekarewicz

    2008-02-27

    A remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called Schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. As such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. After discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, I will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter.

  6. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick; Kaluzienski, Lou (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The grant provided funds for a conference entitled 'Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants' held in Boston on 14-17 August 2001, in part to support invited speakers and students attending the meeting. The conference was completed on the specified dates and was a considerable success, attracting over 100 scientists from around the world. The conference included talks and papers on the most recent work in this field, including results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, the Very Large Array, and many other facilities. Theoretical work based on the latest results was also highlighted. The Proceedings of the conference have now been published as 'Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants'. In addition, a large fraction of the papers from the conference have been submitted to astro-ph, and the volume in indexed through the Astronomical Data System.

  7. Energy of neutron-star matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Moszkowski

    1974-01-01

    It is generally believed that the interior of some neutron stars is dense enough that the neutron-star matter (NSM) contains not only neutrons, but also protons, electrons, and various hyperons. In the present paper we calculate the effect of some hyperons on the composition and energy of the NSM. We calculate the energy per baryon and the fractions of the

  8. Properties of neutron star critical collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    Critical phenomena in gravitational collapse opened a new mathematical vista into the theory of general relativity and may ultimately entail fundamental physical implication in the astrophysical realm, especially in gravitational collapse scenarios. However, at present, the dynamics of critical phenomena in realistic astrophysical gravitational collapse scenarios are still largely unknown. My thesis seeks to understand the properties of the neutron star critical solution, understand the properties of the threshold in the solution space of the Einstein field equations between the black hole and a neutron star phases, and clarify the implication these results on realistic astrophysical scenarios. We develop a new set of neutron star-like initial data to establish the universality of the neutron star critical solution and analyze the structure of neutron star and neutron star-like critical collapses via the framework of phase spaces. We also study the different time scales involved in the neutron star critical solution and analyze the properties of the critical index via comparisons between neutron star and neutron star-like initial data. Finally, we explore the boundary of the attraction basin of the neutron star critical solution and its transition to a known set of non-critical fixed points.

  9. Direct Detection of Gravity Waves from Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Redouane Al Fakir; William G. Unruh

    2008-05-24

    In light of the discovery of the first-ever double pulsar system, PSR J0737-3039, we re-examine an earlier proposal to directly detect gravity waves from neutron stars, which was predicated on a hypothetical system almost identical to the later discovered double pulsar. We re-derive the effect in more detail, and confirm the initial estimate--sometimes doubted in the literature--that it includes a 1/b dependence, where b is the impact parameter of a pulsar with respect to its foreground, gravity-wave emitting, neutron star companion. A coherent modulation in pulsar time-of-arrival measurements of 10 nano-sec/sec is possible. A one-year intermittent experiment on an instrument comparable to the SKA could thus detect the exceedingly faint gravity waves from individual neutron stars.

  10. Antikaon condensation in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Subrata Pal; Debades Bandyopadhyay; Walter Greiner

    2000-03-08

    We investigate the condensation of charged $K^-$ meson and neutral $\\bar K^0$ meson in dense neutron star matter. Calculations are performed in relativistic mean field models in which both the baryon-baryon and (anti)kaon-baryon interactions are mediated by meson exchange. It is found that $\\bar K^0$ condensation is quite sensitive to the antikaon optical potential and depends more strongly on the nucleonic equation of state. For moderate values of antikaon potential and a rather stiff equation of state, a significant region of maximum mass star will contain $\\bar K^0$ meson. The critical density of $\\bar K^0$ condensation is always higher than that of $K^-$ condensation. With the appearance of $K^-$ and $\\bar K^0$ condensates, pairs of $p-K^-$ and $n-\\bar K^0$ are produced with equal proportion leading to a perfectly symmetric matter of nucleons and antikaons in neutron stars. Along with $K^-$ condensate, $\\bar K^0$ condensate makes the equation of state much softer resulting in smaller maximum mass stars compared to the case without any condensate.

  11. Neutron stars as cosmic hadron physics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive observations of Her-1 with the Exosat satellite have led to a new understanding of both the dynamics of neutron-star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars. Detailed microscopic calculations on neutron matter and the properties of the pinned crustal superfluid are provided to serve as a basis for comparing theory with observation on neutron stars. Topics discussed include the Hadron matter equation of state, neutron star structure, Hadron superfluids, the vortex creep theory, Vela pulsar glitches, astrophysical constraints on neutron matter energy gaps, the 35 day periodicity of Her-1, and the neutron matter equation of state. It is concluded that since the post-glitch fits and the identification of the 35th periodicity in Her X-1 as stellar wobble require a rigid neutron matter equation of state, the astrophysical evidence for such an equation seems strong, as well as that for an intermediate Delta(rho) curve.

  12. The HST contribution to neutron star astronomy

    E-print Network

    R. P. Mignani

    2007-10-29

    While isolated neutron stars (INSs) are among the brightest gamma-ray sources, they are among the faintest ones in the optical, and their study is a challenging task which require the most powerful telescopes. HST has lead neutron star optical astronomy yielding nearly all the identifications achieved since the early 1990s. Here, the major HST contributions in the optical studies of INSs and their relevance for neutron stars' astronomy are reviewed.

  13. Neutron rich matter, neutron stars, and their crusts

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Neutron rich matter is at the heart of many fundamental questions in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. What are the high density phases of QCD? Where did the chemical elements come from? What is the structure of many compact and energetic objects in the heavens, and what determines their electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational-wave radiations? Moreover, neutron rich matter is being studied with an extraordinary variety of new tools such as Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We describe the Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) that is using parity violation to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. This has important implications for neutron stars and their crusts. Using large scale molecular dynamics, we model the formation of solids in both white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find neutron star crust to be the strongest material known, some 10 billion times stronger than steel. It can support mountains on rotating neutron stars large enough to...

  14. Burst Oscillations: Watching Neutron Stars Spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2010-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the first detection of rotationally modulated emission from X-ray bursting neutron stars, "burst oscillations," This phenomenon enables us to see neutron stars spin, as the X-ray burst flux asymmetrically lights up the surface. It has enabled a new way to probe the neutron star spin frequency distribution, as well as to elucidate the multidimensional nature of nuclear burning on neutron stars. I will review our current observational understanding of the phenomenon, with an eye toward highlighting some of the interesting remaining puzzles, of which there is no shortage.

  15. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  16. Neutron drip transition in accreting and nonaccreting neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, N.; Fantina, A. F.; Zdunik, J. L.; Haensel, P.

    2015-05-01

    The neutron drip transition in the dense matter constituting the interior of neutron stars generally refers to the appearance of unbound neutrons as the matter density reaches some threshold density ?drip. This transition has been mainly studied under the cold catalyzed matter hypothesis. However, this assumption is unrealistic for accreting neutron stars. After examining the physical processes that are thought to be allowed in both accreting and nonaccreting neutron stars, suitable conditions for the onset of neutron drip are derived and general analytical expressions for the neutron drip density and pressure are obtained. Moreover, we show that the neutron drip transition occurs at lower density and pressure than those predicted within the mean-nucleus approximation. This transition is studied numerically for various initial composition of the ashes from x-ray bursts and superbursts using microscopic nuclear mass models.

  17. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  18. Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

  19. Neutron Stars in Rastall Gravity

    E-print Network

    Oliveira, A M; Fabris, J C; Casarini, L

    2015-01-01

    We calculate static and spherically symmetric solutions for the Rastall modification of gravity to describe Neutron Stars (NS). The key feature of the Rastall gravity is the non-conservation of the energy-momentum tensor proportionally to the space-time curvature. Using realistic equations of state for the NS interior we place a bound on the non-GR behaviour of the Rastall theory which should be $\\lesssim 0.1\\%$ level. This work presents the more stringent contraints on the deviations of GR caused by the Rastall proposal.

  20. A New Double Star in Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    A new double star has been found in Cepheus, at 21:55:22.8 +65:01:40.8, J2000. A measurement made with the Aladin tool1 of the new double gives 15.6 arc seconds of separation and a position angle of 27°. The APASS2 visual magnitudes, as reported by the UCAC43 are 11.1 and 11.35. Historical data from the stars are listed, as are distance estimates to the pair.

  1. Double Planet Meets Triple Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    High-Resolution VLT Image of Pluto Event on July 20, 2002 A rare celestial phenomenon involving the distant planet Pluto has occurred twice within the past month. Seen from the Earth, this planet moved in front of two different stars on July 20 and August 21, respectively, providing observers at various observatories in South America and in the Pacific area with a long awaited and most welcome opportunity to learn more about the tenuous atmosphere of that cold planet. On the first date, a series of very sharp images of a small sky field with Pluto and the star was obtained with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics (AO) camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. With a diameter of about 2300 km, Pluto is about six times smaller than the Earth. Like our own planet, it possesses a relatively large moon, Charon , measuring 1200 km across and circling Pluto at a distance of about 19,600 km once every 6.4 days. In fact, because of the similarity of the two bodies, the Pluto-Charon system is often referred to as a double planet . At the current distance of nearly 4,500 million km from the Earth, Pluto's disk subtends a very small angle in the sky, 0.107 arcsec. It is therefore very seldom that Pluto - during its orbital motion - passes exactly in front of a comparatively bright star. Such events are known as "occultations" , and it is difficult to predict exactly when and where on the Earth's surface they are visible. Stellar occultations When Pluto moves in front of a star, it casts a "shadow" on the Earth's surface within which an observer cannot see the star, much like the Earth's Moon hides the Sun during a total solar eclipse. During the occultation event, Pluto's "shadow" also moves across the Earth's surface. The width of this shadow is equal to Pluto's diameter, i.e. about 2300 km. One such occultation event was observed in 1988, and two others were expected to occur in 2002, according to predictions published in 2000 by American astronomers Steve W. McDonald and James L. Elliot (Massachussetts Institute of Technology [MIT], Cambridge, USA). Further refinements provided by other observers later showed that the first event would be visible from South America on July 20, 2002 , while a second one on August 21 was expected to be observable in the Pacific basin, from the western coast of North America down to Hawaii and New Zealand. A stellar occultation provides a useful opportunity to study the planetary atmosphere, by means of accurate photometric measurements of the dimming of the stellar light, as the planet moves in front of the star. The observed variation of the light intensity and colour provides crucial information about the structure (atmospheric layers) and composition of different gases and aerosols. More information is available in the Appendix below. The July 20 occultation ESO PR Photo 21a/02 ESO PR Photo 21a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 477 pix - 65k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 953 pix - 224k] Caption : PR Photo 21c/02 shows the path of Pluto's shadow (grey region) during the July 20, 2002 occultation. The shadow has a diameter of about 2300 km and moves from right to left; the timings along the central line are indicated in one-minute intervals (Universal Time - UT). The width of the gray area corresponds to the regions where more than 50% of the light from the star P126 A was attenuated by Pluto's atmosphere. The dotted lines indicate where the stellar flux was attenuated by more than 10%. The maximum duration of the occultation (for observers located at the middle of the shadow track) was about 3 min. The plot is based on astrometric measurements posted at the MIT site. Once completely analyzed, the VLT NACO images will provide significantly better accuracy on the location of this track and therefore a solid basis for the interpretation of the photometric observations obtained with other telescopes. In order to profit from the rare opportunity to learn more about Pluto and its atmosphere, a large campaign involving more than twenty scientists a

  2. Nonstandard thermal evolution of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1994-01-01

    A neutron star may cool much faster than through the 'standard' scenario. Here we calculate thermal evolution of neutron stars through various 'nonstandard' fast cooling scenarios, and the results are compared with the currently up-dated observational data. We discuss the possibility of distinguishing between the standard and various, different nonstandard scenarios, through the current and future X-ray satellite observations.

  3. Rotating Neutron Stars, Pulsars and Supernova Remnants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pacini

    1968-01-01

    I SHALL discuss here some problems connected with theories linking the pulsars to the rotation of neutron stars (ref. 1 and a preprint by L. Woltjer). Because neutron stars can be formed during a supernova explosion, their rotation could be coupled with the surrounding gaseous remnant2,3: the following considerations will therefore also refer to the problem of the activity observed

  4. Star products, duality and double Lie algebras

    E-print Network

    Olga V. Man'ko; Vladimir I. Man'ko; Giuseppe Marmo; Patrizia Vitale

    2006-09-06

    Quantization of classical systems using the star-product of symbols of observables is discussed. In the star-product scheme an analysis of dual structures is performed and a physical interpretation is proposed. At the Lie algebra level duality is shown to be connected to double Lie algebras. The analysis is specified to quantum tomography. The classical tomographic Poisson bracket is found.

  5. Thermonuclear runaways on neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thermonuclear runaways which develop when neutron stars of 0.476 solar masses accrete hydrogen-rich material at 10 to the -10th and 2 x 10 to the -9th solar masses/year have been followed using a numerical model. It is found that a thermal instability occurs at densities in excess of 10 to the 5th g/cu cm and that the maximum accumulated mass required to initiate the runaway is 0.7 x 10 to the -12th and 2.1 x 10 to the -12th solar masses for the mass accretion rates of 10 to the -10th and 2 x 10 to the -9th solar masses/year, respectively. Heating the of the neutron star envelope by hydrogen burning leads to the ignition of helium. The nonequilibrium burning of helium by a combination of (alpha, p), (p, gamma), and (alpha, gamma) reactions involving O-14, O-15, and other heavy nuclei provides the energy for an X-ray burst. The gross properties of these models bear suggestive resemblance to those observed for some X-ray burst sources.

  6. Birth accelerations of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Heras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that neutron stars experienced at birth three related physical changes, which may originate in magneto-rotational instabilities: (i) an increase in period from the initial value P_0 to the current value P_s, implying a change of rotational energy \\Delta E_rot; (ii) an exponential decay of its magnetic field from the initial value B_0 to the current surface value B_s, implying a change of radiative energy \\Delta E_rad; and (iii) an increase of space velocity from the initial value v_0 to the current value v, implying a change of kinetic energy \\Delta E_kin. These changes are assumed to be connected by \\Delta E_rad + \\Delta E_kin =\\Delta E_rot. This means that the radiation loss and increase of kinetic energy are both at the expense of a rotational energy loss. It is shown that this energy conversion occurs during times of order of 10^(-4) s if the neutron stars are born with magnetic fields in the range of 10^(15)-10^(16) G and initial periods in range 1-20 ms. It is shown that the birth acceleratio...

  7. USNO Double Star CD 2004.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkopf, W. I.; Mason, B. D.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory will produce its second CDROM of double star catalogs, with publication expected in early spring of 2004. This successor to the 2001.0 CDROM will include four major double star catalogs maintained at the USNO: \\begin{enumerate} Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), Second Photometric Magnitude Difference Catalog, Fourth Catalog of Interferometric Measurements of Binary Stars, and Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. Each of these catalogs had seen significant changes during the part three years; for example, the WDS has grown by over 40,000 measures and the number of systems in the Interferometric Catalog has nearly doubled. Other improvements include precise coordinates for the vast majority of systems, as well as new observing lists and finding charts for tens of thousands of ``neglected" doubles. Two new catalogs will be included on this CDROM as well: \\begin{enumerate} \\setcounter{enumi}{4} A Catalog of Linear Elements for several hundred optical pairs. These elements should prove useful for improving the components' proper motions, as well as providing scale calibration out to several tens of arcseconds. A sample version of the Washington Multiplicity Catalog. The WMC is an effort to address confusion in double star nomenclature by compiling a single catalog of all types of stellar multiples, from interacting systems to star + planet systems, and giving consistent designations to all components. This sample WMCcontains systems found in a half-hour RA band, and was created to elicit suggestions on catalog contents and format. As with its predecessor, the new CDROM will automatically be distributed free of charge to members of the double star community and to astronomy libraries. Others may receive a complementary copy upon request.

  8. Electron-neutron scattering and transport properties of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Bridget Bertoni; Sanjay Reddy; Ermal Rrapaj

    2014-09-27

    We show that electrons can couple to the neutron excitations in neutron stars and find that this can limit their contribution to the transport properties of dense matter, especially the shear viscosity. The coupling between electrons and neutrons is induced by protons in the core, and by ions in the crust. We calculate the effective electron-neutron interaction for the kinematics of relevance to the scattering of degenerate electrons at high density. We use this interaction to calculate the electron thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and shear viscosity in the neutron star inner crust, and in the core where we consider both normal and superfluid phases of neutron-rich matter. In some cases, particularly when protons are superconducting and neutrons are in their normal phase, we find that electron-neutron scattering can be more important than the other scattering mechanisms considered previously.

  9. Superfluid dynamics in neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    C. J. Pethick; N. Chamel; S. Reddy

    2010-09-13

    A simple description of superfluid hydrodynamics in the inner crust of a neutron star is given. Particular attention is paid to the effect of the lattice of nuclei on the properties of the superfluid neutrons, and the effects of entrainment, the fact that some fraction of the neutrons are locked to the motion of the protons in nuclei.

  10. Collective excitations in neutron-star crusts

    E-print Network

    N. Chamel; D. Page; S. Reddy

    2013-10-15

    We explore the spectrum of low-energy collective excitations in the crust of a neutron star, especially in the inner region where neutron-proton clusters are immersed in a sea of superfluid neutrons. The speeds of the different modes are calculated systematically from the nuclear energy density functional theory using a Skyrme functional fitted to essentially all experimental atomic mass data.

  11. Can neutron stars constrain dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Tinyakov, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Because of their strong gravitational field, neutron stars capture weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs) more efficiently compared to other stars, including the white dwarfs. Once captured, the WIMPs sink to the neutron star center and annihilate, heating the star. We find that this heat could lead to detectable effects on the surface temperature of old neutron stars, especially those in dark-matter-rich regions such as the Galactic center or cores of globular clusters. The capture and annihilation is fully efficient even for WIMP-to-nucleon cross sections (elastic or inelastic) as low as ˜10-45cm2, and for the annihilation cross sections as small as ˜10-57cm2. Thus, detection of a sufficiently cold neutron star in a dark-matter-rich environment would exclude a wide range of dark matter candidates, including those with extremely small cross sections.

  12. Neutron Star Crust and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz; J. Hughto; A. Schneider; D. K. Berry

    2011-09-23

    In this book chapter we review plasma crystals in the laboratory, in the interior of white dwarf stars, and in the crust of neutron stars. We describe a molecular dynamics formalism and show results for many neutron star crust properties including phase separation upon freezing, diffusion, breaking strain, shear viscosity and dynamics response of nuclear pasta. We end with a summary and discuss open questions and challenges for the future.

  13. Relativistic light bending near neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Nollert; U. Kraus; A. Rebetzky; H. Herold; T. Maile; H. Ruder

    1989-01-01

    The deflection of light ray emitted on or near the surface of a neutron star is investigated. A picture of the star as it would appear on a screen far away from the star is computed, giving an impression of the effects of light bending. This geometrical data is combined with emission models in order to obtain frequency dependent pulse

  14. Quark Matter in Neutron Stars: An apercu

    E-print Network

    Prashanth Jaikumar; Sanjay Reddy; Andrew W. Steiner

    2006-08-16

    The existence of deconfined quark matter in the superdense interior of neutron stars is a key question that has drawn considerable attention over the past few decades. Quark matter can comprise an arbitrary fraction of the star, from 0 for a pure neutron star to 1 for a pure quark star, depending on the equation of state of matter at high density. From an astrophysical viewpoint, these two extreme cases are generally expected to manifest different observational signatures. An intermediate fraction implies a hybrid star, where the interior consists of mixed or homogeneous phases of quark and nuclear matter, depending on surface and Coulomb energy costs, as well as other finite size and screening effects. In this brief review article, we discuss what we can deduce about quark matter in neutron stars in light of recent exciting developments in neutron star observations. We state the theoretical ideas underlying the equation of state of dense quark matter, including color superconducting quark matter. We also highlight recent advances stemming from re-examination of an old paradigm for the surface structure of quark stars and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios from neutron stars to quark stars, with emphasis on astrophysical observations.

  15. Parity Violating Measurements of Neutron Densities:. Implications for Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2002-06-01

    Parity violating electron scattering can measure the neutron density of a heavy nucleus accurately and model independently. This is because the weak charge of the neutron is much larger then that of the proton. The Parity Radius Experiment (PREX) at Jefferson Laboratory aims to measure the root mean square neutron radius of 208Pb with an absolute accuracy of 1% (±0.05 Fm). This is more accurate then past measurements with hadronic probes, which all suffer from controversial strong interaction uncertainties. PREX should clearly resolve the neutron-rich skin. Furthermore, this benchmark value for 208Pb will provide a calibration for hadronic probes, such as proton scattering, which can then be used to measure neutron densities of many exotic nuclei. The PREX result will also have many implications for neutron stars. The neutron radius of Pb depends on the pressure of neutron-rich matter: the greater the pressure, the larger the radius as neutrons are pushed out against surface tension. The same pressure supports a neutron star against gravity. The Pb radius is sensitive to the equation of state at normal densities while the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star also depends on the equation of state at higher densities. Measurements of the radii of a number of isolated neutron stars such as Geminga and RX J185635-3754 should soon improve significantly. By comparing the equation of state information from the radii of both Pb and neutron stars one can search for a softening of the high density equation of state from a phase transition to an exotic state. Possibilities include kaon condensates, strange quark matter or color superconductors.

  16. The Maximum Mass of a Neutron Star

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Gordon Baym

    1996-08-11

    Observational identification of black holes as members of binary systems requires the knowledge of the upper limit on the gravitational mass of a neutron star. We use modern equations of state for neutron star matter, fitted to experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and the properties of light nuclei, to calculate, within the framework of Rhoades & Ruffini (1974), the minimum upper limit on a neutron star mass. Regarding the equation of state as valid up to twice nuclear matter saturation density, rho_{nm}, we obtain a secure upper bound on the neutron star mass equal to 2.9 solar masses. We also find that in order to reach the lowest possible upper bound of 2.2 solar masses, we need understand the physical properties of neutron matter up to a density of about 4 times rho_{nm}.

  17. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Matthias Kaminski; Christoph F. Uhlemann; Marcus Bleicher; Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich

    2014-10-14

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to $1000$ km/s. We discuss possible mechanisms contributing to these kicks in a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Anomalies of the underlying microscopic theory result in chiral transport terms in the hydrodynamic description, and we identify these as explanation for the drastic acceleration. In the presence of vorticity or a magnetic field, the chiral transport effects cause neutrino emission along the respective axes. In typical scenarios, the transport effect due to the magnetic field turns out to be strong enough to explain the kicks. Mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies enter in a distinct way, and we also discuss their implications.

  18. The many lives of magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna , R.; Pons, J. A.; Viganò, D.; Rea, N.

    2014-09-01

    The magnetic field strength at birth is arguably one of the most important properties to determine the evolutionary path of a neutron star. Objects with very high fields, collectively known as magnetars, are characterized by high X-ray quiescent luminosities, occurrence of outbursts, and, for some of them, sporadic giant flares. While the magnetic field strength is believed to drive their collective behaviour, however, the diversity of their properties, and, especially, the observation of magnetar-like bursts from ``low-field'' pulsars, has been a theoretical puzzle. In this review, we discuss results of long-term simulations following the coupled evolution of the X-ray luminosity and the timing properties for a large, homogeneous sample of X-ray emitting isolated neutron stars, accounting for a range of initial magnetic field strengths, envelope compositions, and neutron star masses. In addition, by following the evolution of magnetic stresses within the neutron star crust, we can also relate the observed magnetar phenomenology to the physical properties of neutron stars, and in particular to their age and magnetic field strength and topology. The dichotomy of ``high-B'' field pulsars versus magnetars is naturally explained, and occasional outbursts from old, low B-field neutron stars are predicted. We conclude by speculating on the fate of old magnetars, and by presenting observational diagnostics of the neutron star crustal field topology.

  19. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Sulaksono

    2014-12-23

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure on properties of the neutron stars with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of anisotropic pressure on neutron star matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of anisotropic pressure model $h \\le 0.8$[1] and $\\Lambda \\le -1.15$ [2]. The radius of the corresponding neutron star at $M$=1.4 $M_\\odot$ is more than 13 km, while the effect of anisotropic pressure on the minimum mass of neutron star is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the anisotropic pressure in the neutron star, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 $M_\\odot$ cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the neutron star core.

  20. Radiative Falloff in Neutron Star Spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Vasiliki Pavlidou; Konstantinos Tassis; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-07-10

    We systematically study late-time tails of scalar waves propagating in neutron star spacetimes. We consider uniform density neutron stars, for which the background spacetime is analytic and the compaction of the star can be varied continously between the Newtonian limit 2M/R 8/9 the light travel time between the center and the maximum or the curvature potential grows without bound, so that the first peak arrives only at infinitely late time. The modes of neutron stars can therefore no longer be excited in the ultra-relativistic limit, and it is in this sense that the late-time radiative decay from neutron stars looses all its features and gives rise to power-law tails reminiscent of Schwarzschild black holes.

  1. The breaking strain of neutron star crust

    SciTech Connect

    Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horowitz, C J [INDIANA UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.

  2. Neutron rich matter, neutron stars, and their crusts

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz

    2010-08-02

    Neutron rich matter is at the heart of many fundamental questions in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. What are the high density phases of QCD? Where did the chemical elements come from? What is the structure of many compact and energetic objects in the heavens, and what determines their electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational-wave radiations? Moreover, neutron rich matter is being studied with an extraordinary variety of new tools such as Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We describe the Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) that is using parity violation to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. This has important implications for neutron stars and their crusts. Using large scale molecular dynamics, we model the formation of solids in both white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find neutron star crust to be the strongest material known, some 10 billion times stronger than steel. It can support mountains on rotating neutron stars large enough to generate detectable gravitational waves. Finally, we describe a new equation of state for supernova and neutron star merger simulations based on the Virial expansion at low densities, and large scale relativistic mean field calculations.

  3. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Supid

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes neutron stars and thermonuclear x ray bursts. The contents include: 1) Neutron Stars: why do we care?; 2) Thermonuclear Bursts: why do we care?; 3) Neutron Stars: Mass, Radius and Spin: a. Continuum Spectroscopy of Bursts b. Spectral Lines from Bursts c. Timing Properties of Bursts; 4) Neutron Star Atmosphere: Thermonuclear Flame Spreading; and 5) Future Prospects and Conclusions.

  4. Dynamical Capture Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

    2012-11-01

    We study dynamical capture binary neutron star mergers as may arise in dense stellar regions such as globular clusters. Using general-relativistic hydrodynamics, we find that these mergers can result in the prompt collapse to a black hole or in the formation of a hypermassive neutron star, depending not only on the neutron star equation of state but also on impact parameter. We also find that these mergers can produce accretion disks of up to a tenth of a solar mass and unbound ejected material of up to a few percent of a solar mass. We comment on the gravitational radiation and electromagnetic transients that these sources may produce.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of the Neutron Star Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajad, Abbar; Carlson, Joseph; Duan, Huaiyu; Reddy, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Observations of neutron star crust cooling times after extended outbursts are very sensitive to the thermal conductivity of the neutron star crust. We calculate the thermal conductivity of neutron star crust at relatively low temperatures using static structure factor S(q) obtained from Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) and one-phonon approximation. We investigate the importance of quantum effects on the static structure factor. We also compare QMC and the one-phonon approximation over a range of temperatures and show that the thermal conductivity can be calculated directly from S(q) obtained from QMC for temperatures larger than 0.3TP where TP is the plasma temperature.

  6. Gravitational waves from low mass neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Low mass neutron stars may be uniquely strong sources of gravitational waves. The neutron star crust can support large deformations for low mass stars. This is because of the star's weaker gravity. We find maximum ellipticities {epsilon} (fractional difference in moments of inertia) that are 1000 times larger, and maximum quadrupole moments Q{sub 22} over 100 times larger, for low mass stars than for 1.4M{sub {center_dot}}neutron stars. Indeed, we calculate that the crust can support an {epsilon} as large as 0.005 for a minimum mass neutron star. A 0.12M{sub {center_dot}}star, that is maximally strained and rotating at 100 Hz, will produce a characteristic gravitational wave strain of h{sub 0}=2.1x10{sup -24} at a distance of 1 kpc. The gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO should be sensitive to such objects through out the Milky Way Galaxy. A low mass neutron star could be uniquely identified from a large observed spin down rate and its discovery would have important implications for general relativity, supernova mechanisms, and possibly nucleosynthesis.

  7. Dark Matter Thermalization in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Bridget Bertoni; Ann E. Nelson; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-11-13

    We study how many-body effects alter the dark matter (DM) thermalization time inside neutron stars. We find that Pauli blocking, kinematic constraints, and superfluidity and superconductivity in the neutron star significantly affect the DM thermalization time, in general lengthening it. This could change the final DM mass and DM-nucleon cross section constraints by considering black hole formation in neutron stars due to DM accretion. We consider the class of models in which DM is an asymmetric, complex scalar particle with a mass between 1 keV and 5 GeV which couples to regular matter via some heavy vector boson. Interestingly, we find that the discovery of asymmetric, bosonic DM could motivate the existence of exotic neutron star cores. We apply our results to the case of mixed sneutrino DM.

  8. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  9. Neutron stars in Einstein-aether theory

    E-print Network

    Christopher Eling; Ted Jacobson; M. Coleman Miller

    2009-12-06

    As current and future experiments probe strong gravitational regimes around neutron stars and black holes, it is desirable to have theoretically sound alternatives to general relativity against which to test observations. Here we study the consequences of one such generalization, Einstein-aether theory, for the properties of non-rotating neutron stars. This theory has a parameter range that satisfies all current weak-field tests. We find that within this range it leads to lower maximum neutron star masses, as well as larger surface redshifts at a particular mass, for a given nuclear equation of state. For non-rotating black holes and neutron stars, the innermost stable circular orbit is only slightly modified in this theory.

  10. Direct URCA process in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattimer, James M.; Prakash, Madappa; Pethick, C. J.; Haensel, Pawel

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the direct URCA process can occur in neutron stars if the proton concentration exceeds some critical value in the range 11-15 percent. The proton concentration, which is determined by the poorly known symmetry energy of matter above nuclear density, exceeds the critical value in many current calculations. If it occurs, the direct URCA process enhances neutrino emission and neutron star cooling rates by a large factor compared to any process considered previously.

  11. Hydrodynamical evolution of coalescing binary neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of the final merging of two neutron stars and the corresponding gravitational wave emission is studied in detail. Various test calculations are presented, including the compressible Roche and Darwin problems and the head-on collision of two polytropes. A complete coalescence calculation is presented for the simplest case of two identical neutron stars, represented by Gamma = 2 polytropes, in a circular orbit, with their spins aligned and synchronized with the orbital rotation.

  12. Chandra observations of neutron stars: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Weisskopf; M. Karovska; G. G. Pavlov; V. E. Zavlin; T. Clarke

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of neutron stars. The outstanding spatial and spectral resolution of this great observatory\\u000a have allowed for observations of unprecedented clarity and accuracy. Many of these observations have provided new insights\\u000a into neutron star physics. We present an admittedly biased and overly brief review of these observations, highlighting some\\u000a new discoveries made

  13. Magnetized Neutron Stars in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropina, O. D.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the propagation of magnetized, isolated old neutron stars through the interstellar medium. We performed axisymmetric, non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the supersonic motion of neutron star with dipole magnetic field aligned with its velocity through the interstellar medium (ISM). We consider two cases: (1) where the accretion radius is larger than Alfvén radius, i.e. Racc>>RA and gravitational focusing is important; and (2) where Racc<star interacts with the ISM as a “georotator”, without significant gravitational focusing. In the first case we observe Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto an isolated magnetized neutron star. In the second case magnetic field lines are stretched downwind from the star and form a hollow elongated magnetotail. Reconnection of the magnetic field is observed in the tail which may lead to acceleration of particles.

  14. 2D Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Deborah N. Aguilera; José A. Pons; Juan A. Miralles

    2008-04-17

    Context: Many thermally emitting isolated neutron stars have magnetic fields larger than 10^13 G. A realistic cooling model that includes the presence of high magnetic fields should be reconsidered. Aims: We investigate the effects of anisotropic temperature distribution and Joule heating on the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Methods: The 2D heat transfer equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor and including all relevant neutrino emission processes is solved for realistic models of the neutron star interior and crust. Results: The presence of the magnetic field affects significantly the thermal surface distribution and the cooling history during both, the early neutrino cooling era and the late photon cooling era. Conclusions: There is a large effect of the Joule heating on the thermal evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars. Both magnetic fields and Joule heating play a key role in keeping magnetars warm for a long time. Moreover, this effect is important for intermediate field neutron stars and should be considered in radio-quiet isolated neutron stars or high magnetic field radio-pulsars.

  15. The decompression of cold neutron star matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattimer, J. M.; Mackie, F.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Schramm, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The ejection of cold neutron-star matter is examined, and an attempt is made to determine whether the final composition of this matter may be similar to that normally associated with the hot high-neutron-flux r-process. A semiempirical liquid-drop model is used for the nucleus, and the equilibrium composition of the matter is determined by assuming it to be in its absolute ground state at a given density. Physical mechanisms operating during the expansion are analyzed, and the composition of the ejected matter is found as a function of its density during expansion. The results indicate that it is virtually impossible for deuterium to form, that neutrons can be captured only after beta decay increases the atomic numbers of nuclei, and that no free neutrons can escape. It is concluded that neutron-star ejecta can produce heavy neutron-rich nuclei and may produce somewhat heavier nuclei than a standard r-process.

  16. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Evidence for a thin veil of carbon has been found on the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a ten-year mystery surrounding this object. "The compact star at the center of this famous supernova remnant has been an enigma since its discovery," said Wynn Ho of the University of Southampton and lead author of a paper that appears in the latest issue of Nature. "Now we finally understand that it can be produced by a hot neutron star with a carbon atmosphere." By analyzing Chandra's X-ray spectrum - akin to a fingerprint of energy - and applying it to theoretical models, Ho and his colleague Craig Heinke, from the University of Alberta, determined that the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, has an ultra-thin coating of carbon. This is the first time the composition of an atmosphere of an isolated neutron star has been confirmed. The Chandra "First Light" image of Cas A in 1999 revealed a previously undetected point-like source of X-rays at the center. This object was presumed to be a neutron star, the typical remnant of an exploded star, but researchers were unable to understand its properties. Defying astronomers' expectations, this object did not show any X-ray or radio pulsations or any signs of radio pulsar activity. By applying a model of a neutron star with a carbon atmosphere to this object, Ho and Heinke found that the region emitting X-rays would uniformly cover a typical neutron star. This would explain the lack of X-ray pulsations because -- like a lightbulb that shines consistently in all directions -- this neutron star would be unlikely to display any changes in its intensity as it rotates. Scientists previously have used a neutron star model with a hydrogen atmosphere giving a much smaller emission area, corresponding to a hot spot on a typical neutron star, which should produce X-ray pulsations as it rotates. Interpreting the hydrogen atmosphere model without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of stronger magnetic fields as

  17. Apsidal Motion in Double Stars. I. Catalog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Petrova; V. V. Orlov

    1999-01-01

    A catalog of 128 double stars with measured periods of apsidal motion is compiled. Besides the apsidal periods, the orbital elements of binaries and physical parameters of components (masses, radii, effective temperatures, surface gravities) are given. The agreement of the apsidal periods found by various authors is discussed.

  18. Spacecraft potential control for Double Star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Torkar; H. Arends; W. Baumjohann; C. P. Escoubet; A. Fazakerley; M. Fehringer; G. Fremuth; H. Jeszenszky; G. Laky; B. T. Narheim; W. Riedler; F. Rüdenauer; W. Steiger; K. Svenes; H. Zhao

    2005-01-01

    The spacecraft potential of Double Star TC-1 is positive in large parts of the orbits due to the photo-effect from solar EUV irradiation. These positive potentials typically disturb low energy plasma measurements on board. The potential can be reduced, and thereby the particle measurements improved, by emitting a positive ion beam. This method has successfully been applied on several other

  19. Magnetic properties in double star induction machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hammache; D. Moussaoui; K. Marouani; T. Hamdouche

    2008-01-01

    Multiphase machines are getting increasingly common in electric traction. The prediction of the losses in multiphase machine is a fundamental step for the optimization of its design. The present paper deals with an experimental study of the behavior of the losses observed in double star induction machines (DSIM). We suggest a study of the losses through the measurements of the

  20. Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, George

    1985-01-01

    Part one recounted the story of the discovery of pulsars and examined the Crab Nebula, supernovae, and neutron stars. This part (experts from the book "Frozen Star") shows how an understanding of the nature of pulsars allowed astronomers to tie these together. (JN)

  1. Which Stars Form Black Holes and Neutron Stars?

    E-print Network

    Michael P. Muno

    2006-11-18

    I describe the current state of our knowledge of the mapping between the initial masses of stars and the compact objects -- particularly neutron stars and black holes -- that they produce. Most of that knowledge is theoretical in nature, and relies on uncertain assumptions about mass loss through winds, binary mass transfer, and the amount of mass ejected during a supernovae. Observational constraints on the initial masses of stars that produce neutron stars and black holes is scarce. They fall into three general categories: (1) models of the stars that produced the supernova remnants associated with known compact objects, (2) scenarios through with high mass X-ray binaries were produced, and (3) associations between compact objects and coeval clusters of stars for which the minimum masses of stars that have undergone supernovae are known. I focus on the last category as the most promising in the near term. I describe three highly-magnetized neutron stars that have been associated with progenitors that had initial masses of $>$30\\msun, and evaluate the prospects of finding further associations between star clusters and compact objects.

  2. Goldstone modes in the neutron star core

    E-print Network

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-07-31

    We formulate a theory of Goldstone bosons and their interactions in the superfluid and superconducting phase of dense nucleonic matter at densities of relevance to the neutron star core. For typical neutron star temperatures in the range T = 10^6 to 10^9 K, the Goldstone mode associated with rotational symmetry, called angulons, couple weakly to each other and to electrons. Consequently, these modes have anomalously large mean free paths and can contribute to both diffusive and ballistic transport of heat and momentum. In contrast, the two Goldstone bosons associated with density oscillations of the neutron and electron + proton fluids, called superfluid phonons, mix and couple strongly to electrons. They have shorter mean free paths, and their contribution to transport is negligible. Long-wavelength superfluid phonons and angulons can play a role in neutron star seismology, and lead to interesting phenomenology as angulons couple to magnetic fields and have anisotropic dispersion relations.

  3. Forecasting neutron star temperatures: predictability and variability

    E-print Network

    Dany Page; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-07-17

    It is now possible to model thermal relaxation of neutron stars after bouts of accretion during which the star is heated out of equilibrium by nuclear reactions in its crust. Major uncertainties in these models can be encapsulated in modest variations of a handful of fudge parameters that change the crustal thermal conductivity, specific heat, and heating rates. Observations of thermal relaxation constrain these fudge parameters and allow us to predict longer term variability in terms of the neutron star core temperature. We demonstrate this explicitly by modeling ongoing thermal relaxation in the neutron star XTE J1701-462. Its future cooling, over the next 5 to 30 years, is strongly constrained and depends mostly on its core temperature, uncertainties in crust physics having essentially been pinned down by fitting to the first three years of observations.

  4. Measurements of Neglected Double Stars Report of September 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carro, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This article presents measurements of 25 neglected double stars. The stars were selected from the Northern List I of Neglected Double Stars published by the United States Naval Observatory. While, the photographs were obtained with a remote telescope, the astrometric reductions were done by the author. This report is part of a project to measure all of the neglected northern stars.

  5. Improved microphysics in neutron star merger simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Neutron star mergers are expected to be among the main sources of gravitational waves detectable by the Advance LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA detector network. In many cases, these mergers are also likely to power bright electromagnetic transients, including short gamma-ray bursts and ``kilonovae,'' the optical/infrared emission due to the radioactive decay of neutron rich elements in material unbound by the merger. These EM counterparts can provide important information on the environment in which the merger takes place and the nature of the binary, and their detection could shed a light on the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and of r-process elements. Numerical simulations of neutron star mergers using general relativistic codes are required to understand the merger dynamics, the impact of the equation of state of the neutron star on the gravitational wave signal, and the potential of a given binary to power electromagnetic counterparts to that signal. Until recently, however, general relativistic codes used very simple models for the neutron star - often a simple gamma-law equation of state without any additional microphysics. Although sufficient to model the gravitational wave signal before merger, this cannot be used to follow the post-merger evolution of the system, or even some aspects of the disruption of the neutron star. To do so, nuclear-theory based equations of state with temperature and composition dependence have to be used, and the effects of neutrinos and magnetic fields should be taken into account. In this talk, I will discuss current efforts to include more advanced microphysics in general relativistic simulations, what we can do so far, and what the remaining computational challenges are. I will also show how existing numerical simulations have helped us constrain the outcome of neutron star mergers, and what remains to be done in order to extract as much information as possible from upcoming gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. Neutron star mergers are expected to be among the main sources of gravitational waves detectable by the Advance LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA detector network. In many cases, these mergers are also likely to power bright electromagnetic transients, including short gamma-ray bursts and ``kilonovae,'' the optical/infrared emission due to the radioactive decay of neutron rich elements in material unbound by the merger. These EM counterparts can provide important information on the environment in which the merger takes place and the nature of the binary, and their detection could shed a light on the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and of r-process elements. Numerical simulations of neutron star mergers using general relativistic codes are required to understand the merger dynamics, the impact of the equation of state of the neutron star on the gravitational wave signal, and the potential of a given binary to power electromagnetic counterparts to that signal. Until recently, however, general relativistic codes used very simple models for the neutron star - often a simple gamma-law equation of state without any additional microphysics. Although sufficient to model the gravitational wave signal before merger, this cannot be used to follow the post-merger evolution of the system, or even some aspects of the disruption of the neutron star. To do so, nuclear-theory based equations of state with temperature and composition dependence have to be used, and the effects of neutrinos and magnetic fields should be taken into account. In this talk, I will discuss current efforts to include more advanced microphysics in general relativistic simulations, what we can do so far, and what the remaining computational challenges are. I will also show how existing numerical simulations have helped us constrain the outcome of neutron star mergers, and what remains to be done in order to extract as much information as possible from upcoming gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. Einstein Fellow.

  6. Quadrupole moments of rotating neutron stars and strange stars

    E-print Network

    Urbanec, Martin; Stuchlik, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    We present results for models of neutron stars and strange stars constructed using the Hartle-Thorne slow-rotation method with a wide range of equations of state, focusing on the values obtained for the angular momentum $J$ and the quadrupole moment $Q$, when the gravitational mass $M$ and the rotational frequency $\\Omega$ are specified. Building on previous work, which showed surprising uniformity in the behaviour of the moment of inertia for neutron-star models constructed with widely-different equations of state, we find similar uniformity for the quadrupole moment. These two quantities, together with the mass, are fundamental for determining the vacuum space-time outside neutron stars. We study particularly the dimensionless combination of parameters $QM/J^2$ (using units for which $c=G=1$). This quantity goes to 1 in the case of a Kerr-metric black hole and deviations away from 1 then characterize the difference between neutron-star and black-hole space-times. It is found that $QM/J^2$ for both neutron s...

  7. Dissipative processes in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Colucci, Giuseppe [Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italia and .N.F.N., Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2011-05-23

    We present some results about a novel damping mechanism of r-mode oscillations in neutron stars due to processes that change the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Deviations from equilibrium of the number densities of the various species lead to the appearance in the Euler equations of the system of a dissipative mechanism, the so-called rocket effect. The evolution of the r-mode oscillations of a rotating neutron star are influenced by the rocket effect and we present estimates of the corresponding damping timescales. In the description of the system we employ a two-fluid model, with one fluid consisting of all the charged components locked together by the electromagnetic interaction, while the second fluid consists of superfluid neutrons. Both components can oscillate however the rocket effect can only efficiently damp the countermoving r-mode oscillations, with the two fluids oscillating out of phase. In our analysis we include the mutual friction dissipative process between the neutron superfluid and the charged component. We neglect the interaction between the two r-mode oscillations as well as effects related with the crust of the star. Moreover, we use a simplified model of neutron star assuming a uniform mass distribution.

  8. Quasiparticle Interactions in Neutron Matter for Applications in Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambach, J.; Anisworth, T. L.; Pines, D.

    1993-01-01

    A microscopic model for the quaisiparticle interaction in neutron matter is presented. Both particle-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) correlation are are included. The pp correlations are treated in semi-empirical way, while ph correlations are incorporated by solving coupled two-body equations for the particle hole interaction and the scattering amplitude on the Fermi sphere. The resulting integral equations self-consistently sum the ph reducible diagrams. Antisymmetry is kept at all stages and hence the forward-scattering sum rules are obeyed. Results for Landau parameters and transport coefficients in a density regime representing the crust of a neutron star are presented. We also estimate the S-1 gap parameter for neutron superfluidity and comment briefly on neutron-star implications.

  9. Quasiparticle Interactions in Neutron Matter for Applications in Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambach, J; Ainsworth, T. L.; Pines, D.

    1993-01-01

    A microscopic model for the quasiparticle interaction in neutron matter is presented. Both-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) correlations are included. The pp correlations are treated in semi-empirical way, while ph correlations are incorporated by solving coupled two-body equations for particle-hole interaction and the scattering amplitude of the Fermi sphere. The resulting integral equations self-consistently sum the ph reducible diagrams. Antisymmetry is kept at all stages and hence the forward-scattering sum rules for the scattering amplitude are obeyed. Results for Landau parameters and transport coefficients in a density regime representing the crust of a neutron star are presented. We also estimate the (1)S(sub 0) gap parameter for neutron superfluidity and comment briefly on neutron-star implications.

  10. Neutron-capture elements in the s- and r-process-rich stars: Constraints on neutron-capture nucleosynthesis processes

    E-print Network

    Bo Zhang; Kun Ma; Guide Zhou

    2006-05-14

    The chemical abundances of the very metal-poor double-enhanced stars are excellent information for setting new constraints on models of neutron-capture processes at low metallicity. These stars are known as s+r stars, since they show enhancements of both s-process and r-process elements. The observed abundance ratios for the double-enhanced stars can be explained by those of stars that were polluted by an AGB star and subsequently accreted very significant amounts of r-process material out of an AIC (accretion-induced collapse) or Type 1.5 supernova. In this paper we present for the first time an attempt to fit the elemental abundances observed in the s- and r-rich, very metal-poor stars using a parametric model and suggest a new concept of component coefficients to describe the contributions of the individual neutron-capture processes to double-enhanced stars. We find that the abundance ratios of these stars are best fitted by enrichments of s- and r-process material. The overlap factor in the AGB stars where the observed s-process elements were produced lies between 0.1 and 0.81. Taking into account the dependence of the initial-final mass relations on metallicity, this wide range of values could possibly be explained by a wide range of core-mass values of AGB stars at low metallicity. The component coefficient of the r-process is strongly correlated with the component coefficient of the s-process for the double-enhanced stars. This is significant evidence that the r-process material in double-enhanced stars comes from an AIC or Type 1.5 supernova.

  11. Cluster and Double Star observations of dipolarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nakamura; W. Baumjohann; T. L. Zhang; C. M. Carr; A. Balogh; K.-H. Fornacon; E. Georgescu; H. Rème; I. Dandouras; T. Takada; M. Volwerk; Y. Asano; A. Runov; H. Eichelberger; B. Klecker; C. Mouikis; L. M. Kistler; O. Amm

    2005-01-01

    We studied two types of dipolarization events with different IMF conditions when Cluster and Double Star (TC-1) were located in the same local time sector: 7 August 2004, 18:00-24:00 UT, during a disturbed southward\\/northward IMF interval, and 14 August 2004, 21:00-24:00 UT, when the IMF was stably northward. Cluster observed dipolarization as well as fast flows during both intervals, but

  12. Constraints on millicharged particles by neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi; Zheng, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei-Hua; Li, Shao-Ze

    2015-06-01

    We have constrained the charge-mass (? -m ) phase space of millicharged particles through the simulation of the rotational evolution of neutron stars, where an extra slow-down effect due to the accretions of millicharged dark matter particles is considered. For a canonical neutron star of M =1.4 M? and R =10 km with typical magnetic field strength B0=1012 G , we have shown an upper limit of millicharged particles, which is compatible with recently experimental and observational bounds. Meanwhile, we have also explored the influences on the ? -m phase space of millicharged particles for different magnetic fields B0 and dark matter density ?DM in the vicinity of the neutron star.

  13. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    D. Kobyakov; C. J. Pethick

    2013-09-07

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that at densities above that for neutron drip ($\\sim4\\times10^11$) g cm$^{-3}$ or roughly one thousandth of nuclear matter density, the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO$_3$. As a consequence, properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated and we mention consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  14. r-Process in Neutron Star Mergers.

    PubMed

    Freiburghaus; Rosswog; Thielemann

    1999-11-10

    The production site of the neutron-rich heavy elements that are formed by rapid neutron capture (the r-process) is still unknown despite intensive research. Here we show detailed studies of a scenario that has been proposed earlier by Lattimer & Schramm, Symbalisty & Schramm, Eichler et al., and Davies et al., namely the merger of two neutron stars. The results of hydrodynamic and full network calculations are combined in order to investigate the relevance of this scenario for r-process nucleosynthesis. Sufficient material is ejected to explain the amount of r-process nuclei in the Galaxy by decompression of neutron star material. Provided that the ejecta consist of matter with a proton-to-nucleon ratio of Ye approximately 0.1, the calculated abundances fit the observed solar r-pattern excellently for nuclei that include and are heavier than the A approximately 130 peak. PMID:10525469

  15. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  16. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties

    E-print Network

    L. Engvik; M. Hjorth-Jensen; E. Osnes; G. Bao; E. Oestgaard

    1994-06-23

    We calculate properties of neutron stars such as mass and radius using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-hartree-Fock apprach for asymmetric nuclear matter. For pure neutron matter we find the maximum mass to be 2.4 solar masses with a radius of 12 km. For a proton fraction of 30% we find a max mass of 2.1 solar masses and a radius of 10.5 km. The implications are discussed.

  17. Neutron stars in the derivative coupling model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Glendenning; F. Weber; S. A. Moszkowski

    1992-01-01

    Properties of neutron stars derived from the hybrid derivative coupling model of nuclear field theory are studied. Generalized beta equilibrium with all baryon types to convergence is allowed. Hyperon couplings compatible with the inferred binding energy of the lambda hyperon in saturated nuclear matter predict a large hyperon population, with neutrons having a bare majority population in a 1.5{ital M}{sub

  18. Neutron stars. [quantum mechanical processes associated with magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical processes associated with the presence of high magnetic fields and the effect of such fields on the evolution of neutron stars are reviewed. A technical description of the interior of a neutron star is presented. The neutron star-pulsar relation is reviewed and consideration is given to supernovae explosions, flux conservation in neutron stars, gauge-invariant derivation of the equation of state for a strongly magnetized gas, neutron beta-decay, and the stability condition for a neutron star.

  19. The Outcome of Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-10-01

    Black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star mergers are among the main sources of gravitational waves which will be detected in the coming years by the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA observatories. In some cases, these mergers can also power bright electromagnetic emissions: they are the most likely progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts, and the radioactive decay of neutron-rich material ejected by the merger can power optical/infrared transients days after the merger. Finally, they may provide important constraints on the equation of state of cold dense matter, and on the source of heavy elements in the universe. I will discuss the general relativistic simulations which are required to properly model these events, and what they have told us so far about the outcome of neutron star mergers. I will also discuss efforts to improve the physical realism of the simulations by improving the treatment of the most important effects beyond general relativistic hydrodynamics: magnetic fields, neutrinos, and the properties of nuclear matter.

  20. Radiation from accreting magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1984-01-01

    Some recent development on the understanding of accreting magnetized neutron stars are reviewed. A brief summary of the observations is given, on which current phenomenological models are based. The main part of this paper is a discussion of recent work by several groups on the radiative transfer problem in a strong magnetic field and its application to models of the structure and properties of self-consistent neutron star polar cap emission regions. The assumptions and uncertainties involved are discussed, recent progress is evaluated, and current and future problems are indicated.

  1. Neutron degeneracy and plasma physics effects on radiative neutron captures in neutron star crust

    E-print Network

    P. S. Shternin; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

    2012-07-25

    We consider the astrophysical reaction rates for radiative neutron capture reactions ($n,\\gamma$) in the crust of a neutron star. The presence of degenerate neutrons at high densities (mainly in the inner crust) can drastically affect the reaction rates. Standard rates assuming a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for neutrons can underestimate the rates by several orders of magnitude. We derive simple analytical expressions for reaction rates at a variety of conditions with account for neutron degeneracy. We also discuss the plasma effects on the outgoing radiative transition channel in neutron radiative capture reactions and show that these effects can also increase the reaction rates by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, using detailed balance, we analyze the effects of neutron degeneracy and plasma physics on reverse ($\\gamma,n$) photodisintegration. We discuss the dependence of the reaction rates on temperature and neutron chemical potential and outline the efficiency of these reactions in the neutron star crust.

  2. Neutron stars - A cosmic hadron physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, David

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.

  3. Neutron stars: A cosmic hadron physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, David

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.

  4. Generalized equation of state for cold superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, N.; Goriely, S. [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pearson, J. M. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-09-21

    Mature neutron stars are expected to contain various kinds of superfluids in their interiors. Modeling such stars requires the knowledge of the mutual entrainment couplings between the different condensates. We present a unified equation of state describing the different regions of a neutron star with superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons in its core.

  5. Probabilistic star discrepancy bounds for double infinite random matrices

    E-print Network

    Aistleitner, Christoph

    Probabilistic star discrepancy bounds for double infinite random matrices Christoph Aistleitner;Probabilistic star discrepancy bounds for double infinite random matrices 3 and the integral of a function f can their results were generalized by Dick to the case of double infinite random matrices. In the present paper we

  6. Measurements of Neglected Double Stars: November 2014 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carro, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    This article presents measurements of 30 neglected double stars. The stars were selected from the Washington Double Star Catalog published by the United States Naval Observatory. The photographs were taken by a remote telescope. The measurements were done by the author.

  7. Integral trees homeomorphic to a double star A. E. Brouwer

    E-print Network

    Brouwer, Andries E.

    Integral trees homeomorphic to a double star A. E. Brouwer 2009-09-17 Abstract Trees with two of degree larger than two. They write We would now like to examine the trees homeomorphic to a double star, that is, to a tree obtained by joining the centers of two stars with an edge. Unfortunately, the details

  8. Fast Neutron Detection with the Double Chooz Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulai, Marjon

    2014-03-01

    The Double Chooz Time Projection Chamber (DCTPC) is a directional fast neutron detector that measures background neutron production at the Double Chooz reactor-based neutrino oscillation experiment's near (120 mwe) and far (300 mwe) halls. DCTPC will provide data at modest depths, tying near-surface measurements to those from deep underground laboratories. DCTPC will be used to search for a correlation between fast neutron production and rainfall and will provide valuable neutron measurements as a function of depth, direction, and energy. Calibration data will be presented, as well as preliminary findings from operation at Double Chooz.

  9. Nuclear physics problems for accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.K.; Woosley, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of p(e/sup -/nu)n and of (p,..gamma..) reactions on /sup 56/Ni during a thermonuclear runaway on a neutron star surface is pointed out. A fast 16-isotope approximate nuclear reaction network is developed that is suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations of such events.

  10. Light curves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutoshi Numata; Umin Lee

    2010-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by a hotspot of a rapidly rotating neutron star, assuming that the spot is perturbed by a core r mode, which is destabilized by emitting gravitational waves. To calculate light curves, we take account of relativistic effects, such as the Doppler boost due to the rapid rotation and light bending, assuming the Schwarzschild metric around

  11. Light curves of oscillating neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umin Lee; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2005-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by r modes with small azimuthal wavenumbers, m, propagating in the surface fluid ocean of rotating neutron stars. We include relativistic effects due to rapid rotation, and propagate photons from the stellar surface to a distant observer using the Schwarzschild metric. The wave motions of the surface r modes are confined to the equatorial region

  12. Life Extinctions by Neutron Star Mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dar

    1997-01-01

    Cosmic ray bursts (CRBs) from mergers or accretion induced collapse of neutron stars that hit an Earth-like planet closer than $\\\\sim 1 kpc$ from the explosion produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground level, underground and underwater. These CRBs also destroy the ozone layer and radioactivate the environment. The mean rate of such life devastating CRBs is one in

  13. Temperature effects in pulsating superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    E. M. Kantor; M. E. Gusakov

    2011-05-20

    We study the effects of finite stellar temperatures on the oscillations of superfluid neutron stars. The importance of these effects is illustrated with a simple example of a radially pulsating general relativistic star. Two main effects are taken into account: (i) temperature dependence of the entrainment matrix and (ii) the variation of the size of superfluid region with temperature. Four models are considered, which include either one or both of these two effects. Pulsation spectra are calculated for these models, and asymptotes for eigenfrequencies at temperatures close to critical temperature of neutron superfluidity, are derived. It is demonstrated that models that allow for the temperature effect (ii) but disregard the effect (i), yield unrealistic results. Eigenfunctions for the normal- and superfluid-type pulsations are analyzed. It is shown that superfluid pulsation modes practically do not appear at the neutron-star surface and, therefore, can hardly be observed by measuring the modulation of the electromagnetic radiation from the star. The e-folding times for damping of pulsations due to the shear viscosity and nonequilibrium modified Urca processes are calculated and their asymptotes at temperatures close to the neutron critical temperature, are obtained. It is demonstrated that superfluid pulsation modes are damped by 1--3 orders of magnitude faster than normal modes.

  14. Cavitation from bulk viscosity in neutron stars and quark stars

    E-print Network

    Jes Madsen

    2009-09-30

    The bulk viscosity in quark matter is sufficiently high to reduce the effective pressure below the corresponding vapor pressure during density perturbations in neutron stars and strange stars. This leads to mechanical instability where the quark matter breaks apart into fragments comparable to cavitation scenarios discussed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Similar phenomena may take place in kaon-condensed stellar cores. Possible applications to compact star phenomenology include a new mechanism for damping oscillations and instabilities, triggering of phase transitions, changes in gravitational wave signatures of binary star inspiral, and astrophysical formation of strangelets. At a more fundamental level it points to the possible inadequacy of a hydrodynamical treatment of these processes in compact stars.

  15. Tidal Love numbers of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Tanja Hinderer

    2009-03-07

    For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k2. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n~0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l=2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g_tt, and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to ~24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.

  16. Tidal Love Numbers of Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderer, Tanja [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: tph25@cornell.edu

    2008-04-20

    For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k{sub 2}. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n {approx} 0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l = 2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second-order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g{sub tt} and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to {approx}24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.

  17. Shear viscosity in neutron star cores

    E-print Network

    P. S. Shternin; D. G. Yakovlev

    2008-08-21

    We calculate the shear viscosity $\\eta = \\eta_{e\\mu}+\\eta_{n}$ in a neutron star core composed of nucleons, electrons and muons ($\\eta_{e\\mu}$ being the electron-muon viscosity, mediated by collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles, and $\\eta_{n}$ the neutron viscosity, mediated by neutron-neutron and neutron-proton collisions). Deriving $\\eta_{e\\mu}$, we take into account the Landau damping in collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles via the exchange of transverse plasmons. It lowers $\\eta_{e\\mu}$ and leads to the non-standard temperature behavior $\\eta_{e\\mu}\\propto T^{-5/3}$. The viscosity $\\eta_{n}$ is calculated taking into account that in-medium effects modify nucleon effective masses in dense matter. Both viscosities, $\\eta_{e\\mu}$ and $\\eta_{n}$, can be important, and both are calculated including the effects of proton superfluidity. They are presented in the form valid for any equation of state of nucleon dense matter. We analyze the density and temperature dependence of $\\eta$ for different equations of state in neutron star cores, and compare $\\eta$ with the bulk viscosity in the core and with the shear viscosity in the crust.

  18. Theoretical Spectra of Unmagnetized Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joss, Paul C.; Madej, Jerzy

    2001-09-01

    We have developed new models for the atmospheres of unmagnetized or weakly magnetized (B <= 1010 G) neutron stars with effective temperatures, Teff, in the range of 4× 106 K <= Teff <= 1× 107 K. Our model calculations include a full and accurate treatment of Compton scattering effects. We consider both pure hydrogen/helium atmospheres and atmospheres containing substantial amounts of iron (i.e., iron abundances at least as high as the solar value). Using our model atmospheres, we are able to determine the thermal X-ray emission spectrum of an unmagnetized neutron star as a function of Teff, surface gravity, and atmospheric chemical composition. We find, in particular, that the spectra of unmagnetized neutron stars with iron-rich atmospheres will feature absorption lines with complex structure that can, in principle, be at least partially resolved in observations that utilize the Chandra transmission gratings. We also find that the spectra of iron-rich atmospheres exhibit substantial flux deficits, relative to the spectra of hydrogen/helium atmospheres or simple blackbodies, at photon energies higher than the bound-free absorption edges of lithium-like and beryllium-like ions of iron at ~2 keV. This latter result provides a method of determining the presence and abundance of iron and/or other heavy elements in a neutron star atmosphere, without the need to resolve individual spectral lines. As described in a companion paper (Stage and Joss, these proceedings), we are currently using our results to fit Chandra observations of the point source in Cassiopeia A and other possible cases of thermal radiation by weakly magnetized neutron stars. This work was supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS8-38249 and by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research under grant No. 2 P03D 013 19.

  19. Rare Isotopes and Accreting Neutron Stars, X-Ray Bursts, Neutron Star Crust, rp-Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, H. [National Superconductiong Cyclotron Laboratory, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2008-01-24

    Rare isotopes from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line are produced on the surface and crust of accreting neutron stars. Understanding their properties is essential to address the open questions raised by a variety of new observations of X-ray binaries, in particular X-ray bursters and transients. This paper provides an introduction to the topic.

  20. Tidal polarizability effects in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernuzzi, S.; Nagar, A.; Balmelli, S.; Dietrich, T.; Ujevic, M.

    2015-05-01

    Using the analytical effective-one-body model and nonlinear 3+1 numerical relativity simulations, we investigate binary neutron star mergers. It is found that, for nonspinning binaries, both the mass-rescaled gravitational wave frequency at merger and the specific binding energy at merger almost uniquely depend on the tidal coupling constants ?T2, which are functions of the stars’ Love numbers, compactnesses and mass ratio. These relations are quasiuniversal in the sense that there is an additional dependence on the spins, which is linear for realistic spins values ? ? 0.1. In the effective-one-body model, the quasiuniversality is a direct consequence of the conservative dynamics of tidally interacting bodies. In the context of gravitational wave astronomy, our findings may be used to constrain the neutron stars’ equation of state using waveforms that accurately model the merger.

  1. Nonlinear radial oscillations of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gabler, Michael [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Sperhake, Ulrich [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Andersson, Nils [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The effects of nonlinear oscillations in compact stars are attracting considerable current interest. In order to study such phenomena in the framework of fully nonlinear general relativity, highly accurate numerical studies are required. A numerical scheme specifically tailored for such a study is based on formulating the time evolution in terms of deviations from a stationary equilibrium configuration. Using this technique, we investigate over a wide range of amplitudes nonlinear effects in the evolution of radial oscillations of neutron stars. In particular, we discuss mode coupling due to nonlinear interaction, the occurrence of resonance phenomena, shock formation near the stellar surface as well as the capacity of nonlinearities to stabilize perturbatively unstable neutron star models.

  2. FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR THE BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION OF NEUTRON-STAR MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, J.; Rappaport, S. [37-602B, M.I.T., Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Podsiadlowski, Ph., E-mail: sar@mit.ed, E-mail: jschwab@mit.ed, E-mail: jwschwab@berkeley.ed, E-mail: podsi@astro.ox.ac.u [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-10

    We use a collection of 14 well-measured neutron-star masses to strengthen the case that a substantial fraction of these neutron stars were formed via electron-capture (e-capture) supernovae (SNe) as opposed to Fe core-collapse SNe. The e-capture SNe are characterized by lower resultant gravitational masses and smaller natal kicks, leading to lower orbital eccentricities when the e-capture SN has led to the formation of the second neutron star in a binary system. Based on the measured masses and eccentricities, we identify four neutron stars, which have a mean post-collapse gravitational mass of {approx}1.25 M {sub sun}, as the product of e-capture SNe. We associate the remaining 10 neutron stars, which have a mean mass of {approx}1.35 M {sub sun}, with Fe core-collapse SNe. If the e-capture SN occurs during the formation of the first neutron star, then this should substantially increase the formation probability for double neutron stars, given that more systems will remain bound with the smaller kicks. However, this does not appear to be the case for any of the observed systems and we discuss possible reasons for this.

  3. Ferromagnetism in neutron matter and its implication for the neutron star equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, J. P. W. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch University, P.O. Box X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Scholtz, F. G. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch University, P.O. Box X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa)

    2011-09-21

    We investigate the possible contribution of the ferromagnetic phase of neutron matter in the neutron star interior to the star's magnetic field. We introduce a relativistic, self-consistent calculation of the ferromagnetic phase in neutron matter within the context of the relativistic mean-field approximation. The presence of the ferromagnetic phase stiffens the star's equation of state which implies a larger neutron star radius compared to the non-ferromagnetic case.

  4. Coalescing Models of Binary Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, A. C.; Wang, E. Y. M.; Swesty, F. D.

    1999-09-01

    Coalescing pairs of neutron stars are expected to be among the sources of gravitational waves that will be observed by gravitational wave detectors in the next decade. Accurate theoretical predictions of the gravitational wave signatures of these events will be required to extract the signals from background noise. Post-Newtonian models can be applied to these systems, but full 3-d simulations are required to properly capture tidal effects, particularly in the last several orbits. We present additional results of our numerical studies of coalescing neutron star pairs with Newtonian hydrodynamics coupled to the 2.5 Post-Newtonian radiation reaction of Blanchet, Damour, and Schafer (1990). Our simulations evolve the Euler equations using a modification of the ZEUS 2-d algorithm (Stone and Norman 1992) and use a Fast Fourier Transformation method for solving the Poisson equation for the gravitational field. We find that the radiation reaction produces a dramatic effect on a configuration of neutron stars when compared to a purely Newtonian simulation. Our method of simulation produces results that allow us to examine the structure of the gravitational wave radiation producing regions of the configuration. We find that a majority of the gravitational wave radiation produced during simulations of the coalescence emanates from the tidally distorted regions of the stars rather than the regions of highest density.

  5. Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1994-02-12

    This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the temperature structure for 20 milliseconds after the shock stalls. The minimum temperature is approximately 1.35 MeV. The maximum temperature varies from 6 MeV at the beginning of the calculation to 10 MeV at the later times.

  6. Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1994-02-12

    This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the density evolution for 20 milliseconds after the shock stalls. The density is plotted on a log scale. Values range from 10^9 gm-cm^3 at the outer boundary to 1.4 x 10^12 gm-cm^3 at the inner boundary.

  7. Magnetic neutron stars in f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars with strong magnetic fields are considered in the framework of f( R) gravity. In order to describe dense matter in magnetic field, the model with baryon octet interacting through ???-fields is used. The hyperonization process results in softening the equation of state (EoS) and in decreasing the maximal mass. We investigate the effect of strong magnetic field in models involving quadratic and cubic corrections in the Ricci scalar R to the Hilbert-Einstein action. For large fields, the Mass-Radius relation differs considerably from that of General Relativity only for stars with masses close to the maximal one. Another interesting feature is the possible existence of more compact stable stars with extremely large magnetic fields (˜6×1018 G instead of ˜4×1018 G as in GR) in the central regions of the stars. Due to cubic terms, a significant increasing of the maximal mass is possible.

  8. Oscillations of rapidly rotating stratified neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Passamonti; B. Haskell; N. Andersson; D. I. Jones; I. Hawke

    2009-03-26

    We use time-evolutions of the linear perturbation equations to study the oscillations of rapidly rotating neutrons stars. Our models account for the buoyancy due to composition gradients and we study, for the first time, the nature of the resultant g-modes in a fast spinning star. We provide detailed comparisons of non-stratified and stratified models. This leads to an improved understanding of the relationship between the inertial modes of a non-stratified star and the g-modes of a stratified system. In particular, we demonstrate that each g-mode becomes rotation-dominated, i.e. approaches a particular inertial mode, as the rotation rate of the star is increased. We also discuss issues relating to the gravitational-wave driven instability of the various classes of oscillation modes.

  9. Gravitational waves from neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bonazzola; E. Gourgoulhon

    1996-01-01

    Contents:\\u000a 1. Introduction\\u000a 2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking\\u000a 2.1 Review of classical results about Maclaurin\\/Jacobi ellipsoids\\u000a 2.2 Spontaneous breaking of symmetry: a general phenomenom\\u000a 2.3 Previous results for compressible Newtonian stars\\u000a 2.4 Generation of gravitational waves\\u000a 2.5 Finding the equilibrium configurations of a rotating star in the\\u000aNewtonian regime\\u000a 2.6 Extension to general relativity\\u000a 2.7 First integral of fluid motion in

  10. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  11. Dilatonic Equation of Hydrostatic Equilibrium and Neutron Star Structure

    E-print Network

    S. H. Hendi; G. H. Bordbar; B. Eslam Panah; M. Najafi

    2015-06-30

    In this paper, we present a new hydrostatic equilibrium equation related to dilaton gravity. We consider a spherical symmetric metric to obtain the hydrostatic equilibrium equation of stars in $4$-dimensions, and generalize TOV equation to the case of regarding a dilaton field. Then, we calculate the structure properties of neutron star using our obtained hydrostatic equilibrium equation employing the modern equations of state of neutron star matter derived from microscopic calculations. We show that the maximum mass of neutron star depends on the parameters of dilaton field and cosmological constant. In other words, by setting the parameters of new hydrostatic equilibrium equation, we calculate the maximum mass of neutron star.

  12. AFTERGLOW OF A BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGER

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Masaru; Suwa, Yudai; Kiuchi, Kenta [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito [KEK Theory Center and the Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-06-20

    The merger of two neutron stars often results in a rapidly and differentially rotating hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). We show by numerical-relativity simulation that the magnetic-field profile around such HMNS is dynamically varied during its subsequent evolution, and as a result, electromagnetic radiation with a large luminosity {approx}0.1B {sup 2} R {sup 3}{Omega} is emitted with baryons (B, R, and {Omega} are poloidal magnetic-field strength at stellar surface, stellar radius, and angular velocity of an HMNS). The predicted luminosity of electromagnetic radiation, which is primarily emitted along the magnetic-dipole direction, is {approx}10{sup 47}(B/10{sup 13} G){sup 2}(R/10 km){sup 3}({Omega}/10{sup 4} rad s{sup -1}) erg s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the luminosity of quasars.

  13. Afterglow of binary neutron star merger

    E-print Network

    Shibata, Masaru; Kiuchi, Kenta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-01-01

    The merger of two neutron stars results often in a rapidly and differentially rotating hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). We show by numerical-relativity simulation that the magnetic-field profile around such HMNS is dynamically varied during its subsequent evolution, and as a result, electromagnetic radiation with a large luminosity ~ 0.1 B^2 R^3 Omega is emitted with baryon (B, R, and Omega are poloidal magnetic-field strength at stellar surface, stellar radius, and angular velocity of a HMNS). The predicted luminosity of electromagnetic radiation, which is primarily emitted along the magnetic-dipole direction, is ~ 10^{47} (B/10^{13} G)^2(R/10 km)^3(Omega/10^4 rad/s) ergs/s, that is comparable to the luminosity of quasars.

  14. Quark Matter in Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    R. Oechslin; G. Poghosyan; K. Uryu

    2002-10-30

    Binary neutron star mergers are expected to be one of the most promising source of gravitational waves (GW) for the network of laser interferometric and bar detectors becoming operational in the next few years. The merger wave signal is expected to be sensitive to the interior structure of the neutron star (NS). The structure of high density phases of matter is under current experimental investigation in heavy-ion collisions. We investigate the dependence of the merger process and its GW signal on the presence of quarks in these phases by performing numerical simulations, where the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the conformally flat approximation for the 3-geometry in general relativistic gravity are implemented.

  15. Slowly rotating superfluid Newtonian neutron star model with entrainment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prix; G. L. Comer; N. Andersson

    2002-01-01

    We develop a formalism that can be used to model slowly rotating superfluid Newtonian neutron stars. A simple two-fluid model is used to describe the matter, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons that are believed to exist in the inner crust and core of mature neutron stars, while the other fluid is a charge neutral conglomerate of the

  16. Disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter

    E-print Network

    P. B. Jones

    2004-11-01

    Lower limits are found for the disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter in the neutron-drip region which is amorphous and heterogeneous in nuclear charge. This temperature-independent resistivity, large compared with that produced by phonon scattering, has direct consequences for theories of neutron-star magnetic field generation and evolution.

  17. Stochastic Background from Coalescences of Neutron Star-Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regimbau, T.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, numerical simulations were used to investigate the gravitational stochastic background produced by coalescences of double neutron star systems occurring up to z~5. The cosmic coalescence rate was derived from Monte Carlo methods using the probability distributions for massive binaries to form and for a coalescence to occur in a given redshift. A truly continuous background is produced by events located only beyond the critical redshift z*=0.23. Events occurring in the redshift interval 0.027

  18. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    E-print Network

    V. V. Gvaramadze

    2002-12-26

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  19. Particle acceleration in axisymmetric, magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, K. B.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    The potential drop in the polar cap region of a rotating, magnetized neutron star is found assuming that the magnetic field is dipolar, with the field aligned (or anti-aligned) with the rotation axis. The curvature of the field lines is of critical importance. Charge flow is assumed to be along magnetic field lines. The electric field has a maximum at radius 1.5 R and the magnitude and functional form of the current is determined.

  20. Astrometric Study of Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, Christian

    2006-09-01

    We propose to take advantage of the excellent imaging performance of Chandra to measure the proper motion of the X-ray bright and radio-quiet isolated neutron star RX J1308.6+2127 with the goal to constrain its space velocity, birth place and age. The five year time interval between the proposed Cycle 8 and former Cycle 3 observations obtained by our group will provide a very sensitive measurement.

  1. Topological characterization of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    C. O. Dorso; P. A. Giménez Molinelli; J. A. López

    2012-08-23

    Neutron star crusts are studied using a classical molecular dynamics model developed for heavy ion reactions. After the model is shown to produce a plethora of the so-called "pasta" shapes, a series of techniques borrowed from nuclear physics, condensed matter physics and topology are used to craft a method that can be used to characterize the shape of the pasta structures in an unequivocal way.

  2. The Double Star Plasma Electron and Current Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Fazakerley; P. J. Carter; G. Watson; A. Spencer; Y. Q. Sun; J. Coker; P. Coker; D. O. Kataria; D. Fontaine; Z. X. Liu; L. Gilbert; L. He; A. D. Lahiff; B. Mihalcic; S. Szita; M. G. G. T. Taylor; R. J. Wilson; M. Dedieu; S. J. Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The Double Star Project is a collaboration between Chinese and European space agencies, in which two Chinese magnetospheric research spacecraft, carrying Chinese and European instruments, have been launched into equatorial (on 29 December 2003) and polar (on 25 July 2004) orbits designed to enable complementary studies with the Cluster spacecraft. The two Double Star spacecraft TC-1 and TC-2 each carry

  3. Coordinated Cluster\\/Double Star observations of dayside reconnection signatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Dunlop; M. G. G. T. Taylor; J. A. Davies; C. J. Owen; F. Pitout; A. N. Fazakerley; Z. Pu; H. Laakso; Y. V. Bogdanova; Q.-G. Zong; C. Shen; K. Nykyri; B. Lavraud; S. E. Milan; T. D. Phan; H. Rème; C. P. Escoubet; C. M. Carr; P. Cargill; M. Lockwood; B. Sonnerup

    2005-01-01

    The recent launch of the equatorial spacecraft of the Double Star mission, TC-1, has provided an unprecedented opportunity to monitor the southern hemisphere dayside magnetopause boundary layer in conjunction with northern hemisphere observations by the quartet of Cluster spacecraft. We present first results of one such situation where, on 6 April 2004, both Cluster and the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft

  4. Numerical relativity simulations of binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierfelder, Marcus; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brügmann, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    We present a new numerical relativity code designed for simulations of compact binaries involving matter. The code is an upgrade of the BAM code to include general relativistic hydrodynamics and implements state-of-the-art high-resolution-shock-capturing schemes on a hierarchy of mesh refined Cartesian grids with moving boxes. We test and validate the code in a series of standard experiments involving single neutron star spacetimes. We present test evolutions of quasiequilibrium equal-mass irrotational binary neutron star configurations in quasicircular orbits which describe the late inspiral to merger phases. Neutron star matter is modeled as a zero-temperature fluid; thermal effects can be included by means of a simple ideal gas prescription. We analyze the impact that the use of different values of damping parameter in the Gamma-driver shift condition has on the dynamics of the system. The use of different reconstruction schemes and their impact in the post-merger dynamics is investigated. We compute and characterize the gravitational radiation emitted by the system. Self-convergence of the waves is tested, and we consistently estimate error bars on the numerically generated waveforms in the inspiral phase.

  5. Magnetically driven crustquakes in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, S. K.; Andersson, N.; Antonopoulou, D.; Watts, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    Crustquake events may be connected with both rapid spin-up `glitches' within the regular slowdown of neutron stars, and high-energy magnetar flares. We argue that magnetic-field decay builds up stresses in a neutron star's crust, as the elastic shear force resists the Lorentz force's desire to rearrange the global magnetic-field equilibrium. We derive a criterion for crust-breaking induced by a changing magnetic-field configuration, and use this to investigate strain patterns in a neutron star's crust for a variety of different magnetic-field models. Universally, we find that the crust is most liable to break if the magnetic field has a strong toroidal component, in which case the epicentre of the crustquake is around the equator. We calculate the energy released in a crustquake as a function of the fracture depth, finding that it is independent of field strength. Crust-breaking is, however, associated with a characteristic local field strength of 2.4 × 1014 G for a breaking strain of 0.001, or 2.4 × 1015 G at a breaking strain of 0.1. We find that even the most luminous magnetar giant flare could have been powered by crustal energy release alone.

  6. Radiation drag near slowly rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1994-05-01

    In a previous paper (Miller & Lamb 1993) we showed that radiation forces are more important than general relativistic corrections to Newtonian gravitational forces in determining the motion of particles accreting onto a nonrotating, isotropically emitting neutron star if the luminosity is greater than ~ 1% of the Eddington critical luminosity L_E(infty ) , even if the radius of the star is less than the radius of the innermost stable orbit. We also showed that at luminosities greater than ~ 0.2L_E(infty ) , a substantial fraction of the accreting matter can transfer most of its angular momentum and gravitational binding energy to the radiation field before reaching the stellar surface. Here we extend this work to include slow rotation of the gravitating mass and radiation source, as well as radiation from ring-like boundary layers. By ``slow rotation" we mean that the azimuthal velocity of the radiating source is v/c<< 1 and that the dimensionless angular momentum of the gravitating mass is jequiv cJ/GM(2<<) 1; for all neutron stars with measured rotation periods j<1, so this is a good approximation. We find that, compared to particle motion around nonrotating stars, the rate of radiation drag is decreased for prograde motion around rotating sources. However, because the drag time is increased, the total energy and angular momentum transfered from the particle to the radiation field can actually be increased compared to the nonrotating case. We conclude that in any disk-accreting neutron star source, radiation drag will have a significant qualitative effect on particle motion. This work was supported in part by NASA grant NAGW 830 at the University of Chicago and by NSF grant PHY 91-00283 and NASA grant NAGW 1583 at the University of Illinois.

  7. Light curves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Numata, Kazutoshi

    2010-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by a hot spot of a rapidly rotating neutron star, assuming that the spot is perturbed by a core $r$-mode, which is destabilized by emitting gravitational waves. To calculate light curves, we take account of relativistic effects such as the Doppler boost due to the rapid rotation and light bending assuming the Schwarzschild metric around the neutron star. We assume that the core $r$-modes penetrate to the surface fluid ocean to have sufficiently large amplitudes to disturb the spot. For a $l'=m$ core $r$-mode, the oscillation frequency $\\omega\\approx2m\\Omega/[l'(l'+1)]$ defined in the co-rotating frame of the star will be detected by a distant observer, where $l'$ and $m$ are respectively the spherical harmonic degree and the azimuthal wave number of the mode, and $\\Omega$ is the spin frequency of the star. In a linear theory of oscillation, using a parameter $A$ we parametrize the mode amplitudes such that ${\\rm max}\\left(|\\xi_\\theta|,|\\xi_\\phi|\\right)/R=A$ at the surface, w...

  8. Internal Constitution of Neutron and Strange Stars

    E-print Network

    Norman K. Glendenning

    1997-06-24

    In the first of these two lectures I will discuss the rich constitution of neutron stars as a consequence of the Pauli principle which is engaged by the dominance of gravity over the nuclear force. Three especially interesting phenomena are discussed in this contect--(1) a mechanism for the formation of low-mass black holes distinct in their mass-range from the black holes formed in the prompt collapse of an entire star, (2) a multilayered crystalline structure consisting of confined hadronic matter embedded in a background of deconfined quark matter (or vice versa) which occupies a many kilometer thick inner region, and (3) a clean and pronounced signal of the formation of quark matter in the interior of neutron stars. In the second lecture I will discuss the strange matter hypothesis, its viability as well as its consequences for compact stars and a new family of white dwarfs with dense nuclear matter central regions some orders of magnuitude greater than in ordinary white dwarfs.

  9. Reduced coherence in double-slit diffraction of neutrons

    E-print Network

    R. Tumulka; A. Viale; N. Zanghi

    2007-03-28

    In diffraction experiments with particle beams, several effects lead to a fringe visibility reduction of the interference pattern. We theoretically describe the intensity one can measure in a double-slit setup and compare the results with the experimental data obtained with cold neutrons. Our conclusion is that for cold neutrons the fringe visibility reduction is due not to decoherence, but to initial incoherence.

  10. Neutron Stars in a Chiral Model with Finite Temperature

    E-print Network

    V. Dexheimer; S. Schramm; H. Stoecker

    2008-05-23

    Neutron star matter is investigated in a hadronic chiral model approach using the lowest flavor-SU(3) multiplets for baryons and mesons. The parameters are determined to yield consistent results for saturated nuclear matter as well as for finite nuclei. The influence of baryonic resonances is discussed. The global properties of a neutron star such as its mass and radius are determined. Proto-neutron star properties are studied by taking into account trapped neutrinos, temperature and entropy effects.

  11. An Upper Bound on Neutron Star Masses from Models of Short Gamma-ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Scott; Bedaque, Paulo F; Miller, M Coleman

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of two neutron stars with gravitational masses $\\approx 2~M_\\odot$ has placed a strong lower limit on the maximum mass of a slowly rotating neutron star, and with it a strong constraint on the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear density. Current upper mass limits are much looser. Here we note that, if most short gamma-ray bursts are produced by the coalescence of two neutron stars, and if the merger remnant collapses quickly, then the upper mass limit is constrained tightly. We find that if the rotation of the merger remnant is limited only by mass-shedding (which seems plausible based on current numerical studies), then the maximum gravitational mass of a slowly rotating neutron star is between $\\approx 2~M_\\odot$ and $\\approx 2.2~M_\\odot$ if the masses of neutron stars that coalesce to produce gamma-ray bursts are in the range seen in Galactic double neutron star systems. These limits are increased by $\\sim 4$% if the rotation is slowed by $\\sim 30$%, and by $\\sim 15$% if the merger remna...

  12. Burst Oscillations: A New Spin on Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have shown that the X-ray flux during thermonuclear X-ray bursts fr-om accreting neutron stars is often strongly pulsed at frequencies as high as 620 Hz. We now know that these oscillations are produced by spin modulation of the thermonuclear flux from the neutron star surface. In addition to revealing the spin frequency, they provide new ways to probe the properties and physics of accreting neutron stars. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these oscillations and discuss what they are telling us about neutron stars.

  13. Neutron Stars in f(R) Gravity with Perturbative Constraints

    E-print Network

    Alan Cooney; Simon DeDeo; Dimitrios Psaltis

    2010-09-08

    We study the structure of neutron stars in f(R) gravity theories with perturbative constraints. We derive the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations and solve them for a polytropic equation of state. We investigate the resulting modifications to the masses and radii of neutron stars and show that observations of surface phenomena alone cannot break the degeneracy between altering the theory of gravity versus choosing a different equation of state of neutron-star matter. On the other hand, observations of neutron-star cooling, which depends on the density of matter at the stellar interior, can place significant constraints on the parameters of the theory.

  14. Gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars

    E-print Network

    D. I. Jones; N. Andersson

    2001-06-29

    In this paper we model the gravitational wave emission of a freely precessing neutron star. The aim is to estimate likely source strengths, as a guide for gravitational wave astronomers searching for such signals. We model the star as a partly elastic, partly fluid body with quadrupolar deformations of its moment of inertia tensor. The angular amplitude of the free precession is limited by the finite breaking strain of the star's crust. The effect of internal dissipation on the star is important, with the precession angle being rapidly damped in the case of a star with an oblate deformation. We then go on to study detailed scenarios where free precession is created and/or maintained by some astrophysical mechanism. We consider the effects of accretion torques, electromagnetic torques, glitches and stellar encounters. We find that the mechanisms considered are either too weak to lead to a signal detectable by an Advanced LIGO interferometer, or occur too infrequently to give a reasonable event rate. We therefore conclude that, using our stellar model at least, free precession is not a good candidate for detection by the forthcoming laser interferometers.

  15. Plasmon excitations in homogeneous neutron star matter

    E-print Network

    Marcello Baldo; Camille Ducoin

    2009-07-01

    We study the possible collective plasma modes which can affect neutron-star thermodynamics and different elementary processes in the baryonic density range between nuclear saturation ($\\rho_0$) and $3\\rho_0$. In this region, the expected constituents of neutron-star matter are mainly neutrons, protons, electrons and muons ($npe\\mu$ matter), under the constraint of beta equilibrium. The elementary plasma excitations of the $pe\\mu$ three-fluid medium are studied in the RPA framework. We emphasize the relevance of the Coulomb interaction among the three species, in particular the interplay of the electron and muon screening in suppressing the possible proton plasma mode, which is converted into a sound-like mode. The Coulomb interaction alone is able to produce a variety of excitation branches and the full spectral function shows a rich structure at different energy. The genuine plasmon mode is pushed at high energy and it contains mainly an electron component with a substantial muon component, which increases with density. The plasmon is undamped for not too large momentum and is expected to be hardly affected by the nuclear interaction. All the other branches, which fall below the plasmon, are damped or over-damped.

  16. Thermal radiation of weakly magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, M. E.

    1990-08-01

    Two-dimensional energy transport through the crust of homogeneously magnetized neutron stars is considered by iteratively solving a coupled set of nonlinear partial differential equations. Thereby self-consistent temperature and density profiles are obtained if the field strength does not exceed the value of B = 10 to the 11th G. Numerical data are interpreted and compared with the zero-field case. The results of the weak field case suggest that homogeneously magnetized neutron stars of B = 10 to the 11th G seem to cool less efficiently than their nonmagnetic counterparts. At high field strengths of B greater than 10 to the 12th G (strong field case), the physical assumptions of the cooling model are violated and the computer code provides unreliable results. In the weak field case, the two-dimensional density profiles obtained by the code reveal that a certain amount of mass is shifted from the magnetic poles toward the equatorial region of the star in order to adjust the hydrostatic equilibrium.

  17. Gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Brynmor Haskell; Nils Andersson; Caroline D`Angelo; Nathalie Degenaar; Kostas Glampedakis; Wynn C. G. Ho; Paul D. Lasky; Andrew Melatos; Manuel Oppenoorth; Alessandro Patruno; Maxim Priymak

    2014-07-31

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries have been proposed as an interesting source of gravitational waves. In this chapter we present estimates of the gravitational wave emission for various scenarios, given the (electromagnetically) observed characteristics of these systems. First of all we focus on the r-mode instability and show that a 'minimal' neutron star model (which does not incorporate exotica in the core, dynamically important magnetic fields or superfluid degrees of freedom), is not consistent with observations. We then present estimates of both thermally induced and magnetically sustained mountains in the crust. In general magnetic mountains are likely to be detectable only if the buried magnetic field of the star is of the order of $B\\approx 10^{12}$ G. In the thermal mountain case we find that gravitational wave emission from persistent systems may be detected by ground based interferometers. Finally we re-asses the idea that gravitational wave emission may be balancing the accretion torque in these systems, and show that in most cases the disc/magnetosphere interaction can account for the observed spin periods.

  18. Neutron star equation of state via gravitational wave observations

    E-print Network

    Charalampos Markakis; Jocelyn S. Read; Masaru Shibata; Koji Uryu; Jolien D. E. Creighton; John L. Friedman; Benjamin D. Lackey

    2011-10-18

    Gravitational wave observations can potentially measure properties of neutron star equations of state by measuring departures from the point-particle limit of the gravitational waveform produced in the late inspiral of a neutron star binary. Numerical simulations of inspiraling neutron star binaries computed for equations of state with varying stiffness are compared. As the stars approach their final plunge and merger, the gravitational wave phase accumulates more rapidly if the neutron stars are more compact. This suggests that gravitational wave observations at frequencies around 1 kHz will be able to measure a compactness parameter and place stringent bounds on possible neutron star equations of state. Advanced laser interferometric gravitational wave observatories will be able to tune their frequency band to optimize sensitivity in the required frequency range to make sensitive measures of the late-inspiral phase of the coalescence.

  19. Dark matter transport properties and rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, C J

    2012-01-01

    Neutron stars are attractive places to look for dark matter because their high densities allow repeated interactions. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may scatter efficiently in the core or in the crust of a neutron star. In this paper we focus on WIMP contributions to transport properties, such as shear viscosity or thermal conductivity, because these can be greatly enhanced by long mean free paths. We speculate that WIMPs increase the shear viscosity of neutron star matter and help stabilize r-mode oscillations. These are collective oscillations where the restoring force is the Coriolis force. At present r-modes are thought to be unstable in many observed rapidly rotating stars. If WIMPs stabilize the r-modes, this would allow neutron stars to spin rapidly. This likely requires WIMP-nucleon cross sections near present experimental limits and an appropriate density of WIMPs in neutron stars.

  20. EQUATION OF STATE FOR MASSIVE NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuya; Saito, Koichi; Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: koichi.saito@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (TUS), Noda 278-8510 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Using the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, we investigate the properties of neutron-star matter in detail. In the present calculation, we consider not only the tensor coupling of vector mesons to octet baryons and the form factors at interaction vertices but also the change in the internal (quark) structure of baryons in dense matter. The relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations are performed in two ways: one with coupling constants determined by SU(6) (quark model) symmetry and the other with coupling constants based on SU(3) (flavor) symmetry. For the latter case, we use the latest Nijmegen (ESC08) model. Then, it is very remarkable that the particle composition of the core matter in SU(3) symmetry is completely different from that in SU(6) symmetry. In SU(6) symmetry, all octet baryons appear in the density region below {approx}1.2 fm{sup -3}, while in the ESC08 model only the {Xi}{sup -} hyperon is produced. Furthermore, the medium modification of the internal baryon structure hardens the equation of state for the core matter. Taking all these effects into account, we can obtain the maximum neutron-star mass which is consistent with the recently observed mass, 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} (PSR J1614-2230). We therefore conclude that the extension from SU(6) symmetry to SU(3) symmetry in meson-baryon couplings and the internal baryon structure variation in matter considerably enhance the mass of neutron stars. Furthermore, the effects of the form factor at the vertex and the Fock contribution, including the tensor coupling due to vector mesons, are indispensable for describing the core matter.

  1. 3D MHD Simulations of accreting neutron stars: evidence of QPO emission from the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bachetti, Matteo; Burderi, Luciano [Universita degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy); Romanova, Marina M.; Kulkarni, Akshay [Cornell University (United States); Salvo, Tiziana di [Universita degli Studi di Palermo (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    3D Magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that when matter accretes onto neutron stars, in particular if the misalignment angle is small, it does not constantly fall at a fixed spot. Instead, the location at which matter reaches the star moves. These moving hot spots can be produced both during stable accretion, where matter falls near the magnetic poles of the star, and unstable accretion, characterized by the presence of several tongues of matter which fall on the star near the equator, due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Precise modeling with Monte Carlo simulations shows that those movements could be observed as high frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations. We performed a number of new simulation runs with a much wider set of parameters, focusing on neutron stars with a small misalignment angle. In most cases we observe oscillations whose frequency is correlated with the mass accretion rate M. Moreover, in some cases double QPOs appear, each of them showing the same correlation with M.

  2. Light curves from binary neutron star coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Nestor; Green, Stephen; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; HAD Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Evolution of binary neutron stars, and the extraction of associated gravitational waveforms, have acquired certain maturity using numerical simulations. In this work we look to augment the observational predictions by extracting electromagnetic counterparts. That is, given results from a merger simulation, we produce a photon emission sky map. Our ray-tracing algorithm employ the two-pole caustic model of gamma-ray emission from the binary system's magnetosphere. The combined measurement of both gravitational and electromagnetic wave signals provides additional information to characterize the merger.

  3. Neutron star cooling and pion condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Muto, Takumi; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    1994-01-01

    The nonstandard cooling of a neutron star with the central pion core is explored. By adopting the latest results from the pion condensation theory, neutrino emissivity is calulated for both pure charged pions and a mixture of charged and neutral pions, and the equations of state are constructed for the pion condensate. The effect of superfluidity on cooling is investigated, adopting methods more realistic than in previous studies. Our theoretical models are compared with the currently updated observational data, and possible implications are explored.

  4. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W

    2015-01-23

    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound. PMID:25658990

  5. On neutron star/supernova remnant associations

    E-print Network

    V. V. Gvaramadze

    2001-04-01

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1757-24, SGR0525-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the circle of possible NS/SNR associations could be enlarged. An observational test is discussed, which could allow to find the true birth-places of NSs associated with middle-aged SNRs, and thereby to get more reliable estimates of their transverse velocities.

  6. A SECOND NEUTRON STAR IN M4?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozanska, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Thompson, Ian B. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We show that the optical counterpart of the X-ray source CX 1 in M4 is a {approx}20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star (probably a millisecond pulsar).

  7. Relativistic Studies of Close Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    G. J. Mathews; P. Marronetti; J. R. Wilson

    1997-10-21

    We discuss (3+1) dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of close neutron star binary systems. The relativistic field equations are solved at each time slice with a spatial 3-metric chosen to be conformally flat. Against this solution the hydrodynamic variables and gravitational radiation are allowed to respond. We have studied four physical processes which occur as the stars approach merger. These include: 1) the relaxation to a hydrodynamic state of almost no spin; 2) relativistically driven compression, heating, and neutrino emission; 3) collapse to two black holes; and 4) orbit inspiral occurring at a lower frequency than previously expected. We give a brief account of the physical origin of these effects and an explanation of why they do not appear in models based upon, 1PN hydrodynamics, a weak field multipole expansion, a tidal analysis, or a rigidly corotating velocity field. The implication of these results for gravity wave detectors is also discussed.

  8. Spectral Models of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    1997-01-01

    We revisit the association of unidentified Galactic plane EGRET sources with tracers of recent massive star formation and death. Up-to-date catalogs of OB associations, SNR's, young pulsars, H2 regions and young open clusters were used in finding counterparts for a recent list of EGRET sources. It has been argued for some time that EGRET source positions are correlated with SNR's and OB associations as a class; we extend such analyses by finding additional counterparts and assessing the probability of individual source identifications. Among the several scenarios relating EGRET sources to massive stars, we focus on young neutron stars as the origin of the gamma-ray emission. The characteristics of the candidate identifications are compared to the known gamma-ray pulsar sample and to detailed Galactic population syntheses using our outer gap pulsar model of gamma-ray emission. Both the spatial distribution and luminosity function of the candidates are in good agreement with the model predictions; we infer that young pulsars can account for the bulk of the excess low latitude EGRET sources. We show that with this identification, the gamma-ray point sources provide an important new window into the history of recent massive star death in the solar neighborhood.

  9. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, galactic neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stirling A. Colgate; Peter J. T. Leonard

    1996-01-01

    What makes a Galactic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the galaxy following a finite period, ~30 My, after their formation (1). Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of GBs is based upon high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks.

  10. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, galactic neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stirling A. Colgate; Peter J. T. Leonard

    1996-01-01

    What makes a Galactic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the galaxy following a finite period, ?30 My, after their formation (1). Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of GBs is based upon high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks.

  11. Nuclear Equation of State and Neutron Star Cooling

    E-print Network

    Yeunhwan Lim; Chang Ho Hyun; Chang-Hwan Lee

    2015-01-19

    We investigate the effects of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) to the neutron star cooling. New era for nuclear EoS has begun after the discovery of $\\sim 2\\msun$ neutron stars PSR J1614$-$2230 and PSR J0348$+$0432 [1, 2]. Also recent works on the mass and radius of neutron stars from low-mass X-ray binaries [3] strongly constrain the EoS of nuclear matter. On the other hand, observations of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) more than 10 years confirmed the existence of nuclear superfluidity [4, 5]. Nuclear superfluidity reduces the heat capacities as well as neutrino emissivities. With nuclear superfluidity the neutrino emission processes are highly suppressed, and the existence of superfluidity makes the cooling path quite different from that of the standard cooling process. Superfluidity also allows new neutrino emission process, which is called `Pair Breaking and Formation'(PBF). PBF is a fast cooling process and can explain the fast cooling rate of neutron star in Cas A. Therefore, it is essential to add the superfluidity effect in the neutron star cooling process. In this work, we simulate neutron star cooling curves using both non-relativistic and relativistic nuclear models. The existence of too early direct Urca process shows that some of nuclear models do not fit for the cooling simulation. After this first selection process, the nuclear pairing gaps are searched using the observational neutron star's age and temperature data.

  12. On the properties of matter in neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Börner

    1973-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the description of neutron star matter is presented, and its relevance to pulsar observations is discussed. Some aspects of the accretion of matter on neutron stars are reviewed, and some of the relevant properties of binary X-ray sources are presented. This review is aimed at the astrophysicist. For a detailed review of the nuclear

  13. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, J.; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    Adopting the hypothesis of accretion-induced magnetic field decay in neutron stars, the consequent evolution of a neutron star's spin and magnetic field are calculated. The results are consistent with observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Thermomagnetic effects could provide a possible physical mechanism for such accretion-induced field decay.

  14. R-mode constraints from neutron star equation of state

    E-print Network

    M. C. Papazoglou; C. C. Moustakidis

    2015-06-15

    The gravitational radiation has been proposed a long time before, as an explanation for the observed relatively low spin frequencies of young neutron stars and of accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries as well. In the present work we studied the effects of the neutron star equation of state on the r-mode instability window of rotating neutron stars. Firstly, we employed a set of analytical solution of the Tolman-Oppemheimer-Volkoff equations. In particular, we tried to clarify the effects of the bulk neutron star properties (mass, radius, density distribution, crust size and elasticity) on the r-mode instability window. We found that the critical angular velocity $\\Omega_c$ depends mainly on the neutron star radius. The effects of the gravitational mass and the mass distribution are almost negligible. Secondly, we studied the effect of the elasticity of the crust, via to the slippage factor $S$ and also the effect of the nuclear equation of state, via the slope parameter $L$, on the instability window. We found that the crust effects are more pronounced, compared to those originated from the equation of state. Moreover, we proposed simple analytical expressions which relate the macroscopic quantity $\\Omega_c$ to the radius, the parameter $L$ and the factor ${\\cal S}$. Finally, we investigated the possibility to measure the radius of a neutron star and the factor ${\\cal S}$ with the help of accurate measures of $\\Omega_c$ and the neutron star temperature.

  15. Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics

    E-print Network

    Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract The hot neutron star (NS) is investigated for the ...rst time in the generalized thermo the long-ranged gravitational potential. It is found that at sub-saturation density in hot NS matter

  16. Nature of fault planes in solid neutron star matter

    E-print Network

    P. B. Jones

    2002-10-09

    The properties of tectonic earthquake sources are compared with those deduced here for fault planes in solid neutron-star matter. The conclusion that neutron-star matter cannot exhibit brittle fracture at any temperature or magnetic field is significant for current theories of pulsar glitches, and of the anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft-gamma repeaters.

  17. The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS, 1996.0)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Worley; G. G. Douglass

    1997-01-01

    A major revision of the Washington Double Star (WDS) catalog containing data for the components of 78 100 systems is now available from the data centers and via the World Wide Web (http:\\/\\/aries.usno.navy.mil\\/ad\\/wds\\/).

  18. Proto-Neutron and Neutron Stars in a Chiral SU(3) Model

    E-print Network

    V. Dexheimer; S. Schramm

    2008-07-16

    A hadronic chiral SU(3) model is applied to neutron and proto-neutron stars, taking into account trapped neutrinos, finite temperature and entropy. The transition to the chirally restored phase is studied and global properties of the stars like minimum and maximum masses and radii are calculated for different cases. In addition, the effects of rotation on neutron star masses are included and the conservation of baryon number and angular momentum determine the maximum frequencies of rotation during the cooling.

  19. Constraining decaying dark matter with neutron stars

    E-print Network

    M. Angeles Perez-Garcia; J. Silk

    2015-04-07

    The amount of decaying dark matter, accumulated in the central regions in neutron stars together with the energy deposition rate from decays, may set a limit on the neutron star survival rate against transitions to more compact objects provided nuclear matter is not the ultimate stable state of matter and that dark matter indeed is unstable. More generally, this limit sets constraints on the dark matter particle decay time, $\\tau_{\\chi}$. We find that in the range of uncertainties intrinsic to such a scenario, masses $(m_{\\chi}/ \\rm TeV) \\gtrsim 9 \\times 10^{-4}$ or $(m_{\\chi}/ \\rm TeV) \\gtrsim 5 \\times 10^{-2}$ and lifetimes ${\\tau_{\\chi}}\\lesssim 10^{55}$ s and ${\\tau_{\\chi}}\\lesssim 10^{53}$ s can be excluded in the bosonic or fermionic decay cases, respectively, in an optimistic estimate, while more conservatively, it decreases $\\tau_{\\chi}$ by a factor $\\gtrsim10^{20}$. We discuss the validity under which these results may improve with other current constraints.

  20. Numerical Evolutions of Relativistic Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, E. Y. M.; Calder, A. C.; Swesty, F. D.

    1998-12-01

    The coalescence of compact binary systems is expected to be the main source for the observed gravitational radiation to be detected by gravitational wave observatories. A number of these observatories, including LIGO, are expected to become operational early in the next century. There are expectations that a few merging binary neutron star systems are to be observed by LIGO and her counterparts every year. The focus of our work is to model the coalescence of these systems so as to study the gravitational radiation emitted, and in particular, to predict the the waveforms expected to be observed from such astrophysical events. Past work has involved the evolution of binary neutron star systems in the Newtonian limit and the Newtonian plus (2.5 Post-Newtonian order) radiation reaction limit. Here we present preliminary results which are relevant to our goal of numerically modeling fully-relativistic compact binary mergers in 3D. We present a new numerical formalism for evolving such systems, a 3D relativistic spacetime and hydrodynamics code called ZEPHYR, with a description of the algorithms implemented, and a variety of testbed problems attempted. Our numerical formalism utilizes the recent Bona-Masso formulation of Einstein's equations as a hyperbolic system of coupled first-order differential equations. Future studies and descriptions of other astrophysical systems which can be modeled similarly will be discussed in addition.

  1. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Herant, M.E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Benz, W. [Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the ``Fe`` line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ``fireball,`` a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  2. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Herant, M.E. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Benz, W. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the Fe'' line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino fireball,'' a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  3. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaksono, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure (AI-P) on properties of the neutron stars (NSs) with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of AI-P on NS matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state EOS, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of AI-P model h ? 0.8 [L. Herrera and W. Barreto, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 084022.] and ? ? -1.15 [D. D. Doneva and S. S. Yazadjiev, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012) 124023.]. The radius of the corresponding NS at M = 1.4 M? is more than 13 km, while the effect of AI-P on the minimum mass of NS is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the AI-P in the NS, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 M? cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the NS core.

  4. NARROW ATOMIC FEATURES FROM RAPIDLY SPINNING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bauboeck, Michi; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal, E-mail: mbaubock@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: fozel@email.arizona.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Neutron stars spinning at moderate rates ({approx}300-600 Hz) become oblate in shape and acquire a nonzero quadrupole moment. In this paper, we calculate the profiles of atomic features from such neutron stars using a ray-tracing algorithm in the Hartle-Thorne approximation. We show that line profiles acquire cores that are much narrower than the widths expected from pure Doppler effects for a large range of observer inclinations. As a result, the effects of both the oblateness and the quadrupole moments of neutron stars need to be taken into account when aiming to measure neutron-star radii from rotationally broadened lines. Moreover, the presence of these narrow cores substantially increases the likelihood of detecting atomic lines from rapidly spinning neutron stars.

  5. Inertial modes of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prix; G. L. Comer; N. Andersson

    2004-01-01

    We present results concerning adiabatic inertial-mode oscillations of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian gravity, using the anelastic and slow-rotation approximations. We consider a simple two-fluid model of a superfluid neutron star, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons and the second fluid contains all the comoving constituents (protons, electrons). The two fluids are assumed to be `free' in

  6. Adiabatic oscillations of non-rotating superfluid neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Prix; Michel Rieutord

    2002-01-01

    We present results concerning the linear (radial and non-radial) oscillations of non-rotating superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian physics. We use a simple two-fluid model to describe the superfluid neutron star, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons, while the second fluid contains all the remaining constituents (protons, electrons). The two fluids are assumed to be ``free'' in the sense

  7. Tidal Stablization of Neutron Stars and White Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1996-05-16

    What happens to a neutron star or white dwarf near its maximum mass limit when it is brought into a close binary orbit with a companion? Such situation may occur in the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae and in coalescing neutron star binaries. Using an energy variational principle, we show that tidal field reduces the central density of the compact object, making it more stable against radial collapse. For a cold white dwarf, the tidal field increases the maximum stable mass only slightly, but can actually lower the maximum central density by as much as $30\\%$. Thus a white dwarf in a close binary may be more susceptible to general relativistic instability than the instability associated with electron capture and pycronuclear reaction (depending on the white dwarf composition). We analyse the radial stability of neutron star using post-Newtonian approximation with an ideal degenerate neutron gas equation of state. The tidal stablization effect implies that the neutron star in coalescing neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole binaries does not collapse prior to merger or tidal disruption.

  8. Discovery of 4 New Double Stars in Constellation Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimmer, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    During observations in the constellation Serpens, four new double stars could be found: USNO B1.0 1007-0241735, USNO B1.0 1004-0244945, USNO B1.0 0950-0252685 and USNO B1.0 0949-0248260. All these double stars are listed as single stars in USNO catalog but can be separated into two components. Separations are between 4 and 10 arc seconds. In 3 cases proper motions are known and comply with Halbwachs' criteria for possible common proper motion pairs.

  9. Light curves of oscillating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Umin Lee; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2005-02-24

    We calculate light curves produced by $r$-modes with small azimuthal wavenumbers, $m$, propagating in the surface fluid ocean of rotating neutron stars. We include relativistic effects due to rapid rotation, and propagate photons from the stellar surface to a distant observer using the Schwarzschild metric. The wave motions of the surface $r$-modes are confined to the equatorial region of the star, and the surface pattern of the temperature variation can be either symmetric (for even modes) or anti-symmetric (for odd modes) with respect to the equator. Since for the surface $r$-modes the oscillation frequency in the corotating frame of the star is much smaller than the rotation frequency, $\\Omega$, we employ the approximation in which the oscillation frequency in the inertial frame, $\\sigma$, is given by $\\sigma= -m\\Omega$. We find that the $even$, $m = 1$ $r$-mode produces the largest light variations. The dominant Fourier component in the light curves of these modes is the fundamental having $\\sigma=-\\Omega$, and the first harmonic component having $\\sigma=-2\\Omega$ is always negligible in comparison. The dominant Fourier component of the even, $m=2$ $r$-modes is the first harmonic. Although the $odd$ $r$-modes produce smaller amplitude light variations compared with the $even$ modes, the light curves of the former have a stronger first harmonic component. If both $m=1$ and 2 $r$-modes are excited simultaneously, a rich variety of light curves is possible, including those having an appreciable first harmonic component. We show that the phase difference, $\\delta-\\delta_E$, between the bolometric light curve and that at a particular photon energy can possibly be used as a probe of the stellar compactness, $R/M$, where $R$ and $M$ are the radius and mass of the star.

  10. DOUBLE STARS IN THE USNO CCD ASTROGRAPHIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D.; Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Wycoff, Gary L.; Hsu, Danley, E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: finch@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: nz@usno.navy.mil [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The newly completed Fourth USNO CCD Astrographic Catalog (UCAC4) has proven to be a rich source of double star astrometry and photometry. Following initial comparisons of UCAC4 results against those obtained by speckle interferometry, the UCAC4 catalog was matched against known double stars in the Washington Double Star Catalog in order to provide additional differential astrometry and photometry for these pairs. Matches to 58,131 pairs yielded 61,895 astrometric and 68,935 photometric measurements. Finally, a search for possible new common proper motion (CPM) pairs was made using new UCAC4 proper motion data; this resulted in 4755 new potential CPM doubles (and an additional 27,718 astrometric and photometric measures from UCAC and other sources)

  11. Relativistic tidal properties of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); ICRANet, 65122 Pescara (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    We study the various linear responses of neutron stars to external relativistic tidal fields. We focus on three different tidal responses, associated to three different tidal coefficients: (i) a gravito-electric-type coefficient G{mu}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth-order mass multipolar moment GM{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field G{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; (ii) a gravito-magnetic-type coefficient G{sigma}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth spin multipole moment GS{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-magnetic tidal field H{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; and (iii) a dimensionless 'shape' Love number h{sub l} measuring the distortion of the shape of the surface of a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field. All the dimensionless tidal coefficients G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, G{sigma}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, and h{sub l} (where R is the radius of the star) are found to have a strong sensitivity to the value of the star's 'compactness'c{identical_to}GM/(c{sub 0}{sup 2}R) (where we indicate by c{sub 0} the speed of light). In particular, G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}{approx}k{sub l} is found to strongly decrease, as c increases, down to a zero value as c is formally extended to the 'black hole (BH) limit'c{sup BH}=1/2. The shape Love number h{sub l} is also found to significantly decrease as c increases, though it does not vanish in the formal limit c{yields}c{sup BH}, but is rather found to agree with the recently determined shape Love numbers of black holes. The formal vanishing of {mu}{sub l} and {sigma}{sub l} as c{yields}c{sup BH} is a consequence of the no-hair properties of black holes. This vanishing suggests, but in no way proves, that the effective action describing the gravitational interactions of black holes may not need to be augmented by nonminimal worldline couplings.

  12. Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Deborah N. Aguilera; Vincenzo Cirigliano; José A. Pons; Sanjay Reddy; Rishi Sharma

    2008-07-29

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field $B \\gsim 10^{13}$ G. At density $\\rho \\simeq 10^{12}-10^{14} $ g/cm$^3$ the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when temperature $\\simeq 10^8$ K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

  13. Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reddy, Sanjay [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, Rishi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilera, Deborah N [BUENOS AIRES

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superftuid neutron matter, called superfiuid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 13} C. At density p {approx_equal} 10{sup 12}--10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity at when temperature {approx_equal} 10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction show observationally discernible differences.

  14. Black hole-neutron star binaries in general relativity: Effects of neutron star spin

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Faber, Joshua A.; Shapiro, Stuart L. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Baumgarte, Thomas W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 04011 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We present new sequences of general relativistic, quasiequilibrium black hole-neutron star binaries. We solve for the gravitational field in the conformal thin-sandwich decomposition of Einstein's field equations, coupled to the equations of relativistic hydrostatic equilibrium for a perfect fluid. We account for the black hole by solving these equations in the background metric of a Schwarzschild black hole whose mass is much larger than that of the neutron star. The background metric is treated in Kerr-Schild as well as isotropic coordinates. For the neutron star, we assume a polytropic equation of state with adiabatic index {gamma}=2, and solve for both irrotational and corotational configurations. By comparing the results of irrotational and synchronized configurations with the same background metric, we conclude that the effect of the rotation on the location of tidal breakup is only on the order of a few percent. The different choices in the background also lead to differences on the order of a few percent, which may be an indication of the level to which these configurations approximate quasiequilibrium.

  15. Structure of accreted neutron star crust

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); University Information Technology Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the structure of neutron star crust made of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis material. We find a regular body-centered cubic lattice, even with the large number of impurities that are present. Low-charge-Z impurities tend to occupy interstitial positions, while high-Z impurities tend to occupy substitutional lattice sites. We find strong attractive correlations between low-Z impurities that could significantly increase the rate of pycnonuclear (density driven) nuclear reactions. The thermal conductivity is significantly reduced by electron impurity scattering. Our results will be used in future work to study the effects of impurities on mechanical properties such as the shear modulus and breaking strain.

  16. Astrophysical observations and future projects of neutron stars and magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki

    2014-09-01

    Neutron stars are enigmatic compact objects characterized by dense nuclear matter, rapid stellar rotation, and strong magnetic fields. Such an extreme environment has provided an accessible astrophysical laboratory to test fundamental physics. Recent astronomical observations from radio to gamma-rays have revealed a remarkable diversity of neutron stars: e.g., rotation-powered pulsars, accretion-powered pulsars, and magnetically-powered sources. Among important physical parameters of neutron stars, a wide range of magnetic field from 104 T to 1011 T is thought to be one principal cause of the diversity. Especially, enigmatic X-ray sources, Soft Gamma Repeater (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXPs), are now considered to have extremely strong magnetic field reaching 1010-1011 T, and thus, dubbed as ``magnetars.'' They emerge mainly in the X-ray frequency with intense giant flares, short bursts, and X-ray outbursts. Unlike for rotation-powered or accretion-powered pulsars, the bulk of their X-ray emission appears to be powered by their super-strong magnetic fields. At this talk, I will review recent high energy astrophysical observations of strongly-magnetized neutron stars, and also overview approved future missions to approach the neutron star science, for example, Astro-H (launch in 2015) which realizes the high energy resolution and the Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR Mission (NICER, launch in late 2016) mission which is dedicated to determine the equation of state of neutron stars.

  17. NEUTRON STAR STRUCTURE IN THE PRESENCE OF SCALAR FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, James P. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, Uniontown, PA 15401 (United States); Kazanas, Demosthenes [ASD, NASA/GSFC Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-08-20

    Motivated by the possible presence of scalar fields on cosmological scales, suggested by the recent measurement of the deceleration parameter by supernovae surveys, we present models of neutron star structure under the assumption that a scalar field makes a significant contribution to the stress energy momentum tensor, in addition to that made by the normal matter. To that end we solve the coupled Einstein-scalar field-hydrostatic balance equations to compute the effect of the presence of the scalar field on the neutron star structure. We find that the presence of the scalar field does change the structure of the neutron star, especially in cases of strong coupling between the scalar field and the matter density. We present the neutron star radius as a function of the matter-scalar field coupling constant for different values of the neutron star central density. The presence of the scalar field does affect both the maximum neutron star mass and its radius, the latter increasing with the value of the above coupling constant. Our results can provide limits to the scalar field-matter coupling through spectro-temporal observations of accreting or isolated neutron stars.

  18. Electromagnetic and Radiative Properties of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason G.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetospheres of neutron stars are commonly modeled as either devoid of plasma in "vacuum'' models or filled with perfectly conducting plasma with negligible inertia in "force-free'' models. While numerically tractable, neither of these idealized limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. In this work we improve upon these models by considering the structure of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's Law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and implement a time-dependent numerical code to construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and force-free magnetosphere solutions. We further apply our method to create a self-consistent model for the recently discovered intermittent pulsars that switch between two distinct states: an "on'', radio-loud state, and an "off'', radio-quiet state with lower spin-down luminosity. Essentially, we allow plasma to leak off open field lines in the absence of pair production in the "off'' state, reproducing observed differences in spin-down rates. Next, we examine models in which the high-energy emission from gamma-ray pulsars comes from reconnecting current sheets and layers near and beyond the light cylinder. The reconnected magnetic field provides a reservoir of energy that heats particles and can power high-energy synchrotron radiation. Emitting particles confined to the sheet naturally result in a strong caustic on the skymap and double peaked light curves for a broad range of observer angles. Interpulse bridge emission likely arises from interior to the light cylinder, along last open field lines that traverse the space between the polar caps and the current sheet. Finally, we apply our code to solve for the magnetospheric structure of merging neutron star binaries. We find that the scaling of electromagnetic luminosity with orbital angular velocity varies between the power 4 for nonspinning stars and the power 1.5 for rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars near contact. Our derived scalings and magnetospheres can be used to help understand electromagnetic signatures from merging neutron stars to be observed by Advanced LIGO.

  19. Neutron star dynamos and the origins of pulsar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron star convection is a transient phenomenon and has an extremely high magnetic Reynolds number. In this sense, a neutron star dynamo is the quintessential fast dynamo. The convective motions are only mildly turbulent on scales larger than the approximately 100 cm neutrino mean free path, but the turbulence is well developed on smaller scales. Several fundamental issues in the theory of fast dynamos are raised in the study of a neutron star dynamo, in particular the possibility of dynamo action in mirror-symmetric turbulence. It is argued that in any high magnetic Reynolds number dynamo, most of the magnetic energy becomes concentrated in thin flux ropes when the field pressure exceeds the turbulent pressure at the smallest scale of turbulence. In addition, the possibilities for dynamo action during the various (pre-collapse) stages of convective motion that occur in the evolution of a massive star are examined, and the properties of white dwarf and neutron star progenitors are contrasted.

  20. Relativistic effective interaction for nuclei, giant resonances, and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Horowitz, C. J.; Shen, G. [Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Nuclear effective interactions are useful tools in astrophysical applications especially if one can guide the extrapolations to the extremes regions of isospin and density that are required to simulate dense, neutron-rich systems. Isospin extrapolations may be constrained in the laboratory by measuring the neutron skin thickness of a heavy nucleus, such as {sup 208}Pb. Similarly, future observations of massive neutron stars will constrain the extrapolations to the high-density domain. In this contribution we introduce a new relativistic effective interaction that is simultaneously constrained by the properties of finite nuclei, their collective excitations, and neutron-star properties. By adjusting two of the empirical parameters of the theory, one can efficiently tune the neutron skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb and the maximum neutron-star mass. We illustrate this procedure in response to the recent interpretation of x-ray observations by Steiner, Lattimer, and Brown that suggests that the FSUGold effective interaction predicts neutron-star radii that are too large and a maximum stellar mass that is too small. The new effective interaction is fitted to a neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb of only R{sub n}-R{sub p}=0.16 fm and yields a moderately large maximum neutron-star mass of 1.94 M{sub {center_dot}}.

  1. Sky catalogue 2000.0. Volume 2: Double stars, variable stars and nonstellar objects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A.; Sinnott, R. W.

    This is a re-issue of a book first published in 1985 (see Abstr. 39.002.019). This is a standard reference work for telescope users which gives positional and other data for galaxies, double and variable stars, and star clusters. It includes tables on 20,000 objects. Comprehensive treatment is given for each object: position for epoch 2000.0, magnitudes in the UBV photometric system, color index, surface brightness and Hubble classification for galaxies. Contents: Glossary of selected astronomical names. Index to letter names of variable stars. Double and multiple stars. Visual binary stars. Spectroscopic binary stars. Variable stars. Suspected variable stars. Open clusters. Open cluster cross index. Globular clusters. Bright nebulae. Dark nebulae. Planetary nebulae. Galaxies. Quasi-stellar objects (QSO's). Radio sources. X-ray sources.

  2. The Possible White Dwarf-Neutron Star Connection

    E-print Network

    R. Canal; J. Gutierrez

    1997-01-29

    The current status of the problem of whether neutron stars can form, in close binary systems, by accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs is examined. We find that, in principle, both initially cold C+O white dwarfs in the high-mass tail of their mass distribution in binaries and O+Ne+Mg white dwarfs can produce neutron stars. Which fractions of neutron stars in different types of binaries (or descendants from binaries) might originate from this process remains uncertain.

  3. Envelope calculations for a low temperature neutron star 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Robert Paul

    1976-01-01

    Temperature Neutron Star (May 1976) Robert Paul NcCoy, B. A. , Cornell University Chairman of Advisory Committee& Dr. R. A. Schorn In this paper analytic and numerical models of the structure of a low temperature neutron star envelope are produced... expected from a supernova explosion. Since the time of the pulsar discoveries, attention has been shifted from this line of search but no direct observation of a neutron star has yet been made. Whether it is possible to detect the surface emissions of a...

  4. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star approaching EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. +k Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts - modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. +k Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  5. Understanding Neutron Stars using Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star = EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts = modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  6. Properties of ?-stable neutron star matter with hyperons

    E-print Network

    I. Vidaña; A. Polls; A. Ramos; Oe. Elgaroey; L. Engvik; M. Hjorth-Jensen

    1999-12-08

    We present results from many-body calculations for \\beta-stable neutron star matter with nucleonic and hyperonic degrees of freedom, employing the most recent parametrizations of the baryon-baryon interaction of the Nijmegen group. It is found that the only strange baryons emerging in \\beta-stable matter up to total baryonic densities of 1.2 fm^{-3} are \\Sigma^- and \\Lambda. The corresponding equations of state are thence used to compute properties of neutron stars such as the masses, moments of inertia and radii. We also study the possibility of forming a hyperon superfluid and discuss its implications for neutron stars.

  7. Comment on "Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star"

    E-print Network

    M. I. Krivoruchenko; B. V. Martemyanov

    2015-03-04

    If strange matter is absolutely stable, the ordinary nuclei decay to strangelets, while neutron stars convert into strange stars. Lifetimes of the ordinary nuclei are constrained experimentally to be above $\\sim 10^{33}$ years, while lifetimes of the metastable neutron stars depend on the neutron star masses and can exceed the age of the Universe. As a consequence, the neutron stars and the strange stars can coexist in the Universe. We point out that numerical simulations of the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars, performed by M. Herzog and F. K. Roepke in Phys. Rev. D 84, 083002 (2011) [arXiv:1109.0539], are focused on a region in the parameter space of strange matter, in which low-mass neutron stars and strange stars are coexistent, whereas massive neutron stars are unstable and short lived on an astronomical timescale.

  8. Resonant Shattering of Neutron Star Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David; Read, J.; Hinderer, T.; Piro, A.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ~10^46-10^47 erg of energy seconds before the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of sGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state. We also discuss the application of such shattering flares as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave bursts from elliptic and parabolic encounters in dense star clusters.

  9. Resonant Shattering of Neutron Star Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David; Read, Jocelyn; Piro, Anthony; Hinderer, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ~10^46-10^47 erg of energy secondsbefore the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of sGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state. I will also discuss shattering flares as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave bursts during parabolic and elliptic encounters in dense star clusters.

  10. The equation of state of neutron matter, symmetry energy, and neutron star structure

    E-print Network

    S. Gandolfi; J. Carlson; S. Reddy; A. W. Steiner; R. B. Wiringa

    2013-07-22

    We review the calculation of the equation of state of pure neutron matter using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. QMC algorithms permit the study of many-body nuclear systems using realistic two- and three-body forces in a nonperturbative framework. We present the results for the equation of state of neutron matter, and focus on the role of three-neutron forces at supranuclear density. We discuss the correlation between the symmetry energy, the neutron star radius and the symmetry energy. We also combine QMC and theoretical models of the three-nucleon interactions, and recent neutron star observations to constrain the value of the symmetry energy and its density dependence.

  11. Gamow's Calculation of the Neutron Star's Critical Mass Revised

    E-print Network

    Hendrik Ludwig; Remo Ruffini

    2014-09-05

    It has at times been indicated that Landau introduced neutron stars in his classic paper of 1932. This is clearly impossible because the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick was submitted more than one month after Landau's work. Therefore, and according to his calculations, what Landau really did was to study white dwarfs, and the critical mass he obtained clearly matched the value derived by Stoner and later by Chandrasekhar. The birth of the concept of a neutron star is still today unclear. Clearly, in 1934, the work of Baade and Zwicky pointed to neutron stars as originating from supernovae. Oppenheimer in 1939 is also well known to have introduced general relativity (GR) in the study of neutron stars. The aim of this note is to point out that the crucial idea for treating the neutron star has been advanced in Newtonian theory by Gamow. However, this pioneering work was plagued by mistakes. The critical mass he should have obtained was $6.9\\,M_\\odot$, not the one he declared, namely, $1.5\\ M_\\odot$. Probably, he was taken to this result by the work of Landau on white dwarfs. We revise Gamow's calculation of the critical mass regarding calculational and conceptual aspects and discuss whether it is justified to consider it the first neutron-star critical mass. We compare Gamow's approach to other early and modern approaches to the problem.

  12. Constraining URCA cooling of neutron stars from the neutron radius of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2002-11-01

    Recent observations by the Chandra observatory suggest that some neutron stars may cool rapidly, perhaps by the direct URCA process which requires a high proton fraction. The proton fraction is determined by the nuclear symmetry energy whose density dependence may be constrained by measuring the neutron radius of a heavy nucleus, such as 208Pb. Such a measurement is necessary for a reliable extrapolation of the proton fraction to the higher densities present in a neutron star. A large neutron radius in 208Pb implies a stiff symmetry energy that grows rapidly with density, thereby favoring a high proton fraction and allowing direct URCA cooling. Predictions for the neutron radius in 208Pb are correlated to the proton fraction in dense matter by using a variety of relativistic effective field-theory models. Models that predict a neutron (Rn) minus proton (Rp) root-mean-square radius in 208Pb to be Rn-Rp<~0.20 fm have proton fractions too small to allow the direct URCA cooling of 1.4Msolar neutron stars. Conversely, if Rn-Rp>~0.25 fm, the direct URCA process is allowed (by all models) to cool down a 1.4Msolar neutron star. The Parity Radius Experiment at Jefferson Laboratory aims to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb accurately and model independently via parity-violating electron scattering. Such a measurement would greatly enhance our ability to either confirm or dismiss the direct URCA cooling of neutron stars.

  13. Accuracy of measurement of photographic plates with double stars taken with 26-inch refractor in Pulkovo observatory

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    191 Accuracy of measurement of photographic plates with double stars taken with 26-inch refractor of the measurements. The plates contain the images of more than 300 double and multiple stars from Pulkovo double star reliable in the case of double stars, where we measure the relative positions of double star components

  14. Thermal and transport properties of the neutron star inner crust

    E-print Network

    Dany Page; Sanjay Reddy

    2012-01-26

    We review the nuclear and condensed matter physics underlying the thermal and transport properties of the neutron star inner crust. These properties play a key role in interpreting transient phenomena such as thermal relaxation in accreting neutron stars, superbursts, and magnetar flares. We emphasize simplifications that occur at low temperature where the inner crust can be described in terms of electrons and collective excitations. The heat conductivity and heat capacity of the solid and superfluid phase of matter is discussed in detail and we emphasize its role in interpreting observations of neutron stars in soft X-ray transients. We highlight recent theoretical and observational results, and identify future work needed to better understand a host of transient phenomena in neutron stars.

  15. Transition density and pressure in hot neutron stars 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An.

    2010-01-01

    Using the momentum-dependent effective interaction (MDI) for nucleons, we have studied the transition density and pressure at the boundary between the inner crust and the liquid core of hot neutron stars. We find that their values are larger...

  16. Hadron-Quark Crossover and Hot Neutron Stars at Birth

    E-print Network

    Kota Masuda; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Tatsuyuki Takatsuka

    2015-06-02

    We construct a new isentropic equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature "CRover" on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover at high density. By using the new EOS, we study the structure of hot neutron stars at birth with the typical lepton fraction ($Y_l=0.3-0.4$) and the typical entropy per baryon ($S=1-2$). Due to the gradual appearance of quark degrees of freedom at high density, the temperature T and the baryon density at the center of the hot neutron stars with the hadron-quark crossover are found to be smaller than those without the crossover by a factor of 2 or more. Typical energy release due to the contraction of a hot neutron star to a cold neutron star with 1.4 solarmass is shown to be about 0.04 solarmass with the spin-up rate about 14%.

  17. Eccentric mergers of black holes with spinning neutron stars

    E-print Network

    East, William E; Pretorius, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We study dynamical capture binary black hole-neutron star mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. Using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations, we find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the black hole --- as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.

  18. Chandra Captures Neutron Star Action - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows a fast moving jet of particles produced by a rapidly rotating neutron star, and may provide new insight into the nature of some of the densest...

  19. Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofengeim, D. D.; Kaminker, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the formalism by Kaminker et al. (Astron. Astrophys., 343 (1999) 1009) we derive an analytic approximation for neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung emissivity due to scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei in a neutron star crust of any realistic composition. The emissivity is expressed through the generalized Coulomb logarithm which we fit by introducing an effective potential of electron-nucleus scattering. In addition, we study the conditions at which the neutrino bremsstrahlung in the crust is affected by strong magnetic fields. The results can be applied for modelling of many phenomena in neutron stars, such as thermal relaxation in young isolated neutron stars and in accreting neutron stars with overheated crust in soft X-ray transients.

  20. Hadron-Quark Crossover and Hot Neutron Stars at Birth

    E-print Network

    Masuda, Kota; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We construct a new isentropic equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature "CRover" on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover at high density. By using the new EOS, we study the structure of hot neutron stars at birth with the typical lepton fraction ($Y_l=0.3-0.4$) and the typical entropy per baryon ($S=1-2$). Due to the gradual appearance of quark degrees of freedom at high density, the temperature T and the baryon density at the center of the hot neutron stars with the hadron-quark crossover are found to be smaller than those without the crossover by a factor of 2 or more. Typical energy release due to the contraction of a hot neutron star to a cold neutron star with 1.4 solarmass is shown to be about 0.04 solarmass with the spin-up rate about 14%.

  1. Accretion at a magnetic pole of a neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, K.

    1973-01-01

    As accreted material falls to the surface of a magnetized neutron star like Cen X-3 or Her X-1, it is arrested by radiation pressure in such a manner that a hot, dense mound of nearly stationary gas protrudes above each magnetic pole. Energy released above the mound diffuses out as moderately hard X rays; but that released within the mound emerges as soft X rays from the whole surface of the neutron star.

  2. Do pions condense in neutron-star matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J W; Gleeson, A M

    1983-04-01

    Pion condensates in neutron-star matter, formed either as new modes, or on states identifiable with those of the free pion are studied. A description of neutron-star matter at finite temperature is formulated upon a suitable basis of realistic interactions in a modified background field description, and leads to the onset of a pion condensate between the density of nuclear matter and the density of free hadrons. This condensate, however, is blocked when strange hadrons are incorporated in the description.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, Galactic neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Colgate; P. J. T. Leonard

    1995-01-01

    What makes a Galacic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the Galaxy following a finite period, â¼30My, after their formation. Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of (GBs) is based upon these high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks. The

  4. The dynamics and outcomes of rapid infall onto neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, C.L.; Benz, W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Herant, M. [Theory Division, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theory Division, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1996-04-01

    We present an extensive study of accretion onto neutron stars in which the velocity of the neutron star and structure of the surrounding medium is such that the Bondi-Hoyle accretion exceeds 10{sup 4} {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup 1}. Two types of initial conditions are considered for a range of entropies and chemical compositions: an atmosphere in pressure equilibrium above the neutron star, and a freely falling inflow of matter from infinity (also parameterized by the infall rate). We then evolve the system with one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic codes to determine the outcome. For most cases, hypercritical (also termed ``super Eddington``) accretion caused by rapid neutrino cooling allows the neutron star to accrete above the Bondi-Hoyle rate as previously pointed out by Chevalier. However, for a subset of simulations which corresponds to evolutionarily common events, convection driven by neutrino heating can lead to explosions by a mechanism similar to that found in core-collapse supernovae. Armed with the results from our calculations, we are in a position to predict the fate of a range of rapid-infall neutron star accretors present in certain low-mass X-ray binaries, common envelope systems, supernova fallbacks, and Thorne-Zytkow objects (TZOs). A majority of the common envelope systems that we considered led to explosions expelling the envelope, halting the neutron star{close_quote}s inward spiral, and allowing the formation of close binary systems. As a result, the smothered neutron stars produced in the collisions studied by Davies & Benz may also explode, probably preventing them from forming millisecond pulsars. For the most massive supernovae, in which the fallback of material toward the neutron star after a successful explosion is large, we find that a black hole is formed in a few seconds. Finally, we argue that the current set of TZO formation scenarios is inadequate and leads instead to hypercritical accretion and black hole formation.

  5. Neutron star properties with in-medium vector mesons

    E-print Network

    F. Weber; Gy. Wolf; T. Maruyama; S. Chiba

    2002-02-21

    We explore the impact of in-medium modification of the properties of vector mesons on the nuclear equation of state and neutron star properties. It is found that in-medium modifications stiffen the nuclear equation of state considerably. If this feature has its correspondence in the full treatment of dense hadronic matter, then very little room is left for the existence of exotic phases like quark matter or boson condensates in the centers of neutron stars of canonical mass.

  6. Crust-core coupling in rotating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Andersson, Nils [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Motivated by their gravitational wave driven instability, we investigate the influence of the crust on r-mode oscillations in a neutron star. Using a simplistic model of an elastic neutron star crust with constant shear modulus, we carry out an analytic calculation with the main objective of deriving an expression for the slippage between the core and the crust. Our analytic estimates support previous numerical results and provide useful insights into the details of the problem.

  7. Properties of Dense Matter in Neutron Stars and Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H.; Wang, Y. N.; Wen, W. [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-08-12

    We study the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter at finite temperature density with various proton fractions for use in supernova simulations. The properties of nuclear matter with both uniform and non-uniform distributions are studied consistently. We also discuss the EOS of neutron star matter at zero temperature in a wide density range including hyperons antikaons quarks. The EOS of neutron star matter could be softened by incorporating these new degrees of freedom.

  8. R-mode instability of strange stars and observations of neutron stars in LMXBs

    E-print Network

    Chun-Mei PI; Shu-Hua Yang; Xiao-Ping Zheng

    2014-09-22

    Using a realistic equation of state (EOS) of strange quark matter, namely, the modified bag model, and considering the constraints to the parameters of EOS by the observational mass limit of neutron stars, we study the r-mode instability window of strange stars, and find the same result as the brief study of Haskell, Degenaar and Ho in 2012 that these instability windows are not consistent with the spin frequency and temperature observations of neutron stars in LMXBs.

  9. R-mode constraints from neutron star equation of state

    E-print Network

    Papazoglou, M C

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational radiation has been proposed a long time before, as an explanation for the observed relatively low spin frequencies of young neutron stars and of accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries as well. In the present work we studied the effects of the neutron star equation of state on the r-mode instability window of rotating neutron stars. Firstly, we employed a set of analytical solution of the Tolman-Oppemheimer-Volkoff equations. In particular, we tried to clarify the effects of the bulk neutron star properties (mass, radius, density distribution, crust size and elasticity) on the r-mode instability window. We found that the critical angular velocity $\\Omega_c$ depends mainly on the neutron star radius. The effects of the gravitational mass and the mass distribution are almost negligible. Secondly, we studied the effect of the elasticity of the crust, via to the slippage factor $S$ and also the effect of the nuclear equation of state, via the slope parameter $L$, on the instability wi...

  10. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    This grant deals with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of our research in 1994 dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but we also addressed systems containing a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's) Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMX's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). We also dealt with one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of our research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions. These winds turned out to be of some importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's.

  11. Gravitational radiation during coalescence of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. G.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2013-07-01

    The coalescence of components of a binary star with equal masses ( M 1 = M 2 = M ?) and moving in circular orbits is considered. The equation of state for degenerate neutrons is used, leading to the equation of state for an ideal gas. The initial model has zero temperature, corresponding to a polytrope with n = 1.5. To reduce the required computational time, the initial close binary is constructed using the self-consistent field method. The computations use Newtonian gas dynamics, but the back reaction of the gravitational radiation is taken into account in a PN2.5 post-Newton approximation, obtained using ADM formalism. This makes it possible to apply previous experienceof constructing high-order Godunov-type difference schemes, which are suitable for end-to-end calculations of discontinuous solutions of the gas-dynamics equations on a fixed Eulerian grid. The Poisson equations were solved using an original spherical-function expansion method. The 3D computations yielded the parameters of the gravitational signal. Near the radiation maximum, the strain amplitude is rh ˜ 4 × 104 cm, the power maximum is 4 × 1054 erg/s, and the typical radiation frequency is ?1 kHz. The energy carried away by gravitational waves is ?1052 erg. These parameters are of interest, since they form an inherent part of a rotational mechanism for the supernova explosion. They are also of interest for the planning of gravitational-wave detection experiments.

  12. Inferences on Populations of Binary Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendler, Naomi; Price, Larry; Raymond, Vivien; LIGO Team

    2015-04-01

    The aLIGO network stands to make hundreds of detections over the lifetime of the project. While there is much to be learned from the parameters of single events, the parameter distribution of the population of events is also of great interest for astrophysics, as this kind of parameter inference will help to develop gravitational-wave astronomy. The goal of this project is to develop the tools for estimating such population distributions and accounting for selection bias in such inferences. We will then apply the method to a simulated population of binary systems of neutron stars in order to estimate their mass distribution. We were able to create a technique that takes a set of data from aLIGO and runs it through a parameter estimation pipeline, taking into account selection bias effects. We start with a set of mass measurements, each measurement its own distribution due to noise in the detector. We draw these samples from a 2-dimensional distribution in chirp mass and symmetric mass ratio. We then use a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the parameters of the original distribution, as well as the rate of events.

  13. Quark beta decay and the cooling of neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Iwamoto

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the beta decay of quarks in degenerate quark matter is kinematically allowed. The resulting neutrino emissivity is dramatically larger than that of neutron matter and comparable to that of matter with pion condensate. Thus a star with a quark-matter core would cool at a rate comparable to that for a star with a pion-condensed core, and

  14. Structural and Spacial Characters of Neutron Star in Relativistic ?-? Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, De-Hua; Hu, Jian-Xun; Liu, Liang-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The analytical and numerical solutions of structure and curvature of two kinds of static spherically symmetric neutron stars are calculated. The results show that Ricci tensor and curvature scalar cannot denote the curly character of the space directly, however, to static spherically symmetric stars, these two quantities can present the relative curly degree of the space and the matter distribution to a certain extent.

  15. Relative motions of 17 visual double stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Muller

    1978-01-01

    The relative motions of 17 visual stars are studied; the data cited in developing the equations of relative motion are often from observations made 50 or more years ago. The results are compared with the data from SAO, IDS and AGK catalogs.

  16. Periodic Box FHNC calculations of neutron star crustal matter. (I)

    E-print Network

    Nicola Bassan; Stefano Fantoni; Kevin E. Schmidt

    2011-06-15

    Neutron star crustal matter, whose properties are relevant in many models aimed at explaining observed astrophysical phenomena, has so far always been studied using a mean field approach. In order to check the results obtained in this way, a sensible next step is to make use of a realistic nuclear potential. The present paper extends the periodic-box Fermi HyperNetted Chain method to include longitudinal-isospin dependence of the correlations, making feasible a study of asymmetric crustal matter. Results are presented for the symmetry energy, the low-density neutron star equation of state and the single particle neutron and proton energies.

  17. Visual Distortions Near a Neutron Star and Black Hole

    E-print Network

    Robert J. Nemiroff

    1993-12-02

    The visual distortion effects visible to an observer traveling around and descending to the surface of an extremely compact star are described. Specifically, trips to a ``normal" neutron star, a black hole, and an ultracompact neutron star with extremely high surface gravity, are described. Concepts such as multiple imaging, red- and blue-shifting, conservation of surface brightness, the photon sphere, and the existence of multiple Einstein rings are discussed in terms of what the viewer would see. Computer generated, general relativistically accurate illustrations highlighting the distortion effects are presented and discussed. A short movie (VHS) depicting many of these effects is available to those interested free of charge.

  18. Double Star Measurements with a Three Inch Tasco Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Stephanie M.; Gonzalez, Christianne M.; Cameron, Corey M.; Johandes, James B.; Chapman, Brett R.; Fishbein, Sarah F.; Johnson, Jolyon M.; White, Robin; Genet, Russell M.

    2008-01-01

    Observations were made of three double stars with known separations and position angles using a three inch 1960's Tasco telescope equipped with a Meade astrometric eyepiece. After these observations were completed, their mean values were compared with cataloged values. It was concluded that, under appropriate conditions, a modest aperture Tasco telescope can provide remarkably accurate and precise results.

  19. Searching for New Double Stars with a Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The advent of computers with large amounts of RAM memory and fast processors, as well as easy internet access to large online astronomical databases, has made computer searches based on astrometric data practicable for most researchers. This paper describes one such search that has uncovered hitherto unrecognized double stars.

  20. On the analytic calculation of visual double star orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Docobo; RamOn Maria Aller

    1985-01-01

    This article studies the existence of periodic Keplerian orbits for visual double stars whose corresponding apparent orbits are to pass through three selected points. The analytical results provide the basis for a new method of calculating orbits which does not require prior calculation of the areal constant. This method is applied to the binary 04404 N 4313.

  1. Numerical experiments on planetary orbits in double stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dvorak

    1984-01-01

    This is a numerical study of orbits in the elliptic restricted three-body problem concerning the dependence of the critical orbits on the eccentricity of the primaries. They are defined as being the separatrix between stable and unstable single periodic orbits. As our results are adapted to the existence of planetary orbits in double stars we concentrated first on the P-orbits

  2. On the eigenvalues of generalized and double generalized stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Barioli; Shaun Fallat

    2005-01-01

    We consider describing all possible spectra of symmetric matrices associated with certain graphs by characterizing all possible ordered multiplicity lists. For generalized and double generalized stars we provide a complete description of all possible eigenvalue sequences. This result is obtained by first verifying all possible multiplicity lists for these graphs which, in fact, turns out to be necessary and sufficient

  3. Cluster and Double Star multipoint observations of a plasma bubble

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Walsh; A. N. Fazakerley; A. D. Lahiff; M. Volwerk; A. Grocott; M. W. Dunlop; A. T. Y. Lui; L. M. Kistler; M. Lester; C. Mouikis; Z. Pu; C. Shen; J. Shi; M. G. G. T. Taylor; E. Lucek; T. L. Zhang; I. Dandouras

    2009-01-01

    Depleted flux tubes, or plasma bubbles, are one possible explanation of bursty bulk flows, which are transient high speed flows thought to be responsible for a large proportion of flux transport in the magnetotail. Here we report observations of one such plasma bubble, made by the four Cluster spacecraft and Double Star TC-2 around 14:00 UT on 21 September 2005,

  4. Ferromagnetism of dense matter and magnetic properties of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    P. Haensel; S. Bonazzola

    1996-05-24

    Possible consequences of ferromagnetic transition in dense matter suggested recently by Kutschera and W{\\'o}jcik, for the magnetic properties of neutron stars, are studied. Specific model of dense matter, in which a small admixture of protons is completely polarized due to their interaction with neutrons, is considered. Magnetic field of neutron stars with a ferromagnetic core is calculated within the framework of general relativity. Two types of boundary conditions at the ferromagnetic core edge are considered, corresponding to normal and superconducting liquid envelope, respectively. Numerical results for the neutron star magnetic dipole moment are confronted with pulsar timing. To be consistent with observations, ferromagnetic cores surrounded by a non-superconducting envelope, should consist of weakly ordered ferromagnetic domains. If domains are highly ordered, ferromagnetic core should be screened by a superconducting envelope.

  5. Constraining neutron star tidal Love numbers with gravitational wave detectors

    E-print Network

    Eanna E. Flanagan; Tanja Hinderer

    2007-12-07

    Ground-based gravitational wave detectors may be able to constrain the nuclear equation of state using the early, low frequency portion of the signal of detected neutron star - neutron star inspirals. In this early adiabatic regime, the influence of a neutron star's internal structure on the phase of the waveform depends only on a single parameter lambda of the star related to its tidal Love number, namely the ratio of the induced quadrupole moment to the perturbing tidal gravitational field. We analyze the information obtainable from gravitational wave frequencies smaller than a cutoff frequency of 400 Hz, where corrections to the internal-structure signal are less than 10 percent. For an inspiral of two non-spinning 1.4 solar mass neutron stars at a distance of 50 Mpc, LIGO II detectors will be able to constrain lambda to lambda < 2.0 10^{37} g cm^2 s^2 with 90% confidence. Fully relativistic stellar models show that the corresponding constraint on radius R for 1.4 solar mass neutron stars would be R < 13.6 km (15.3 km) for a n=0.5 (n=1.0) polytrope.

  6. Hydromagnetic Equilibria and their Evolution in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenegger, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The strongest known magnetic fields are found in neutron stars. I briefly discuss how they are inferred from observations, as well as the evidence for their time-evolution. I go on to show how these extremely strong fields are actually weak in terms of their effects on the stellar structure. This is also the case for magnetic stars on the upper main sequence and magnetic white dwarfs, which have similar total magnetic fluxes, perhaps pointing to an evolutionary connection. I suggest that a stable hydromagnetic equilibrium (containing a poloidal and a toroidal field component) could be established soon after the birth of the neutron star, aided by the strong compositional stratification of neutron star matter, and this state is slowly eroded by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic processes such as beta decays and ambipolar diffusion in the core of the star and Hall drift and breaking of the solid in its crust. Over sufficiently long time scales, the fluid in the neutron star core will behave as if it were barotropic, because, depending on temperature and magnetic field strength, beta decays will keep adjusting the composition to the chemical equilibrium state, or ambipolar diffusion will decouple the charged component from the neutrons. Therefore, the still open question regarding stable hydromagnetic equilibria in barotropic fluids will become relevant for the evolution, at least for magnetar fields, which are likely too strong to be stabilized by the solid crust.

  7. Thin accretion discs around neutron and quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Z.; Cheng, K. S.; Harko, T.

    2009-06-01

    Context: The possibility of observationally discriminating between various types of neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the nuclear matter, as well as differentiating neutron stars from other types of exotic objects, for example, quark stars, is one of the fundamental problems in contemporary astrophysics. Aims: We consider and investigate carefully the possibility that different types of rapidly rotating neutron stars, as well as other type of compact general-relativistic objects, can be identified reliably by the study of the emission properties of the accretion discs around them. Methods: We obtain the energy flux, temperature distribution, and emission spectrum from the accretion discs around several classes of rapidly rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state for neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the MIT bag model equation of state, and in the CFL (Color-Flavor-Locked) phase, respectively. Results: Particular signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, implying that the equation of state of the dense matter can be tested directly by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion discs.

  8. How can Newly Born Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars Become Magnetars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-05-01

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (~1011 G) to generate an ultra-high (~1017 G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ~102 - 3 s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ~1015 G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ~5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  9. Intriguing triple-mode RR Lyrae star with period doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, R.; Soszy?ski, I.; Udalski, A.; Szyma?ski, M. K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Koz?owski, S.; Poleski, R.; Moskalik, P.; Skowron, D.; Pietrzy?ski, G.; Wyrzykowski, ?.; Ulaczyk, K.; Mróz, P.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of an intriguing triple-mode RR Lyrae star found in the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) Galactic bulge collection, OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-24137. In the OGLE catalogue, the star was identified as RRd star - double-mode pulsator, pulsating simultaneously in the fundamental and in the first overtone modes. We find that third mode is excited and firmly detect its period doubling. Period ratios are not far from that expected for triple-mode - fundamental, first and third overtone - pulsation. Unfortunately, we cannot reproduce period ratios of the three modes with a consistent set of pulsation models. Therefore the other interpretation, that additional mode is non-radial, is also likely.

  10. NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and superconducting material," said Peter Shternin of the Ioffe Institute in St Petersburg, Russia, leader of a team with a paper accepted in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Both teams show that this rapid cooling is explained by the formation of a neutron superfluid in the core of the neutron star within about the last 100 years as seen from Earth. The rapid cooling is expected to continue for a few decades and then it should slow down. "It turns out that Cas A may be a gift from the Universe because we would have to catch a very young neutron star at just the right point in time," said Page's co-author Madappa Prakash, from Ohio University. "Sometimes a little good fortune can go a long way in science." The onset of superfluidity in materials on Earth occurs at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero, but in neutron stars, it can occur at temperatures near a billion degrees Celsius. Until now there was a very large uncertainty in estimates of this critical temperature. This new research constrains the critical temperature to between one half a billion to just under a billion degrees. Cas A will allow researchers to test models of how the strong nuclear force, which binds subatomic particles, behaves in ultradense matter. These results are also important for understanding a range of behavior in neutron stars, including "glitches," neutron star precession and pulsation, magnetar outbursts and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. Small sudden changes in the spin rate of rotating neutron stars, called glitches, have previously given evidence for superfluid neutrons in the crust of a neutron star, where densities are much lower than seen in the core of the star. This latest news from Cas A unveils new information about the ultra-dense inner region of the neutron star. "Previously we had no idea how extended superconductivity of protons was in a neutron star," said Shternin's co-author Dmitry Yakovlev, also from the Ioffe Institute. The cooling in the Cas A

  11. "Doublet", Neutron and Neutron stars --- An essay on Landau and Neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Renxin Xu

    2011-03-02

    The concept of extremely dense matter at supra-nuclear density was first speculated by L. Landau in the beginning of 1930s when neutron was just discovered. A historical review on these issues not only explains the interaction between micro and cosmic physics, but also has profound implications for scientific innovation. It is surely meaningful in realistic physics education to look back to this history. (The review was published in Chinese.)

  12. Decomposition of Odd-hole-free Graphs by Double Star Cutsets and 2-Joins

    E-print Network

    Cornuejols, Gerard P.

    Decomposition of Odd-hole-free Graphs by Double Star Cutsets and 2-Joins Michele Conforti #3; G#19-hole-free graphs, even-signable graphs, decomposition, 2-join, double star cutset. #3; Dipartimento di Matematica as an induced subgraph a chordless cycle of odd length greater than three) with double star cutsets and 2-joins

  13. Adversary degree-associated reconstruction number of double-stars , Huangping Shi

    E-print Network

    West, Douglas B.

    Adversary degree-associated reconstruction number of double-stars Meijie Ma , Huangping Shi,n be the double- star with central vertices having m and n leaf neighbors. For 1 m n, we prove that always adrn: degree-associated reconstruction number, double-star 1 Introduction The Reconstruction Conjecture

  14. Mergers of Black Hole -- Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantsiou, Emmanouela

    Motivated by the scenario that black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers are viable progenitors of observed short Gamma-ray Bursts, we have used a 3D relativistic SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) code to study mergers of such binary systems (with relatively low mass ratios). We have investigated a wide range of parameters for those binaries: mass ratio, Equation of State (EOS) for the NS, compactness of the NS. Most importantly, the BH's spin was varied in our simulations (from non-spinning to maximally spinning BHs), and so was the orbital inclination of the NS. We have found that the outcome of such mergers depends sensitively on both the magnitude of the BH spin and its obliquity (i.e., the inclination of the binary orbit with respect to the equatorial plane of the BH). In particular, only systems with sufficiently high BH spin parameter a and sufficiently low orbital inclinations allow any NS matter to escape or to form a long-lived disk outside the BH horizon after disruption. Mergers of binaries with orbital inclinations above ˜60° lead to complete prompt accretion of the entire NS by the BH, even for the case of an extreme Kerr BH. We find that the formation of a significant disk or torus of NS material around the BH always requires a near-maximal BH spin and a low initial inclination of the NS orbit just prior to merger. Furthermore, we have investigated and we are presenting the gravitational waveforms and gravitational wave energy spectra from some representative cases. Despite using simply the quadrupole formula with post-Newtonian extensions (up to 3.5 terms) for radiation reaction, we were able to clearly see the impact of the BH's spin and NS's orbital inclination on the spectra and waveforms produced in our simulations.

  15. Cooling of young neutron stars in GRB associated to supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, R.; Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Rueda, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The traditional study of neutron star cooling has been generally applied to quite old objects such as the Crab Pulsar (957 years) or the central compact object in Cassiopeia A (330 years) with an observed surface temperature ~106 K. However, recent observations of the late (t = 108-109 s) emission of the supernovae (SNe) associated to GRBs (GRB-SN) show a distinctive emission in the X-ray regime consistent with temperatures ~107-108 K. Similar features have been also observed in two Type Ic SNe SN 2002ap and SN 1994I that are not associated to GRBs. Aims: We advance the possibility that the late X-ray emission observed in GRB-SN and in isolated SN is associated to a hot neutron star just formed in the SN event, here defined as a neo-neutron star. Methods: We discuss the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars in the age regime that spans from ~1 min (just after the proto-neutron star phase) all the way up to ages <10-100 yr. We examine critically the key factor governing the neo-neutron star cooling with special emphasis on the neutrino emission. We introduce a phenomenological heating source, as well as new boundary conditions, in order to mimic the high temperature of the atmosphere for young neutron stars. In this way we match the neo-neutron star luminosity to the observed late X-ray emission of the GRB-SN events: URCA-1 in GRB980425-SN1998bw, URCA-2 in GRB030329-SN2003dh, and URCA-3 in GRB031203-SN2003lw. Results: We identify the major role played by the neutrino emissivity in the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars. By calibrating our additional heating source at early times to ~1012-1015 erg/g/s, we find a striking agreement of the luminosity obtained from the cooling of a neo-neutron stars with the prolonged (t = 108-109 s) X-ray emission observed in GRB associated with SN. It is therefore appropriate a revision of the boundary conditions usually used in the thermal cooling theory of neutron stars, to match the proper conditions of the atmosphere at young ages. The traditional thermal processes taking place in the crust might be enhanced by the extreme high-temperature conditions of a neo-neutron star. Additional heating processes that are still not studied within this context, such as e+e- pair creation by overcritical fields, nuclear fusion, and fission energy release, might also take place under such conditions and deserve further analysis. Conclusions: Observation of GRB-SN has shown the possibility of witnessing the thermal evolution of neo-neutron stars. A new campaign of dedicated observations is recommended both of GRB-SN and of isolated Type Ic SN.

  16. SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    SciTech Connect

    Staff, Jan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2012-05-20

    We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B {<=} 10{sup 13} G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude {alpha}{sub sat}, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

  17. Nuclear Equation of State and Neutron Star Cooling

    E-print Network

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) to the neutron star cooling. New era for nuclear EoS has begun after the discovery of $\\sim 2\\msun$ neutron stars PSR J1614$-$2230 and PSR J0348$+$0432 [1, 2]. Also recent works on the mass and radius of neutron stars from low-mass X-ray binaries [3] strongly constrain the EoS of nuclear matter. On the other hand, observations of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) more than 10 years confirmed the existence of nuclear superfluidity [4, 5]. Nuclear superfluidity reduces the heat capacities as well as neutrino emissivities. With nuclear superfluidity the neutrino emission processes are highly suppressed, and the existence of superfluidity makes the cooling path quite different from that of the standard cooling process. Superfluidity also allows new neutrino emission process, which is called `Pair Breaking and Formation'(PBF). PBF is a fast cooling process and can explain the fast cooling rate of neutron star in Cas A. Therefore, it is essent...

  18. Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code is used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen-rich envelopes of 1.0-solar-mass neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. The simulations produce outbursts lasting from approximately 750 seconds to approximately one week. The peak effective temperatures and luminosities are 2.6 x 10 to the 7th K and 8 x 10 to the 4th solar luminosities for the 10 km study and 5.3 x 10 to the 6th K and 600 solar luminosities for the 20 km study. It is found that hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting approximately 0.0001 second. The study assumes that the bursters and transient X-ray sources occur as a result of mass transfer from a secondary onto a neutron star in a fashion analogous to the nova phenomena. The peak temperatures and luminosities are found to be inversely proportional to the radius of the neutron stars and the calculations here, together with those in the literature, indicate that the actual radii of most neutron stars must be closer to 10 km than 20 km.

  19. Neutron resonances in few-body systems and the EOS of neutron star crust

    E-print Network

    N. Takibayev; K. Kato; M. Takibayeva; A. Sarsembayeva; D. Nasirova

    2012-12-03

    The effective interactions formed by neutron rescattering between the nuclei fixed in nodes of the crystalline lattice of neutron star crusts have been considered. In the case of two-body resonances in neutron-nucleus subsystems new neutron resonances of few-body nature come into existence in the overdense crystal under certain conditions. The energies and widths of new resonances get additional dependence on the lattice parameters. The effective interactions result in nonlinear correction to the equation of state determined by the balance of gravitational, Coulomb and nuclear resonance forces. This leads to resonant oscillations of density in the accordant layers of crusts that are accompanied by oscillations of gamma radiation. The phenomena may clarify some processes connected with few-body neutron resonances in neutron star crusts, that have influence on the microstructure of pulsar impulses.

  20. Contribution to Neutron Fluence and Neutron Absorbed Dose from Double Scattering Proton Therapy System Components

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Andújar, A.; Newhauser, W. D.; DeLuca, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Proton therapy offers low integral dose and good tumor comformality in many deep-seated tumors. However, secondary particles generated during proton therapy, such as neutrons, are a concern, especially for passive scattering systems. In this type of system, the proton beam interacts with several components of the treatment nozzle that lie along the delivery path and can produce secondary neutrons. Neutron production along the beam's central axis in a double scattering passive system was examined using Monte Carlo simulations. Neutron fluence and energy distribution were determined downstream of the nozzle's major components at different radial distances from the central axis. In addition, the neutron absorbed dose per primary proton around the nozzle was investigated. Neutron fluence was highest immediately downstream of the range modulator wheel (RMW) but decreased as distance from the RMW increased. The nozzle's final collimator and snout also contributed to the production of high-energy neutrons. In fact, for the smallest treatment volume simulated, the neutron absorbed dose per proton at isocenter increased by a factor of 20 due to the snout presence when compared with a nozzle without a snout. The presented results can be used to design more effective local shielding components inside the treatment nozzle as well as to better understand the treatment room shielding requirements. PMID:20871789

  1. Double mode RR Lyrae stars in Omega Centauri

    E-print Network

    A. Olech; P. Moskalik

    2008-12-22

    Aim: The aim of this work was to search for double mode pulsators among RR Lyr variables of globular cluster Omega Cen. Methods: We conducted a systematic frequency analysis of CASE photometry of Omega Cen RR Lyr stars. We searched for periodicities using Fourier and ANOVA periodograms, combined with consecutive prewhitening technique. Results: We discovered six double mode pulsators, with the first overtone and a secondary mode of higher frequency simultaneously excited. These are the first double mode RR Lyr stars identified in Omega Cen. In variable V10 period ratio of the two modes is 0.80, which corresponds to pulsations in the first and second radial overtones. In V19 and V105 we found unexpected period ratio of 0.61. Three other stars display period ratios of either ~0.80 or ~0.61, depending on the choice of aliases. Conclusions: While the period ratio of ~0.80 is easy to interpret in terms of two lowest radial overtones, the value of ~0.61 cannot be explained by any two radial modes. Thus, V19 and V105 are the first members of a new class of double mode RR Lyr pulsators.

  2. Spin-down of neutron stars by neutrino emission

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornikov, Maxim [Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); IZMIRAN, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Dib, Claudio [Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    We study the spin-down of a neutron star during its early stages due to the neutrino emission. The mechanism we consider is the subsequent collisions of the produced neutrinos with the outer shells of the star. We find that this mechanism can indeed slow down the star rotation but only in the first tens of seconds of the core formation, which is when the appropriate conditions of flux and collision rate are met. We find that this mechanism can extract less than 1% of the star angular momentum, a result which is much less than previously estimated by other authors.

  3. Double stars: a synergy between amateur and professional astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agati, Jean-Louis; Bonneau, Daniel; Caille, Sébastien; Couteau, Paul; Debackère, André; Dommanget, Jean; Durand, Pierre; Gili, René; Losse, Florent; Manté, René; Mauroy, Florence; Morlet, Guy; Salaman, Maurice; Soulié, Edgar; Thorel, Jean-Claude; Thorel, Yvonne; Verhas, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    In the field of visual double stars, a long term follow-up is required, since their orbital periods may reach several centuries. Created in 1981 within the Société Astronomique de France (SAF) with the support of the late Paul Muller (1910-2000), the Commission des Etoiles Doubles provides the framework for the necessary collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers, through generations. The late Dr. Paul Baize (1901-1995) was a model for its members. Several professional astronomers became scientific advisors of the Commission and have guided many works made by amateurs.

  4. Rapidly rotating neutron stars in R -squared gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2015-04-01

    f (R ) theories of gravity are one of the most popular alternative explanations for dark energy, and therefore studying the possible astrophysical implications of these theories is an important task. In the present paper we make a substantial advance in this direction by considering rapidly rotating neutron stars in R2 gravity. The results are obtained numerically, and the method we use is nonperturbative and self-consistent. The neutron star properties, such as mass, radius, and moment of inertia, are studied in detail. The results show that rotation magnifies the deviations from general relativity, and the maximum mass and moment of inertia can reach very high values. This observation is similar to the previous studies of rapidly rotating neutron stars in other alternative theories of gravity, such as scalar-tensor theories, and it can potentially lead to strong astrophysical manifestations.

  5. Spectroscopy of a Neutron Star Transient in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon

    2012-10-01

    Neutron star X-ray transients span a broad range of stellar magnetic fields and spin periods, and their outbursts can span five orders of magnitude in mass accretion rate. They are excellent settings in which to study basic disk physics through X-ray disk winds, and the evolution of disks and accretion flows with mass accretion rate. New observations can also confirm the nature of relativistic disk lines, and exploit such lines to constrain the stellar radius, the equation of state, and even the stellar magnetic field strength. Persistent neutron star binaries represent a rich discovery space. We request 2 40 ksec observations to study a new or known neutron star transient in outburst.

  6. General Relativistic Simulations of Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca; Link, David; Font, José A.

    2011-08-01

    Binary neutron star mergers are one of the possible candidates for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and they are also powerful sources of gravitational waves. We have used our fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code Whisky to investigate the merger of binary neutron star systems and we have in particular studied the properties of the tori that can be formed by these systems, their possible connection with the engine of short GRBs and the gravitational wave signals that detectors such as advanced LIGO will be able to detect. We have also shown how the mass of the torus varies as a function of the total mass of the neutron stars composing the binary and of their mass ratio and we have found that tori sufficiently massive to power short GRBs can indeed be formed.

  7. Thermonuclear Burning as a Probe of Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion is a fundamental process taking place in the matter transferred onto neutron stars in accreting binary systems. The heat deposited by nuclear reactions becomes readily visible in the X-ray band when the burning is either unstable or marginally stable, and results in the rich phenomenology of X-ray bursts, superbursts, and mHz quasiperiodic oscillations. Fast X-ray timing observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) over the past decade have revealed a wealth of new phenomena associated with thermonuclear burning on neutron stars, including the discovery of nuclear powered pulsations during X-ray bursts and superbursts. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these new phenomena, with an emphasis on recent findings, and discuss what they are telling us about the structure of neutron stars.

  8. Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Lasky, Paul D.

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun-down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus' field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star's birth.

  9. Physics in strong magnetic fields near neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena occurring in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars are currently of great interest in high-energy astrophysics. Observations of rotation rate changes and cyclotron lines in pulsars and gamma-ray bursts indicate that surface magnetic fields of neutron stars often exceed a trillion gauss. In fields this strong, where electrons behave much as if they were in bound atomic states, familiar processes undergo profound changes, and exotic processes become important. Strong magnetic fields affect the physics in several fundamental ways: energies perpendicular to the field are quantized, transverse momentum is not conserved, and electron-positron spin is important. Neutron stars therefore provide a unique laboratory for the study of physics in extremely high fields that cannot be generated on earth.

  10. The mass ratio distribution of short period double degenerate stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. L. Maxted; T. R. Marsh; C. K. J. Moran

    2002-01-01

    Short period double degenerates (DDs) are close white dwarf - white dwarf\\u000abinary stars which are the result of the evolution of interacting binary stars.\\u000aWe present the first definitive measurements of the mass ratio for two DDs,\\u000aWD0136+768 and WD1204+450, and an improved measurement of the mass ratio for\\u000aWD0957-666. We compare the properties of the 6 known DDs

  11. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  12. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    Armen Sedrakian; John W. Clark

    2015-05-30

    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  13. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the strange matter hypothesis and the existence of strange stars should be possible.

  14. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the strange matter hypothesis and the existence of strange stars should be possible.

  15. Merging ``real'' neutron stars for gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duez, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Having more-or-less succeeded in learning to stably evolve Einstein's equations, numerical relativity is taking the leap to including the physics of neutron stars, which will enable us to construct truly realistic pictures of neutron star-neutron star and black hole-neutron star binary mergers. The neutron star profile affects late inspirals and mergers, leaving its imprint on gravitational waveforms and electromagnetic counterpart signals. Furthermore, we expect neutrino radiation, magnetic field, and nuclear recombination effects to drive the post-merger evolution. In this talk, I will describe some recent neutron star merger simulations combining nuclear physics and general relativity. The goal is to connect assumptions about the nuclear equation of state and the premerger binary to resulting binary trajectories, matter outflows, accretion disk dynamics, and neutrino energy output. These can then hopefully be connected to observable signals in the form of gravitational waves, kilonovae, and gamma ray bursts. It is found that an interesting variety of disks, outflows, and neutrino bursts are possible. Connections to observables are being attempted by tracking nuclear reactions in tidal ejecta and estimating energy injection to gamma ray bursts from neutrino annihilation and other sources. Meanwhile, non-vacuum inspiral simulations are finally approaching the length and accuracy needed for interesting comparisons with binary black hole waveforms and post-Newtonian predictions, these being steps toward a reliable characterization of the imprint of the nuclear equation of state on the gravitational waves. The speaker acknowledges support from NASA Grant No. NNX11AC37G and NSF Grant PHY-1068243.

  16. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING NEUTRON-STAR MASSES AND RADII WITH X-RAY PULSE PROFILE MODELING

    E-print Network

    Psaltis, Dimitrios

    Modeling the amplitudes and shapes of the X-ray pulsations observed from hot, rotating neutron stars provides a direct method for measuring neutron-star properties. This technique constitutes an important part of the science ...

  17. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A Triggered by Neutron Superfluidity in Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2011-02-01

    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the P23 channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ?0.5×109K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star.

  18. Inferring neutron stars crust properties from quiescent thermal emission

    E-print Network

    Aguilera, Deborah N

    2015-01-01

    The observation of thermal emission from isolated neutron stars and the modeling of the corresponding cooling curves has been very useful to get information on the properties of matter at very high densities. More recently, the detection of quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems after active periods opened a new window to the physics of matter at lower densities. Here we analyze a few sources that have been recently monitored and we show how the models can be used to establish constraints on the crust composition and their transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed.

  19. The Many Faces - and Phases - of Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2007-10-26

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure and dynamics of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss the many fascinating phases that one encounters as one travels from the low-density crust to the high-density core.

  20. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Simulations at Georgia Tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland

    2009-05-01

    Mixed compact object binaries consisting of a black hole and a neutron star are expected to be not only one of the primary sources of gravitational radiation to be observed by interferometric detectors but also the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts. We report on the status of our effort at Georgia Tech to model these mixed binary systems using the moving puncture method. The results are obtained with an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics Whisky code. We present preliminary results of gravitational waveforms and the disruption of the neutron star for simple polytropic equations of state.

  1. White dwarfs vs. neutron stars - Properties, constraints, and analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    Theoretical expectations and observational constraints pertaining to fundamental properties of white dwarfs and neutron stars are reviewed, including masses, angular velocities and rotation periods, moments of inertia and radii, magnetic fields, space velocities, formation processes, birthrates in the Galaxy, and compositions. Neutron star models are much more constrained by the data than are white dwarf model, even though uncertainties in the equation of state leave much more flexibility in the former. Certain analogies which can be drawn between the two classes support the hypothesis that rapidly rotating pulsars are typically the products of interacting binary systems.

  2. I-Q Relation for Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan; Delsate, Térence; Gürlebeck, Norman; Steinhoff, Jan

    2014-05-01

    We consider a universal relation between moment of inertia and quadrupole moment of arbitrarily fast rotating neutron stars. Recent studies suggest that this relation breaks down for fast rotation. We find that it is still universal among various suggested equations of state for constant values of certain dimensionless parameters characterizing the magnitude of rotation. One of these parameters includes the neutron star radius, leading to a new universal relation expressing the radius through the mass, frequency, and spin parameter. This can become a powerful tool for radius measurements.

  3. Tables of model atmospheres of bursting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madej, Jerzy

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents tables of plane-parallel neutron star model atmospheres in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium, with effective temperatures of 8 x 10 exp 6, 1.257 x 10 exp 7, 2 x 10 exp 7, and 3 x 10 exp 7 K, and surface gravities of 15.0 and less (cgs units). The equations of model atmospheres on which the tables are based fully account for nonisotropies of the radiation field and effects of noncoherent Compton scattering of thermal X-rays by free electrons. Both the effective temperatures and gravities listed above are measured on the neutron star surface.

  4. Gravitational radiation from dual neutron star elliptical binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hils, Dieter

    1991-01-01

    General expressions are derived for the gravitational radiation incident on earth due to elliptical binary systems in the Galaxy. These results are applied to dual neutron star elliptical binaries. Calculations show that eccentric dual neutron star binaries lead to a moderate increase in gravitational flux density compared with circular systems for frequencies above approximately 0.0001 Hz. Tables of various quantities such as average gravitational luminosity, number of sources per unit bandwidth, energy spectral flux density, and gravitational wave strain density are given.

  5. Damping of Neutron Star Shear Modes by Superfluid Friction

    E-print Network

    P. B. Jones

    2003-01-07

    The forced motion of superfluid vortices in shear oscillations of rotating solid neutron star matter produces damping of the mode. A simple model of the unpinning and repinning processes is described, with numerical calculations of the consequent energy decay times. These are of the order of 1 s or more for typical anomalous X-ray pulsars but become very short for the general population of radio pulsars. The superfluid friction processes considered here may also be significant for the damping of r-modes in rapidly rotating neutron stars.

  6. Role of isospin physics in supernova matter and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bharat K.; Pal, Subrata [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the liquid-gas phase transition of hot protoneutron stars shortly after their birth following supernova explosion and the composition and structure of hyperon-rich (proto)neutron stars within a relativistic mean-field model where the nuclear symmetry energy was constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. Light clusters are abundantly formed with increasing temperature well inside the neutrino-sphere for a uniform supernova matter. Liquid-gas phase transition is found to suppress the cluster yield within the coexistence phase as well as decrease considerably the neutron-proton asymmetry over a wide density range. We find symmetry energy has a modest effect on the boundaries and the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, and the composition depends more sensitively on the number of trapped neutrinos and temperature of the protoneutron star. The influence of hyperons in the dense interior of stars makes the overall equation of state soft. However, neutrino trapping distinctly delays the appearance of hyperons because of an abundance of electrons. We also find that a softer symmetry energy further makes the onset of hyperon less favorable. The resulting structures of the (proto)neutron stars with hyperons and with liquid-gas phase transition are discussed.

  7. Gamma-Ray Bursts from Decompressing Neutron Star Material()

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Aufderheide, M. B.; Ressell, M. T.; Rogers, R. D.; Meyer, B. S.; Schramm, D. N.

    1992-12-01

    We explore the possibility that decompressing neutron star material may be a source for the isotropic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Such material might be ejected during the collision or tidal disruption of a neutron star in a binary sytem or as a result of neutron star seismic activity. Without gravitational confinement, this extremely neutron-rich material will decompress and heat up through a series of fissions, beta (-) decays, and photodissociations. It will then recombine in an r-process like environment. As the density drops and the material becomes optically thin, short-lived nuclei decay back to stability emitting a burst of gamma rays on a time scale of msec to sec. The resulting gamma-ray spectrum will be directly observable if the burst luminosity is low enough that a pair-dominated photosphere which would reprocess the gamma-ray spectrum is not formed. We report on efforts to model the resulting gamma-ray spectrum, which requires estimates of beta (-) decay, gamma emission, beta -delayed neutron emission, and photodissociation rates for many neutron rich nuclei. This work will eventually be coupled to hydrodynamic and radiation transport codes, in an effort to explain some of the observed gamma-ray bursts. () Work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 and DOE Nuclear Theory Grant SF-ENG-48.

  8. Neutron star matter in an effective model

    E-print Network

    T. K. Jha; P. K. Raina; P. K. Panda; S. K. Patra

    2007-11-13

    We study the equation of state (EOS) for dense matter in the core of the compact star with hyperons and calculate the star structure in an effective model in the mean field approach. With varying incompressibility and effective nucleon mass, we analyse the resulting EOS with hyperons in beta equilibrium and its underlying effect on the gross properties of the compact star sequences. The results obtained in our analysis are compared with predictions of other theoretical models and observations. The maximum mass of the compact star lies in the range $1.21-1.96 ~M_{\\odot}$ for the different EOS obtained, in the model.

  9. CCD measurements of double and multiple stars in Belgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, G. M.; Pavlovic, R.

    1997-06-01

    The CCD measurements for 123 double stars with ST-6 camera attached to the Zeiss 65/1055 cm Refractor of the Belgrade Observatory are communicated. Table 1 only available in electronic form, Table 2 also in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html}}

  10. Discontinuous SVPWM Techniques for Double Star Induction Motor Drive Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khoudir Marouani; Lotfi Baghli; Djafar Hadiouche; Abdelaziz Kheloui; Abderrezak Rezzoug

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present SVPWM control techniques suitable for a double-star induction motor drive (DSIM). The induction machine has two sets of three-phase stator windings spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees. Each set of three-phase stator windings is fed by a three-phase inverter. Continuous and discontinuous space vector PWM techniques are presented. Implementation on a DSP controller board is

  11. A Hot Water Bottle for Aging Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Mark Alford; Pooja Jotwani; Chris Kouvaris; Joydip Kundu; Krishna Rajagopal

    2005-04-01

    The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity C_V and the heat loss by neutrino emission L_\

  12. A Hot Water Bottle for Aging Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Alford, M; Kouvaris, C; Kundu, J; Rajagopal, K; Alford, Mark; Jotwani, Pooja; Kouvaris, Chris; Kundu, Joydip; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    The gapless color-flavor locked (gCFL) phase is the second-densest phase of matter in the QCD phase diagram, making it a plausible constituent of the core of neutron stars. We show that even a relatively small region of gCFL matter in a star will dominate both the heat capacity C_V and the heat loss by neutrino emission L_\

  13. General relativistic simulations of magnetized binary neutron star mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. T. Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro; Zachariah B. Etienne; Keisuke Taniguchi

    2008-01-01

    Binary neutron stars (NSNS) are expected to be among the leading sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based laser interferometers and may be the progenitors of short-hard gamma-ray bursts. We present a series of general relativistic NSNS coalescence simulations both for unmagnetized and magnetized stars. We adopt quasiequilibrium initial data for circular, irrotational binaries constructed in the conformal thin-sandwich (CTS)

  14. R-mode instability of strange stars and observations of neutron stars in LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Chun-Mei; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Using a realistic equation of state (EOS) of strange quark matter, namely, the modified bag model, and considering the constraints on the parameters of EOS by the observational mass limit of neutron stars, we investigate the r-mode instability window of strange stars, and find the same result as in the brief study of Haskell, Degenaar and Ho in 2012 that these instability windows are not consistent with the spin frequency and temperature observations of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  15. Collective Modes in the Superfluid Inner Crust of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Urban, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The neutron-star inner crust is assumed to be superfluid at relevant temperatures. The contribution of neutron quasiparticles to thermodynamic and transport properties of the crust is therefore strongly suppressed by the pairing gap. Nevertheless, the neutron gas still has low-energy excitations, namely long-wavelength collective modes. We summarize different approaches to describe the collective modes in the crystalline phases of the inner crust and present an improved model for the description of the collective modes in the pasta phases within superfluid hydrodynamics.

  16. Collective Modes in the Superfluid Inner Crust of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Michael Urban; Micaela Oertel

    2015-06-01

    The neutron-star inner crust is assumed to be superfluid at relevant temperatures. The contribution of neutron quasiparticles to thermodynamic and transport properties of the crust is therefore strongly suppressed by the pairing gap. Nevertheless, the neutron gas still has low-energy excitations, namely long-wavelength collective modes. We summarize different approaches to describe the collective modes in the crystalline phases of the inner crust and present an improved model for the description of the collective modes in the pasta phases within superfluid hydrodynamics.

  17. Effects of the symmetry energy on properties of neutron star crusts near the neutron drip density

    E-print Network

    S. S. Bao; J. N. Hu; Z. W. Zhang; H. Shen

    2014-10-19

    We study the effects of the symmetry energy on the neutron drip density and properties of nuclei in neutron star crusts. The nonuniform matter around the neutron drip point is calculated by using the Thomas--Fermi approximation with the relativistic mean-field model. The neutron drip density and the composition of the crust are found to be correlated with the symmetry energy and its slope. We compare the self-consistent Thomas--Fermi approximation with other treatments of surface and Coulomb energies and find that these finite-size effects play an essential role in determining the equilibrium state at low density.

  18. The path of black holes and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Rodrigues, I.

    The kinematics of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries in the Galaxy should help to know their birth place and constrain their evolution. We have used multiple tools of modern astronomy to determine the trajectories in the Galaxy and track the origins of seven black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries that are of topical interest in astrophysics. We find three distinct classes of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries: (1) those that move in the Galactic disk along paths that resemble the circular orbits of massive stars formed in the disk, (2) low mass X-ray binaries that move at high velocities on galactocentric orbits similar to the most ancient stars born in the Galactic bulge and the halo, and (3) high and intermediate mass X-ray binaries running away from their parent regions of star formation. The runaway kinetic energies imparted by the explosion of the massive stellar progenitors of compact objects that remain bound in X-ray binaries, differ by at least two orders of magnitude, from less than 1047 ergs up to 1049 ergs}, namely, up to 1% of the kinetic energy of a supernova.

  19. Novel Phases at High Density and their Roles in the Structure and Evolution of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Reddy

    2002-11-14

    We present a pedagogic discussion on the role of novel phases of dense baryonic matter in ``neutron'' stars. Qualitative aspects of the physics that drives phase transitions and some of its astrophysical consequences are discussed. Observable aspects of neutron star structure and early evolution of the newly born neutron star are discussed in some detail.

  20. Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2

    E-print Network

    Xu, Ren-Xin

    Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2 , Wei Liu1 and En-Guang Zhao2 1 a new phase structure of neutron star matter including nucleons and delta isobars is presented. Particle fractions populated and pion condensations in neutron star matter are investgated in this model

  1. KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS, AND THE VALIDITY OF THE ADIABATIC APPROXIMATION

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS, AND THE VALIDITY OF THE ADIABATIC APPROXIMATION August 2006 #12;This document is in the public domain. #12;KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS that the neutron stars are subject to a crushing force late in the inspiral. This crushing effect has had

  2. Many-particle theory of nuclear systems with application to neutron star matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakkalakal, D. A.; Yang, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    The energy-density relation was calculated for pure neutron matter in the density range relevant for neutron stars, using four different hard-core potentials. Calculations are also presented of the properties of the superfluid state of the neutron component, along with the superconducting state of the proton component and the effects of polarization in neutron star matter.

  3. Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.; Sarracino, R.

    1983-08-30

    A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without magnetic a field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by bremsstrahlung or any other process. Instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

  4. Radiation from the accretion column of magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1982-01-01

    Some developments in radiative transfer for magnetized neutron star conditions, and their application in models of the structure and properties of self-consistent polar cap emission regions are reviewed. Several of the assumptions and uncertainties involved are discussed, and present problems are indicated.

  5. Surface r-Modes and Burst Oscillations of Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umin Lee

    2004-01-01

    We study the r-modes propagating in steadily mass accreting, nuclear burning, and geometrically thin envelopes on the surface of rotating neutron stars. For the modal analysis, we construct envelope models that are fully radiative or have a convective region. We simply call the former radiative models and the latter convective models in this paper. As the angular rotation frequency Omega

  6. Inhomogeneous seeding of quark bubbles in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Perez-Garcia, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution we briefly discuss about the consequences of the presence of Majorana dark matter in a dense neutron star environment focusing on a particularly interesting possible indirect effect, namely that of bubble nucleation. This is somewhat similar to current techniques developed for direct detection using bubble chamber or superheated droplet detectors.

  7. Eccentric mergers of black holes with spinning neutron stars

    E-print Network

    William E. East; Vasileios Paschalidis; Frans Pretorius

    2015-06-26

    We study dynamical capture binary black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. We initialize the BH-NS systems with positions and velocities corresponding to marginally unbound Newtonian orbits, and evolve them using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. We find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the BH---as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.

  8. Magnetar activity mediated by plastic deformations of neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2015-02-01

    We advance a `solar flare' model of magnetar activity, whereas a slow evolution of the magnetic field in the upper crust, driven by electron magnetohydrodynamic flows, twists the external magnetic flux tubes, producing persistent emission, bursts, and flares. At the same time, the neutron star crust plastically relieves the imposed magnetic field stress, limiting the strain ?t to values well below the critical strain ?crit of a brittle fracture, ?t ˜ 10-2?crit. Magnetar-like behaviour, occurring near the magnetic equator, takes place in all neutron stars, but to a different extent. The persistent luminosity is proportional to cubic power of the magnetic field (at a given age), and hence is hardly observable in most rotationally powered neutron stars. Giant flares can occur only if the magnetic field exceeds some threshold value, while smaller bursts and flares may take place in relatively small magnetic fields. Bursts and flares are magnetospheric reconnection events that launch Alfvén shocks which convert into high-frequency whistlers upon hitting the neutron star surface. The resulting whistler pulse induces a strain that increases with depth both due to the increasing electron density (and the resulting slowing of the waves), and due to the increasing coherence of a whistler pulse with depth. The whistler pulse is dissipated on a time-scale of approximately a day at shallow depths corresponding to ? ˜ 1010 g cm-3; this energy is detected as enhanced post-flare surface emission.

  9. Bulk viscosity and r-modes of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2008-08-08

    The bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process involving hyperons in $K^-$ condensed matter is discussed here. We find that the bulk viscosity is modified in a superconducting phase. Further, we demonstrate how the exotic bulk viscosity coefficient influences $r$-modes of neutron stars which might be sources of detectable gravitational waves.

  10. Neutron Star Kicks from Asymmetric Collapse Chris L. Fryer

    E-print Network

    also receive a kick, most likely at birth. In addition, speci#12;c neutron star and black hole binaries of composition layers (from silicon down to hydrogen) produced by a series of nuclear burning stages where by explosive burning in the oxygen and silicon layers above the iron core (Bazan & Arnett 1998). The large

  11. Eccentric Mergers of Black Holes with Spinning Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans

    2015-07-01

    We study dynamical capture binary black hole–neutron star (BH–NS) mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. We initialize the BH–NS systems with positions and velocities corresponding to marginally unbound Newtonian orbits, and evolve them using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. We find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the BH—as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.

  12. The Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, K.; NICER Team

    2012-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) will be a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity, currently in a Phase A study, dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the Universe where all four fundamental forces of Nature are simultaneously important. Answering the long-standing astrophysics question "How big is a neutron star?," NICER will confront nuclear physics theory with unique observational constraints, exploring the exotic states of matter within neutron stars and revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICER to probe the extreme physical environments of the most powerful cosmic particle accelerators known. Finally, NICER will definitively measure the stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for gravitational-wave detection, a pulsar-based timescale, and autonomous spacecraft navigation. NICER will fly on the International Space Station while Fermi is in orbit and post-RXTE, enabling the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and providing continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  13. The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-01-01

    White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities

  14. Virtual Trips to Black Holes and Neutron Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Nemiroff

    This web-site contains descriptions and movies that take users into black holes and neutron stars. The movies are scientifically accurate computer animations made with adherence to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Descriptions of visual distortions that occur near these objects as well as the principles of gravity and mathematics are written to be understandable on a variety of levels.

  15. Testing General Metric Theories of Gravity with Bursting Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Dimitrios Psaltis

    2008-01-10

    I show that several observable properties of bursting neutron stars in metric theories of gravity can be calculated using only conservation laws, Killing symmetries, and the Einstein equivalence principle, without requiring the validity of the general relativistic field equations. I calculate, in particular, the gravitational redshift of a surface atomic line, the touchdown luminosity of a radius-expansion burst, which is believed to be equal to the Eddington critical luminosity, and the apparent surface area of a neutron star as measured during the cooling tails of bursts. I show that, for a general metric theory of gravity, the apparent surface area of a neutron star depends on the coordinate radius of the stellar surface and on its gravitational redshift in the exact same way as in general relativity. On the other hand, the Eddington critical luminosity depends also on an additional parameter that measures the degree to which the general relativistic field equations are satisfied. These results can be used in conjunction with current and future high-energy observations of bursting neutron stars to test general relativity in the strong-field regime.

  16. Entrainment parameters in a cold superfluid neutron star core

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, Nicolas; Haensel, Pawel [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Science, ul. Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland); LUTH, Paris Observatory, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Science, ul. Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-04-15

    Hydrodynamic simulations of neutron star cores that are based on a two-fluid description in terms of a neutron-proton superfluid mixture require the knowledge of the Andreev-Bashkin entrainment matrix which relates the momentum of one constituent to the currents of both constituents. This matrix is derived for arbitrary nuclear asymmetry at zero temperature and in the limits of small relative currents in the framework of the energy density functional theory. The Skyrme energy density functional is considered as a particular case. General analytic formulas for the entrainment parameters and various corresponding effective masses are obtained. These formulas are applied to the liquid core of a neutron star composed of homogeneous plasma of nucleons, electrons, and possibly muons in {beta} equilibrium.

  17. Entrainment parameters in cold superfluid neutron star core

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Chamel; Pawel Haensel

    2006-09-13

    Hydrodynamical simulations of neutron star cores, based on a two fluid description in terms of a neutron-proton superfluid mixture, require the knowledge of the Andreev-Bashkin entrainment matrix which relates the momentum of one constituent to the currents of both constituents. This matrix is derived for arbitrary nuclear asymmetry at zero temperature and in the limits of small relative currents in the framework of the energy density functional theory. The Skyrme energy density functional is considered as a particular case. General analytic formulae for the entrainment parameters and various corresponding effective masses are obtained. These formulae are applied to the liquid core of a neutron star, composed of an homogeneous plasma of nucleons, electrons and possibly muons in beta equilibrium.

  18. Neutron star surface emission: Beyond the dipole model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zane, Silvia

    2007-04-01

    Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a number of X-ray “dim” pulsating neutron stars revealed quite unexpected features in the emission from these sources. Their soft thermal spectrum, believed to originate directly from the star surface, shows evidence for a phase-varying absorption line at some hundred eVs. The pulse modulation is relatively large (pulsed fractions in the range ˜8 35% in amplitude), the pulse shape is often non-sinusoidal, and the hard X-ray color appears to be anti-correlated in phase with the total emission. Moreover, the prototype of this class, RX J0720.4-3125, has been found to undergo rather sensible changes both in its spectral and timing properties over a timescale of a few years. By modeling the light curves of two sources, RBS 1223 and RX J0720.4-3125, it has been found evidence for two hot regions located at a slightly non antipodal direction. All these new findings are difficult to reconcile with the standard picture of a cooling neutron star endowed with a purely dipolar magnetic field. Here we present more realistic models of surface emission, where the effects of different neutron star thermal and magnetic surface distributions are accounted for. We show how a star-centered field made of a dipolar and a quadrupolar component can influence the properties of the observed light curves and we present results that account self-consistently for toroidal and poloidal crustal field configurations.

  19. Cooling of neutron stars with color superconducting quark cores

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorian, Hovik [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian Street 1, 375025 Yerevan (Armenia); Blaschke, David [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Voskresensky, Dmitri [Theory Division, GSI mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-01

    We show that within a recently developed nonlocal, chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M{sub {center_dot}}. We study the cooling of these objects in isolation for different values of the gravitational mass. Our equation of state (EoS) allows for two-flavor color superconductivity (2SC) quark matter with a large quark gap ({approx}100 MeV) for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if the phases with unpaired quarks were allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. If they occurred for M<1.3 M{sub {center_dot}}, as follows from our EoS, one could not appropriately describe the neutron star cooling data existing today. We discuss a ''2SC+X'' phase as a possibility for having all quarks paired in two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints, where the X gap is of the order of 10 keV-1 MeV. Density-independent gaps do not allow us to fit the cooling data. Only the presence of an X gap that decreases with increasing density would allow us to appropriately fit the data in a similar compact star mass interval to that following from a purely hadronic model. This scenario is suggested as an alternative explanation of the cooling data in the framework of a hybrid star model.

  20. The CPMDS catalogue of common proper motion double stars in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gavras; D. Sinachopoulos; J. F. Le Campion; C. Ducourant

    2010-01-01

    Context. The present knowledge of common proper motion double stars is rather poor and almost entirely restricted to the Luyten LDS catalogue of 6210 pairs, to 439 pairs of Halbwachs catalogue of common proper motion stars in AGK3, and to Greaves new northern common proper motion pairs (975 pairs). Aims: We present a search for new double stars with common

  1. Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom,

    E-print Network

    Alavi, Ali

    Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom, George H evaluation of a N-electron path-integral. In particular, we show that the double excitation star graph. In this paper, we concentrate on the case of the star graph, whose form allows its weight to be calculated

  2. Fast radio bursts: the last sign of supramassive neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Heino Falcke; Luciano Rezzolla

    2014-01-21

    Several fast radio bursts have been discovered recently, showing a bright, highly dispersed millisecond radio pulse. The pulses do not repeat and are not associated with a known pulsar or gamma-ray burst. The high dispersion suggests sources at cosmological distances, hence implying an extremely high radio luminosity, far larger than the power of single pulses from a pulsar. We suggest that a fast radio burst represents the final signal of a supramassive rotating neutron star that collapses to a black hole due to magnetic braking. The neutron star is initially above the critical mass for non-rotating models and is supported by rapid rotation. As magnetic braking constantly reduces the spin, the neutron star will suddenly collapse to a black hole several thousand to million years after its birth. We discuss several formation scenarios for supramassive neutron stars and estimate the possible observational signatures {making use of the results of recent numerical general-relativistic calculations. While the collapse will hide the stellar surface behind an event horizon, the magnetic-field lines will snap violently. This can turn an almost ordinary pulsar into a bright radio "blitzar": Accelerated electrons from the travelling magnetic shock dissipate a significant fraction of the magnetosphere and produce a massive radio burst that is observable out to z>0.7. Only a few percent of the neutron stars needs to be supramassive in order to explain the observed rate. We suggest that fast radio bursts might trace the solitary formation of stellar mass black holes at high redshifts. These bursts could be an electromagnetic complement to gravitational-wave emission and reveal a new formation and evolutionary channel for black holes that are not seen as gamma-ray bursts. Radio observations of these bursts could trace the core-collapse supernova rate throughout the universe.

  3. Thermal evolution of neutron stars with global and local neutrality

    E-print Network

    S. M. de Carvalho; R. Negreiros; Jorge A. Rueda; Remo Ruffini

    2014-11-19

    Globally neutral neutron stars, obtained from the solution of the called Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations that account for all the fundamental interactions, have been recently introduced. These configurations have a more general character than the ones obtained with the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff, which impose the condition of local charge neutrality. The resulting configurations have a less massive and thinner crust, leading to a new mass-radius relation. Signatures of this new structure of the neutron star on the thermal evolution might be a potential test for this theory. We compute the cooling curves by integrating numerically the energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and sizes, according to this theory for different core-crust transition interfaces. We compare and contrast our study with known results for local charge neutrality. We found a new behavior for the relaxation time, depending upon the density at the base of the crust, $\\rho_{\\rm crust}$. In particular, we find that the traditional increase of the relaxation time with the crust thickness holds only for configurations whose density of the base of the crust is greater than $\\approx 5\\times 10^{13}$ g cm$^{-3}$. The reason for this is that neutron star crusts with very thin or absent inner crust have some neutrino emission process blocked which keep the crust hotter for longer times. Therefore, accurate observations of the thermal relaxation phase of neutron stars might give crucial information on the core-crust transition which may aid us in probing the inner composition/structure of these objects.

  4. Gamma-ray bursts from fast, Galactic neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leonard, P.J.T. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Astronomy

    1995-07-01

    What makes a Galacic model of gamma-ray bursts (GBs) feasible is the observation of a new population of objects, fast neutron stars, that are isotropic with respect to the Galaxy following a finite period, {approximately}30My, after their formation. Our Galactic model for the isotropic component of (GBs) is based upon these high-velocity neutron stars (NSs) that have accretion disks. The fast NSs are formed in tidally locked binaries, where tidal locking occurs due to the meridional circulation caused by the conservation of angular momentum of the tidal lobes. These same lobes perturb the subsequent collapse to a supernova and forming a slowly rotating NS. Following the collapse to a NS and explosion, subsequent accretion occurs on the rear side of the initially perturbed NS, resulting in a run-away acceleration of the neutron star by neutrino emission from the hot accreted matter. The recoil momentum of the relativistic neutrino emission from the localized, down flowing matter far exceeds the momentum drag of the accreted matter. The recoil of the NS may be oriented towards the companion, but misses because of the initial orbital motion. The near miss captures matter from the companion and forms a disk around the NS. Accretion onto the neutron star from this initially gaseous disk due to the ``alpha`` viscosity results initially in the soft gamma-ray repeater phase, {approximately}10{sup 4} yr. After the neutron star has moved {approximately}30 kpc from its birthplace, solid bodies form in the disk, and accrete to planetoid size bodies after {approximately}3 {times} 10{sup 7} years. Some of these planetoid bodies, with a mass of {approximately}10{sup 21to22} g, are perturbed into being captured by the magnetic field of the NS to create GBs. The high velocity and millions of years delay in forming planetoids, results in isotropy.

  5. Accreting neutron star spins and the equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, Duncan [School of Physics and School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2008-02-27

    X-ray timing of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has since 1996 revealed several distinct high-frequency phenomena. Among these are oscillations during thermonuclear (type-I) bursts, which (in addition to persistent X-ray pulsations) are thought to trace the neutron star spin. The recent discoveries of 294 Hz burst oscillations in IGR J17191-2821, and 182 Hz pulsations in Swift J1756.9-2508, brings the total number of measured LMXB spin rates to 22. An open question is why the majority of the {approx_equal}100 known neutron stars in LMXBs show neither pulsations nor burst oscillations.Recent observations suggest that persistent pulsations may be more common than previously thought, although detectable intermittently, and in some cases at very low duty cycles. For example, the 377.3 Hz pulsations in HETE J1900.1-2455 were only present in the first few months of it's outburst, and have been absent since (although X-ray activity continues). Intermittent (persistent) pulsations have since been detected in a further two sources. In two of these three systems the pulsations appear to be related to the thermonuclear burst activity, but in the third (Aql X-1) they are not. This phenomenon offers new opportunities for spin measurements in known systems.Such measurements can constrain the poorly-known neutron star equation of state, and neutron stars in LMXBs offer observational advantages over rotation-powered pulsars which make the detection of more rapidly-spinning examples more likely. Even so, spin rates of at least 50% faster than the present maximum appear necessary to give constraints stringent enough to discriminate between the various models. Although the future prospects for such rapidly-spinning objects do not appear optimistic, several additional observational approaches are possible for LMXBs. The recent study of EXO 0748-676 is an example.

  6. Thermal evolution of neutron stars with global and local neutrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, S. M.; Negreiros, R.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2014-11-01

    Globally neutral neutron stars, obtained from the solution of the called Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations that account for all the fundamental interactions, have been recently introduced. These configurations have a more general character than the ones obtained with the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, which impose the condition of local charge neutrality. The resulting configurations have a less massive and thinner crust, leading to a new mass-radius relation. Signatures of this new structure of the neutron star on the thermal evolution might be a potential test for this theory. We compute the cooling curves by integrating numerically the energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and sizes, according to this theory for different core-crust transition interfaces. We compare and contrast our study with known results for local charge neutrality. We found a new behavior for the relaxation time, depending upon the density at the base of the crust, ?crust. In particular, we find that the traditional increase of the relaxation time with the crust thickness holds only for configurations whose density of the base of the crust is greater than ?5 ×1013 g cm -3. The reason for this is that neutron star crusts with very thin or absent inner crust have some neutrino emission processes blocked, which keeps the crust hotter for longer times. Therefore, accurate observations of the thermal relaxation phase of neutron stars might give crucial information on the core-crust transition which may aid us in probing the inner composition and structure of these objects.

  7. The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-04-24

    White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities than commonly found in normal stars, and pressure is created by degenerate fermion kinetic energy and particle interactions. As a result, white dwarfs and neutron stars offer unique cosmic laboratories for studying matter at very high densities. In this review we discuss the basic properties of condensed matter at extreme densities and summarize the extent to which these properties can be examined by observations of compact objects.

  8. Simulating binary neutron stars: Dynamics and gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Motl, Patrick M.; Palenzuela, Carlos; Tohline, Joel E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Hirschmann, Eric W.; Neilsen, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States); Liebling, Steven L. [Department of Physics, Long Island University-C.W. Post Campus, Brookville, New York 11548 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    We model two mergers of orbiting binary neutron stars, the first forming a black hole and the second a differentially rotating neutron star. We extract gravitational waveforms in the wave zone. Comparisons to a post-Newtonian analysis allow us to compute the orbital kinematics, including trajectories and orbital eccentricities. We verify our code by evolving single stars and extracting radial perturbative modes, which compare very well to results from perturbation theory. The Einstein equations are solved in a first-order reduction of the generalized harmonic formulation, and the fluid equations are solved using a modified convex essentially non-oscillatory method. All calculations are done in three spatial dimensions without symmetry assumptions. We use the had computational infrastructure for distributed adaptive mesh refinement.

  9. Hybrid neutron stars with the field correlator method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio

    2014-07-01

    We study the quark deconfinement phase transition in cold (T = 0) neutron star matter and we calculate various structural properties of hybrid stars. For the quark phase, we use an equation of state (EOS) based on the Field Correlator Method (FCM) extended to the case of nonzero baryon density. For the confined hadronic phase we use a relativistic mean field model considering both pure nucleonic and hyperonic matter. We constrain the values of the gluon condensate G2, which is one of the EOS parameter within the FCM, making use of the measured mass, M = 1.97 ± 0.04 Msolar, of the neutron star in PSR J1614-2230. Our results show that the values of G2 extracted from the mass measurement of PSR J1614-2230 are consistent with the values of the same quantity derived, within the FCM, from recent lattice QCD calculations of the deconfinement transition temperature at zero baryon chemical potential.

  10. Neutron star equations of state with optical potential constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anti?, S.; Typel, S.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear matter and neutron stars are studied in the framework of an extended relativistic mean-field (RMF) model with higher-order derivative and density dependent couplings of nucleons to the meson fields. The derivative couplings lead to an energy dependence of the scalar and vector self-energies of the nucleons. It can be adjusted to be consistent with experimental results for the optical potential in nuclear matter. Several parametrization, which give identical predictions for the saturation properties of nuclear matter, are presented for different forms of the derivative coupling functions. The stellar structure of spherical, non-rotating stars is calculated for these new equations of state (EoS). A substantial softening of the EoS and a reduction of the maximum mass of neutron stars is found if the optical potential constraint is satisfied.

  11. Neutrinoless double beta decay within the quasiparticle random-phase approximation with proton-neutron pairing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pantis; F. Simkovic; J. D. Vergados; Amand Faessler

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the role of proton-neutron pairing in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation formalism. This way the neutrinoless double beta decay matrix elements of the experimentally interesting A = 48, 76, 82, 96, 100, 116, 128, 130, and 136 systems have been calculated. We have found that the inclusion of proton-neutron pairing influences the neutrinoless double

  12. Ancient Guest Stars as harbingers of neutron star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Ru

    The well-known AD 1006, 1054, 1572, and 1604 were described as "Guest Stars" by Chinese, Japanese and Korean. In most cases, it might thus be possible to expect a Guest Star to be a term for supernova or nova. There are a lot of records concerning ancient Guest Stars in Chinese historical books. Two catalogues were compiled by Xi (1955) and Xi and Bo (1965, 1966) that listed 90 probable novae or supernovae observed between 1400 BC and AD 1700. Clark and Stephenson (1977), Ho (1962) and Kanda (1935) collected more or less similar records. Among all the historical records more than 80% are from China. The discussion presented in this paper is based on them.

  13. Ferromagnetic neutron stars: axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall

    E-print Network

    Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Tetsuo Hatsuda

    2012-09-21

    We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ~ 10^19 [G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

  14. Neutron star properties and the equation of state of neutron-rich matter

    E-print Network

    Plamen G. Krastev; Francesca Sammarruca

    2006-07-24

    We calculate total masses and radii of neutron stars (NS) for pure neutron matter and nuclear matter in beta-equilibrium. We apply a relativistic nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) derived from Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) calculations. We use realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions defined in the framework of the meson exchange potential models. Our results are compared with other theoretical predictions and recent observational data. Suggestions for further study are discussed.

  15. Neutron star cooling constraints for color superconductivity in hybrid stars

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, S. B. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetski pr. 13, RU-119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Grigorian, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 375049 Yerevan (Armenia); Blaschke, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR Dubna, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    We apply the recently developed logN-logS test of compact star cooling theories for the first time to hybrid stars with a color superconducting quark matter core. Although there is not yet a microscopically founded superconducting quark matter phase that would fulfill constraints from cooling phenomenology, we explore the hypothetical 2SC+X phase and show that the magnitude and density dependence of the X-gap can be chosen to satisfy a set of tests: temperature-age (T-t), the brightness constraint, logN-logS, and the mass spectrum constraint. The latter test appears as a new conjecture from the present investigation.

  16. Non extensive thermodynamics and neutron star properties

    E-print Network

    Débora P. Menezes; Airton Deppman; Eugenio Megías; Luis B. Castro

    2014-10-31

    In the present work we apply non extensive statistics to obtain equations of state suitable to describe stellar matter and verify its effects on microscopic and macroscopic quantities. Two snapshots of the star evolution are considered and the direct Urca process is investigated with two different parameter sets. $q$-values are chosen as 1.05 and 1.14. The equations of state are only slightly modified, but the effects are enough to produce stars with slightly higher maximum masses. The onsets of the constituents are more strongly affected and the internal stellar temperature decreases with the increase of the $q$-value, with consequences on the strangeness and cooling rates of the stars.

  17. Activities and Achievements of the Double Star Committee of the Socié té Astronomique de France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agati, Jean-Louis; Caille, Sébastien; Debackère, André; Durand, Pierre; Losse, Florent; Manté, René; Mauroy, Florence; Mauroy, Pascal; Morlet, Guy; Pinlou, Claude; Salaman, Maurice; Soulié, Edgar; Thorel, Yvonne; Thorel, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-01

    In a synthesis article (see ref. below), the double star expert Paul COUTEAU put the work of French pioneers of double stars observation in the perspective of the double star work carried in the world. After Antoine Yvon VILLARCEAU and Camille FLAMMARION, one prominent pioneer of double stars was Robert JONCKHEERE (1888toiles Doubles, Maurice DURUY (1894le with a 40-cm and later a 60-cm telescope at Le Rouret (Alpes1995) had started the measurement of double stars as an amateur. He was granted permission to measure them with the 38-cm of the Paris Observatory and made an impressive number of measures during his long 2006) made double star observations for the book which was then in preparation under the title La revue des constellations. Their measures remained unpublished; but publication of the measures made by Robert SAGOT is in preparation. At about the same time, the neurology professor Jacques LE BEAU (1908toiles doubles visuelles. That book triggered the interest of more amateur astronomers for double stars and indirectly influenced the creation of a group of double star observers which was transformed into the Commission des É toiles Doubles

  18. Kepler photometry of RRc stars: peculiar double-mode pulsations and period doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalik, P.; Smolec, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Molnár, L.; Kurtz, D. W.; Szabó, R.; Benk?, J. M.; Nemec, J. M.; Chadid, M.; Guggenberger, E.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Kopacki, G.; Kanbur, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the analysis of four first overtone RR Lyrae stars observed with the Kepler space telescope, based on data obtained over nearly 2.5 yr. All four stars are found to be multiperiodic. The strongest secondary mode with frequency f2 has an amplitude of a few mmag, 20-45 times lower than the main radial mode with frequency f1. The two oscillations have a period ratio of P2/P1 = 0.612-0.632 that cannot be reproduced by any two radial modes. Thus, the secondary mode is non-radial. Modes yielding similar period ratios have also recently been discovered in other variables of the RRc and RRd types. These objects form a homogenous group and constitute a new class of multimode RR Lyrae pulsators, analogous to a similar class of multimode classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds. Because a secondary mode with P2/P1 ˜ 0.61 is found in almost every RRc and RRd star observed from space, this form of multiperiodicity must be common. In all four Kepler RRc stars studied, we find subharmonics of f2 at ˜1/2f2 and at ˜3/2f2. This is a signature of period doubling of the secondary oscillation, and is the first detection of period doubling in RRc stars. The amplitudes and phases of f2 and its subharmonics are variable on a time-scale of 10-200 d. The dominant radial mode also shows variations on the same time-scale, but with much smaller amplitude. In three Kepler RRc stars we detect additional periodicities, with amplitudes below 1 mmag, that must correspond to non-radial g-modes. Such modes never before have been observed in RR Lyrae variables.

  19. INVESTIGATING SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN NEUTRON STAR INTERIORS WITH GLITCH MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, B. [Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pizzochero, P. M.; Seveso, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-02-20

    The high-density interior of a neutron star is expected to contain superconducting protons and superfluid neutrons. Theoretical estimates suggest that the protons will form a type II superconductor in which the stellar magnetic field is carried by flux tubes. The strong interaction between the flux tubes and the neutron rotational vortices could lead to strong ''pinning'', i.e., vortex motion could be impeded. This has important implications especially for pulsar glitch models as it would lead to a large part of the vorticity of the star being decoupled from the ''normal'' component to which the electromagnetic emission is locked. In this Letter, we explore the consequences of strong pinning in the core on the ''snowplow'' model for pulsar glitches, making use of realistic equations of state and relativistic background models for the neutron star. We find that, in general, a large fraction of the pinned vorticity in the core is not compatible with observations of giant glitches in the Vela pulsar. Thus, the conclusion is that either most of the core is in a type I superconducting state or the interaction between vortices and flux tubes is weaker than previously assumed.

  20. Unified picture of the post-merger dynamics and gravitational wave emission in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauswein, A.; Stergioulas, N.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a classification scheme of the postmerger dynamics and gravitational wave emission in binary neutron star mergers, after identifying a new mechanism by which a secondary peak in the gravitational wave spectrum is produced. It is caused by a spiral deformation, the pattern of which rotates slower with respect to the double-core structure in the center of the remnant. This secondary peak is typically well separated in frequency from the secondary peak produced by a nonlinear interaction between a quadrupole and a quasiradial oscillation. The new mechanism allows for an explanation of low-frequency modulations seen in a number of physical characteristics of the remnant, such as the central lapse function, the maximum density and the separation between the two cores, but also in the gravitational wave amplitude. We find empirical relations for both types of secondary peaks between their gravitational wave frequency and the compactness of nonrotating individual neutron stars, that exist for fixed total binary masses. These findings are derived for equal-mass binaries without intrinsic neutron star spin analyzing hydrodynamical simulations without magnetic field effects. Our classification scheme may form the basis for the construction of detailed gravitational wave templates of the postmerger phase. We find that the quasiradial oscillation frequency of the remnant decreases with the total binary mass. For a given merger event, our classification scheme may allow one to determine the proximity of the measured total binary mass to the threshold mass for prompt black hole formation, which can, in turn, yield an estimate of the maximum neutron star mass.

  1. Envelope tomography of long-period variable stars III. Line-doubling frequency among Mira stars

    E-print Network

    R. Alvarez; A. Jorissen; B. Plez; D. Gillet; A. Fokin; M. Dedecker

    2001-09-17

    This paper presents statistics of the line-doubling phenomenon in a sample of 81 long-period variable (LPV) stars of various periods, spectral types and brightness ranges. When correlated with a mask mimicking a K0III spectrum, 54% of the sample stars clearly showed a double-peaked cross-correlation profile around maximum light, reflecting double absorption lines. Several pieces of evidence are presented that point towards the double absorption lines as being caused by the propagation of a shock wave through the photosphere. The observation of the Balmer lines appearing in emission around maximum light in these stars corroborates the presence of a shock wave. The observed velocity discontinuities, ranging between 10 and 25 km/s, are not correlated with the brightness ranges. A comparison with the center-of-mass (COM) velocity obtained from submm CO lines originating in the circumstellar envelope reveals that the median velocity between the red and blue peaks is blueshifted with respect to the COM velocity, as expected if the shock moves upwards.

  2. Molecular Dynamics of Nuclear Pasta in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2014-09-01

    During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces. Between the crust and core lies an interesting interface where matter is neither a single nucleus nor separate nuclei. It exists in a frustrated phase; competition between electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces causes exotic shapes to emerge, referred to as nuclear pasta. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) to simulate nuclear pasta, with densities between nuclear saturation density and approximately one-tenth saturation density. Using MD particle trajectories, we compute the static structure factor S(q) and dynamical response function to describe both electron-pasta and neutrino-pasta scattering. We relate the structure and properties of nuclear pasta phases to features in S(q). Finally, one can integrate over S(q) to determine transport properties such as the electrical and thermal conductivity. This may help provide a better understanding of X-ray observations of neutron stars. During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces. Between the crust and core lies an interesting interface where matter is neither a single nucleus nor separate nuclei. It exists in a frustrated phase; competition between electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces causes exotic shapes to emerge, referred to as nuclear pasta. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) to simulate nuclear pasta, with densities between nuclear saturation density and approximately one-tenth saturation density. Using MD particle trajectories, we compute the static structure factor S(q) and dynamical response function to describe both electron-pasta and neutrino-pasta scattering. We relate the structure and properties of nuclear pasta phases to features in S(q). Finally, one can integrate over S(q) to determine transport properties such as the electrical and thermal conductivity. This may help provide a better understanding of X-ray observations of neutron stars. This research was supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  3. Differential Rotation in Neutron Stars: Magnetic Braking and Viscous Damping

    E-print Network

    Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-10-24

    Diffferentially rotating stars can support significantly more mass in equilibrium than nonrotating or uniformly rotating stars, according to general relativity. The remnant of a binary neutron star merger may give rise to such a ``hypermassive'' object. While such a star may be dynamically stable against gravitational collapse and bar formation, the radial stabilization due to differential rotation is likely to be temporary. Magnetic braking and viscosity combine to drive the star to uniform rotation, even if the seed magnetic field and the viscosity are small. This process inevitably leads to delayed collapse, which will be accompanied by a delayed gravitational wave burst and, possibly, a gamma-ray burst. We provide a simple, Newtonian, MHD calculation of the braking of differential rotation by magnetic fields and viscosity. The star is idealized as a differentially rotating, infinite cylinder consisting of a homogeneous, incompressible conducting gas. We solve analytically the simplest case in which the gas has no viscosity and the star resides in an exterior vacuum. We treat numerically cases in which the gas has internal viscosity and the star is embedded in an exterior, low-density, conducting medium. Our evolution calculations are presented to stimulate more realistic MHD simulations in full 3+1 general relativity. They serve to identify some of the key physical and numerical parameters, scaling behavior and competing timescales that characterize this important process.

  4. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  5. Hydrodynamics of coalescing binary neutron stars: Ellipsoidal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1995-04-01

    We employ an approximate treatment of dissipative hydrodynamics in three dimensions to study the coalescence of binary neutron stars driven by the emission of gravitational waves. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids obeying a polytropic equation of state; all internal fluid velocities are assumed to be linear functions of the coordinates. The hydrodynamics equations then reduce to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes of the ellipsoids, the internal velocity parameters, and the binary orbital parameters. Gravitational radiation reaction and viscous dissipation are both incorporated. We set up exact initial binary equilibrium configurations and follow the transition from the quasi-static, secular decay of the orbit at large separation to the rapid dynamical evolution of the configurations just prior to contact. A hydrodynamical instability resulting from tidal interactions significantly accelerates the coalescence at small separation, leading to appreciable radial infall velocity and tidal lag angles near contact. This behavior is reflected in the gravitational waveforms and may be observable by gravitational wave detectors under construction. In cases where the neutron stars have spins which are not aligned with the orbital angular momentum, the spin-induced quadrupole moment can lead to precession of the orbital plane and therefore modulation of the gravitational wave amplitude even at large orbital radius. However, the amplitude of the modulation is small for typical neutron star binaries with spins much smaller than the orbital angular momentum.

  6. Improved Universality in the Neutron Star Three-Hair Relations

    E-print Network

    Barun Majumder; Kent Yagi; Nicolas Yunes

    2015-04-09

    No-hair like relations between the multipole moments of the exterior gravitational field of neutron stars have recently been found to be approximately independent of the star's internal structure. This approximate, equation-of-state universality arises after one adimensionalizes the multipole moments appropriately, which then begs the question of whether there are better ways to adimensionalize the moments to obtain stronger universality. We here investigate this question in detail by considering slowly-rotating neutron stars both in the non-relativistic limit and in full General Relativity. We find that there exist normalizations that lead to stronger equation-of-state universality in the relations among the moment of inertia and the quadrupole, octopole and hexadecapole moments of neutron stars. We determine the optimal normalization that minimizes the equation-of-state dependence in these relations. The results found here may have applications in the modeling of X-ray pulses and atomic line profiles from millisecond pulsars with NICER and LOFT.

  7. Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Electron Fraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1994-02-12

    This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the mixing of composition which results from the convective motions. The variable plotted is the electron fraction Ye, which ranges from 0.2 to 0.5.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds after neutron star mergers

    E-print Network

    Martin, Dirk; Arcones, Almudena; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Korobkin, Oleg; Rosswog, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive nucleosynthesis study of the neutrino-driven wind in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. Our focus is the initial remnant phase when a massive central neutron star is present. Using tracers from a recent hydrodynamical simulation, we determine total masses and integrated abundances to characterize the composition of unbound matter. We find that the nucleosynthetic yields depend sensitively on both the life time of the massive neutron star and the polar angle. Matter in excess of up to $9 \\cdot 10^{-3} M_\\odot$ becomes unbound until $\\sim 200~{\\rm ms}$. Due to electron fractions of $Y_{\\rm e} \\approx 0.2 - 0.4$ mainly nuclei with mass numbers $A yields from the earlier dynamic ejecta. Mixing scenarios with these two types of ejecta can explain the abundance pattern in r-process enriched metal-poor stars. Additionally, we calculate heating rates for the decay of the freshly produced radioactive isotopes. The resulting light curve...

  9. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds after neutron star mergers

    E-print Network

    Dirk Martin; Albino Perego; Almudena Arcones; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann; Oleg Korobkin; Stephan Rosswog

    2015-06-16

    We present a comprehensive nucleosynthesis study of the neutrino-driven wind in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. Our focus is the initial remnant phase when a massive central neutron star is present. Using tracers from a recent hydrodynamical simulation, we determine total masses and integrated abundances to characterize the composition of unbound matter. We find that the nucleosynthetic yields depend sensitively on both the life time of the massive neutron star and the polar angle. Matter in excess of up to $9 \\cdot 10^{-3} M_\\odot$ becomes unbound until $\\sim 200~{\\rm ms}$. Due to electron fractions of $Y_{\\rm e} \\approx 0.2 - 0.4$ mainly nuclei with mass numbers $A yields from the earlier dynamic ejecta. Mixing scenarios with these two types of ejecta can explain the abundance pattern in r-process enriched metal-poor stars. Additionally, we calculate heating rates for the decay of the freshly produced radioactive isotopes. The resulting light curve peaks in the blue band after about $4~{\\rm h}$. Furthermore, high opacities due to heavy r-process nuclei in the dynamic ejecta lead to a second peak in the infrared after $3-4~{\\rm d}$.

  10. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating

    E-print Network

    Sanjib S. Gupta; Toshihiko Kawano; Peter Möller

    2008-11-11

    In our calculation of neutron star crust heating we include several key new model features. In earlier work electron capture (EC) only allowed neutron emission from the daughter ground-state; here we calculate, in a deformed QRPA model, EC decay rates to all states in the daughter that are allowed by Gamow-Teller selection rules and energetics. The subsequent branching ratios between the 1n,...,xn channels and the competing $\\gamma$-decay are calculated in a Hauser-Feshbach model. Since EC accesses excited states, many more neutrons are emitted in our calculation than in previous work, leading to accelerated reaction flows. In our multi-component plasma model a single (EC,xn) reaction step can produce several neutron-deficient nuclei, each of which can further decay by (EC,xn). Hence, the neutron emission occurs more continuously with increasing depth as compared to that in a one-component plasma model.

  11. Combustion of a neutron star into a strange quark star: The neutrino signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliara, Giuseppe; Herzog, Matthias; Röpke, Friedrich K.

    2013-05-01

    There are strong indications that the process of conversion of a neutron star into a strange quark star proceeds as a strong deflagration implying that in a few milliseconds almost the whole star is converted. Starting from the three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion process which provide the temperature profiles inside the newly born strange star, we calculate for the first time the neutrino signal that is to be expected if such a conversion process takes place. The neutrino emission is characterized by a luminosity and a duration that is typical for the signal expected from protoneutron stars and represents therefore a powerful source of neutrinos which could be possibly directly detected in case of events occurring close to our Galaxy. We discuss moreover possible connections between the birth of strange stars and explosive phenomena such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Combustion of a neutron star into a strange quark star: The neutrino signal

    E-print Network

    G. Pagliara; M. Herzog; F. K. Roepke

    2013-05-02

    There are strong indications that the process of conversion of a neutron star into a strange quark star proceeds as a strong deflagration implying that in a few milliseconds almost the whole star is converted. Starting from the three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion process which provide the temperature profiles inside the newly born strange star, we calculate for the first time the neutrino signal that is to be expected if such a conversion process takes place. The neutrino emission is characterized by a luminosity and a duration that is typical for the signal expected from protoneutron stars and represents therefore a powerful source of neutrinos which could be possibly directly detected in case of events occurring close to our Galaxy. We discuss moreover possible connections between the birth of strange stars and explosive phenomena such as supernovae and gamma-ray-bursts.

  13. Combustion of a neutron star into a strange quark star: the neutrino signal

    E-print Network

    Pagliara, G; Ropke, F K

    2013-01-01

    There are strong indications that the process of conversion of a neutron star into a strange quark star proceeds as a strong deflagration implying that in a few milliseconds almost the whole star is converted. Starting from the three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion process which provide the temperature profiles inside the newly born strange star, we calculate for the first time the neutrino signal that is to be expected if such a conversion process takes place. The neutrino emission is characterized by a luminosity and a duration that is typical for the signal expected from protoneutron stars and represents therefore a powerful source of neutrinos which could be possibly directly detected in case of events occurring close to our galaxy. We discuss moreover possible connections between the birth of strange stars and explosive phenomena such as Supernovae and Gamma-Ray-Bursts.

  14. The f-MODE Instability in Relativistic Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertig, Erich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of the gravitational-wave driven instability of the f-mode in rapidly rotating relativistic stars. With an approach based on linear perturbation theory we describe the evolution of the mode amplitude and follow the trajectory of a newborn neutron star through its instability window. We study several evolutions with different initial rotation rates and temperature and determine the gravitational waves radiated during the instability. From the thermal evolution we find that the heat generated by shear viscosity during the saturation phase completely balances the neutrinos cooling and prevents the star from entering the regime of mutual friction. The evolution time of the instability is therefore longer and the star loses significantly larger amounts of angular momentum via gravitational waves.

  15. NUCLEAR CONSTRAINTS ON PROPERTIES OF NEUTRON STAR CRUSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jun; Chen Liewen; Ma Hongru [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li Baoan [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States)], E-mail: xujun@comp.tamu.edu, E-mail: hrma@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lwchen@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: Bao-An_Li@tamu-commerce.edu

    2009-06-01

    The transition density {rho} {sub t} and pressure P{sub t} at the inner edge separating the liquid core from the solid crust of neutron stars are systematically studied using a modified Gogny (MDI) and 51 popular Skyrme interactions within well established dynamical and thermodynamical methods. First of all, it is shown that the widely used parabolic approximation to the full equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter may lead to huge errors in estimating the transition density and pressure, especially for stiffer symmetry energy functionals E {sub sym}({rho}), compared to calculations using the full EOS within both the dynamical and thermodynamical methods mainly because of the energy curvatures involved. Thus, fine details of the EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter are important for locating accurately the inner edge of the neutron star crust. Second, the transition density and pressure decrease roughly linearly with increasing slope parameter L of E {sub sym}({rho}) at normal nuclear matter density using the full EOS within both the dynamical and thermodynamical methods. It is also shown that the thickness, fractional mass, and moment of inertia of the neutron star crust are all very sensitive to the parameter L through the transition density {rho} {sub t} whether one uses the full EOS or its parabolic approximation. Moreover, it is shown that E {sub sym}({rho}) constrained in the same subsaturation density range as the neutron star crust by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies limits the transition density and pressure to 0.040 fm{sup -3} {<=}{rho} {sub t} {<=} 0.065 fm{sup -3} and 0.01 MeV fm{sup -3} {<=}P{sub t} {<=} 0.26 MeV fm{sup -3}, respectively. These constrained values for the transition density and pressure are significantly lower than their fiducial values currently used in the literature. Furthermore, the mass-radius relation and several other properties closely related to the neutron star crust are studied by using the MDI interaction. It is found that the newly constrained {rho} {sub t} and P{sub t} together with the earlier estimate of {delta}I/I>0.014 for the crustal fraction of the moment of inertia of the Vela pulsar impose a more stringent constraint of R {>=} 4.7 + 4.0M/M {sub sun} km for the radius R and mass M of neutron stars compared to previous studies in the literature.

  16. Neutron Interactions in the CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinski, M J

    2008-09-24

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}DBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0{nu}DBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0{nu}DBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0{nu}DBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0{nu}DBD of {sup 130}Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO{sub 2} bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0{nu}DBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10{sup -6}. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0{nu}DBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, which can be produced underground both by ({alpha},n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE data to set an upper limit for the production of a 2529 keV gamma-ray from the {sup 126}Te(n,n{prime}{gamma}) reaction. This gamma-ray is a potential source of interference for the 0{nu}DBD peak. Based on this measurement, the contribution of this line to the background is expected to be negligible.

  17. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  18. Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems

    E-print Network

    Ascar Aringazin; Vladimir Dzhunushaliev; Vladimir Folomeev; Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz

    2015-04-09

    We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable.

  19. Radiation of Neutron Stars Produced by Superfluid Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.

    2003-06-01

    We find a new mechanism of neutron star radiation wherein radiation is produced by the stellar interior. The main finding is that the neutron star interior is transparent for collisionless electron sound, the same way as it is transparent for neutrinos. In the presence of the magnetic field the electron sound is coupled with electromagnetic radiation; such collective excitation is known as a fast magnetosonic wave. At high densities such waves reduce to the zero sound in electron liquid, while near the stellar surface they are similar to electromagnetic waves in a medium. We find that zero sound is generated by superfluid vortices in the stellar core. Thermally excited helical vortex waves produce fast magnetosonic waves in the stellar crust that propagate toward the surface and transform into outgoing electromagnetic radiation. The magnetosonic waves are partially absorbed in a thin layer below the surface. The absorption is highly anisotropic; it is smaller for waves that in the absorbing layer propagate closer to the magnetic field direction. As a result, the vortex radiation is pulsed with the period of star rotation. The vortex radiation has the spectral index ?~-0.45 and can explain nonthermal radiation of middle-aged pulsars observed in the infrared, optical, and hard X-ray bands. The radiation is produced in the star interior, rather than in the magnetosphere, which allows direct determination of the core temperature. Comparing the theory with available spectra observations, we find that the core temperature of the Vela pulsar is T~8×108 K, while the core temperature of PSR B0656+14 and Geminga exceeds 2×108 K. This is the first measurement of the temperature of a neutron star core. The temperature estimate rules out equations of state incorporating Bose condensations of pions or kaons and quark matter in these objects. The estimate also allows us to determine the critical temperature of triplet neutron superfluidity in the Vela core, Tc=(7.5+/-1.5)×109 K, which agrees well with the value of critical temperature in a core of a canonical neutron star calculated based on recent data for behavior of strong interactions at high energies. We also find that in the middle-aged neutron stars the vortex radiation, rather than thermal conductivity, is the main mechanism of heat transfer from the stellar core to the surface. The core radiation opens a possibility to study composition of neutron star crust by detection of absorption lines corresponding to the low-energy excitations of crust nuclei. Bottom layers of the crust may contain exotic nuclei with the mass number up to 600, and the core radiation creates a perspective to study their properties. In principle, zero sound can also be emitted by other mechanisms, rather than vortices. In this case the spectrum of stellar radiation would contain features corresponding to such processes. As a result, zero sound opens a perspective of direct spectroscopic study of superdense matter in the neutron star interior.

  20. The Orbit of X Per and Its Neutron Star Companion

    E-print Network

    Hugo Delgado-Marti; Alan M. Levine; Eric Pfahl; Saul A. Rappaport

    2000-04-18

    We have observed the Be/X-ray pulsar binary system X Per/4U 0352+30 on 61 occasions spanning an interval of 600 days with the PCA instrument on RXTE. Pulse timing analyses of the 837-s pulsations yield strong evidence for the presence of orbital Doppler delays. We confirm the Doppler delays by using measurements made with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor. We obtain an orbital period of 250 days, a projected semimajor axis of the neutron star of 454 lt-s, a mass function of 1.61 solar masses, and a modest eccentricity of 0.11. We discuss the formation of the system in the context of the standard evolutionary scenario for Be/X-ray binaries with consideration of the possibility that the birth of the neutron star was accompanied by a kick of the type often inferred from the velocity distribution of isolated radio pulsars. The orbital eccentricity just after the supernova explosion was almost certainly virtually the same as at present, because the Be star is much smaller than the orbital separation. We find that the system most likely formed from a pair of massive progenitor stars, and probably involved a quasi-stable and nearly conservative transfer of mass from the primary to the secondary. We find that the He star remnant of the primary most likely had a mass less than 6 solar masses after mass transfer. Finally, we speculate that there may be a substantial population of neutron stars formed with little or no kick.

  1. Life Extinction Due To Neutron Star Mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnon Dar; Ari Laor; Nir J. Shaviv

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic ray bursts (CRBs) from mergers or accretion induced collapse of\\u000aneutron stars that hit an Earth-like planet closer than $\\\\sim 1 kpc$ from the\\u000aexplosion produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground level,\\u000aunderground and underwater. These CRBs also destroy the ozone layer and\\u000aradioactivate the environment. The mean rate of such life devastating CRBs is\\u000aone in

  2. The 2001 US Naval Observatory Double Star CD-ROM. III. The Third Catalog of Interferometric Measurements of Binary Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William I. Hartkopf; Harold A. McAlister; Brian D. Mason

    2001-01-01

    The Third Catalog of Interferometric Measurements of Binary Stars includes all published measures of binary and multiple star systems obtained by high-resolution techniques (speckle interferometry, photo- electric occultation timings, etc.), as well as negative examinations for duplicity, as of 2001 January 1. This catalog is one of four USNO double star catalogs to be included on a new CD-ROM. A

  3. Buoyancy and g-modes in young superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Passamonti; N. Andersson; W. C. G. Ho

    2015-04-28

    We consider the local dynamics of a realistic neutron star core, including composition gradients, superfluidity and thermal effects. The main focus is on the gravity g-modes, which are supported by composition stratification and thermal gradients. We derive the equations that govern this problem in full detail, paying particular attention to the input that needs to be provided through the equation of state and distinguishing between normal and superfluid regions. The analysis highlights a number of key issues that should be kept in mind whenever equation of state data is compiled from nuclear physics for use in neutron star calculations. We provide explicit results for a particular stellar model and a specific nucleonic equation of state, making use of cooling simulations to show how the local wave spectrum evolves as the star ages. Our results show that the composition gradient is effectively dominated by the muons whenever they are present. When the star cools below the superfluid transition, the support for g-modes at lower densities (where there are no muons) is entirely thermal. We confirm the recent suggestion that the g-modes in this region may be unstable, but our results indicate that this instability will be weak and would only be present for a brief period of the star's life. Our analysis accounts for the presence of thermal excitations encoded in entrainment between the entropy and the superfluid component. Finally, we discuss the complete spectrum, including the normal sound waves and, in superfluid regions, the second sound.

  4. Will black hole-neutron star binary inspirals tell us about the neutron star equation of state?

    E-print Network

    Francesco Pannarale; Luciano Rezzolla; Frank Ohme; Jocelyn S. Read

    2011-03-17

    The strong tidal forces that arise during the last stages of the life of a black hole-neutron star binary may severely distort, and possibly disrupt, the star. Both phenomena will imprint signatures about the stellar structure in the emitted gravitational radiation. The information from the disruption, however, is confined to very high frequencies, where detectors are not very sensitive. We thus assess whether the lack of tidal distortion corrections in data-analysis pipelines will affect the detection of the inspiral part of the signal and whether these may yield information on the equation of state of matter at nuclear densities. Using recent post-Newtonian expressions and realistic equations of state to model these scenarios, we find that point-particle templates are sufficient for the detection of black hole-neutron star inspiralling binaries, with a loss of signals below 1% for both second and third-generation detectors. Such detections may be able to constrain particularly stiff equations of state, but will be unable to reveal the presence of a neutron star with a soft equation of state.

  5. Dark matter effect on the mass measurement of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. LI

    2013-07-11

    Newly-determined mass of 1.97 $\\pm$ 0.04 $M_{\\odot}$ for PSR J1614-2230 has been a challenge for the neutron star with a hyperon core (namely hyperon star), since hyperons usually reduce the theoretical maximum mass of the star. In this article, we consider dark matter as another possible constituent in hyperon stars' interior to loose this mass constrain. We take dark matter as self-interacting Fermi gas with certain repulsive interaction among the dark matter particles and non-interaction between dark matter and ordinary matter as is generally assumed. We find that the star maximum mass is sensitive to the particle mass of dark matter, and a high enough star mass larger than 2 $M_{\\odot}$ could be achieved when the particle mass is small enough. In this particular model, a strong upper limit 0.64 GeV for dark matter mass is obtained in strongly-interacting dark matter and 0.16 GeV for dark matter mass in weakly-interacting dark matter. Dark matter accumulated around the star could also contribute to the mass measurement, however, such contribution could be safely ignored when the generally used dark matter density is assumed.

  6. Higgs shifts from electron-positron annihilations near neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Wegner, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the potential for using neutron stars to determine bounds on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling by looking at peculiar shifts in gamma-ray spectroscopic features. In particular, we reanalyse multiple lines observed in GRB781119 detected by two gamma-ray spectrometers, and derive an upper bound on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling that is much more constraining than the one recently obtained from white dwarfs. This calls for targeted analyses of spectra of gamma-ray bursts from more recent observatories, dedicated searches for differential shifts on electron-positron and proton-antiproton annihilation spectra in proximity of compact sources, and signals of electron and proton cyclotron lines from the same neutron star.

  7. Radiation from an asteroid-neutron star collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, W. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Barton, R. T.

    1981-10-01

    A zero impact parameter collision of a 5 x 10 to the 17th g asteroid with a 1.51 solar mass neutron star using a two-dimensional Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrodynamics code is calculated. The radiation transfer is followed with a Planckian LTE diffusion model, and allowed to couple to the matter through bremsstrahlung and Compton processes. The effects of self-gravity on the asteroid, relativity, and magnetic fields are not included. The kinetic energy of impact is converted into radiant energy within 1 ms of impact. However, the neutron star is rapidly (less than 1 ms) covered by a low-density optically thick cloud that radiates within an order of magnitude of the Eddington limit at an effective temperature of only a few keV. Thus, such models, without the inclusion of confinement effects such as magnetic fields, are insufficient to explain cosmic gamma-ray bursts or the 1979 March 5 event.

  8. Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model

    E-print Network

    Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract We revisit the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski (EZM) model of dense neutron observations of neutron stars (NSs) in RX J1856-3754 [2] and EXO 0748-676 [3] favor a sti¤ EOS. We are however

  9. A unified equation of state of dense matter and neutron star structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Douchin; P. Haensel

    2001-01-01

    An equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter, describing both the neutron star crust and the liquid core, is calculated. It is based on the effective nuclear interaction SLy of the Skyrme type, which is particularly suitable for the application to the calculation of the properties of very neutron rich matter (Chabanat et al. 1997, 1998). The structure of

  10. Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves Generated by Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    E. F. D. Evangelista; J. C. N. de Araujo

    2015-04-09

    Binary systems emit gravitational waves in a well-known pattern; for binaries in circular orbits, the emitted radiation has a frequency that is twice the orbital frequency. Systems in eccentric orbits, however, emit gravitational radiation in the higher harmonics too. In this paper, we are concerned with the stochastic background of gravitational waves generated by double neutron star systems of cosmological origin in eccentric orbits. We consider in particular the long-lived systems, that is, those binaries for which the time to coalescence is longer than the Hubble time ($\\sim 10$Gyr). Thus, we consider double neutron stars with orbital frequencies ranging from $10^{-8}$ to $2\\times 10^{-6}$Hz. Although in the literature some papers consider the spectra generated by eccentric binaries, there is still space for alternative approaches for the calculation of the backgrounds. In this paper, we use a method that consists in summing the spectra that would be generated by each harmonic separately in order to obtain the total background. This method allows us to clearly obtain the influence of each harmonic on the spectra. In addition, we consider different distribution functions for the eccentricities in order to investigate their effects on the background of gravitational waves generated. At last, we briefly discuss the detectability of this background by space-based gravitational wave antennas and pulsar timing arrays.

  11. Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars

    E-print Network

    David Blaschke

    2014-07-28

    It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.

  12. A Neutron Star Atmosphere in the Laboratory With Petawatt Lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Moon; S. C. Wilks; R. I. Klein; B. A. Remington; D. D. Ryutov; A. J. Mackinnon; P. K. Patel; A. Spitkovsky

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the preliminary estimates to create Neutron Star atmospheric conditions in the laboratory and the possibility of generating photon bubbles. The minimal requirements for photon-bubble instability could potentially be met with a properly configured 10 ps petawatt laser experiment. The high energy (multi-MeV) electrons generated by an ultra-intense laser interacting with a foil are coupled to the electrons in

  13. On the capture of dark matter by neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güver, Tolga; Emre Erkoca, Arif; Hall Reno, Mary; Sarcevic, Ina

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the number of dark matter particles that a neutron star accumulates over its lifetime as it rotates around the center of a galaxy, when the dark matter particle is a self-interacting boson but does not self-annihilate. We take into account dark matter interactions with baryonic matter and the time evolution of the dark matter sphere as it collapses within the neutron star. We show that dark matter self-interactions play an important role in the rapid accumulation of dark matter in the core of the neutron star. We consider the possibility of determining an exclusion region of the parameter space for dark matter mass and dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons as well as dark matter self-interaction cross section, based on the observation of old neutron stars. We show that for a dark matter density of 103 GeV/cm3and dark matter mass m? lesssim 10 GeV, there is a potential exclusion region for dark matter interactions with nucleons that is three orders of magnitude more stringent than without self-interactions. The potential exclusion region for dark matter self-interaction cross sections is many orders of magnitude stronger than the current Bullet Cluster limit. For example, for high dark matter density regions, we find that for m? ~ 10 GeV when the dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons ranges from ??n ~ 10-52 cm2 to ??n ~ 10-57 cm2, the dark matter self-interaction cross section limit is ??? lesssim 10-33 cm2, which is about ten orders of magnitude stronger than the Bullet Cluster limit.

  14. Electric and thermal conductivities of quenched neutron star crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    The electric and thermal conductivities in the outer crustal matter of a neutron star quenched into a solid state by cooling are estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of freezing transition for dense plasmas. The conductivities are calculated by the precise evaluation of the scattering integrals, using the procedure of Ichimaru et al. (1983) and Iyetomi and Ichimaru (1983). The results predict the conductivities lower, by a factor of about 3, than those with the single-phonon approximation.

  15. General relativistic simulations of magnetized binary neutron star mergers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuk Tung Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro; Zachariah B. Etienne; Keisuke Taniguchi

    2008-01-01

    Binary neutron stars (NSNS) are expected to be among the leading sources of\\u000agravitational waves observable by ground-based laser interferometers and may be\\u000athe progenitors of short-hard gamma ray bursts. We present a series of general\\u000arelativistic NSNS coalescence simulations both for unmagnetized and magnetized\\u000astars. We adopt quasiequilibrium initial data for circular, irrotational\\u000abinaries constructed in the conformal thin-sandwich

  16. Powering Short GRBs by Mergers of Moderately Magnetized Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.; Rezzolla, L.; Giacomazzo, B.; Obergaulinger, M.

    2012-07-01

    We explore the process of amplification of the magnetic field initially contained in merging neutron stars on the light shed by the recent results of global and local numerical simulations. We show that the field growth proceeds in two regimes. First, the initial fields are amplified in an unstable KH-shear layer, which results when the two neutron stars touch each other. This amplification lasts, at most, until the central black hole if formed. Subsequently, an MRI unstable toroidal remnant amplifies further the magnetic field. No ultrarelativistic outflow is formed in by the action of the magnetic field, at least in the first ˜ 30 ms after the neutron stars merge, since neither the magnetization, nor the magnetic flux across the event horizon are large enough. However, we conclude that thermally generated ultrarelativistic outflows, which ultimately give rise to short gamma-ray bursts, could be generated soon after the formation of the central BH by our models, if they would include the appropriate neutrino physics.

  17. Quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in LMXBs

    E-print Network

    Anabela Turlione; Deborah N. Aguilera; José A. Pons

    2015-02-19

    We monitored the quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries after active periods of intense activity in x-rays (outbursts). The theoretical modeling of the thermal relaxation of the neutron star crust may be used to establish constraints on the crust composition and transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed. We numerically simulated the thermal evolution of the neutron star crust and compared them with inferred surface temperatures for five sources: MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260, EXO 0748-676, XTE J1701-462 and IGR J17480-2446. We find that the evolution of MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260 and EXO 0748-676 can be well described within a deep crustal cooling scenario. Conversely, we find that the other two sources can only be explained with models beyond crustal cooling. For the peculiar emission of XTE J1701-462 we propose alternative scenarios such as residual accretion during quiescence, additional heat sources in the outer crust, and/or thermal isolation of the inner crust due to a buried magnetic field. We also explain the very recent reported temperature of IGR J17480-2446 with an additional heat deposition in the outer crust from shallow sources.

  18. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Mission of Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendreau, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics mission of opportunity (MoO) that will reveal the inner workings of neutron stars, cosmic lighthouses that embody unique gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments. NICER achieves this objective by deploying a high-heritage instrument as an attached payload on a zenith-side ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NICER offers order-of-magnitude improvements in time-coherent sensitivity and timing resolution beyond the capabilities of any X-ray observatory flown to date.Through a cost-sharing opportunity between the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) NICER will also demonstrate how neutron stars can serve as deep-space navigation beacons to guide humankind out of Earth orbit, to destinations throughout the Solar System and beyond.I will overview the NICER mission, discuss our experience working with the ISS, and describe the process of forging a partnership between SMD and STMD.

  19. Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations

    E-print Network

    Thomas Hell; Wolfram Weise

    2014-09-24

    Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless additional strongly repulsive correlations, e.g. through vector current interactions between quarks, are introduced. The extent to which strangeness can accumulate in the equation of state is also discussed.

  20. Vacuum fluctuation inside a star and their consequences for neutron stars, a simple model

    E-print Network

    Gunther Caspar; Isaac Rodriguez; Peter O. Hess; Walter Greiner

    2015-06-03

    Applying semi-classical Quantum Mechanics, the vacuum fluctuations within a star are determined, assuming a constant mass density and applying a monopole approximation. It is found that the density for the vacuum fluctuations does not only depend linearly on the mass density, as assumed in a former publication, where neutron stars up to 6 solar masses were obtained. This is used to propose a simple model on the dependence of the dark energy to the mass density, as a function of the radial distance r. It is shown that stars with up to 200 solar masses can, in principle, be obtained. Though, we use a simple model, it shows that in the presence of vacuum fluctuations stars with large masses can be stabilized and probably stars up to any mass can exist, which usually are identified as black holes.

  1. Vacuum fluctuation inside a star and their consequences for neutron stars, a simple model

    E-print Network

    Caspar, Gunther; Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Applying semi-classical Quantum Mechanics, the vacuum fluctuations within a star are determined, assuming a constant mass density and applying a monopole approximation. It is found that the density for the vacuum fluctuations does not only depend linearly on the mass density, as assumed in a former publication, where neutron stars up to 6 solar masses were obtained. This is used to propose a simple model on the dependence of the dark energy to the mass density, as a function of the radial distance r. It is shown that stars with up to 200 solar masses can, in principle, be obtained. Though, we use a simple model, it shows that in the presence of vacuum fluctuations stars with large masses can be stabilized and probably stars up to any mass can exist, which usually are identified as black holes.

  2. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjib S; Kawano, Toshihiko; Möller, Peter

    2008-12-01

    In our calculation of neutron star crust heating we include several key new model features. In earlier work electron capture (EC) only allowed neutron emission from the daughter ground state; here we calculate, in a deformed quasi-random-phase approximation (QRPA) model, EC decay rates to all states in the daughter that are allowed by Gamow-Teller selection rules and energetics. The subsequent branching ratios between the 1n,...,xn channels and the competing gamma decay are calculated in a Hauser-Feshbach model. In our multicomponent plasma model a single (EC, xn) reaction step can produce several neutron-deficient nuclei, each of which can further decay by (EC, xn). Hence, the neutron emission occurs more continuously with increasing depth as compared to that in a one-component plasma model. PMID:19113537

  3. Galactic Center Minispiral: Interaction Modes of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Zajacek, Michal; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2015-01-01

    Streams of gas and dust in the inner parsec of the Galactic center form a distinct feature known as the Minispiral, which has been studied in radio waveband as well as in the infrared wavebands. A large fraction of the Minispiral gas is ionized by radiation of OB stars present in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC). Based on the inferred mass in the innermost parsec ($\\sim 10^6$ solar masses), over $\\sim 10^3$ -- $10^4$ neutron stars should move in the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH. We estimate that a fraction of them propagate through the denser, ionized medium concentrated mainly along the three arms of the Minispiral. Based on the properties of the gaseous medium, we discuss different interaction regimes of magnetised neutron stars passing through this region. Moreover, we sketch expected observational effects of these regimes. The simulation results may be applied to other galactic nuclei hosting NSC, where the expected distribution of the interaction regimes is different across different galax...

  4. Neutron star/supernova remnant associations: the view from Tbilisi

    E-print Network

    V. V. Gvaramadze

    2002-08-01

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centered supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical center of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical center of the associated SNR. Taking into account these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with some examples. We also show that the concept of an off-centered cavity SN explosion could be used to explain the peculiar structures of a number of SNRs and for searches for stellar remnants possibly associated with them.

  5. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  6. Galactic Center Minispiral: Interaction Modes of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacek, Michal; Karas, Vladimir; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2015-06-01

    Streams of gas and dust in the inner parsec of the Galactic center form a distinct feature known as the Minispiral, which has been studied in radio waveband as well as in the infrared wavebands. A large fraction of the Minispiral gas is ionized by radiation of OB stars present in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC). Based on the inferred mass in the innermost parsec ( ~10^6 solar masses), over ~10^3-10^4 neutron stars should move in the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH. We estimate that a fraction of them propagate through the denser, ionized medium concentrated mainly along the three arms of the Minispiral. Based on the properties of the gaseous medium, we discuss different interaction regimes of magnetised neutron stars passing through this region. Moreover, we sketch expected observational effects of these regimes. The simulation results may be applied to other galactic nuclei hosting NSC, where the expected distribution of the interaction regimes is different across different galaxy types.

  7. Explosive Combustion of a Neutron Star into a Quark Star: the non-premixed scenario

    E-print Network

    Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    We review aspects of the hydrodynamical combustion of nuclear matter to strange quark matter in a neutron star. Numerical studies on non-premixed combustion that consistently include hydrodynamical flows in a reactive-diffusive setup show that in 1D, the conversion (burning) front moves at sub-sonic speeds and stops short of converting the entire star to SQM, essentially due to advective forces. However, in the process, we also find that neutrino cooling of the interface causes it to wrinkle, laying a platform for a deflagrative-to-detonative transition (DDT). We outline progress on improvements in the burning code (Burn-UD: http://quarknova.ucalgary.ca/software/Burn-UD/) that will ultimately reveal the mechanism that can explode the outermost layers of even a dense compact object like a neutron star.

  8. Detecting neutrinos from black hole neutron stars mergers

    E-print Network

    O. L. Caballero; G. C. McLaughlin; R. Surman

    2009-10-08

    While it is well known that neutrinos are emitted from standard core collapse protoneutron star supernovae, less attention has been focused on neutrinos from accretion disks. These disks occur in some supernovae (i.e. "collapsars") as well as in compact object mergers, and they emit neutrinos with similar properties to those from protoneutron star supernovae. These disks and their neutrinos play an important role in our understanding of gamma ray bursts as well as the nucleosynthesis they produce. We study a disk that forms in the merger of a black hole and a neutron star and examine the neutrino fluxes, luminosities and neutrino surfaces for the disk. We also estimate the number of events that would be registered in current and proposed supernova neutrino detectors if such an event were to occur in the Galaxy.

  9. Gravitational wave emission from rotating superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    D. I. Jones

    2009-12-10

    In this paper we investigate the effect of a pinned superfluid component on the gravitational wave emission of a steadily rotating deformed neutron star. We show that the superfluid pinning allows the possibility for there to be gravitational wave emission at both the stellar spin frequency $\\Omega$ and its first harmonic, $2\\Omega$. This contrasts with the conventional case where there is no pinned superfluidity, where either only the $2\\Omega$ harmonic is present, or else the star undergoes precession, a feature which is not believed to be common in the known pulsar population. This work motivates the carrying out of gravitational wave searches where both the $\\Omega$ and $2\\Omega$ harmonics are searched for, even in targeted searches for waves from known pulsars which aren't observed to precess. Observation of such a two-component signal would provide evidence in favour of pinned superfluidity inside the star.

  10. HERSCHEL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SLOWLY ROTATING, NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Popov, S. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Wachter, S., E-mail: posselt@psu.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königsstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 ?m, 160 mu m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 ?m, 4.5 ?m) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ? 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 ?m emission (>5?) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 ?m detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 ?m emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ?10% to ?20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 ?m emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  11. Herschel and Spitzer Observations of Slowly Rotating, Nearby Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 ?m, 160 ?m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 ?m, 4.5 ?m) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ? 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 ?m emission (>5?) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 ?m detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 ?m emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ~10% to ~20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 ?m emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  12. R Coronae Borealis Stars formed from Double White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan E.; Herwig, F.; Menon, A.; Even, W.; Tohline, J.; Clayton, G.; Motl, P.; Fryer, C.; Geballe, T.

    2011-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are hydrogen-deficient variable stars that suddenly fade by several magnitudes at irregular intervals whereafter they gradually return to their original brightness over a period of some months. The origin of RCBs remain a mystery. It is often thought that they are the result of the merger of a He and a CO white dwarf, while the fading is thought to be due to the formation of dust blocking light from the star. We are working on revealing the secrets behind the origin of RCBs. Here we present the results of 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double white dwarf system where total mass is 0.9 M? and initial mass ratio is q=0.7. We use a zero-temperature plus ideal gas equation of state that allows for heating through shocks. These simulations allow us to follow the evolution of the system for 10-20 initial orbital periods (1000-2000 seconds), from the onset of mass-transfer to a point after merger when the combined object has settled into a nearly axisymmetric, rotationally flattened configuration. The final merged object from the hydrodynamics simulation is then used as input for a stellar evolution code where the object's evolution can be followed over a much longer (thermal and/or nuclear) timescale. A preliminary post-merger stellar evolution simulation shows how an initial configuration of a 0.7 CO WD surrounded by 0.3 M? of dynamically accreted He evolves on a time scale of 105 years to the location of the RCB stars in the H-R diagram at an effective temperature Teff<7000 K and log L 4. We acknowledge support from NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant number NNX10AC72G.

  13. Cooling of neutron stars and hybrid stars with a stiff hadronic EoS

    E-print Network

    H. Grigorian; D. Blaschke; D. N. Voskresensky

    2015-03-16

    Within the "nuclear medium cooling" scenario of neutron stars all reliably known temperature - age data, including those of the central compact objects in the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and XMMU-J1732, can be comfortably explained by a set of cooling curves obtained by variation of the star mass within the range of typical observed masses. The recent measurements of the high masses of the pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348-0432 on the one hand, and of the low masses for PSR J0737-3039B and the companion of PSR J1756-2251 on the other, provide independent proof for the existence of neutron stars with masses in a broad range from $\\sim 1.2$ to 2 $M_\\odot$. The values $M>2 M_{\\odot}$ call for sufficiently stiff equations of state for neutron star matter. We investigate the response of the set of neutron star cooling curves to a stiffening of the nuclear equation of state so that maximum masses of about $2.4 M_\\odot$ would be accessible and to a deconfinement phase transition from such stiff nuclear matter in the outer core to color superconducting quark matter in the inner core. Without readjustment of cooling inputs the mass range required to cover all cooling data for the stiff DD2 equation of state should include masses of $2.426 M_\\odot$ for describing the fast cooling of CasA while the existence of a quark matter core accelerates the cooling so that CasA cooling data are described with a hybrid star of mass $1.674 M_\\odot$.

  14. Einstein-Maxwell field equations in isotropic coordinates: an application to neutron star and quark star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, N.; Pant, Neeraj

    2014-07-01

    We present a new class of static spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in isotropic coordinates for perfect fluid by considering a specific choice of electrical intensity which involves a parameter K. The resulting solutions represent charged fluid spheres joining smoothly with the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions so obtained are utilized to construct the models for super-dense star like neutron stars ( ? b =2 and 2.7×1014 g/cm3) and Quark stars ( ? b =4.6888×1014 g/cm3). It is observed that the models are well behaved for the restricted value of parameter K (0.141? K?0.159999). Corresponding to K max =0.159999 for which, u max =0.259, the resulting Quark star has a maximum mass M=1.618 M ? and radius R=9.263 km and the neutron star modeling based on the particular solution; corresponding to K=0.15, u=0.238 and by assuming the surface density ? b =2.7×1014 g/cm3 the maximum mass of neutron star M=1.966 M ? and radius R=12.23 km and by assuming the surface density ? b =2×1014 g/cm3 the resulting well behaved solution has a maximum mass of neutron M=2.284 M ? and radius R=14.21 km. The robustness of our result is that it matches with the recent discoveries.

  15. The magnetosphere in thermal electrons: Cluster and Double Star PEACE measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, M. H.; Taylor, M. G.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lahiff, A. D.; Mihaljcic, B.; Rozum, I.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a statistical overview of Cluster PEACE electron measurements combined with measurements from PEACE Double star 1 and Double Star 2. This investigation follows on from the recent Denton and Taylor, 2008 investigation of global ion characteristics. A preliminary of the relation between magnetospheric conditioning and upstream driving on the electron characteristics of the magnetosphere is presented.

  16. A model of double star induction motors under rotor bar defect for diagnosis purpose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Razik; G. Didier; T. Lubin; C. R. da Silva; A. W. Mascarenhas; C. B. Jacobina; A. M. N. Lima; E. R. C. da Silva

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling of a double star induction motor when this one operates under rotor fault. A special attention is paid only to the rotor defect. The use of double star induction motors or six-phase induction motors is increasing and we can find it in high power process. Its main advantage lies in most reliability in case of

  17. A Novel Method of Double Star Astrometry Using a Webcam and Self-Calibrating Measurement Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Ed

    2007-01-01

    A new double star software application, BinStar, is described. This application takes AVI sequences of doubles drifting across the FOV as input, and uses the drift rate, frame rate and declination to self-calibrate both image scale and orientation, so that separate calibration images are not required.

  18. Performance of a double-star synchronous generator with bridge rectified output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing-Yuan Li; O. P. Malik

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a double-star synchronous generator with bridge rectified output is studied from the fundamental machine equations. The generator has two stator windings shifted by ?\\/6 electrical radians, which with their bridges can be connected either in series or in parallel. Therefore the double-star synchronous generator with rectifier load can have two major operation modes. Using

  19. Bulk viscosity coefficients due to phonons in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura [Institut de Ciències del Espai (IEEC/CSIC), Facultat de Ciències, Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Tarrús, Jaume, E-mail: cmanuel@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: tarrus@ecm.ub.edu, E-mail: tolos@ice.csic.es [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    We calculate the three bulk viscosity coefficients as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. The solution of the dynamical evolution of the phonon number density allows us to calculate the bulk viscosity coefficients as function of the phonon collisional rate and the phonon dispersion law, which depends on the neutron pairing gap. Our method of computation is rather general, and could be used for different superfluid systems, provided they share the same underlying symmetries. We find that the behavior with temperature of the bulk viscosity coefficients is dominated by the contributions coming from the collinear regime of the 2?3 phonon processes. For typical star radial pulsation frequencies of ? ? 10{sup 4}s{sup ?1}, we obtain that the bulk viscosity coefficients at densities n?>4n{sub 0} are within 10% from its static value for T?<10{sup 9} K and for the case of strong neutron superfluidity in the core with a maximum value of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} gap above 1 MeV, while, otherwise, the static solution is not a valid approximation to the bulk viscosity coefficients. Compared to previous results from Urca and modified Urca reactions, we conclude that at T ? 10{sup 9}K phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars, except for n ? 2n{sub 0} when the opening of the Urca processes takes place.

  20. Simulations of Neutron-Star Binaries using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Kaplan; Christian Ott; Curran Muhlberger; Matthew Duez; Francois Foucart; Mark Scheel

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful fully general-relativistic simulations of coalescing neutron-star binaries, researchers have steadily improved the quality of their neutron-star binary evolutions with the goal of drawing connections between neutron-star physics (such as the NS equation of state, magnetic fields, etc.) and astrophysical observables (in the form of gravitational waves and the electromagnetic signature of short gamma-ray bursts). We present

  1. Common Proper Motion Visual Double Stars in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavras, P.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Ducourant, C.; Lecampion, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    We present a preliminary version of CPMDS, a new catalogue of Northern common proper motion visual double stars. All these stars are laying in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone +11°<=?<=+18°. We applied a statistical hypothesis t-test in the proper motions of the components. The proper motions used in our list were adopted from the Bordeaux proper motion catalogue PM2000. We detected 2831 new common proper motion double stars covering about 6% of the sky. This new catalogue is a large contribution to the small list of known common proper motion double stars.

  2. Longitudinal Double Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Jet Production at STAR

    E-print Network

    Katarzyna Kowalik

    2006-10-02

    This contribution reports on the first measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ for the inclusive production of jets in polarized proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200 \\mathrm{GeV}$. The data were collected with STAR at RHIC in the years 2003 and 2004, and correspond to a sampled integrated luminosity of $0.3 \\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$ with beam polarizations up to 45%. The results on $A_{LL}$ cover jet transverse momenta $5 < p_{T} < 17 \\mathrm{GeV/c}$ and agree with perturbative QCD evaluations based on deep-inelastic scattering parametrizations for the gluon polarization in the proton. The results disfavor large positive gluon polarization in the polarized proton.

  3. Longitudinal double spin asymmetry in jet production at STAR

    E-print Network

    Katarzyna Kowalik

    2007-06-18

    We present recent measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry A_LL for the inclusive production of jets at midrapidity in polarized proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=200GeV. The data amount to an integrated luminosity of 3pb-1 and were collected with the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider during the year 2005 with average beam polarizations of about 50%. The ALL measurements cover jet transverse momenta 5 < pT < 30 GeV/c expanding the pT coverage over previously published data. The results will be compared with perturbative QCD evaluations and shown to provide sensitive constraints on the gluon spin contribution to the nucleon spin.

  4. Statistical theory of thermal evolution of neutron stars - II. Limitations on direct Urca threshold

    E-print Network

    Beznogov, M V

    2015-01-01

    We apply our recently suggested statistical approach to thermal evolution of isolated neutron stars and accreting quasistationary neutron stars in X-ray transients for constraining the position and relative broadening alpha of the direct Urca threshold of powerful neutrino emission in neutron star cores. We show that most likely explanation of observations corresponds to alpha = 0.08 - 0.10 and to the neutron star mass, at which the direct Urca process is open, M_D = (1.6 - 1.8) M_sun.

  5. Kaon condensation in neutron stars with Skyrme-Hartree-Fock models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Kwak, Kyujin; Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2014-05-01

    We investigate nuclear-matter equations of state in neutron stars with kaon condensation. It is generally known that the existence of kaons in neutron star makes the equation of state soft so that the maximum mass of a neutron star is not likely to be greater than 2.0M?, the maximum mass constrained by current observations. With existing Skyrme force model parameters, we calculate nuclear equations of state and check the possibility of kaon condensation in the core of neutron stars. The results show that, even with the kaon condensation, the nuclear equation of state satisfies both the maximum mass and the allowed ranges of mass and radius.

  6. Kaon Condensation in Neutron Star with Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Models

    E-print Network

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate nuclear matter equations of state in neutron star with kaon condensation. It is generally known that the existence of kaons in neutron star makes the equation of state soft so that the maximum mass of neutron star is not likely to be greater than 2.0 $M_{\\odot}$, the maximum mass constrained by current observations. With existing Skyrme force model parameters, we calculate nuclear equations of state and check the possibility of kaon condensation in the core of neutron stars. The results show that even with the kaon condensation, the nuclear equation of state satisfies both the maximum mass and the allowed ranges of mass and radius.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2015-07-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  8. Relativistic numerical models for stationary superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Prix, Reinhard; Novak, Jerome; Comer, G. L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Laboratoire de l'Univers et de ses Theories, UMR 8102 du C.N.R.S, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Department of Physics, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, 63156-0907 (United States)

    2005-02-15

    We have developed a theoretical model and a numerical code for stationary rotating superfluid neutron stars in full general relativity. The underlying two-fluid model is based on Carter's covariant multifluid hydrodynamic formalism. The two fluids, representing the superfluid neutrons on one hand, and the protons and electrons on the other, are restricted to uniform rotation around a common axis, but are allowed to have different rotation rates. We have performed extensive tests of the numerical code, including quantitative comparisons to previous approximative results for these models. The results presented here are the first 'exact' calculations of such models in the sense that no approximations (other than that inherent in a discretized numerical treatment) are used. Using this code we reconfirm the existence of prolate-oblate shaped configurations. We studied the dependency of the Kepler rotation limit and of the mass-density relation on the relative rotation rate. We further demonstrate how one can simulate a (albeit fluid) neutron-star crust by letting one fluid extend further outwards than the other, which results in interesting cases where the Kepler limit is actually determined by the outermost but slower fluid.

  9. Relativistic numerical models for stationary superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prix, Reinhard; Novak, Jérôme; Comer, G. L.

    2005-02-01

    We have developed a theoretical model and a numerical code for stationary rotating superfluid neutron stars in full general relativity. The underlying two-fluid model is based on Carter’s covariant multifluid hydrodynamic formalism. The two fluids, representing the superfluid neutrons on one hand, and the protons and electrons on the other, are restricted to uniform rotation around a common axis, but are allowed to have different rotation rates. We have performed extensive tests of the numerical code, including quantitative comparisons to previous approximative results for these models. The results presented here are the first “exact” calculations of such models in the sense that no approximations (other than that inherent in a discretized numerical treatment) are used. Using this code we reconfirm the existence of prolate-oblate shaped configurations. We studied the dependency of the Kepler rotation limit and of the mass-density relation on the relative rotation rate. We further demonstrate how one can simulate a (albeit fluid) neutron-star crust by letting one fluid extend further outwards than the other, which results in interesting cases where the Kepler limit is actually determined by the outermost but slower fluid.

  10. Double white dwarfs as progenitors of R coronae borealis stars and type I supernovae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Webbink

    1984-01-01

    Close double white dwarfs should arise from the second phase of mass exchagne in close binaries which first encountered mass exchange while the more massive star was crossing the Hertzprung gap. Tidal mass transfer in these double degenerate systems is explored. The sequence of double white dwarf divides naturally into three segments. (1) Low-mass helium\\/helium pairs are unstable to dynamical

  11. Neutrino emission rates in highly magnetized neutron stars revisited

    E-print Network

    Mario Riquelme; Andreas Reisenegger; Olivier Espinosa; Claudio Dib

    2005-05-11

    Magnetars are a subclass of neutron stars whose intense soft-gamma-ray bursts and quiescent X-ray emission are believed to be powered by the decay of a strong internal magnetic field. We reanalyze neutrino emission in such stars in the plausibly relevant regime in which the Landau band spacing of both protons and electrons is much larger than kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature), but still much smaller than the Fermi energies. Focusing on the direct Urca process, we find that the emissivity oscillates as a function of density or magnetic field, peaking when the Fermi level of the protons or electrons lies about 3kT above the bottom of any of their Landau bands. The oscillation amplitude is comparable to the average emissivity when the Landau band spacing mentioned above is roughly the geometric mean of kT and the Fermi energy (excluding mass), i. e., at fields much weaker than required to confine all particles to the lowest Landau band. Since the density and magnetic field strength vary continuously inside the neutron star, there will be alternating surfaces of high and low emissivity. Globally, these oscillations tend to average out, making it unclear whether there will be any observable effects.

  12. Gravitational Wave Background of Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binaries

    E-print Network

    Asantha Cooray

    2004-06-21

    We discuss the stochastic background of gravitational waves from ultra compact neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binaries at cosmological distances. Under the assumption that accreting neutron stars and donor white dwarf stars form most of the low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), our calculation makes use of recent results related to the luminosity function determined from X-ray observations. Even after accounting for detached NS-WD binaries not captured in X-ray data, the NS-WD background is at least an order of magnitude below that due to extragalactic white dwarf-white dwarf binaries and below the detectability level of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) at frequencies between 10^-5 Hz and 10^-1 Hz. While the extragalactic background is unlikely to be detected, we suggest that around one to ten galactic NS-WD binaries may be resolved with LISA such that their positions are determined to an accuracy of several degrees on the sky.

  13. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Holes and the EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kent S.

    White dwarfs are recognized as formally analogous to neutron stars being stellar configurations where the thermal contribution to support is secondary. Both stellar types exist with various intrinsic parameters (spin mass magnetic field temperature/age) and environmental parameters (accretion environment if any characterized by overall rate and flow geometry). Comparison of analogous systems using scalings of these parameters can be fruitful e.g. comparison of stars with similar magnetic moments. Source class characterization is mature enough that such analogies can be used to compare theoretical ideas across a wide dynamic range in parameters one example being theories of quasiperioic oscillations. However the white dwarf side of this program is limited by available high resolution spectroscopy and photometry in the EUV. EUV observation is challenging but this is where white dwarf spectral energy distributions often reach maximum values. (For neutron stars the same role is played by X-rays.) Two types of cataclysmic variable systems exemplified by AM Her and EX Hya are used to illustrate these ideas in detail. Dynamical timescales and envisioned spectroscopic performance parameters of next-generation EUV satellites make possible a new level of source modeling that blends timing and spectroscopic tests. Extensions to include black holes are also considered.

  14. GB 790305 as a very strongly magnetized neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    The March 5 1979 event was the strongest gamma-ray burst ever observed. Its location in the sky is known with an accuracy of about 10 arcsec, and it coincides with the N49 supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The main burst was followed by a soft tail with the periodic 8 s modulation, and 16 soft gamma events over the following few years. If the source is a magnetic neutron star with the 8 s rotation period and the age of about 10 exp 4 years as indicated by N49 then the field strength of about 5 x 10 exp 14 gauss is implied. The corresponding critical luminosity is about 10 exp 4 L(Edd), as the electron scattering opacity is suppressed by the strong magnetic field. This luminosity is consistent with the observed peak flux of the soft tail and the soft repeaters. The soft spectrum may be approximated with the photospheric emission at kT(eff) = 17 keV. The corresponding photospheric radius is about 14 km, compatible with a neutron star hypothesis. The total magnetic energy of the star is about 4 x 10 exp 46 erg, more than enough to power the March 5 event and all its repeaters.

  15. The maximum mass and radius of neutron stars and the nuclear symmetry energy

    E-print Network

    S. Gandolfi; J. Carlson; Sanjay Reddy

    2012-03-14

    We calculate the equation of state of neutron matter with realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions using quantum Monte Carlo techniques, and illustrate that the short-range three-neutron interaction determines the correlation between neutron matter energy at nuclear saturation density and higher densities relevant to neutron stars. Our model also makes an experimentally testable prediction for the correlation between the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence -- determined solely by the strength of the short-range terms in the three neutron force. The same force provides a significant constraint on the maximum mass and radius of neutron stars.

  16. Neutron specific heat in the crust of neutron stars from the nuclear band theory Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Neutron specific heat in the crust of neutron stars from the nuclear band theory N. Chamel Institut´e Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex, France (Dated: December 23, 2008) The inner crust of neutron stars, formed of a crystal lattice of nuclear clusters immersed in a sea of unbound neutrons, may be the unique

  17. BIMA CO OBSERVATION OF EP AQUARII: THE SEMIREGULAR PULSATING STAR WITH A DOUBLE-COMPONENT LINE PROFILE

    E-print Network

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi

    BIMA CO OBSERVATION OF EP AQUARII: THE SEMIREGULAR PULSATING STAR WITH A DOUBLE-COMPONENT LINE interferometric observation of EP Aqr, a semiregular pulsating star with a double-component line profile in the CO of such a disk in RV Boo, an O-rich AGB star with a double-component profile. Similarly, the existence

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay within the quasiparticle random-phase approximation with proton-neutron pairing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pantis; F. Simkovic; J. D. Vergados; Amand Faessler

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the role of proton-neutron pairing in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation formalism. This way the neutrinoless double beta decay matrix elements of the experimentally interesting {ital A} = 48, 76, 82, 96, 100, 116, 128, 130, and 136 systems have been calculated. We have found that the inclusion of proton-neutron pairing influences the neutrinoless

  19. WHAT IS THE MOST PROMISING ELECTROMAGNETIC COUNTERPART OF A NEUTRON STAR BINARY MERGER?

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, B. D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    The final inspiral of double neutron star and neutron-star-black-hole binaries are likely to be detected by advanced networks of ground-based gravitational wave (GW) interferometers. Maximizing the science returns from such a discovery will require the identification of an electromagnetic counterpart. Here we critically evaluate and compare several possible counterparts, including short-duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), 'orphan' optical and radio afterglows, and day-long optical transients powered by the radioactive decay of heavy nuclei synthesized in the merger ejecta ('kilonovae'). We assess the promise of each counterpart in terms of four 'Cardinal Virtues': detectability, high fraction, identifiability, and positional accuracy. Taking into account the search strategy for typical error regions of tens of square degrees, we conclude that SGRBs are the most useful to confirm the cosmic origin of a few GW events, and to test the association with neutron star mergers. However, for the more ambitious goal of localizing and obtaining redshifts for a large sample of GW events, kilonovae are instead preferred. Off-axis optical afterglows are detectable for at most tens of percent of events, while radio afterglows are promising only for energetic relativistic ejecta in a high-density medium. Our main recommendations are: (1) an all-sky gamma-ray satellite is essential for temporal coincidence detections, and for GW searches of gamma-ray-triggered events; (2) the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should adopt a one-day cadence follow-up strategy, ideally with 0.5 hr per pointing to cover GW error regions; and (3) radio searches should focus on the relativistic case, which requires observations for a few months.

  20. New measurements of neutron electric dipole moment with double chamber EDM spectrometer

    E-print Network

    A. P. Serebrov; E. A. Kolomenskiy; A. N. Pirozhkov; I. A. Krasnoshekova; A. V. Vasiliev; A. O. Polyushkin; M. S. Lasakov; A. N. Murashkin; V. A. Solovey; A. K. Fomin; I. V. Shoka; O. M. Zherebtsov; P. Geltenbort; S. N. Ivanov; O. Zimmer; E. B. Alexandrov; S. P. Dmitriev; N. A. Dovator

    2014-08-27

    The article presents results on neutron electric dipole moment measurements (EDM), made by ILL reactor using PNPI experimental installation. Double chamber magnetic resonance spectrometer with prolonged holding of ultra cold neutrons has been employed. The obtained results at 90% confidence level determine the upper limit for EDM neutron quantity equal to $|d_n| < 5.5 \\cdot 10^{-26}$ e$ \\cdot$cm.