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Sample records for double neutron star

  1. Double Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for LIGO

    E-print Network

    Chang-Hwan Lee; Gerald E. Brown

    2005-10-13

    Double neutrons are especially important because they give most accurate informations on the masses of neutron stars. Observations on double neutron stars show that all masses of the neutron stars are below 1.5$\\msun$. Furthermore, two neutron stars in a given double pulsar are nearly equal in mass. With hypercritical accretion, we found that the probability of having companion mass $>1.5\\msun$ is larger than 90%, while there is no observations on such systems. We believe that those companions with masses higher than $1.5\\msun$ went into black holes, which is consistent with our preferred maximum neutron star mass $M_{NS}^{max} \\approx 1.5\\msun$ due to the kaon condensation. In this work, we point out that the black-hole neutron star binaries are 10 times more dominant than double neutron star binaries. As a result, black-hole, neutron star binaries can increase the LIGO detection rate by a factor 20.

  2. Double Neutron Star Systems and Natal Neutron Star Kicks

    E-print Network

    Chris Fryer; Vassiliki Kalogera

    1997-06-03

    We study the four double neutron star systems found in the Galactic disk in terms of the orbital characteristics of their immediate progenitors and the natal kicks imparted to neutron stars. Analysis of the effect of the second supernova explosion on the orbital dynamics, combined with recent results from simulations of rapid accretion onto neutron stars lead us to conclude that the observed systems could not have been formed had the explosion been symmetric. Their formation becomes possible if kicks are imparted to the radio-pulsar companions at birth. We identify the constraints imposed on the immediate progenitors of the observed double neutron stars and calculate the ranges within which their binary characteristics (orbital separations and masses of the exploding stars) are restricted. We also study the dependence of these limits on the magnitude of the kick velocity and the time elapsed since the second explosion. For each of the double neutron stars, we derive a minimum kick magnitude required for their formation, and for the two systems in close orbits we find it to exceed 200km/s. Lower limits are also set to the center-of-mass velocities of double neutron stars, and we find them to be consistent with the current proper motion observations.

  3. Stochastic background from inspiralling double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Tania Regimbau

    2006-12-30

    We review the contribution of extra galactic inspiralling double neutron stars, to the LISA astrophysical gravitational wave foreground. Using recent fits of the star formation rate, we show that sources beyond $z_*=0.005$ contribute to a truly continuous background, which may dominate the LISA instrumental noise in the range $3 \\simeq 10^{-4}$ - $1 \\times 10^{-2}$ Hz and overwhelm the galactic WD-WD confusion noise at frequencies larger than $\

  4. THE ROLE OF HELIUM STARS IN THE FORMATION OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS N. Ivanova,1

    E-print Network

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    THE ROLE OF HELIUM STARS IN THE FORMATION OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS N. Ivanova,1 K. Belczynski,1,2 V:5 6 M with a 1.4 M neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems phase) leads to the formation of extremely short-period double neutron star systems (with Pd0:1 days

  5. Coalescence Rates of Double Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    1999-04-17

    Merger events of close double neutron stars (DNS) lie at the basis of a number of current issues in relativistic astrophysics, such as the indirect and possible direct detection of gravitational waves, the production of gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances, and the origin of r-process elements in the universe. In assessing the importance or relevance of DNS coalescence to these issues, knowledge of the rate of coalescence in our Galaxy is required. In this paper, I review the current estimates of the DNS merger rate (theoretical and empirical) and discuss new ways to obtain limits on this rate using all information available at present.

  6. Merger Sites of Double Neutron Stars and their Host Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Belczynski; Tomasz Bulik; Vassiliki Kalogera

    2002-04-24

    Using the StarTrack population synthesis code we analyze the formation channels possibly available to double neutron star binaries and find that they can be richer than previously thought. We identify a group of short lived, tight binaries, which do not live long enough to escape their host galaxies, despite their large center-of-mass velocities. We present our most recent results on all possible evolutionary paths leading to the formation of double neutron stars, calculate their coalescence rates, and also revisit the question of the distribution of merger sites around host galaxies. For a wide variety of binary evolution models and galaxy potentials, we find that most of neutron star mergers take place within galaxies. Our results stem from allowing for radial and common envelope evolution of helium-rich stars (testable in the future with detailed stellar-structure and hydrodynamic calculations) and indicate that double neutron star binaries may not be excluded as Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) progenitors solely on the basis of their spatial distribution around host galaxies. We also find, in contrast to Bethe & Brown (1998), that in a significant fraction of common envelope (CE) phases neutron stars do not accrete enough material to become black holes, and thus the channels involving CEs are still open for the formation of double neutron stars.

  7. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    E. P. J. van den Heuvel

    2007-04-26

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the neutron stars received hardly any velocity kick at birth (Pfahl et al. 2002). The masses of the second-born neutron stars in five of the six low-eccentricity double neutron stars are remarkably low (between 1.18 and 1.30 Msun). It is argued that these low-mass, low-kick neutron stars were formed by the electron-capture collapse of the degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of helium stars less massive than about 3.5 Msun, whereas the higher-mass, higher kick-velocity neutron stars were formed by the collapses of the iron cores of higher initial mass. The absence of low-velocity single young radio pulsars (Hobbs et al. 2005) is consistent with the model proposed by Podsiadlowski et al. (2004), in which the electron-capture collapse of degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores can only occur in binary systems, and not in single stars.

  8. Stochastic background from extra-galactic double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    T. Regimbau; B. Chauvineau

    2007-07-30

    We present Monte Carlo simulations of the extra galactic population of inspiralling double neutron stars, and estimate its contribution to the astrophysical gravitational wave background, in the frequency range of ground based interferometers, corresponding to the last thousand seconds before the last stable orbit when more than 96 percent of the signal is released. We show that sources at redshift z>0.5 contribute to a truly continuous background which may be detected by correlating third generation interferometers.

  9. Ultra-stripped supernovae and double neutron star systems

    E-print Network

    Tauris, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of close-orbit progenitor binaries of double neutron star (DNS) systems leads to supernova (SN) explosions of ultra-stripped stars. The amount of SN ejecta mass is very limited from such, more or less, naked metal cores with envelope masses of only 0.01-0.2 Msun. The combination of little SN ejecta mass and the associated possibility of small NS kicks is quite important for the characteristics of the resulting DNS systems left behind. Here, we discuss theoretical predictions for DNS systems, based on Case BB Roche-lobe overflow prior to ultra-stripped SNe, and briefly compare with observations.

  10. The Role of Helium Stars in the Formation of Double Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    N. Ivanova; K. Belczynski; V. Kalogera; F. A. Rasio; R. E. Taam

    2003-07-13

    We have calculated the evolution of 60 model binary systems consisting of helium stars in the mass range of M_He= 2.5-6Msun with a 1.4Msun neutron star companion to investigate the formation of double neutron star systems.Orbital periods ranging from 0.09 to 2 days are considered, corresponding to Roche lobe overflow starting from the helium main sequence to after the ignition of carbon burning in the core. We have also examined the evolution into a common envelope phase via secular instability, delayed dynamical instability, and the consequence of matter filling the neutron star's Roche lobe. The survival of some close He-star neutron-star binaries through the last mass transfer episode (either dynamically stable or unstable mass transfer phase) leads to the formation of extremely short-period double neutron star systems (with Pstar masses (~ 2.6-3.3Msun). The existence of a short-period population of double neutron stars increases the predicted detection rate of inspiral events by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors and impacts their merger location in host galaxies and their possible role as gamma-ray burst progenitors. We use a set of population synthesis calculations and investigate the implications of the mass-transfer results for the orbital properties of DNS populations.

  11. Millisecond Pulsar Searches and Double Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    John Middleditch

    2004-05-06

    A unified strategy is developed that can be used to search for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with ~solar mass companions (including neutron star companions in double neutron star binaries [DNSBs]) belonging to both very short period binaries, and those with periods so long that they could be appropriate targets for acceleration searches, and to bridge the gap between these two extremes. In all cases, the orbits are assumed to be circular. Applications to searches for binary pulsars similar to PSR J0737-3039 are discussed. The most likely candidates for more DNSBs consist of weakly magnetized neutron stars, spinning only moderately fast, like J0737-3039A, with periods generally longer than 15 ms, though this issue is not yet settled. Because of the similarity between the MSP components of DNSBs, and the longer period MSP population specific to massive condensed or core collapsed globular clusters, as well as the uncertainties about accretion-driven spinup, doubts linger about the standard models of DNSB formation.

  12. Complex orbital dynamics of a double neutron star system revolving around a massive black hole

    E-print Network

    Grant N. Remmen; Kinwah Wu

    2013-01-14

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of hierarchical three-body systems containing a double neutron star system orbiting around a massive black hole. These systems show complex dynamical behaviour because of relativistic coupling between orbits of the neutron stars in the double neutron star system and the orbit of the double neutron star system around the black hole. The orbital motion of the neutron stars around each other drives a loop mass current, which gives rise to gravito-magnetism. Generally, gravito-magnetism involves a rotating black hole. The hierarchical three-body system that we consider is an unusual situation in which black hole rotation is not required. Using a gravito-electromagnetic formulation, we calculate the orbital precession and nutation of the double neutron star system. These precession and nutation effects are observable, thus providing probes to the spacetime around black holes as well as tests of gravito-electromagnetism in the framework of general relativity.

  13. CONSTRAINTS ON NATAL KICKS IN GALACTIC DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki E-mail: b-willems@northwestern.ed

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s{sup -1} and 190-450 km s{sup -1} (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M{sub sun} and 1.4-5.0 M{sub sun} (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s{sup -1} (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M{sub sun} (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s{sup -1}, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as {approx}1.5 M{sub sun} or as high as {approx}8 M{sub sun}. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  14. The late stages of evolution of helium star-neutron star binaries and the formation of double neutron star systems

    E-print Network

    J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols

    2003-06-03

    With a view to understanding the formation of double neutron-stars (DNS), we investigate the late stages of evolution of helium stars with masses of 2.8 - 6.4 Msun in binary systems with a 1.4 Msun neutron-star companion. We found that mass transfer from 2.8 - 3.3 Msun helium stars and from 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in very close orbits (P_orb > 0.25d) will end up in a common-envelope (CE) and spiral-in phase due to the development of a convective helium envelope. If the neutron star has sufficient time to complete the spiraling-in process before the core collapses, the system will produce very tight DNSs (P_orb ~ 0.01d) with a merger timescale of the order of 1 Myr or less. These systems would have important consequences for the detection rate of GWR and for the understanding of GRB progenitors. On the other hand, if the time left until the explosion is shorter than the orbital-decay timescale, the system will undergo a SN explosion during the CE phase. Helium stars with masses 3.3 - 3.8 Msun in wider orbits (P_orb > 0.25d) and those more massive than 3.8 Msun do not go through CE evolution. The remnants of these massive helium stars are DNSs with periods in the range of 0.1 - 1 d. This suggests that this range of mass includes the progenitors of the galactic DNSs with close orbits (B1913+16 and B1534+12). A minimum kick velocity of 70 km/s and 0 km/s (for B1913+16 and B1534+12, respectively) must have been imparted at the birth of the pulsar's companion. The DNSs with wider orbits (J1518+4904 and probably J1811-1736) are produced from helium star-neutron star binaries which avoid RLOF, with the helium star more massive than 2.5 Msun. For these systems the minimum kick velocities are 50 km/s and 10 km/s (for J1518+4904 and J1811-1736, respectively).

  15. Formation of Double Neutron Star systems as implied by observations

    E-print Network

    Beniamini, Paz

    2015-01-01

    Double Neutron Stars (DNS) have to survive two supernovae and still remain bound. This sets strong limits on the nature of the second collapse in these systems. We consider the masses and orbital parameters of the DNS population and constrain the two distributions of mass ejection and kick velocities directly from observations with no a-priori assumptions regarding evolutionary models and/or the types of the supernovae involved. We show that there is strong evidence for two distinct types of supernovae in these systems, where the second collapse in the majority of the observed systems involved small mass ejection ($\\Delta M\\lesssim 0.5M_{\\odot}$) and a corresponding low-kick velocity ($v_{k}\\lesssim 30 km/sec$). This formation scenario is compatible, for example, with an electron capture supernova. Only a minority of the systems have formed via the standard SN scenario involving larger mass ejection of $\\sim 2.2 M_{\\odot}$ and kick velocities of up to $400$km/sec. Due to the typically small kicks in most DNS ...

  16. Polar kicks and the spin period - eccentricity relation in double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    B. Willems; J. Andrews; V. Kalogera; K. Belczynski

    2007-10-01

    We present results of a population synthesis study aimed at examining the role of spin-kick alignment in producing a correlation between the spin period of the first-born neutron star and the orbital eccentricity of observed double neutron star binaries in the Galactic disk. We find spin-kick alignment to be compatible with the observed correlation, but not to alleviate the requirements for low kick velocities suggested in previous population synthesis studies. Our results furthermore suggest low- and high-eccentricity systems may form through two distinct formation channels distinguished by the presence or absence of a stable mass transfer phase before the formation of the second neutron star. The presence of highly eccentric systems in the observed sample of double neutron stars may furthermore support the notion that neutron stars accrete matter when moving through the envelope of a giant companion.

  17. The Cosmic Coalescence Rates for Double Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer; M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo

    2004-08-11

    This manuscript is an updated version of Kalogera et al. (2004) published in ApJ Letters to correct our calculation of the Galactic DNS in-spiral rate. The details of the original erratum submitted to ApJ Letters are given in page 6 of this manuscript. We report on the newly increased event rates due to the recent discovery of the highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737--3039 (Burgay et al. 2003). Using a rigorous statistical method, we present the calculations reported by Burgay et al., which produce a in-spiral rate for Galactic double neutron star (DNS) systems that is higher by a factor of 5-7 compared to estimates made prior to the new discovery. Our method takes into account known pulsar-survey selection effects and biases due to small-number statistics. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For the initial Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, the most probable detection rates for DNS in-spirals are one event per 10-630 yr; at 95% confidence, we obtain rates up to one per 3 yr. For the advanced LIGO detectors, the most probable rates are 10-500 events per year. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by the initial LIGO detectors to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes Multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of four binary pulsars similar to those known at present.

  18. Members of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 : neutron stars or strange stars ?

    E-print Network

    Manjari Bagchi; Jishnu Dey; Sushan Konar; Gour Bhattacharya; Mira Dey

    2008-04-29

    One interesting method of constraining the dense matter Equations of State is to measure the advancement of the periastron of the orbit of a binary radio pulsar (when it belongs to a double neutron star system). There is a great deal of interest on applicability of this procedure to the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 (A/B). Although the above method can be applied to PSR A in future within some limitations, for PSR B this method can not be applied. On the other hand, the study of genesis of PSR B might be useful in this connection and its low mass might be an indication that it could be a strange star.

  19. Double-core evolution and the formation of neutron-star binaries with compact companions

    E-print Network

    J. D. M. Dewi; Ph. Podsiadlowski; A. Sena

    2006-02-23

    We present the results of a systematic exploration of an alternative evolutionary scenario to form double neutron-star binaries, first proposed by Brown (1995), which does not involve a neutron star passing through a common envelope. In this scenario, the initial binary components have very similar masses, and both components have left the main sequence before they evolve into contact; preferably the primary has already developed a CO core. We have performed population synthesis simulations to study the formation of double neutron star binaries via this channel and to predict the orbital properties and system velocities of such systems. We obtain a merger rate for DNSs in this channel in the range of 0.1 - 12/Myr. These rates are still subject to substantial uncertainties such as the modelling of the contact phase.

  20. Formation of the Double Neutron Star System PSR J1930-1852

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The spin period (185 ms) and period derivative (1.8× {10}-17 {{s}} {{{s}}}-1) of the recently discovered double neutron star (DNS) system PSR J1930-1852 indicate that the pulsar was mildly recycled through the process of Roche-lobe overflow. This system has the longest orbital period (45 days) of the known DNS systems, and can be formed from a helium star-NS binary if the initial mass of the helium star was ? 4.0{M}? ; otherwise, the helium star would never fill its Roche-lobe. At the moment of the supernova explosion, the mass of the helium star was ? 3.0{M}? . We find that the probability distribution of the velocity kick imparted to the new-born neutron star has a maximum at about 30 {km} {{{s}}}-1 (and a tail up to 260 {km} {{{s}}}-1), indicating that this NS probably received a low kick velocity at birth.

  1. The Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron Star Systems

    E-print Network

    V. Kalogera; R. Narayan; D. N. Spergel; J. H. Taylor

    2001-03-21

    We estimate the coalescence rate of close binaries with two neutron stars (NS) and discuss the prospects for the detection of NS-NS inspiral events by ground-based gravitational-wave observatories, such as LIGO. We derive the Galactic coalescence rate using the observed sample of close NS-NS binaries (PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1534+12) and examine in detail each of the sources of uncertainty associated with the estimate. Specifically, we investigate (i) the dynamical evolution of NS-NS binaries in the Galactic potential and the vertical scale height of the population, (ii) the pulsar lifetimes, (iii) the effects of the faint end of the radio pulsar luminosity function and their dependence on the small number of observed objects, (iv) the beaming fraction, and (v) the extrapolation of the Galactic rate to extragalactic distances expected to be reachable by LIGO. We find that the dominant source of uncertainty is the correction factor (up to about 200) for faint (undetectable) pulsars. All other sources are much less important, each with uncertainty factors smaller than 2. Despite the relatively large uncertainty, the derived coalescence rate is approximately consistent with previously derived upper limits, and is more accurate than rates obtained from population studies. We obtain a most conservative lower limit for the LIGO II detection rate of 2 events per year. Our upper limit on the detection rate lies between 300 to more than 1000 events per year.

  2. Accretion onto neutron stars with the presence of a double layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. C.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; Darbro, W.; Sutherland, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    It is known from laboratory experiments that double layers can form in plasmas, usually in the presence of an electric current. It is argued that a double layer may be present in the accretion column of a neutron star in a binary system. It is suggested that the double layer may be the predominant deceleration mechanism for the accreting ions, especially for sources with X-ray luminosities of less than about 10 to the 37th erg/s. Previous models have involved either a collisionless shock or an assumed gradual deceleration of the accreting ions to thermalize the energy of the infalling matter.

  3. Accretion onto neutron stars with the presence of a double layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. C.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; Darbro, W.; Sutherland, P. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is known, from laboratory experiments, that double layers will form in plasmas, usually in the presence of an electric current. It is argued that a double layer may be present in the accretion column of a neutron star in a binary system. It is suggested that the double layer may be the predominant deceleration mechanism for the accreting ions, especially for sources with X-ray luminosities of less than about 10 to the 37th erg/s. Previous models have involved either a collisionless shock or an assumed gradual deceleration of the accreting ions to thermalize the energy of the infalling matter.

  4. The formation of the double neutron star pulsar J0737--3039

    E-print Network

    J. D. M. Dewi; E. P. J. van den Heuvel

    2003-12-05

    We find that the orbital period (2.4 hours), eccentricity (0.09), dipole magnetic field strength (6.9 x 10^9 Gauss) and spin period (22 ms) of the new highly relativistic double neutron star system PSR J0737-3039 can all be consistently explained if this system originated from a close helium star plus neutron star binary (HeS-NS) in which at the onset of the evolution the helium star had a mass in the range 4.0 to 6.5 M_sun and an orbital period in the range 0.1 to 0.2 days. Such systems are the post-Common-Envelope remnants of wide Be/X-ray binaries (orbital period ~ 100 to 1000 days) which consist of a normal hydrogen-rich star with a mass in the range 10 - 20 M_sun and a neutron star. The close HeS-NS progenitor system went through a phase of mass transfer by Roche-lobe overflow at a high rate lasting a few times 10^4 years; assuming Eddington-limited disk accretion onto the neutron star this star was spun up to its present rapid spin rate. At the moment of the second supernova explosion the He star had a mass in the range 2.3 to 3.3 M_sun and in order to obtain the present orbital parameters of PSR J0737-3039 a kick velocity in the range 70 - 230 km/s must have been imparted to the second neutron star at its birth.

  5. The spin period - eccentricity relation of double neutron stars: evidence for weak supernova kicks?

    E-print Network

    J D M Dewi; Ph Podsiadlowski; O R Pols

    2005-07-27

    Double neutron stars (DNSs), binary systems consisting of a radio pulsar and a generally undetected second neutron star (NS), have proven to be excellent laboratories for testing the theory of general relativity. The seven systems discovered in our Galaxy exhibit a remarkably well-defined relation between the pulsar spin period and the orbital eccentricity. Here we show, using a simple model where the pulsar is spun up by mass transfer from a helium-star companion, that this relation can only be produced if the second neutron star received a kick that is substantially smaller (with a velocity dispersion of less than 50 km/s) than the standard kick received by a single radio pulsar. This demonstrates that the kick mechanism depends on the evolutionary history of the NS progenitor and that the orbital parameters of DNSs are completely determined by the evolution in the preceding helium star - neutron star phase. This has important implications for estimating the rates of NS-NS mergers, one of the major potential astrophysical sources for the direct detection of gravitational waves, and for short-period gamma-ray bursts.

  6. PSR J1756-2251: a new relativistic double neutron star system

    E-print Network

    A. J. Faulkner; M. Kramer; A. G. Lyne; R. N. Manchester; M. A. McLaughlin; I. H. Stairs; G. Hobbs; A. Possenti; D. R. Lorimer; N. D'Amico; F. Camilo; M. Burgay

    2004-11-30

    We report the discovery during the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey of PSR J1756-2251, a 28.5 ms pulsar in a relativistic binary system. Subsequent timing observations showed the pulsar to have an orbital period of 7.67 hrs and an eccentricity of 0.18. They also revealed a significant advance of periastron, 2.585+/-0.002 deg./yr. Assuming this is entirely due to general relativity implies a total system mass (pulsar plus companion) of 2.574+/-0.003 solar mass. This mass and the significant orbital eccentricity suggest that this is a double neutron star system. Measurement of the gravitational redshift, gamma, and an evaluation of the Shapiro delay shape, s, indicate a low companion mass of double neutron star systems.

  7. Pulsar Timing Observations and Tests of General Relativity in Double-Neutron-Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    I. H. Stairs

    2001-05-04

    We describe the techniques used in pulsar timing observations, and show how these observations may be applied to tests of strong-field general relativity for double-neutron-star binary systems. We describe the tests of GR resulting from the PSRs B1913+16 and B1534+12 systems. For the latter pulsar, 5 "Post-Keplerian" timing parameters are measurable, including the orbital period derivative and the two Shapiro delay parameters.

  8. THE DOUBLE PULSAR: EVIDENCE FOR NEUTRON STAR FORMATION WITHOUT AN IRON CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdman, R. D.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.; Stairs, I. H.; Breton, R. P.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Possenti, A.; Kaspi, V. M.; Manchester, R. N.

    2013-04-10

    The double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B is a double neutron star binary, with a 2.4 hr orbital period, which has allowed measurement of relativistic orbital perturbations to high precision. The low mass of the second-formed neutron star, as well as the low system eccentricity and proper motion, point to a different evolutionary scenario compared to most other known double neutron star systems. We describe analysis of the pulse profile shape over 6 years of observations and present the resulting constraints on the system geometry. We find the recycled pulsar in this system, PSR J0737-3039A, to be a near-orthogonal rotator with an average separation between its spin and magnetic axes of 90 Degree-Sign {+-} 11 Degree-Sign {+-} 5 Degree-Sign . Furthermore, we find a mean 95% upper limit on the misalignment between its spin and orbital angular momentum axes of 3. Degree-Sign 2, assuming that the observed emission comes from both magnetic poles. This tight constraint lends credence to the idea that the supernova that formed the second pulsar was relatively symmetric, possibly involving electron capture onto an O-Ne-Mg core.

  9. Is the Bursting Radio-source GCRT J1745-3009 a Double Neutron Star Binary ?

    E-print Network

    R. Turolla; A. Possenti; A. Treves

    2005-06-18

    GCRT J1745-3009 is a peculiar transient radio-source in the direction of the Galactic Center. It was observed to emit a series of ~ 1 Jy bursts at 0.33 GHz, with typical duration ~ 10 min and at apparently regular intervals of ~ 77 min. If the source is indeed at the distance of the Galactic Center as it seems likely, we show that its observational properties are compatible with those expected from a double neutron star binary, similar to the double pulsar system J0737-3039. In the picture we propose the (coherent) radio emission comes from the shock originating in the interaction of the wind of the more energetic pulsar with the magnetosphere of the companion. The observed modulation of the radio signal is the consequence of an eccentric orbit, along which the separation between the two stars varies. This cyclically drives the shock inside the light cylinder radius of the less energetic pulsar.

  10. On the Eccentricities and Merger Rates of Double Neutron Star Binaries and the Creation of "Double Supernovae"

    E-print Network

    H. K. Chaurasia; M. Bailes

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate that a natural consequence of an asymmetric kick imparted to neutron stars at birth is that the majority of double neutron star binaries should possess highly eccentric orbits. This leads to greatly accelerated orbital decay, due to the enormous increase in the emission of gravitational radiation at periastron as originally demonstrated by Peters (1964). A uniform distribution of kick velocities constrained to the orbital plane would result in ~24% of surviving binaries coalescing at least 10,000 times faster than an unperturbed circular system. Even if the planar kick constraint is lifted, ~6% of bound systems still coalesce this rapidly. In a non-negligible fraction of cases it may even be possible that the system could coalesce within 10 years of the final supernova, resulting in what we might term a "double supernova''. For systems resembling the progenitor of PSR J0737-3039A, this number is as high as \\~9% (in the planar kick model). Whether the kick velocity distribution extends to the range required to achieve this is still unclear. We do know that the observed population of binary pulsars has a deficit of highly eccentric systems at small orbital periods. In contrast, the long-period systems favour large eccentricities, as expected. We argue that this is because the short-period highly eccentric systems have already coalesced and are thus selected against by pulsar surveys. This effect needs to be taken into account when using the scale-factor method to estimate the coalescence rate of double neutron star binaries. We therefore assert that the coalesence rate of such binaries is underestimated by a factor of several.

  11. An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly relativistic system

    E-print Network

    M. Burgay; N. D'Amico; A. Possenti; R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; B. C. Joshi; M. A. McLaughlin; M. Kramer; J. M. Sarkissian; F. Camilo; V. Kalogera; C. Kim; D. R. Lorimer

    2003-12-02

    The merger of close binary systems containing two neutron stars should produce a burst of gravitational waves, as predicted by the theory of general relativity. A reliable estimate of the double-neutron-star merger rate in the Galaxy is crucial in order to predict whether current gravity wave detectors will be successful in detecting such bursts. Present estimates of this rate are rather low, because we know of only a few double-neutron-star binaries with merger times less than the age of the Universe. Here we report the discovery of a 22-ms pulsar, PSR J0737-3039, which is a member of a highly relativistic double-neutron-star binary with an orbital period of 2.4 hours. This system will merge in about 85 Myr, a time much shorter than for any other known neutron-star binary. Together with the relatively low radio luminosity of PSR J0737-3039, this timescale implies an order-of-magnitude increase in the predicted merger rate for double-neutron-star systems in our Galaxy (and in the rest of the Universe).

  12. An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly relativistic system.

    PubMed

    Burgay, M; D'Amico, N; Possenti, A; Manchester, R N; Lyne, A G; Joshi, B C; McLaughlin, M A; Kramer, M; Sarkissian, J M; Camilo, F; Kalogera, V; Kim, C; Lorimer, D R

    2003-12-01

    The merger of close binary systems containing two neutron stars should produce a burst of gravitational waves, as predicted by the theory of general relativity. A reliable estimate of the double-neutron-star merger rate in the Galaxy is crucial in order to predict whether current gravity wave detectors will be successful in detecting such bursts. Present estimates of this rate are rather low, because we know of only a few double-neutron-star binaries with merger times less than the age of the Universe. Here we report the discovery of a 22-ms pulsar, PSR J0737-3039, which is a member of a highly relativistic double-neutron-star binary with an orbital period of 2.4 hours. This system will merge in about 85 Myr, a time much shorter than for any other known neutron-star binary. Together with the relatively low radio luminosity of PSR J0737-3039, this timescale implies an order-of-magnitude increase in the predicted merger rate for double-neutron-star systems in our Galaxy (and in the rest of the Universe). PMID:14654834

  13. Observation time to first detection of double neutron star mergers by gravitational wave observatories

    E-print Network

    D. M. Coward

    2008-06-15

    We constrain the uncertainty in waiting times for detecting the first double-neutron-star (DNS) mergers by gravitational wave observatories. By accounting for the Poisson fluctuations in the rate density of DNS mergers and galaxy space density inhomogeneity in the local Universe, we define a detection `zone' as a region in a parameter space constrained by the double neutron star merger rate and two LIGO operations parameters: an observation horizon distance and science run duration. Assuming a mean rate of about 80 DNS mergers per Milky Way galaxy Myr^{-1}, we find a 1/20 chance of observing a merger by Enhanced LIGO in only 1 yr of observation. The minimum waiting time and temporal zone width for an Advanced LIGO sensitivity are much shorter and imply that there is a 95% probability of detecting a DNS merger in less than 60 days and a 1/20 chance of a first detection in about 1 day. At the 5% probability threshold for a first detection, we find that the effect of galaxy clusters on detection is smoothed out and may only influence detection rates after 5-10 years observation time.

  14. Hunting for Gravitational Waves with Massive Gravitons from Inspiralling Double Neutron Star Systems with Pulsar Clocks

    E-print Network

    Joan Jing Wang; Hsiang-Kuang Chang

    2014-12-09

    Pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars, are intrinsically very stable celestial clocks, and their great pulse period stability open up a wide range of potential applications to astronomical phenomena, such as a natural detector for very low frequency ($10^{-7}-10^{-9}$ Hz) gravitational waves (GWs) background from supermassive black hole binaries. Double neutron star (DNS) binary systems, containing one or two radio pulsars, lose orbital energy by gravitational radiation, which leads to the orbital shrink. As a result, two neutron stars get closer and closer, during which it contributes to the emission of high frequency GWs of $1-10^4$ Hz. In this paper, we investigate the frequency shift of pulse signal for radio pulsars in DNS system that is induced by the emission of GWs from the system. We point out that the pulse frequency shift of radio signal in these systems can be a potential tool to hunt for the high-frequency GWs, with massive gravitons, from DNS systems, which resorts to a temporal shift of gravitational constant $\\delta G(t)/G$. The sensitivity to high-frequency GWs from DNS by radio pulse frequency shift is discussed. The correlation between timing residuals of pulsar pair in double radio pulsars, such as the system PSR 0737-3039 A(B), is also considered.

  15. High Mass X-ray Binaries: Progenitors of double neutron star systems

    E-print Network

    Chaty, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In this review I briefly describe the nature of the three kinds of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), accreting through: (i) Be circumstellar disc, (ii) supergiant stellar wind, and (iii) Roche lobe filling supergiants. A previously unknown population of HMXBs hosting supergiant stars has been revealed in the last years, with multi-wavelength campaigns including high energy (INTEGRAL, Swift, XMM, Chandra) and optical/infrared (mainly ESO) observations. This population is divided between obscured supergiant HMXBs, and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs), characterized by short and intense X-ray flares. I discuss the characteristics of these types of supergiant HMXBs, propose a scenario describing the properties of these high-energy sources, and finally show how the observations can constrain the accretion models (e.g. clumpy winds, magneto-centrifugal barrier, transitory accretion disc, etc). Because they are the likely progenitors of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), and also of double neutron star systems,...

  16. CXOU J121538.2+361921 in the galaxy NGC 4214: a double neutron star in the making?

    E-print Network

    J. Dewi

    2006-07-05

    CXOU J121538.2+361921 is the brightest X-ray source in the galaxy NGC 4214, with an X-ray luminosity of up to 0.7 x 10^39 erg/s. The observed periodicity of 3.62 hr is interpreted as the orbital period of the system. It has been suggested that the system is a low-mass helium star with a lower-mass compact companion. If this idea is correct, then CXOU J121538.2+361921 will evolve into a double neutron star, a binary consisting of a radio pulsar and another neutron star. In this study we investigate further this possibility. We find that the X-ray luminosity is consistent with super-Eddington accretion in a helium star-neutron star binary. The binary is in a state of mass transfer phase which is initiated when the helium-star donor is on the helium shell burning stage. A donor star with a current mass in the range of around 2.2 - 3.6 Msun is required to explain the observed orbital period. Helium stars in this mass range are massive enough to collapse in a supernova explosion, making CXOU J121538.2+361921 the immediate progenitor of a double neutron star.

  17. Pulsar J0453+1559: A Double Neutron Star System with a Large Mass Asymmetry

    E-print Network

    Martinez, J G; Freire, P C C; Deneva, J S; Jenet, F A; McLaughlin, M A; Bagchi, M; Bates, S D; Ridolfi, A

    2015-01-01

    To understand the nature of supernovae and neutron star (NS) formation, as well as binary stellar evolution and their interactions, it is important to probe the distribution of NS masses. Until now, all double NS (DNS) systems have been measured to have a mass ratio close to unity (q $\\geq$ 0.91). Here we report the measurement of the individual masses of the 4.07-day binary pulsar J0453+1559 from measurements of the rate of advance of periastron and Shapiro delay: The mass of the pulsar is 1.559(5) $M_{\\odot}$ and that of its companion is 1.174(4) $M_{\\odot}$; q = 0.75. If this companion is also a neutron star (NS), as indicated by the orbital eccentricity of the system (e=0.11), then its mass is the smallest precisely measured for any such object. The pulsar has a spin period of 45.7 ms and a spin derivative of 1.8616(7) x$10^-19$; from these we derive a characteristic age of ~ 4.1 x $10^9$ years and a magnetic field of ~ 2.9 x $10^9$ G,i.e, this pulsar was mildly recycled by accretion of matter from the pr...

  18. A New Formation Channel for Double Neutron Stars Without Recycling: Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    E-print Network

    K. Belczynski; V. Kalogera

    2001-02-12

    We report on a new evolutionary path leading to the formation of close double neutron stars (NS), with the unique characteristic that none of the two NS ever had the chance to be recycled by accretion. The existence of this channel stems from the evolution of helium-rich stars (cores of massive NS progenitors), which has been neglected in most previous studies of double compact object formation. We find that these non-recycled NS-NS binaries are formed from bare carbon-oxygen cores in tight orbits, with formation rates comparable to or maybe even higher than those of recycled NS-NS binaries. On the other hand, their detection probability as binary pulsars is greatly reduced (by about 1000) relative to recycled pulsars, because of their short lifetimes. We conclude that, in the context of gravitational-wave detection of NS-NS inspiral events, this new type of binaries calls for an increase of the rate estimates derived from the observed NS-NS with recycled pulsars, typically by factors of 1.5-3 or even higher.

  19. Demagnified GWs from Cosmological Double Neutron Stars and GW Foreground Cleaning Around 1Hz

    E-print Network

    Naoki Seto

    2009-10-26

    Gravitational waves from cosmological double neutron star binaries can be significantly demagnified by strong gravitational lensing effect, and the proposed future missions such as BBO or DECIGO might miss some of the demagnified GW signals below a detection threshold. The undetectable binaries would form a GW foreground which might hamper detection of a very weak primordial GW signal. We discuss the outlook of this potential problem, using a simple model based on the singular-isothermal-sphere lens profile. Fortunately, it is expected that, for presumable merger rate of NS+NSs, the residual foreground would be below the detection limit Omega_{GW} ~ 10^{-16} realized with BBO/DECIGO by correlation analysis.

  20. Demagnified gravitational waves from cosmological double neutron stars and gravitational wave foreground cleaning around 1 Hz

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Naoki

    2009-11-15

    Gravitational waves (GWs) from cosmological double neutron star binaries (NS+NS) can be significantly demagnified by the strong gravitational lensing effect, and the proposed future missions such as the Big Bang Observer or Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory might miss some of the demagnified GW signals below a detection threshold. The undetectable binaries would form a GW foreground, which might hamper detection of a very weak primordial GW signal. We discuss the outlook of this potential problem, using a simple model based on the singular isothermal sphere lens profile. Fortunately, it is expected that, for a presumable merger rate of NS+NSs, the residual foreground would be below the detection limit {omega}{sub GW,lim}{approx}10{sup -16} realized with the Big Bang Observer/Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory by correlation analysis.

  1. Cyg X-3: a Galactic double black hole or black hole-neutron star progenitor

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Belczynski; Tomasz Bulik; Ilya Mandel; B. S. Sathyaprakash; Andrzej Zdziarski; Joanna Mikolajewska

    2012-09-12

    There are no known double black hole (BH-BH) or black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) systems. We argue that Cyg X-3 is a very likely BH-BH or BH-NS progenitor. This Galactic X-ray binary consists of a compact object, wind-fed by a Wolf-Rayet (WR) type companion. Based on a comprehensive analysis of observational data, it was recently argued that Cyg X-3 harbors a 2-4.5 Msun BH and a 7.5-14.2 Msun WR companion. We find that the fate of such a binary leads to the prompt (13 Msun). For the low- to mid-mass range of the WR star (M_WR=7-10 Msun) Cyg X-3 is most likely (probability 70%) disrupted when WR ends up as a supernova. However, with smaller probability, it may form a wide (15%) or a close (15%) BH-NS system. The advanced LIGO/VIRGO detection rate for mergers of BH-BH systems from the Cyg X-3 formation channel is 10 per year, while it drops down to 0.1 per year for BH-NS systems. If Cyg X-3 in fact hosts a low mass BH and massive WR star, it lends additional support for the existence of BH-BH/BH-NS systems.

  2. The gravitational-wave signal generated by a galactic population of double neutron-star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shenghua; Jeffery, C. Simon

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the gravitational wave (GW) signal generated by a population of double neutron-star (DNS) binaries with eccentric orbits caused by kicks during supernova collapse and binary evolution. The DNS population of a standard Milky Way-type galaxy has been studied as a function of star formation history, initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity and of the binary-star common-envelope ejection process. The model provides birthrates, merger rates and total number of DNS as a function of time. The GW signal produced by this population has been computed and expressed in terms of a hypothetical space GW detector (eLISA) by calculating the number of discrete GW signals at different confidence levels, where `signal' refers to detectable GW strain in a given frequency-resolution element. In terms of the parameter space explored, the number of DNS-originating GW signals is greatest in regions of recent star formation, and is significantly increased if metallicity is reduced from 0.02 to 0.001, consistent with Belczynski et al. Increasing the IMF power-law index (from -2.5 to -1.5) increases the number of GW signals by a large factor. This number is also much higher for models where the common-envelope ejection is treated using the ?-mechanism (energy conservation) than when using the ?-mechanism (angular-momentum conservation). We have estimated the total number of detectable DNS GW signals from the Galaxy by combining contributions from thin disc, thick disc, bulge and halo. The most probable numbers for an eLISA-type experiment are 0-1600 signals per year at S/N ? 1, 0-900 signals per year at S/N ? 3, and 0-570 at S/N ? 5, coming from about 0-65, 0-60 and 0-50 resolved DNS, respectively.

  3. CYG X-3: A GALACTIC DOUBLE BLACK HOLE OR BLACK-HOLE-NEUTRON-STAR PROGENITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Mandel, Ilya; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Mikolajewska, Joanna

    2013-02-10

    There are no known stellar-origin double black hole (BH-BH) or black-hole-neutron-star (BH-NS) systems. We argue that Cyg X-3 is a very likely BH-BH or BH-NS progenitor. This Galactic X-ray binary consists of a compact object, wind-fed by a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) type companion. Based on a comprehensive analysis of observational data, it was recently argued that Cyg X-3 harbors a 2-4.5 M {sub Sun} black hole (BH) and a 7.5-14.2 M {sub Sun} W-R companion. We find that the fate of such a binary leads to the prompt ({approx}< 1 Myr) formation of a close BH-BH system for the high end of the allowed W-R mass (M {sub W-R} {approx}> 13 M {sub Sun }). For the low- to mid-mass range of the W-R star (M {sub W-R} {approx} 7-10 M {sub Sun }) Cyg X-3 is most likely (probability 70%) disrupted when W-R ends up as a supernova. However, with smaller probability, it may form a wide (15%) or a close (15%) BH-NS system. The advanced LIGO/VIRGO detection rate for mergers of BH-BH systems from the Cyg X-3 formation channel is {approx}10 yr{sup -1}, while it drops down to {approx}0.1 yr{sup -1} for BH-NS systems. If Cyg X-3 in fact hosts a low-mass black hole and massive W-R star, it lends additional support for the existence of BH-BH/BH-NS systems.

  4. The Probability Distribution of the Double Neutron Star Coalescence Rate and Predictions for More Detections

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Chunglee Kim; Duncan R. Lorimer

    2002-12-02

    We present an analysis method that allows us to estimate the Galactic formation of radio pulsar populations based on their observed properties and our understanding of survey selection effects. More importantly, this method allows us to assign a statistical significance to such rate estimates and calculate the allowed ranges of values at various confidence levels. Here, we apply the method to the question of the double neutron star (NS-NS) coalescence rate using the current observed sample, and we find calculate the most likely value for the total Galactic coalescence rate to lie in the range 3-22 Myr^{-1}, for different pulsar population models. The corresponding range of expected detection rates of NS--NS inspiral are (1-9)x10^{-3} yr^{-1} for the initial LIGO, and 6-50 yr^{-1} for the advanced LIGO. Based on this newly developed statistical method, we also calculate the probability distribution for the expected number of pulsars that could be observed by the Parkes Multibeam survey, when acceleration searches will alleviate the effects of Doppler smearing due to orbital motions. We suggest that the Parkes survey will probably detect 1-2 new binary pulsars like PSRs B1913+16 and/or B1534+12.

  5. Pulsar J0453+1559: A Double Neutron Star System with a Large Mass Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, J. G.; Stovall, K.; Freire, P. C. C.; Deneva, J. S.; Jenet, F. A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bagchi, M.; Bates, S. D.; Ridolfi, A.

    2015-10-01

    To understand the nature of supernovae and neutron star (NS) formation, as well as binary stellar evolution and their interactions, it is important to probe the distribution of NS masses. Until now, all double NS (DNS) systems have been measured as having a mass ratio close to unity (q ? 0.91). Here, we report the measurement of the individual masses of the 4.07-day binary pulsar J0453+1559 from measurements of the rate of advance of periastron and Shapiro delay: the mass of the pulsar is Mp = 1.559 ± 0.005 M? and that of its companion is {M}{{c}}=1.174+/- 0.004 M? q = 0.75. If this companion is also an NS, as indicated by the orbital eccentricity of the system (e = 0.11), then its mass is the smallest precisely measured for any such object. The pulsar has a spin period of 45.7 ms and a spin period derivative of \\dot{{\\text{}}P} = (1.8616±0.0007)×10?19 s s?1 from these, we derive a characteristic age of ? 4.1×109 years and a magnetic field of ? 2.9×109 G, i.e., this pulsar was mildly recycled by the accretion of matter from the progenitor of the companion star. This suggests that it was formed with (very approximately) its current mass. Thus, NSs form with a wide range of masses, which is important for understanding their formation in supernovae. It is also important for the search for gravitational waves released during an NS–NS merger: it is now evident that we should not assume that all DNS systems are symmetric.

  6. An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron

    E-print Network

    Sarkissian, John M.

    rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly relativistic system M. Burgay1 , N. D'Amico2 waves, as predicted by the theory of general relativity2 . A reliable estimate of the double- neutron-star of only a few double-neutron-star binaries with merger times less than the age of the Universe. Here we

  7. Evolution of the double neutron star merging rate and the cosmological origin of gamma-ray burst sources

    E-print Network

    V. M. Lipunov; K. A. Postnov; M. E. Prokhorov; I. E. Panchenko

    1995-04-13

    Evolution of the coalescence rate of double neutron stars (NS) and neutron star -- black hole (BH) binaries are computed for model galaxies with different star formation rates. Assuming gamma-ray bursts (GRB) to originate from NS+NS or NS+BH merging in distant galaxies, theoretical logN--logS distributions and tests of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are calculated for the first time taking the computed merging rates into account. We use a flat cosmological model (Omega=1) with different values of the cosmological constant Lambda and under various assumptions about the star formation history in galaxies. The calculated source evolution predicts a 5-10 times increase of the source statistics at count rates 3-10 times lower than the exising BATSE sensitivity limit. The most important parameter in fitting the 2nd BATSE catalogue is the initial redshift of star formation, which is found to be z_*=2-5 depending on a poorly determined average spectral index of GRB.

  8. Double core evolution. 7: The infall of a neutron star through the envelope of its massive star companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terman, James L.; Taam, Ronald E.; Hernquist, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Binary systems with properties similar to those of high-mass X-ray binaries are evolved through the common envelope phase. Three-dimensional simulations show that the timescale of the infall phase of the neutron star depends upon the evolutionary state of its massive companion. We find that tidal torques more effectively accelerate common envelope evolution for companions in their late core helium-burning stage and that the infall phase is rapid (approximately several initial orbital periods). For less evolved companions the decay of the orbit is longer; however, once the neutron star is deeply embedded within the companion's envelope the timescale for orbital decay decreases rapidly. As the neutron star encounters the high-density region surrounding the helium core of its massive companion, the rate of energy loss from the orbit increases dramatically leading to either partial or nearly total envelope ejection. The outcome of the common envelope phase depends upon the structure of the evolved companion. In particular, it is found that the entire common envelope can be ejected by the interaction of the neutron star with a red supergiant companion in binaries with orbital periods similar to those of long-period Be X-ray binaries. For orbital periods greater than or approximately equal to 0.8-2 yr (for companions of mass 12-24 solar mass) it is likely that a binary will survive the common envelope phase. For these systems, the structure of the progenitor star is characterized by a steep density gradient above the helium core, and the common envelope phase ends with a spin up of the envelope to within 50%-60% of corotation and with a slow mass outflow. The efficiency of mass ejection is found to be approximately 30%-40%. For less evolved companions, there is insufficient energy in the orbit to unbind the common envelope and only a fraction of it is ejected. Since the timescale for orbital decay is always shorter than the mass-loss timescale from the common envelope, the two cores will likely merge to form a Thorne-Zytkow object. Implications for the origin of Cyg X-3, an X-ray source consisting of a Wolf-Rayet star and a compact companion, and for the fate of the remnant binary consisting of a helium star and a neutron star are briefly discussed.

  9. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  10. Neutron-Capture Elements in the Double-Enhanced Star HE 1305-0007: a New s- and r-Process Paradigm

    E-print Network

    Wen-Yuan Cui; D. N. Cui; Y. S. Du; B. Zhang

    2007-04-04

    The star HE 1305-0007 is a metal-poor double-enhanced star with metallicity [Fe/H] $=-2.0$, which is just at the upper limit of the metallicity for the observed double-enhanced stars. Using a parametric model, we find that almost all s-elements were made in a single neutron exposure. This star should be a member of a post-common-envelope binary. After the s-process material has experienced only one neutron exposure in the nucleosynthesis region and is dredged-up to its envelope, the AGB evolution is terminated by the onset of common-envelope evolution. Based on the high radial-velocity of HE 1305-0007, we speculate that the star could be a runaway star from a binary system, in which the AIC event has occurred and produced the r-process elements.

  11. JET COLLIMATION IN THE EJECTA OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGERS: A NEW CANONICAL PICTURE OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2014-04-01

    The observations of jet breaks in the afterglows of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) indicate that the jet has a small opening angle of ? 10°. The collimation mechanism of the jet is a longstanding theoretical problem. We numerically analyze the jet propagation in the material ejected by a double neutron star (NS) merger, and demonstrate that if the ejecta mass is ? 10{sup –2} M {sub ?}, the jet is well confined by the cocoon and emerges from the ejecta with the required collimation angle. Our results also suggest that there are some populations of choked (failed) SGRBs or new types of events with low luminosity. By constructing a model for SGRB 130603B, which is associated with the first kilonova/macronova candidate, we infer that the equation of state of NSs would be soft enough to provide sufficient ejecta to collimate the jet, if this event is associated with a double NS merger.

  12. An Upper Limit on the Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron-Star Binaries in the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Duncan Lorimer

    1999-09-30

    In the context of assessing the detectability of the coalescence of two neutron stars (NS) by currently built gravitational-wave experiments, we present a way of obtaining an upper limit to the coalescence rate in the Galaxy. We consider the NS/NS progenitors just before the second supernova explosion. By combining our theoretical understanding of orbital dynamics at NS formation with methods of empirically estimating pulsar birth rates we derive an upper limit of a few mergers every 100,000 yr. Such a Galactic rate implies a possible detection by the ``enhanced'' LIGO of up to a few to ten mergers per year.

  13. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  14. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Olinto, A.V.; Haensel, P.; Frieman, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  15. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  16. Expected Coalescence Rate of Double Neutron Stars for Ground Based Interferometers

    E-print Network

    T. Regimbau; J. A. de Freitas Pacheco; A. Spallicci; S. Vincent

    2005-06-14

    In this paper we present new estimates of the coalescence rate of neutron star binaries in the local universe and we discuss its consequences for the first generations of ground based interferometers. Our approach based on both evolutionary and statistical methods gives a galactic merging rate of 1.7 10$^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$, in the range of previous estimates 10$^{-6}$ - 10$^{-4}$ yr$^{-1}$. The local rate which includes the contribution of elliptical galaxies is two times higher, in the order of 3.4 10$^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$. We predict one detection every 148 and 125 years with initial VIRGO and LIGO, and up to 6 events per year with their advanced configuration. Our recent detection rate estimates from investigations on VIRGO future improvements are quoted.

  17. A DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGER ORIGIN FOR THE COSMOLOGICAL RELATIVISTIC FADING SOURCE PTF11agg?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2014-01-20

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) team recently reported the discovery of a rapidly fading optical transient source, PTF11agg. A long-lived scintillating radio counterpart was identified, but the search for a high-energy counterpart showed negative results. The PTF team speculated that PTF11agg may represent a new class of relativistic outbursts. Here we suggest that a neutron star (NS)-NS merger system with a supra-massive magnetar central engine could be a possible source to power such a transient, if our line of sight is not on the jet axis direction of the system. These systems are also top candidates for gravitational wave sources to be detected in the advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We find that the PTF11agg data could be explained well with such a model, suggesting that at least some gravitational wave bursts due to NS-NS mergers may be associated with such a bright electromagnetic counterpart without a ?-ray trigger.

  18. Introduction to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-24

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  19. Merger Rates of Double Neutron Stars and Stellar Origin Black Holes: The Impact of Initial Conditions on Binary Evolution Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mink, S. E.; Belczynski, K.

    2015-11-01

    The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction, and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations, and eccentricities) are indispensable inputs for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained, significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns have provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor of 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor of 10–100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a factor of 6 up and down). No significant changes in the distributions of final component masses, mass ratios, chirp masses, and delay times are found. We conclude that the predictions are, for practical purposes, robust against uncertainties in the initial conditions concerning binary parameters, with the exception of the IMF. This eliminates an important layer of the many uncertain assumptions affecting the predictions of merger detection rates with the gravitational wave detectors aLIGO/aVirgo.

  20. Hyperons in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1986-04-01

    Generalized beta equilibrium involving nucleons, hyperons, and isobars is examined for neutron star matter. The hyperons produce a considerable softening of the equation of state. It is shown that the observed masses of neutron stars can be used to settle a recent controversy concerning the nuclear compressibility. Compressibilities less than 200 MeV are incompatible with observed masses. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  2. Hypernuclear Physics for Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Jurgen Schaffner-Bielich

    2008-01-24

    The role of hypernuclear physics for the physics of neutron stars is delineated. Hypernuclear potentials in dense matter control the hyperon composition of dense neutron star matter. The three-body interactions of nucleons and hyperons determine the stiffness of the neutron star equation of state and thereby the maximum neutron star mass. Two-body hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions give rise to hyperon pairing which exponentially suppresses cooling of neutron stars via the direct hyperon URCA processes. Non-mesonic weak reactions with hyperons in dense neutron star matter govern the gravitational wave emissions due to the r-mode instability of rotating neutron stars.

  3. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  4. Matter accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the fundamental neutron star parameters, such as the mass and the magnetic field strength, were experimentally determined in accreting neutron star systems. Some of the relevant data and the models used to derive useful information from them, are reviewed concentrating mainly on X-ray pulsars. The latest advances in our understanding of the radiation mechanisms and the transfer in the strongly magnetized polar cap regions are discussed.

  5. Neutron rich nuclei and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz

    2013-03-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  6. Supercritical accretion in the evolution of neutron star binaries and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Hee-Suk

    2014-08-01

    Recently ?2M? neutron stars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 have been observed in neutron star-white dwarf binaries. These observations ruled out many neutron star equations of states with which the maximum neutron star mass becomes less than 2M?. On the other hand, all well-measured neutron star masses in double neutron star binaries are still less than 1.5M?. In this article we suggest that 2M? neutron stars in neutron star-white dwarf binaries are the result of the supercritical accretion onto the first-born neutron star during the evolution of the binary progenitors.

  7. Origin of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    1999-12-01

    The origin of the concept of neutron stars can be traced to two brief, incredibly insightful publications. Work on the earlier paper by Lev Landau (Phys. Z. Sowjetunion, 1, 285, 1932) actually predated the discovery of neutrons. Nonetheless, Landau arrived at the notion of a collapsed star with the density of a nucleus (really a "nucleus star") and demonstrated (at about the same time as, and independent of, Chandrasekhar) that there is an upper mass limit for dense stellar objects of about 1.5 solar masses. Perhaps even more remarkable is the abstract of a talk presented at the December 1933 meeting of the American Physical Society published by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1934 (Phys. Rev. 45, 138). It followed the discovery of the neutron by just over a year. Their report, which was about the same length as the present abstract: (1) invented the concept and word supernova; (2) suggested that cosmic rays are produced by supernovae; and (3) in the authors own words, proposed "with all reserve ... the view that supernovae represent the transitions from ordinary stars to neutron stars (italics), which in their final stages consist of extremely closely packed neutrons." The abstract by Baade and Zwicky probably contains the highest density of new, important (and correct) ideas in high energy astrophysics ever published in a single paper. In this talk, we will discuss some of the facts and myths surrounding these two publications.

  8. Apple Valley Double Star Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The High Desert Astronomical Society hosts an annual double star workshop, where participants measure the position angles and separations of double stars. Following the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), adopted by the California State Board of Education, participants are assigned to teams where they learn the process of telescope set-up and operation, the gathering of data, and the reduction of the data. Team results are compared to the latest epoch listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and papers are written for publication in the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO). Each team presents a PowerPoint presentation to their peers about actual hands-on astronomical research.

  9. Neutrinos from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    A calculation of the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars is presented. The calculation is used to determine the number of point sources detectable at the sensitivity threshold of a proposed deep underwater muon and neutrino detector array. The detector array would have a point source detection threshold of about 100 eV/sq cm-sec. Analysis of neutrino luminosities and the number of detectable sources suggests that the deep underwater detector may make a few discoveries. In particular, a suspected neutron star in the Cyg X-3 source seems a promising target for the deep underwater array.

  10. Neutron Star Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1998-01-01

    Various phenomena involving neutron stars are addressed. Electron-positron production in the near magnetosphere of gamma-ray pulsars is discussed along with magnetic field evolution in spun-up and spinning-down pulsars. Glitches and gamma-ray central engines are also discussed.

  11. Hyperons and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidaña, Isaac

    2015-02-01

    In this lecture I will briefly review some of the effects of hyperons on the properties of neutron and proto-neutron stars. In particular, I will revise the problem of the strong softening of the EoS, and the consequent reduction of the maximum mass, induced by the presence of hyperons, a puzzle which has become more intringuing and difficult to solve due the recent measurements of the unusually high masses of the millisecond pulsars PSR J1903+0327 (1.667±0.021M?), PSR J1614-2230 (1.97±0.04M?), and PSR J0348+0432 (2.01±0.04M?). Finally, I will also examine the role of hyperons on the cooling properties of newly born neutron stars and on the so-called r-mode instability.

  12. GENERAL: Double Degenerate Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin-Lian; Bai, Hua; Zhao, Lei

    2008-07-01

    Regardless of the formation mechanism, an exotic object, the double degenerate star (DDS), is introduced and investigated, which is composed of baryonic matter and some unknown fermion dark matter. Different from the simple white dwarfs (WDs), there is additional gravitational force provided by the unknown fermion component inside DDSs, which may strongly affect the structure and the stability of such kind of objects. Many possible and strange observational phenomena connecting with them are concisely discussed. Similar to the normal WD, this object can also experience thermonuclear explosion as type Ia supernova explosion when DDS's mass exceeds the maximum mass that can be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. However, since the total mass of baryonic matter can be much lower than that of WD at Chandrasekhar mass limit, the peak luminosity should be much dimmer than what we expect before, which may throw a slight shadow on the standard candle of SN Ia in the research of cosmology.

  13. Double Degenerate Stars

    E-print Network

    Xin-Lian, Luo; Lei, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of the formation mechanism, an exotic object, Double Degenerate Star (DDS), is introduced and investigated, which is composed of baryonic matter and some unknown fermion dark matter. Different from the simple White Dwarfs (WDs), there are additional gravitational force provided by the unknown fermion component inside DDSs, which may strongly affect the structure and the stability of such kind of objects. Many possible and strange observational phenomena connecting with them are concisely discussed. Similar to the normal WD, this object can also experience thermonuclear explosion as type Ia supernova explosion when DDS's mass exceeds the maximum mass that can be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. However, since the total mass of baryonic matter can be much lower than that of WD at Chandrasekhar mass limit, the peak luminosity should be much dimmer than what we expect before, which may throw a slight shadow on the standard candle of SNIa in the research of cosmology.

  14. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses among all classes of neutron star binaries. Intrigued by this diversity - which points to diverse birth masses - we undertook a systematic survey to measure the masses of neutron stars in nine high-mass X-ray binaries. In this thesis, I present results from this ongoing project. While neutron stars formed the primary focus of my work, I also explored other topics in compact objects. Appendix A describes the discovery and complete characterization of a 1RXS J173006.4+033813, a polar cataclysmic variable. Appendix B describes the discovery of a diamond planet orbiting a millisecond pulsar, and our search for its optical counterpart.

  15. Compactness of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Chia; Piekarewicz, J.

    2015-10-01

    Recent progress in the determination of both masses and radii of neutron stars is starting to place stringent constraints on the dense matter equation of state. In particular, new theoretical developments together with improved statistical tools seem to favor stellar radii that are significantly smaller than those predicted by models using purely nucleonic equations of state. Given that the underlying equation of state must also account for the observation of 2 M? neutron stars, theoretical approaches to the study of the dense matter equation of state are facing serious challenges. In response to this challenge, we compute the underlying equation of state associated with an assumed mass-radius template similar to the "common radius" assumption used in recent studies. Once such a mass-radius template is adopted, the equation of state follows directly from the implementation of Lindblom's algorithm; assumptions on the nature or composition of the dense stellar core are not required. By analyzing mass-radius profiles with a maximum mass consistent with observation and common radii in the 8-11 km range, a lower limit on the stellar radius of a 1.4 M? neutron star of RNS?10.7 km is required to prevent the equation of state from violating causality.

  16. Compactness of Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chia; Piekarewicz, J

    2015-10-16

    Recent progress in the determination of both masses and radii of neutron stars is starting to place stringent constraints on the dense matter equation of state. In particular, new theoretical developments together with improved statistical tools seem to favor stellar radii that are significantly smaller than those predicted by models using purely nucleonic equations of state. Given that the underlying equation of state must also account for the observation of 2M_{?} neutron stars, theoretical approaches to the study of the dense matter equation of state are facing serious challenges. In response to this challenge, we compute the underlying equation of state associated with an assumed mass-radius template similar to the "common radius" assumption used in recent studies. Once such a mass-radius template is adopted, the equation of state follows directly from the implementation of Lindblom's algorithm; assumptions on the nature or composition of the dense stellar core are not required. By analyzing mass-radius profiles with a maximum mass consistent with observation and common radii in the 8-11 km range, a lower limit on the stellar radius of a 1.4M_{?} neutron star of R_{NS}?10.7??km is required to prevent the equation of state from violating causality. PMID:26550859

  17. The Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. M. Lattimer; M. Prakash

    2004-05-13

    Neutron stars are some of the densest manifestations of massive objects in the universe. They are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of dense matter physics and provide connections among nuclear physics, particle physics and astrophysics. Neutron stars may exhibit conditions and phenomena not observed elsewhere, such as hyperon-dominated matter, deconfined quark matter, superfluidity and superconductivity with critical temperatures near ${10^{10}}$ kelvin, opaqueness to neutrinos, and magnetic fields in excess of $10^{13}$ Gauss. Here, we describe the formation, structure, internal composition and evolution of neutron stars. Observations that include studies of binary pulsars, thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, glitches from pulsars and quasi-periodic oscillations from accreting neutron stars provide information about neutron star masses, radii, temperatures, ages and internal compositions.

  18. Superfluidity of $?$ hyperons in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Y. N. Wang; H. Shen

    2010-02-01

    We study the $^1S_0$ superfluidity of $\\Lambda$ hyperons in neutron star matter and neutron stars. We use the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to calculate the properties of neutron star matter. In the RMF approach, the meson-hyperon couplings are constrained by reasonable hyperon potentials that include the updated information from recent developments in hypernuclear physics. To examine the $^1S_0$ pairing gap of $\\Lambda$ hyperons, we employ several $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interactions based on the Nijmegen models and used in double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei studies. It is found that the maximal pairing gap obtained is a few tenths of a MeV. The magnitude and the density region of the pairing gap are dependent on the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction and the treatment of neutron star matter. We calculate neutron star properties and find that whether the $^1S_0 $ superfluidity of $\\Lambda$ hyperons exists in the core of neutron stars mainly depends on the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction used.

  19. Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Hubble Sees a Neutron Star Alone in Space Nearest Known Neutron Star #12;Birth of a Neutron Star & neutrinos. The birth temperature of a neutron star is ~5×1011 K, but neutrino emission cools it to `only' 106 to 107 K. #12;Sizes of Neutron Stars Google Maps: Oahu #12;Sizes of Neutron Stars Artist

  20. On Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Luiz L. Lopes; Debora P. Menezes

    2015-08-05

    In this work we review the formalism normally used in the literature about the effects of density-dependent magnetic fields on the properties of neutron and quark stars, expose some ambiguities that arise and propose a way to solve the related problem. Our approach explores more deeply the concept of pressure, yielding the so called chaotic magnetic field formalism for the stress tensor. We also use a different way of introducing a variable magnetic field, which depends on the energy density rather than on the baryonic density, which allows us to build a parameter free model.

  1. The Probability Distribution of Binary Pulsar Coalescence Rates. I. Double Neutron Star Systems in the Galactic Field

    E-print Network

    C. Kim; V. Kalogera; D. R. Lorimer

    2002-10-21

    Estimates of the Galactic coalescence rate (R) of close binaries with two neutron stars (NS-NS) are known to be uncertain by large factors (about two orders of magnitude) mainly due to the small number of systems detected as binary radio pulsars. We present an analysis method that allows us to estimate the Galactic NS-NS coalescence rate using the current observed sample and, importantly, to assign a statistical significance to these estimates and to calculate the allowed ranges of values at various confidence levels. The method involves the simulation of selection effects inherent in all relevant radio pulsar surveys and a Bayesian statistical analysis for the probability distribution of the rate. The most likely values for the total Galactic coalescence rate (R_peak) lie in the range 2-60 per Myr depending on different pulsar population models. For our reference model 1, where the most likely estimates of pulsar population properties are adopted, we obtain R_tot = 8_{-5}^{+9} per Myr at a 68% statistical confidence level. The corresponding range of expected detection rates of NS-NS inspiral are 3_{-2}^{+4}x10^{-3} per yr for the initial LIGO and 18_{-11}^{+21} per yr for the advanced LIGO.

  2. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    E-print Network

    N. Chamel; P. Haensel

    2008-12-20

    The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  3. Grand unification of neutron stars

    PubMed Central

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  4. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  5. Keepers of the double stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-03-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Early catalogues by the Herschels, Struves, and others began with their own discoveries. In 1906 court reporter and amateur astronomer Sherburne Wesley Burnham published a massive double star catalogue containing data from many observers on more than 13,000 systems. Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken produced a much larger catalogue in 1932 and coordinated with Robert Innes of Johannesburg, who catalogued the southern systems. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham's records of observations on handwritten file cards, and eventually turned them over to the Lick Observatory, where astrometrist Hamilton Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and together they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford had the new 120-inch reflector, the world's second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the United States Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley, and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,200,000 measures of more than 125,000 star systems.

  6. Children's Literature on Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James

    Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.

  7. Neutron Stars—Thermal Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekhin, Alexander Y.; De Luca, Andrea; Pons, José A.

    2015-10-01

    Confronting theoretical models with observations of thermal radiation emitted by neutron stars is one of the most important ways to understand the properties of both, superdense matter in the interiors of the neutron stars and dense magnetized plasmas in their outer layers. Here we review the theory of thermal emission from the surface layers of strongly magnetized neutron stars, and the main properties of the observational data. In particular, we focus on the nearby sources for which a clear thermal component has been detected, without being contaminated by other emission processes (magnetosphere, accretion, nebulae). We also discuss the applications of the modern theoretical models of the formation of spectra of strongly magnetized neutron stars to the observed thermally emitting objects.

  8. The Neutron Star Zoo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not clear how effective it is or on what timescale a buried field might re-emerge. One piece of evidence in favor of accretion-driven field reduction is the fact that NSs in LMXBs, which are older systems (> 108 yr), have mostly low fields and NSs in HMXBs, which are younger systems (107 - 108 yr), have higher fields. This may be an indication that accretion-driven field reduction or decay has not had enough time to operate in HMXBs but has in LMXBs. However, there does not seem to be any evidence of decaying fields in either the LMXB or HMXB populations; e.g. smaller magnetic fields in older systems. On the other hand, CCOs are very young so if they acquired their low fields through mass fallback accretion, the field submergence would have had to operate on much faster timescales than it apparently does in LMXBs. But as we continue to find new species in the NS zoo, one of these may someday be the "Rosetta Stone" that will give us the clues for solving these puzzles.

  9. Neutron Stars : A Comparative Study

    E-print Network

    Mehedi Kalam; Sk. Monowar Hossein; Sajahan Molla

    2015-10-23

    The inner structure of neutron star is considered from theoretical point of view and is compared with the observed data. We have proposed a form of an equation of state relating pressure with matter density which indicates the stiff equation of state of neutron stars. From our study we have calculated mass(M), compactness(u) and surface red-shift(Zs ) for the neutron stars namely PSR J1614-2230, PSR J1903+327, Cen X-3, SMC X-1, Vela X-1, Her X-1 and compared with the recent observational data. We have also indicated the possible radii of the different stars which needs further study. Finally we have examined the stability for such type of theoretical structure.

  10. Neutron Stars : A Comparative Study

    E-print Network

    Kalam, Mehedi; Molla, Sajahan

    2015-01-01

    The inner structure of neutron star is considered from theoretical point of view and is compared with the observed data. We have proposed a form of an equation of state relating pressure with matter density which indicates the stiff equation of state of neutron stars. From our study we have calculated mass(M), compactness(u) and surface red-shift(Zs ) for the neutron stars namely PSR J1614-2230, PSR J1903+327, Cen X-3, SMC X-1, Vela X-1, Her X-1 and compared with the recent observational data. We have also indicated the possible radii of the different stars which needs further study. Finally we have examined the stability for such type of theoretical structure.

  11. The nuclear physics of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2014-05-09

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  12. WIMP Annihilation and Cooling of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Chris Kouvaris

    2007-08-17

    We study the effect of WIMP annihilation on the temperature of a neutron star. We shall argue that the released energy due to WIMP annihilation inside the neutron stars, might affect the temperature of stars older than 10 million years, flattening out the temperature at $\\sim 10^4$ K for a typical neutron star.

  13. Are neutron stars Q-stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Safi; Lynn, Bryan W.; Selipsky, Stephen B.

    1990-02-01

    We show that certain classical solutions of hadronic effective field theories can model neutron stars. Within the uncertainties of what is known from laboratory measurements of nuclear physics, these solutions, called Q-stars, may have masses much larger (>> 3 M solar) or may be able to rotate faster (Prot < 0.5 ms) than previously believed possible. Stable chunks of nuclear density baryonic matter varying in size from 10-12 cm to several kilometers may also exist. Cygnus X-1, LMC X-3, and the SN1987A remnant are candidates for Q-stars.

  14. The neutron star mass distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ?} and 1.55 M {sub ?}, suggesting significant mass accretion (?m ? 0.22 M {sub ?}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ?2.1 M {sub ?} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ?} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  15. Old and new neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. On the Mass Distribution and Birth Masses of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Feryal Ozel; Dimitrios Psaltis; Ramesh Narayan; Antonio Santos Villarreal

    2012-09-07

    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M_solar and a dispersion of 0.24 M_solar. These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M_solar but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M_solar. Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M_solar and a dispersion of 0.2 M_solar, consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed ~2 M_solar suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low mass black holes.

  17. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. Adam; C. Naya; J. Sanchez-Guillen; R. Vazquez; A. Wereszczynski

    2015-02-26

    The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) provide an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather natural proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide excellent results as well as some new perspectives for the description of bulk properties of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is a few solar masses, the precise value depending on the precise values of the model parameters, and the resulting neutron star radius is of the order of 10 km.

  18. Nuclear Physics of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    One of the overarching questions posed by the recent community report entitled ``Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter'' asks How Does Subatomic Matter Organize Itself and What Phenomena Emerge? With their enormous dynamic range in both density and neutron-proton asymmetry, neutron stars provide ideal laboratories to answer this critical challenge. Indeed, a neutron star is a gold mine for the study of physical phenomena that cut across a variety of disciplines, from particle physics to general relativity. In this presentation--targeted at non-experts--I will focus on the essential role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the dynamics, structure, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss some of the many exotic states of matter that are speculated to exist in a neutron star and the impact of nuclear-physics experiments on elucidating their fascinating nature. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FD05-92ER40750.

  19. Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. Piekarewicz

    2009-01-28

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between the pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the special role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the EOS of cold baryonic matter and its impact on the properties of neutron stars.

  20. Neutron Star Structure From Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James

    2006-10-01

    Neutron stars are laboratories for dense matter physics. Observations of neutron stars, in the form of radio pulsars, X-ray binaries, X-ray bursters, and thermally-emitting isolated stars, are rapidly accumulating. Especially interesting are the radio pulsars PSR J0751+1807, Terzan 5 I and Terzan 5 J (with suprisingly large measured masses of 2.1±0.2, 1.69±0.1 and 1.85±0.05 solar masses, respectively), the pulsar PSR J1748-2446ad with the most rapid spin rate of 716 Hz, and the radio pulsar binary PSR J0737-3039 for which a moment of inertia of one of the neutron stars might be measured within a few years. Extremely massive neutron stars are important because they set limits to the maximum mass and upper limits to the maximum density found in cold, static, objects, and might limit the appearance of exotic matter such as hyperons, Bose condensates or deconfined quarks in a star's interior. The spin rate sets an upper limit to the radius of a star of a given mass, and the moment of inertia, being roughly proportional to M R^2, is a sensitive measure of neutron star radius. While the maximum mass speaks to the relative stiffness of the high-density equation of state at several times nuclear matter density, the radius is a measure of the relative stiffness of the low-density equation of state in the vicinity of the nuclear saturation density. For the nearly pure neutron matter found in neutron stars, it is a direct measure of the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Other promising observational constraints might be obtained from neutron star seismology (which limits the relative crustal thickness) and Eddington limited fluxes observed from bursting sources, and from thermal emissions from cooling neutron stars. The latter have the potential of constraining R?=R/?1-2GM/Rc^2 if the source's distance can be accurately assessed. The distances of two nearby isolated sources, RX J1856-3754 and Geminga, have been determined by parallax. However, there are major difficulties in accounting for atmospheres of unknown composition and uncertain magnetic field strenghs for these stars. The distances to several distant X-ray emitting neutron stars have also been estimated with some precision because they are members of globular clusters, These sources have advantages because, having undergone recent accretion, they should have relatively weak surface magnetic fields and hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Preliminary results from the interpretation of thermal emissions indicate consistency with a radius in the range of 10-15 km, but only a restricted subset of possible equations of state can account for the (M, R) constraints of all the sources.

  1. Quark matter in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Mark G. Alford

    2009-09-18

    According to quantum chromodynamics, matter at ultra-high density and low temperature is a quark liquid, with a condensate of Cooper pairs of quarks near the Fermi surface ("color superconductivity"). This paper reviews the physics of color superconductivity, and discusses some of the proposed signatures by which we might detect quark matter in neutron stars.

  2. Hyperaccretion Disks around Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Dong Zhang; Z. G. Dai

    2008-05-04

    (Abridged) We here study the structure of a hyperaccretion disk around a neutron star. We consider a steady-state hyperaccretion disk around a neutron star, and as a reasonable approximation, divide the disk into two regions, which are called inner and outer disks. The outer disk is similar to that of a black hole and the inner disk has a self-similar structure. In order to study physical properties of the entire disk clearly, we first adopt a simple model, in which some microphysical processes in the disk are simplified, following Popham et al. and Narayan et al. Based on these simplifications, we analytically and numerically investigate the size of the inner disk, the efficiency of neutrino cooling, and the radial distributions of the disk density, temperature and pressure. We see that, compared with the black-hole disk, the neutron star disk can cool more efficiently and produce a much higher neutrino luminosity. Finally, we consider an elaborate model with more physical considerations about the thermodynamics and microphysics in the neutron star disk (as recently developed in studying the neutrino-cooled disk of a black hole), and compare this elaborate model with our simple model. We find that most of the results from these two models are basically consistent with each other.

  3. Physics of Neutron Star Kicks

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1999-12-27

    It is no longer necessary to `sell' the idea of pulsar kicks, the notion that neutron stars receive a large velocity (a few hundred to a thousand km s$^{-1}$) at birth. However, the origin of the kicks remains mysterious. We review the physics of different kick mechanisms, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino and magnetically driven kicks.

  4. Neutrinos from Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Luis A. Anchordoqui; Diego F. Torres; Thomas P. McCauley; Gustavo E. Romero; Felix A. Aharonian

    2003-01-30

    The magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars develop electrostatic gaps with huge potential drops. Protons and ions, accelerated in these gaps along the dipolar magnetic field lines to energies greater than 100 TeV, can impact onto a surrounding accretion disc. A proton-induced cascade so develops, and $\

  5. Holographic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Verlinde, Erik

    2010-10-01

    We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the ”Chandrasekhar limit” beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.

  6. Holographic Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Jan de Boer; Kyriakos Papadodimas; Erik Verlinde

    2009-07-23

    We construct in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence degenerate composite operators in the conformal field theory that are holographically dual to degenerate stars in anti de Sitter space. We calculate the effect of the gravitational back-reaction using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, and determine the "Chandrasekhar limit" beyond which the star undergoes gravitational collapse towards a black hole.

  7. Isolated neutron stars as seen by Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George

    2015-09-01

    The X-ray emission from the surfaces of isolated neutron stars and from the neutron star's immediate surroundings is not well understood. Partly, this is due to a lack of spectral resolution and sensitivity of current X-ray detectors. In our poster, we present simulations of neutron star X-ray emission as Athena may see it. We employ the latest Athena instrument response and up-to-date neutron star atmosphere models. This will allow us to evaluate the impact Athena can have on the investigations of neutron star properties, such as the composition of their surface layers, their magnetic fields, and the physics of their magnetospheres and ambient matter.

  8. William Doberck - double star astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKeown, P. Kevin

    2007-03-01

    We outline the role of astronomy in the career of William Doberck (1852-1941). After taking a PhD in astronomy at the University of Jena in 1873, he accepted a position as superintendent of Markree Observatory in the west of Ireland. There he refurbished the great 13-inch refractor and spent nine years observing mostly double star systems, paying only such attention to meteorological monitoring as was required of his position. In 1883 he became the founding Director of a new observatory in Hong Kong, a post which he held for 24 years. His frustrations in attempting to continue his purely astronomical work, not assuaged by his combative and prickly personality, and in the face of the strictly practical demands of that mercantile society for comprehensive storm forecasting, are described. Finally, his observations in retirement in England, and his overall contribution to astronomy, are summarised.

  9. Neutron Stars—Cooling and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekhin, Alexander Y.; Pons, José A.; Page, Dany

    2015-10-01

    Observations of thermal radiation from neutron stars can potentially provide information about the states of supranuclear matter in the interiors of these stars with the aid of the theory of neutron-star thermal evolution. We review the basics of this theory for isolated neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, including most relevant thermodynamic and kinetic properties in the stellar core, crust, and blanketing envelopes.

  10. The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. Piekarewicz

    2008-02-27

    A remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called Schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. As such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. After discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, I will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter.

  11. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick; Kaluzienski, Lou (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The grant provided funds for a conference entitled 'Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants' held in Boston on 14-17 August 2001, in part to support invited speakers and students attending the meeting. The conference was completed on the specified dates and was a considerable success, attracting over 100 scientists from around the world. The conference included talks and papers on the most recent work in this field, including results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, the Very Large Array, and many other facilities. Theoretical work based on the latest results was also highlighted. The Proceedings of the conference have now been published as 'Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants'. In addition, a large fraction of the papers from the conference have been submitted to astro-ph, and the volume in indexed through the Astronomical Data System.

  12. Properties of neutron star critical collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    Critical phenomena in gravitational collapse opened a new mathematical vista into the theory of general relativity and may ultimately entail fundamental physical implication in the astrophysical realm, especially in gravitational collapse scenarios. However, at present, the dynamics of critical phenomena in realistic astrophysical gravitational collapse scenarios are still largely unknown. My thesis seeks to understand the properties of the neutron star critical solution, understand the properties of the threshold in the solution space of the Einstein field equations between the black hole and a neutron star phases, and clarify the implication these results on realistic astrophysical scenarios. We develop a new set of neutron star-like initial data to establish the universality of the neutron star critical solution and analyze the structure of neutron star and neutron star-like critical collapses via the framework of phase spaces. We also study the different time scales involved in the neutron star critical solution and analyze the properties of the critical index via comparisons between neutron star and neutron star-like initial data. Finally, we explore the boundary of the attraction basin of the neutron star critical solution and its transition to a known set of non-critical fixed points.

  13. X Rays from Old Neutron Stars Heated by Axion Stars

    E-print Network

    Aiichi Iwazaki

    1999-06-14

    We show that axionic boson stars collide with isolated old neutron stars with strong magnetic field ($>10^8$ Gauss) and causes the neutron stars to radiate X ray by heating them. Surface temperatures of such neutron stars becomes$10^5 K \\sim 10^6 K$. We suggest that these are possible candidates for X ray sources observed in ROSAT Survey. We discuss a possible way of identifying such neutron stars. We also point out that the collision generates a burst of monochromatic radiations with frequency given by axion mass.

  14. Induced gravitational collapse in FeCO Core-Neutron star binaries and Neutron star-Neutron star binary mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, R.; Aimuratov, Y.; Bianco, C. L.; Enderli, M.; Kovacevic, M.; Moradi, R.; Muccino, M.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-10-01

    We review the recent progress in understanding the nature of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The occurrence of GRB is explained by the Induced Gravitational Collapse (IGC) in FeCO Core-Neutron star binaries and Neutron star-Neutron star binary mergers, both processes occur within binary system progenitors. Making use of this most unexpected new paradigm, with the fundamental implications by the neutron star (NS) critical mass, we find that different initial configurations of binary systems lead to different GRB families with specific new physical predictions confirmed by observations.

  15. Gravitational Redshift of Deformed Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Alexis; Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2015-04-01

    Non-rotating neutron stars are generally treated in theoretical studies as perfect spheres. Such a treatment, however, may not be correct if strong magnetic fields are present and/or the pressure of the matter in the cores of neutron stars is non-isotropic, leading to neutron stars which are deformed. In this work, we investigate the impact of deformation on the gravitational redshift of neutron stars in the framework of general relativity. Using a parameterized metric to model non-spherical mass distributions, we derive an expression for the gravitational redshift in terms of the mass, radius, and deformity of a neutron star. Numerical solutions for the redshifts of sequences of deformed neutron stars are presented and observational implications are pointed out. This research is funded by the NIH through the Maximizing Access to Research Careers (MARC), under Grant Number: 5T34GM008303-25 and through the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-1411708.

  16. The HST contribution to neutron star astronomy

    E-print Network

    R. P. Mignani

    2007-10-29

    While isolated neutron stars (INSs) are among the brightest gamma-ray sources, they are among the faintest ones in the optical, and their study is a challenging task which require the most powerful telescopes. HST has lead neutron star optical astronomy yielding nearly all the identifications achieved since the early 1990s. Here, the major HST contributions in the optical studies of INSs and their relevance for neutron stars' astronomy are reviewed.

  17. Burst Oscillations: Watching Neutron Stars Spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2010-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the first detection of rotationally modulated emission from X-ray bursting neutron stars, "burst oscillations," This phenomenon enables us to see neutron stars spin, as the X-ray burst flux asymmetrically lights up the surface. It has enabled a new way to probe the neutron star spin frequency distribution, as well as to elucidate the multidimensional nature of nuclear burning on neutron stars. I will review our current observational understanding of the phenomenon, with an eye toward highlighting some of the interesting remaining puzzles, of which there is no shortage.

  18. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  19. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Viganò, Daniele; Miralles, Juan A; Rea, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  20. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  1. Superfluidity in the Core of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany

    2013-04-01

    The year (1958) after the publication of the BCS theory, Bohr, Mottelson & Pines showed that nuclei should also contain superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons. In 1959, A. Migdal proposed that neutron superfluidity should also occur in the interior of neutron stars. Pairing in nuclei forms Cooper pairs with zero spin, but the relevant component of the nuclear interaction becomes repulsive at densities larger than the nuclear matter density. It has been proposed that neutron-neutron interaction in the spin-triplet state, and L=1 orbital angular momentum, that is known to be attractive from laboratory experiments, may result in a new form of neutron superfluidity in the neutron star interior. I will review our present understanding of the structure of neutron stars and describe how superfluidity strongly affects their thermal evolution. I will show how a ``Minimal Model'' that excludes the presence of ``exotic'' matter (Bose condensates, quarks, etc.) is compatible with most observations of the surface temperatures of young isolated neutron stars in the case this neutron superfluid exists. Compared to the case of isotropic spin-zero Cooper pairs, the formation of anisotropic spin-one Cooper pairs results in a strong neutrino emission that leads to an enhanced cooling of neutron stars after the onset of the pairing phase transition and allows the Minimal Cooling scenario to be compatible with most observations. In the case the pairing critical temperature Tc is less than about 6 x10^8 K, the resulting rapid cooling of the neutron star may be observable. It was recently reported that 10 years of Chandra observations of the 333 year young neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant revealed that its temperature has dropped by about 5%. This result indicates that neutrons in this star are presently becoming superfluid and, if confirmed, provides us with the first direct observational evidence for neutron superfluidity at supra-nuclear densities.

  2. ON THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND BIRTH MASSES OF NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio; Narayan, Ramesh

    2012-09-20

    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.24 M{sub Sun }. These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M{sub Sun }, but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M{sub Sun }. Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.2 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed {approx}2 M{sub Sun} suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.

  3. Dynamics of Rotating, Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Steven L. Liebling

    2010-02-10

    Using a fully general relativistic implementation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics with no assumed symmetries in three spatial dimensions, the dynamics of magnetized, rigidly rotating neutron stars are studied. Beginning with fully consistent initial data constructed with Magstar, part of the Lorene project, we study the dynamics and stability of rotating, magnetized polytropic stars as models of neutron stars. Evolutions suggest that some of these rotating, magnetized stars may be minimally unstable occurring at the threshold of black hole formation.

  4. Double Planet Meets Triple Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    High-Resolution VLT Image of Pluto Event on July 20, 2002 A rare celestial phenomenon involving the distant planet Pluto has occurred twice within the past month. Seen from the Earth, this planet moved in front of two different stars on July 20 and August 21, respectively, providing observers at various observatories in South America and in the Pacific area with a long awaited and most welcome opportunity to learn more about the tenuous atmosphere of that cold planet. On the first date, a series of very sharp images of a small sky field with Pluto and the star was obtained with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics (AO) camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. With a diameter of about 2300 km, Pluto is about six times smaller than the Earth. Like our own planet, it possesses a relatively large moon, Charon , measuring 1200 km across and circling Pluto at a distance of about 19,600 km once every 6.4 days. In fact, because of the similarity of the two bodies, the Pluto-Charon system is often referred to as a double planet . At the current distance of nearly 4,500 million km from the Earth, Pluto's disk subtends a very small angle in the sky, 0.107 arcsec. It is therefore very seldom that Pluto - during its orbital motion - passes exactly in front of a comparatively bright star. Such events are known as "occultations" , and it is difficult to predict exactly when and where on the Earth's surface they are visible. Stellar occultations When Pluto moves in front of a star, it casts a "shadow" on the Earth's surface within which an observer cannot see the star, much like the Earth's Moon hides the Sun during a total solar eclipse. During the occultation event, Pluto's "shadow" also moves across the Earth's surface. The width of this shadow is equal to Pluto's diameter, i.e. about 2300 km. One such occultation event was observed in 1988, and two others were expected to occur in 2002, according to predictions published in 2000 by American astronomers Steve W. McDonald and James L. Elliot (Massachussetts Institute of Technology [MIT], Cambridge, USA). Further refinements provided by other observers later showed that the first event would be visible from South America on July 20, 2002 , while a second one on August 21 was expected to be observable in the Pacific basin, from the western coast of North America down to Hawaii and New Zealand. A stellar occultation provides a useful opportunity to study the planetary atmosphere, by means of accurate photometric measurements of the dimming of the stellar light, as the planet moves in front of the star. The observed variation of the light intensity and colour provides crucial information about the structure (atmospheric layers) and composition of different gases and aerosols. More information is available in the Appendix below. The July 20 occultation ESO PR Photo 21a/02 ESO PR Photo 21a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 477 pix - 65k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 953 pix - 224k] Caption : PR Photo 21c/02 shows the path of Pluto's shadow (grey region) during the July 20, 2002 occultation. The shadow has a diameter of about 2300 km and moves from right to left; the timings along the central line are indicated in one-minute intervals (Universal Time - UT). The width of the gray area corresponds to the regions where more than 50% of the light from the star P126 A was attenuated by Pluto's atmosphere. The dotted lines indicate where the stellar flux was attenuated by more than 10%. The maximum duration of the occultation (for observers located at the middle of the shadow track) was about 3 min. The plot is based on astrometric measurements posted at the MIT site. Once completely analyzed, the VLT NACO images will provide significantly better accuracy on the location of this track and therefore a solid basis for the interpretation of the photometric observations obtained with other telescopes. In order to profit from the rare opportunity to learn more about Pluto and its atmosphere, a large campaign involving more than twenty scientists a

  5. Neutron stars in Rastall gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. M.; Velten, H. E. S.; Fabris, J. C.; Casarini, L.

    2015-08-01

    We calculate static and spherically symmetric solutions for the Rastall modification of gravity to describe neutron stars (NS). The key feature of the Rastall gravity is the nonconservation of the energy-momentum tensor proportionally to the space-time curvature. Using realistic equations of state for the NS interior we place a conservative bound on the non-general relativity behavior of the Rastall theory which should be ?1 % level. This work presents the more stringent constraints on the deviations of general relativity caused by the Rastall proposal.

  6. Observing quantum vacuum lensing in a neutron star binary system.

    PubMed

    Dupays, Arnaud; Robilliard, Cécile; Rizzo, Carlo; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2005-04-29

    In this Letter we study the propagation of light in the neighborhood of magnetized neutron stars. Because of the optical properties of quantum vacuum in the presence of a magnetic field, the light emitted by background astronomical objects is deviated, giving rise to a phenomenon of the same kind as the gravitational one. We give a quantitative estimation of this effect, and we discuss the possibility of its observation. We show that this effect could be detected by monitoring the evolution of the recently discovered double neutron star system J0737-3039. PMID:15904205

  7. Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.

  8. Star products, duality and double Lie algebras

    E-print Network

    Olga V. Man'ko; Vladimir I. Man'ko; Giuseppe Marmo; Patrizia Vitale

    2006-09-06

    Quantization of classical systems using the star-product of symbols of observables is discussed. In the star-product scheme an analysis of dual structures is performed and a physical interpretation is proposed. At the Lie algebra level duality is shown to be connected to double Lie algebras. The analysis is specified to quantum tomography. The classical tomographic Poisson bracket is found.

  9. Nuclear constraints on the momenta of inertia of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Aaron Worley; Plamen G. Krastev; Bao-An Li

    2008-04-22

    Properties and structure of neutron stars are determined by the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich stellar matter. While the collective flow and particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have constrained tightly the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter up to about five times the normal nuclear matter density, the more recent experimental data on isospin-diffusion and isoscaling in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies have constrained considerably the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy at subsaturation densities. Although there are still many uncertainties and challenges to pin down completely the EOS of neutron-rich nuclear matter, the heavy-ion reaction experiments in terrestrial laboratories have limited the EOS of neutron-rich nuclear matter in a range much narrower than that spanned by various EOSs currently used in astrophysical studies in the literature. These nuclear physics constraints could thus provide more reliable information about properties of neutron stars. Within well established formalisms using the nuclear constrained EOSs we study the momenta of inertia of neutron stars. We put the special emphasis on the component A of the extremely relativistic double neutron star system PSR J0737-3039. Its moment of inertia is found to be between 1.30 and 1.63 $(\\times10^{45}g$ $cm^2)$. Moreover, the transition density at the crust-core boundary is shown to be in the narrow range of $\\rho_t=[0.091-0.093](fm^{-3})$.

  10. Accretion Models for Young Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    M. Ali Alpar

    2003-06-09

    Interaction with possible fallback material, along with the magnetic fields and rotation rates at birth should determine the fates and categories of young neutron stars. This paper addresses some issues related to pure or hybrid accretion models for explaining the properties of young neutron stars.

  11. Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the mission of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE), a proposed International Space Station (ISS) payload dedicated ot the study of neutron stars. There are also reviews of the Science Objectives of the payload,the science measurements, the design and the expected performance for the instruments for NICE,

  12. Neutron stars as dark matter probes

    SciTech Connect

    Lavallaz, Arnaud de; Fairbairn, Malcolm

    2010-06-15

    We examine whether the accretion of dark matter onto neutron stars could ever have any visible external effects. Captured dark matter which subsequently annihilates will heat the neutron stars, although it seems the effect will be too small to heat close neutron stars at an observable rate while those at the galactic center are obscured by dust. Nonannihilating dark matter would accumulate at the center of the neutron star. In a very dense region of dark matter such as that which may be found at the center of the galaxy, a neutron star might accrete enough to cause it to collapse within a period of time less than the age of the Universe. We calculate what value of the stable dark matter-nucleon cross section would cause this to occur for a large range of masses.

  13. Close Double Stars from Occultation Video Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring Dunham, David; George, Anthony; Loader, Brian; Herald, David Russell

    2015-08-01

    Astronomers around the world, both amateur and professional, have been recording lunar and asteroidal occultations of close double stars during the past several years using inexpensive but quite sensitive video cameras that are now available. Several new double stars have been discovered, and the parameters of many close systems have been determined. Besides rather good measurements of the relative magnitudes of the components, the actual separations and position angles can be measured if observations of the same event are made from two or more separate stations. These observations collected by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) are published in the Journal of Double Star Observations. Recently, IOTA has encouraged the observation of occultations of stars in the Kepler 2 program, which is interested in data about close duplicity that affects their analyses for exoplanet transits.

  14. Hamilton Jeffers and the Double Star Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Court reporter and amateur astronomer Shelburne Wesley Burnham (1838-1921) published a massive double star catalogue containing more than 13,000 systems in 1906. The next keeper of the double stars was Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951), who produced a much larger catalogue in 1932. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham’s records of observations on handwritten file cards, eventually turning them over to Lick Observatory astrometrist Hamilton Moore Jeffers (1893-1976). Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby (1921-2002), he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford (1905-2002) had the new 120-inch reflector, the world’s second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the U.S. Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley (1935-1997), and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,000,000 measures of more than 100,000 pairs.

  15. Can neutron stars constrain dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Kouvaris, Chris; Tinyakov, Peter

    2010-09-15

    Because of their strong gravitational field, neutron stars capture weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs) more efficiently compared to other stars, including the white dwarfs. Once captured, the WIMPs sink to the neutron star center and annihilate, heating the star. We find that this heat could lead to detectable effects on the surface temperature of old neutron stars, especially those in dark-matter-rich regions such as the Galactic center or cores of globular clusters. The capture and annihilation is fully efficient even for WIMP-to-nucleon cross sections (elastic or inelastic) as low as {approx}10{sup -45} cm{sup 2}, and for the annihilation cross sections as small as {approx}10{sup -57} cm{sup 2}. Thus, detection of a sufficiently cold neutron star in a dark-matter-rich environment would exclude a wide range of dark matter candidates, including those with extremely small cross sections.

  16. Untwisting magnetospheres of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Andrei M. Beloborodov

    2009-07-05

    Magnetospheres of neutron stars are anchored in the rigid crust and can be twisted by sudden crustal motions ("starquakes"). The twisted magnetosphere does not remain static and gradually untwists, dissipating magnetic energy and producing radiation. The equation describing this evolution is derived, and its solutions are presented. Two distinct regions coexist in untwisting magnetospheres: a potential region where curl(B)=0 ("cavity") and a current-carrying bundle of field lines ("j-bundle"). The cavity has a sharp boundary, which expands with time and eventually erases all of the twist. In this process, the electric current of the j-bundle is sucked into the star. Observational appearance of the untwisting process is discussed. A hot spot forms at the footprints of the j-bundle. The spot shrinks with time toward the magnetic dipole axis, and its luminosity and temperature gradually decrease. As the j-bundle shrinks, the amplitude of its twist can grow to the maximum possible value ~ 1. The strong twist near the dipole axis increases the spindown rate of the star and can generate a broad beam of radio emission. The model explains the puzzling behavior of magnetar XTE J1810-197 -- a canonical example of magnetospheric evolution following a starquake. We also discuss implications for other magnetars. The untwisting theory suggests that the nonthermal radiation of magnetars is preferentially generated on a bundle of extended closed field lines near the dipole axis.

  17. Gravitational wave from rotating neutron star

    E-print Network

    Shailesh K. Singh; S. K. Biswal; M. Bhuyan; T. K. Jha; S. K. Patra

    2013-12-20

    Using the nuclear equation of states for a large variety of relativistic and non-relativistic force parameters, we calculate the static and rotating masses and radii of neutron stars. From these equation of states, we also evaluate the properties of rotating neutron stars, such as rotational and gravitational frequencies, moment of inertia, quadrupole deformation parameter, rotational ellipcity and gravitational wave strain amplitude. The estimated gravitational wave strain amplitude of the star is found to be $\\sim 10^{-23}$.

  18. Vortex structure of neutron stars with triplet neutron superfluidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabasyan, K. M.; Shahabasyan, M. K.

    2011-09-01

    The vortex structure of the "npe" phase of neutron stars with a 3P2 superfluid neutron condensate of Cooper pairs is discussed. It is shown that, as the star rotates, superfluid neutron vortex filaments described by a unitary ordering parameter develop in the "npe" phase. The entrainment of superconducting protons by the rotating superfluid neutrons is examined. The entrainment effect leads to the appearance of clusters of proton vortices around each neutron vortex and generates a magnetic field on the order of 1012 G. 3P2 neutron vortex filaments combine with quark semi-superfluid vortex filaments at the boundary of the "npe" and "CFL" phases. At the boundary of the "Aen" and "npe" phases, they combine with 1S0 neutron vortex filaments. In this way, a unified vortex structure is formed. The existence of this structure and its collective elastic oscillations explain the observed oscillations in the angular rotation velocity of pulsars.

  19. Quark Matter in Neutron Stars: An apercu

    E-print Network

    Prashanth Jaikumar; Sanjay Reddy; Andrew W. Steiner

    2006-08-16

    The existence of deconfined quark matter in the superdense interior of neutron stars is a key question that has drawn considerable attention over the past few decades. Quark matter can comprise an arbitrary fraction of the star, from 0 for a pure neutron star to 1 for a pure quark star, depending on the equation of state of matter at high density. From an astrophysical viewpoint, these two extreme cases are generally expected to manifest different observational signatures. An intermediate fraction implies a hybrid star, where the interior consists of mixed or homogeneous phases of quark and nuclear matter, depending on surface and Coulomb energy costs, as well as other finite size and screening effects. In this brief review article, we discuss what we can deduce about quark matter in neutron stars in light of recent exciting developments in neutron star observations. We state the theoretical ideas underlying the equation of state of dense quark matter, including color superconducting quark matter. We also highlight recent advances stemming from re-examination of an old paradigm for the surface structure of quark stars and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios from neutron stars to quark stars, with emphasis on astrophysical observations.

  20. Validating Neutron Star Radius Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2010-09-01

    Spectral analysis of transient neutron star X-ray emission during bursts and quiescence were both used to estimate the NS radii for different sources. The validities of these methods need to be verified by performing them on the same source respectively. Transient type-I (thermonuclear) X-ray bursters are excellent candidates for testing the consistency between these methods, since they were detected in both bursts and quiescence. Out of 3 candidates: Cen X-4, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, 4U 1608-52 turns out to be the best one due to the lack of archival RXTE burst data for Cen X-4 and the previous reported significant luminosity and temperature variability for Aql X-1 in quiescence. Therefore, we propose a 25 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of 4U 1608-52.

  1. Holographic indeterminacy and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Scott Funkhouser

    2009-02-16

    The holographic indeterminacy resulting from the quantization of spacetime leads to an inherent uncertainty (lpL)1/2 in the relative positions of two events, separated by a distance L, in a direction transverse to a null ray connecting the events, where lP is the Planck length. The new indeterminacy principle leads to a critical condition in which the holographic uncertainty in the relative transverse positions of two diametrically opposed particles on the surface a body becomes greater than the average distance between particles in the body. The Chandrasekhar mass and the characteristic nuclear density emerge as the minimum mass and density of a baryonic body that could meet the critical criteria. Neutron stars are therefore identified as a class of bodies in which holographic indeterminacy may have physical consequences.

  2. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Sulaksono

    2014-12-23

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure on properties of the neutron stars with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of anisotropic pressure on neutron star matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of anisotropic pressure model $h \\le 0.8$[1] and $\\Lambda \\le -1.15$ [2]. The radius of the corresponding neutron star at $M$=1.4 $M_\\odot$ is more than 13 km, while the effect of anisotropic pressure on the minimum mass of neutron star is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the anisotropic pressure in the neutron star, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 $M_\\odot$ cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the neutron star core.

  3. The many lives of magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna , R.; Pons, J. A.; Viganò, D.; Rea, N.

    2014-09-01

    The magnetic field strength at birth is arguably one of the most important properties to determine the evolutionary path of a neutron star. Objects with very high fields, collectively known as magnetars, are characterized by high X-ray quiescent luminosities, occurrence of outbursts, and, for some of them, sporadic giant flares. While the magnetic field strength is believed to drive their collective behaviour, however, the diversity of their properties, and, especially, the observation of magnetar-like bursts from ``low-field'' pulsars, has been a theoretical puzzle. In this review, we discuss results of long-term simulations following the coupled evolution of the X-ray luminosity and the timing properties for a large, homogeneous sample of X-ray emitting isolated neutron stars, accounting for a range of initial magnetic field strengths, envelope compositions, and neutron star masses. In addition, by following the evolution of magnetic stresses within the neutron star crust, we can also relate the observed magnetar phenomenology to the physical properties of neutron stars, and in particular to their age and magnetic field strength and topology. The dichotomy of ``high-B'' field pulsars versus magnetars is naturally explained, and occasional outbursts from old, low B-field neutron stars are predicted. We conclude by speculating on the fate of old magnetars, and by presenting observational diagnostics of the neutron star crustal field topology.

  4. The breaking strain of neutron star crust

    SciTech Connect

    Kadau, Kai; Horowitz, C J

    2009-01-01

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.

  5. Experimental approach to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Leifels, Yvonne

    2014-05-09

    The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is of fundamental importance in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics In the laboratory, there are different means to study the nuclearmatter equation of state and its density dependence in particular: nuclear masses, neutron skins, pygmy resonance, and nuclear structure at the drip line give access to nuclear matter properties at densities lower than and at saturation density ?0. Heavy ion reactions at energies above 0.1 AGeV are the only means to study nuclear matter at densities larger than normal nuclear matter density ?0. In the beamenergy range of 0.1 to 2A GeV nuclear matter is compressed upto three times ?0. Access to nuclear matter properties is achieved by simulating nuclear collisions by means of microscopic transport codes, or statistical or hydrodynamicalmodels. Characteristics of heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and experimental observables which allow to constrain nuclear matter properties by comparing experimental results with those of transport codes are presented. Special emphasis will be given to the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is the most relevant connection between neutron stars and heavy ion collisions.

  6. DYNAMICAL CAPTURE BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

    2012-11-20

    We study dynamical capture binary neutron star mergers as may arise in dense stellar regions such as globular clusters. Using general-relativistic hydrodynamics, we find that these mergers can result in the prompt collapse to a black hole or in the formation of a hypermassive neutron star, depending not only on the neutron star equation of state but also on impact parameter. We also find that these mergers can produce accretion disks of up to a tenth of a solar mass and unbound ejected material of up to a few percent of a solar mass. We comment on the gravitational radiation and electromagnetic transients that these sources may produce.

  7. Nonradial superfluid modes in oscillating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. I. Chugunov; M. E. Gusakov

    2012-01-24

    For the first time nonradial oscillations of superfluid nonrotating stars are self-consistently studied at finite stellar temperatures. We apply a realistic equation of state and realistic density dependent model of critical temperature of neutron and proton superfluidity. In particular, we discuss three-layer configurations of a star with no neutron superfluidity at the centre and in the outer region of the core but with superfluid intermediate region. We show, that oscillation spectra contain a set of modes whose frequencies can be very sensitive to temperature variations. Fast temporal evolution of the pulsation spectrum in the course of neutron star cooling is also analysed.

  8. Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasky, Paul D.

    2015-09-01

    Neutron stars are excellent emitters of gravitational waves. Squeezing matter beyond nuclear densities invites exotic physical processes, many of which violently transfer large amounts of mass at relativistic velocities, disrupting spacetime and generating copious quantities of gravitational radiation. I review mechanisms for generating gravitational waves with neutron stars. This includes gravitational waves from radio and millisecond pulsars, magnetars, accreting systems, and newly born neutron stars, with mechanisms including magnetic and thermoelastic deformations, various stellar oscillation modes, and core superfluid turbulence. I also focus on what physics can be learnt from a gravitational wave detection, and where additional research is required to fully understand the dominant physical processes at play.

  9. Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars: A Review

    E-print Network

    Paul D. Lasky

    2015-08-26

    Neutron stars are excellent emitters of gravitational waves. Squeezing matter beyond nuclear densities invites exotic physical processes, many of which violently transfer large amounts of mass at relativistic velocities, disrupting spacetime and generating copious quantities of gravitational radiation. I review mechanisms for generating gravitational waves with neutron stars. This includes gravitational waves from radio and millisecond pulsars, magnetars, accreting systems and newly born neutron stars, with mechanisms including magnetic and thermoelastic deformations, various stellar oscillation modes and core superfluid turbulence. I also focus on what physics can be learnt from a gravitational wave detection, and where additional research is required to fully understand the dominant physical processes at play.

  10. Color Ferromagnetic Quark Matter in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Aiichi Iwazaki; Osamu Morimatsu; Tetsuo Nishikawa; Munehisa Ohtani

    2005-12-16

    We show that color ferromagnetic phase of quark matter is energetically more favored than color superconducting phases in neutron stars. Namely, increasing baryon density in neutron stars transforms nuclear matter into the quark matter of the color ferromagnetic phase. Further increase of the density makes the quark matter take the color superconducting phases. We find that a critical mass of the neutron star with such an internal structure is about $1.6M_{\\odot}$. We stress that analysis of gluon dynamics is crucial for exploring dense quark matter.

  11. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Supid

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes neutron stars and thermonuclear x ray bursts. The contents include: 1) Neutron Stars: why do we care?; 2) Thermonuclear Bursts: why do we care?; 3) Neutron Stars: Mass, Radius and Spin: a. Continuum Spectroscopy of Bursts b. Spectral Lines from Bursts c. Timing Properties of Bursts; 4) Neutron Star Atmosphere: Thermonuclear Flame Spreading; and 5) Future Prospects and Conclusions.

  12. Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.

  13. On the Collapse of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Jose N. Pecina-Cruz

    2006-10-03

    This paper reviews the Oppenheimer, Volkoff and Snyder's arguments about the formation of black holes from the collapse of Neutron Stars. It is found that such a collapse is inconsistent with microscopic causality and Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  14. Dark Matter Thermalization in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Bridget Bertoni; Ann E. Nelson; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-11-13

    We study how many-body effects alter the dark matter (DM) thermalization time inside neutron stars. We find that Pauli blocking, kinematic constraints, and superfluidity and superconductivity in the neutron star significantly affect the DM thermalization time, in general lengthening it. This could change the final DM mass and DM-nucleon cross section constraints by considering black hole formation in neutron stars due to DM accretion. We consider the class of models in which DM is an asymmetric, complex scalar particle with a mass between 1 keV and 5 GeV which couples to regular matter via some heavy vector boson. Interestingly, we find that the discovery of asymmetric, bosonic DM could motivate the existence of exotic neutron star cores. We apply our results to the case of mixed sneutrino DM.

  15. Magnetars: Neutron Stars in the Extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, GianLuca

    2015-08-01

    Neutron stars are perfect cosmic laboratories with extreme physical conditions. With a mass of more than that of the Sun compressed inside a radius of about 10 kilometers, their density is higher than nuclear saturation. The intense magnetic field we observe strongly modify the way with which matter and radiation interact and affects the energy release. Moreover, densities, temperatures and strong gravitational fields make neutron stars one of the few places in the Universe were the four fundamental forces are all important. In essence, our understanding of these extreme objects requires physics that cannot be tested in terrestrial laboratories. Among the many classes of known neutron stars, magnetars are likely the most extreme.In this talk I will review same of the observational properties and theoretical developments which have been recently assessed and are expected to help us in better understanding the physics inside and around magnetars and, in a more general context, their link with other neutron star classes.

  16. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  17. Optical Observations of Isolated Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    R. Mignani

    1998-10-02

    Only 1% of the Isolated Neutron Star (INS) population has been identified in the optical, albeit with different degrees of confidence. Optical observations of INSs are reviewed and their emission properties discussed in an evolutionary framework.

  18. Neutron Star Compared to Manhattan - Duration: 11 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A pulsar is a neutron star, the crushed core of a star that has exploded. Neutron stars crush half a million times more mass than Earth into a sphere no larger than Manhattan, as animated in this s...

  19. Direct URCA process in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattimer, James M.; Prakash, Madappa; Pethick, C. J.; Haensel, Pawel

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the direct URCA process can occur in neutron stars if the proton concentration exceeds some critical value in the range 11-15 percent. The proton concentration, which is determined by the poorly known symmetry energy of matter above nuclear density, exceeds the critical value in many current calculations. If it occurs, the direct URCA process enhances neutrino emission and neutron star cooling rates by a large factor compared to any process considered previously.

  20. From nuclear structure to neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Gandolfi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. As a demonstration, we show that the agreement between theoretical calculations of the charge form factor of 12C and the experimental data is excellent. Applying similar methods to isospin-asymmetric systems allows one to describe neutrons confined in an external potential and homogeneous neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  1. From nuclear structure to neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Stefano Gandolfi; Andrew W. Steiner

    2013-08-27

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. As a demonstration, we show that the agreement between theoretical calculations of the charge form factor of 12C and the experimental data is excellent. Applying similar methods to isospin-asymmetric systems allows one to describe neutrons confined in an external potential and homogeneous neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  2. Neutron star cooling: effects of envelope physics

    SciTech Connect

    Van Riper, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron star cooling calculations are reported which employ improved physics in the calculation of the temperature drop through the atmosphere. The atmosphere microphysics is discussed briefly. The predicted neutron star surface temperatures, in the interesting interval 200 less than or equal to t (yr) less than or equal to 10/sup 5/, do not differ appreciably from the earlier results of Van Riper and Lamb (1981) for a non-magnetic star; for a magnetic star, the surface temperature is lower than in the previous work. Comparison with observational limits show that an exotic cooling mechanism, such as neutrino emission from a pion condensate or in the presence of percolating quarks, is not required unless the existence of a neutron star in the Tycho or SN1006 SNRs is established.

  3. Neutron stars as laboratories for gravity physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deliduman, Cemsinan

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of neutron stars in R+?R² gravity model with perturbative method. We obtain mass-radius relations for four representative equations of state (EoS). We find that, for |?|~10? cm², the results differ substantially from the results of general relativity. The effects of modified gravity are seen as mimicking a stiff or soft EoS for neutron stars depending upon whether ? is negative or positive, respectively. Some of the soft EoS that are excluded within the framework of general relativity can be reconciled for certain values of ? of this order with the 2 solar mass neutron star recently observed. Indeed, if the EoS is ever established to be soft, modified gravity of the sort studied here may be required to explain neutron star masses as large as 2 M{sub ?}. The associated length scale ?(?)~10? cm is of the order of the the typical radius of neutron stars implying that this is the smallest value we could find by using neutron stars as a probe. We thus conclude that the true value of ? is most likely much smaller than 10? cm².

  4. Neutronic effects on tungsten-186 double neutron capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Marc Alan

    Rhenium-188, a daughter product of tungsten-188, is an isotope of great interest in therapeutic nuclear medicine, being used in dozens of laboratory and clinical investigations worldwide. Applications include various cancer therapy strategies, treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, prevention of restenosis following coronary artery angioplasty, and palliation of bone pain associated with cancer metastases. With its half-life of 17 hours, 2.12 MeV (maximum) beta-particle emission, chemical similarity to technetium-99m (the most widely used diagnostic radioisotope), and its availability in a convenient tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator system, rhenium-188 is a superb candidate for a broad range of applications. Production of 188W is typically via double neutron capture by 186W in a high flux nuclear reactor, predominantly the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. Experience at HFIR has shown that production yields (measured in Ci of 188W produced per g of 186W target) decrease considerably as target size increases. While the phenomenon of neutron resonance self-shielding would be expected to produce such an effect, temperature effects on neutron flux distribution and neutron capture rates may also be involved. Experimental investigations of these phenomena have not been previously performed. The work presented in this thesis evaluates the factors that contribute to the decrease in 188W yield from both theoretical and experimental standpoints. Neutron self-shielding and temperature effects were characterized to develop a strategy for target design that would optimize production yield, an important factor in minimizing health care costs. It was determined that decrease in yield due to neutron self-shielding can be attributed to depletion of epithermal neutrons at resonant energies, most significantly within the initial 0.4 mm depth of the target. The results from these studies further show that 188W yield in the interior of the target (beyond 0.4 mm depth) does not decrease as would be expected due to neutron attenuation. This observation was explained by the fact elevated temperatures in the interior of the target result in an increase in the 188W yield through Doppler broadening of cross sections, compensating for reduced yield due to neutron attenuation. Finally, this work supports earlier analyses that questioned the accuracy of the 187W thermal cross section and resonance integral.

  5. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Evidence for a thin veil of carbon has been found on the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a ten-year mystery surrounding this object. "The compact star at the center of this famous supernova remnant has been an enigma since its discovery," said Wynn Ho of the University of Southampton and lead author of a paper that appears in the latest issue of Nature. "Now we finally understand that it can be produced by a hot neutron star with a carbon atmosphere." By analyzing Chandra's X-ray spectrum - akin to a fingerprint of energy - and applying it to theoretical models, Ho and his colleague Craig Heinke, from the University of Alberta, determined that the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, has an ultra-thin coating of carbon. This is the first time the composition of an atmosphere of an isolated neutron star has been confirmed. The Chandra "First Light" image of Cas A in 1999 revealed a previously undetected point-like source of X-rays at the center. This object was presumed to be a neutron star, the typical remnant of an exploded star, but researchers were unable to understand its properties. Defying astronomers' expectations, this object did not show any X-ray or radio pulsations or any signs of radio pulsar activity. By applying a model of a neutron star with a carbon atmosphere to this object, Ho and Heinke found that the region emitting X-rays would uniformly cover a typical neutron star. This would explain the lack of X-ray pulsations because -- like a lightbulb that shines consistently in all directions -- this neutron star would be unlikely to display any changes in its intensity as it rotates. Scientists previously have used a neutron star model with a hydrogen atmosphere giving a much smaller emission area, corresponding to a hot spot on a typical neutron star, which should produce X-ray pulsations as it rotates. Interpreting the hydrogen atmosphere model without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of stronger magnetic fields as

  6. Neutron stars and the fermionic Casimir effect

    E-print Network

    Piotr Magierski; Aurel Bulgac; Paul-Henri Heenen

    2001-12-03

    The inner crust of neutron stars consists of nuclei of various shapes immersed in a neutron gas and stabilized by the Coulomb interaction in the form of a crystal lattice. The scattering of neutrons on nuclear inhomegeneities leads to the quantum correction to the total energy of the system. This correction resembles the Casimir energy and turns out to have a large influence on the structure of the crust.

  7. Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, George

    1985-01-01

    Part one recounted the story of the discovery of pulsars and examined the Crab Nebula, supernovae, and neutron stars. This part (experts from the book "Frozen Star") shows how an understanding of the nature of pulsars allowed astronomers to tie these together. (JN)

  8. From nuclear matter to Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    T. K. Jha

    2009-02-02

    Neutron stars are the most dense objects in the observable Universe and conventionally one uses nuclear theory to obtain the equation of state (EOS) of dense hadronic matter and the global properties of these stars. In this work, we review various aspects of nuclear matter within an effective Chiral model and interlink fundamental quantities both from nuclear saturation as well as vacuum properties and correlate it with the star properties.

  9. Neutron tomography in double crystal diffractometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Hilger, A.; Feye-Treimer, U.

    2004-07-01

    Using a double crystal diffractometer (DCD) for tomographic imaging introduces the possibility to use various signals for image contrast. In conventional neutron and X-ray radiography and tomography the contrast signal for imaging arises just from the attenuation in the sample. Due to recent developments in digital imaging tomography gained a lot of importance in medicine and non-destructive testing (NDT). But not all materials deliver an useful contrast concerning attenuation neither in the case of X-rays nor for neutrons. In a DCD attenuation but also other interactions between penetrating radiation and sample can be registered. Besides the common attenuation there are especially refraction and small-angle scattering effects. It will be shown at least for neutrons that from each of these signals recorded as tomographic projections in a DCD an image of the sample can be reconstructed by the means of common filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. Additionally, all the signals can be registered in one measurement and can be used for independent reconstructions resulting in different images expressing different characteristics of the sample.

  10. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüster, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars.

  11. Binary Neutron Stars with Arbitrary Spins in Numerical Relativity

    E-print Network

    Nick Tacik; Francois Foucart; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Roland Haas; Serguei Ossokine; Jeff Kaplan; Curran Muhlberger; Matt D. Duez; Lawrence E. Kidder; Mark A. Scheel; Béla Szilágyi

    2015-08-27

    We present a code to construct initial data for binary neutron star systems in which the stars are rotating. Our code, based on a formalism developed by Tichy, allows for arbitrary rotation axes of the neutron stars and is able to achieve rotation rates near rotational breakup. We compute the neutron star angular momentum through quasi-local angular momentum integrals. When constructing irrotational binary neutron stars, we find a very small residual dimensionless spin of $\\sim 2\\times 10^{-4}$. Evolutions of rotating neutron star binaries show that the magnitude of the stars' angular momentum is conserved, and that the spin- and orbit-precession of the stars is well described by post-Newtonian approximation. We demonstrate that orbital eccentricity of the binary neutron stars can be controlled to $\\sim 0.1\\%$. The neutron stars show quasi-normal mode oscillations at an amplitude which increases with the rotation rate of the stars.

  12. Improved microphysics in neutron star merger simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Neutron star mergers are expected to be among the main sources of gravitational waves detectable by the Advance LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA detector network. In many cases, these mergers are also likely to power bright electromagnetic transients, including short gamma-ray bursts and ``kilonovae,'' the optical/infrared emission due to the radioactive decay of neutron rich elements in material unbound by the merger. These EM counterparts can provide important information on the environment in which the merger takes place and the nature of the binary, and their detection could shed a light on the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and of r-process elements. Numerical simulations of neutron star mergers using general relativistic codes are required to understand the merger dynamics, the impact of the equation of state of the neutron star on the gravitational wave signal, and the potential of a given binary to power electromagnetic counterparts to that signal. Until recently, however, general relativistic codes used very simple models for the neutron star - often a simple gamma-law equation of state without any additional microphysics. Although sufficient to model the gravitational wave signal before merger, this cannot be used to follow the post-merger evolution of the system, or even some aspects of the disruption of the neutron star. To do so, nuclear-theory based equations of state with temperature and composition dependence have to be used, and the effects of neutrinos and magnetic fields should be taken into account. In this talk, I will discuss current efforts to include more advanced microphysics in general relativistic simulations, what we can do so far, and what the remaining computational challenges are. I will also show how existing numerical simulations have helped us constrain the outcome of neutron star mergers, and what remains to be done in order to extract as much information as possible from upcoming gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. Neutron star mergers are expected to be among the main sources of gravitational waves detectable by the Advance LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA detector network. In many cases, these mergers are also likely to power bright electromagnetic transients, including short gamma-ray bursts and ``kilonovae,'' the optical/infrared emission due to the radioactive decay of neutron rich elements in material unbound by the merger. These EM counterparts can provide important information on the environment in which the merger takes place and the nature of the binary, and their detection could shed a light on the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and of r-process elements. Numerical simulations of neutron star mergers using general relativistic codes are required to understand the merger dynamics, the impact of the equation of state of the neutron star on the gravitational wave signal, and the potential of a given binary to power electromagnetic counterparts to that signal. Until recently, however, general relativistic codes used very simple models for the neutron star - often a simple gamma-law equation of state without any additional microphysics. Although sufficient to model the gravitational wave signal before merger, this cannot be used to follow the post-merger evolution of the system, or even some aspects of the disruption of the neutron star. To do so, nuclear-theory based equations of state with temperature and composition dependence have to be used, and the effects of neutrinos and magnetic fields should be taken into account. In this talk, I will discuss current efforts to include more advanced microphysics in general relativistic simulations, what we can do so far, and what the remaining computational challenges are. I will also show how existing numerical simulations have helped us constrain the outcome of neutron star mergers, and what remains to be done in order to extract as much information as possible from upcoming gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. Einstein Fellow.

  13. Encounters between binaries and neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    We simulated encounters between a neutron star and primordial and tidal-capture binaries. In the case of encounters involving a tidal-capture binary, comprising a white dwarf and a main-sequence star, we find that most exchange encounters will produce a single merged object with the white dwarf and neutron star engulfed in a common envelope of gas donated by the main-sequence primary of the original binary. A small fraction of exchanges induce a merger of the white dwarf and main-sequence star, with this object being unbound to the neutron star, and the two objects having a large relative speed at infinity. For encounters involving a primordial binary, fewer encounters require the inclusion of hydrodynamical effects. Those involving collisions or close encounters tend to produce a binary comprised of the two merged stars (now forming one star) and the third star. The binaries produced typically have large enough separations to prevent the formation of a single merged object until subsequent stellar evolution of one of the components causes it to fill its Roche lobe. Clean exchanges produce binaries with large eccentricities; they are typically sufficiently wide to avoid circularization.

  14. Dissipative processes in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina

    2011-05-23

    We present some results about a novel damping mechanism of r-mode oscillations in neutron stars due to processes that change the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Deviations from equilibrium of the number densities of the various species lead to the appearance in the Euler equations of the system of a dissipative mechanism, the so-called rocket effect. The evolution of the r-mode oscillations of a rotating neutron star are influenced by the rocket effect and we present estimates of the corresponding damping timescales. In the description of the system we employ a two-fluid model, with one fluid consisting of all the charged components locked together by the electromagnetic interaction, while the second fluid consists of superfluid neutrons. Both components can oscillate however the rocket effect can only efficiently damp the countermoving r-mode oscillations, with the two fluids oscillating out of phase. In our analysis we include the mutual friction dissipative process between the neutron superfluid and the charged component. We neglect the interaction between the two r-mode oscillations as well as effects related with the crust of the star. Moreover, we use a simplified model of neutron star assuming a uniform mass distribution.

  15. Neutron Stars Opacity and Proton Fraction

    E-print Network

    P. N. Alcain; C. O. Dorso

    2015-02-03

    Background: In neutron stars the nucleons are submitted to extreme conditions. The study of this natural occurring objects can lead to further understanding of the behaviour of nuclear matter in highly asymmetric nuclei. Among the characteristics of neutron stars, its neutrino absorption - associated to structural inhomoegeneities - stands out as one of the possible magnitudes linked to an observable. Purpose: We have carried out a systematic study of this neutrino absorption for different thermodynamic conditions in order to assess the impact that the structure has on it. Method: We study the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to the neutron star crust with a semiclassical molecular dynamics model, for different densities, proton fractions and temperature, we calculate the long range opacity and the cluster distribution. Results: The neutrino absorption, the main mechanism for neutron stars cooldown, takes its highest value for temperatures and densities low compared with the inner crust, and a proton fraction is close to the symmetric case $x=0.5$. Conclusions: Within the used model the neutrinos are absorbed mostly close to the surface of the neutron star. Also, for high temperatures, a large cluster still exists, but the appearance of several small-sized clusters smears out the very long range order needed for neutrino absorption.

  16. The spin evolution of nascent neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Anna L.; Andersson, Nils

    2002-07-01

    The loss of angular momentum owing to unstable r-modes in hot young neutron stars has been proposed as a mechanism for achieving the spin rates inferred for young pulsars. One factor that could have a significant effect on the action of the r-mode instability is fallback of supernova remnant material. The associated accretion torque could potentially counteract any gravitational-wave-induced spin-down, and accretion heating could affect the viscous damping rates and hence the instability. We discuss the effects of various external agents on the r-mode instability scenario within a simple model of supernova fallback on to a hot young magnetized neutron star. We find that the outcome depends strongly on the strength of the magnetic field of the star. Our model is capable of generating spin rates for young neutron stars that accord well with initial spin rates inferred from pulsar observations. The combined action of r-mode instability and fallback appears to cause the spin rates of neutron stars born with very different spin rates to converge, on a time-scale of approximately 1 year. The results suggest that stars with magnetic fields <=1013G could emit a detectable gravitational wave signal for perhaps several years after the supernova event. Stars with higher fields (magnetars) are unlikely to emit a detectable gravitational wave signal via the r-mode instability. The model also suggests that the r-mode instability could be extremely effective in preventing young neutron stars from going dynamically unstable to the bar-mode.

  17. The Mystery of the Lonely Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    The VLT Reveals Bowshock Nebula around RX J1856.5-3754 Deep inside the Milky Way, an old and lonely neutron star plows its way through interstellar space. Known as RX J1856.5-3754 , it measures only ~ 20 km across. Although it is unusually hot for its age, about 700,000 °C, earlier observations did not reveal any activity at all, contrary to all other neutron stars known so far. In order to better understand this extreme type of object, a detailed study of RX J1856.5-3754 was undertaken by Marten van Kerkwijk (Institute of Astronomy of the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands) and Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA). To the astronomers' delight and surprise, images and spectra obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) now show a small nearby cone-shaped ("bowshock") nebula. It shines in the light from hydrogen atoms and is obviously a product of some kind of interaction with this strange star. Neutron stars - remnants of supernova explosions Neutron stars are among the most extreme objects in the Universe. They are formed when a massive star dies in a "supernova explosion" . During this dramatic event, the core of the star suddenly collapses under its own weight and the outer parts are violently ejected into surrounding space. One of the best known examples is the Crab Nebula in the constellation Taurus (The Bull). It is the gaseous remnant of a star that exploded in the year 1054 and also left behind a pulsar , i.e., a rotating neutron star [1]. A supernova explosion is a very complex event that is still not well understood. Nor is the structure of a neutron star known in any detail. It depends on the extreme properties of matter that has been compressed to incredibly high densities, far beyond the reach of physics experiments on Earth [2]. The ultimate fate of a neutron star is also unclear. From the observed rates of supernova explosions in other galaxies, it appears that several hundred million neutron stars must have formed in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. However, most of these are now invisible, having since long cooled down and become completely inactive while fading out of sight. An unsual neutron star - RX J1856.5-3754 Some years ago, the X-ray source RX J1856.5-3754 was found by the German ROSAT X-ray satellite observatory. Later observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (cf. STScI-PR97-32 ) detected extremely faint optical emission from this source and conclusively proved that it is an isolated neutron star [3]. There is no sign of the associated supernova remnant and it must therefore be at least 100,000 years "old". Most interestingly, and unlike younger isolated neutron stars or neutron stars in binary stellar systems, RX J1856.5-3754 does not show any sign of activity whatsoever, such as variability or pulsations. As a unique member of its class, RX J1856.5-3754 quickly became the centre of great interest among astronomers. It apparently presented the first, very welcome opportunity to perform detailed studies of the structure of a neutron star, without the disturbing influence of ill-understood activity. One particular question arose immediately. The emission of X-rays indicates a very high temperature of RX J1856.5-3754 . However, from the moment of their violent birth, neutron stars are thought to lose energy and to cool down continuously. But then, how can an old neutron star like this one be so hot? One possible explanation is that some interstellar material, gas and/or dust grains, is being captured by its strong gravitational field. Such particles would fall freely towards the surface of the neutron star and arrive there with about half the speed of light. Since the kinetic energy of these particles is proportionate to the second power of the velocity, even small amounts of matter would deposit much energy upon impact, thereby heating the neutron star. The spectrum of RX J1856.5-3754 The new VLT study by van Kerkwijk and Kulkarni of RX J1856.5-3754 was first aimed at taking optical spectra, in order to study its s

  18. Constraints on millicharged particles by neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Huang, Xi; Wang, Wei-Hua; Li, Shao-Ze

    2015-01-01

    We have constrained the charge-mass ($\\varepsilon-m$) phase space of millicharged particles through the simulation of the rotational evolution of neutron stars, where an extra slow-down effect due to the accretions of millicharged dark matter particles is considered. For a canonical neutron star of $M=1.4~M_{\\odot}$ and $R=10~{\\rm km}$ with typical magnetic field strength $B_{0}=10^{12}$ G, we have shown an upper limit of millicharged particles, which is compatible with recently experimental and observational bounds. Meanwhile, we have also explored the influences on the $\\varepsilon-m$ phase space of millicharged particles for different magnetic fields $B_{0}$ and dark matter density $\\rho_{\\rm{DM}}$ in the vicinity of the neutron star.

  19. Magnetosphere of Oscillating Neutron Star. Nonvacuum Treatment

    E-print Network

    A. N. Timokhin; G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; H. C. Spruit

    2000-03-02

    We generalize a formula for the Goldreich-Julian charge density (\\rho), originally derived for rotating neutron star, for arbitrary oscillations of a neutron star with arbitrary magnetic field configuration under assumption of low current density in the inner parts of the magnetosphere. As an application we consider toroidal oscillation of a neutron star with dipole magnetic field and calculate energy losses. For some oscillation modes the longitudinal electric field can not be canceled by putting charged particles in the magnetosphere without a presence of strong electric current j = (c/(\\omega r))\\rho c. It is shown that the energy losses are strongly affected by plasma in the magnetosphere, and cannot be described by vacuum formulas.

  20. Charged Ising Model of Neutron Star Matter

    E-print Network

    Hasnaoui, K H O

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inner crust of a neutron star is believed to consist of Coulomb-frustrated complex structures known as "nuclear pasta" that display interesting and unique low-energy dynamics. Purpose: To elucidate the structure and composition of the neutron-star crust as a function of temperature, density, and proton fraction. Methods: A new lattice-gas model, the "Charged-Ising Model" (CIM), is introduced to simulate the behavior of neutron-star matter. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations on 30^3 lattices are performed for a variety of temperatures, densities, and proton fractions. Results: Results are obtained for the heat capacity, pair-correlation function, and static structure factor for a variety of conditions appropriate to the inner stellar crust. Conclusions: Although relatively simple, the CIM captures the essence of Coulomb frustration that is required to simulate the subtle dynamics of the inner stellar crust. Moreover, the computationally demanding long-range Coulomb interactions have been pre-c...

  1. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  2. Remarks concerning kaon condensation in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guohua; Fu Weijie; Liu Yuxin

    2007-12-15

    We reanalyze the existence of antikaon condensation phase in neutron stars with large mass and high gravitational redshift with not only the Glendenning-Moszkowski (GM) model but also the Zimanyi-Moszkowski (ZM) model in the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) approximation theory. We find that even in the large mass and high redshift neutron stars, there are still some stiff enough equations of state of neutron star matter so that the pure antikaon condensation phase and the mixed phase of normal baryons and antikaon condensation can exist. By comparing the result given in the GM model and that in the ZM model, we notice that the existence of antikaon condensation phase does not depend on the details of the models.

  3. Remarks concerning kaon condensation in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Fu, Wei-Jie; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2007-12-01

    We reanalyze the existence of antikaon condensation phase in neutron stars with large mass and high gravitational redshift with not only the Glendenning-Moszkowski (GM) model but also the Zimanyi-Moszkowski (ZM) model in the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) approximation theory. We find that even in the large mass and high redshift neutron stars, there are still some stiff enough equations of state of neutron star matter so that the pure antikaon condensation phase and the mixed phase of normal baryons and antikaon condensation can exist. By comparing the result given in the GM model and that in the ZM model, we notice that the existence of antikaon condensation phase does not depend on the details of the models.

  4. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the production rate of ultrahigh energy (UHE) neutrinos from galactic neutron stars. The statistics of various stellar populations are reviewed as well as an evolutionary scheme linking several neutron star environments. An observational test for predicting stellar evolution is made using two mass ratio intervals of less than 0.3 and greater than or approximately equal to 0.3, which is supported by kinematical evidence. Attention is given to the problem of the target material that is required by UHE protons accelerated from the pulsar's surface to their rotational kinetic energy, and to the detectability of neutron stars in the UHE neutrinos by employing the deep underwater muon and neutrino detector (DUMAND) array.

  5. Neutron degeneracy and plasma physics effects on radiative neutron captures in neutron star crust

    E-print Network

    P. S. Shternin; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

    2012-07-25

    We consider the astrophysical reaction rates for radiative neutron capture reactions ($n,\\gamma$) in the crust of a neutron star. The presence of degenerate neutrons at high densities (mainly in the inner crust) can drastically affect the reaction rates. Standard rates assuming a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for neutrons can underestimate the rates by several orders of magnitude. We derive simple analytical expressions for reaction rates at a variety of conditions with account for neutron degeneracy. We also discuss the plasma effects on the outgoing radiative transition channel in neutron radiative capture reactions and show that these effects can also increase the reaction rates by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, using detailed balance, we analyze the effects of neutron degeneracy and plasma physics on reverse ($\\gamma,n$) photodisintegration. We discuss the dependence of the reaction rates on temperature and neutron chemical potential and outline the efficiency of these reactions in the neutron star crust.

  6. Magnetic field evolution in superconducting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, Vanessa; Andersson, Nils; Glampedakis, Kostas; Lander, Samuel K.

    2015-10-01

    The presence of superconducting and superfluid components in the core of mature neutron stars calls for the rethinking of a number of key magnetohydrodynamical notions like resistivity, the induction equation, magnetic energy and flux-freezing. Using a multifluid magnetohydrodynamics formalism, we investigate how the magnetic field evolution is modified when neutron star matter is composed of superfluid neutrons, type-II superconducting protons and relativistic electrons. As an application of this framework, we derive an induction equation where the resistive coupling originates from the mutual friction between the electrons and the vortex/fluxtube arrays of the neutron and proton condensates. The resulting induction equation allows the identification of two time-scales that are significantly different from those of standard magnetohydrodynamics. The astrophysical implications of these results are briefly discussed.

  7. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    D. Kobyakov; C. J. Pethick

    2013-09-07

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that at densities above that for neutron drip ($\\sim4\\times10^11$) g cm$^{-3}$ or roughly one thousandth of nuclear matter density, the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO$_3$. As a consequence, properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated and we mention consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  8. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    Kobyakov, D

    2013-01-01

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that at densities above that for neutron drip ($\\sim4\\times10^11$) g cm$^{-3}$ or roughly one thousandth of nuclear matter density, the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO$_3$. As a consequence, properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated and we mention consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  9. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  10. Neutron Star Kicks and Asymmetric Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    2000-12-03

    Observational advances over the last decade have left little doubt that neutron stars received a large kick velocity (of order a few hundred to a thousand km/s) at birth. The physical origin of the kicks and the related supernova asymmetry is one of the central unsolved mysteries of supernova research. We review the physics of different kick mechanisms, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino -- magnetic field driven, and electromagnetically driven kicks. The viabilities of the different kick mechanisms are directly related to the other key parameters characterizing nascent neutron stars, such as the initial magnetic field and the initial spin. Recent observational constraints on kick mechanisms are also discussed.

  11. Neutron Star Kicks and Supernova Asymmetry

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    2003-12-19

    Observations over the last decade have shown that neutron stars receive a large kick velocity (of order a hundred to a thousand km/s) at birth. The physical origin of the kicks and the related supernova asymmetry is one of the central unsolved mysteries of supernova research. We review the physics of different kick mechanisms, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino -- magnetic field driven, and electromagnetically driven kicks. The viabilities of the different kick mechanisms are directly related to the other key parameters characterizing nascent neutron stars, such as the initial magnetic field and the initial spin. Recent observational constraints on kick mechanisms are also discussed.

  12. An instability in neutron stars at birth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Adam; Fryxell, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation show that a generic Raleigh-Taylor-like instability occurs in the mantles of nascent neutron stars, that it is possibly violent, and that the standard spherically symmetric models of neutron star birth and supernova explosion may be inadequate. Whether this 'convective' instability is pivotal to the supernova mechanism, pulsar nagnetic fields, or a host of other important issues that attend stellar collapse remains to be seen, but its existence promises to modify all questions concerning this most energetic of astronomical phenomena.

  13. Neutron Star Observations and the Equation of State

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.

    2009-05-07

    This talk reviews limits to the properties of neutron stars established from physical considerations such as causality and stability. In addition, it summarizes recent attempts to determine realistic bounds to the equation of state (EOS) from a simultaneous measurement of a neutron star's mass and radius. Observational constraints on the neutron star radius from thermal emission, seismology, spin-orbit coupling, and tidal effects in mergers are discussed. Possible constraints from neutron star cooling, including neutrino emissions, are discussed.

  14. Probabilistic star discrepancy bounds for double infinite random matrices

    E-print Network

    Aistleitner, Christoph

    Probabilistic star discrepancy bounds for double infinite random matrices Christoph Aistleitner;Probabilistic star discrepancy bounds for double infinite random matrices 3 and the integral of a function f can their results were generalized by Dick to the case of double infinite random matrices. In the present paper we

  15. Neutron stars: A cosmic hadron physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, David

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.

  16. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyam Adhya, Souvik; Roy, Pradip K.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  17. Constraining neutron star matter with quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-07-10

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.

  18. PULSE PROFILES FROM THERMALLY EMITTING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Turolla, R.; Nobili, L.

    2013-05-10

    The problem of computing the pulse profiles from thermally emitting spots on the surface of a neutron star in general relativity is reconsidered. We show that it is possible to extend Beloborodov's approach to include (multiple) spots of finite size in different positions on the star surface. The results for the pulse profiles are expressed by comparatively simple analytical formulae which involve only elementary functions.

  19. Merger of Magnetized Binary Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Hirschmann, Eric; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We present simulations of the merger of binary neutron star systems calculated with full general relativity and incorporating the global magnetic field structure for the stars evolved with resistive magnetohydrodynamics. We also incorporate the effects of neutrino transport and tabular equations of state to describe the degenerate matter. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA through the Astrophysics Theory Program grant NNX13AH01G.

  20. Integral trees homeomorphic to a double star A. E. Brouwer

    E-print Network

    Brouwer, Andries E.

    Integral trees homeomorphic to a double star A. E. Brouwer 2009-09-17 Abstract Trees with two of degree larger than two. They write We would now like to examine the trees homeomorphic to a double star, that is, to a tree obtained by joining the centers of two stars with an edge. Unfortunately, the details

  1. The EOS of neutron matter, and the effect of Lambda hyperons to neutron star structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfi, Stefano

    2015-01-13

    The following topics are addressed: the model and the method; equation of state of neutron matter, role of three-neutron force; symmetry energy; ?-hypernuclei; ?-neutron matter; and neutron star structure. In summary, quantum Monte Carlo methods are useful to study nuclear systems in a coherent framework; the three-neutron force is the bridge between Esym and neutron star structure; and neutron star observations are becoming competitive with experiments. ?-nucleon data are very limited, but ?NN is very important. The role of ? in neutron stars is far from understood; more ?N data are needed. The author's conclusion: We cannot conclude anything with present models.

  2. Neutron stars: compact objects with relativistic gravity

    E-print Network

    K. Yavuz Ek?i

    2015-11-13

    General properties of neutron stars are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the indispensability of general relativity in our understanding of these fascinating objects. In Newtonian gravity the pressure within a star merely plays the role of opposing self-gravity. In general relativity all sources of energy and momentum contribute to the gravity. As a result the pressure not only opposes gravity but also enhances it. The later role of pressure becomes more pronounced with increasing compactness, $M/R$ where $M$ and $R$ are the mass and radius of the star, and sets a critical mass beyond which collapse is inevitable. This critical mass has no Newtonian analogue; it is conceptually different than the Stoner-Landau-Chandrasekhar limit in Newtonian gravity which is attained asymptotically for ultra-relativistic fermions. For white dwarfs the general relativistic critical mass is very close to the Stoner-Landau-Chandrasekhar limit. For neutron stars the maximum mass---so called Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit---is significantly smaller than the Stoner-Landau-Chandrasekhar limit. This follows from the fact that the general relativistic correction to hydrostatic equilibrium within a neutron star is significant throughout the star, including the central part where the mass contained within radial coordinate, $m(r)$, and gravitational acceleration, $Gm(r)/r^2$, are small.

  3. Generalized equation of state for cold superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.; Pearson, J. M.

    2011-09-21

    Mature neutron stars are expected to contain various kinds of superfluids in their interiors. Modeling such stars requires the knowledge of the mutual entrainment couplings between the different condensates. We present a unified equation of state describing the different regions of a neutron star with superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons in its core.

  4. How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Hell; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model.

  5. How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state

    E-print Network

    Hell Thomas; Bernhard Roettgers; Wolfram Weise

    2013-07-17

    Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model.

  6. Neutron star solutions in perturbative quadratic gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Deliduman, Cemsinan; Ek?i, K.Y.; Kele?, Vildan E-mail: eksi@itu.edu.tr

    2012-05-01

    We study the structure of neutron stars in R+?R{sup ??}R{sub ??} gravity model with perturbative method. We obtain mass-radius relations for six representative equations of state (EoSs). We find that, for |?| ? 10{sup 11} cm{sup 2}, the results differ substantially from the results of general relativity. Some of the soft EoSs that are excluded within the framework of general relativity can be reconciled for certain values of ? of this order with the 2 solar mass neutron star recently observed. For values of ? greater than a few 10{sup 11} cm{sup 2} we find a new solution branch allowing highly massive neutron stars. By referring some recent observational constraints on the mass–radius relation we try to constrain the value of ? for each EoS. The associated length scale (?){sup 1/2} ? 10{sup 6} cm is of the order of the the typical radius of neutron stars, the probe used in this test. This implies that the true value of ? is most likely much smaller than 10{sup 11} cm{sup 2}.

  7. Nuclear physics problems for accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.K.; Woosley, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of p(e/sup -/nu)n and of (p,..gamma..) reactions on /sup 56/Ni during a thermonuclear runaway on a neutron star surface is pointed out. A fast 16-isotope approximate nuclear reaction network is developed that is suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations of such events.

  8. Constraining population synthesis models via the binary neutron star population

    E-print Network

    R. O'Shaughnessy; C. Kim; T. Frakgos; V. Kalogera; K. Belczynski

    2005-06-13

    The observed sample of double neutron-star (NS-NS) binaries presents a challenge to population-synthesis models of compact object formation: the parameters entering into these models must be carefully chosen so as to match (i) the observed star formation rate and (ii) the formation rate of NS-NS binaries, which can be estimated from the observed sample and the selection effects related to the discoveries with radio-pulsar surveys. In this paper, we select from an extremely broad family of possible population synthesis models those few (2%) which are consistent with the observed sample of NS-NS binaries. To further sharpen the constraints the observed NS-NS population places upon our understanding of compact-object formation processes, we separate the observed NS-NS population into two channels: (i) merging NS-NS binaries, which will inspiral and merge through the action of gravitational waves within $10 $ Gyr, and (ii) wide NS-NS binaries, consisting of all the rest. With the subset of astrophysically consistent models, we explore the implications for the rates at which double black hole (BH-BH), black hole-neutron star (BH-NS), and NS-NS binaries will merge through the emission of gravitational waves.

  9. Shear viscosity in neutron star cores

    E-print Network

    P. S. Shternin; D. G. Yakovlev

    2008-08-21

    We calculate the shear viscosity $\\eta = \\eta_{e\\mu}+\\eta_{n}$ in a neutron star core composed of nucleons, electrons and muons ($\\eta_{e\\mu}$ being the electron-muon viscosity, mediated by collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles, and $\\eta_{n}$ the neutron viscosity, mediated by neutron-neutron and neutron-proton collisions). Deriving $\\eta_{e\\mu}$, we take into account the Landau damping in collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles via the exchange of transverse plasmons. It lowers $\\eta_{e\\mu}$ and leads to the non-standard temperature behavior $\\eta_{e\\mu}\\propto T^{-5/3}$. The viscosity $\\eta_{n}$ is calculated taking into account that in-medium effects modify nucleon effective masses in dense matter. Both viscosities, $\\eta_{e\\mu}$ and $\\eta_{n}$, can be important, and both are calculated including the effects of proton superfluidity. They are presented in the form valid for any equation of state of nucleon dense matter. We analyze the density and temperature dependence of $\\eta$ for different equations of state in neutron star cores, and compare $\\eta$ with the bulk viscosity in the core and with the shear viscosity in the crust.

  10. Tidal Love numbers of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Tanja Hinderer

    2009-03-07

    For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k2. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n~0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l=2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g_tt, and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to ~24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.

  11. Tidal Love Numbers of Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderer, Tanja

    2008-04-20

    For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k{sub 2}. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n {approx} 0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l = 2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second-order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g{sub tt} and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to {approx}24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.

  12. General relativistic neutron stars with twisted magnetosphere

    E-print Network

    A. G. Pili; N. Bucciantini; L. Del Zanna

    2014-12-12

    Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars are extreme manifestations of the most magnetized neutron stars: magnetars. The phenomenology of their emission and spectral properties strongly support the idea that the magnetospheres of these astrophysical objects are tightly twisted in the vicinity of the star. Previous studies on equilibrium configurations have so far focused on either the internal or the external magnetic field configuration, without considering a real coupling between the two fields. Here we investigate numerical equilibrium models of magnetized neutron stars endowed with a confined twisted magnetosphere, solving the general relativistic Grad-Shafranov equation both in the interior and in the exterior of the compact object. A comprehensive study of the parameters space is provided to investigate the effects of different current distributions on the overall magnetic field structure.

  13. Tidal polarizability effects in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernuzzi, S.; Nagar, A.; Balmelli, S.; Dietrich, T.; Ujevic, M.

    2015-05-01

    Using the analytical effective-one-body model and nonlinear 3+1 numerical relativity simulations, we investigate binary neutron star mergers. It is found that, for nonspinning binaries, both the mass-rescaled gravitational wave frequency at merger and the specific binding energy at merger almost uniquely depend on the tidal coupling constants ?T2, which are functions of the stars’ Love numbers, compactnesses and mass ratio. These relations are quasiuniversal in the sense that there is an additional dependence on the spins, which is linear for realistic spins values ? ? 0.1. In the effective-one-body model, the quasiuniversality is a direct consequence of the conservative dynamics of tidally interacting bodies. In the context of gravitational wave astronomy, our findings may be used to constrain the neutron stars’ equation of state using waveforms that accurately model the merger.

  14. Neutron degeneracy and plasma physics effects on radiative neutron captures in neutron star crust

    E-print Network

    Shternin, P S; Wiescher, M; Yakovlev, D G; 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.015808

    2012-01-01

    We consider the astrophysical reaction rates for radiative neutron capture reactions ($n,\\gamma$) in the crust of a neutron star. The presence of degenerate neutrons at high densities (mainly in the inner crust) can drastically affect the reaction rates. Standard rates assuming a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for neutrons can underestimate the rates by several orders of magnitude. We derive simple analytical expressions for reaction rates at a variety of conditions with account for neutron degeneracy. We also discuss the plasma effects on the outgoing radiative transition channel in neutron radiative capture reactions and show that these effects can also increase the reaction rates by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, using detailed balance, we analyze the effects of neutron degeneracy and plasma physics on reverse ($\\gamma,n$) photodisintegration. We discuss the dependence of the reaction rates on temperature and neutron chemical potential and outline the efficiency of these reactions in the neutron s...

  15. FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR THE BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION OF NEUTRON-STAR MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, J.; Rappaport, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph. E-mail: jschwab@mit.ed E-mail: podsi@astro.ox.ac.u

    2010-08-10

    We use a collection of 14 well-measured neutron-star masses to strengthen the case that a substantial fraction of these neutron stars were formed via electron-capture (e-capture) supernovae (SNe) as opposed to Fe core-collapse SNe. The e-capture SNe are characterized by lower resultant gravitational masses and smaller natal kicks, leading to lower orbital eccentricities when the e-capture SN has led to the formation of the second neutron star in a binary system. Based on the measured masses and eccentricities, we identify four neutron stars, which have a mean post-collapse gravitational mass of {approx}1.25 M {sub sun}, as the product of e-capture SNe. We associate the remaining 10 neutron stars, which have a mean mass of {approx}1.35 M {sub sun}, with Fe core-collapse SNe. If the e-capture SN occurs during the formation of the first neutron star, then this should substantially increase the formation probability for double neutron stars, given that more systems will remain bound with the smaller kicks. However, this does not appear to be the case for any of the observed systems and we discuss possible reasons for this.

  16. Neutron stars and quark stars: Two coexisting families of compact stars?

    E-print Network

    J. Schaffner-Bielich

    2006-12-29

    The mass-radius relation of compact stars is discussed with relation to the presence of quark matter in the core. The existence of a new family of compact stars with quark matter besides white dwarfs and ordinary neutron stars is outlined.

  17. Constraining the neutron star equation of state with gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Michalis Agathos; Jeroen Meidam; Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Marco Tompitak; John Veitch; Salvatore Vitale; Chris Van Den Broeck

    2015-07-12

    Recently exploratory studies were performed on the possibility of constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS) using signals from coalescing binary neutron stars, or neutron star-black hole systems, as they will be seen in upcoming advanced gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. In particular, it was estimated to what extent the combined information from multiple detections would enable one to distinguish between different equations of state through hypothesis ranking or parameter estimation. Under the assumption of zero neutron star spins both in signals and in template waveforms and considering tidal effects to 1 post-Newtonian (1PN) order, it was found that O(20) sources would suffice to distinguish between a hard, moderate, and soft equation of state. Here we revisit these results, this time including neutron star tidal effects to the highest order currently known, termination of gravitational waveforms at the contact frequency, neutron star spins, and the resulting quadrupole-monopole interaction. We also take the masses of neutron stars in simulated sources to be distributed according to a relatively strongly peaked Gaussian, as hinted at by observations, but without assuming that the data analyst will necessarily have accurate knowledge of this distribution for use as a mass prior. We find that especially the effect of the latter is dramatic, necessitating many more detections to distinguish between different EOS and causing systematic biases in parameter estimation, on top of biases due to imperfect understanding of the signal model pointed out in earlier work. This would get mitigated if reliable prior information about the mass distribution could be folded into the analyses.

  18. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  19. Vorticity affects the stability of neutron stars

    PubMed

    Rezania; Maartens

    2000-03-20

    The spin rate Omega of neutron stars at a given temperature T is constrained by the interplay between gravitational-radiation instabilities and viscous damping. Navier-Stokes theory has been used to calculate the viscous damping time scales and produce a stability curve for r modes in the (Omega,T) plane. In Navier-Stokes theory, viscosity is independent of vorticity, but kinetic theory predicts a coupling of vorticity to the shear viscosity. We calculate this coupling and show that it can in principle significantly modify the stability diagram at lower temperatures. As a result, colder stars can remain stable at higher spin rates. PMID:11017269

  20. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets. PMID:24508199

  1. Supergiant Pulses from Extragalactic Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Cordes, J M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the hypothesis that extragalactic radio bursts originate from neutron stars. These could be active pulsars or dormant, slowly spinning objects, but the different population distances for these two classes require correspondingly different contributions to burst dispersion measures from any host or intervening galaxies combined with the intergalactic medium. The large, apparent burst rate $\\sim 10^4~$ sky$^{-1}~$ day$^{-1}$ is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate in a Hubble volume and can be accommodated by a single burst per object in the resulting large reservoir of $\\sim 10^{17}~$ neutron stars. A smaller population distance requires more bursts per object but the likelihood of seeing repeated bursts from any single object is extremely low on human timescales. Gravitational microlensing could play a role for high redshift sources. Extrapolation of the Crab pulsar's giant pulses --- exemplars of coherent, high brightness temperature radiation --- to a rate of one per $10^3~$yr yields a...

  2. Constraining decaying dark matter with neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-García, M. Ángeles; Silk, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The amount of decaying dark matter, accumulated in the central regions in neutron stars together with the energy deposition rate from decays, may set a limit on the neutron star survival rate against transitions to more compact objects provided nuclear matter is not the ultimate stable state of matter and that dark matter indeed is unstable. More generally, this limit sets constraints on the dark matter particle decay time, ??. We find that in the range of uncertainties intrinsic to such a scenario, masses (m? /TeV) ? 9 ×10-4 or (m? /TeV) ? 5 ×10-2 and lifetimes ?? ?1055 s and ?? ?1053 s can be excluded in the bosonic or fermionic decay cases, respectively, in an optimistic estimate, while more conservatively, it decreases ?? by a factor ?1020. We discuss the validity under which these results may improve with other current constraints.

  3. Hyperon-rich Matter in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    J. Schaffner; I. N. Mishustin

    1995-06-17

    We study the equation of state of hyperon-rich matter for neutron stars using an extended relativistic mean-field model. We take special care of the recently proposed non-linear behaviour of the vector field which gives a much better description of Dirac-Brueckner calculations. The hyperon-hyperon interaction is also implemented by introducing additional meson exchanges. These new terms avoid the instability found at high densitites in previous works while keeping the excellent description for finite nuclear systems. We also demonstrate within the mean-field approach that the presence of hyperons inside neutron stars on one hand and the hyperon-hyperon interactions on the other hand make the onset of kaon condensation less favourable.

  4. FAST FOSSIL ROTATION OF NEUTRON STAR CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, A.

    2012-12-10

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed {approx}10{sup 3} yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  5. 'Tertiary' nuclear burning - Neutron star deflagration?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    A motivation is presented for the idea that dense nuclear matter can burn to a new class of stable particles. One of several possibilities is an 'octet' particle which is the 16 baryon extension of alpha particle, but now composed of a pair of each of the two nucleons, (3Sigma, Delta, and 2Xi). Such 'tertiary' nuclear burning (here 'primary' is H-He and 'secondary' is He-Fe) may lead to neutron star explosions rather than collapse to a black hole, analogous to some Type I supernovae models wherein accreting white dwarfs are pushed over the Chandrasekhar mass limit but explode rather than collapse to form neutron stars. Such explosions could possibly give gamma-ray bursts and power quasars, with efficient particle acceleration in the resultant relativistic shocks. The new stable particles themselves could possibly be the sought-after weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) or 'dark' matter.

  6. A dynamical description of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    de la Mota, V; Eudes, Ph

    2012-01-01

    Neutron Stars are natural laboratories where fundamental properties of matter under extreme conditions can be explored. Modern nuclear physics input as well as many-body theories are valuable tools which may allow us to improve our understanding of the physics of those compact objects. In this work the occurrence of exotic structures in the outermost layers of neutron stars is investigated within the framework of a microscopic model. In this approach the nucleonic dynamics is described by a time-dependent mean field approach at around zero temperature. Starting from an initial crystalline lattice of nuclei at subnuclear densities the system evolves toward a manifold of self-organized structures with different shapes and similar energies. These structures are studied in terms of a phase diagram in density and the corresponding sensitivity to the isospin-dependent part of the equation of state and to the isotopic composition is investigated.

  7. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1989-01-01

    The following is a summary of work done during the period of Mar. to Oct. 1989. Three major topics were extensively looked into during this time: the reported 2,000 Hz optical signal from the direction of SNR1987A, the possibility that neutron stellar surface magnetic fields do not decay except when the star is accreting, and the 6 Hz QPOs of LMXBs.

  8. Unifying neutron stars getting to GUNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshev, A. P.; Popov, S. B.; Turolla, R.

    2014-03-01

    The variety of the observational appearance of young isolated neutron stars must find an explanation in the framework of some unifying approach. Nowadays it is believed that such scenario must include magnetic field decay, the possibility of magnetic field emergence on a time scale of ? 104-105 yr, significant contribution of non-dipolar fields, and appropriate initial parameter distributions. We present our results on the initial spin period distribution, and suggest that inconsistencies between distributions derived by different methods for samples with different average ages can uncover field decay or/and emerging field. We describe a new method to probe the magnetic field decay in normal pulsars. The method is a modified pulsar current approach, where we study pulsar flow along the line of increasing characteristic age for constant field. Our calculations, performed with this method, can be fitted with an exponential decay for ages in the range of 8× 104-3.5 × 105 yr with a time scale of ˜ 5 × 105 yr. We discuss several issues related to the unifying scenario. At first, we note that the dichotomy, among local thermally emitting neutron stars, between normal pulsars and the Magnificent Seven remains unexplained. Then we discuss the role of high-mass X-ray binaries in the unification of neutron star evolution. We note, that such systems allow to check evolutionary effects on a time scale longer than what can be probed with normal pulsars alone. We conclude with a brief discussion of the importance of discovering old neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium.

  9. Charged Ising Model of Neutron Star Matter

    E-print Network

    K. H. O. Hasnaoui; J. Piekarewicz

    2012-11-10

    Background: The inner crust of a neutron star is believed to consist of Coulomb-frustrated complex structures known as "nuclear pasta" that display interesting and unique low-energy dynamics. Purpose: To elucidate the structure and composition of the neutron-star crust as a function of temperature, density, and proton fraction. Methods: A new lattice-gas model, the "Charged-Ising Model" (CIM), is introduced to simulate the behavior of neutron-star matter. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations on 30^3 lattices are performed for a variety of temperatures, densities, and proton fractions. Results: Results are obtained for the heat capacity, pair-correlation function, and static structure factor for a variety of conditions appropriate to the inner stellar crust. Conclusions: Although relatively simple, the CIM captures the essence of Coulomb frustration that is required to simulate the subtle dynamics of the inner stellar crust. Moreover, the computationally demanding long-range Coulomb interactions have been pre-computed at the appropriate lattice sites prior to the start of the simulation resulting in enormous computational gains. This work demonstrates the feasibility of future CIM simulations involving a large number of particles as a function of density, temperature, and proton fraction.

  10. Magnetically driven crustquakes in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, S. K.; Andersson, N.; Antonopoulou, D.; Watts, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    Crustquake events may be connected with both rapid spin-up `glitches' within the regular slowdown of neutron stars, and high-energy magnetar flares. We argue that magnetic-field decay builds up stresses in a neutron star's crust, as the elastic shear force resists the Lorentz force's desire to rearrange the global magnetic-field equilibrium. We derive a criterion for crust-breaking induced by a changing magnetic-field configuration, and use this to investigate strain patterns in a neutron star's crust for a variety of different magnetic-field models. Universally, we find that the crust is most liable to break if the magnetic field has a strong toroidal component, in which case the epicentre of the crustquake is around the equator. We calculate the energy released in a crustquake as a function of the fracture depth, finding that it is independent of field strength. Crust-breaking is, however, associated with a characteristic local field strength of 2.4 × 1014 G for a breaking strain of 0.001, or 2.4 × 1015 G at a breaking strain of 0.1. We find that even the most luminous magnetar giant flare could have been powered by crustal energy release alone.

  11. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Y. N.; Semerikov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting on to a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the superconducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of r width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density ?, r ? ?-1/4. Accordingly, the magnetic field B in the tube increases with the depth, B??1/2, and reaches the value of about 1017 Gauss in the core. It destroys superconducting vortices in the core of a star in the narrow region of the size of the order of 10 cm. Because of generated density gradient of vortices, they constantly flow into this dead zone and the number of vortices decreases, the magnetic field of a star decreases as well. The attenuation of the magnetic field is exponential, B = B0(1 + t/?)-1. The characteristic time of decreasing of the magnetic field ? is equal to ? ? 103 yr. Thus, the magnetic field of accreted neutron stars decreases to values of 108-109 Gauss during 107-106 yr.

  12. NEWS & VIEWS nEutRon StaRS

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    -mail: fernando@astro.columbia.edu O n a dark night you can see a thousand stars above, each like the Sun shining -- has central densities comparable to those of nuclei. What does the neutron star sky look like, madeNEWS & VIEWS nEutRon StaRS a magnetar by another name Fernando Camilo is at the Columbia

  13. Pulsars and relativity 1. Physics of neutron star interior

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Stephan

    . Low-mass main-sequence star b. White dwarf c. Brown dwarf · High-mass x-ray binaries: accretion fromPulsars and relativity 1. Physics of neutron star interior 2. Radio pulsars a. Young pulsars b: relativity 3. Future prospects #12;Neutron stars: general-relativistic, super-magnetized, partly elastic

  14. Rotating Neutron Stars in a Chiral SU(3) Model

    E-print Network

    S. Schramm; D. Zschiesche

    2002-04-30

    We study the properties of rotating neutron stars within a generalized chiral SU(3)-flavor model. The influence of the rotation on the inner structure and the hyperon matter content of the star is discussed. We calculate the Kepler frequency and moments of inertia of the neutron star sequences. An estimate for the braking index of the associated pulsars is given.

  15. Neutron stars: compact objects with relativistic gravity

    E-print Network

    Ek?i, K Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    General properties of neutron stars are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the indispensability of general relativity in our understanding of these fascinating objects. In Newtonian gravity the pressure within a star merely plays the role of opposing self-gravity. In general relativity all sources of energy and momentum contribute to the gravity. As a result the pressure not only opposes gravity but also enhances it. The later role of pressure becomes more pronounced with increasing compactness, $M/R$ where $M$ and $R$ are the mass and radius of the star, and sets a critical mass beyond which collapse is inevitable. This critical mass has no Newtonian analogue; it is conceptually different than the Stoner-Landau-Chandrasekhar limit in Newtonian gravity which is attained asymptotically for ultra-relativistic fermions. For white dwarfs the general relativistic critical mass is very close to the Stoner-Landau-Chandrasekhar limit. For neutron stars the maximum mass---so called Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit---is sig...

  16. Internal Constitution of Neutron and Strange Stars

    E-print Network

    Norman K. Glendenning

    1997-06-24

    In the first of these two lectures I will discuss the rich constitution of neutron stars as a consequence of the Pauli principle which is engaged by the dominance of gravity over the nuclear force. Three especially interesting phenomena are discussed in this contect--(1) a mechanism for the formation of low-mass black holes distinct in their mass-range from the black holes formed in the prompt collapse of an entire star, (2) a multilayered crystalline structure consisting of confined hadronic matter embedded in a background of deconfined quark matter (or vice versa) which occupies a many kilometer thick inner region, and (3) a clean and pronounced signal of the formation of quark matter in the interior of neutron stars. In the second lecture I will discuss the strange matter hypothesis, its viability as well as its consequences for compact stars and a new family of white dwarfs with dense nuclear matter central regions some orders of magnuitude greater than in ordinary white dwarfs.

  17. CD Double Star Measures: Jack Jones Memorial Observatory Report #3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, James L.

    2010-10-01

    This paper submits 114 CCD measurements of 92 multiple star systems for inclusion in the WDS. Observations were made during the calendar year 2007. Measurements were obtained using either an SBIG ST-7 CCD camera or an SBIG ST-8 CCD camera and an 11-inch SCT. Selected double stars are discussed. Negative findings are included for certain stars.

  18. Constraints on binary neutron star merger product from short GRB observations

    E-print Network

    Gao, He; Lü, Hou-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Binary neutron star mergers are strong gravitational wave (GW) sources and the leading candidates to interpret short duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Under the assumptions that SGRBs are produced by double neutron star mergers, we use the statistical observational properties of {\\em Swift} SGRBs and the mass distribution of Galactic double neutron star systems to place constraints on the neutron star equation of state (EoS) and the properties of the post-merger product. We show that current observations already put following tight constraints: 1) A neutron star EoS with a maximum mass close to a parameterization of $M_{\\rm max} = 2.37\\,M_\\odot (1+1.58\\times10^{-10} P^{-2.84})$ is favored; 2) The fractions for the several outcomes of NS-NS mergers are as follows: $\\sim40\\%$ prompt BHs, $\\sim30\\%$ supra-massive NSs that collapse to BHs in a range of delay time scales, and $\\sim30\\%$ stable NSs that never collapse; 3) The initial spin of the newly born supra-massive NSs should be near the breakup limit ($P_i\\s...

  19. Neutron stars in f(R) gravity with perturbative constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, Alan; DeDeo, Simon; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2010-09-15

    We study the structure of neutron stars in f(R) gravity theories with perturbative constraints. We derive the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations and solve them for a polytropic equation of state. We investigate the resulting modifications to the masses and radii of neutron stars and show that observations of surface phenomena alone cannot break the degeneracy between altering the theory of gravity versus choosing a different equation of state of neutron-star matter. On the other hand, observations of neutron-star cooling, which depends on the density of matter at the stellar interior, can place significant constraints on the parameters of the theory.

  20. Plasmon excitations in homogeneous neutron star matter

    E-print Network

    Marcello Baldo; Camille Ducoin

    2009-07-01

    We study the possible collective plasma modes which can affect neutron-star thermodynamics and different elementary processes in the baryonic density range between nuclear saturation ($\\rho_0$) and $3\\rho_0$. In this region, the expected constituents of neutron-star matter are mainly neutrons, protons, electrons and muons ($npe\\mu$ matter), under the constraint of beta equilibrium. The elementary plasma excitations of the $pe\\mu$ three-fluid medium are studied in the RPA framework. We emphasize the relevance of the Coulomb interaction among the three species, in particular the interplay of the electron and muon screening in suppressing the possible proton plasma mode, which is converted into a sound-like mode. The Coulomb interaction alone is able to produce a variety of excitation branches and the full spectral function shows a rich structure at different energy. The genuine plasmon mode is pushed at high energy and it contains mainly an electron component with a substantial muon component, which increases with density. The plasmon is undamped for not too large momentum and is expected to be hardly affected by the nuclear interaction. All the other branches, which fall below the plasmon, are damped or over-damped.

  1. Gravitational Waves from Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Brynmor; Andersson, Nils; D'Angelo, Caroline; Degenaar, Nathalie; Glampedakis, Kostas; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lasky, Paul D.; Melatos, Andrew; Oppenoorth, Manuel; Patruno, Alessandro; Priymak, Maxim

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries have been proposed as an interesting source of gravitational waves. In this chapter we present estimates of the gravitational wave emission for various scenarios, given the (electromagnetically) observed characteristics of these systems. First of all we focus on the r-mode instability and show that a "minimal" neutron star model (which does not incorporate exotica in the core, dynamically important magnetic fields or superfluid degrees of freedom), is not consistent with observations. We then present estimates of both thermally induced and magnetically sustained mountains in the crust. In general magnetic mountains are likely to be detectable only if the buried magnetic field of the star is of the order of B ? 10^{12} G. In the thermal mountain case we find that gravitational wave emission from persistent systems may be detected by ground based interferometers. Finally we re-asses the idea that gravitational wave emission may be balancing the accretion torque in these systems, and show that in most cases the disc/magnetosphere interaction can account for the observed spin periods.

  2. Fermionic condensation in ultracold atoms, nuclear matter and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Luca Salasnich

    2013-08-05

    We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in three different superfluid systems: ultracold and dilute atomic gases, bulk neutron matter, and neutron stars. In the case of dilute gases made of fermionic atoms the average distance between atoms is much larger than the effective radius of the inter-atomic potential. Here the condensation of fermionic pairs is analyzed as a function of the s-wave scattering length, which can be tuned in experiments by using the technique of Feshbach resonances from a small and negative value (corresponding to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime of Cooper Fermi pairs) to a small and positive value (corresponding to the regime of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecular dimers), crossing the unitarity regime where the scattering length diverges. In the case of bulk neutron matter the s-wave scattering length of neutron-neutron potential is negative but fixed, and the condensate fraction of neutron-neutron pairs is studied as a function of the total neutron density. Our results clearly show a BCS-quasiunitary-BCS crossover by increasing the neutron density. Finally, in the case of neutron stars, where again the neutron-neutron scattering length is negative and fixed, we determine the condensate fraction as a function of the distance from the center of the neutron star, finding that the maximum condensate fraction appears in the crust of the neutron star.

  3. Poloidal magnetic fields in superconducting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, K. T.; Wasserman, I.

    2013-06-01

    We develop the formalism for computing the magnetic field within an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong type II superconductor core surrounded by a normal conductor. The formalism takes full account of the constraints imposed by hydrostatic equilibrium with a barotropic equation of state. A characteristic of this problem is that the currents and fields need to be determined simultaneously and self-consistently. Within the core, the strong type II limit B ? H allows us to compute the shapes of individual field lines. We specialize to purely poloidal magnetic fields that are perpendicular to the equator, and develop the `most dipolar case' in which field lines are vertical at the outer radius of the core, which leads to a magnetic field at the stellar surface that is as close to a dipole as possible. We demonstrate that although field lines from the core may only penetrate a short distance into the normal shell, boundary conditions at the inner radius of the normal shell control the field strength on the surface. Remarkably, we find that for a Newtonian N = 1 polytrope, the surface dipole field strength is Bsurf ? Hb?b/3, where Hb is the magnetic field strength at the outer boundary of the type II core and ?bR is the thickness of the normal shell. For reasonable models, Hb ? 1014 G and ?b ? 0.1 so the surface field strength is Bsurf ? 3 × 1012 G, comparable to the field strengths of many radio pulsars. In general, Hb and ?b are both determined by the equation of state of nuclear matter and by the mass of the neutron star, but Bsurf ˜ 1012 G is probably a robust result for the `most dipolar' case. We speculate on how the wide range of neutron star surface fields might arise in situations with less restrictions on the internal field configuration. We show that quadrupolar distortions are ˜-10-9(Hb/1014 G)2 and arise primarily in the normal shell for B ? Hb.

  4. Rotational and magnetic field instabilities in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2014-01-14

    In this short review we present recent results on the dynamics of neutron stars and their magnetic fields. We discuss the progress that has been made, during the last 5 years, in understanding the rotational instabilities with emphasis to the one due to the f-mode, the possibility of using gravitational wave detection in constraining the parameters of neutron stars and revealing the equation of state as well as the detectability of gravitational waves produced during the unstable phase of a neutron star’s life. In addition we discuss the dynamics of extremely strong magnetic fields observed in a class of neutron stars (magnetars). Magnetic fields of that strength are responsible for highly energetic phenomena (giant flares) and we demonstrate that the analysis of the emitted electromagnetic radiation can lead in constraining the parameters of neutron stars. Furthermore, we present our results from the study of such violent phenomena in association with the emission of gravitational radiation.

  5. Dark matter transport properties and rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz

    2012-05-16

    Neutron stars are attractive places to look for dark matter because their high densities allow repeated interactions. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may scatter efficiently in the core or in the crust of a neutron star. In this paper we focus on WIMP contributions to transport properties, such as shear viscosity or thermal conductivity, because these can be greatly enhanced by long mean free paths. We speculate that WIMPs increase the shear viscosity of neutron star matter and help stabilize r-mode oscillations. These are collective oscillations where the restoring force is the Coriolis force. At present r-modes are thought to be unstable in many observed rapidly rotating stars. If WIMPs stabilize the r-modes, this would allow neutron stars to spin rapidly. This likely requires WIMP-nucleon cross sections near present experimental limits and an appropriate density of WIMPs in neutron stars.

  6. Neutron star coupling to its environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvati, Marco; Pacini, Franco

    1987-01-01

    A discussion is undertaken of the outward flow generated by rotation-powered neutron stars, giving attention to the identification of particle, wave, and time-steady EMF components of the flow, the estimation of their densities, and the assessment of their contributions to the global energetics. It is concluded that a firm qualitative understanding of pulsar behavior has been achieved in the matters of magnetospheric structure, pair-production, the fate of large-amplitude waves, and the asymptotic behavior of the wind.

  7. Light curves from binary neutron star coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Nestor; Green, Stephen; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; HAD Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Evolution of binary neutron stars, and the extraction of associated gravitational waveforms, have acquired certain maturity using numerical simulations. In this work we look to augment the observational predictions by extracting electromagnetic counterparts. That is, given results from a merger simulation, we produce a photon emission sky map. Our ray-tracing algorithm employ the two-pole caustic model of gamma-ray emission from the binary system's magnetosphere. The combined measurement of both gravitational and electromagnetic wave signals provides additional information to characterize the merger.

  8. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  9. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W

    2015-01-23

    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound. PMID:25658990

  10. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Andrew W. Steiner

    2015-01-25

    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by $\\sqrt{3}$. Simple arguments support this bound in non-relativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

  11. A SECOND NEUTRON STAR IN M4?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozanska, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2012-05-01

    We show that the optical counterpart of the X-ray source CX 1 in M4 is a {approx}20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star (probably a millisecond pulsar).

  12. Spectral Models of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    1997-01-01

    We revisit the association of unidentified Galactic plane EGRET sources with tracers of recent massive star formation and death. Up-to-date catalogs of OB associations, SNR's, young pulsars, H2 regions and young open clusters were used in finding counterparts for a recent list of EGRET sources. It has been argued for some time that EGRET source positions are correlated with SNR's and OB associations as a class; we extend such analyses by finding additional counterparts and assessing the probability of individual source identifications. Among the several scenarios relating EGRET sources to massive stars, we focus on young neutron stars as the origin of the gamma-ray emission. The characteristics of the candidate identifications are compared to the known gamma-ray pulsar sample and to detailed Galactic population syntheses using our outer gap pulsar model of gamma-ray emission. Both the spatial distribution and luminosity function of the candidates are in good agreement with the model predictions; we infer that young pulsars can account for the bulk of the excess low latitude EGRET sources. We show that with this identification, the gamma-ray point sources provide an important new window into the history of recent massive star death in the solar neighborhood.

  13. Washington Double Star Catalog Cross Index (1950 position sort)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A machine-readable version of the Washington Catalog of Visual Double Stars (WDS) was prepared in 1984 on the basis of a data file that was collected and maintained for more than a century by a succession of double-star observers. Although this catalog is being continually updated, a new copy for distribution is not expected to be available for a few years. The WDS contains DM numbers, but many of these are listed only in the notes, which makes it difficult to search for double-star information, except by position. Hence, a cross index that provides complete DM identifications is desirable, and it appears useful to add HD numbers for systems in that catalog. Aitken Double Star (ADS) numbers were retained from the WDS, but no attempt was made to correct these except for obvious errors.

  14. Physics of neutron star surface layers and their thermal radiation

    E-print Network

    of a dense plasma provides thermal insulation of the stellar interior and controls thus the coolingPhysics of neutron star surface layers and their thermal radiation Alexander Y. Potekhin Ioffe review the physical properties of neutron star surface layers, important for the stellar thermal

  15. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaksono, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure (AI-P) on properties of the neutron stars (NSs) with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of AI-P on NS matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state EOS, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of AI-P model h ? 0.8 [L. Herrera and W. Barreto, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 084022.] and ? ? -1.15 [D. D. Doneva and S. S. Yazadjiev, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012) 124023.]. The radius of the corresponding NS at M = 1.4 M? is more than 13 km, while the effect of AI-P on the minimum mass of NS is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the AI-P in the NS, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 M? cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the NS core.

  16. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1996-01-01

    This grant dealt with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of the research dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems were also addressed. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's), Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXB's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). Also dealt with was one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of the research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions which turned out to be of importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's. Work was concentrated on the following four problems: The Windy Pulsar B197+20 and its Evolution; Wind 'Echoes' in Tight Binaries; Post Nova X-ray Emission in CV's; and Dynamics of Pinned Superfluids in Neutron Stars.

  17. BINARY NEUTRON STARS IN QUASI-EQUILIBRIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Shibata, Masaru

    2010-05-15

    Quasi-equilibrium sequences of binary neutron stars are constructed for a variety of equations of state in general relativity. Einstein's constraint equations in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation are solved together with the relativistic equations of hydrostationary equilibrium under the assumption of irrotational flow. We focus on unequal-mass sequences as well as equal-mass sequences, and compare those results. We investigate the behavior of the binding energy and total angular momentum along a quasi-equilibrium sequence, the endpoint of sequences, and the orbital angular velocity as a function of time, changing the mass ratio, the total mass of the binary system, and the equation of state of a neutron star. It is found that the orbital angular velocity at the mass-shedding limit can be determined by an empirical formula derived from an analytic estimation. We also provide tables for 160 sequences, which will be useful as a guideline of numerical simulations for the inspiral and merger performed in the near future.

  18. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the ``Fe`` line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ``fireball,`` a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  19. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A. ); Herant, M.E. ); Benz, W. )

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the Fe'' line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino fireball,'' a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  20. Relativistic density functional theory for finite nuclei and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    J. Piekarewicz

    2015-02-05

    The main goal of the present contribution is a pedagogical introduction to the fascinating world of neutron stars by relying on relativistic density functional theory. Density functional theory provides a powerful--and perhaps unique--framework for the calculation of both the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars. Given the enormous densities that may be reached in the core of neutron stars, it is essential that such theoretical framework incorporates from the outset the basic principles of Lorentz covariance and special relativity. After a brief historical perspective, we present the necessary details required to compute the equation of state of dense, neutron-rich matter. As the equation of state is all that is needed to compute the structure of neutron stars, we discuss how nuclear physics--particularly certain kind of laboratory experiments--can provide significant constrains on the behavior of neutron-rich matter.

  1. Geminga: A cooling superfluid neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Dany

    1994-01-01

    We compare the recent temperature estimate for Geminga with neutron star cooling models. Because of its age (approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 5) yr), Geminga is in the photon cooling era. We show that its surface temperature (approximately 5.2 x 10(exp 5) K) can be understood by both types of neutrino cooling scenarios, i.e., slow neutrino cooling by the modified Urca process or fast neutrino cooling by the direct Urca process or by some exotic matter, and thus does not allow us to discriminate between these two competing schemes. However, for both types of scenarios, agreement with the observed temperature can only be obtained if baryon pairing is present in most, if not all, of the core of the star. Within the slow neutrino cooling scenario, early neutrino cooling is not sufficient to explain the observed low temperature, and extensive pairing in the core is necessary to reduce the specific heat and increase the cooling rate in the present photon cooling era. Within all the fast neutrino cooling scenarios, pairing is necessary throughout the whole core to control the enormous early neutrino emission which, without pairing suppression, would result in a surface temperature at the present time much lower than observed. We also comment on the recent temperature estimates for PSR 0656+14 and PSR 1055-52, which pertain to the same photon cooling era. If one assumes that all neutron stars undergo fast neutrino cooling, then these two objects also provide evidence for extensive baryon pairing in their core; but observational uncertainties also permit a more conservative interpretation, with slow neutrino emission and no pairing at all. We argue though that observational evidence for the slow neutrino cooling model (the 'standard' model) is in fact very dim and that the interpretation of the surface temperature of all neutron stars could be done with a reasonable theoretical a priori within the fast neutrino cooling scenarios only. In this case, Geminga, PSR 0656+14, and PSR 1055-52 all show evidence of baryon pairing down to their very centers.

  2. Gravitational wave afterglow in binary neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Pnigouras, Pantelis

    2015-11-01

    We study in detail the f -mode secular instability for rapidly rotating neutron stars, putting emphasis on supramassive models which do not have a stable nonrotating counterpart. Such neutron stars are thought to be the generic outcome of the merger of two standard-mass neutron stars. In addition, we take into account the effects of a strong magnetic field and r -mode instability, that can drain a substantial amount of angular momentum. We find that the gravitational wave signal emitted by supramassive neutron stars can reach above the Advanced LIGO sensitivity at distance of about 20 Mpc, and the detectability is substantially enhanced for the Einstein Telescope. The event rate will be of the same order as the merging rates, while the analysis of the signal will carry information for the equation of state of the postmerging neutron stars and the strength of the magnetic fields.

  3. NARROW ATOMIC FEATURES FROM RAPIDLY SPINNING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bauboeck, Michi; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu

    2013-04-01

    Neutron stars spinning at moderate rates ({approx}300-600 Hz) become oblate in shape and acquire a nonzero quadrupole moment. In this paper, we calculate the profiles of atomic features from such neutron stars using a ray-tracing algorithm in the Hartle-Thorne approximation. We show that line profiles acquire cores that are much narrower than the widths expected from pure Doppler effects for a large range of observer inclinations. As a result, the effects of both the oblateness and the quadrupole moments of neutron stars need to be taken into account when aiming to measure neutron-star radii from rotationally broadened lines. Moreover, the presence of these narrow cores substantially increases the likelihood of detecting atomic lines from rapidly spinning neutron stars.

  4. Tidal Stablization of Neutron Stars and White Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1996-05-16

    What happens to a neutron star or white dwarf near its maximum mass limit when it is brought into a close binary orbit with a companion? Such situation may occur in the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae and in coalescing neutron star binaries. Using an energy variational principle, we show that tidal field reduces the central density of the compact object, making it more stable against radial collapse. For a cold white dwarf, the tidal field increases the maximum stable mass only slightly, but can actually lower the maximum central density by as much as $30\\%$. Thus a white dwarf in a close binary may be more susceptible to general relativistic instability than the instability associated with electron capture and pycronuclear reaction (depending on the white dwarf composition). We analyse the radial stability of neutron star using post-Newtonian approximation with an ideal degenerate neutron gas equation of state. The tidal stablization effect implies that the neutron star in coalescing neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole binaries does not collapse prior to merger or tidal disruption.

  5. Discovery of 4 New Double Stars in Constellation Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimmer, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    During observations in the constellation Serpens, four new double stars could be found: USNO B1.0 1007-0241735, USNO B1.0 1004-0244945, USNO B1.0 0950-0252685 and USNO B1.0 0949-0248260. All these double stars are listed as single stars in USNO catalog but can be separated into two components. Separations are between 4 and 10 arc seconds. In 3 cases proper motions are known and comply with Halbwachs' criteria for possible common proper motion pairs.

  6. DOUBLE STARS IN THE USNO CCD ASTROGRAPHIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D.; Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Wycoff, Gary L.; Hsu, Danley E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil E-mail: nz@usno.navy.mil

    2013-10-01

    The newly completed Fourth USNO CCD Astrographic Catalog (UCAC4) has proven to be a rich source of double star astrometry and photometry. Following initial comparisons of UCAC4 results against those obtained by speckle interferometry, the UCAC4 catalog was matched against known double stars in the Washington Double Star Catalog in order to provide additional differential astrometry and photometry for these pairs. Matches to 58,131 pairs yielded 61,895 astrometric and 68,935 photometric measurements. Finally, a search for possible new common proper motion (CPM) pairs was made using new UCAC4 proper motion data; this resulted in 4755 new potential CPM doubles (and an additional 27,718 astrometric and photometric measures from UCAC and other sources)

  7. Journey to the Center of a Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A neutron star is not a place most would want to visit. This dense remnant of a collapsed star has a magnetic field billions of times stronger than Earth's, enough to shuffle your body's molecules long before you even land. The featureless surface is no fun either. Crushing gravity ensures that the star is a near perfect sphere, compressing all matter so that a sand-grain-sized scoop of neutron star material would weigh as much as a battleship on Earth. At least black holes offer the promise of funky singularity, time warps, and the Odyssean temptation to venture beyond a point of no return. What s a journey to a neutron star good for, one might ask? Well, for starters, it offers the possibility of confirming a theorized state of matter called quark-gluon plasma, which likely existed for a moment after the Big Bang and now might only exist in the superdense interiors of neutron stars. Beneath the neutron star crust, a kilometer-thick plate of crystalline matter, lies the great unknown. The popular theory is that the neutron star interior is made up of a neutron superfluid - a fluid without friction. With the help of two NASA satellites - the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory - scientists are journeying to the center of a neutron star. Matter might be so compressed there that it breaks down into quarks, the building blocks of protons and neutrons, and gluons, the carrier of the strong nuclear force. To dig inside a neutron star, no simple drill bit will do. Scientists gain insight into the interior through events called glitches, a sudden change in the neutron star s precise spin rate. 'Glitches are one of the few ways we have to study the neutron star interior,' says Frank Marshall of NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center, who has used the Rossi Explorer to follow the escapades of the glitchiest of all neutron stars, dubbed the Big Glitcher and known scientifically as PSR J0537-6910.

  8. Measuring Double Stars with the Modified Video Drift Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Ernest W.; Nugent, Richard L.

    2015-05-01

    The usefulness of a common CCTV video camera for measuring the position angle and separation of a double star is limited by the camera sensitivity and telescope aperture. The video drift method is enhanced by using an integrating camera but frame integrations longer than 0.132 seconds (4 frames) are impractical. This is due to the target stars elongating (streaking) and moving in incremental steps. A simple modification to the Video Drift Method and corresponding VidPro analysis program significantly increases the magnitude at which double stars can be measured. Double stars down to magnitude +16 have been measured with a 14-inch (35.6-cm) telescope using this method compared to magnitude +12 using the original video drift method under comparable seeing conditions.

  9. Relativistic tidal properties of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro

    2009-10-15

    We study the various linear responses of neutron stars to external relativistic tidal fields. We focus on three different tidal responses, associated to three different tidal coefficients: (i) a gravito-electric-type coefficient G{mu}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth-order mass multipolar moment GM{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field G{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; (ii) a gravito-magnetic-type coefficient G{sigma}{sub l}=[length]{sup 2l+1} measuring the lth spin multipole moment GS{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}} induced in a star by an external lth-order gravito-magnetic tidal field H{sub a{sub 1}}{sub ...a{sub I}}; and (iii) a dimensionless 'shape' Love number h{sub l} measuring the distortion of the shape of the surface of a star by an external lth-order gravito-electric tidal field. All the dimensionless tidal coefficients G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, G{sigma}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}, and h{sub l} (where R is the radius of the star) are found to have a strong sensitivity to the value of the star's 'compactness'c{identical_to}GM/(c{sub 0}{sup 2}R) (where we indicate by c{sub 0} the speed of light). In particular, G{mu}{sub l}/R{sup 2l+1}{approx}k{sub l} is found to strongly decrease, as c increases, down to a zero value as c is formally extended to the 'black hole (BH) limit'c{sup BH}=1/2. The shape Love number h{sub l} is also found to significantly decrease as c increases, though it does not vanish in the formal limit c{yields}c{sup BH}, but is rather found to agree with the recently determined shape Love numbers of black holes. The formal vanishing of {mu}{sub l} and {sigma}{sub l} as c{yields}c{sup BH} is a consequence of the no-hair properties of black holes. This vanishing suggests, but in no way proves, that the effective action describing the gravitational interactions of black holes may not need to be augmented by nonminimal worldline couplings.

  10. Towards real neutron star seismology: Accounting for elasticity and superfluidity

    E-print Network

    A. Passamonti; N. Andersson

    2011-05-24

    We study the effects of an elastic crust on the oscillation spectrum of superfluid neutron stars. Within the two fluid formalism, we consider Newtonian stellar models that include the relevant constituents of a mature neutron stars. The core is formed by a mixture of superfluid neutrons and a conglomerate of charged particles, while the inner crust is described by a lattice of nuclei permeated by superfluid neutrons. We linearise the Poisson and the conservation equations of nonrotating superfluid stars and study the effects of elasticity, entrainment and composition stratification on the shear and acoustic modes. In both the core and the crust, the entrainment is derived from recent results for the nucleon effective mass. Solving the perturbation equations as an eigenvalue problem, we find that the presence of superfluid neutrons in the crust and their large effective mass may have significant impact on the star's oscillation spectrum.

  11. Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Deborah N. Aguilera; Vincenzo Cirigliano; José A. Pons; Sanjay Reddy; Rishi Sharma

    2008-07-29

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field $B \\gsim 10^{13}$ G. At density $\\rho \\simeq 10^{12}-10^{14} $ g/cm$^3$ the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when temperature $\\simeq 10^8$ K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

  12. Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, Deborah N.; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi; Pons, Jose A.

    2009-03-06

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B > or approx. 10{sup 13} G. At a density of {rho}{approx_equal}10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3}, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature {approx_equal}10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.

  13. Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Pons, José A; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi

    2009-03-01

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B> approximately 10(13) G. At a density of rho approximately 10(12)-10(14) g/cm3, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature approximately 10(8) K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences. PMID:19392503

  14. Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi; Aguilera, Deborah N

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superftuid neutron matter, called superfiuid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 13} C. At density p {approx_equal} 10{sup 12}--10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity at when temperature {approx_equal} 10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction show observationally discernible differences.

  15. Shear viscosity in magnetized neutron star crust

    E-print Network

    Ofengeim, D D

    2015-01-01

    The electron shear viscosity due to Coulomb scattering of degenerate electrons by atomic nuclei throughout a magnetized neutron star crust is calculated. The theory is based on the shear viscosity coefficient calculated neglecting magnetic fields but taking into account gaseous, liquid and solid states of atomic nuclei, multiphonon scattering processes, and finite sizes of the nuclei albeit neglecting the effects of electron band structure. The effects of strong magnetic fields are included in the relaxation time approximation with the effective electron relaxation time taken from the field-free theory. The viscosity in a magnetized matter is described by five shear viscosity coefficients. They are calculated and their dependence on the magnetic field and other parameters of dense matter is analyzed. Possible applications and open problems are outlined.

  16. ECCENTRIC BLACK-HOLE-NEUTRON-STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Branson C.; East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

    2011-08-10

    Within the next few years gravitational waves (GWs) from merging black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs) may be directly detected, making a thorough theoretical understanding of these systems a high priority. As an additional motivation, these systems may represent a subset of short-duration gamma-ray burst progenitors. BH-NS mergers are expected to result from primordial, quasi-circular inspiral as well as dynamically formed capture binaries. The latter channel allows mergers with high eccentricity, resulting in a richer variety of outcomes. We perform general relativistic simulations of BH-NS interactions with a range of impact parameters, and find significant variation in the properties of these events that have potentially observable consequences, namely, the GW signature, remnant accretion disk mass, and amount of unbound material.

  17. Simulations of Axisymmetric Magnetospheres of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Komissarov, S S

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of time-dependent simulations of dipolar axisymmetric magnetospheres of neutron stars carried out both within the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics and within the framework of resistive force-free electrodynamics. The results of force-free simulations reveal the inability of our numerical method to accommodate the equatorial current sheets of pulsar magnetospheres and raise a question mark over the robustness of this approach. On the other hand, the MHD approach allows to make a significant progress. We start with a nonrotating magnetically dominated dipolar magnetospheres and follow its evolution as the stellar rotation is switched on. We find that the time-dependent solution gradually approaches the steady state that is very close to the stationary solution of the Pulsar Equation found by Contopoulos et al.(1999). This result suggests that other stationary solutions that have the y-point located well inside the light cylinder are unstable. The role of the pa...

  18. Electromagnetic and Radiative Properties of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason G.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetospheres of neutron stars are commonly modeled as either devoid of plasma in "vacuum'' models or filled with perfectly conducting plasma with negligible inertia in "force-free'' models. While numerically tractable, neither of these idealized limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. In this work we improve upon these models by considering the structure of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's Law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and implement a time-dependent numerical code to construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and force-free magnetosphere solutions. We further apply our method to create a self-consistent model for the recently discovered intermittent pulsars that switch between two distinct states: an "on'', radio-loud state, and an "off'', radio-quiet state with lower spin-down luminosity. Essentially, we allow plasma to leak off open field lines in the absence of pair production in the "off'' state, reproducing observed differences in spin-down rates. Next, we examine models in which the high-energy emission from gamma-ray pulsars comes from reconnecting current sheets and layers near and beyond the light cylinder. The reconnected magnetic field provides a reservoir of energy that heats particles and can power high-energy synchrotron radiation. Emitting particles confined to the sheet naturally result in a strong caustic on the skymap and double peaked light curves for a broad range of observer angles. Interpulse bridge emission likely arises from interior to the light cylinder, along last open field lines that traverse the space between the polar caps and the current sheet. Finally, we apply our code to solve for the magnetospheric structure of merging neutron star binaries. We find that the scaling of electromagnetic luminosity with orbital angular velocity varies between the power 4 for nonspinning stars and the power 1.5 for rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars near contact. Our derived scalings and magnetospheres can be used to help understand electromagnetic signatures from merging neutron stars to be observed by Advanced LIGO.

  19. Astrophysical observations and future projects of neutron stars and magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki

    2014-09-01

    Neutron stars are enigmatic compact objects characterized by dense nuclear matter, rapid stellar rotation, and strong magnetic fields. Such an extreme environment has provided an accessible astrophysical laboratory to test fundamental physics. Recent astronomical observations from radio to gamma-rays have revealed a remarkable diversity of neutron stars: e.g., rotation-powered pulsars, accretion-powered pulsars, and magnetically-powered sources. Among important physical parameters of neutron stars, a wide range of magnetic field from 104 T to 1011 T is thought to be one principal cause of the diversity. Especially, enigmatic X-ray sources, Soft Gamma Repeater (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXPs), are now considered to have extremely strong magnetic field reaching 1010-1011 T, and thus, dubbed as ``magnetars.'' They emerge mainly in the X-ray frequency with intense giant flares, short bursts, and X-ray outbursts. Unlike for rotation-powered or accretion-powered pulsars, the bulk of their X-ray emission appears to be powered by their super-strong magnetic fields. At this talk, I will review recent high energy astrophysical observations of strongly-magnetized neutron stars, and also overview approved future missions to approach the neutron star science, for example, Astro-H (launch in 2015) which realizes the high energy resolution and the Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR Mission (NICER, launch in late 2016) mission which is dedicated to determine the equation of state of neutron stars.

  20. Neutron Star Discovered Where a Black Hole Was Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    A very massive star collapsed to form a neutron star and not a black hole as expected, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This discovery shows that nature has a harder time making black holes than previously thought. Scientists found this neutron star -- a dense whirling ball of neutrons about 12 miles in diameter -- in an extremely young star cluster. Astronomers were able to use well-determined properties of other stars in the cluster to deduce that the progenitor of this neutron star was at least 40 times the mass of the Sun. ESO Optical Image of Westerlund 1 ESO Optical Image of Westerlund 1 "Our discovery shows that some of the most massive stars do not collapse to form black holes as predicted, but instead form neutron stars," said Michael Muno, a UCLA postdoctoral Hubble Fellow and lead author of a paper to be published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. When very massive stars make neutron stars and not black holes, they will have a greater influence on the composition of future generations of stars. When the star collapses to form the neutron star, more than 95% of its mass, much of which is metal-rich material from its core, is returned to the space around it. "This means that enormous amounts of heavy elements are put back into circulation and can form other stars and planets," said J. Simon Clark of the Open University in the United Kingdom. Animation: Dissolve from Optical to X-ray Image of Westerlund 1 Animation: Dissolve from Optical to X-ray Image of Westerlund 1 Astronomers do not completely understand how massive a star must be to form a black hole rather than a neutron star. The most reliable method for estimating the mass of the progenitor star is to show that the neutron star or black hole is a member of a cluster of stars, all of which are close to the same age. Because more massive stars evolve faster than less massive ones, the mass of a star can be estimated from if its evolutionary stage is known. Neutron stars and black holes are the end stages in the evolution of a star, so their progenitors must have been among the most massive stars in the cluster. Muno and colleagues discovered a pulsing neutron star in a cluster of stars known as Westerlund 1. This cluster contains a hundred thousand or more stars in a region only 30 light years across, which suggests that all the stars were born in a single episode of star formation. Based on optical properties such as brightness and color some of the normal stars in the cluster are known to have masses of about 40 suns. Since the progenitor of the neutron star has already exploded as a supernova, its mass must have been more than 40 solar masses. 2MASS Infrared Image of Westerlund 1 2MASS Infrared Image of Westerlund 1 Introductory astronomy courses sometimes teach that stars with more than 25 solar masses become black holes -- a concept that until recently had no observational evidence to test it. However, some theories allow such massive stars to avoid becoming black holes. For example, theoretical calculations by Alexander Heger of the University of Chicago and colleagues indicate that extremely massive stars blow off mass so effectively during their lives that they leave neutron stars when they go supernovae. Assuming that the neutron star in Westerlund 1 is one of these, it raises the question of where the black holes observed in the Milky Way and other galaxies come from. Other factors, such as the chemical composition of the star, how rapidly it is rotating, or the strength of its magnetic field might dictate whether a massive star leaves behind a neutron star or a black hole. The theory for stars of normal chemical composition leaves a small window of initial masses - between about 25 and somewhat less than 40 solar masses - for the formation of black holes from the evolution of single massive stars. The identification of additional neutron stars or the discovery of black holes in young star clusters should further constrain the masses and properties of neutron star and black hole progenitors. T

  1. Neutron star dynamos and the origins of pulsar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron star convection is a transient phenomenon and has an extremely high magnetic Reynolds number. In this sense, a neutron star dynamo is the quintessential fast dynamo. The convective motions are only mildly turbulent on scales larger than the approximately 100 cm neutrino mean free path, but the turbulence is well developed on smaller scales. Several fundamental issues in the theory of fast dynamos are raised in the study of a neutron star dynamo, in particular the possibility of dynamo action in mirror-symmetric turbulence. It is argued that in any high magnetic Reynolds number dynamo, most of the magnetic energy becomes concentrated in thin flux ropes when the field pressure exceeds the turbulent pressure at the smallest scale of turbulence. In addition, the possibilities for dynamo action during the various (pre-collapse) stages of convective motion that occur in the evolution of a massive star are examined, and the properties of white dwarf and neutron star progenitors are contrasted.

  2. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars in X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, Mikhail; Mereghetti, Sandro

    2015-10-01

    A substantial fraction of the known neutron stars resides in X-ray binaries—systems in which one compact object accretes matter from a companion star. Neutron stars in X-ray binaries have magnetic fields among the highest found in the Universe, spanning at least the range from ˜108 to several 1013 G. The magnetospheres around these neutron stars have a strong influence on the accretion process, which powers most of their emission. The magnetic field intensity and geometry, are among the main factors responsible for the large variety of spectral and timing properties observed in the X-ray energy range, making these objects unique laboratories to study the matter behavior and the radiation processes in magnetic fields unaccessible on Earth. In this paper we review the main observational aspects related to the presence of magnetic fields in neutron star X-ray binaries and some methods that are used to estimate their strength.

  3. Life Extinctions due to Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    Dar, Arnon; Shaviv, N J; Dar, Arnon; Laor, Ari; Shaviv, Nir J.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper, Shaviv and Dar have shown that highly relativistic ejecta of high Z material from merger or accretion induced collapse of neutron stars can boost and beam star-light in dense stellar regions into cosmological gamma ray bursts (GRBs) whose predicted properties reproduce remarkably well the observed properties of GRBs. Generally, only a small fraction of the relativistic kinetic energy of the ejecta is converted into gamma rays and most of it is injected into the interstellar medium as a very powerful cosmic ray burst (CRB). Here we show that such CRBs can extinct life on Earth-like planets if they are closer than $\\sim 1 ~kpc$ from the merger/explosion. Such CRBs produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground, underground and underwater. They also destroy the ozone layer, radioactivate the atmosphere and the surface of the planet and induce large climatic changes. They are enormously more violent than the GRBs alone or supernova explosions. In Milky-Way like galaxies they destroy life ...

  4. Geminga: A Cooling Superfluid Neutron Star

    E-print Network

    Dany Page

    1994-04-06

    We show that Geminga's surface temperature can be understood by both types of neutrino cooling scenarios, i.e, slow neutrino cooling by the modified Urca process or fast neutrino cooling by the direct Urca process or by some exotic matter, and thus does not allow us to discriminate between these two competing schemes. However, for both types of scenarios, agreement with the observed temperature can only be obtained if BARYON PAIRING IS PRESENT IN MOST, IF NOT ALL, OF THE CORE OF THE STAR. We also comment on the recent temperature estimates for PSR 0656+14 and PSR 1055-52, which pertain to the same photon cooling era. We argue though that observational evidence for the slow neutrino cooling model (the ``standard'' model) is in fact very dim and that the interpretation of the surface temperature of all neutron stars could be done with a reasonable theoretical a priori within the fast neutrino cooling scenarios only. In this case, Geminga, PSR 0656+14, and PSR 1055-52 all show evidence of baryon pairing down to their very centers. xxx----To be published in Ap.J. (June 10 isue).---xxx

  5. Spin paramagnetic deformation of a neutron star

    E-print Network

    Suvorov, A G; Melatos, A

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanical corrections to the hydromagnetic force balance equation, derived from the microscopic Schr\\"{o}dinger-Pauli theory of quantum plasmas, modify the equilibrium structure and hence the mass quadrupole moment of a neutron star. It is shown here that the dominant effect --- spin paramagnetism --- is most significant in a magnetar, where one typically has $\\mu_{B}|\\boldsymbol{B}|\\gtrsim k_B T_e$, where $\\mu_{B}$ is the Bohr magneton, $\\boldsymbol{B}$ is the magnetic field, and $T_e$ is the electron temperature. The spin paramagnetic deformation of a nonbarotropic magnetar with a linked poloidal-toroidal magnetic field is calculated to be up to ${{\\sim 10}}$ times greater than the deformation caused solely by the Lorentz force. It depends on the degree of Pauli blocking by conduction electrons and the propensity to form magnetic domains, processes which are incompletely modelled at magnetar field strengths. The star becomes more oblate, as the toroidal field component strengthens. The result impli...

  6. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, Jacob; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    The recent discovery of cyclotron lines from gamma-ray bursts indicates that the strong magnetic fields of isolated neutron stars might not decay. The possible inverse correlation between the strength of the magnetic field and the mass accreted by the neutron star suggests that mass accretion itself may lead to the decay of the magnetic field. The spin and magnetic field evolution of the neutron star was calculated under the hypothesis of the accretion-induced field decay. It is shown that the calculated results are consistent with the observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars.

  7. The Possible White Dwarf-Neutron Star Connection

    E-print Network

    R. Canal; J. Gutierrez

    1997-01-29

    The current status of the problem of whether neutron stars can form, in close binary systems, by accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs is examined. We find that, in principle, both initially cold C+O white dwarfs in the high-mass tail of their mass distribution in binaries and O+Ne+Mg white dwarfs can produce neutron stars. Which fractions of neutron stars in different types of binaries (or descendants from binaries) might originate from this process remains uncertain.

  8. MUFFINS: Metallurgy Uncovers Forced Fractures Inside Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Kelsey L.; Heyl, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of nuclear reactions within the neutron star crust, even neutron stars that have not accreted matter can have impurities in their crust. These impurities would have an effect on the mechanical properties of the crust, possibly creating a more brittle structure. In order to investigate the properties of an impure crust we are performing molecular dynamic simulations using the Large scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). The simulations are run at fixed energy and volume with the isotopes interacting via a repulsive Yukawa potential. Here we present effects of impurities with respect the the breaking strain in a non-accreting neutron star crust.

  9. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star approaching EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. +k Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts - modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. +k Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  10. On the maximum mass of hyperonic neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Elisabeth Massot; Jérôme Margueron; G. Chanfray

    2012-01-13

    Chiral Lagrangian and quark-meson coupling models of hyperon matter are used to estimate the maximum mass of neutron stars. Our relativistic calculations include, for the first time, both Hartree and Fock contributions in a consistent manner. Being related to the underlying quark structure of baryons, these models are considered to be good candidates for describing the dense core of neutron stars. Taking account of the known experimental constraints at saturation density, the equations of state deduced from these relativistic approaches cannot sustain a neutron star with a mass larger than 1.6-1.66 $M_\\odot$.

  11. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    E-print Network

    J. M. Dong; U. Lombardo; H. F. Zhang; W. Zuo

    2015-12-09

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  12. MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN COALESCING NEUTRON STAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2012-08-10

    It is expected on both evolutionary and empirical grounds that many merging neutron star (NS) binaries are composed of a highly magnetized NS in orbit with a relatively low magnetic field NS. I study the magnetic interactions of these binaries using the framework of a unipolar inductor model. The electromotive force generated across the non-magnetic NS as it moves through the magnetosphere sets up a circuit connecting the two stars. The exact features of this circuit depend on the uncertain resistance in the space between the stars R{sub space}. Nevertheless, I show that there are interesting observational and/or dynamical effects irrespective of its exact value. When R{sub space} is large, electric dissipation as great as {approx}10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1} (for magnetar-strength fields) occurs in the magnetosphere, which would exhibit itself as a hard X-ray precursor in the seconds leading up to merger. With less certainty, there may also be an associated radio transient. When R{sub space} is small, electric dissipation largely occurs in the surface layers of the magnetic NS. This can reach {approx}10{sup 49} erg s{sup -1} during the final {approx}1 s before merger, similar to the energetics and timescales of short gamma-ray bursts. In addition, for dipole fields greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12} G and a small R{sub space}, magnetic torques spin up the magnetized NS. This drains angular momentum from the binary and accelerates the inspiral. A faster coalescence results in less orbits occurring before merger, which would impact matched-filtering gravitational-wave searches by ground-based laser interferometers and could create difficulties for studying alternative theories of gravity with compact inspirals.

  13. Magnetic Interactions in Coalescing Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2012-08-01

    It is expected on both evolutionary and empirical grounds that many merging neutron star (NS) binaries are composed of a highly magnetized NS in orbit with a relatively low magnetic field NS. I study the magnetic interactions of these binaries using the framework of a unipolar inductor model. The electromotive force generated across the non-magnetic NS as it moves through the magnetosphere sets up a circuit connecting the two stars. The exact features of this circuit depend on the uncertain resistance in the space between the stars {R}_space. Nevertheless, I show that there are interesting observational and/or dynamical effects irrespective of its exact value. When {R}_space is large, electric dissipation as great as ~1046 erg s-1 (for magnetar-strength fields) occurs in the magnetosphere, which would exhibit itself as a hard X-ray precursor in the seconds leading up to merger. With less certainty, there may also be an associated radio transient. When {R}_space is small, electric dissipation largely occurs in the surface layers of the magnetic NS. This can reach ~1049 erg s-1 during the final ~1 s before merger, similar to the energetics and timescales of short gamma-ray bursts. In addition, for dipole fields greater than ?1012 G and a small {R}_space, magnetic torques spin up the magnetized NS. This drains angular momentum from the binary and accelerates the inspiral. A faster coalescence results in less orbits occurring before merger, which would impact matched-filtering gravitational-wave searches by ground-based laser interferometers and could create difficulties for studying alternative theories of gravity with compact inspirals.

  14. Comment on "Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star"

    E-print Network

    M. I. Krivoruchenko; B. V. Martemyanov

    2015-03-04

    If strange matter is absolutely stable, the ordinary nuclei decay to strangelets, while neutron stars convert into strange stars. Lifetimes of the ordinary nuclei are constrained experimentally to be above $\\sim 10^{33}$ years, while lifetimes of the metastable neutron stars depend on the neutron star masses and can exceed the age of the Universe. As a consequence, the neutron stars and the strange stars can coexist in the Universe. We point out that numerical simulations of the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars, performed by M. Herzog and F. K. Roepke in Phys. Rev. D 84, 083002 (2011) [arXiv:1109.0539], are focused on a region in the parameter space of strange matter, in which low-mass neutron stars and strange stars are coexistent, whereas massive neutron stars are unstable and short lived on an astronomical timescale.

  15. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars.

  16. Temperature-dependent pulsations of superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    M. E. Gusakov; N. Andersson

    2006-11-01

    We examine radial oscillations of superfluid neutron stars at finite internal temperatures. For this purpose we generalize the description of relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics to the case of superfluid mixtures. We show that in a neutron star at hydrostatic and beta-equilibrium the red-shifted temperature gradient is smoothed out by neutron superfluidity (but not by proton superfluidity). We calculate radial oscillation modes of neutron stars assuming "frozen" nuclear composition in the pulsating matter. The resulting pulsation frequencies show a strong temperature dependence in the temperature range (0.1-1) T_cn, where T_cn is the critical temperature of neutron superfluidity. Combining our results with thermal evolution, we obtain a significant evolution of the pulsation spectrum, associated with highly efficient Cooper pairing neutrino emission, for 20 years after superfluidity onset.

  17. High-density Skyrmion matter and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Prashanth Jaikumar; Manjari Bagchi; Rachid Ouyed

    2008-01-25

    We examine neutron star properties based on a model of dense matter composed of B=1 skyrmions immersed in a mesonic mean field background. The model realizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking non-linearly and incorporates scale-breaking of QCD through a dilaton VEV that also affects the mean fields. Quartic self-interactions among the vector mesons are introduced on grounds of naturalness in the corresponding effective field theory. Within a plausible range of the quartic couplings, the model generates neutron star masses and radii that are consistent with a preponderance of observational constraints, including recent ones that point to the existence of relatively massive neutron stars with mass M 1.7 Msun and radius R (12-14) km. If the existence of neutron stars with such dimensions is confirmed, matter at supra-nuclear density is stiffer than extrapolations of most microscopic models suggest.

  18. Hadron-Quark Crossover and Hot Neutron Stars at Birth

    E-print Network

    Kota Masuda; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Tatsuyuki Takatsuka

    2015-06-17

    We construct a new isentropic equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature "CRover" on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover at high density. By using the new EOS, we study the structure of hot neutron stars at birth with the typical lepton fraction ($Y_l=0.3-0.4$) and the typical entropy per baryon ($S=1-2$). Due to the gradual appearance of quark degrees of freedom at high density, the temperature T and the baryon density at the center of the hot neutron stars with the hadron-quark crossover are found to be smaller than those without the crossover by a factor of 2 or more. Typical energy release due to the contraction of a hot neutron star to a cold neutron star with 1.4 solarmass is shown to be about 0.04 solarmass with the spin-up rate about 14%.

  19. Cohesive property of magnetized neutron star surfaces: Computations and implications

    E-print Network

    Zach Medin; Dong Lai

    2007-01-11

    The cohesive energy of condensed matter in strong magnetic fields is a fundamental quantity characterizing magnetized neutron star surfaces. The cohesive energy refers to the energy required to pull an atom out of the bulk condensed matter at zero pressure. Theoretical models of pulsar and magnetar magnetospheres depend on the cohesive properties of the surface matter in strong magnetic fields. For example, depending on the cohesive energy of the surface matter, an acceleration zone ("polar gap") above the polar cap of a pulsar may or may not form. Also, condensation of the neutron star surface, if it occurs, can significantly affect thermal emission from isolated neutron stars. We describe our calculations of the cohesive property of matter in strong magnetic fields, and discuss the implications of our results to the recent observations of neutron star surface emission as well as to the detection/non-detection of radio emission from magnetars.

  20. Chandra Captures Neutron Star Action - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows a fast moving jet of particles produced by a rapidly rotating neutron star, and may provide new insight into the nature of some of the densest...

  1. Spin Crystals may be commonly formed from Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Stars may be a Crystal of Neutrons. One has to consider what would happen to this matter if Neutron Stars do not commonly collapse into Black Holes, but rather tear apart. One idea is that the Neutrons would separate and become single Neutrons, or lose an Electron and become Hydrogen with one or more Neutrons or Heavy and Super Heavy water. Perhaps the Graviton plays a role in crushing and packing the matter together, and there is another particle that keeps track of the Crystal structure of the packed Neutrons. We could call this particle the Neutron Crystal Particle. We may know something about it already, in that the Nuclei as we know them have what are know as Magic Numbers of stability. Are there other series that occur but are very rare here? Magic Number series that occur around Black Holes and perhaps in Comets or other bodies that seem to be made of water. When the Neutrons from Neutron Stars break up perhaps they form Spin Crystals, which are like Crystals but are not localized, they fly off in all directions, but are connected through the NCP. One way to test this would be to irradiate a Comet with an X-ray laser since this sort of Crystal could be forced to Fission. Perhaps Comet tails are the result of a Nuclear Reaction with the Sun.

  2. From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)

  3. Searching for substellar companions of young isolated neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Neuhäuser, R.; Haberl, F.

    2009-03-01

    Context: Only two planetary systems orbiting old ms-pulsars have been discovered. Young radio pulsars and radio-quiet neutron stars cannot be analysed by the usually-applied radio-pulse-timing technique. However, finding substellar companions orbiting these neutron stars would be of significant importance: the companion may have had an exotic formation, its observation may also enable us to study neutron-star physics. Aims: We investigate the closest young neutron stars to Earth to search for orbiting substellar companions. Methods: Young, thus warm substellar companions are visible in the Near infrared, in which the neutron star itself is much fainter. Four young neutron stars are at sufficient speed to enable a common proper-motion search for substellar companions within few years. Results: For Geminga, RX J0720.4-3125, RX J1856.6-3754, and PSR J1932+1059 we found no comoving companion of masses as low as 12, 15, 11, and 42 Jupiter masses, respectively, for assumed ages of 1, 1, 1, and 3.1 Myr, and distances of 250, 361, 167, and 361 pc, respectively. Near infrared limits are presented for these four and five additional neutron stars for which we have observations for only one epoch. Conclusions: We conclude that young, isolated neutron stars rarely have brown-dwarf companions. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under programme IDs: 66.D-0135, 71.C-0189, 72.C-0051, 74.C-0596, 077.C-0162, 78.C-0686, 79.C-0570.

  4. Phase separation in the crust of accreting neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K; Brown, E F

    2007-06-01

    Nucleosynthesis, on the surface of accreting neutron stars, produces a range of chemical elements. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of crystallization to see how this complex composition forms new neutron star crust. We find chemical separation, with the liquid ocean phase greatly enriched in low atomic number elements compared to the solid crust. This phase separation should change many crust properties such as the thermal conductivity and shear modulus. PMID:17677319

  5. Core-Collapse Supernovae and Neutron Star Kicks

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    2002-12-05

    Recent observations have revealed many new puzzles related to core-collapse supernovae, including the formation of magnetars and black holes and their possible GRB connections. We review our current understanding of the origin of pulsar kicks and supernova asymmetry. It is argued that neutron star kicks are intimately connected to the other fundamental parameters of young neutron stars, such as the initial spin and magnetic field strength.

  6. Nature of Fault Planes in Solid Neutron Star Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. B.

    2003-09-01

    The properties of tectonic earthquake sources are compared with those deduced here for fault planes in solid neutron star matter. Neutron star matter, not being absolutely stable and with isotropic pressure several orders of magnitude greater than its shear modulus, cannot exhibit brittle fracture at any temperature or magnetic field strength. This conclusion is significant for current theories of pulsar glitches and of the anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters.

  7. Measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars using model atmospheres

    E-print Network

    Suleimanov, V F; Klochkov, D; Werner, K

    2015-01-01

    Model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are nowadays widely used to fit the observed thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars. This fitting is the key element in the method of the neutronstar radius determination. Here, we present the basic assumptions used for the neutron star atmosphere modeling as well as the main qualitative features of the stellar atmospheres leading to the deviations of the emergent model spectrum from blackbody. We describe the properties of two of our model atmosphere grids: (i) pure carbon atmospheres for relatively cool neutron stars (1--4 MK) and (ii) hot atmospheres with Compton scattering taken into account. The results obtained by applying these grids to model the X-ray spectra of the central compact object in supernova remnant HESS 1731-347, and two X-ray bursting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries, 4U 1724-307 and 4U 1608-52, are presented. Possible systematic uncertainties associated with the obtained neutron star radii are discussed.

  8. Instability windows and evolution of rapidly rotating neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Mikhail E; Chugunov, Andrey I; Kantor, Elena M

    2014-04-18

    We consider an instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) with respect to excitation of r modes (which are analogous to Earth's Rossby waves controlled by the Coriolis force). We argue that finite temperature effects in the superfluid core of a neutron star lead to a resonance coupling and enhanced damping (and hence stability) of oscillation modes at certain stellar temperatures. Using a simple phenomenological model we demonstrate that neutron stars with high spin frequency may spend a substantial amount of time at these "resonance" temperatures. This finding allows us to explain puzzling observations of hot rapidly rotating neutron stars in LMXBs and to predict a new class of hot, nonaccreting, rapidly rotating neutron stars, some of which may have already been observed and tentatively identified as quiescent LMXB candidates. We also impose a new theoretical limit on the neutron star spin frequency, which can explain the cutoff spin frequency ?730??Hz, following from the statistical analysis of accreting millisecond x-ray pulsars. In addition to explaining the observations, our model provides a new tool to constrain superdense matter properties by comparing measured and theoretically predicted resonance temperatures. PMID:24785021

  9. Structure of neutron stars in tensor-vector-scalar theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lasky, Paul D.; Sotani, Hajime; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2008-11-15

    Bekenstein's tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory has had considerable success in explaining various phenomena without the need for dark matter. However, it is difficult to observationally discern the differences between TeVeS and predictions made within the {lambda}-cold dark matter concordance model. This implies that alternative tests are required that independently verify which theory is correct. For this we turn to the strong-field regime of TeVeS. In particular, we solve the spherically symmetric equations of hydrostatic equilibrium for a perfect fluid with a realistic equation of state to build models of neutron stars in TeVeS. We show that causality within the neutron star is only maintained for certain cosmological values of the scalar field, which allows us to put constraints on this value independently of cosmological observations. We also discuss in detail the internal structure of neutron stars and how each of the free parameters in the theory affects the overall size and mass of the neutron stars. In particular, the radii of neutron stars in TeVeS can significantly differ from those in general relativity for certain values of the vector field coupling, which allows us to also place extra constraints on this parameter. Finally, we discuss future observations of neutron stars using both the electromagnetic and gravitational wave spectrums that will allow for tests of the appropriate theory of gravity.

  10. Spin-up/spin-down of neutron star in Be-X-ray binary system GX 304-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnov, K. A.; Mironov, A. I.; Lutovinov, A. A.; Shakura, N. I.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Tsygankov, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse spin-up/spin-down of the neutron star in Be-X-ray binary system GX 304-1 observed by Swift/X-ray telescope (XRT) and Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) instruments in the period of the source activity from 2010 April to 2013 January and discuss possible mechanisms of angular momentum transfer to/from the neutron star. We argue that the neutron star spin-down at quiescent states of the source with an X-ray luminosity of Lx ˜ 1034 erg s-1 between a series of Type I outbursts and spin-up during the outbursts can be explained by quasi-spherical settling accretion on to the neutron star. The outbursts occur near the neutron star periastron passages, where the density is enhanced due to the presence of an equatorial Be-disc tilted to the orbital plane. We also propose an explanation to the counterintuitive smaller spin-up rate observed at higher luminosity in a double-peak Type I outburst due to lower value of the specific angular momentum of matter captured from the quasi-spherical wind from the Be-star by the neutron star moving in an elliptical orbit with eccentricity e ? 0.5.

  11. Measuring neutron-star properties via gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers.

    PubMed

    Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate by a large set of merger simulations for symmetric binary neutron stars (NSs) that there is a tight correlation between the frequency peak of the postmerger gravitational-wave (GW) emission and the physical properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS), e.g., expressed by the radius of the maximum-mass Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhoff configuration. Therefore, a single measurement of the peak frequency of the postmerger GW signal will constrain the NS EoS significantly. For optimistic merger-rate estimates a corresponding detection with Advanced LIGO is expected to happen within an operation time of roughly a year. PMID:22304250

  12. HYDRODYNAMICAL NEUTRON STAR KICKS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wongwathanarat, Annop; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Ewald

    2010-12-10

    Using three-dimensional (3D) simulations of neutrino-powered supernova explosions, we show that the hydrodynamical kick scenario proposed by Scheck et al. on the basis of two-dimensional (2D) models can yield large neutron star (NS) recoil velocities also in 3D. Although the shock stays relatively spherical, standing accretion-shock and convective instabilities lead to a globally asymmetric mass and energy distribution in the post-shock layer. An anisotropic momentum distribution of the ejecta is built up only after the explosion sets in. Total momentum conservation implies the acceleration of the NS on a timescale of 1-3 s, mediated mainly by long-lasting, asymmetric accretion downdrafts and the anisotropic gravitational pull of large inhomogeneities in the ejecta. In a limited set of 15 M{sub sun} models with an explosion energy of about 10{sup 51} erg, this stochastic mechanism is found to produce kicks from <100 km s{sup -1} to {approx}>500 km s{sup -1}, and kicks {approx}>1000 km s{sup -1} seem possible. Strong rotational flows around the accreting NS do not develop in our collapsing, non-rotating progenitors. The NS spins therefore remain low with estimated periods of {approx}500-1000 ms and no alignment with the kicks.

  13. Simulations of Axisymmetric Magnetospheres of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    S. S. Komissarov

    2005-11-28

    In this paper we present the results of time-dependent simulations of dipolar axisymmetric magnetospheres of neutron stars carried out both within the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics and within the framework of resistive force-free electrodynamics. The results of force-free simulations reveal the inability of our numerical method to accommodate the equatorial current sheets of pulsar magnetospheres and raise a question mark over the robustness of this approach. On the other hand, the MHD approach allows to make a significant progress. We start with a nonrotating magnetically dominated dipolar magnetospheres and follow its evolution as the stellar rotation is switched on. We find that the time-dependent solution gradually approaches the steady state that is very close to the stationary solution of the Pulsar Equation found by Contopoulos et al.(1999). This result suggests that other stationary solutions that have the y-point located well inside the light cylinder are unstable. The role of the particle inertia and pressure on the structure and dynamics of MHD magnetospheres is studied in details, as well as the potential implications of the dissipative processes in the equatorial current sheet. We argue that pulsars may have differentially rotating magnetospheres which develop noticeable structural oscillations and that this may help to explain the nature of the sub-pulse phenomena.

  14. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    This grant deals with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of our research in 1994 dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but we also addressed systems containing a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's) Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMX's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). We also dealt with one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of our research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions. These winds turned out to be of some importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's.

  15. Resonant shattering of neutron star crusts.

    PubMed

    Tsang, David; Read, Jocelyn S; Hinderer, Tanja; Piro, Anthony L; Bondarescu, Ruxandra

    2012-01-01

    The resonant excitation of neutron star (NS) modes by tides is investigated as a source of short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) precursors. We find that the driving of a crust-core interface mode can lead to shattering of the NS crust, liberating ?10{46}-10{47}??erg of energy seconds before the merger of a NS-NS or NS-black-hole binary. Such properties are consistent with Swift/BAT detections of SGRB precursors, and we use the timing of the observed precursors to place weak constraints on the crust equation of state. We describe how a larger sample of precursor detections could be used alongside coincident gravitational wave detections of the inspiral by Advanced LIGO class detectors to probe the NS structure. These two types of observations nicely complement one another, since the former constrains the equation of state and structure near the crust-core boundary, while the latter is more sensitive to the core equation of state. PMID:22304251

  16. Gravitational radiation during coalescence of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. G.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2013-07-01

    The coalescence of components of a binary star with equal masses ( M 1 = M 2 = M ?) and moving in circular orbits is considered. The equation of state for degenerate neutrons is used, leading to the equation of state for an ideal gas. The initial model has zero temperature, corresponding to a polytrope with n = 1.5. To reduce the required computational time, the initial close binary is constructed using the self-consistent field method. The computations use Newtonian gas dynamics, but the back reaction of the gravitational radiation is taken into account in a PN2.5 post-Newton approximation, obtained using ADM formalism. This makes it possible to apply previous experienceof constructing high-order Godunov-type difference schemes, which are suitable for end-to-end calculations of discontinuous solutions of the gas-dynamics equations on a fixed Eulerian grid. The Poisson equations were solved using an original spherical-function expansion method. The 3D computations yielded the parameters of the gravitational signal. Near the radiation maximum, the strain amplitude is rh ˜ 4 × 104 cm, the power maximum is 4 × 1054 erg/s, and the typical radiation frequency is ?1 kHz. The energy carried away by gravitational waves is ?1052 erg. These parameters are of interest, since they form an inherent part of a rotational mechanism for the supernova explosion. They are also of interest for the planning of gravitational-wave detection experiments.

  17. Neutron star formation in theoretical supernovae. Low mass stars and white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The presupernova evolution of stars that form semi-degenerate or strongly degenerate O + Ne + Mg cores is discussed. For the 10 to 13 Msub solar stars, behavior of off-center neon flashes is crucial. The 8 to 10 m/sub solar stars do not ignite neon and eventually collapse due to electron captures. Properties of supernova explosions and neutron stars expected from these low mass progenitors are compared with the Crab nebula. The conditions for which neutron stars form from accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in clsoe binary systems is also examined.

  18. Resonant Oscillations and Tidal Heating in Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1994-04-25

    Tidal interaction in a coalescing neutron star binary can resonantly excite the g-mode oscillations of the neutron star when the frequency of the tidal driving force equals the intrinsic g-mode frequencies. We study the g-mode oscillations of cold neutron stars using recent microscopic nuclear equations of state, where we determine self-consistently the sound speed and Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency in the nuclear liquid core. The properties of the g-modes associated with the stable stratification of the core depend sensitively on the pressure-density relation as well as the symmetry energy of the dense nuclear matter. The frequencies of the first ten g-modes lie approximately in the range of $10-100$ Hz. Resonant excitations of these g-modes during the last few minutes of the binary coalescence result in energy transfer and angular momentum transfer from the binary orbit to the neutron star. The angular momentum transfer is possible because a dynamical tidal lag develops even in the absence of fluid viscosity. However, since the coupling between the g-mode and the tidal potential is rather weak, the amount of energy transfer during a resonance and the induced orbital phase error are very small. Resonant excitations of the g-modes play an important role in tidal heating of binary neutron stars. Without the resonances, viscous dissipation is effective only when the stars are close to contact. The resonant oscillations result in dissipation at much larger orbital separation. The actual amount of tidal heating depends on the viscosity of the neutron star. Using the microscopic viscosity, we find that the binary neutron stars are heated to a temperature $\\sim 10^8$ K before they come into contact.

  19. Gravitational Radiation from Rapidly Rotating Nascent Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai; Stu Shapiro

    1994-08-17

    We study the secular evolution and gravitational wave signature of a newly-formed, rapidly rotating neutron star. The neutron star may arise from core collapse in a massive star or from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf. After a brief dynamical phase, the nascent neutron star settles into an axisymmetric, secularly unstable equilibrium state. Gravitational radiation drives the star to a nonaxisymmetric, stationary equilibrium configuration via the bar-mode instability. The emitted quasi-periodic gravitational waves have a unique signature: the wave frequency sweeps downward from a few hundred Hertz to zero, while the wave amplitude increases from zero to a maximum and then decays back to zero. Such a wave signal could be detected by broad-band gravitational wave interferometers currently being constructed. We also characterize two other types of gravitational wave signals that could arise in principle from a rapidly rotating, secularly unstable neutron star: a high-frequency ($f\\go 1000$ Hz) wave which increases the pattern-speed of the star, and a wave that actually increases the angular momentum of the star.

  20. CCD Double Star Measures: Jack Jones Memorial Observatory Report #1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on 63 CCD measurements of 58 multiple star systems observed between 2003 and 2007. It also reports on delta mag(V) measurements of selected doubles. Measurements were made using a CCD camera and 8" or 11" SCT. A brief description of methods used is provided.

  1. Energy density functional for nuclei and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rafalski, M.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2013-04-01

    Background: Recent observational data on neutron star masses and radii provide stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron rich matter [Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci.ARPSDF0163-899810.1146/annurev-nucl-102711-095018 62, 485 (2012)].Purpose: We aim to develop a nuclear energy density functional that can be simultaneously applied to finite nuclei and neutron stars.Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with Skyrme energy density functionals and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables for finite nuclei and neutron stars. In a first step two energy functionals—a high density energy functional giving reasonable neutron properties, and a low density functional fitted to nuclear properties—are matched. In a second step, we optimize a new functional using exactly the same protocol as in earlier studies pertaining to nuclei but now including neutron star data. This allows direct comparisons of performance of the new functional relative to the standard one.Results: The new functional TOV-min yields results for nuclear bulk properties (energy, rms radius, diffraction radius, and surface thickness) that are of the same quality as those obtained with the established Skyrme functionals, including SV-min. When comparing SV-min and TOV-min, isoscalar nuclear matter indicators vary slightly while isovector properties are changed considerably. We discuss neutron skins, dipole polarizability, separation energies of the heaviest elements, and proton and neutron drip lines. We confirm a correlation between the neutron skin of 208Pb and the neutron star radius.Conclusions: We demonstrate that standard energy density functionals optimized to nuclear data do not carry information on the expected maximum neutron star mass, and that predictions can only be made within an extremely broad uncertainty band. For atomic nuclei, the new functional TOV-min performs at least as well as the standard nuclear functionals, but it also reproduces expected neutron star data within assumed error bands. This functional is expected to yield more reliable predictions in the region of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  2. Self-similarity relations for cooling superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shternin, P. S.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2015-02-01

    We consider models of cooling neutron stars with nucleon cores which possess moderately strong triplet-state superfluidity of neutrons. When the internal temperature drops below the maximum of the critical temperature over the core, TC, this superfluidity sets in. It produces a neutrino outburst due to Cooper pairing of neutrons which greatly accelerates the cooling. We show that the cooling of the star with internal temperature T within 0.6 TC ? T ? TC is described by analytic self-similar relations. A measurement of the effective surface temperature of the star and its decline, supplemented by assumptions on star's mass, radius and composition of heat-blanketing envelope, allows one to construct a family of cooling models parametrized by the value of TC. Each model reconstructs cooling history of the star including its neutrino emission level before neutron superfluidity onset and the intensity of Cooper pairing neutrinos. The results are applied to interpret the observations of the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant.

  3. The Nonradial Oscillation Node Precession of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Haochen Li

    2005-06-28

    The standing wave nodes of nonradial oscillations on a neutron star crust will drift with a definite angle velocity around rotational pole due to the rotation of neutron stars. This is called the nonradial oscillation node precession of neutron stars. This article estimated the precession velocity and pointed out that it merely lies on the star's rotation velocity and the angular order of spherical harmonic $l$ by one order approximation. If we suppose that oscillations effect the particles' escaping from the polar cap of a neutron star, so that the antinode and node areas of the standing waves have different radiative intensity, several unusual conclusions are acquired by reviewing the observation of pulsars which had already been taken as neutron stars. For example, the drifting subpulse period $P_{3}$ can be gotten from the width of subpulses and order $l$; the larger velocity drift may produce the peak structure of average pulse profiles; the dissimilar radiation phenomena between neighboring periods generated from drift provide a reasonable explanation of interpulses which have been found on some pulsars.

  4. The companion candidate near Fomalhaut - a background neutron star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M.; Ginski, C.; Schmidt, J. G.; Hambaryan, V. V.; Schmidt, T. O. B.

    2015-03-01

    The directly detected planetary mass companion candidate close to the young, nearby star Fomalhaut is a subject of intense discussion. While the detection of common proper motion led to the interpretation as Jovian-mass companion, later non-detections in the infrared raised doubts. Recent astrometric measurements indicate a belt crossing or highly eccentric orbit for the object, if a companion, making the planetary interpretation potentially even more problematic. In this study we discuss the possibility of Fomalhaut b being a background object with a high proper motion. By analysing the available photometric and astrometric data of the object, we show that they are fully consistent with a neutron star: neutron stars are faint, hot (blue), and fast moving. Neutron stars with an effective temperature of the whole surface area being 112 000-126 500 K (with small to negligible extinction) at a distance of roughly 11 pc (best fit) would be consistent with all observables, namely with the photometric detections in the optical, with the upper limits in the infrared and X-rays, as well as with the astrometry (consistent with a distances of 11 pc or more and high proper motion as typical for neutron stars) and non-detection of pulsation (not beamed). We consider the probability of finding an unrelated object or even a neutron star nearby and mostly co-aligned in proper motion with Fomalhaut A and come to the conclusion that this is definitely well possible.

  5. Constraining neutron star tidal Love numbers with gravitational wave detectors

    E-print Network

    Eanna E. Flanagan; Tanja Hinderer

    2007-12-07

    Ground-based gravitational wave detectors may be able to constrain the nuclear equation of state using the early, low frequency portion of the signal of detected neutron star - neutron star inspirals. In this early adiabatic regime, the influence of a neutron star's internal structure on the phase of the waveform depends only on a single parameter lambda of the star related to its tidal Love number, namely the ratio of the induced quadrupole moment to the perturbing tidal gravitational field. We analyze the information obtainable from gravitational wave frequencies smaller than a cutoff frequency of 400 Hz, where corrections to the internal-structure signal are less than 10 percent. For an inspiral of two non-spinning 1.4 solar mass neutron stars at a distance of 50 Mpc, LIGO II detectors will be able to constrain lambda to lambda < 2.0 10^{37} g cm^2 s^2 with 90% confidence. Fully relativistic stellar models show that the corresponding constraint on radius R for 1.4 solar mass neutron stars would be R < 13.6 km (15.3 km) for a n=0.5 (n=1.0) polytrope.

  6. "Doublet", Neutron and Neutron stars --- An essay on Landau and Neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Renxin Xu

    2011-03-02

    The concept of extremely dense matter at supra-nuclear density was first speculated by L. Landau in the beginning of 1930s when neutron was just discovered. A historical review on these issues not only explains the interaction between micro and cosmic physics, but also has profound implications for scientific innovation. It is surely meaningful in realistic physics education to look back to this history. (The review was published in Chinese.)

  7. Neutron Stars with Hyperons subject to Strong Magnetic Field

    E-print Network

    L. L. Lopes; D. P. Menezes

    2012-06-06

    Neutron stars are one of the most exotic objects in the universe and a unique laboratory to study the nuclear matter above the nuclear saturation density. In this work, we study the equation of state of the nuclear matter within a relativistic model subjected to a strong magnetic field. We then apply this EoS to study and describe some of the physical characteristics of neutron star, especially the mass-radius relation and chemical compositions. To study the influence of a the magnetic field and the hyperons in the stellar interior, we consider altogether four solutions: two different values of magnetic field to obtain a weak and a strong influence, and two configurations: a family of neutron stars formed only by protons, electrons and neutrons and a family formed by protons, electrons, neutrons, muons and hyperons. The limit and the validity of the results found are discussed with some care. In all cases the particles that constitute the neutron star are in $\\beta$ equilibrium and zero total net charge. Our work indicates that the effect of a strong magnetic field has to be taken into account in the description of magnetars, mainly if we believe that there are hyperons in their interior, in which case, the influence of the magnetic field can increase the mass by more than 10%. We have also seen that although a magnetar can reach 2.48$M_{\\odot}$, a natural explanation of why we do not know pulsars with masses above 2.0$M_{\\odot}$ arises. We also discuss how the magnetic field affects the strangeness fraction in some standard neutron star masses and, to conclude our paper, we revisit the direct URCA process related to the cooling of the neutron stars and show how it is affected by the hyperons and the magnetic field.

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts from Neutron Star Kicks

    E-print Network

    Y. F. Huang; Z. G. Dai; T. Lu; K. S. Cheng; X. F. Wu

    2003-05-30

    The idea that gamma-ray bursts might be a kind of phenomena associated with neutron star kicks was first proposed by Dar & Plaga (1999). Here we study this mechanism in more detail and point out that the neutron star should be a high speed one (with proper motion larger than $\\sim 1000$ km/s). It is shown that the model agrees well with observations in many aspects, such as the energetics, the event rate, the collimation, the bimodal distribution of durations, the narrowly clustered intrinsic energy, and the association of gamma-ray bursts with supernovae and star forming regions. We also discuss the implications of this model on the neutron star kick mechanism, and suggest that the high kick speed were probably acquired due to the electromagnetic rocket effect of a millisecond magnetar with an off-centered magnetic dipole.

  9. Limits on self-interacting dark matter from neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2012-05-11

    We impose new severe constraints on the self-interactions of fermionic asymmetric dark matter based on observations of nearby old neutron stars. Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) self-interactions mediated by Yukawa-type interactions can lower significantly the number of WIMPs necessary for gravitational collapse of the WIMP population accumulated in a neutron star. Even nearby neutron stars located at regions of low dark matter density can accrete a sufficient number of WIMPs that can potentially collapse, form a mini black hole, and destroy the host star. Based on this, we derive constraints on the WIMP self-interactions which in some cases are by several orders of magnitude stricter than the ones from the bullet cluster. PMID:23003023

  10. Improved Universality in the Neutron Star Three-Hair Relations

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Barun; Yunes, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    No-hair like relations between the multipole moments of the exterior gravitational field of neutron stars have recently been found to be approximately independent of the star's internal structure. This approximate, equation-of-state universality arises after one adimensionalizes the multipole moments appropriately, which then begs the question of whether there are better ways to adimensionalize the moments to obtain stronger universality. We here investigate this question in detail by considering slowly-rotating neutron stars both in the non-relativistic limit and in full General Relativity. We find that there exist normalizations that lead to stronger equation-of-state universality in the relations among the moment of inertia and the quadrupole, octopole and hexadecapole moments of neutron stars. We determine the optimal normalization that minimizes the equation-of-state dependence in these relations. The results found here may have applications in the modeling of X-ray pulses and atomic line profiles from m...

  11. Selenium double donors in neutron transmutation doped, isotopically controlled germaniun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, C. S.; Beeman, J. W.; Itoh, K. M.; Farmer, J.; Ozhogin, V. I.; Haller, E. E.

    1998-11-01

    Far infrared photoconductivity and absorption measurements were performed on isotopically controlled 76Ge samples that were neutron irradiated to produce 77Se through double beta decay. The spectra exhibit ground state to bound excited state transitions which place the first ionization level of Se at E c-0.2688 eV. Hall effect measurements on compensated Ge:Se single crystals yield the second ionization level in the lower half of the band gap at E v+0.17 eV. Our experiments offer the first unambiguous identification of the deep donor level formed by single Se atoms on Ge lattice sites and verify earlier findings.

  12. Adversary degree-associated reconstruction number of double-stars , Huangping Shi

    E-print Network

    West, Douglas B.

    Adversary degree-associated reconstruction number of double-stars Meijie Ma , Huangping Shi,n be the double- star with central vertices having m and n leaf neighbors. For 1 m n, we prove that always adrn: degree-associated reconstruction number, double-star 1 Introduction The Reconstruction Conjecture

  13. Decomposition of Odd-hole-free Graphs by Double Star Cutsets and 2-Joins

    E-print Network

    Cornuejols, Gerard P.

    Decomposition of Odd-hole-free Graphs by Double Star Cutsets and 2-Joins Michele Conforti #3; G#19-hole-free graphs, even-signable graphs, decomposition, 2-join, double star cutset. #3; Dipartimento di Matematica as an induced subgraph a chordless cycle of odd length greater than three) with double star cutsets and 2-joins

  14. The Case of the Neutron Star With a Wayward Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    A long observation with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed important new details of a neutron star that is spewing out a wake of high-energy particles as it races through space. The deduced location of the neutron star on the edge of a supernova remnant, and the peculiar orientation of the neutron star wake, pose mysteries that remain unresolved. "Like a kite flying in the wind, the behavior of this neutron star and its wake tell us what sort of gas it must be plowing through," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass., and lead author of a paper accepted to The Astrophysical Journal. "Yet we're still not sure how the neutron star got to its present location." Animation: Sequence of images of J0617 in IC 443 Animation: Sequence of images of J0617 in IC 443 The neutron star, known as CXOU J061705.3+222127, or J0617 for short, appears to lie near the outer edge of an expanding bubble of hot gas associated with the supernova remnant IC 443. Presumably, J0617 was created at the time of the supernova -- approximately 30,000 years ago -- and propelled away from the site of the explosion at about 500,000 miles per hour. However, the neutron star's wake is oriented almost perpendicularly to the direction expected if the neutron star were moving away from the center of the supernova remnant. This apparent misalignment had previously raised doubts about the association of the speeding neutron star with the supernova remnant. Gaensler and his colleagues provide strong evidence that J0617 was indeed born in the same explosion that created the supernova remnant. First, the shape of the neutron star's wake indicates it is moving a little faster than the speed of sound in Composite Images of SNR IC 443 Composite Images of SNR IC 443 the remnant's multimillion-degree gas. The velocity that one can then calculate from this conclusion closely matches the predicted pace of the neutron star. In contrast, if the neutron star were outside the confines of the remnant, its inferred speed would be a sluggish 20,000 miles per hour. Also, the measured temperature of the neutron star matches that of one born at the same time of the supernova remnant. What then, could cause the misaligned, or wayward, neutron star wake? The authors speculate that perhaps the doomed progenitor star was moving at a high speed before it exploded, so that the explosion site was not at the observed center of the supernova remnant. Fast moving gusts of gas inside the supernova remnant have further pushed the neutron star's wake out of alignment. Observations of J0617 in the next 10 years should put this idea to the test. "If the neutron star was born off-center and if the wake is being pushed around by cross-winds, the neutron star should be moving close to vertically, away from the center of the supernova remnant. Now we wait and see," said Gaensler. Chandra X-ray Image of J0617 in IC 443 Chandra X-ray Image of J0617 in IC 443 Another group, led by Margarita Karovska, also of the CfA, has concentrated on other, previously unnoticed intriguing features of J0617. At a recent conference on neutron stars in London, England, they announced their findings, which include a thin filament of cooler gas that appears to extend from the neutron star along the long axis of its wake, and a second point-like feature embedded in the X-ray nebula around the neutron star. "There are a number of puzzling observational features associated with this system crying out for longer observations," said Karovska. Other members of the Gaensler team were S. Chatterjee and P. O. Slane (CfA), E. van der Swaluw (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute), F. Camilo (Columbia University), and J. P. Hughes (Rutgers University). Karovska's team included T. Clarke (Naval Research Laboratory), G. Pavlov (Penn State University), and M.C. Weisskopf and V. Zavlin of the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. which also manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithso

  15. Double mode RR Lyrae stars in Omega Centauri

    E-print Network

    A. Olech; P. Moskalik

    2008-12-22

    Aim: The aim of this work was to search for double mode pulsators among RR Lyr variables of globular cluster Omega Cen. Methods: We conducted a systematic frequency analysis of CASE photometry of Omega Cen RR Lyr stars. We searched for periodicities using Fourier and ANOVA periodograms, combined with consecutive prewhitening technique. Results: We discovered six double mode pulsators, with the first overtone and a secondary mode of higher frequency simultaneously excited. These are the first double mode RR Lyr stars identified in Omega Cen. In variable V10 period ratio of the two modes is 0.80, which corresponds to pulsations in the first and second radial overtones. In V19 and V105 we found unexpected period ratio of 0.61. Three other stars display period ratios of either ~0.80 or ~0.61, depending on the choice of aliases. Conclusions: While the period ratio of ~0.80 is easy to interpret in terms of two lowest radial overtones, the value of ~0.61 cannot be explained by any two radial modes. Thus, V19 and V105 are the first members of a new class of double mode RR Lyr pulsators.

  16. Ocean gravitational-modes in transient neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Deibel, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The neutron star ocean is a plasma of ions and electrons that extends from the base of the neutron star's envelope to a depth where the plasma crystallizes into a solid crust. During an accretion outburst in an X-ray transient, material accumulates in the envelope of the neutron star primary. This accumulation compresses the neutron star's outer layers and induces nuclear reactions in the ocean and crust. Accretion-driven heating raises the ocean's temperature and increases the frequencies of g-modes in the ocean; when accretion halts, the ocean cools and ocean g-mode frequencies decrease. If the observed low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations on accreting neutron stars are g-modes in the ocean, the observed quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies will increase during outburst --- reaching a maximum when the ocean temperature reaches steady state --- and subsequently decrease during quiescence. For time-averaged accretion rates during outburst between $\\langle \\dot{M} \\rangle = 0.1 \\textrm{--} 1.0\\, \\dot{\\r...

  17. Accretion flows around stellar mass black holes and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Didier Barret

    2004-01-08

    In this review, I summarize the main X-ray/hard X-ray properties of the accretion flows around black holes and neutron stars based on recent broad-band spectral and timing observations performed by the BeppoSAX and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellites. Emphasizing the spectral and timing similarities observed between black holes and neutron stars, I discuss on the most likely accretion geometry and emission processes associated with hard and soft spectral states. For black holes, in the hard state, the accretion geometry is more likely made of a truncated disk and a hot inner flow, in which thermal Comptonization takes place. The truncated disk is likely to be the dominant source of seed photons, and the site for the production of the reflection component observed. In soft states, the disk now extends closer to the compact object and is brighter in X-rays. The hard X-ray emission occurs through Comptonization of disk photons on a thermal/non-thermal electron distribution, generated in magnetic flares above the accretion disk. For neutron stars, similar accretion geometry and emission mechanisms may apply but the unavoidable radiation from the neutron star surface adds yet another component in the X-ray spectrum. It also acts as an additional source of cooling for the Comptonizing cloud, leading to softer spectra in neutron stars than in black holes.

  18. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztoff; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Rosswog, Stephan; Shen, Gang; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2015-10-01

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star-black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and advanced VIRGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of Newtonian merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing GRBs, LIGO/Virgo observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.

  19. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    Chris L. Fryer; Krzysztoff Belczynski; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz; Stephan Rosswog; Gang Shen; Andrew W. Steiner

    2015-04-28

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star - black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts. They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing gamma-ray bursts, LIGO observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.

  20. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    Fryer, Chris L; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Rosswog, Stephan; Shen, Gang; Steiner, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star - black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts. They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing gamma-ray bursts, LIGO observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constr...

  1. DISCOVERY OF A NEUTRON STAR OSCILLATION MODE DURING A SUPERBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmayer, Tod; Mahmoodifar, Simin

    2014-10-01

    Neutron stars are among the most compact objects in the universe and provide a unique laboratory for the study of cold ultra-dense matter. While asteroseismology can provide a powerful probe of the interiors of stars, for example, helioseismology has provided unprecedented insights about the interior of the Sun, comparable capabilities for neutron star seismology have not yet been achieved. Here, we report the discovery of a coherent X-ray modulation from the neutron star 4U 1636–536 during the 2001 February 22 thermonuclear superburst seen with NASA's Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) that is very likely produced by a global oscillation mode. The observed frequency is 835.6440 ± 0.0002 Hz (1.43546 times the stellar spin frequency of 582.14323 Hz) and the modulation is well described by a sinusoid (A + Bsin (? – ?{sub 0})) with a fractional half-amplitude of B/A = 0.19 ± 0.04% (4-15 keV). The observed frequency is consistent with the expected inertial frame frequency of a rotationally modified surface g-mode, an interfacial mode in the ocean-crust interface, or perhaps an r-mode. Observing an inertial frame frequency—as opposed to a co-rotating frame frequency—appears consistent with the superburst's thermal emission arising from the entire surface of the neutron star, and the mode may become visible by perturbing the local surface temperature. We briefly discuss the implications of the mode detection for the neutron star's projected velocity and mass. Our results provide further strong evidence that global oscillation modes can produce observable modulations in the X-ray flux from neutron stars.

  2. Effects of fermionic dark matter on properties of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Qian-Fei; Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Zhang, Dong-Rui; Yang, Rong-Yao

    2014-02-01

    By assuming that only gravitation acts between dark matter (DM) and normal matter (NM), we study the effects of fermionic DM on the properties of neutron stars using the two-fluid Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff formalism. It is found that the mass-radius relationship of the DM admixed neutron stars (DANSs) depends sensitively on the mass of DM candidates, the amount of DM, and interactions among DM candidates. The existence of DM in DANSs results in a spread of mass-radius relationships that cannot be interpreted with a unique equilibrium sequence. In some cases, the DM distribution can surpass the NM distribution to form a DM halo. In particular, it is favorable to form an explicit DM halo, provided the repulsion of DM exists. It is interesting to find that the difference in particle number density distributions in DANSs and consequently in star radii caused by various density dependencies of nuclear symmetry energy tends to disappear as long as the repulsion of accumulated DM is sufficient. These phenomena indicate that the admixture of DM in neutron stars can significantly affect the astrophysical extraction of nuclear EOS by virtue of neutron star measurements. In addition, the effect of the DM admixture on the star maximum mass is also investigated.

  3. Plasma Magnetosphere of Rotating Magnetized Neutron Star in the Braneworld

    E-print Network

    V. S. Morozova; B. J. Ahmedov; A. A. Abdujabbarov; A. I. Mamadjanov

    2010-04-23

    Plasma magnetosphere surrounding rotating magnetized neutron star in the braneworld has been studied. For the simplicity of calculations Goldreich-Julian charge density is analyzed for the aligned neutron star with zero inclination between magnetic field and rotation axis. From the system of Maxwell equations in spacetime of slowly rotating star in braneworld, second-order differential equation for electrostatic potential is derived. Analytical solution of this equation indicates the general relativistic modification of an accelerating electric field and charge density along the open field lines by brane tension. The implication of this effect to the magnetospheric energy loss problem is underlined. It was found that for initially zero potential and field on the surface of a neutron star, the amplitude of the plasma mode created by Goldreich-Julian charge density will increase in the presence of the negative brane charge. Finally we derive the equations of motion of test particles in magnetosphere of slowly rotating star in the braneworld. Then we analyze particle motion in the polar cap and show that brane tension can significantly change conditions for particle acceleration in the polar cap region of the neutron star.

  4. Thermal evolution of neutron stars with decaying magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Rotochemical heating originates in the deviation from beta equilibrium due to spin-down compression, which is closely related to the dipole magnetic field. We numerically calculate the deviation from chemical equilibrium and thermal evolution of neutron stars with decaying magnetic fields. We find that the power-law long term decay of the magnetic field slightly affects the deviation from chemical equilibrium and surface temperature. However, the magnetic decay leads to older neutron stars that could have a different surface temperature with the same magnetic field strength. That is, older neutron stars with a low magnetic field (108 G) could have a lower temperature even with rotochemical heating in operation, which probably explains the lack of other observations on older millisecond pulsars with higher surface temperature, except millisecond pulsar J0437–4715.

  5. Spectroscopy of a Neutron Star Transient in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon

    2012-10-01

    Neutron star X-ray transients span a broad range of stellar magnetic fields and spin periods, and their outbursts can span five orders of magnitude in mass accretion rate. They are excellent settings in which to study basic disk physics through X-ray disk winds, and the evolution of disks and accretion flows with mass accretion rate. New observations can also confirm the nature of relativistic disk lines, and exploit such lines to constrain the stellar radius, the equation of state, and even the stellar magnetic field strength. Persistent neutron star binaries represent a rich discovery space. We request 2 40 ksec observations to study a new or known neutron star transient in outburst.

  6. Determining the properties of accretion-gap neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kluzniak, Wlodzimierz; Michelson, Peter; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1990-01-01

    If neutron stars have radii as small as has been argued by some, observations of accretion-powered X-rays could verify the existence of innermost stable circular orbits (predicted by general relativity) around weakly magnetized neutron stars. This may be done by detecting X-ray emission from clumps of matter before and after they cross the gap (where matter cannot be supported by rotation) between the inner accretion disk and the stellar surface. Assuming the validity of general relativity, it would then be possible to determine the masses of such neutron stars independently of any knowledge of binary orbital parameters. If an accurate mass determination were already available through any of the methods conventionally used, the new mass determination method proposed here could then be used to quantitatively test strong field effects of gravitational theory.

  7. Powering Anomalous X-ray Pulsars by Neutron Star Cooling

    E-print Network

    Heyl, J S; Heyl, Jeremy S.; Hernquist, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Using recently calculated analytic models for the thermal structure of ultramagnetized neutron stars, we estimate the thermal fluxes from young ($t\\sim 1000$ yr) ultramagnetized ($B \\sim 10^{15}$ G) cooling neutron stars. We find that the pulsed X-ray emission from objects such as 1E 1841-045 and 1E 2259+586 as well as many soft-gamma repeaters can be explained by photon cooling if the neutron star possesses a thin insulating envelope of matter of low atomic weight at densities $\\rho < 10^{7}-10^{8}$ g/cm$^3$. The total mass of this insulating layer is $M \\sim 10^{-11}-10^{-8} M_\\odot$.

  8. Powering Anomalous X-ray Pulsars by Neutron Star Cooling

    E-print Network

    Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

    1997-08-30

    Using recently calculated analytic models for the thermal structure of ultramagnetized neutron stars, we estimate the thermal fluxes from young ($t\\sim 1000$ yr) ultramagnetized ($B \\sim 10^{15}$ G) cooling neutron stars. We find that the pulsed X-ray emission from objects such as 1E 1841-045 and 1E 2259+586 as well as many soft-gamma repeaters can be explained by photon cooling if the neutron star possesses a thin insulating envelope of matter of low atomic weight at densities $\\rho < 10^{7}-10^{8}$ g/cm$^3$. The total mass of this insulating layer is $M \\sim 10^{-11}-10^{-8} M_\\odot$.

  9. Thermonuclear Burning as a Probe of Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion is a fundamental process taking place in the matter transferred onto neutron stars in accreting binary systems. The heat deposited by nuclear reactions becomes readily visible in the X-ray band when the burning is either unstable or marginally stable, and results in the rich phenomenology of X-ray bursts, superbursts, and mHz quasiperiodic oscillations. Fast X-ray timing observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) over the past decade have revealed a wealth of new phenomena associated with thermonuclear burning on neutron stars, including the discovery of nuclear powered pulsations during X-ray bursts and superbursts. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these new phenomena, with an emphasis on recent findings, and discuss what they are telling us about the structure of neutron stars.

  10. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    Armen Sedrakian; John W. Clark

    2015-05-30

    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  11. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A Triggered by Neutron Superfluidity in Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2011-02-01

    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the P23 channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ?0.5×109K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star.

  12. The Magnetosphere of Oscillating Neutron Stars in General Relativity

    E-print Network

    Ernazar B. Abdikamalov; Bobomurat J. Ahmedov; John C. Miller

    2009-01-28

    Just as a rotating magnetised neutron star has material pulled away from its surface to populate a magnetosphere, a similar process can occur as a result of neutron-star pulsations rather than rotation. This is of interest in connection with the overall study of neutron star oscillation modes but with a particular focus on the situation for magnetars. Following a previous Newtonian analysis of the production of a force-free magnetosphere in this way Timokhin et al. (2000), we present here a corresponding general-relativistic analysis. We give a derivation of the general relativistic Maxwell equations for small-amplitude arbitrary oscillations of a non-rotating neutron star with a generic magnetic field and show that these can be solved analytically under the assumption of low current density in the magnetosphere. We apply our formalism to toroidal oscillations of a neutron star with a dipole magnetic field and find that the low current density approximation is valid for at least half of the oscillation modes, similarly to the Newtonian case. Using an improved formula for the determination of the last closed field line, we calculate the energy losses resulting from toroidal stellar oscillations for all of the modes for which the size of the polar cap is small. We find that general relativistic effects lead to shrinking of the size of the polar cap and an increase in the energy density of the outflowing plasma. These effects act in opposite directions but the net result is that the energy loss from the neutron star is significantly smaller than suggested by the Newtonian treatment.

  13. Spin-up/spin-down of neutron star in Be-X-ray binary system GX 304-1

    E-print Network

    Postnov, K A; Lutovinov, A A; Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Tsygankov, S S

    2014-01-01

    We analyze spin-up/spin-down of the neutron star in Be X-ray binary system GX\\,304-1 observed by \\textit{Swift}/XRT and \\textit{Fermi}/GBM instruments in the period of the source activity from April 2010 to January 2013 and discuss possible mechanisms of angular momentum transfer to/from the neutron star. We argue that the neutron star spin-down at quiescent states of the source with an X-ray luminosity of $L_x\\sim 10^{34}$~erg s$^{-1}$ between a series of Type I outbursts and spin-up during the outbursts can be explained by quasi-spherical settling accretion onto the neutron star. The outbursts occur near the neutron star periastron passages where the density is enhanced due to the presence of an equatorial Be-disc tilted to the orbital plane. We also propose an explanation to the counterintuitive smaller spin-up rate observed at higher luminosity in a double-peak Type I outburst due to lower value of the specific angular momentum of matter captured from the quasi-spherical wind from the Be-star by the neutr...

  14. Neutron inelastic scattering measurements for background assessment in neutrinoless double ? decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negret, A.; Borcea, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.

    2013-08-01

    The inelastic scattering of neutrons on structural materials constitutes a major concern for the design of neutrinoless double ? decay experiments. We explore our neutron inelastic scattering data on 206Pb, 56Fe, 28Si, 24Mg, and 12C, searching for possible contributors to the background in the energy region where neutrinoless double ? decay signals would be produced.

  15. Gravitational Waves and the Maximum Spin Frequency of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Alessandro; Haskell, Brynmor; D'Angelo, Caroline

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the idea that gravitational waves are required as a braking mechanism to explain the observed maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. We show that for millisecond X-ray pulsars, the existence of spin equilibrium as set by the disk/magnetosphere interaction is sufficient to explain the observations. We show as well that no clear correlation exists between the neutron star magnetic field B and the X-ray outburst luminosity LX when considering an enlarged sample size of millisecond X-ray pulsars.

  16. X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zavlin, V.E.; Pavlov, G.G. |; Shibanov, Yu.A.; Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.

    1996-01-17

    We present first results of modeling convective photospheres of neutron stars. We show that in photospheres composed of the light elements convection arises only at relatively low effective temperatures ({le}3 - 5 x 10{sup 4} K), whereas in the case of iron composition it arises at T{sub eff}{le} 3 x 10{sup 5}K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. Thus, it should be taken into account for the proper interpretation of EUV/soft-X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

  17. NEUTRON STARS: PROBES FOR HIGH DENSITY BARYON PAIRING

    E-print Network

    Dany PAGE

    1995-01-19

    We consider, in general terms, the early thermal evolution of an isolated neutron star, i.e., during the first $10^5$ years after the supernova explosion when the cooling is driven by neutrino emission from the core. It is shown that, if fast neutrino emission is occuring, the surface temperature is actually determined by the critical temperature $T_c$ at which the core baryons become superfluid, and almost nothing else. In particular, the dependence on the actual neutrino emission process is very weak. In other terms, fast neutrino cooling neutron stars are thermometers for the highest $T_c$ superfluid (superconductor) in the Universe. The observational data are briefly presented.

  18. Brightness constraint for cooling models of young neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Hovik Grigorian

    2006-06-21

    We study the systematics of neutron star cooling curves with three representative masses from the most populated interval of the estimated mass distribution for compact objects. The cooling simulations are made in the framework of the nuclear medium cooling (NMC) scenario using different combinations of possible nucleon-nucleon pairing gaps. Possible heating or enhanced cooling mechanisms in the crust are not considered. We define a constraint on the highest possible temperatures for a given age of young neutron stars and show that this limits the freedom of modeling pairing gaps and crust properties.

  19. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND THE MAXIMUM SPIN FREQUENCY OF NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Patruno, Alessandro; Haskell, Brynmor; D'Angelo, Caroline

    2012-02-10

    In this paper, we re-examine the idea that gravitational waves are required as a braking mechanism to explain the observed maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. We show that for millisecond X-ray pulsars, the existence of spin equilibrium as set by the disk/magnetosphere interaction is sufficient to explain the observations. We show as well that no clear correlation exists between the neutron star magnetic field B and the X-ray outburst luminosity L{sub X} when considering an enlarged sample size of millisecond X-ray pulsars.

  20. MHD instabilities in accretion mounds on neutron star binaries

    E-print Network

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We have numerically solved the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria of matter confined at the polar cap of neutron stars. From the equilibrium solutions we explore the stability of the accretion mounds using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure driven modes disrupt the equilibria beyond a threshold mound mass. This results in formation of dynamic structures inside the mound, as matter spreads over the neutron star surface. Our results show that local variation of magnetic field will significantly affect the shape and nature of the cyclotron features observed in the spectra of High Mass X-ray Binaries.

  1. Nuclear Superfluidity in Exotic Nuclei and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Nicolae Sandulescu

    2006-12-11

    Nuclear superfludity in exotic nuclei close to the drip lines and in the inner crust matter of neutron stars have common features which can be treated with the same theoretical tools. In the first part of my lecture I discuss how two such tools, namely the HFB approach and the linear response theory can be used to describe the pairing correlations in weakly bound nuclei, in which the unbound part of the energy spectrum becomes important. Then, using the same models, I shall discuss how the nuclear superfluidity can affect the thermal properties of the inner crust of neutron stars.

  2. Magnetars as cooling neutron stars with internal heating

    E-print Network

    A. D. Kaminker; D. G. Yakovlev; A. Y. Potekhin; N. Shibazaki; P. S. Shternin; O. Y. Gnedin

    2006-05-18

    We study thermal structure and evolution of magnetars as cooling neutron stars with a phenomenological heat source in a spherical internal layer. We explore the location of this layer as well as the heating rate that could explain high observable thermal luminosities of magnetars and would be consistent with the energy budget of neutron stars. We conclude that the heat source should be located in an outer magnetar's crust, at densities rho heat intensity of the order of 1e20 erg/s/cm^3. Otherwise the heat energy is mainly emitted by neutrinos and cannot warm up the surface.

  3. Isospin-dependent clusterization of Neutron-Star Matter

    E-print Network

    Camille Ducoin; Philippe Chomaz; Francesca Gulminelli

    2007-04-19

    Because of the presence of a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter, compact-star matter can present a region of instability against the formation of clusters. We investigate this phase separation in a matter composed of neutrons, protons and electrons, within a Skyrme-Lyon mean-field approach. Matter instability and phase properties are characterized through the study of the free-energy curvature. The effect of beta-equilibrium is also analyzed in detail, and we show that the opacity to neutrinos has an influence on the presence of clusterized matter in finite-temperature proto-neutron stars.

  4. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T.

    2010-01-15

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the strange matter hypothesis and the existence of strange stars should be possible.

  5. Bright Transients from Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Murray, Norman W; Price, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet BHNS star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the X-ray to gamma-rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from $10^{12}$G to $10^{16}$G respectively and a $10M_{\\odot}$ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the NS magnetic field strength, and may be observa...

  6. Role of isospin physics in supernova matter and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

    2010-10-28

    We investigate the liquid-gas phase transition of hot protoneutron stars shortly after their birth following supernova explosion and the composition and structure of hyperon-rich (proto)neutron stars within a relativistic mean-field model where the nuclear symmetry energy has been constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. Light clusters are abundantly formed with increasing temperature well inside the neutrino-sphere for an uniform supernova matter. Liquid-gas phase transition is found to suppress the cluster yield within the coexistence phase as well as decrease considerably the neutron-proton asymmetry over a wide density range. We find symmetry energy has a modest effect on the boundaries and the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, and the composition depends more sensitively on the number of trapped neutrinos and temperature of the protoneutron star. The influence of hyperons in the dense interior of stars makes the overall equation of state soft. However, neutrino trapping distinctly delays the appearance of hyperons due to abundance of electrons. We also find that a softer symmetry energy further makes the onset of hyperon less favorable. The resulting structures of the (proto)neutron stars with hyperons and with liquid-gas phase transition are discussed.

  7. Neutron star matter in an effective model

    E-print Network

    T. K. Jha; P. K. Raina; P. K. Panda; S. K. Patra

    2007-11-13

    We study the equation of state (EOS) for dense matter in the core of the compact star with hyperons and calculate the star structure in an effective model in the mean field approach. With varying incompressibility and effective nucleon mass, we analyse the resulting EOS with hyperons in beta equilibrium and its underlying effect on the gross properties of the compact star sequences. The results obtained in our analysis are compared with predictions of other theoretical models and observations. The maximum mass of the compact star lies in the range $1.21-1.96 ~M_{\\odot}$ for the different EOS obtained, in the model.

  8. Neutron star matter in an effective model

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, T. K.; Raina, P. K.; Panda, P. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2006-11-15

    We study an equation of state (EOS) for dense matter in the core of a compact star with hyperons and calculate the star's structure in an effective model using a mean-field approach. With varying incompressibility and effective nucleon mass, we analyze the resulting EOS with hyperons in {beta} equilibrium and their underlying effect on the gross properties of the compact star sequences. The results obtained in our analysis are compared with predictions of other theoretical models and observations. The maximum mass of a compact star lies in the range 1.21-1.96M{sub {center_dot}} for the different EOS obtained in the model.

  9. Dynamics of PSR J0045-7319/B-star Binary and Neutron Star Formation

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1997-04-14

    Recent timing observations have revealed the presence of orbital precession due to spin-orbit coupling and rapid orbital decay due to dynamical tidal interaction in the PSR J0045-7319/B-star binary system. They can be used to put concrete constraints on the age, initial spin and velocity of the neutron star.

  10. X-ray aurora in neutron star magnetospheres

    E-print Network

    Vahid Rezania; John C. Samson; Peter Dobias

    2004-03-27

    In this study we propose a new generic model for QPOs based on oscillation modes of neutron star magnetospheres. We argue that the interaction of the accretion disk with the magnetosphere can excite resonant shear Alfven waves in a region of enhanced density gradients. We demonstrate that depending on the distance of this enhanced density region from the star and the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the field line resonance can range from several Hz (weaker field, farther from star), to approximately kHz frequencies (stronger field, ~ 2-10 star radii from the star). We show that such oscillations are able to significantly modulate inflow of matter from the high density region toward the star surface, and possibly produce the observed X-ray spectrum. In addition, we show that the observed 2:3 frequency ratio of QPOs is a natural result of our model.

  11. Collective Modes in the Superfluid Inner Crust of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Michael Urban; Micaela Oertel

    2015-06-01

    The neutron-star inner crust is assumed to be superfluid at relevant temperatures. The contribution of neutron quasiparticles to thermodynamic and transport properties of the crust is therefore strongly suppressed by the pairing gap. Nevertheless, the neutron gas still has low-energy excitations, namely long-wavelength collective modes. We summarize different approaches to describe the collective modes in the crystalline phases of the inner crust and present an improved model for the description of the collective modes in the pasta phases within superfluid hydrodynamics.

  12. Strangeness in nuclei and neutron stars: a challenging puzzle

    E-print Network

    Diego Lonardoni; Alessandro Lovato; Stefano Gandolfi; Francesco Pederiva

    2015-08-19

    The prediction of neutron stars properties is strictly connected to the employed nuclear interactions. The appearance of hyperons in the inner core of the star is strongly dependent on the details of the underlying hypernuclear force. We summarize our recent quantum Monte Carlo results on the development of realistic two- and three-body hyperon-nucleon interactions based on the available experimental data for light- and medium-heavy hypernuclei.

  13. The neutron star and black hole initial mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F.X.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1996-02-01

    Using recently calculated models for massive stellar evolution and supernovae coupled to a model for Galactic chemical evolution, neutron star and black hole birth functions (number of neutron stars and black holes as a function of their mass) are determined for the Milky Way galaxy. For these stars that explode as Type II supernovae, the models give birth functions that are bimodal with peaks at 1.27 and 1.76 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} and average masses within those peaks of 1.28 and 1.73 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. For these stars that explode as Type Ib there is a narrower spread of remnant masses, the average being 1.32 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}, and less evidence for bimodality. These values will be increased, especially in the more massive Type II supernovae, if significant accretion continues during the initial launching of the shock, and the number of heavier neutron stars could be depleted by black hole formation. The principal reason for the dichotomy in remnant masses for Type II is the difference in the presupernova structure of stars above and below 19 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}, the mass separating stars that burn carbon convectively from those that produce less carbon and burn radiatively. The Type Ib{close_quote}s and the lower mass group of the Type II{close_quote}s compare favorably with measured neutron star masses, and in particular to the Thorsett {ital et} {ital al}. (1993) determination of the average neutron star mass in 17 systems; 1.35{plus_minus}0.27 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. Variations in the exponent of a Salpeter initial mass function are shown not to affect the locations of the two peaks in the distribution function, but do affect their relative amplitudes. Sources of uncertainty, in particular placement of the mass cut and sensitivity to the explosion energy, are discussed, and estimates of the total number of neutron stars and black holes in the Galaxy are given. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Probing the internal composition of neutron stars with gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Yagi, Kent; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-11-01

    Gravitational waves from neutron star binary inspirals contain information about the as yet unknown equation of state of supranuclear matter. In the absence of definitive experimental evidence that determines the correct equation of state, a number of diverse models that give the pressure inside a neutron star as function of its density have been constructed by nuclear physicists. These models differ not only in the approximations and techniques they employ to solve the many-body Schrödinger equation, but also in the internal neutron star composition they assume. We study whether gravitational wave observations of neutron star binaries in quasicircular inspirals up to contact will allow us to distinguish between equations of state of differing internal composition, thereby providing important information about the properties and behavior of extremely high density matter. We carry out a Bayesian model selection analysis, and find that second generation gravitational wave detectors can heavily constrain equations of state that contain only quark matter, but hybrid stars containing both normal and quark matter are typically harder to distinguish from normal matter stars. A gravitational wave detection with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 and masses around 1.4 M? would provide indications of the existence or absence of strange quark stars, while a signal-to-noise ratio 30 detection could either detect or rule out strange quark stars with a 20 to 1 confidence. The presence of kaon condensates or hyperons in neutron star inner cores cannot be easily confirmed. For example, for the equations of state studied in this paper, even a gravitational wave signal with a signal-to-noise ratio as high as 60 would not allow us to claim a detection of kaon condensates or hyperons with confidence greater than 5 to 1. On the other hand, if kaon condensates and hyperons do not form in neutron stars, a gravitational wave signal with similar signal-to-noise ratio would be able to constrain their existence with an 11 to 1 confidence for high-mass systems. We, finally, find that combining multiple lower signal-to-noise ratio detections (stacking) must be handled with caution since it could fail in cases where the prior information dominates over new information from the data.

  15. Neutron star natal kicks and the long-term survival of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contenta, Filippo; Varri, Anna Lisa; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a star cluster in an external tidal field by using N-body simulations, with focus on the effects of the presence or absence of neutron star natal velocity kicks. We show that, even if neutron stars typically represent less than 2 per cent of the total bound mass of a star cluster, their primordial kinematic properties may affect the lifetime of the system by up to almost a factor of 4. We interpret this result in the light of two known modes of star cluster dissolution, dominated by either early stellar evolution mass-loss or two-body relaxation. The competition between these effects shapes the mass-loss profile of star clusters, which may either dissolve abruptly (`jumping'), in the pre-core-collapse phase, or gradually (`skiing'), after having reached core collapse.

  16. Pairing and superfluidity of nucleons in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Gezerlis; C. J. Pethick; A. Schwenk

    2015-04-13

    We survey the current status of understanding of pairing and superfluidity of neutrons and protons in neutron stars from a theoretical perspective, with emphasis on basic physical properties. During the past two decades, the blossoming of the field of ultracold atomic gases and the development of quantum Monte Carlo methods for solving the many-body problem have been two important sources of inspiration, and we shall describe how these have given insight into neutron pairing gaps. The equilibrium properties and collective oscillations of the inner crust of neutron stars, where neutrons paired in a $^1$S$_0$ state coexist with a lattice of neutron-rich nuclei, are also described. While pairing gaps are well understood at densities less than one tenth of the nuclear saturation density, significant uncertainties exist at higher densities due to the complicated nature of nucleon-nucleon interactions, the difficulty of solving the many-body problem under these conditions, and the increasing importance of many-nucleon interactions. We also touch more briefly on the subject of pairing of neutrons in other angular momentum states, specifically the $^3$P$_2$ state, as well as pairing of protons.

  17. Phase Diagram for Spinning and Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    D. Blaschke; H. Grigorian; G. Poghosyan

    2002-07-14

    Neutron star configurations are considered as thermodynamical systems for which a phase diagram in the angular velocity (Omega) - baryon number (N) plane is obtained with a dividing line N_{crit}(Omega) for quark core configurations. Trajectories of neutron star evolution in this diagram are studied for different scenarios defined by the external torque acting on the star due to radiation and/or mass accretion. They show a characteristic change in the rotational kinematics when the star enters the quark core regime. For isolated pulsars the braking index signal for deconfinement has been studied in its dependence on the mass of the star. Model calculations of the spin evolution of accreting low-mass X-ray binaries in the phase diagram have been performed for different values of the initial magnetic field, its decay time as well as initial mass and mass accretion rate. Population clustering of these objects at the line N_{crit}(Omega) in the phase diagram is suggested as an observable signal for the deconfinement phase transition if it exists for spinnning and accreting neutron stars.

  18. Extreme neutron stars from Extended Theories of Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D. E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    We discuss neutron stars with strong magnetic mean fields in the framework of Extended Theories of Gravity. In particular, we take into account models derived from f(R) and f(G) extensions of General Relativity where functions of the Ricci curvature invariant R and the Gauss-Bonnet invariant G are respectively considered. Dense matter in magnetic mean field, generated by magnetic properties of particles, is described by assuming a model with three meson fields and baryons octet. As result, the considerable increasing of maximal mass of neutron stars can be achieved by cubic corrections in f(R) gravity. In principle, massive stars with M > 4M{sub ?} can be obtained. On the other hand, stable stars with high strangeness fraction (with central densities ?{sub c} ? 1.5–2.0 GeV/fm{sup 3}) are possible considering quadratic corrections of f(G) gravity. The magnetic field strength in the star center is of order 6–8 × 10{sup 18} G. In general, we can say that other branches of massive neutron stars are possible considering the extra pressure contributions coming from gravity extensions. Such a feature can constitute both a probe for alternative theories and a way out to address anomalous self-gravitating compact systems.

  19. Neutron stars, remnant cores following supernova explosions, are highly interesting astrophysical

    E-print Network

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Neutron stars, remnant cores following supernova explosions, are highly interesting astrophysical environments In particular, accreting neutron stars presents a unique environment for nuclear reactions al., Phys. Rev. C 77, 045807 (2008) (4) Haensel et al., Neutron Stars 1, 2007 #12; One potential heat

  20. R-mode instability of strange stars and observations of neutron stars in LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Chun-Mei; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Using a realistic equation of state (EOS) of strange quark matter, namely, the modified bag model, and considering the constraints on the parameters of EOS by the observational mass limit of neutron stars, we investigate the r-mode instability window of strange stars, and find the same result as in the brief study of Haskell, Degenaar and Ho in 2012 that these instability windows are not consistent with the spin frequency and temperature observations of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  1. Neutron Interactions in the CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinski, M J

    2008-09-24

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}DBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0{nu}DBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0{nu}DBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0{nu}DBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0{nu}DBD of {sup 130}Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO{sub 2} bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0{nu}DBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10{sup -6}. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0{nu}DBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, which can be produced underground both by ({alpha},n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE data to set an upper limit for the production of a 2529 keV gamma-ray from the {sup 126}Te(n,n{prime}{gamma}) reaction. This gamma-ray is a potential source of interference for the 0{nu}DBD peak. Based on this measurement, the contribution of this line to the background is expected to be negligible.

  2. Neutron stars, strange stars, and the nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1992-11-02

    This article consists of three parts. In part one we review the present status of dense nuclear matter calculations, and introduce a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state which are derived for different assumptions about the physical behavior of dense matter (baryon population, pion condensation,.possible transition of baryon matter to quark matter). In part two we review recently performed non-rotating and rotating compact star calculations performed for these equations of state. The minimum stable rotational periods of compact stars, whose knowledge is of decisive importance for the interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars, axe determined. For this purpose two different limits on stable rotation are studied: rotation at the general relativistic Kepler period (below which mass shedding at the star`s equator sets in), and, secondly, rotation at the gravitational radiation-reaction instability (at which emission of gravitational waves set in which slows the star down). Part three of this article deals with the properties of hypothetical strange stars. Specifically we investigate the amount of nuclear solid crust that can be carried by a rotating strange star, and answer the question whether such objects can give rise to the observed phenomena of pulsar glitches, which is at the present time the only astrophysical test of the strange-quark-matter hypothesis.

  3. Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.; Sarracino, R.

    1983-08-30

    A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without magnetic a field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by bremsstrahlung or any other process. Instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

  4. Dark matter, neutron stars and strange quark matter

    E-print Network

    M. Angeles Perez-Garcia; Joseph Silk; Jirina R. Stone

    2010-09-04

    We show that self-annihilating neutralino WIMP dark matter accreted onto neutron stars may provide a mechanism to seed compact objects with long-lived lumps of strange quark matter, or strangelets, for WIMP masses above a few GeV. This effect may trigger a conversion of most of the star into a strange star. We use an energy estimate for the long-lived strangelet based on the Fermi gas model combined with the MIT bag model to set a new limit on the possible values of the WIMP mass that can be especially relevant for subdominant species of massive neutralinos.

  5. Gamma-burst emission from neutron-star accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Petschek, A. G.; Sarracino, R.

    1983-01-01

    A model for emission of the hard photons of gamma bursts is presented. The model assumes accretion at nearly the Eddington limited rate onto a neutron star without a magnetic field. Initially soft photons are heated as they are compressed between the accreting matter and the star. A large electric field due to relatively small charge separation is required to drag electrons into the star with the nuclei against the flux of photons leaking out through the accreting matter. The photon number is not increased substantially by Bremsstrahlung or any other process. It is suggested that instability in an accretion disc might provide the infalling matter required.

  6. Nucleosynthesis in the Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    Martin, Dirk; Arcones, Almudena; Korobkin, Oleg; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2015-01-01

    Heavy elements like gold, platinum or uranium are produced in the r-process, which needs neutron-rich and explosive environments. Neutron star mergers are a promising candidate for an r-process site. They exhibit three different channels for matter ejection fulfilling these conditions: dynamic ejecta due to tidal torques, neutrino-driven winds and evaporating matter from the accretion disk. We present a first study of the integrated nucleosynthesis for a neutrino-driven wind from a neutron star merger with a hyper-massive neutron star. Trajectories from a recent hydrodynamical simulation are divided into four different angle regions and post-processed with a reaction network. We find that the electron fraction varies around $Y_e \\approx 0.1 - 0.4$, but its distribution differs for every angle of ejection. Hence, the wind ejecta do not undergo a robust r-process, but rather possess distinct nucleosynthesis yields depending on the angle range. Compared to the dynamic ejecta, a smaller amount of neutron-rich mat...

  7. Nucleosynthesis in the Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers

    E-print Network

    Dirk Martin; Albino Perego; Almudena Arcones; Oleg Korobkin; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

    2015-09-25

    Heavy elements like gold, platinum or uranium are produced in the r-process, which needs neutron-rich and explosive environments. Neutron star mergers are a promising candidate for an r-process site. They exhibit three different channels for matter ejection fulfilling these conditions: dynamic ejecta due to tidal torques, neutrino-driven winds and evaporating matter from the accretion disk. We present a first study of the integrated nucleosynthesis for a neutrino-driven wind from a neutron star merger with a hyper-massive neutron star. Trajectories from a recent hydrodynamical simulation are divided into four different angle regions and post-processed with a reaction network. We find that the electron fraction varies around $Y_e \\approx 0.1 - 0.4$, but its distribution differs for every angle of ejection. Hence, the wind ejecta do not undergo a robust r-process, but rather possess distinct nucleosynthesis yields depending on the angle range. Compared to the dynamic ejecta, a smaller amount of neutron-rich matter gets unbound, but the production of lighter heavy elements with $A \\lesssim 130$ in the neutrino-driven wind can complement the strong r-process of the dynamic ejecta.

  8. Bulk viscosity and r-modes of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2008-08-08

    The bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process involving hyperons in $K^-$ condensed matter is discussed here. We find that the bulk viscosity is modified in a superconducting phase. Further, we demonstrate how the exotic bulk viscosity coefficient influences $r$-modes of neutron stars which might be sources of detectable gravitational waves.

  9. Very massive neutron stars in Ni's theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that in Ni's theory of gravity, which is identical to general relativity in the post-Newtonian limit, neutron stars of arbitrarily large mass are possible. This result is independent, within reasonable bounds, of the equation of state of matter at supernuclear densities.

  10. Successive X-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, T. A.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of a neutron star undergoing a series of thermonuclear flashes in its accreted hydrogen-rich layer has been numerically followed to determine the effects of the history of the neutron star's thermal and compositional structure on the properties of the emitted X-ray bursts. Burst characteristics are studied for a range of mass accretion rates, CNO abundances in the accreted matter, and initial thermal states of the underlying neutron star core; the bursts exhibit erratic behavior for low CNO metal abundances and cool neutron star cores, with the burst recurrence time scales varying by 1-2 orders of magnitude. There is typically a continued presence of a substantial amount of unburnt hydrogen in the accreted layer throughout the series of the X-ray burst events. Convective mixing during the quiescent phase leads to the inward transport of helium to high densities and eventually to the initiation of the next outburst. The resulting bursts can be weak and, in such cases, are characterized by short recurrence time scales (1-2 hr), low peak luminosities (0.1-0.2 times the Eddington value), and low alpha-values (about 20).

  11. A Family of Gravitational Waveforms from Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Dong Lai

    1999-02-22

    This note describes fitting formulae for the gravitational waveforms generated by a rapidly rotating neutron star (e.g., newly-formed in the core collapse of a supernova) as it evolves from an initial axisymmetric configuration toward a triaxial ellipsoid.

  12. Neutron star properties from modern meson-exchange potential models

    E-print Network

    Bao; Engvik; Hjorth-Jensen; Osnes; Oestgaard

    1993-09-17

    We calculate the total mass, radius, moment of inertia and surface gravitational redshift for neutron stars using various equations of state. The latter are derived from recent meson-exchange potential models, employing both a relativistic and a non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach.

  13. NEUTRON STAR ENVELOPES AND THERMAL RADIATION FROM THE MAGNETIC SURFACE

    E-print Network

    Paradijs, J. Ventura (eds.), The Neutron Star { Black Hole Connection, NATO ASI Ser. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2001), p.393 JOSEPH VENTURA Physics Department, University of Crete, and IESL, FORTH 71003 Heraklion, opening a new chapter in our ability to probe the internal structure #12; 394 JOSEPH VENTURA AND ALEXANDER

  14. Magnetar activity mediated by plastic deformations of neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2015-02-01

    We advance a `solar flare' model of magnetar activity, whereas a slow evolution of the magnetic field in the upper crust, driven by electron magnetohydrodynamic flows, twists the external magnetic flux tubes, producing persistent emission, bursts, and flares. At the same time, the neutron star crust plastically relieves the imposed magnetic field stress, limiting the strain ?t to values well below the critical strain ?crit of a brittle fracture, ?t ˜ 10-2?crit. Magnetar-like behaviour, occurring near the magnetic equator, takes place in all neutron stars, but to a different extent. The persistent luminosity is proportional to cubic power of the magnetic field (at a given age), and hence is hardly observable in most rotationally powered neutron stars. Giant flares can occur only if the magnetic field exceeds some threshold value, while smaller bursts and flares may take place in relatively small magnetic fields. Bursts and flares are magnetospheric reconnection events that launch Alfvén shocks which convert into high-frequency whistlers upon hitting the neutron star surface. The resulting whistler pulse induces a strain that increases with depth both due to the increasing electron density (and the resulting slowing of the waves), and due to the increasing coherence of a whistler pulse with depth. The whistler pulse is dissipated on a time-scale of approximately a day at shallow depths corresponding to ? ˜ 1010 g cm-3; this energy is detected as enhanced post-flare surface emission.

  15. Eccentric mergers of black holes with spinning neutron stars

    E-print Network

    William E. East; Vasileios Paschalidis; Frans Pretorius

    2015-06-26

    We study dynamical capture binary black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. We initialize the BH-NS systems with positions and velocities corresponding to marginally unbound Newtonian orbits, and evolve them using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. We find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the BH---as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.

  16. Measuring Neutron Star Radii via Pulse Profile Modeling with NICER

    E-print Network

    Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Morsink, Sharon; Baubock, Michi

    2015-01-01

    The Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics payload that will be placed on the International Space Station. Its primary science goal is to measure with high accuracy the pulse profiles that arise from the non-uniform thermal surface emission of rotation-powered pulsars. Modeling general relativistic effects on the profiles will lead to measuring the radii of these neutron stars and to constraining their equation of state. Achieving this goal will depend, among other things, on accurate knowledge of the source, sky, and instrument backgrounds. We use here simple analytic estimates to quantify the level at which these backgrounds need to be known in order for the upcoming measurements to provide significant constraints on the properties of neutron stars. We show that, even in the minimal-information scenario, knowledge of the background at a few percent level for a background-to-source countrate ratio of 0.2 allows for a measurement of the neutron star compactness to better t...

  17. Neutron stars in a class of nonlinear relativistic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurines, A. R.; Vasconcellos, C. A.; Malheiro, M.; Chiapparini, M.

    2001-06-01

    In this work we introduce a class of relativistic models for nuclear matter and neutron stars which exhibits a parametrization, through mathematical constants, of the nonlinear meson-baryon couplings. For appropriate choices of the parameters, it recovers current quantum hadrodynamics models found in the literature: the Walecka model and Zimanyi-Moszkowski models (ZM and ZM3). For other choices of parameters, the models give very interesting and new physical results. The phenomenology of neutron stars in ZM models is presented and compared to the phenomenology obtained in other versions of the Walecka model. We have found that the ZM3 model is too soft, and predicts a very small maximum neutron star mass, ~0.72Msolar. A strong similarity between the results of ZM-like models and those with exponential couplings is noted. The sensibility of the results to the specific choice of the values for the binding energy and saturation density is pointed out. Finally, we discuss the very intense scalar condensates found in the interior of neutron stars, which may lead to negative effective masses.

  18. Dense Matter in the Crust of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C. C.; Cheng, K. S.

    1996-05-01

    With the relativistic extended Thomas-Fermi method, we study the dense matter in the inner crust of neutron stars based on the Zimanyi & Moszkowski (1990, ZM) model in the relativistic mean field theory. We also compare these results with those based on the Boguta & Bodmer (1977, BB) model with a resent satisfactory parameter set.

  19. Testing general metric theories of gravity with bursting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2008-03-15

    I show that several observable properties of bursting neutron stars in metric theories of gravity can be calculated using only conservation laws, Killing symmetries, and the Einstein equivalence principle, without requiring the validity of the general relativistic field equations. I calculate, in particular, the gravitational redshift of a surface atomic line, the touchdown luminosity of a radius-expansion burst, which is believed to be equal to the Eddington critical luminosity, and the apparent surface area of a neutron star as measured during the cooling tails of bursts. I show that, for a general metric theory of gravity, the apparent surface area of a neutron star depends on the coordinate radius of the stellar surface and on its gravitational redshift in the exact same way as in general relativity. On the other hand, the Eddington critical luminosity depends also on an additional parameter that measures the degree to which the general relativistic field equations are satisfied. These results can be used in conjunction with current and future high-energy observations of bursting neutron stars to test general relativity in the strong-field regime.

  20. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of spacetime produced by the white dwarf's gravitation. This effect, called the Shapiro Delay, allowed the scientists to precisely measure the masses of both stars. "We got very lucky with this system. The rapidly-rotating pulsar gives us a signal to follow throughout the orbit, and the orbit is almost perfectly edge-on. In addition, the white dwarf is particularly massive for a star of that type. This unique combination made the Shapiro Delay much stronger and thus easier to measure," said Scott Ransom, also of NRAO. The astronomers used a newly-built digital instrument called the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), attached to the GBT, to follow the binary stars through one complete orbit earlier this year. Using GUPPI improved the astronomers' ability to time signals from the pulsar severalfold. The researchers expected the neutron star to have roughly one and a half times the mass of the Sun. Instead, their observations revealed it to be twice as massive as the Sun. That much mass, they say, changes their understanding of a neutron star's composition. Some theoretical models postulated that, in addition to neutrons, such stars also would contain certain other exotic subatomic particles called hyperons or condensates of kaons. "Our results rule out those ideas," Ransom said. Demorest and Ransom, along with Tim Pennucci of the University of Virginia, Mallory Roberts of Eureka Scientific, and Jason Hessels of the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy and the University of Amsterdam, reported their results in the October 28 issue of the scientific journal Nature. Their result has further implications, outlined in a companion paper, scheduled for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This measurement tells us that if any quarks are present in a neutron star core, they cannot be 'free,' but rather must be strongly interacting with each other as they do in normal atomic nuclei," said Feryal Ozel of the University of Arizona, lead author of the second paper. Th

  1. Further stable neutron star models from f(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D. E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it

    2013-12-01

    Neutron star models in perturbative f(R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS, SLy and other equations of state and a case of piecewise equation of state for stars with quark cores. The mass-radius relations for f(R) = R+R(e{sup ?R/R{sub 0}}?1) model and for R{sup 2} models with logarithmic and cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R{sup 2} gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (? > 10?{sub ns}, where ?{sub ns} = 2.7 × 10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ? 1.9M{sub ?} (SLy equation). A similar situation takes place for AP4 and BSK20 EoS. Such an effect can give rise to more compact stars than in General Relativity. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level. Another interesting result can be achieved in modified gravity with only a cubic correction. For some EoS, the upper limit of neutron star mass increases and therefore these EoS can describe realistic star configurations (although, in General Relativity, these EoS are excluded by observational constraints)

  2. High Resolution Calculations of Merging Neutron Stars II Neutrino Emission

    E-print Network

    Rosswog, S

    2003-01-01

    The remnant resulting from the merger of two neutron stars produces neutrinos in copious amounts. In this paper we present the neutrino emission results obtained via Newtonian, high-resolution simulations of the coalescence event. These simulations use three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics together with a nuclear, temperature dependent equation of state and a multi-flavour neutrino leakage scheme. We present the details of our scheme, discuss the neutrino emission results from a neutron star coalescence and compare them to the core-collapse supernova case where neutrino emission has been studied for several decades. The average neutrino energies are similar to those in the supernova case, but contrary to the latter, the luminosities are dominated by electron-type antineutrinos which are produced in the hot, neutron-rich, thick disk of the merger remnant. The cooler parts of this disk contain substantial fractions of heavy nuclei, which, however, do not influence the overall neutrino emission resul...

  3. Deep Crustal Heating in a Multicomponent Accreted Neutron Star Crust

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-statistical equilibrium model is constructed to simulate the multicomponent composition of the crust of an accreting neutron star. The ashes of rp-process nucleosynthesis are driven by accretion through a series of electron captures, neutron emissions, and pycnonuclear fusions up to densities near the transition between the neutron star crust and core. A liquid droplet model which includes nuclear shell effects is used to provide nuclear masses far from stability. Reaction pathways are determined consistently with the nuclear mass model. The nuclear symmetry energy is an important uncertainty in the masses of the exotic nuclei in the inner crust and varying the symmetry energy changes the amount of deep crustal heating by as much as a factor of two.

  4. Deep crustal heating in a multicomponent accreted neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Andrew W.

    2012-05-01

    A quasistatistical equilibrium model is constructed to simulate the multicomponent composition of the crust of an accreting neutron star. The ashes of rp-process nucleosynthesis are driven by accretion through a series of electron captures, neutron emissions, and pycnonuclear fusions up to densities near the transition between the neutron star crust and core. A liquid droplet model which includes nuclear shell effects is used to provide nuclear masses far from stability. Reaction pathways are determined consistently with the nuclear mass model. The nuclear symmetry energy is an important uncertainty in the masses of the exotic nuclei in the inner crust and varying the symmetry energy changes the amount of deep crustal heating by as much as a factor of two.

  5. Deep Crustal Heating in a Multicomponent Accreted Neutron Star Crust

    E-print Network

    Andrew W. Steiner

    2012-05-16

    A quasi-statistical equilibrium model is constructed to simulate the multicomponent composition of the crust of an accreting neutron star. The ashes of rp-process nucleosynthesis are driven by accretion through a series of electron captures, neutron emissions, and pycnonuclear fusions up to densities near the transition between the neutron star crust and core. A liquid droplet model which includes nuclear shell effects is used to provide nuclear masses far from stability. Reaction pathways are determined consistently with the nuclear mass model. The nuclear symmetry energy is an important uncertainty in the masses of the exotic nuclei in the inner crust and varying the symmetry energy changes the amount of deep crustal heating by as much as a factor of two.

  6. Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom,

    E-print Network

    Alavi, Ali

    Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom, George H evaluation of a N-electron path-integral. In particular, we show that the double excitation star graph. In this paper, we concentrate on the case of the star graph, whose form allows its weight to be calculated

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Double stars of equal components (Stock+, 1972)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J.; Wroblewski, H.

    2004-05-01

    A list of 271 double stars of nearly equal components with separations up to about one minute of arc is given. Their physical nature is demonstrated by their spectral type distribution which coincides with that of close double stars of equal components, but differs from that of general field stars. (2 data files).

  8. Neutron stars, strange stars, and the nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1992-11-02

    This article consists of three parts. In part one we review the present status of dense nuclear matter calculations, and introduce a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state which are derived for different assumptions about the physical behavior of dense matter (baryon population, pion condensation,.possible transition of baryon matter to quark matter). In part two we review recently performed non-rotating and rotating compact star calculations performed for these equations of state. The minimum stable rotational periods of compact stars, whose knowledge is of decisive importance for the interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars, axe determined. For this purpose two different limits on stable rotation are studied: rotation at the general relativistic Kepler period (below which mass shedding at the star's equator sets in), and, secondly, rotation at the gravitational radiation-reaction instability (at which emission of gravitational waves set in which slows the star down). Part three of this article deals with the properties of hypothetical strange stars. Specifically we investigate the amount of nuclear solid crust that can be carried by a rotating strange star, and answer the question whether such objects can give rise to the observed phenomena of pulsar glitches, which is at the present time the only astrophysical test of the strange-quark-matter hypothesis.

  9. QPO observations related to neutron star equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Urbanec, Martin; Török, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; Cermak, Petr

    We apply a genetic algorithm method for selection of neutron star models relating them to the resonant models of the twin peak quasiperiodic oscillations observed in the X-ray neutron star binary systems. It was suggested that pairs of kilo-hertz peaks in the X-ray Fourier power density spectra of some neutron stars reflect a non-linear resonance between two modes of accretion disk oscillations. We investigate this concept for a specific neutron star source. Each neutron star model is characterized by the equation of state (EOS), rotation frequency ? and central energy density ?c . These determine the spacetime structure governing geodesic motion and position dependent radial and vertical epicyclic oscillations related to the stable circular geodesics. Particular kinds of resonances (KR) between the oscillations with epicyclic frequencies, or the frequencies derived from them, can take place at special positions assigned ambiguously to the spacetime structure. The pairs of resonant eigenfrequencies relevant to those positions are therefore fully given by KR,?c , ?, EOS and can be compared to the observationally determined pairs of eigenfrequencies in order to eliminate the unsatisfactory sets (KR,?c , ?, EOS). For the elimination we use the advanced genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithm comes out from the method of natural selection when subjects with the best adaptation to assigned conditions have most chances to survive. The chosen genetic algorithm with sexual reproduction contains one chromosome with restricted lifetime, uniform crossing and genes of type 3/3/5. For encryption of physical description (KR,?, ?, EOS) into chromosome we used Gray code. As a fitness function we use correspondence between the observed and calculated pairs of eigenfrequencies.

  10. Neutron star equation of state and QPO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanec, Martin; Stuchlík, Zden?k; Török, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; ?ermák, Petr

    2007-12-01

    Assuming a resonant origin of the twin peak quasiperiodic oscillations observed in the X-ray neutron star binary systems, we apply a genetic algorithm method for selection of neutron star models. It was suggested that pairs of kilohertz peaks in the X-ray Fourier power density spectra of some neutron stars reflect a non-linear resonance between two modes of accretion disk oscillations. We investigate this concept for a specific neutron star source. Each neutron star model is characterized by the equation of state (EOS), rotation frequency ? and central energy density rho_{c}. These determine the spacetime structure governing geodesic motion and position dependent radial and vertical epicyclic oscillations related to the stable circular geodesics. Particular kinds of resonances (KR) between the oscillations with epicyclic frequencies, or the frequencies derived from them, can take place at special positions assigned ambiguously to the spacetime structure. The pairs of resonant eigenfrequencies relevant to those positions are therefore fully given by KR, rho_{c}, ?, EOS and can be compared to the observationally determined pairs of eigenfrequencies in order to eliminate the unsatisfactory sets (KR, rho_{c}, ?, EOS). For the elimination we use the advanced genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithm comes out from the method of natural selection when subjects with the best adaptation to assigned conditions have most chances to survive. The chosen genetic algorithm with sexual reproduction contains one chromosome with restricted lifetime, uniform crossing and genes of type 3/3/5. For encryption of physical description (KR, rho_{c}, ?, EOS) into the chromosome we use the Gray code. As a fitness function we use correspondence between the observed and calculated pairs of eigenfrequencies.

  11. Effective interaction: From nuclear reactions to neutron stars

    E-print Network

    D. N. Basu

    2014-04-11

    An equation of state (EoS) for symmetric nuclear matter is constructed using the density dependent M3Y effective interaction and extended for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompressibility, symmetry energy and its slope agree well with experimentally extracted values. Folded microscopic potentials using this effective interaction, whose density dependence is determined from nuclear matter calculations, provide excellent descriptions for proton, alpha and cluster radioactivities, elastic and inelastic scattering. The nuclear deformation parameters extracted from inelastic scattering of protons agree well with other available results. The high density behavior of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter satisfies the constraints from the observed flow data of heavy-ion collisions. The neutron star properties studied using $\\beta$-equilibrated neutron star matter obtained from this effective interaction reconcile with the recent observations of the massive compact stars.

  12. Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Bauswein, A; Baumgarte, T W; Janka, H-T

    2013-09-27

    We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent nuclear equations of state and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a nonrotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 percent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations. PMID:24116763

  13. The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2000-04-24

    White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities than commonly found in normal stars, and pressure is created by degenerate fermion kinetic energy and particle interactions. As a result, white dwarfs and neutron stars offer unique cosmic laboratories for studying matter at very high densities. In this review we discuss the basic properties of condensed matter at extreme densities and summarize the extent to which these properties can be examined by observations of compact objects.

  14. Strange stars: Can their crust reach the neutron drip density?

    E-print Network

    Hai Fu; Yong-Feng Huang

    2003-06-12

    Electrostatic potential of electrons near the surface of static strange stars at zero temperature is studied within the frame of the MIT bag model. We find that for QCD parameters within rather wide ranges, and if the nuclear crust on the strange star is at a density leading to neutron drip, the electrostatic potential is insufficient to establish an outwardly directed electric field, which is crucial for the survival of such crusts. If a minimum gap width of 200 fm is called in for a more stringent constraint, our calculations completely rule out the possibility of such crusts' presence on strange stars. Therefore, our results prefer against the existence of neutron-drip crust in nature.

  15. Hybrid neutron stars with the field correlator method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio

    2014-07-01

    We study the quark deconfinement phase transition in cold (T = 0) neutron star matter and we calculate various structural properties of hybrid stars. For the quark phase, we use an equation of state (EOS) based on the Field Correlator Method (FCM) extended to the case of nonzero baryon density. For the confined hadronic phase we use a relativistic mean field model considering both pure nucleonic and hyperonic matter. We constrain the values of the gluon condensate G2, which is one of the EOS parameter within the FCM, making use of the measured mass, M = 1.97 ± 0.04 Msolar, of the neutron star in PSR J1614-2230. Our results show that the values of G2 extracted from the mass measurement of PSR J1614-2230 are consistent with the values of the same quantity derived, within the FCM, from recent lattice QCD calculations of the deconfinement transition temperature at zero baryon chemical potential.

  16. EXO 0748-676 Rules out Soft Equations of State for Neutron Star Matter

    E-print Network

    F. Ozel

    2006-05-03

    The interiors of neutron stars contain matter at very high densities, in a state that differs greatly from those found in the early universe or achieved at terrestrial experiments. Matter in these conditions can only be probed through astrophysical observations that measure the mass and radius of neutron stars with sufficient precision. Here I report for the first time a unique determination of the mass and radius of the neutron star EXO 0748-676, which appears to rule out all the soft equations of state of neutron star matter. If this object is typical, then condensates and unconfined quarks do not exist in the centers of neutron stars.

  17. Neutron star properties and the equation of state of neutron-rich matter

    E-print Network

    Plamen G. Krastev; Francesca Sammarruca

    2006-07-24

    We calculate total masses and radii of neutron stars (NS) for pure neutron matter and nuclear matter in beta-equilibrium. We apply a relativistic nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) derived from Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) calculations. We use realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions defined in the framework of the meson exchange potential models. Our results are compared with other theoretical predictions and recent observational data. Suggestions for further study are discussed.

  18. Post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds and neutron-capture processes in AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaro, M.; Campbell, S. W.; Van Winckel, H.; De Smedt, K.; Karakas, A. I.; Käppeler, F.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: We explore modifications to the current scenario for the slow neutron-capture process (the s-process) in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to account for the Pb deficiency observed in post-AGB stars of low metallicity ([Fe/H] ?-1.2) and low initial mass (? 1-1.5 M?) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Methods: We calculated the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis for a 1.3 M? star with [Fe/H] = -1.3 and tested different amounts and distributions of protons leading to the production of the main neutron source within the 13C-pocket and proton ingestion scenarios. Results: No s-process models can fully reproduce the abundance patterns observed in the post-AGB stars. When the Pb production is lowered, the abundances of the elements between Eu and Pb, such as Er, Yb, W, and Hf, are also lowered to below those observed. Conclusions: Neutron-capture processes with neutron densities intermediate between the s and the rapid neutron-capture processes may provide a solution to this problem and be a common occurrence in low-mass, low-metallicity AGB stars.

  19. Minimal Cooling of Neutron Stars: A New Paradigm

    E-print Network

    Dany Page; James M. Lattimer; Madappa Prakash; Andrew W. Steiner

    2004-09-14

    A new classification of neutron star cooling scenarios, involving either ``minimal'' cooling or ``enhanced'' cooling is proposed. The minimal cooling scenario replaces and extends the so-called standard cooling scenario to include neutrino emission from the Cooper pair breaking and formation process. This emission dominates that due to the modified Urca process for temperatures close to the critical temperature for superfluid pairing. Minimal cooling is distinguished from enhanced cooling by the absence of neutrino emission from any direct Urca process, due either to nucleons or to exotica. Within the minimal cooling scenario, theoretical cooling models can be considered to be a four parameter family involving the equation of state of dense matter, superfluid properties of dense matter, the composition of the neutron star envelope, and the mass of the neutron star. Consequences of minimal cooling are explored through extensive variations of these parameters. Results are compared with the inferred properties of thermally-emitting neutron stars in order to ascertain if enhanced cooling occurs in any of them. All stars for which thermal emissions have been clearly detected are at least marginally consistent with the lack of enhanced cooling. The two pulsars PSR 0833-45 (Vela) and PSR 1706-44 would require enhanced cooling in case their ages and/or temperatures are on the lower side of their estimated values whereas the four stars PSR 0656+14, PSR 1055-52, Geminga, and RX J0720.4-3125 may require some source of internal heating in case their age and/or luminosity are on the upper side of their estimated values. The new upper limits on the thermal luminosity of PSR J0205+6449 and RX J0007.0+7302 are indicative of the occurrence of some enhanced neutrino emission beyond the minimal scenario.

  20. Activities and Achievements of the Double Star Committee of the Socié té Astronomique de France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agati, Jean-Louis; Caille, Sébastien; Debackère, André; Durand, Pierre; Losse, Florent; Manté, René; Mauroy, Florence; Mauroy, Pascal; Morlet, Guy; Pinlou, Claude; Salaman, Maurice; Soulié, Edgar; Thorel, Yvonne; Thorel, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-01

    In a synthesis article (see ref. below), the double star expert Paul COUTEAU put the work of French pioneers of double stars observation in the perspective of the double star work carried in the world. After Antoine Yvon VILLARCEAU and Camille FLAMMARION, one prominent pioneer of double stars was Robert JONCKHEERE (1888toiles Doubles, Maurice DURUY (1894le with a 40-cm and later a 60-cm telescope at Le Rouret (Alpes1995) had started the measurement of double stars as an amateur. He was granted permission to measure them with the 38-cm of the Paris Observatory and made an impressive number of measures during his long 2006) made double star observations for the book which was then in preparation under the title La revue des constellations. Their measures remained unpublished; but publication of the measures made by Robert SAGOT is in preparation. At about the same time, the neurology professor Jacques LE BEAU (1908toiles doubles visuelles. That book triggered the interest of more amateur astronomers for double stars and indirectly influenced the creation of a group of double star observers which was transformed into the Commission des É toiles Doubles

  1. Non extensive thermodynamics and neutron star properties

    E-print Network

    Débora P. Menezes; Airton Deppman; Eugenio Megías; Luis B. Castro

    2015-11-30

    In the present work we apply non extensive statistics to obtain equations of state suitable to describe stellar matter and verify its effects on microscopic and macroscopic quantities. Two snapshots of the star evolution are considered and the direct Urca process is investigated with two different parameter sets. $q$-values are chosen as 1.05 and 1.14. The equations of state are only slightly modified, but the effects are enough to produce stars with slightly higher maximum masses. The onsets of the constituents are more strongly affected and the internal stellar temperature decreases with the increase of the $q$-value, with consequences on the strangeness and cooling rates of the stars.

  2. Orbit of the nearby visual double star GJ 767

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyaeva, O. V.; Gorynya, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    Based on photographic and CCD observations in 1971-2013 with the Pulkovo 26-inch refractor and radial-velocity measurements in 1999-2014 with the 1-m telescope of the Simeiz branch of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, we have obtained for the first time the orbits of the nearby visual double star GJ 767 as a function of the adopted relative radial velocity with a minimum period of 415 years and an eccentricity larger than 0.6 by the apparent motion parameter method. Regular radial-velocity measurements for the components are needed to refine the results.

  3. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  4. Envelope tomography of long-period variable stars III. Line-doubling frequency among Mira stars

    E-print Network

    R. Alvarez; A. Jorissen; B. Plez; D. Gillet; A. Fokin; M. Dedecker

    2001-09-17

    This paper presents statistics of the line-doubling phenomenon in a sample of 81 long-period variable (LPV) stars of various periods, spectral types and brightness ranges. When correlated with a mask mimicking a K0III spectrum, 54% of the sample stars clearly showed a double-peaked cross-correlation profile around maximum light, reflecting double absorption lines. Several pieces of evidence are presented that point towards the double absorption lines as being caused by the propagation of a shock wave through the photosphere. The observation of the Balmer lines appearing in emission around maximum light in these stars corroborates the presence of a shock wave. The observed velocity discontinuities, ranging between 10 and 25 km/s, are not correlated with the brightness ranges. A comparison with the center-of-mass (COM) velocity obtained from submm CO lines originating in the circumstellar envelope reveals that the median velocity between the red and blue peaks is blueshifted with respect to the COM velocity, as expected if the shock moves upwards.

  5. INVESTIGATING SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN NEUTRON STAR INTERIORS WITH GLITCH MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, B.; Pizzochero, P. M.; Seveso, S.

    2013-02-20

    The high-density interior of a neutron star is expected to contain superconducting protons and superfluid neutrons. Theoretical estimates suggest that the protons will form a type II superconductor in which the stellar magnetic field is carried by flux tubes. The strong interaction between the flux tubes and the neutron rotational vortices could lead to strong ''pinning'', i.e., vortex motion could be impeded. This has important implications especially for pulsar glitch models as it would lead to a large part of the vorticity of the star being decoupled from the ''normal'' component to which the electromagnetic emission is locked. In this Letter, we explore the consequences of strong pinning in the core on the ''snowplow'' model for pulsar glitches, making use of realistic equations of state and relativistic background models for the neutron star. We find that, in general, a large fraction of the pinned vorticity in the core is not compatible with observations of giant glitches in the Vela pulsar. Thus, the conclusion is that either most of the core is in a type I superconducting state or the interaction between vortices and flux tubes is weaker than previously assumed.

  6. Molecular Dynamics of Nuclear Pasta in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2014-09-01

    During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces. Between the crust and core lies an interesting interface where matter is neither a single nucleus nor separate nuclei. It exists in a frustrated phase; competition between electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces causes exotic shapes to emerge, referred to as nuclear pasta. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) to simulate nuclear pasta, with densities between nuclear saturation density and approximately one-tenth saturation density. Using MD particle trajectories, we compute the static structure factor S(q) and dynamical response function to describe both electron-pasta and neutrino-pasta scattering. We relate the structure and properties of nuclear pasta phases to features in S(q). Finally, one can integrate over S(q) to determine transport properties such as the electrical and thermal conductivity. This may help provide a better understanding of X-ray observations of neutron stars. During a core collapse supernova, a massive star undergoes rapid contraction followed by a massive explosion on the order of a hundred trillion trillion nuclear bombs in less than a second. While most matter is expelled at high speeds, what remains can form a neutron star. The bulk of a neutron star does not contain separate nuclei but is itself a single nucleus of radius ~10 km. In the crust of a neutron star, density is low enough that some matter exists as distinct nuclei arranged into crystalline lattice dominated by electromagnetic forces. Between the crust and core lies an interesting interface where matter is neither a single nucleus nor separate nuclei. It exists in a frustrated phase; competition between electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces causes exotic shapes to emerge, referred to as nuclear pasta. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) to simulate nuclear pasta, with densities between nuclear saturation density and approximately one-tenth saturation density. Using MD particle trajectories, we compute the static structure factor S(q) and dynamical response function to describe both electron-pasta and neutrino-pasta scattering. We relate the structure and properties of nuclear pasta phases to features in S(q). Finally, one can integrate over S(q) to determine transport properties such as the electrical and thermal conductivity. This may help provide a better understanding of X-ray observations of neutron stars. This research was supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  7. HOW CAN NEWLY BORN RAPIDLY ROTATING NEUTRON STARS BECOME MAGNETARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-05-10

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (?10{sup 11} G) to generate an ultra-high (?10{sup 17} G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ?10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ?10{sup 15} G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ?5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  8. Spot-like Structures of Neutron Star Surface Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    U. Geppert; M. Rheinhardt; J. Gil

    2003-11-17

    There is growing evidence, based on both X-ray and radio observations of isolated neutron stars, that besides the large--scale (dipolar) magnetic field, which determines the pulsar spin--down behaviour, small--scale poloidal field components are present, which have surface strengths one to two orders of magnitude larger than the dipolar component. We argue in this paper that the Hall--effect can be an efficient process in producing such small--scale field structures just above the neutron star surface. It is shown that due to a Hall--drift induced instability, poloidal magnetic field structures can be generated from strong subsurface toroidal fields, which are the result of either a dynamo or a thermoelectric instability acting at early times of a neutron star's life. The geometrical structure of these small--scale surface anomalies of the magnetic field resembles that of some types of ``star--spots''. The magnetic field strength and the length--scales are comparable with values that can be derived from various observations.

  9. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds after neutron star mergers

    E-print Network

    Martin, Dirk; Arcones, Almudena; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Korobkin, Oleg; Rosswog, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive nucleosynthesis study of the neutrino-driven wind in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. Our focus is the initial remnant phase when a massive central neutron star is present. Using tracers from a recent hydrodynamical simulation, we determine total masses and integrated abundances to characterize the composition of unbound matter. We find that the nucleosynthetic yields depend sensitively on both the life time of the massive neutron star and the polar angle. Matter in excess of up to $9 \\cdot 10^{-3} M_\\odot$ becomes unbound until $\\sim 200~{\\rm ms}$. Due to electron fractions of $Y_{\\rm e} \\approx 0.2 - 0.4$ mainly nuclei with mass numbers $A < 130$ are synthesized, complementing the yields from the earlier dynamic ejecta. Mixing scenarios with these two types of ejecta can explain the abundance pattern in r-process enriched metal-poor stars. Additionally, we calculate heating rates for the decay of the freshly produced radioactive isotopes. The resulting light curve...

  10. Supernova Explosions and the Birth of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, H.-Thomas; Marek, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard; Scheck, Leonhard

    2008-02-01

    We report here on recent progress in understanding the birth conditions of neutron stars and the way how supernovae explode. More sophisticated numerical models have led to the discovery of new phenomena in the supernova core, for example a generic hydrodynamic instability of the stagnant supernova shock against low-mode nonradial deformation and the excitation of gravity-wave activity in the surface and core of the nascent neutron star. Both can have supportive or decisive influence on the inauguration of the explosion, the former by improving the conditions for energy deposition by neutrino heating in the postshock gas, the latter by supplying the developing blast with a flux of acoustic power that adds to the energy transfer by neutrinos. While recent two-dimensional models suggest that the neutrino-driven mechanism may be viable for stars from ~8Msolar to at least 15Msolar, acoustic energy input has been advocated as an alternative if neutrino heating fails. Magnetohydrodynamic effects constitute another way to trigger explosions in connection with the collapse of sufficiently rapidly rotating stellar cores, perhaps linked to the birth of magnetars. The global explosion asymmetries seen in the recent simulations offer an explanation of even the highest measured kick velocities of young neutron stars.

  11. Unstable Nonradial Oscillations on Helium Burning Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Anthony L. Piro; Lars Bildsten

    2003-11-17

    Material accreted onto a neutron star can stably burn in steady state only when the accretion rate is high (typically super-Eddington) or if a large flux from the neutron star crust permeates the outer atmosphere. For such situations we have analyzed the stability of nonradial oscillations, finding one unstable mode for pure helium accretion. This is a shallow surface wave which resides in the helium atmosphere above the heavier ashes of the ocean. It is excited by the increase in the nuclear reaction rate during the oscillations, and it grows on the timescale of a second. For a slowly rotating star, this mode has a frequency of approximately 20-30 Hz (for l=1), and we calculate the full spectrum that a rapidly rotating (>>30 Hz) neutron star would support. The short period X-ray binary 4U 1820--30 is accreting helium rich material and is the system most likely to show this unstable mode,especially when it is not exhibiting X-ray bursts. Our discovery of an unstable mode in a thermally stable atmosphere shows that nonradial perturbations have a different stability criterion than the spherically symmetric thermal perturbations that generate type I X-ray bursts.

  12. Supernova Explosions and the Birth of Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Janka, H.-Thomas; Marek, Andreas; Mueller, Bernhard; Scheck, Leonhard

    2008-02-27

    We report here on recent progress in understanding the birth conditions of neutron stars and the way how supernovae explode. More sophisticated numerical models have led to the discovery of new phenomena in the supernova core, for example a generic hydrodynamic instability of the stagnant supernova shock against low-mode nonradial deformation and the excitation of gravity-wave activity in the surface and core of the nascent neutron star. Both can have supportive or decisive influence on the inauguration of the explosion, the former by improving the conditions for energy deposition by neutrino heating in the postshock gas, the latter by supplying the developing blast with a flux of acoustic power that adds to the energy transfer by neutrinos. While recent two-dimensional models suggest that the neutrino-driven mechanism may be viable for stars from {approx}8M{sub {center_dot}} to at least 15M{sub {center_dot}}, acoustic energy input has been advocated as an alternative if neutrino heating fails. Magnetohydrodynamic effects constitute another way to trigger explosions in connection with the collapse of sufficiently rapidly rotating stellar cores, perhaps linked to the birth of magnetars. The global explosion asymmetries seen in the recent simulations offer an explanation of even the highest measured kick velocities of young neutron stars.

  13. Improved universality in the neutron star three-hair relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Barun; Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-07-01

    No-hair-like relations between the multipole moments of the exterior gravitational field of neutron stars have recently been found to be approximately independent of the star's internal structure. This approximate equation-of-state universality arises after one adimensionalizes the multipole moments appropriately, which then begs the question of whether there are better ways to adimensionalize the moments to obtain stronger universality. We here investigate this question in detail by considering slowly rotating neutron stars to quartic order in spin, an approximation that is valid for spin frequencies roughly below 500 Hz, both in the nonrelativistic limit and in full general relativity. We find that there exist normalizations that lead to stronger equation-of-state universality in the relations among the moment of inertia and the quadrupole, octopole and hexadecapole moments of neutron stars. We determine the optimal normalization that minimizes the equation-of-state dependence in these relations. The results found here may have applications in the modeling of x-ray pulses and atomic line profiles from millisecond pulsars with NICER and LOFT.

  14. Supernova explosions and the birth of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    H. -Th. Janka; A. Marek; B. Mueller; L. Scheck

    2007-12-20

    We report here on recent progress in understanding the birth conditions of neutron stars and the way how supernovae explode. More sophisticated numerical models have led to the discovery of new phenomena in the supernova core, for example a generic hydrodynamic instability of the stagnant supernova shock against low-mode nonradial deformation and the excitation of gravity-wave activity in the surface and core of the nascent neutron star. Both can have supportive or decisive influence on the inauguration of the explosion, the former by improving the conditions for energy deposition by neutrino heating in the postshock gas, the latter by supplying the developing blast with a flux of acoustic power that adds to the energy transfer by neutrinos. While recent two-dimensional models suggest that the neutrino-driven mechanism may be viable for stars from about 8 solar masses to at least 15 solar masses, acoustic energy input has been advocated as an alternative if neutrino heating fails. Magnetohydrodynamic effects constitute another way to trigger explosions in connection with the collapse of sufficiently rapidly rotating stellar cores, perhaps linked to the birth of magnetars. The global explosion asymmetries seen in the recent simulations offer an explanation of even the highest measured kick velocities of young neutron stars.

  15. Improved Universality in the Neutron Star Three-Hair Relations

    E-print Network

    Barun Majumder; Kent Yagi; Nicolas Yunes

    2015-04-09

    No-hair like relations between the multipole moments of the exterior gravitational field of neutron stars have recently been found to be approximately independent of the star's internal structure. This approximate, equation-of-state universality arises after one adimensionalizes the multipole moments appropriately, which then begs the question of whether there are better ways to adimensionalize the moments to obtain stronger universality. We here investigate this question in detail by considering slowly-rotating neutron stars both in the non-relativistic limit and in full General Relativity. We find that there exist normalizations that lead to stronger equation-of-state universality in the relations among the moment of inertia and the quadrupole, octopole and hexadecapole moments of neutron stars. We determine the optimal normalization that minimizes the equation-of-state dependence in these relations. The results found here may have applications in the modeling of X-ray pulses and atomic line profiles from millisecond pulsars with NICER and LOFT.

  16. Nuclear reactions in the crust of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kit Yu

    There have been many discoveries from observations of accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. Many of the observed phenomena such as superbursts or the cooling of quasi-persistent transients during their quiescent state are affected by the thermal properties and the composition of the crust. To model the nuclear energy release and crust composition, we build up a first complete network with pycnonuclear fusion. We run a consistent nuclear reaction network that follows the evolution of an accreted fluid element from the atmosphere down to the inner crust. We take into account a majority of the most important nuclear processes including electron capture, neutron capture, neutron emissions, beta- decay, and pycnonuclear fusion reactions. The result of the model shows that there is nuclear reaction path splitting in the crust of accreting neutron stars due to the usage of finite electron capture rates. The pycnonuclear fusion reactions can occur at a shallower depth than previously thought. The composition deep inside the inner crust is mainly 40Mg, independent of the initial composition of the ashes of the outer crust. The inner crust is found to be very pure no matter what the initial abundance of the ashes is in the outer crust. The neutron drip locates at a higher density in our model. In general, the nuclear reaction path and the heat energy generation in the inner crust are significantly different from the previous work.

  17. NUCLEAR CONSTRAINTS ON PROPERTIES OF NEUTRON STAR CRUSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jun; Chen Liewen; Ma Hongru; Li Baoan E-mail: hrma@sjtu.edu.cn E-mail: Bao-An_Li@tamu-commerce.edu

    2009-06-01

    The transition density {rho} {sub t} and pressure P{sub t} at the inner edge separating the liquid core from the solid crust of neutron stars are systematically studied using a modified Gogny (MDI) and 51 popular Skyrme interactions within well established dynamical and thermodynamical methods. First of all, it is shown that the widely used parabolic approximation to the full equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter may lead to huge errors in estimating the transition density and pressure, especially for stiffer symmetry energy functionals E {sub sym}({rho}), compared to calculations using the full EOS within both the dynamical and thermodynamical methods mainly because of the energy curvatures involved. Thus, fine details of the EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter are important for locating accurately the inner edge of the neutron star crust. Second, the transition density and pressure decrease roughly linearly with increasing slope parameter L of E {sub sym}({rho}) at normal nuclear matter density using the full EOS within both the dynamical and thermodynamical methods. It is also shown that the thickness, fractional mass, and moment of inertia of the neutron star crust are all very sensitive to the parameter L through the transition density {rho} {sub t} whether one uses the full EOS or its parabolic approximation. Moreover, it is shown that E {sub sym}({rho}) constrained in the same subsaturation density range as the neutron star crust by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies limits the transition density and pressure to 0.040 fm{sup -3} {<=}{rho} {sub t} {<=} 0.065 fm{sup -3} and 0.01 MeV fm{sup -3} {<=}P{sub t} {<=} 0.26 MeV fm{sup -3}, respectively. These constrained values for the transition density and pressure are significantly lower than their fiducial values currently used in the literature. Furthermore, the mass-radius relation and several other properties closely related to the neutron star crust are studied by using the MDI interaction. It is found that the newly constrained {rho} {sub t} and P{sub t} together with the earlier estimate of {delta}I/I>0.014 for the crustal fraction of the moment of inertia of the Vela pulsar impose a more stringent constraint of R {>=} 4.7 + 4.0M/M {sub sun} km for the radius R and mass M of neutron stars compared to previous studies in the literature.

  18. Post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds and neutron-capture processes in AGB stars

    E-print Network

    Lugaro, M; Van Winckel, H; De Smedt, K; Karakas, A I; Käppeler, F

    2015-01-01

    We explore modifications to the current scenario for the slow neutron capture process in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to account for the Pb deficiency observed in post-AGB stars of low metallicity ([Fe/H] ~ -1.2) and low initial mass (~ 1 - 1.5 Msun) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We calculated the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis for a 1.3 Msun star with [Fe/H]=-1.3 and tested different amounts and distributions of protons leading to the production of the main neutron source within the 13C-pocket and proton ingestion scenarios. No s-process models can fully reproduce the abundance patterns observed in the post-AGB stars. When the Pb production is lowered the abundances of the elements between Eu and Pb, such as Er, Yb, W, and Hf, are also lowered to below those observed. Neutron-capture processes with neutron densities intermediate between the s and the rapid neutron-capture processes may provide a solution to this problem and be a common occurrence in low-mass, low-metallicity AGB sta...

  19. Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aringazin, Ascar; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable.

  20. Strangeness in neutron star matter: a challenging puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardoni, Diego; Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The onset of strange baryons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions about the predicted maximum mass and the recent astrophysical observations are the grounds of the so called hyperon puzzle. We attempt to give our contribution to the discussion by studying the general problem of the hyperon-nucleon interaction by means of Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. We employ a phenomenological approach showing that a three-body hyperon-nucleon force provides the strong repulsive contribution needed to correctly describe the systematics of medium-light ? hypernuclei. The same potential has been used to determine the equation of state and the mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and ? particles. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon force has a dramatic effect on the equation of state and the predicted maximum mass. Our results suggest that more constraints on the nature of hyperon-neutron forces are needed before drawing any conclusion on the role played by hyperons in neutron stars. The onset of strange baryons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions about the predicted maximum mass and the recent astrophysical observations are the grounds of the so called hyperon puzzle. We attempt to give our contribution to the discussion by studying the general problem of the hyperon-nucleon interaction by means of Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. We employ a phenomenological approach showing that a three-body hyperon-nucleon force provides the strong repulsive contribution needed to correctly describe the systematics of medium-light ? hypernuclei. The same potential has been used to determine the equation of state and the mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and ? particles. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon force has a dramatic effect on the equation of state and the predicted maximum mass. Our results suggest that more constraints on the nature of hyperon-neutron forces are needed before drawing any conclusion on the role played by hyperons in neutron stars. D. Lonardoni is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under the NUCLEI SciDAC-3 grant.

  1. Singlet pairing gaps of neutrons and protons in hyperonic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Cheng-Zhi; Fan, Cun-Bo; Han, Xing-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Ming-Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Guang-Zhou

    2015-05-01

    The 1S0 nucleonic superfluids are investigated within the relativistic mean-field model and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory in hyperonic neutron stars. The 1S0 pairing gaps of neutrons and protons are calculated based on the Reid soft-core interaction as the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we have studied the influence of degrees of freedom for hyperons on the 1S0 nucleonic pairing gap in neutron star matter. It is found that the appearance of hyperons has little impact on the baryonic density range and the size of the 1S0 neutronic pairing gap; the 1S0 protonic pairing gap also decreases slightly in this region where ?B = 0.0–0.393 fm?3. However, if baryonic density becomes greater than 0.393 fm?3, the 1S0 protonic pairing gap obviously increases. In addition, the possible range for a protonic superfluid is obviously enlarged due to the presence of hyperons. In our results, the hyperons change the 1S0 protonic pairing gap, which must change the cooling properties of neutron stars. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  2. Diversity of neutron star properties at the fixed neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Sulaksono, A.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2015-07-01

    We study the diversities in the properties of the neutron stars arising due to the different choices for the cross coupling between various mesons, which governs the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy in the extended relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. For this purpose, we obtain two different families of the extended RMF model corresponding to different nonlinear cross-coupling terms in the isovector part of the effective Lagrangian density. The lowest-order contributions for the ? mesons are also included. The different models within the same family yield wide variation in the value of neutron-skin thickness in the 208Pb nucleus. These models are employed to compute the neutron-star properties such as core-crust transition density, radius and red shift at canonical mass ( 1.4 M?) , tidal polarizability parameter, and threshold mass required for the enhanced cooling through the direct Urca process. Most of the neutron-star properties considered are significantly different(10-40%) for the different families of models at a smaller neutron-skin thickness (˜0.15 fm ) in the 208Pb nucleus.

  3. The Orbit of X Per and Its Neutron Star Companion

    E-print Network

    Hugo Delgado-Marti; Alan M. Levine; Eric Pfahl; Saul A. Rappaport

    2000-04-18

    We have observed the Be/X-ray pulsar binary system X Per/4U 0352+30 on 61 occasions spanning an interval of 600 days with the PCA instrument on RXTE. Pulse timing analyses of the 837-s pulsations yield strong evidence for the presence of orbital Doppler delays. We confirm the Doppler delays by using measurements made with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor. We obtain an orbital period of 250 days, a projected semimajor axis of the neutron star of 454 lt-s, a mass function of 1.61 solar masses, and a modest eccentricity of 0.11. We discuss the formation of the system in the context of the standard evolutionary scenario for Be/X-ray binaries with consideration of the possibility that the birth of the neutron star was accompanied by a kick of the type often inferred from the velocity distribution of isolated radio pulsars. The orbital eccentricity just after the supernova explosion was almost certainly virtually the same as at present, because the Be star is much smaller than the orbital separation. We find that the system most likely formed from a pair of massive progenitor stars, and probably involved a quasi-stable and nearly conservative transfer of mass from the primary to the secondary. We find that the He star remnant of the primary most likely had a mass less than 6 solar masses after mass transfer. Finally, we speculate that there may be a substantial population of neutron stars formed with little or no kick.

  4. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  5. Stellar encounters involving neutron stars in globular cluster cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Encounters between a 1.4 solar mass neutron star and a 0.8 solar mass red giant (RG) and between a 1.4 solar mass neutron star (NS) and an 0.8 solar mass main-sequence (MS) star have been successfully simulated. In the case of encounters involving an RG, bound systems are produced when the separation at periastron passage R(MIN) is less than about 2.5 R(RG). At least 70 percent of these bound systems are composed of the RG core and NS forming a binary engulfed in a common envelope of what remains of the former RG envelope. Once the envelope is ejected, a tight white dwarf-NS binary remains. For MS stars, encounters with NSs will produce bound systems when R(MIN) is less than about 3.5 R(MS). Some 50 percent of these systems will be single objects with the NS engulfed in a thick disk of gas almost as massive as the original MS star. The ultimate fate of such systems is unclear.

  6. Buoyancy and g-modes in young superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamonti, A.; Andersson, N.; Ho, W. C. G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the local dynamics of a realistic neutron-star core, including composition gradients, superfluidity and thermal effects. The main focus is on the gravity g-modes, which are supported by composition stratification and thermal gradients. We derive the equations that govern this problem in full detail, paying particular attention to the input that needs to be provided through the equation of state and distinguishing between normal and superfluid regions. The analysis highlights a number of key issues that should be kept in mind whenever equation of state data is compiled from nuclear physics for use in neutron-star calculations. We provide explicit results for a particular stellar model and a specific nucleonic equation of state, making use of cooling simulations to show how the local wave spectrum evolves as the star ages. Our results show that the composition gradient is effectively dominated by the muons whenever they are present. When the star cools below the superfluid transition, the support for g-modes at lower densities (where there are no muons) is entirely thermal. We confirm the recent suggestion that the g-modes in this region may be unstable, but our results indicate that this instability will be weak and would only be present for a brief period of the star's life. Our analysis accounts for the presence of thermal excitations encoded in entrainment between the entropy and the superfluid component. Finally, we discuss the complete spectrum, including the normal sound waves and, in superfluid regions, the second sound.

  7. Buoyancy and g-modes in young superfluid neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. Passamonti; N. Andersson; W. C. G. Ho

    2015-04-28

    We consider the local dynamics of a realistic neutron star core, including composition gradients, superfluidity and thermal effects. The main focus is on the gravity g-modes, which are supported by composition stratification and thermal gradients. We derive the equations that govern this problem in full detail, paying particular attention to the input that needs to be provided through the equation of state and distinguishing between normal and superfluid regions. The analysis highlights a number of key issues that should be kept in mind whenever equation of state data is compiled from nuclear physics for use in neutron star calculations. We provide explicit results for a particular stellar model and a specific nucleonic equation of state, making use of cooling simulations to show how the local wave spectrum evolves as the star ages. Our results show that the composition gradient is effectively dominated by the muons whenever they are present. When the star cools below the superfluid transition, the support for g-modes at lower densities (where there are no muons) is entirely thermal. We confirm the recent suggestion that the g-modes in this region may be unstable, but our results indicate that this instability will be weak and would only be present for a brief period of the star's life. Our analysis accounts for the presence of thermal excitations encoded in entrainment between the entropy and the superfluid component. Finally, we discuss the complete spectrum, including the normal sound waves and, in superfluid regions, the second sound.

  8. Unexpected Dynamical Instabilities In Differentially Rotating Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Shangli Ou; Joel E. Tohline

    2006-07-13

    A one-armed spiral instability has been found to develop in differentially rotating stellar models that have a relatively stiff, $n=1$ polytropic equation of state and a wide range of rotational energies. This suggests that such instabilities can arise in neutron stars that are differentially, although not necessarily rapidly, rotating. The instability seems to be directly triggered by the presence of a corotation resonance inside the star. Our analysis also suggests that a resonant cavity resulting from a local minimum in the radial vortensity profile of the star plays an important role in amplifying the unstable mode. Hence, it appears as through this instability is closely related to the so-called ``Rossby wave instability'' \\citep{LLCN99} that has been found to arise in accretion disks. In addition to the one-armed ($m=1$) spiral mode, we have found that higher-order ($m = 2$ and $m=3$) nonaxisymmetric modes also can become unstable if corotation points that resonate with the eigenfrequencies of these higher-order modes also appear inside the star. The growth rate of each mode seems to depend on the location of its corotation radius with respect to the vortensity profile (or on the depth of its corotation radius inside the vortensity well). The existence of such instabilities makes the stability criterion for differentially rotating neutron stars non-unique. Also, the gravitational-waves emitted from such unstable systems generally will not have a monochromatic frequency spectrum.

  9. Merger of a Neutron Star with a Newtonian Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, William H.; Kluzniak, Wlodzimierz

    1995-01-01

    Newtonian smooth particle hydro simulations are presented of the merger of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star with a black hole of equal mass. The initial state of the system is modeled with a stiff polytrope orbiting a point mass. Dynamical instability sets in when the orbital separation is equal to about three stellar radii. The ensuing mass transfer occurs on the dynamical timescale. No accretion torus is formed. At the end of the computation a corona of large extent shrouds an apparently stable binary system of a 0.25 solar mass star orbiting a 2.3 solar mass black hole.

  10. Neutron-star formation in the carbon-detonation supernova.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. C.; Buchler, J.-R.; Barkat, Z. K.

    1973-01-01

    Neutrino losses, such as those driven by the convective Urca process, may affect the evolution of stars in the mass range from 4 to 8 solar masses so as to lead to collapse of their degenerate carbon/oxygen cores. A corresponding hydrodynamic model is computed which leads to the formation of a 1.3 to 1.4 solar mass neutron star with the expulsion of a small fraction of the mass, about 0.l solar mass at about 20,000 km/sec into the overlying hydrogen envelope. This sets the stage for the Ostriker-Gunn mechanism in which Type II supernovae and pulsars are formed.

  11. Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves Generated by Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    E. F. D. Evangelista; J. C. N. de Araujo

    2015-04-09

    Binary systems emit gravitational waves in a well-known pattern; for binaries in circular orbits, the emitted radiation has a frequency that is twice the orbital frequency. Systems in eccentric orbits, however, emit gravitational radiation in the higher harmonics too. In this paper, we are concerned with the stochastic background of gravitational waves generated by double neutron star systems of cosmological origin in eccentric orbits. We consider in particular the long-lived systems, that is, those binaries for which the time to coalescence is longer than the Hubble time ($\\sim 10$Gyr). Thus, we consider double neutron stars with orbital frequencies ranging from $10^{-8}$ to $2\\times 10^{-6}$Hz. Although in the literature some papers consider the spectra generated by eccentric binaries, there is still space for alternative approaches for the calculation of the backgrounds. In this paper, we use a method that consists in summing the spectra that would be generated by each harmonic separately in order to obtain the total background. This method allows us to clearly obtain the influence of each harmonic on the spectra. In addition, we consider different distribution functions for the eccentricities in order to investigate their effects on the background of gravitational waves generated. At last, we briefly discuss the detectability of this background by space-based gravitational wave antennas and pulsar timing arrays.

  12. Properties of Neutron Stars in the Relativistic Mean-Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, K. S.; Dai, Z. G.; Yao, C. C.

    1996-06-01

    We study the properties of dense matter in neutron stars and calculate the structure of the stars based on the Zimanyi & Moszkowski (ZM) model in the relativistic mean-field theory. We also compare these results with those based on the Boguta & Bodmer (BB) model with a recent satisfactory parameter set. The two models satisfy the requirements from the observations of the masses of binary radio pulsars, the rotation frequencies of millisecond pulsars, the redshifts of the e+ annihilation lines of some ?-ray bursts if they are neutron stars, and the crustal moment of inertia of neutron stars deduced from the glitch events. Other observations may provide a way to discriminate between the two models. We suggest that the most important observational discriminant between these two models is found by observing the surface radiation of neutron stars, since the BB model leads to a large photon fraction of neutron star matter and rapid cooling of neutron stars, but the ZM model does not.

  13. X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Shibanov, Yu. A.; Rogers, F. J.; Iglesias, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results from the simulation of convective photospheres of neutron stars are presented. It is shown that in photospheres composed of light elements, convection arises at relatively low effective temperatures of between 3 x 10(exp 4) and 5 x 10(exp 4) K, whereas, in the case of iron composition, it arises at temperatures of less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp 5) K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. It is concluded that depth should be taken into account for the correct interpretation of extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

  14. Binary neutron stars: Equilibrium models beyond spatial conformal flatness

    E-print Network

    Koji Uryu; Francois Limousin; John L. Friedman; Eric Gourgoulhon; Masaru Shibata

    2006-10-21

    Equilibria of binary neutron stars in close circular orbits are computed numerically in a waveless formulation: The full Einstein-relativistic-Euler system is solved on an initial hypersurface to obtain an asymptotically flat form of the 4-metric and an extrinsic curvature whose time derivative vanishes in a comoving frame. Two independent numerical codes are developed, and solution sequences that model inspiraling binary neutron stars during the final several orbits are successfully computed. The binding energy of the system near its final orbit deviates from earlier results of third post-Newtonian and of spatially conformally flat calculations. The new solutions may serve as initial data for merger simulations and as members of quasiequilibrium sequences to generate gravitational wave templates, and may improve estimates of the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency set by the last inspiral orbit.

  15. Optimising gravitational wave searches for unknown isolated neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Sinead; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    All-sky searches for gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars must be highly sensitive over a large parameter space. This requirement presents a significant computational challenge. Computing power is amassed with the support of the public via the Einstein@Home project. Semi-coherent search methods seek to maximise sensitivity to signals of unknown frequency over the whole sky. Parameter space coverage in each dimension, and coherent integration time at each point in parameter space, impact the search sensitivity and the computing requirements. The optimal search design is a trade-off among these elements, with the best choice depending on the amount of LIGO data and the area in parameter space to be covered. Here I present efforts to address the multi-dimensional challenge of optimising all-sky searches for isolated neutron stars with Einstein@Home.

  16. Quark matter in neutron stars within the field correlator method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumari, S.; Burgio, G. F.; Greco, V.; Zappalà, D.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the appearance of quark matter in neutron star cores, focusing on the possibility that the recent observation of a very heavy neutron star could constrain free parameters of quark matter models. For that, we use the equation of state derived with the field correlator method, extended to the zero temperature limit, whereas for the hadronic phase we use the equation of state obtained within both the nonrelativistic and the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory. We find a strong dependence of the maximum mass both on the value of the qq¯ interaction V1 and on the gluon condensate G2, for which we introduce a dependence on the baryon chemical potential ?B. We find that the maximum masses are consistent with the observational limit for not too small values of V1.

  17. Systematic parameter errors in inspiraling neutron star binaries.

    PubMed

    Favata, Marc

    2014-03-14

    The coalescence of two neutron stars is an important gravitational wave source for LIGO and other detectors. Numerous studies have considered the precision with which binary parameters (masses, spins, Love numbers) can be measured. Here I consider the accuracy with which these parameters can be determined in the presence of systematic errors due to waveform approximations. These approximations include truncation of the post-Newtonian (PN) series and neglect of neutron star (NS) spin, tidal deformation, or orbital eccentricity. All of these effects can yield systematic errors that exceed statistical errors for plausible parameter values. In particular, neglecting spin, eccentricity, or high-order PN terms causes a significant bias in the NS Love number. Tidal effects will not be measurable with PN inspiral waveforms if these systematic errors are not controlled. PMID:24679276

  18. Neutron star oscillations and QPOs during magnetar flares

    E-print Network

    Anna L. Watts; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2007-01-10

    The high frequency oscillations discovered in the tails of giant flares from two magnetars are thought to be the first direct detections of seismic vibrations from neutron stars. The possibility of starquakes associated with the giant flares triggering global vibrations opens up the prospect of using seismology to study the interior structure and composition of neutron stars. This is a major breakthrough in the study of the nature of matter under conditions of extreme pressure. In this paper we provide an up to date summary of the observations and the theoretical framework, including a brief discussion of gravitational wave searches for the QPOs. We summarize the status of alternative non-seismic mechanisms, and give a critique of a recent paper by Levin that argued against seismic vibrations as a viable mechanism. We conclude with an overview of current results using the seismological technique that constrain parameters such as the equation of state and crust structure.

  19. Electromagnetic and gravitational outputs from binary-neutron-star coalescence.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; Liebling, Steven L; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Motl, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    The late stage of an inspiraling neutron-star binary gives rise to strong gravitational wave emission due to its highly dynamic, strong gravity. Moreover, interactions between the stellar magnetospheres can produce considerable electromagnetic radiation. We study this scenario using fully general relativistic, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that these interactions extract kinetic energy from the system, dissipate heat, and power radiative Poynting flux, as well as develop current sheets. Our results indicate that this power can (i) outshine pulsars in binaries, (ii) display a distinctive angular- and time-dependent pattern, and (iii) radiate within large opening angles. These properties suggest that some binary neutron-star mergers are ideal candidates for multimessenger astronomy. PMID:23971553

  20. Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers.

    PubMed

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro

    2015-08-28

    In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f(2) is correlated with the tidal coupling constant ?(2)^T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f(2)(?(2)^T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions. PMID:26371635

  1. Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f2 is correlated with the tidal coupling constant ?2T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f2(?2T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.

  2. Dark matter effect on the mass measurement of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    A. LI

    2013-07-11

    Newly-determined mass of 1.97 $\\pm$ 0.04 $M_{\\odot}$ for PSR J1614-2230 has been a challenge for the neutron star with a hyperon core (namely hyperon star), since hyperons usually reduce the theoretical maximum mass of the star. In this article, we consider dark matter as another possible constituent in hyperon stars' interior to loose this mass constrain. We take dark matter as self-interacting Fermi gas with certain repulsive interaction among the dark matter particles and non-interaction between dark matter and ordinary matter as is generally assumed. We find that the star maximum mass is sensitive to the particle mass of dark matter, and a high enough star mass larger than 2 $M_{\\odot}$ could be achieved when the particle mass is small enough. In this particular model, a strong upper limit 0.64 GeV for dark matter mass is obtained in strongly-interacting dark matter and 0.16 GeV for dark matter mass in weakly-interacting dark matter. Dark matter accumulated around the star could also contribute to the mass measurement, however, such contribution could be safely ignored when the generally used dark matter density is assumed.

  3. Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars

    E-print Network

    David Blaschke

    2014-07-28

    It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.

  4. Baryon direct Urca processes in neutron star cooling

    E-print Network

    Xu, Yan; Fan, Cun Bo; Zhang, Xiao Jun; Bao, Tmurbagan; Zhu, Ming Feng; Wang, Hong Yan

    2015-01-01

    A detailed description of the nucleon direct Urca processes related to the neutron star cooling is given and how they are affected by the degrees of freedom of hyperons and hyperon direct Urca processes are presented. These results indicate that the appearance of hyperons can sharply suppress the neutrino emissivity of the nucleon direct Urca processes.However, the contribution of the reactions $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p+e+\\bar{\

  5. SHATTERING FLARES DURING CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, David

    2013-11-10

    We demonstrate that resonant shattering flares can occur during close passages of neutron stars in eccentric or hyperbolic encounters. We provide updated estimates for the rate of close encounters of compact objects in dense stellar environments, which we find are substantially lower than given in previous works. While such occurrences are rare, we show that shattering flares can provide a strong electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave bursts expected from such encounters, allowing triggered searches for these events to occur.

  6. Impacts of the Nuclear Symmetry Energy on Neutron Star Crusts

    E-print Network

    Shishao Bao; Hong Shen

    2015-12-12

    Using the relativistic mean-field theory, we adopt two different methods, namely, the coexisting phase method and the self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation, to study the impacts of the nuclear symmetry energy on properties of neutron star crusts within a wide range of densities. It is found that the nuclear symmetry energy and its density slope play an important role in determining the pasta phases and the crust-core transition.

  7. Uncovering the Properties of Young Neutron Stars and Their Surroundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The subject grant provides funding through the NASA LTSA program. This five-year grant involves the study of young neutron stars, particularly those in supernova remnants. In the fifth year of this program, the following studies have been undertaken in support of this effort and are discussed in this report. 1) 3C 58; 2) Chandra Survey for Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants; 3) G327.1-1.1; 4) Infrared Emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae; and Cas A.

  8. On the capture of dark matter by neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Güver, Tolga; Erkoca, Arif Emre; Sarcevic, Ina; Reno, Mary Hall E-mail: aeerkoca@gmail.com E-mail: ina@physics.arizona.edu

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the number of dark matter particles that a neutron star accumulates over its lifetime as it rotates around the center of a galaxy, when the dark matter particle is a self-interacting boson but does not self-annihilate. We take into account dark matter interactions with baryonic matter and the time evolution of the dark matter sphere as it collapses within the neutron star. We show that dark matter self-interactions play an important role in the rapid accumulation of dark matter in the core of the neutron star. We consider the possibility of determining an exclusion region of the parameter space for dark matter mass and dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons as well as dark matter self-interaction cross section, based on the observation of old neutron stars. We show that for a dark matter density of 10{sup 3} GeV/cm{sup 3}and dark matter mass m{sub ?} ?< 10 GeV, there is a potential exclusion region for dark matter interactions with nucleons that is three orders of magnitude more stringent than without self-interactions. The potential exclusion region for dark matter self-interaction cross sections is many orders of magnitude stronger than the current Bullet Cluster limit. For example, for high dark matter density regions, we find that for m{sub ?} ? 10 GeV when the dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons ranges from ?{sub ?n} ? 10{sup ?52} cm{sup 2} to ?{sub ?n} ? 10{sup ?57} cm{sup 2}, the dark matter self-interaction cross section limit is ?{sub ??} ?< 10{sup ?33} cm{sup 2}, which is about ten orders of magnitude stronger than the Bullet Cluster limit.

  9. Tidal Love numbers of a slowly spinning neutron star

    E-print Network

    Paolo Pani; Leonardo Gualtieri; Valeria Ferrari

    2015-12-02

    By extending our recent framework to describe the tidal deformations of a spinning compact object, we compute for the first time the tidal Love numbers of a spinning neutron star to linear order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic distortions and new classes of spin-induced ("rotational") tidal Love numbers emerge. We focus on stationary tidal fields, which induce axisymmetric perturbations. We present the perturbation equations for both electric-led and magnetic-led rotational Love numbers for generic multipoles and explicitly solve them for various tabulated equations of state and for a tidal field with an electric (even parity) and magnetic (odd parity) component with $\\ell=2,3,4$. For a binary system close to the merger, various components of the tidal field become relevant. In this case we find that an octupolar magnetic tidal field can significantly modify the mass quadrupole moment of a neutron star. Preliminary estimates, assuming a spin parameter $\\chi\\approx0.05$, show modifications $\\gtrsim10\\%$ relative to the static case, at an orbital distance of five stellar radii. Furthermore, the rotational Love numbers as functions of the moment of inertia are much more sensitive to the equation of state than in the static case, where approximate universal relations at the percent level exist. For a neutron-star binary approaching the merger, we estimate that the approximate universality of the induced mass quadrupole moment deteriorates from $1\\%$ in the static case to roughly $6\\%$ when $\\chi\\approx0.05$. Our results suggest that spin-tidal couplings can introduce important corrections to the gravitational waveforms of spinning neutron-star binaries approaching the merger.

  10. Impacts of the Nuclear Symmetry Energy on Neutron Star Crusts

    E-print Network

    Bao, Shishao

    2015-01-01

    Using the relativistic mean-field theory, we adopt two different methods, namely, the coexisting phase method and the self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation, to study the impacts of the nuclear symmetry energy on properties of neutron star crusts within a wide range of densities. It is found that the nuclear symmetry energy and its density slope play an important role in determining the pasta phases and the crust-core transition.

  11. Symmetry energy effects in the neutron star properties

    E-print Network

    Alvarez-Castillo, David Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The functional form of the nuclear symmetry energy has only been determined in a very narrow range of densities. Uncertainties concern both the low as well as the high density behaviour of this function. In this work different shapes of the symmetry energy, consistent with the experimental data, were introduced and their consequences for the crustal properties of neutron stars are presented. The resulting models are in agreement with astrophysical observations.

  12. Tidal Love numbers of a slowly-spinning neutron star

    E-print Network

    Paolo Pani; Leonardo Gualtieri; Valeria Ferrari

    2015-09-14

    By extending our recent framework to describe the tidal deformations of a spinning compact object, we compute for the first time the tidal Love numbers of a spinning neutron star to linear order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic distortions and new classes of spin-induced ("rotational") tidal Love numbers emerge. We focus on stationary tidal fields, which induce axisymmetric perturbations. We present the perturbation equations for both electric-led and magnetic-led rotational Love numbers for generic multipoles and explicitly solve them for various tabulated equations of state and for a tidal field with an electric (even parity) and magnetic (odd parity) component with $\\ell=2,3,4$. For a binary system close to the merger, various components of the tidal field become relevant. In this case we find that an octupolar magnetic tidal field can significantly modify the mass quadrupole moment of a neutron star. Preliminary estimates, assuming a spin parameter $\\chi\\approx0.05$, show modifications $\\gtrsim10\\%$ relative to the static case, at an orbital distance of five stellar radii. Furthermore, the rotational Love numbers as functions of the moment of inertia are much more sensitive to the equation of state than in the static case, where approximate universal relations at the percent level exist. For a neutron-star binary approaching the merger, we estimate that the approximate universality of the induced mass quadrupole moment deteriorates from $1\\%$ in the static case to roughly $6\\%$ when $\\chi\\approx0.05$. Our results suggest that spin-tidal couplings can introduce important corrections to the gravitational waveforms of spinning neutron-star binaries approaching the merger.

  13. Superfluid properties of the inner crust of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Alessandro; Baroni, Simone; Losa, Cristina

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the superfluid properties of the inner crust of neutron stars, solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations in spherical Wigner-Seitz cells. Using realistic two-body interactions in the pairing channel, we studied in detail the Cooper-pair and the pairing-field spatial properties, together with the effect of the proton clusters on the neutron pairing gap. Calculations with effective pairing interactions are also presented, showing significant discrepancies with the results obtained with realistic pairing forces. At variance with recent studies on finite nuclei, the neutron coherence length is found to depend on the strength of the pairing interaction, even inside the nucleus. We also show that the spherical Wigner-Seitz approximation breaks down in the innermost regions of the inner crust, already at baryonic densities ?b?8×10+13 g/cm3.

  14. Hyperons in neutron stars and supernova cores

    E-print Network

    M. Oertel; F. Gulminelli; C. Providencia; A. R. Raduta

    2016-01-04

    The properties of compact stars and their formation processes depend on many physical ingredients. The composition and the thermodynamics of the involved matter is one of them. We will investigate here uniform strongly interacting matter at densities and temperatures, where potentially other components than free nucleons appear such as hyperons, mesons or even quarks. In this paper we will put the emphasis on two aspects of stellar matter with non-nucleonic degrees of freedom. First, we will study the phase diagram of baryonic matter with strangeness, showing that the onset of hyperons, as that of quark matter, could be related to a very rich phase structure with a large density domain covered by phase coexistence. Second, we will investigate thermal effects on the equation of state (EoS), showing that they favor the appearance of non-nucleonic particles. We will finish by reviewing some recent results on the impact of non-nucleonic degrees freedom in compact star mergers and core-collapse events, where thermal effects cannot be neglected.

  15. Neutron Star Binaries as Central Engines of GRBs

    E-print Network

    S. Rosswog

    2002-04-29

    We describe the results high resolution, hydrodynamic calculations of neutron star mergers. The model makes use of a new, nuclear equation of state, accounts for multi-flavour neutrino emission and solves the equations of hydrodynamics using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method with more than $10^6$ particles. The merger leaves behind a strongly differentially rotating central object of $\\sim 2.5$ M$_{\\odot}$ together with a distribution of hot debris material. For the most realistic case of initial neutron star spins, no sign of a collapse to a black hole can be seen. We argue that the differential rotation stabilizes the central object for $\\sim 10^2$ s and leads to superstrong magnetic fields. We find the neutrino emission from the hot debris around the freshly-formed, supermassive neutron star to be substantially lower than predicted previously. Therefore the annihilation of neutrino anti-neutrino pairs will have difficulties to power very energetic bursts ($\\gg 10^{49}$ erg).

  16. UNIVERSALITY IN OSCILLATION MODES OF SUPERFLUID NEUTRON STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K. S.; Lin, L. M.; Leung, P. T.

    2009-07-10

    It has been well established that the f-mode of relativistic ordinary fluid neutron stars displays a universal scaling behavior. Here, we study whether the 'ordinary' f{sub o}- and 'superfluid' f{sub s}-modes of superfluid neutron stars also show similar universal behavior. We first consider a simple case where the neutron superfluid and normal fluid are decoupled, and with each fluid modeled by a polytropic equation of state. We find that the f{sub o}-mode obeys the same scaling laws as established for the f-mode of ordinary fluid stars. However, the oscillation frequency of the f{sub s}-mode obeys a different scaling law, which can be derived analytically from a homogenous two-fluid stellar model in Newtonian gravity. Next the coupling effect between the two fluids is studied via a parameterized model of entrainment. We find that the coupling in general breaks the universal behavior seen in the case of decoupled fluids. Based on a relativistic variational principle, an approximated expression is derived for the first-order shift of the f{sub s}-mode squared frequency due to the entrainment.

  17. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Mission of Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendreau, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics mission of opportunity (MoO) that will reveal the inner workings of neutron stars, cosmic lighthouses that embody unique gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments. NICER achieves this objective by deploying a high-heritage instrument as an attached payload on a zenith-side ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NICER offers order-of-magnitude improvements in time-coherent sensitivity and timing resolution beyond the capabilities of any X-ray observatory flown to date.Through a cost-sharing opportunity between the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) NICER will also demonstrate how neutron stars can serve as deep-space navigation beacons to guide humankind out of Earth orbit, to destinations throughout the Solar System and beyond.I will overview the NICER mission, discuss our experience working with the ISS, and describe the process of forging a partnership between SMD and STMD.

  18. Dynamical mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries

    E-print Network

    Koutarou Kyutoku; Kunihito Ioka; Hirotada Okawa; Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi

    2015-08-19

    We investigate properties of material ejected dynamically in the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries by numerical-relativity simulations. We systematically study the dependence of ejecta properties on the mass ratio of the binary, spin of the black hole, and equation of state of the neutron-star matter. Dynamical mass ejection is driven primarily by tidal torque, and the ejecta is much more anisotropic than that from binary neutron star mergers. In particular, the dynamical ejecta is concentrated around the orbital plane with a half opening angle of 10--20deg and often sweeps out only a half of the plane. The ejecta mass can be as large as ~0.1M_sun, and the velocity is subrelativistic with ~0.2--0.3c for typical cases. The ratio of the ejecta mass to the bound mass (disk and fallback components) is larger, and the ejecta velocity is larger, for larger values of the binary mass ratio, i.e., for larger values of the black-hole mass. The remnant black hole-disk system receives a kick velocity of O(100)km/s due to the ejecta linear momentum, and this easily dominates the kick velocity due to gravitational radiation. Structures of postmerger material, velocity distribution of the dynamical ejecta, fallback rates, and gravitational waves are also investigated. We also discuss the effect of ejecta anisotropy on electromagnetic counterparts, specifically a macronova/kilonova and synchrotron radio emission, developing analytic models.

  19. Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations

    E-print Network

    Hell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless addition...

  20. Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations

    E-print Network

    Thomas Hell; Wolfram Weise

    2014-09-24

    Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless additional strongly repulsive correlations, e.g. through vector current interactions between quarks, are introduced. The extent to which strangeness can accumulate in the equation of state is also discussed.

  1. Dynamical mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ioka, Kunihito; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate properties of material ejected dynamically in the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries by numerical-relativity simulations. We systematically study the dependence of ejecta properties on the mass ratio of the binary, spin of the black hole, and equation of state of the neutron-star matter. Dynamical mass ejection is driven primarily by tidal torque, and the ejecta is much more anisotropic than that from binary neutron star mergers. In particular, the dynamical ejecta is concentrated around the orbital plane with a half opening angle of 10°-20° and often sweeps out only a half of the plane. The ejecta mass can be as large as ˜0.1 M?, and the velocity is subrelativistic with ˜0.2 - 0.3 c for typical cases. The ratio of the ejecta mass to the bound mass (disk and fallback components) is larger, and the ejecta velocity is larger, for larger values of the binary mass ratio, i.e., for larger values of the black-hole mass. The remnant black hole-disk system receives a kick velocity of O (100 ) km s-1 due to the ejecta linear momentum, and this easily dominates the kick velocity due to gravitational radiation. Structures of postmerger material, velocity distribution of the dynamical ejecta, fallback rates, and gravitational waves are also investigated. We also discuss the effect of ejecta anisotropy on electromagnetic counterparts, specifically a macronova/kilonova and synchrotron radio emission, developing analytic models.

  2. Theoretical Models of Superbursts on Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Randall L.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2005-08-01

    We carry out a general relativistic global linear stability analysis of the amassed carbon fuel on the surface of an accreting neutron star to determine the conditions under which superbursts occur. We reproduce the general observational characteristics of superbursts, including burst fluences, recurrence times, and the absence of superbursts on stars with accretion rates M?<0.1M?Edd, where M?Edd denotes the Eddington limit. By comparing our results with observations, we are able to set constraints on neutron star parameters such as the stellar radius and neutrino cooling mechanism in the core. Specifically, we find that accreting neutron stars with ordered crusts and highly efficient neutrino emission in their cores (due to direct Urca or pionic reactions, for example) produce extremely energetic (>1044 ergs) superbursts that are inconsistent with observations, in agreement with previous investigations. Also, because of pycnonuclear burning of carbon, they do not have superbursts in the range of accretion rates at which superbursts are actually observed unless the crust is very impure. Stars with less efficient neutrino emission (due to modified Urca reactions, for example) produce bursts that agree better with observations. Stars with highly inefficient neutrino emission in their cores produce bursts that agree best with observations. Furthermore, we find that neutron stars with large radii (R~16 km) produce very energetic superbursts that conflict with observations, even if the core neutrino emission mechanism is highly inefficient. Superburst characteristics are quite sensitive to several other parameters as well, most notably the composition of the accreted gas, concentration of carbon in the ignition region, and degree of crystallization of the crust. All systems that accrete primarily hydrogen and in which superbursts are observed show evidence of H- and He-burning delayed mixed bursts. We speculate that delayed mixed bursts provide sufficient amounts of carbon fuel for superbursts and are thus a prerequisite for having superbursts. We compare our global stability analysis to approximate one-zone criteria used by other authors and identify a particular set of approximations that give accurate results for most choices of parameters.

  3. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  4. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  5. Galactic Center Minispiral: Interaction Modes of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacek, Michal; Karas, Vladimir; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2015-06-01

    Streams of gas and dust in the inner parsec of the Galactic center form a distinct feature known as the Minispiral, which has been studied in radio waveband as well as in the infrared wavebands. A large fraction of the Minispiral gas is ionized by radiation of OB stars present in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC). Based on the inferred mass in the innermost parsec ( ~10^6 solar masses), over ~10^3-10^4 neutron stars should move in the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH. We estimate that a fraction of them propagate through the denser, ionized medium concentrated mainly along the three arms of the Minispiral. Based on the properties of the gaseous medium, we discuss different interaction regimes of magnetised neutron stars passing through this region. Moreover, we sketch expected observational effects of these regimes. The simulation results may be applied to other galactic nuclei hosting NSC, where the expected distribution of the interaction regimes is different across different galaxy types.

  6. A Novel Method of Double Star Astrometry Using a Webcam and Self-Calibrating Measurement Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Ed

    2007-01-01

    A new double star software application, BinStar, is described. This application takes AVI sequences of doubles drifting across the FOV as input, and uses the drift rate, frame rate and declination to self-calibrate both image scale and orientation, so that separate calibration images are not required.

  7. Vacuum fluctuation inside a star and their consequences for neutron stars, a simple model

    E-print Network

    Gunther Caspar; Isaac Rodriguez; Peter O. Hess; Walter Greiner

    2015-06-03

    Applying semi-classical Quantum Mechanics, the vacuum fluctuations within a star are determined, assuming a constant mass density and applying a monopole approximation. It is found that the density for the vacuum fluctuations does not only depend linearly on the mass density, as assumed in a former publication, where neutron stars up to 6 solar masses were obtained. This is used to propose a simple model on the dependence of the dark energy to the mass density, as a function of the radial distance r. It is shown that stars with up to 200 solar masses can, in principle, be obtained. Though, we use a simple model, it shows that in the presence of vacuum fluctuations stars with large masses can be stabilized and probably stars up to any mass can exist, which usually are identified as black holes.

  8. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Wielgus, Maciek; Kluzniak, Wlodek; Abramowicz, Marek; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We construct models of static, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation flux of a luminous neutron star in the Schwarzschild metric. The atmospheres are disconnected from the star and levitate above its surface. Gas pressure and density inversion appear in the inner region of these atmospheres, which is a purely relativistic phenomenon. We account for the scattering opacity dependence on temperature and utilize the relativistic M1 closure scheme for the radiation tensor, hence allowing for a fully GR-consistent treatment of the photon flux and radiation tensor anisotropy. In this way we are able to address atmospheres of both large and moderate/low optical depths with the same set of equations. We discuss properties of the levitating atmospheres and find that they may indeed be optically thick, with the distance between star surface and the photosphere expanding as luminosity increases. These results may be relevant for the photosphereric radius expansion X-ray bursts.

  9. HERSCHEL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SLOWLY ROTATING, NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 ?m, 160 mu m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 ?m, 4.5 ?m) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ? 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 ?m emission (>5?) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 ?m detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 ?m emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ?10% to ?20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 ?m emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  10. Longitudinal Double Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Jet Production at STAR

    E-print Network

    Katarzyna Kowalik

    2006-10-02

    This contribution reports on the first measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ for the inclusive production of jets in polarized proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200 \\mathrm{GeV}$. The data were collected with STAR at RHIC in the years 2003 and 2004, and correspond to a sampled integrated luminosity of $0.3 \\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$ with beam polarizations up to 45%. The results on $A_{LL}$ cover jet transverse momenta $5 < p_{T} < 17 \\mathrm{GeV/c}$ and agree with perturbative QCD evaluations based on deep-inelastic scattering parametrizations for the gluon polarization in the proton. The results disfavor large positive gluon polarization in the polarized proton.

  11. Longitudinal double spin asymmetry in jet production at STAR

    E-print Network

    Katarzyna Kowalik

    2007-06-18

    We present recent measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry A_LL for the inclusive production of jets at midrapidity in polarized proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=200GeV. The data amount to an integrated luminosity of 3pb-1 and were collected with the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider during the year 2005 with average beam polarizations of about 50%. The ALL measurements cover jet transverse momenta 5 < pT < 30 GeV/c expanding the pT coverage over previously published data. The results will be compared with perturbative QCD evaluations and shown to provide sensitive constraints on the gluon spin contribution to the nucleon spin.

  12. Bulk viscosity coefficients due to phonons in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura; Tarrús, Jaume E-mail: tarrus@ecm.ub.edu

    2013-07-01

    We calculate the three bulk viscosity coefficients as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. The solution of the dynamical evolution of the phonon number density allows us to calculate the bulk viscosity coefficients as function of the phonon collisional rate and the phonon dispersion law, which depends on the neutron pairing gap. Our method of computation is rather general, and could be used for different superfluid systems, provided they share the same underlying symmetries. We find that the behavior with temperature of the bulk viscosity coefficients is dominated by the contributions coming from the collinear regime of the 2?3 phonon processes. For typical star radial pulsation frequencies of ? ? 10{sup 4}s{sup ?1}, we obtain that the bulk viscosity coefficients at densities n?>4n{sub 0} are within 10% from its static value for T?<10{sup 9} K and for the case of strong neutron superfluidity in the core with a maximum value of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} gap above 1 MeV, while, otherwise, the static solution is not a valid approximation to the bulk viscosity coefficients. Compared to previous results from Urca and modified Urca reactions, we conclude that at T ? 10{sup 9}K phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars, except for n ? 2n{sub 0} when the opening of the Urca processes takes place.

  13. Many-particle theory of nuclear systems with application to neutron star matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakkalakal, D. A.; Yang, C.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerning energy-density relation for the normal state of neutron star matter, and the effects of superfluidity and polarization on neutron star matter. Considering constraints on variation, and the theory of quantum fluids, three methods for calculating the energy-density range are presented. The effects of polarization on neutron star structure, and polarization effects on condensation and superfluid-state energy are discussed.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason B.D., Wycoff G.L., Hartkopf W.I., Douglass G.G., Worley C.E.

    2015-11-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2009-10-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2013-11-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2010-11-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2012-11-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2014-11-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2011-11-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).